National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for roll-to-roll solution-processable small-molecule

  1. Roll-to-Roll Solution-Processible Small-Molecule OLEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jie Jerry

    2012-07-31

    The objective of this program is to develop key knowledge and make critical connections between technologies needed to enable low-cost manufacturing of OLED lighting products. In particular, the program was intended to demonstrate the feasibility of making high performance Small-Molecule OLEDs (SM-OLED) using a roll-to-roll (R2R) wet-coating technique by addressing the following technical risks (1) Whether the wet-coating technique can provide high performance OLEDs, (2) Whether SM-OLED can be made in a R2R manner, (3) What are the requirements for coating equipment, and (4) Whether R2R OLEDs can have the same performance as the lab controls. The program has been managed and executed according to the Program Management Plan (PMP) that was first developed at the beginning of the program and further revised accordingly as the program progressed. Significant progress and risk reductions have been accomplished by the end of the program. Specific achievements include: (1) Demonstrated that wet-coating can provide OLEDs with high LPW and long lifetime; (2) Demonstrated R2R OLEDs can be as efficient as batch controls (Figure 1) (3) Developed & validated basic designs for key equipment necessary for R2R SM-OLEDs; (4) Developed know-hows & specifications on materials & ink formulations critical to wetcoating; (5) Developed key R2R processes for each OLED layer (6) Identified key materials and components such as flexible barrier substrates necessary for R2R OLEDs.

  2. Roll to Roll Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-06-09

    ORNL researchers are developing roll to roll technologies for manufacturing, automotive, and clean energy applications in collaboration with industry partners such as Eastman Kodak.

  3. Small Molecule Solution-Processed Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candea, George

    Small Molecule Solution-Processed Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Arthur Aebersold Supervisors: J in solution processed BHJ solar cells, which are made from a PCBM Squaraine DyeCyanine Dye Absorber Molecules solar cell performance show a trend for better devices with an intemediate active layer thickness

  4. Solution processable organic polymers and small molecules for bulk-heterojunction solar cells: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, G. D. [Physics Department, Molecular Electronic and Optoelectronic Device Laboratory JNV University, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342005 (India)

    2011-10-20

    Solution processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have gained wide interest in past few years and are established as one of the leading next generation photovoltaic technologies for low cost power production. Power conversion efficiencies up to 6% and 6.5% have been reported in the literature for single layer and tandem solar cells, respectively using conjugated polymers. A recent record efficiency about 8.13% with active area of 1.13 cm{sup 2} has been reported. However Solution processable small molecules have been widely applied for photovoltaic (PV) devices in recent years because they show strong absorption properties, and they can be easily purified and deposited onto flexible substrates at low cost. Introducing different donor and acceptor groups to construct donor--acceptor (D--A) structure small molecules has proved to be an efficient way to improve the properties of organic solar cells (OSCs). The power conversion efficiency about 4.4 % has been reported for OSCs based on the small molecules. This review deals with the recent progress of solution processable D--A structure small molecules and discusses the key factors affecting the properties of OSCs based on D--A structure small molecules: sunlight absorption, charge transport and the energy level of the molecules.

  5. A modular molecular framework for utility in small-molecule solution-processed organic photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, Gregory C; Perez, Louis A.; Hoven, Corey V.; Zhang, Yuan; Dang, Xuan-Dung; Sharenko, Alexander; Toney, Michael F.; Kramer, Edward J.; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the design, synthesis and characterization of light harvesting small molecules for use in solution-processed small molecule bulk heterojunction (SM-BHJ) solar cell devices. These molecular materials are based upon an acceptor/donor/acceptor (A/D/A) core with donor endcapping units. Utilization of a dithieno(3,2-b;2',3'-d)silole (DTS) donor and pyridal[2,1,3]thiadiazole (PT) acceptor leads to strong charge transfer characteristics, resulting in broad optical absorption spectra extending well beyond 700 nm. SM-BHJ solar cell devices fabricated with the specific example 5,5'-bis{7-(4-(5-hexylthiophen-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine}-3,3'-di-2-ethylhexylsilylene-2,2'-bithiophene (6) as the donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the acceptor component showed short circuit currents above -10 mA cm-2 and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) over 3%. Thermal processing is a critical factor in obtaining favorable active layer morphologies and high PCE values. A combination of UV-visible spectroscopy, conductive and photo-conductive atomic force microscopies, dynamic secondary mass ion spectrometry (DSIMS), and grazing incident wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) experiments were carried out to characterize how thermal treatment influences the active layer structure and organization.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll Electrode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced...

  7. Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing and Materials NDE for Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary Batteries Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Roll-to-Roll Electrode...

  8. Laser direct write system for fabricating seamless roll-to-roll lithography tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrzelka, Joseph E.

    Implementations of roll to roll contact lithography require new approaches towards manufacturing tooling, including stamps for roll to roll nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and soft lithography. Suitable roll based tools must ...

  9. Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing and Materials NDE for Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing and Materials NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual...

  10. CONTINUOUS ROLL-TO-ROLL SERPENTINE DEPOSITION FOR HIGH THROUGHPUT a-Si PV MANUFACTURING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    CONTINUOUS ROLL-TO-ROLL SERPENTINE DEPOSITION FOR HIGH THROUGHPUT a-Si PV MANUFACTURING M. Izu, H. When this technique is incorporated into a continuous roll- to-roll PV manufacturing process a number of advantages in a fully automated high throughput PV module production plant [l-18

  11. Low-cost Sensor Tape for Environmental Sensing Based on Roll-to-roll Manufacturing Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low-cost Sensor Tape for Environmental Sensing Based on Roll-to-roll Manufacturing Process Nan based on roll-to- roll manufacturing processes. We experiment with constructing sensors and electronic sensors by spin-coating conductive polymer on sensor substrates and integrating the design

  12. Low-cost sensor tape for environmental sensing based on roll-to-roll manufacturing process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Nan-Wei

    We describe the concept of fabricating low-cost sensor tape for fine-grid environmental sensing based on roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. We experiment with constructing sensors and electronic connections with low-cost ...

  13. Design and manufacturing of high precision roll-to-roll multilayer printing machine -- machine upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yufei

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, a group of MIT Master of Engineering students built a roll to roll machine for printing thiol onto a flexible gold substrate by self-assembly. The machine demonstrated good performance in high speed printing (400 ...

  14. Roll-to-Roll Nanomanufacturing Processes and Applications to Display and Solar Cell Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keaveny, Tony

    % enhanced the power efficiency in organic solar cells as compared with devices made by ITO. BIOGRAPHY L. JayRoll-to-Roll Nanomanufacturing Processes and Applications to Display and Solar Cell Devices than 6% of the backlight, in large part due to the polarizer and color filter in the panel. We propose

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about roll-to-roll...

  16. Design and manufacturing of high precision roll-to-roll multi-layer printing machine : measurement and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenzhuo, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, a prototype machine demonstrating the application of roll-to-roll technology in micro-contact printing was developed. In this research, the prototype machine was upgraded by designing and machining a device that ...

  17. Metrology and instrumentation challenges with high-rate, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems-to-roll manufacturing system for flexible electronic systems opens limitless possibilities for the deployment of high performance flexible electronic components in a variety of applications including communication, sensing

  18. Towards High-Rate Fabrication of Photonic Devices Utilizing a Combination of Roll-To-Roll Compatible Imprint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Towards High-Rate Fabrication of Photonic Devices Utilizing a Combination of Roll-To-Roll-optic modulator. Compared to spin-coating method, the use of print-on-demand method greatly reduces material consumption and process complexity. Every step involved has the potential to be fully compatible with roll

  19. Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maydannik, Philipp S., E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.fi; Kääriäinen, Tommi O.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Cameron, David C. [Advanced Surface Technology Research Laboratory, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Söderlund, Mikko; Soininen, Pekka [Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, 01511 Vantaa (Finland); Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Moro, Lorenza; Zeng, Xianghui [Samsung Cheil Industries, San Jose R and D Center, 2186 Bering Drive, San Jose, California 95131 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20?nm thickness Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier layers on 500?mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105?°C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20?nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38?°C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostatic–isobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument (<5?×?10{sup ?4}?g/m{sup 2} day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25?m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ?5?×?10{sup ?6} g/m{sup 2} day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate.

  20. Continuous roll-to-roll amorphous silicon photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Semiannual subcontract report, 1 April 1993--30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izu, M.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes work for this reporting period under a 3-year program to advance Energy Conversion Device`s (ECD) roll-to-roll, triple-junction photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing technologies, to reduce the module production costs, to increase the stabilized module performance, and to expand commercial production capacity utilizing ECD technology. The specific 3-year goal is to develop advanced large-scale manufacturing technology incorporating ECD`s earlier research advances with the capability of producing modules with stable 11% efficiency at a cost of approximately $1.00 per peak watt. Major accomplishments during this reporting period include (1) the design, construction. amd testomg of a continuous roll-to-roll multipurpose amorphous silicon alloy solar cell deposition machine that incorporates improvements necessary to obtain higher efficiency solar cells; (2) development of a photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) technique for evaluating back-reflector systems; (3) the development of an improved textured Ag/ZnO back-reflector system demonstrating 25% gain in J{sub sc} over previous textured Al back-reflector systems; and (4) the design of a serpentine web continuous roll-to-roll deposition chamber.

  1. A direct-write thick-film lithography process for multi-parameter control of tooling in continuous roll-to-roll microcontact printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nietner, Larissa F

    2014-01-01

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) microcontact printing ([mu]CP) aims to transform micron-precision soft lithography in a continuous, large-scale, high-throughput process for large-area surface patterning, flexible electronics and ...

  2. Design and development of high precision elastomeric-stamp wrapping system for roll-to-roll multi-layer microcontact printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datar, Charudatta Achyut

    2009-01-01

    Microcontact printing is an emerging printing technique that could potentially find application in the electronics industry. High-speed roll-to-roll equipment was built at Nano Terra, Inc in 2008, for microcontact printing. ...

  3. Waveguide slot-excited long racetrack electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for roll-to-roll (scanning) processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, H.-J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    We present a SLot-excited ANtenna (SLAN) long racetrack ECR plasma source that is utilized for roll-to-roll plasma processing such as thin film encapsulation of large-area OLED (organic light emitting diode) panel or modification of fabric surfaces. This source is designed to be long, and to operate under high density uniform plasma with sub-milli-torr pressures. The above features are accomplished by a slot-excited long racetrack resonator with a toroidal geometry of magnetic field ECR configuration, and reinforced microwave electric distributions along the central region of plasma chamber. Also, a new feature has been added to the source. This is to employ a tail plunger, which allows the microwave electric field and the uniformity of the plasma profile to be easily adjustable. We have successfully generated Ar plasmas operating with the microwave power of 0.5–3 kW in the pressure range of 0.2–10 mTorr. The plasma is uniform (<10%) in the direction of the straight track and has a Gaussian profile in the roll-to-roll (scanning) direction. In addition, it is shown that the tail plunger could adjust the plasma profile in order to obtain plasma uniformity. Furthermore, based on the results, we suggest a newly designed up-scaled racetrack-SLAN source.

  4. In situ monitoring of structure formation in the active layer of polymer solar cells during roll-to-roll coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossander, Lea H.; Zawacka, Natalia K.; Dam, Henrik F.; Krebs, Frederik C.; Andreasen, Jens W.

    2014-08-15

    The active layer crystallization during roll-to-roll coating of organic solar cells is studied in situ. We developed an X-ray setup where the coater unit is an integrated part of the small angle X-ray scattering instrument, making it possible to control the coating process while recording scattering measurements in situ, enabling us to follow the crystal formation during drying. By varying the distance between the coating head and the point where the X-ray beam hits the film, we obtained measurements of 4 different stages of drying. For each of those stages, the scattering from as long a foil as possible is summed together, with the distance from coating head to scattering point kept constant. The results are average crystallographic properties for the active layer coated on a 30 m long foil. With this insight into the dynamics of crystallization in a roll-coated polymer film, we find that the formation of textured and untextured crystallites seems uncorrelated, and happens at widely different rates. Untextured P3HT crystallites form later in the drying process than expected which may explain previous studies speculating that untextured crystallization depends on concentration. Textured crystallites, however, begin forming much earlier and steadily increases as the film dries, showing a development similar to other in situ studies of these materials.

  5. CX-001153: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Roll-to-Roll Solution-Processable Small-Molecule Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (Wilmington) Date: 03/11/2010Location(s): Wilmington, DelawareOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. Protein Scaffolding for Small Molecule Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, David [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We aim to design hybrid catalysts for energy production and storage that combine the high specificity, affinity, and tunability of proteins with the potent chemical reactivities of small organometallic molecules. The widely used Rosetta and RosettaDesign methodologies will be extended to model novel protein / small molecule catalysts in which one or many small molecule active centers are supported and coordinated by protein scaffolding. The promise of such hybrid molecular systems will be demonstrated with the nickel-phosphine hydrogenase of DuBois et. al.We will enhance the hydrogenase activity of the catalyst by designing protein scaffolds that incorporate proton relays and systematically modulate the local environment of the catalyticcenter. In collaboration with DuBois and Shaw, the designs will be experimentally synthesized and characterized.

  7. Chemical Genetics: Elucidating Biological Systems with Small-Molecule Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nghiem, Paul

    Chemical Genetics: Elucidating Biological Systems with Small-Molecule Compounds Masaoki Kawasumi1 and Paul Nghiem1,2 Chemical genetics employs diverse small-molecule compounds to elucidate biological chemical genetic approach, whereas the reverse approach involves small molecules targeting a single protein

  8. X-ray characterization of solid small molecule organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billinge, Simon; Shankland, Kenneth; Shankland, Norman; Florence, Alastair

    2014-06-10

    The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.

  9. Comparison of light out-coupling enhancements in single-layer blue-phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using small-molecule or polymer hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yung-Ting; Liu, Shun-Wei; Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Lee, Yi-Ting; Wu, Min-Fei; Chen, Chin-Ti E-mail: chihiwu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw; Wu, Chih-I E-mail: chihiwu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw

    2013-11-07

    Single-layer blue phosphorescence organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with either small-molecule or polymer hosts are fabricated using solution process and the performances of devices with different hosts are investigated. The small-molecule device exhibits luminous efficiency of 14.7?cd/A and maximum power efficiency of 8.39?lm/W, which is the highest among blue phosphorescence OLEDs with single-layer solution process and small molecular hosts. Using the same solution process for all devices, comparison of light out-coupling enhancement, with brightness enhancement film (BEF), between small-molecule and polymer based OLEDs is realized. Due to different dipole orientation and anisotropic refractive index, polymer-based OLEDs would trap less light than small molecule-based OLEDs internally, about 37% better based simulation results. In spite of better electrical and spectroscopic characteristics, including ambipolar characteristics, higher carrier mobility, higher photoluminescence quantum yield, and larger triplet state energy, the overall light out-coupling efficiency of small molecule-based devices is worse than that of polymer-based devices without BEF. However, with BEF for light out-coupling enhancement, the improved ratio in luminous flux and luminous efficiency for small molecule based device is 1.64 and 1.57, respectively, which are significantly better than those of PVK (poly-9-vinylcarbazole) devices. In addition to the theoretical optical simulation, the experimental data also confirm the origins of differential light-outcoupling enhancement. The maximum luminous efficiency and power efficiency are enhanced from 14.7?cd/A and 8.39?lm/W to 23?cd/A and 13.2?lm/W, respectively, with laminated BEF, which are both the highest so far for single-layer solution-process blue phosphorescence OLEDs with small molecule hosts.

  10. CX-001152: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Roll-to-Roll Solution-Processable Small-Molecule Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (Niskayuna)CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 03/11/2010Location(s): Niskayuna, New YorkOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  11. Multimonth controlled small molecule release from biodegradable thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammond, Paula T.

    Long-term, localized delivery of small molecules from a biodegradable thin film is challenging owing to their low molecular weight and poor charge density. Accomplishing highly extended controlled release can facilitate ...

  12. Electrochemical deposition of small molecules for electronic materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allwright, Emily Marieke

    2014-11-27

    The method of the deposition of films of small molecules for use in electronic applications is just as important as the molecule design itself as the film’s morphology and continuity influence the performance of the ...

  13. Supporting Information The free energy landscape of small molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    Supporting Information The free energy landscape of small molecule unbinding Danzhi Huang author keywords: FKBP; molecular dynamics; free energy surface; transition state; single exponential kinetics; complex network; Hammond behavior September 24, 2010 #12;Huang and Caflisch, The free energy

  14. Calorimetric studies of small-molecule adsorption to carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glab, Kristin Lena

    2009-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was developed as a technique for qualitatively comparing the heat of absorption of small molecules to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In agreement with other studies, it was ...

  15. Solution-Procesed Small-Molecule OLED Luminaire for Interior Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Ian

    2012-02-29

    Prototype lighting panels and luminaires were fabricated using DuPont Displaysâ?? solution-processed small-molecule OLED technology. These lighting panels were based on a spatially-patterned, 3-color design, similar in concept to an OLED display panel, with materials chosen to maximize device efficacy. The majority of the processing steps take place in air (rather than high vacuum). Optimization of device architecture, processing and construction was undertaken, with a final prototype design of 50 cm{sup 2} being fabricated and tested. Performance of these panels reached 35 lm/W at illuminant-A. A unique feature of this technology is the ability to color tune the emission, and color temperatures ranging from 2700 to > 6,500K were attained in the final build. Significant attention was paid to low-cost fabrication techniques.

  16. TECHNICAL ADVANCE Minitags for small molecules: detecting targets of reactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogyo, Matthew

    and salicylic acid), secondary metabolites and exogenous small molecules like herbicides or growth regulators in living plant tissues using `click chemistry' Farnusch Kaschani1 , Steven H. L. Verhelst2, , Paul F. van , Matthew Bogyo2 and Renier A. L. van der Hoorn1,4, * 1 Plant Chemetics Lab, Chemical Genomics Centre

  17. Polymer and small molecule based hybrid light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choong, Vi-En (Carlsbad, CA); Choulis, Stelios (Nuremberg, DE); Krummacher, Benjamin Claus (Regensburg, DE); Mathai, Mathew (Monroeville, PA); So, Franky (Gainesville, FL)

    2010-03-16

    An organic electroluminescent device, includes: a substrate; a hole-injecting electrode (anode) coated over the substrate; a hole injection layer coated over the anode; a hole transporting layer coated over the hole injection layer; a polymer based light emitting layer, coated over the hole transporting layer; a small molecule based light emitting layer, thermally evaporated over the polymer based light emitting layer; and an electron-injecting electrode (cathode) deposited over the electroluminescent polymer layer.

  18. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    Solution-Processed Graphene Electronics,” Nano Letters, vol.applications,” Organic Electronics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 249-design in organic electronics by dual-gate technology,” in

  19. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Roll-to-Roll Processing (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy ofArticle)SciTechNorrisAlpha Racetrack, Y-12MetamaterialsReport) |

  20. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Roll-to-Roll Processing (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy ofArticle)SciTechNorrisAlpha Racetrack, Y-12MetamaterialsReport)

  1. Genetic basis of individual differences in the response to small-molecule drugs in yeast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kruglyak, Leonid

    small molecules. We also experimentally verified that a deficiency in leucine biosynthesis caused84 underlies sensitivity to two polychlorinated phenols that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. Our

  2. Small Molecule Adsorption in Open-Site Metal-Organic Frameworks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small Molecule Adsorption in Open-Site Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Systematic Density Functional Theory Study for Rational Design Previous Next List Kyuho Lee, Joshua D. Howe,...

  3. Performance of W4 theory for spectroscopic constants and electrical properties of small molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jan M.L.

    Performance of W4 theory for spectroscopic constants and electrical properties of small molecules Accurate spectroscopic constants and electrical properties of small molecules are determined by means of W4 and post-W4 theories. For a set of 28 first- and second-row diatomic molecules for which very accurate

  4. Small Molecule Screen Reveals Regulation of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Abundance by Ras Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockwell, Brent R.

    Small Molecule Screen Reveals Regulation of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Abundance by Ras Proteins States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Small molecule modulators of protein activity have proven invaluable in the study of protein function and regulation. While inhibitors of protein activity

  5. Group specific internal standard technology (GSIST) for simultaneous identification and quantification of small molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adamec, Jiri; Yang, Wen-Chu; Regnier, Fred E

    2014-01-14

    Reagents and methods are provided that permit simultaneous analysis of multiple diverse small molecule analytes present in a complex mixture. Samples are labeled with chemically identical but isotopically distince forms of the labeling reagent, and analyzed using mass spectrometry. A single reagent simultaneously derivatizes multiple small molecule analytes having different reactive functional groups.

  6. Studies of solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes and their materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellerich, Emily

    2013-05-15

    A hitherto unexplored approach is presented in which a small molecule is used as a host to polymer guests in solution-processed OLEDs. We find that the small molecule host results in much more efficient devices than the often-used alternative polymer host when used for the guests presented. It is likely that nano- and microstructural differences between the hosts contribute to the improvements, which highlights some interesting characteristics that can help to better understand the nature of these mixtures. A number of the guests used in this study were newly synthesized benzobisoxazole-based copolymers. New organic copolymers are presented that are based on the chemical structure of benzobisoxazoles, which have been shown in the past to have good electron transporting properties. The novel concept in this publication pertains to a change in the direction of polymerization, also known as the conjugation pathway, which we show increases the emission efficiency. This work highlights a unique and useful property of organic semiconducting materials in that they can be synthesized to create the desired characteristics. Earlier work is described that kick-started in our research group the use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs. Originally these devices were to be used in magnetoresistance studies, but the project took a different path when the devices were more efficient than expected. The efficient use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs is highlighted, which at the time was not often the case. Also, the important observation of the effect of solvent choice on the resultant film is emphasized, with discussion of the likely cause of these effects. Microcavity OLEDs are introduced in which the transparent anode ITO is replaced with semi-transparent thin silver, which creates an optical cavity within the devices. The goal was to expand a previous work that created an on-chip spectrometer covering wavelengths 493 to 639 nm. In this case, a spin-coated mixed emitting layer (EML) is used, consisting of a polymer and a small molecule that both emit in the near UV and blue. The resulting combined spectra gives a wide band that can be used to create narrow microcavity emission peaks of 373 to 469 nm, depending on the device thickness (i.e. the cavity’s optical length). In the process of this effort, the mixed EML presented interesting complexities that we attempt to explain via simulation and morphology study.

  7. Identifying the proteins to which small-molecule probes and drugs bind in cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Shao-En

    Most small-molecule probes and drugs alter cell circuitry by interacting with 1 or more proteins. A complete understanding of the interacting proteins and their associated protein complexes, whether the compounds are ...

  8. MODULATING PROTEIN FUNCTION WITH SMALL MOLECULES THROUGH COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xia, Yan

    2014-12-31

    , whereas inhibition of protein function contributes to the development of novel therapeutic agents. The discovery of small-molecule modulators of function is greatly aided by computational modeling methodologies. By utilizing structural information obtained...

  9. Exploring Key Orientations of Small Molecules to Disrupt Protein-protein Interactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Eunhwa

    2012-07-16

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are attractive targets because of their therapeutic potential. One approach to design small molecules that can disrupt the PPIs is to use structural information of proteins. With this ...

  10. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Chemiresistive Affinity Biosensors for Small Molecules: Ultrasensitive Glucose Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Chemiresistive Affinity Biosensors for Small Molecules such as nanowires, nanobelts and nanotubes as transducer elements in affinity (bio)sensors. Use of nanomaterials yeast,4 DNA/RNA,5 and even mammalian cancer cells.6 The majority of these SWNT-based biosensors

  11. Combating Drug-Resistant Bacteria: Small Molecule Mimics of Plasmid Incompatibility as Antiplasmid Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hergenrother, Paul J.

    Combating Drug-Resistant Bacteria: Small Molecule Mimics of Plasmid Incompatibility as Antiplasmid, 2004; E-mail: hergenro@uiuc.edu Multidrug resistant bacteria are now ubiquitous in both hospital to vancomycin.2 Due to this prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria, there is a pressing need for novel classes

  12. Labeling Proteins with Small Molecules by Site-Specific Posttranslational Modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Jun

    Labeling Proteins with Small Molecules by Site-Specific Posttranslational Modification Jun Yin, Fei of proteins with small synthetic molecules has been an important approach for the elucidation of protein probes into proteins allows the detection of protein conformational dynamics and the real-time tracking

  13. Kevin Burgess' Research: Project 2 Small Molecules For Active Targeting And

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgess, Kevin

    Kevin Burgess' Research: Project 2 Small Molecules For Active Targeting, facilitated by dyes that generate singlet oxygen). B. Illustrative Research Strategy So far, we have) unknown cell surface receptors using a liposome-based method. Molecular types used in these screening

  14. A Noncompetitive Small Molecule Inhibitor of Estrogen-regulated Gene Expression and Breast Cancer Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hergenrother, Paul J.

    A Noncompetitive Small Molecule Inhibitor of Estrogen-regulated Gene Expression and Breast Cancer Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7500, the Breast Center are not fully understood. We describe a new tool for dissecting ER action in breast cancer, p-fluoro-4

  15. Control of structure and reactivity by ligand design : applications to small molecule activation by low-valent uranium complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Oanh Phi

    2010-01-01

    of a Charge- Separated Uranium Benzophenone Ketyl Radical3. Charge-Separation in Uranium Diazomethane ComplexesRelated Small Molecules by Uranium Coordination Complexes”,

  16. Effect of shell thickness on small-molecule solar cells enhanced by dual plasmonic gold-silica nanorods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    of a small-molecule organic solar cell. At optimal (1 wt. %) concentration, Au-silica nanorods with 5 nm. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4896516] Plasmonic organic solar cells (OSCs) have been inten- sivelyEffect of shell thickness on small-molecule solar cells enhanced by dual plasmonic gold

  17. Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gallivan, Justin [Emory University

    2013-01-22

    Justin Gallivan, of Emory University presents a talk titled "Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  18. Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallivan, Justin [Emory University] [Emory University

    2012-03-21

    Justin Gallivan, of Emory University presents a talk titled "Reprogramming Bacteria to Seek and Destroy Small Molecules" at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  19. Effective Absorption Enhancement in Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells by Employing Trapezoid Gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun-Ping, Xiang; Yu, Jin; Bin-Zong, Xu; Wei-Min, Wang; Xin, Wei; Guo-Feng, Song; Yun, Xu

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the optical absorption has been enhanced in the small molecule organic solar cells by employing trapezoid grating structure. The enhanced absorption is mainly attributed to both waveguide modes and surface plasmon modes, which has been simulated by using finite-difference time-domain method. The simulated results show that the surface plasmon along the semitransparent metallic Ag anode is excited by introducing the periodical trapezoid gratings, which induce high intensity field increment in the donor layer. Meanwhile, the waveguide modes result a high intensity field in acceptor layer. The increment of field improves the absorption of organic solar cells, significantly, which has been demonstrated by simulating the electrical properties. The simulated results exhibiting 31 % increment of the short-circuit current has been achieved in the optimized device, which is supported by the experimental measurement. The power conversion efficiency of the grating sample obtained in experiment exhibits an...

  20. Structural Basis for Selective Small Molecule Kinase Inhibition of Activated c-Met

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rickert, Keith W.; Patel, Sangita B.; Allison, Timothy J.; Byrne, Noel J.; Darke, Paul L.; Ford, Rachael E.; Guerin, David J.; Hall, Dawn L.; Kornienko, Maria; Lu, Jun; Munshi, Sanjeev K.; Reid, John C.; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Stanton, Elizabeth F.; Wilson, Kevin J.; Young, Jonathon R.; Soisson, Stephen M.; Lumb, Kevin J. (Merck)

    2012-03-15

    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met is implicated in oncogenesis and is the target for several small molecule and biologic agents in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Binding of the hepatocyte growth factor to the cell surface receptor of c-Met induces activation via autophosphorylation of the kinase domain. Here we describe the structural basis of c-Met activation upon autophosphorylation and the selective small molecule inhibiton of autophosphorylated c-Met. MK-2461 is a potent c-Met inhibitor that is selective for the phosphorylated state of the enzyme. Compound 1 is an MK-2461 analog with a 20-fold enthalpy-driven preference for the autophosphorylated over unphosphorylated c-Met kinase domain. The crystal structure of the unbound kinase domain phosphorylated at Tyr-1234 and Tyr-1235 shows that activation loop phosphorylation leads to the ejection and disorder of the activation loop and rearrangement of helix {alpha}C and the G loop to generate a viable active site. Helix {alpha}C adopts a orientation different from that seen in activation loop mutants. The crystal structure of the complex formed by the autophosphorylated c-Met kinase domain and compound 1 reveals a significant induced fit conformational change of the G loop and ordering of the activation loop, explaining the selectivity of compound 1 for the autophosphorylated state. The results highlight the role of structural plasticity within the kinase domain in imparting the specificity of ligand binding and provide the framework for structure-guided design of activated c-Met inhibitors.

  1. Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing and Materials NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  2. Precision control of cylindrical stamp contact in a continuous roll-to-roll microcontact printing machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libert, Adam M. (Adam Marcus)

    2014-01-01

    Microcontact printing is a form of soft lithography that uses a molded elastomeric stamp to print patterns with micron and sub-micron scale features. This is an effective low-cost technique for replicating master patterns ...

  3. Roll-To-Roll Process for Transparent Metal Electrodes in OLED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slafer, W. Dennis

    2010-06-02

    This program will develop and demonstrate a new manufacturing technology that can help to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of producing the next generation solid-state lighting (OLEDs)for a broad range of commercial applications. This will not only improve US competitiveness in the manufacturing sector but will also result in a positive impact in meeting the Department of Energy’s goal of developing high efficiency lighting while reducing the environmental impact.

  4. Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing and Materials NDE for Advanced Lithium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 -Rob Roberts About Us Rob Roberts - FormerRockyRoleandSecondary

  5. WORKSHOP: HIGH VALUE ROLL TO ROLL (HV R2R) MANUFACTURING INNOVATION,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'S FUTURE. regulators consumer advocates WIPP Update

  6. WORKSHOP: HIGH VALUE ROLL TO ROLL MANUFACTURING INNOVATION, DECEMBER 2-3 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancialInvestingRenewableTeachDevelopment |ofVeteran'sDepartment of

  7. ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE HIGH VALUE ROLL TO ROLL (HV R2R) WORKSHOP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar: DemonstrationProgram | Department|DECEMBER 2-3, 2015 |

  8. Enhanced hole injection in a polymer light emitting diode using a small molecule monolayer bound to the anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Jeffrey

    Enhanced hole injection in a polymer light emitting diode using a small molecule monolayer bound of modern display technologies [1]. A simple polymer light emitting diode (PLED) can be constructed-naphthyl)-N,N0 -diphenyl1- 1,1-biphenyl1-4, 40 -diamine (a-NPD) in light emitting diode devices [14

  9. Reactivity of low-valent nickel-1,3-BIS (o-Diphenylphosphinophenylthio) propane (arom-PSSP) with small molecules 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jeehee

    1997-01-01

    The reactivity of NiO(arom-PSSP) with small molecules was studied in comparison to the reactivity of NIO(PSSP) which was studied by previous members of our group. The low-valent nickel atom in this arom-PSSP ligand exhibited ...

  10. Effect of shell thickness on small-molecule solar cells enhanced by dual plasmonic gold-silica nanorods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, Qihua

    enhancement in hybrid organic/Si heterojunction solar cells enabled by embedded gold nanoparticles Appl. Phys of a small-molecule organic solar cell. At optimal (1 wt. %) concentration, Au-silica nanorods with 5 nm. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4896516] Plasmonic organic solar cells (OSCs) have been inten- sively

  11. Solution-Processed Solar Cells using Colloidal Quantum Dots ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sargent001000 Abstract: Solution-processed photovoltaics offer a cost-effective path to harvesting the abundant resource that is solar energy. The organic and polymer...

  12. Oxidation-resistant, solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain-SiOsub x (x < 2) selective solar thermal absorbers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxidation-resistant,...

  13. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    for further improvement on CZTS solar cells efficiency.improvement. Figure 6.1 Efficiency progress for hydrazine solution processing CIGS and CZTS thin film solar cells

  14. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to ?s) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals thatmore »generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to ?s charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.« less

  15. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    Processed Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 Solar Cells,” Advanced Energyfor solution processed CuInSxSe2?x solar cells and itson defect properties,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar

  16. Evidence for small-molecule-mediated loop stabilization in the structure of the isolated Pin1 WW domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortenson, David E.; Kreitler, Dale F.; Yun, Hyun Gi; Gellman, Samuel H., E-mail: gellman@chem.wisc.edu; Forest, Katrina T., E-mail: gellman@chem.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Two structures of a small protein with a defined tertiary fold, the isolated Pin1 WW domain, have been determined via racemic crystallization with small-molecule additives. These additives, which are either racemic or achiral, appear to stabilize a dynamic loop region of the structure. The human Pin1 WW domain is a small autonomously folding protein that has been useful as a model system for biophysical studies of ?-sheet folding. This domain has resisted previous attempts at crystallization for X-ray diffraction studies, perhaps because of intrinsic conformational flexibility that interferes with the formation of a crystal lattice. Here, the crystal structure of the human Pin1 WW domain has been obtained via racemic crystallization in the presence of small-molecule additives. Both enantiomers of a 36-residue variant of the Pin1 WW domain were synthesized chemically, and the l- and d-polypeptides were combined to afford diffracting crystals. The structural data revealed packing interactions of small carboxylic acids, either achiral citrate or a d,l mixture of malic acid, with a mobile loop region of the WW-domain fold. These interactions with solution additives may explain our success in crystallization of this protein racemate. Molecular-dynamics simulations starting from the structure of the Pin1 WW domain suggest that the crystal structure closely resembles the conformation of this domain in solution. The structural data presented here should provide a basis for further studies of this important model system.

  17. Surface-supported Ag islands stabilized by a quantum size effect: Their interaction with small molecules relevant to ethylene epoxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Dahai

    2013-05-15

    This dissertation focuses on how QSE-stabilized, surface-supported Ag nanoclusters will interact with ethylene or oxygen. Experiments are performed to determine whether the QSE-mediated Ag islands react differently toward adsorption of ethylene or oxygen, or whether the adsorption of these small molecules will affect the QSE-mediated stability of Ag islands. Studies of the interaction of oxygen with Ag/Si(111)-7×7 were previously reported, but these studies were performed at a low Ag coverage where 3D Ag islands were not formed. So the study of such a system at a higher Ag coverage will be a subject of this work. The interaction of ethylene with Ag/Si(111)-7×7, as well as the interaction of oxygen with Ag/NiAl(110) are also important parts of this study.

  18. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2015-08-04

    A method of fabricating a tandem organic photosensitive device involves depositing a first layer of an organic electron donor type material film by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a first solvent; depositing a first layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the first layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process; depositing a conductive layer over the interim stack by a dry deposition process; depositing a second layer of the organic electron donor type material over the conductive layer by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a second solvent, wherein the organic electron acceptor type material and the conductive layer are insoluble in the second solvent; depositing a second layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the second layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process, resulting in a stack.

  19. 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 1 www.advmat.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    and generally incompatible with scalable solution processing methods which can be applied in a roll-to-roll. It should be noted that the limitation to three layers was dictated by the fact that spin-coating could

  20. Characterization of a Benzothiadiazole Derivative for Organic Electronic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    optical and electrical properties, and compatibility with high throughput, roll-to-roll processing solution processed by spin coating on a glass or indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate with a 5

  1. Design and development of a roll-to-roll machine for continuous high-speed microcontact printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stagnaro, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Microcontact printing ([mu]CP) is an emerging technique for patterning micro-scale features for electronics, optics, surface modifications, and a variety of other applications. Its many advantages over traditional techniques ...

  2. Integrated hardware, software, and sensor design for control of a scalable, continuous roll-to-roll microcontact printing process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nill, Scott T. (Scott Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    Soft lithography has been a long-time candidate for altering the landscape in micromanufacturing. Such processes promise lower cost in equipment and processed products while showing substantial gains in throughput and ...

  3. Heterocyclic small molecule peptidomimetics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jing

    2009-05-15

    , Phe, Val, !-Ala 2 H, M R = alkyl estr or polymer suport +Ar-CHO + HS R 2 O H N S OR 2 Aryl R 1 HO 2 C " Batey and coworker prepared of a series of N-terminal 2-iminohydantoin-based peptide heterocycle conjugates via a diverted Edman...

  4. Structural and optoelectronic properties of hybrid bulk-heterojunction materials based on conjugated small molecules and mesostructured TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phan, Hung [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Jahnke, Justin P.; Chmelka, Bradley F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen, E-mail: quyen@chem.ucsb.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-06-09

    Improved hybrid bulk-heterojunction materials was fabricated by spin-casting a benchmark conjugated small molecule, namely, 3,6-bis(5-(benzofuran-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl) pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione (DPP(TBFu){sub 2}), into mesostructured TiO{sub 2}. Due to both a reduced molecular size and less hydrophobic nature of the conjugated molecules (relative to conjugated polymers), homogeneous and improved infiltration into the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} are achieved without the need for pre-treatment of the TiO{sub 2}. Remarkably, this small molecule can realize loadings of up to 25% of the total pore volume—2.5× the typical loadings achieved for conjugated polymers. The small molecule loading was determined using dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy and absorption spectroscopy. Further characterization such as charge transfer and nanoscale conducting atomic force microscopy helps to demonstrate the promise and viability of small molecule donors for hybrid optoelectronic devices.

  5. Actinide solution processing at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1039, for radioactive solution removal and processing at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for solution removal and processing is in response to independent safety assessments and an agreement with the State of Colorado to remove mixed residues at Rocky Flats and reduce the risk of future accidents. Monthly public meetings were held during the scoping and preparation of the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluations of alternative methods and locations of solution processing. A comment period from February 20, 1995 through March 21, 1995 was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to offer written comment on the EA. Comments were received from the State of Colorado and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A response to the agency comments is included in the Final EA.

  6. Discovery and Characterization of a Cell-Permeable, Small-Molecule c-Abl Kinase Activator that Binds to the Myristoyl Binding Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jingsong; Campobasso, Nino; Biju, Mangatt P.; Fisher, Kelly; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Cottom, Josh; Galbraith, Sarah; Ho, Thau; Zhang, Hong; Hong, Xuan; Ward, Paris; Hofmann, Glenn; Siegfried, Brett; Zappacosta, Francesca; Washio, Yoshiaki; Cao, Ping; Qu, Junya; Bertrand, Sophie; Wang, Da-Yuan; Head, Martha S.; Li, Hu; Moores, Sheri; Lai, Zhihong; Johanson, Kyung; Burton, George; Erickson-Miller, Connie; Simpson, Graham; Tummino, Peter; Copeland, Robert A.; Oliff, Allen

    2014-10-02

    c-Abl kinase activity is regulated by a unique mechanism involving the formation of an autoinhibited conformation in which the N-terminal myristoyl group binds intramolecularly to the myristoyl binding site on the kinase domain and induces the bending of the {alpha}I helix that creates a docking surface for the SH2 domain. Here, we report a small-molecule c-Abl activator, DPH, that displays potent enzymatic and cellular activity in stimulating c-Abl activation. Structural analyses indicate that DPH binds to the myristoyl binding site and prevents the formation of the bent conformation of the {alpha}I helix through steric hindrance, a mode of action distinct from the previously identified allosteric c-Abl inhibitor, GNF-2, that also binds to the myristoyl binding site. DPH represents the first cell-permeable, small-molecule tool compound for c-Abl activation.

  7. Investigation of solution-processed bismuth-niobium-oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: s-inoue@jaist.ac.jp [Green Device Research Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); School of Material Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Ariga, Tomoki [Green Device Research Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); ERATO Shimoda Nano-Liquid Process Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); Matsumoto, Shin [School of Material Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Onoue, Masatoshi; Miyasako, Takaaki [ERATO Shimoda Nano-Liquid Process Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Shimoda, Tatsuya [Green Device Research Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); School of Material Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); ERATO Shimoda Nano-Liquid Process Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); Chinone, Norimichi; Cho, Yasuo [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-21

    The characteristics of bismuth-niobium-oxide (BNO) films prepared using a solution process were investigated. The BNO film annealed at 550°C involving three phases: an amorphous phase, Bi?NbO? fluorite microcrystals, and Nb-rich cubic pyrochlore microcrystals. The cubic pyrochlore structure, which was the main phase in this film, has not previously been reported in BNO films. The relative dielectric constant of the BNO film was approximately 140, which is much higher than that of a corresponding film prepared using a conventional vacuum sputtering process. Notably, the cubic pyrochlore microcrystals disappeared with increasing annealing temperature and were replaced with triclinic ?-BiNbO? crystals at 590°C. The relative dielectric constant also decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Therefore, the high relative dielectric constant of the BNO film annealed at 550°C is thought to result from the BNO cubic pyrochlore structure. In addition, the BNO films annealed at 500°C contained approximately 6.5 atm.% carbon, which was lost at approximately 550°C. This result suggests that the carbon in the BNO film played an important role in the formation of the cubic pyrochlore structure.

  8. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2:ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to ?s) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals that generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to ?s charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.

  9. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800326 Solution Processed Photovoltaic Devices with 2% Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800326 Solution Processed Photovoltaic Devices with 2% Infrared Monochromatic generations of solar cells. Solution processed materials offer the promise of flexible and inexpensive of the sun's power reaching the earth lies beyond 700 nm, and one third beyond 1000 nm. Many of the promising

  10. Development of low-temperature solution-processed colloidal quantum dot-based solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Liang-Yi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Solution-processed solar cells incorporating organic semiconductors and inorganic colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are potential alternatives to conventional solar cells fabricated via vacuum or high-temperature sintering ...

  11. HIV-1 entry inhibition by small-molecule CCR5 antagonists: A combined molecular modeling and mutant study using a high-throughput assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labrecque, Jean; Metz, Markus; Lau, Gloria; Darkes, Marilyn C.; Wong, Rebecca S.Y.; Bogucki, David; Carpenter, Bryon; Chen Gang; Li Tongshuang; Nan, Susan; Schols, Dominique; Bridger, Gary J.; Fricker, Simon P.; Skerlj, Renato T.

    2011-05-10

    Based on the attrition rate of CCR5 small molecule antagonists in the clinic the discovery and development of next generation antagonists with an improved pharmacology and safety profile is necessary. Herein, we describe a combined molecular modeling, CCR5-mediated cell fusion, and receptor site-directed mutagenesis approach to study the molecular interactions of six structurally diverse compounds (aplaviroc, maraviroc, vicriviroc, TAK-779, SCH-C and a benzyloxycarbonyl-aminopiperidin-1-yl-butane derivative) with CCR5, a coreceptor for CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains. This is the first study using an antifusogenic assay, a model of the interaction of the gp120 envelope protein with CCR5. This assay avoids the use of radioactivity and HIV infection assays, and can be used in a high throughput mode. The assay was validated by comparison with other established CCR5 assays. Given the hydrophobic nature of the binding pocket several binding models are suggested which could prove useful in the rational drug design of new lead compounds.

  12. Including screening in van der Waals corrected density functional theory calculations: The case of atoms and small molecules physisorbed on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestrelli, Pier Luigi; Ambrosetti, Alberto

    2014-03-28

    The Density Functional Theory (DFT)/van der Waals-Quantum Harmonic Oscillator-Wannier function (vdW-QHO-WF) method, recently developed to include the vdW interactions in approximated DFT by combining the quantum harmonic oscillator model with the maximally localized Wannier function technique, is applied to the cases of atoms and small molecules (X=Ar, CO, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) weakly interacting with benzene and with the ideal planar graphene surface. Comparison is also presented with the results obtained by other DFT vdW-corrected schemes, including PBE+D, vdW-DF, vdW-DF2, rVV10, and by the simpler Local Density Approximation (LDA) and semilocal generalized gradient approximation approaches. While for the X-benzene systems all the considered vdW-corrected schemes perform reasonably well, it turns out that an accurate description of the X-graphene interaction requires a proper treatment of many-body contributions and of short-range screening effects, as demonstrated by adopting an improved version of the DFT/vdW-QHO-WF method. We also comment on the widespread attitude of relying on LDA to get a rough description of weakly interacting systems.

  13. Design and development of high precision five-axis positioning system for roll-to-roll multi-layer microcontact printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldesi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Microcontact printing is based on the use of elastomeric stamps to transfer ink onto a substrate taking advantage of the self-assembly process. Features as small as 300nm can be easily printed over an extended area. The ...

  14. Charge Dynamics in Solution-Processed Nanocrystalline CuInS¬2 Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halpert, Jonathan E.; Morgenstern, Frederik S. F.; Ehrler, Bruno; Vaynzof, Yana; Credgington, Dan; Greenham, Neil C.

    2015-05-07

    We investigate charge dynamics in solar cells constructed using solution-processed layers of CuInS2 (CIS) nanocrystals (NCs) as the electron donor and CdS as the electron acceptor. By using time-resolved spectroscopic techniques, we are able...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of perovskite PbTiO3 nanoparticles with solution processability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Synthesis and characterization of perovskite PbTiO3 nanoparticles with solution processability Jun with perovskite structure (ABO3), for example, lead titanate (PbTiO3), are the most studied ferroelectric oxides polarization direction. Ferroelectrics with perovskite structure (ABO3), such as barium titanate (BaTiO3

  16. Solution-processed colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: A perspective Ratan Debnath,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    ) photovol- taic devices offer considerable promise as a third-generation photovoltaic candidateInGaSe2, offer dramatically improved costs per square meter, but at the price of lower efficiencies. Third-generationSolution-processed colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: A perspective Ratan Debnath,a Osman Bakrbc

  17. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Teng

    2012-04-27

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A thin LiF layer serves typically as the electron injection layer in OLEDs and electron collection interlayer in the OSCs. However, several reports showed that it can also assist in holeinjection in OLEDs. Here we first demonstrate that it assists hole-collection in OSCs, which is more obvious after air-plasma treatment, and explore this intriguing dual role. For OLEDs, we focus on solution processing methods to fabricate highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. First, we investigated OLEDs with a polymer host matrix, and enhanced charge injection by adding hole- and electron-transport materials into the system. We also applied a hole-blocking and electron-transport material to prevent luminescence quenching by the cathode. Finally, we substituted the polymer host by a small molecule, to achieve more efficient solution processed small molecular OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is cost-effective in comparison to the more common vacuum thermal evaporation. All these studies help us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OSCs and OLEDs’ performance and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiencies of OSCs and OLEDs. With better efficiency and longer lifetime, the OSCs and OLEDs will be competitive with their inorganic counterparts.

  18. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Solution processing a b s t r a c t We report using doctor-blading to replace conventional spin coating)-9,90 -spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Doctor-blading is a roll-to-roll compatible, large-area coating technique, is capable of achieving the same spiro-OMeTAD pore filling fraction

  19. High-performance organic field-effect transistors with dielectric and active layers printed sequentially by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B.

    substrates, and has the potential to take advantage of existing low-cost, high- throughput, roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing technology. Spin- coating and drop-casting are two widely employed solution processing techniques, and spray coating that can meet the manufacturing requirements for cost-effective, large area processing.9

  20. Interfacial Engineering for Highly Efficient-Conjugated Polymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex Jen; David Ginger; Christine Luscombe; Hong Ma

    2012-04-02

    The aim of our proposal is to apply interface engineering approach to improve charge extraction, guide active layer morphology, improve materials compatibility, and ultimately allow the fabrication of high efficiency tandem cells. Specifically, we aim at developing: i. Interfacial engineering using small molecule self-assembled monolayers ii. Nanostructure engineering in OPVs using polymer brushes iii. Development of efficient light harvesting and high mobility materials for OPVs iv. Physical characterization of the nanostructured systems using electrostatic force microscopy, and conducting atomic force microscopy v. All-solution processed organic-based tandem cells using interfacial engineering to optimize the recombination layer currents vi. Theoretical modeling of charge transport in the active semiconducting layer The material development effort is guided by advanced computer modeling and surface/ interface engineering tools to allow us to obtain better understanding of the effect of electrode modifications on OPV performance for the investigation of more elaborate device structures. The materials and devices developed within this program represent a major conceptual advancement using an integrated approach combining rational molecular design, material, interface, process, and device engineering to achieve solar cells with high efficiency, stability, and the potential to be used for large-area roll-to-roll printing. This may create significant impact in lowering manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells for promoting clean renewable energy use and preventing the side effects from using fossil fuels to impact environment.

  1. Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells with Power Conversion Efficiencies of 2.5% using Benzothiadiazole/Imide-Based Acceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells with Power Conversion Efficiencies of 2.5% using achieved 0.1% power-conversion efficiency. KEYWORDS: organic electronics, solar cells, photovoltaic devices significantly different behav- iors in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT

  2. Vacuum-free lamination of low work function cathode for efficient solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Hsin-Fei

    -coated organic light-emitting diode is transferred from a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold by lamination, or blade coating [1,2] for organic light emitting diode (OLED) as well as solar cell. The top electrodeVacuum-free lamination of low work function cathode for efficient solution-processed organic light-emitting

  3. Calcium niobate nanosheets as a novel electron transport material for solution-processed multi-junction polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    Calcium niobate nanosheets as a novel electron transport material for solution-processed multi-junction polymer solar cells Lilian Chang,a Michael A. Holmes,b Mollie Waller,b Frank E. Osterlohb and Adam J-processed tandem polymer solar cells are demonstrated using stacked perovskite, (TBA,H) Ca2Nb3O10 (CNO

  4. Efficient solution-processed infrared photovoltaic cells: Planarized all-inorganic bulk heterojunction devices via inter-quantum-dot bridging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    Efficient solution-processed infrared photovoltaic cells: Planarized all-inorganic bulk-processed photovoltaics. The authors demonstrate quantum size-effect tuning of device band gaps relevant to multijunction solar cells. © 2007 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2735674 Low-cost, large-area solar

  5. [Transition metal mediated transformations of small molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, A.

    1992-01-01

    Work on organotransition metal chemistry, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis is summarized. Several cationic palladium(II) complexes with bulky phosphine or pyridine ligands were discovered that are highly selective catalysts for linear dimerization of vinyl monomers and linear polymerization of p-divinylbenzene, the reactions proceeding through a carbocationic mechanism. Our studies were continued on alternating olefin-carbon monoxide copolymers. The copolymerization reaction and reactivity of copolymers were examined. New catalytic systems for alternating copolymerization of [alpha]-olefins with CO were discovered. In the case of styrene derivatives, tactic copolymers were obtained. Poly(ethylenepyrrolediyl) derivatives were synthesized from alternating ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymer and become electronic conductors when doped with iodine. A catalytic system for direct synthesis of polyureas and polyoxamides from and diamines was also discovered. Pt metal catalyzed the oxidation of ethers, esters, and amines to carboxylic acids and the oxidation of olefins to 1,2-diols. Anaerobic and aerobic decomposition of molybdenum(VI)-oxoalkyl compounds were studied for heterogeneous oxidation of alkanes and olefins on Mo(VI)-oxide surfaces. Synthesis of polymer-trapped metal, metal oxide, and metal sulfide nanoclusters (size <1--10 nm) was studied.

  6. Laser Direct Writing Organic Small Molecule Luminophores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    efficiency, high cost Low efficiency, low cost http://www.aist.go.jp/aist_e/aist_today http electroluminescent Iridium complex developed by Bernhard, Slinker groups Ir(ppy)2(dtb-bpy)]+(PF6 -) #12;How PV's Work from valence band into conduction band #12;Junctions · Efficiency of PV cell depends partly on whether

  7. Small-Molecule Allosteric Activators of Sirtuins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinclair, David A.

    The mammalian sirtuins (SIRT1–7) are NAD[superscript +]-dependent lysine deacylases that play central roles in cell survival, inflammation, energy metabolism, and aging. Members of this family of enzymes are considered ...

  8. Inverted, semitransparent small molecule photovoltaic cells ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyusang 1 ; Forrest, Stephen R. 2 + Show Author Affiliations Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109,...

  9. Small Molecule Regulation of Alternative Splicing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Erik Steven

    2012-01-01

    digitoxin regulates alternative splicing through depletion2003. Mechanisms of alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing.digitoxin regulates alternative splicing through depletion

  10. Small molecule Interactions with Heparan sulfate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuksz, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    55%); e) 9, palladium on carbon, hydrogen gas, methanol (Hydrogen gas was bubbled through a solution of (9) (180 mg, 76 ?mol) and palladium

  11. Allosteric Modulation of DNA by Small Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A T TSorbentsAllosteric Modulation of DNA by

  12. Inverted, semitransparent small molecule photovoltaic cells (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols in(Journal Article) | SciTechArticle) | SciTech

  13. Characterization of solution processed, p-doped films using hole-only devices and organic field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swensen, James S.; Wang, Liang (Frank) [Frank; Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2012-12-01

    We report a solution-processed approach for a p-type doped hole transport layer in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra identified the charge transfer between the donor and acceptor in the solution processed doped films. Single carrier device and field-effect transistor were utilized as test vehicles to study the charge transport property and extract important parameters such as bulk mobile carrier concentration and mobility. OLEDs with p-type doped hole transport layer showed significant improvement in power efficiency up to 30% at the optimal doping ratio. This approach has the great potential to reduce the power consumption for OLED solid state lighting while lowering the cost and boosting the throughput of its manufacturing.

  14. Final Closeout report for grant FG36-08GO18018, titled: Functional Multi-Layer Solution Processable Polymer Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam J. Moule

    2012-05-01

    The original objectives were: (1) Develop a method to deposit multiple conjugated polymer film layers and avoid the problem of dissolution from mutually solubility; (2) Use this deposition method to develop multi-layer polymer based solar cells with layers that are function specific; (3) characterize these layers and devices; (4) develop electrical and optical models that describe and predict the properties of the multi-layers; and (5) Ultimate efficiency goals are {approx}6.75% with J{sub sc} = 12 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.75, and V{sub oc} = 0.75. The question of whether photovoltaic (PV) cells will ever be able to replace fossil fuels as the main provider of electrical power is not just a question of device efficiency; it is a question of how much power can be provided for what price. It has been well documented that PV devices at 10% power efficiency can provide for all of the world's power needs without covering too much of the earth's surface. Assuming desert like cloud coverage, an area equivalent to the land area of Texas would have to be covered. However, it has also been shown that using the current state-of-the-art silicon devices, the price-per-Watt will never be low enough to be economically feasible for large-scale development. Solution-processable PV devices based on polymers are a very attractive alternative to traditional Silicon PV because this technology is much lower in materials cost and in environmentally toxic waste production. Solution-based polymers can be rapidly deposited using printing technologies and are compatible with light-weight flexible substrates that can increase the range of available PV applications. In the past ten years, the efficiency of polymer based PV devices has increased from {approx}1% to over 10%. The highest efficiency organic solar cells are based upon a single layer than consists of a mixture of donor and acceptor moieties. This one layer has multiple optical and electrical functions, so the design of a single heterojunction layer is based upon the idea of balancing good and bad properties within a single film. This proposal addresses the idea that the use of multiple layers that have differing electrical and optical functions could lead to greater efficiency because fewer materials compromises must be made. This idea is not new, multiple functional layer have been successfully used in cross-linked OLED's and organic small molecule evaporated PV devices. The main reason that multiple layers of polymers are not commonly deposited is that most conjugated polymers are mutually soluble in the same solvents. The work outlined in the proposal was intended to develop a new deposition strategy that would allow multiple organic layers to be deposited from solution using spin coating. The deposition method that we proposed was successful, sometimes, but ultimately not reliable. Instead we focused on more reliable methods to implement doping along the interface between layers. This work has been very successful. We found that using PEDOT:PSS, the PSS would form a surface layer of {approx}2-3 nm thickness that would mix with and electrochemically react with P3HT upon heating. This mechanism is also a crosslinking reaction in that H{sub 2} is released and permanent new bonds are formed. Using the Plextronics Inc. replacement to PEDOT:PSS, for which there are no mobile dopants, we were able to show that a second and different mechanism can be used to p-type dope organic materials. We are currently working with Plextronics to develop a new product. Finally we produced n-type doping of a thin fullerene layer near the cathode also using a self-assembly method. Low work function metals will diffuse into the BHJ layer and dope the fullerene upon heating. This doping also affects the vertical segregation of BHJ materials in a predictable way. We accomplished all of the scientific goals that we set out in the proposal written in May 2007. Some of the methods we proposed were not fully successful, but we did come up with better methods to achieve the same goal. We did not achieve the efficiency g

  15. Light-induced hysteresis and recovery behaviors in photochemically activated solution-processed metal-oxide thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Jeong-Wan; Park, Sung Kyu E-mail: skpark@cau.ac.kr; Kim, Yong-Hoon E-mail: skpark@cau.ac.kr

    2014-07-28

    In this report, photo-induced hysteresis, threshold voltage (V{sub T}) shift, and recovery behaviors in photochemically activated solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated. It was observed that a white light illumination caused negative V{sub T} shift along with creation of clockwise hysteresis in electrical characteristics which can be attributed to photo-generated doubly ionized oxygen vacancies at the semiconductor/gate dielectric interface. More importantly, the photochemically activated IGZO TFTs showed much reduced overall V{sub T} shift compared to thermally annealed TFTs. Reduced number of donor-like interface states creation under light illumination and more facile neutralization of ionized oxygen vacancies by electron capture under positive gate potential are claimed to be the origin of the less V{sub T} shift in photochemically activated TFTs.

  16. Low-voltage and hysteresis-free organic thin-film transistors employing solution-processed hybrid bilayer gate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ha, Tae-Jun [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    This study presents a promising approach to realize low-voltage (<3?V) organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) exhibiting improved electrical and optical stability. Such device performance results from the use of solution-processed hybrid bilayer gate dielectrics consisting of zirconium dioxide (high-k dielectric) and amorphous fluoropolymer, CYTOP{sup ®} (low-k dielectric). Employing a very thin amorphous fluoropolymer film reduces interfacial defect-states by repelling water molecules and other aqueous chemicals from an organic semiconductor active layer due to the hydrophobic surface-property. The chemically clean interface, stemming from decrease in density of trap states improves all the key device properties such as field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and sub-threshold swing. Furthermore, degradation by electrical bias-stress and photo-induced hysteresis were suppressed in OTFTs employing hybrid bilayer gate dielectrics.

  17. Modulation of physical and photocatalytic properties of (Cr, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} nanorods using soft solution processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wen-Chung [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Nguyen, Hoang-Diem; Wu, Chun-Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kao-Shuo, E-mail: kschang@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Yoshimura, Masahiro [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Promotion Center for Global Materials Research (PCGMR), National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-14

    Facile polymerized complex reactions together with a hydrothermal reaction were implemented to make single crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanorods for the first time. Chromium (Cr) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) co-doping was performed to tailor the physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction study illustrated that highly reactive facets of (101), (111), and (001) dominated rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorods. A growth model, based on formation of complex species, was proposed to elucidate effectiveness of the soft solution processing in making TiO{sub 2} nanorods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and consideration of fundamentals of charge neutrality showed N{sub 2} doping could inhibit formation of Cr{sup 6+} and oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}{sup 2+}). An investigation of the photocatalytic properties exhibited high efficiency of photodegradation of methylene blue in 15?min under pH?=?10, using a nanocomposite of (7% Cr, 0.0021% N) codoped and 3% Cr doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods.

  18. A water-processable organic electron-selective layer for solution-processed inverted organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dongcheng; Zhou, Hu; Cai, Ping; Sun, Shi; Ye, Hua; Su, Shi-Jian Cao, Yong

    2014-02-03

    A triazine- and pyridinium-containing water-soluble material of 1,1?,1?-(4,4?,4?-(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(benzene-4,1-diyl)) tris(methylene)tripyridinium bromide (TzPyBr) was developed as an organic electron-selective layer in solution-processed inverted organic solar cells due to its strong anti-erosion capacity against non-polar organic solvents commonly used for the active layer. Ohmic-like contact with the adjacent active materials like fullerene derivatives is speculated to be formed, as confirmed by the work-function measurements with scanning Kelvin probe and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. Besides, considering the deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of TzPyBr, excellent hole-blocking property of the electron-selective layer is also anticipated. The inverted organic photovoltaic devices based on the TzPyBr/ITO (indium tin oxide) bilayer cathode exhibit dramatically enhanced performance compared to the control devices with bare ITO as the cathode and even higher efficiency than the conventional type devices with ITO and Al as the electrodes.

  19. Oxidation-resistant, solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiaobai; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Juchuan

    2014-08-21

    Metal oxidation at high temperatures has long been a challenge in cermet solar thermal absorbers, which impedes the development of atmospherically stable, high-temperature, high-performance concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. In this work, we demonstrate solution-processed Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?

  20. Molecular Recognition of DNA by Small Molecules Peter B. Dervan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dervan, Peter B.

    the brushes and paint of the craft. Indeed, modern organic chemists, standing on the shoulders conducted in organic solvents (e.g., cation­crown complexation). I decided that a pivotal path forward would and biological macromolecules in water, the solvent of life. All living organisms on planet Earth from bacteria

  1. Elucidating the Role of Small Molecule Signals in Bacterial Development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ababneh, Qutaiba O

    2015-08-10

    protein is DisA, an octameric protein from B. subtilis that has two functions; first, it binds DNA via its C-terminal helix–hairpin–helix DNA-binding domain (HhH) and scans DNA integrity. Second, it synthesizes c-di-AMP using the N-terminal DAC 26... domain (151). The DAC domain in DisA protein is connected to the HhH domain through a specific linker domain (150). Therefore, c-di-AMP synthesis by DAC domain is allosterically inhibited when the HhH domain binds damaged DNA (152). Failure...

  2. Dynamic nuclear polarization of amorphous and crystalline small molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Ta-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state NMR has emerged to become an important technique in the studies of pharmaceutical formulations consisting of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and excipients. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), which ...

  3. [Transition metal mediated transformations of small molecules]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, A.

    1992-10-01

    Work on organotransition metal chemistry, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis is summarized. Several cationic palladium(II) complexes with bulky phosphine or pyridine ligands were discovered that are highly selective catalysts for linear dimerization of vinyl monomers and linear polymerization of p-divinylbenzene, the reactions proceeding through a carbocationic mechanism. Our studies were continued on alternating olefin-carbon monoxide copolymers. The copolymerization reaction and reactivity of copolymers were examined. New catalytic systems for alternating copolymerization of {alpha}-olefins with CO were discovered. In the case of styrene derivatives, tactic copolymers were obtained. Poly(ethylenepyrrolediyl) derivatives were synthesized from alternating ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymer and become electronic conductors when doped with iodine. A catalytic system for direct synthesis of polyureas and polyoxamides from and diamines was also discovered. Pt metal catalyzed the oxidation of ethers, esters, and amines to carboxylic acids and the oxidation of olefins to 1,2-diols. Anaerobic and aerobic decomposition of molybdenum(VI)-oxoalkyl compounds were studied for heterogeneous oxidation of alkanes and olefins on Mo(VI)-oxide surfaces. Synthesis of polymer-trapped metal, metal oxide, and metal sulfide nanoclusters (size <1--10 nm) was studied.

  4. G-quadruplex recognition and isolation with small molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Sebastian

    2011-01-11

    azodicarboxylate DDR DNA damage response DMEM Dulbecco’s modified eagles medium DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide DNA deoxyribonucleic acid Dr. doctor ds-DNA double-stranded DNA equiv. equivalent(s) EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetate e.g. exempli gratia EBr ethidium bromide Et... OAc ethyl acetate EtOH ethanol FACS fluorescence-activated cell sorting FAM 6-carboxyfluorescein FANCJ Fanconi anemia group J protein FCS fetal calf serum FRET Fo¨rster resonance energy transfer g gram G guanine GFP green fluorescent protein GI50 half...

  5. Alternative modulation of protein–protein interactions by small molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gerhard; Rossmann, Maxim; Hyvönen, Marko

    2015-05-15

    F0 (RG7112)Recently, bromodomains (BD) have moved into the focus of cancer drug discovery programs due to the enticing ability to control the activity of multiple genes activity simultaneously. BDs are sensors of epigenetic modifica- tions... , sclerosis 1AJ, 1A9, 1A8, 1A7, 1A6, 1A5, 1A4, 1A3, 15E, 14Z, 14X, 13F, 0NS, WSH, EAM (i-BET762), 73B (I-BET726, GSK1324726A), 9S3, 1K0 (RVX208) r, egeneration 2LK, 2LO, 2LL n EN5, EN5, JJ1, 7AH, A6K, A6M, UEK, VIQ, QMI, 2CB, 2CD, PS8 r BEN, 9LI, BZI, 0QW, 0QX...

  6. Targeting unique nucleic acid structures with small molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Victor Kin-man

    2007-01-01

    OF AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE Bacteria utilize three mainas bacteria continuously develop new resistance mechanisms,bacteria almost immediately acquire resistance. The

  7. The small molecule, genistein, increases hepcidin expression in human hepatocytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen, Aileen W.

    Hepcidin, a peptide hormone that decreases intestinal iron absorption and macrophage iron release, is a potential drug target for patients with iron overload syndromes because its levels are inappropriately low in these ...

  8. Small Molecule Sensing by Local pH Modulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Da

    2013-11-14

    to thank my advisor, Dr. Cremer, who guide and encouraged me during the whole process. I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Russell, Dr. Wooley, and Dr. Chen, for helping me throughout the course of this research. Thanks also go to Cremer... .................................. 32 Figure 3.2 pH Titration Curves for Different Supported Lipid Bilayers.................... 33 Figure 3.3 Sensing Tetracaine-POPC Bilayer Interaction.......................................... 36 Figure 3.4 Reversibility Test for Tetracaine...

  9. Mapping small molecule binding data to structural domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kruger, Felix A.; Rostom, Raghd; Overington, John P.

    2012-12-07

    R_lig-bind 25 128 P40238 fn3 391 475 P48443 Nuc_recep-AF1 24 134 P48443 Hormone_recep 248 443 P48443 zf-C4 137 206 P54219 MFS_1 77 433 P54219 MFS_1 422 493 Q92813 T4_deiodinase 4 262 P08506 PBP5_C 285 376 P08506 Peptidase_S11 28 266 P10826 Hormone_recep 222 406... P10826 zf-C4 86 155 P10828 Hormone_recep 257 445 P10828 zf-C4 105 176 P11926 Orn_Arg_deC_N 44 282 P11926 Orn_DAP_Arg_deC 285 408 P19793 Nuc_recep-AF1 16 127 P19793 Hormone_recep 251 442 P19793 zf-C4 133 202 P27815 PDEase_I 432 676 P28702 Hormone...

  10. Preface for small-molecule activation: Carbon-containing fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fujita, Etsuko; Goldman, Alan S.

    2015-06-01

    For millennia, human transportation was fueled largely through the consumption of biomass (by humans or domestic animals) and to a lesser extent by wind. The 19th century saw a major shift to coal-fueled transportation, with trains and ships powered by steam engines. A second major shift in the fueling of transportation occurred in the 20th century, this time to petroleum. Thus, this transition was not driven by the cost or ease of obtaining energy from oil wells vs. coal mines – indeed, the cost of petroleum has always been higher than coal on a per-unit-energy basis – but rather bymore »the tremendous technical advantages of powering engines with liquids, specifically liquid hydrocarbons.« less

  11. Identification and Mechanism of Small Molecule Inhibitors of RNA Interference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elkashef, Samer

    2011-01-01

    193-8. Tijsterman M, May RC, Simmer F, Okihara KL, PlasterkTops BB, Tabara H, Sijen T, Simmer F, Mello CC, Plasterk RH,

  12. Preface for small-molecule activation: Carbon-containing fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Etsuko; Goldman, Alan S.

    2015-06-01

    For millennia, human transportation was fueled largely through the consumption of biomass (by humans or domestic animals) and to a lesser extent by wind. The 19th century saw a major shift to coal-fueled transportation, with trains and ships powered by steam engines. A second major shift in the fueling of transportation occurred in the 20th century, this time to petroleum. Thus, this transition was not driven by the cost or ease of obtaining energy from oil wells vs. coal mines – indeed, the cost of petroleum has always been higher than coal on a per-unit-energy basis – but rather by the tremendous technical advantages of powering engines with liquids, specifically liquid hydrocarbons.

  13. Targeting DNA G-Quadruplexes with Helical Small Molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Sebastian; Laxmi-Reddy, Katta; Jena, Prakrit V.; Baptiste, Benoit; Dong, Zeyuan; Godde, Frédéric; Ha, Taekjip; Rodriguez, Raphaël; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Huc, Ivan

    2014-09-26

    1 and dimer 2 adopt a flat conformation,[35] whereas tetramers 3 and 5 and octamer 4 form helices spanning 1.5 turn for the former two and over three turns for the latter. For the purpose of this study, we synthesized another macrocycle 6... synthesized tetramer 10 with alternating quinoline and methylaminopyridine building blocks using simple coupling strategies (see Supporting Information). This type of backbone can fold in a similar manner as homo-quinoline multimers, but with decreased...

  14. Understanding Small Molecule Interactions in Metal-Organic Frameworks:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentat LENA| ReactionSite MapGas SeparationsRelevant to

  15. Understanding Small-Molecule Interactions in Metal-Organic Frameworks:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentat LENA| ReactionSite MapGas SeparationsRelevant

  16. Small-Molecule Inhibition of TNF-alpha

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *Impact NeutronSmall Business-

  17. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    Graphene Conductors .. 41 Fabrication .. 44 Printing Conditions Optimization 44 ii Experimental Setup and Sample Preparation

  18. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    of plastic- compatible electrolyte, this memory technologylow-cost plastic substrates and makes this technology lesstechnology would require flexible substrates, such as plastics.

  19. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    Conductors for Flexible Electronics,” Journal of Thefor low-cost and flexible electronics. Parts of his workwidespread use in flexible electronics. From an economic

  20. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    review,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 91,cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 75, no.conductors as solar energy materials: A panoramic

  1. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    layers for organic diodes and solar cells, and contacts tosensitized solar cells, as well as organic and inorganicorganic semiconductors in both diode (OLED and solar cell)[

  2. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors,” Science,layer graphene is a zero-bandgap semiconductor, although amade of graphene as a contact for organic semiconductors in

  3. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01

    4.7. It consists of a solid electrolyte stacked between twoa reactive electrode, a solid electrolyte, and an inert

  4. Advances in solar photovoltaics are urgently needed to increase the performance and reduce the cost of harvesting solar power. Solution-processed photovoltaics are cost-effective to manufacture and offer the potential for physical flexibility.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    Advances in solar photovoltaics are urgently needed to increase the performance and reduce the cost of harvesting solar power. Solution-processed photovoltaics are cost-effective to manufacture and offer chemistry. In particular, we focus on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)1 , organic photovoltaics2

  5. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guillermo Bazan; Alexander Mikhailovsky

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the proposed work was to develop the fundamental understanding and practical techniques for enhancement of Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes (PhOLEDs) performance by utilizing radiative decay control technology. Briefly, the main technical goal is the acceleration of radiative recombination rate in organometallic triplet emitters by using the interaction with surface plasmon resonances in noble metal nanostructures. Increased photonic output will enable one to eliminate constraints imposed on PhOLED efficiency by triplet-triplet annihilation, triplet-polaron annihilation, and saturation of chromophores with long radiative decay times. Surface plasmon enhanced (SPE) PhOLEDs will operate more efficiently at high injection current densities and will be less prone to degradation mechanisms. Additionally, introduction of metal nanostructures into PhOLEDs may improve their performance due to the improvement of the charge transport through organic layers via multiple possible mechanisms ('electrical bridging' effects, doping-like phenomena, etc.). SPE PhOLED technology is particularly beneficial for solution-fabricated electrophosphorescent devices. Small transition moment of triplet emitters allows achieving a significant enhancement of the emission rate while keeping undesirable quenching processes introduced by the metal nanostructures at a reasonably low level. Plasmonic structures can be introduced easily into solution-fabricated PhOLEDs by blending and spin coating techniques and can be used for enhancement of performance in existing device architectures. This constitutes a significant benefit for a large scale fabrication of PhOLEDs, e.g. by roll-to-roll fabrication techniques. Besides multieexciton annihilation, the power efficacy of PhOLEDs is often limited by high operational bias voltages required for overcoming built-in potential barriers to injection and transport of electrical charges through a device. This problem is especially pronounced in solution processed OLEDs lacking the accuracy and precision of fabrication found in their small molecule counterparts. From this point of view, it seems beneficial to develop materials allowing reduction of the operation bias voltage via improvement of the charge injection. The materials sought have to be compatible with solution-based fabrication process and allow easy incorporation of metal nanostructures.

  6. 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim4986 wileyonlinelibrary.com www.advmat.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    methods, including spin-coating, inkjet printing, and roll-to-roll casting. These processing tech- niques

  7. An easy-to-fabricate low-temperature TiO{sub 2} electron collection layer for high efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conings, B.; Baeten, L.; Jacobs, T.; Dera, R.; D’Haen, J.; Manca, J.; Boyen, H.-G.

    2014-08-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells arguably represent the most auspicious new photovoltaic technology so far, as they possess an astonishing combination of properties. The impressive and brisk advances achieved so far bring forth highly efficient and solution processable solar cells, holding great promise to grow into a mature technology that is ready to be embedded on a large scale. However, the vast majority of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells contains a dense TiO{sub 2} electron collection layer that requires a high temperature treatment (>450?°C), which obstructs the road towards roll-to-roll processing on flexible foils that can withstand no more than ?150?°C. Furthermore, this high temperature treatment leads to an overall increased energy payback time and cumulative energy demand for this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here we present the implementation of an alternative TiO{sub 2} layer formed from an easily prepared nanoparticle dispersion, with annealing needs well within reach of roll-to-roll processing, making this technology also appealing from the energy payback aspect. Chemical and morphological analysis allows to understand and optimize the processing conditions of the TiO{sub 2} layer, finally resulting in a maximum obtained efficiency of 13.6% for a planar heterojunction solar cell within an ITO/TiO{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3-x}Cl{sub x}poly(3-hexylthiophene)/Ag architecture.

  8. Engineering Recent progress on solution processable polymeric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transport plays an important role in determining the performance of polymer solar cells. In addition) data, we will present a model to explain the loss mechanism in polymer solar cells based on these donor-acceptor polymers. Finally, we will report on our recent progress of high efficiency polymer solar cells based

  9. Supporting Information for: Small Molecule Ligands for Bulged RNA Secondary Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hergenrother, Paul J.

    on infrared sensing. Melting points were measured on a Thomas-Hoover melting point apparatus.12 mmol) in 30 mL of glacial acetic acid was added concentrated HCl (1.0 mL, 12.0 mmol), dropwise via

  10. Depth Profiling Of Small Molecule Ingress Into Planar and Cylindrical Materials Using NRA and PIXE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Richard W.; Massingham, Gary; Clough, Anthony S. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-26

    The use of a 3He ion micro-beam technique to study the ingress/diffusion of water into a planar fibre optic grade glass and a cylindrical drug-release polymer is described. One-dimensional concentration profiles showing the depth of water ingress were produced. The depth of penetration of water into the glass was measured by fitting a gaussian function to the concentration profile. The ingress of water into the drug-release polymer was found to be Fickian and a cylindrical diffusion model used to obtain a diffusion coefficient.

  11. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01

    50% improvement in solar cell efficiency. The synthesis of asignificantly higher solar cell efficiencies relative tofor obtaining high efficiency solar cells. According to

  12. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01

    DSCs. Organic Polymer Photovoltaics Solar cells made fromThe harvesting of solar energy using photovoltaics has theOrganic photovoltaics (OPVs), dye sensitized solar cells (

  13. Combinatorial design and synthesis of peptidomimics and small molecules for protein-protein interactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chihyo

    2007-04-25

    pharmacophores and to adjust the solubilities of the products. The fluorinated template also gave libraries of cyclic peptidomimetics on solid phase in good yields and purities. These libraries have improved water solubility over the iodinated libraries. The 3...

  14. Synthesis and small molecule chemistry of the niobaziridine-hydride functional group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, Joshua S

    2005-01-01

    Chapter 1. Synthesis and Divergent Reactivity of the Niobaziridine-Hydride Functional Group The synthesis, characterization and reactivity of the niobaziridine-hydride complex Nb(H)([eta]²-t- ]Bu(H)C=NAr)(N[Np]Ar)? (la-H; ...

  15. Small Molecule Target Identification using Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability (DARTS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lomenick, Brett Eugene

    2013-01-01

    vehicle control, or with celecoxib (Panacea Biotec Ltd. ,mTOR-rapamycin, COX-2–celecoxib, and Smer3-Met30 (8) (Figuredidemnin B with eEF1A, celecoxib with COX-2, and Smer3 with

  16. Comparison of planar shear flow and planar elongational flow for systems of small molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as blow-forming, injection molding, and sheet casting. The flows occurring during these processes difficult. Early PEF simulations involved contracting the simulation cell in one of the directions parallel

  17. Graphene Signal Amplification for Sensitive and Real-Time Fluorescence Anisotropy Detection of Small Molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Weihong

    Graphene Signal Amplification for Sensitive and Real-Time Fluorescence Anisotropy Detection graphene oxide (GO) as the signal amplifier. Because of the extraordinarily larger volume of GO

  18. A Small Molecule Modulator of Hsp90 Improves Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urban, Michael Joseph

    2010-07-30

    : After 8-12 weeks of diabetes induced by streptozotocin, the effects of weekly doses of KU-32 on several standard indices of diabetic neuropathy were measured. Results: Initial toxicity studies employing the weekly intraperitoneal administration of 2...

  19. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01

    J. The physics of solar cells; Imperial College Press,for organic polymer solar cells investigated to date. Theincluding organic solar cells and dye-sensitized solar

  20. Chemical-genetic interrogation of small molecule mechanism of action in S. cerevisiae 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spitzer, Michaela

    2011-11-24

    The budding yeast S. cerevisiae is widely used as a model organism to study biological processes that are conserved among eukaryotes. Di fferent genomic approaches have been applied successfully to interrogate the mode ...

  1. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01

    J. The physics of solar cells; Imperial College Press,for organic polymer solar cells investigated to date. Thebulk heterojunction organic solar cells, blends of a p-type

  2. Image-Based Screening in Vibrio Cholerae: Platform Development, Image Analysis, and Small Molecule Biofilm Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peach, Kelly Corbus

    2013-01-01

    8 1.3.2. Antimicrobial Resistance Bacteria in the biofilm1.3.1. Host Resistance The nature of bacteria in the biofilmadditional resistance mechanisms employed by bacteria in the

  3. Antiandrogenic properties of parabens and other phenolic containing small molecules in personal care products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    b,d , Bill L. Lasley a,c, a Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA b Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA c California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA d Cancer Research Center

  4. Antiandrogenic properties of parabens and other phenolic containing small molecules in personal care products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Jiangang; Ahn, Ki Chang; Gee, Nancy A.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lasley, Bill L. . E-mail: bllasley@ucdavis.edu

    2007-06-15

    To identify the androgenic potency of commonly used antimicrobials, an in vitro androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity assay was employed to evaluate the androgenic/antiandrogenic activity of parabens and selected other antimicrobials containing a phenolic moiety. This cell-based assay utilizes a stably transfected cell line that lacks critical steroid metabolizing enzymes and is formatted in a 96-well format. At a concentration of 10 {mu}M, methyl-, propyl- and butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (parabens) inhibited testosterone (T)-induced transcriptional activity by 40%, 33% and 19%, respectively (P < 0.05), while 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the major metabolite of parabens, had no effect on T-induced transcriptional activity. Triclosan inhibited transcriptional activity induced by T by more than 92% at a concentration of 10 {mu}M, and 38.8% at a concentration of 1.0 {mu}M (P < 0.05). Thirty-four percent of T-induced transcriptional activity was inhibited by thymol at 10 {mu}M (P < 0.05). Cell proliferation and/or cytotoxicity were not observed in any of the treatments. None of the compounds appeared to be androgenic when tested individually without T. The data presented in this report demonstrate that some widely used antimicrobial compounds have antiandrogenic properties and warrant further investigation to fully understand their potential impact on human reproductive health.

  5. Discovery of small molecules that enhance astrocyte differentiation in rat fetal neural stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suh, Young-Ger

    -Jung Kim b, , Kyung Hoon Min c, a College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-741, Republic to understand how the cell fate of NSCs is regulated. In addition, much attention has been paid to the role of astrocytes in neuro- pathological conditions.12 An in-house chemical library was there- fore screened to see

  6. Synthesis of Small Molecule Candidate Insulin Mimics by the Claisen Rearrangement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nalbandian, Jenifer N.

    2013-01-01

    hexanes/1% Et 3 N. The crude oil was added to the columnand concentrated. The crude oil was purified by flash columnand concentrated. The crude oil was purified by flash column

  7. Stimulators of translation identified during a small molecule screening Unkyung Shin a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    of natural and synthetic products for eukaryotic translation modulators, we iden- tified two natural products of these compounds led to the insight that mRNA used to program the translation extracts during high-throughput assay identify a source of ``false positives'' for high-through- put screen campaigns using translation extracts

  8. Investigation and Characterization of Small Molecule Modulators for Mitochondrial Processing Peptidase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Colin Joseph

    2014-01-01

    in Parkinsons disease. Human Molecular Genetics Popov-Parkinsons disease. (Translated from English) Human Molecular Genetics

  9. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01

    results in a 50% improvement in solar cell efficiency. Theimprovement in performance over previously reported P3HT:PDI solar cells.solar cells. However, not all the PL is quenched, indicating that additional improvement

  10. Identification of small molecules for human hepatocyte expansion and iPS differentiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Jing

    Cell-based therapies hold the potential to alleviate the growing burden of liver diseases. Such therapies require human hepatocytes, which, within the stromal context of the liver, are capable of many rounds of replication. ...

  11. Binding affinity of a small molecule to an amorphous polymer in a solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chunsrivirot, Surasak

    2011-01-01

    Crystallization is a commonly used purification process in industrial practice. It usually begins with heterogeneous nucleation on a foreign surface. The complicated mechanism of heterogeneous nucleation is not well ...

  12. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01

    bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, blends of a p-typebottleneck, bilayer organic solar cells are normallycells, including organic solar cells and dye-sensitized

  13. Charge recombination in organic small-molecule solar cells by Jiye Lee.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jiye

    2008-01-01

    To enhance the power conversion efficiency in organic solar cells, charge recombination loss needs to be minimized. First, we perform transient absorption spectroscopy to study the charge recombination dynamics of thin ...

  14. Developments and Applications of Electrophoresis and Small Molecule Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Ultra-sensitive native fluorescence detection of proteins with miniaturized one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was achieved with laser side-entry excitation, which provides both high excitation power and low background level. The detection limit for R-phycoerythrin protein spots in 1-D SDS-PAGE was as low as 15 fg, which corresponds to 40 thousand molecules only. The average detection limit of six standard native proteins was 5 pg per band and the dynamic range spanned more than 3 orders of magnitude. Approximately 150 protein spots from 30 ng of total Escherichia coli extraction were detected on a 0.8 cm x 1 cm gel in two-dimensional separation. Estrogen-DNA adducts as 4-OHE{sub 1}(E{sub 2})-1-N3Ade and 4-OHEI(E2)-2-NacCys were hypothesized as early risk assessment of prostate and breast cancers. Capillary electrophoresis, luminescence/absorption spectroscopy and LC-MS were used to characterize and detect these adducts. Monoclonal antibodies against each individual adduct were developed and used to enrich such compounds from urine samples of prostate and breast cancer patients as well as healthy people. Adduct 4-OHE{sub 1}-1-N3Ade was detected at much higher level in urine from subjects with prostate cancer patients compared to healthy males. The same adduct and 4-OHEI-2-NacCys were also detected at a much higher level in urine from a woman with breast carcinoma than samples from healthy controls. These two DNA adducts may serve as novel biomarkers for early diagnostic of cancers. The adsorption properties of R-phycoerythrin (RPE), on the fused-silica surface were studied using capillary electrophoresis (CE) and single molecule spectroscopy. The band shapes and migration times were measured in CE. Adsorption and desorption events were recorded at the single-molecule level by imaging of the evanescent-field layer using total internal reflection. The adsorbed RPE molecules on the fused-silica prism surface were counted with confidence based on Imagej software. The capacity factor and desorption rate were estimated from the counting results. The mobility-based adsorption isotherms were constructed from both computer simulations and experiments to determine the capacity factor.

  15. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Dengue-Virus Entry Aaron G. Schmidt1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use: The work was supported by NIH Grant U54AI057159 (to SCH and PLY), an award from the Giovanni Armenise

  16. TBP expression and the investigation of on-bead assays for small molecule recognition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattarai, Kiran

    2002-01-01

    and isolation of TBP from Arabidopsis thaliana is reported using the Escherichia coli (BL21(DE3)) expression system. The synthesis, isolation, and characterization of peptides corresponding to the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, a protein reported...

  17. Preface: Forum on small molecules related to carbon-containing fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fujita, Etsuko; Goldman, Alan S.

    2015-06-01

    For millennia, human transportation was fueled largely through the consumption of biomass (by humans or domestic animals) and to a lesser extent by wind. The 19th century saw a major shift to coal-fueled transportation, with trains and ships powered by steam engines. A second major shift in the fueling of transportation occurred in the 20th century, this time to petroleum. This transition was not driven by the cost or ease of obtaining energy from oil wells vs. coal mines – indeed, the cost of petroleum has always been higher than coal on a per-unit-energy basis – but rather by themore »tremendous technical advantages of powering engines with liquids, specifically liquid hydrocarbons.« less

  18. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01

    38] Clifford, J. N. ; Palomares, E. ; Nazeeruddin, M. K. ;A. ; Handa, S. ; Peter, K. ; Palomares, E. ; Thelakkat, M. ;Martinez-Ferrero, E. ; Palomares, E. ; Ko, J. ; Grätzel,

  19. Development of small molecules as anti-inflammatory and anti-resorptive drugs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coste, Emmanuel

    2011-07-05

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto-immune inflammatory disease that leads to stiff and swollen joints. Patients also have severe bone destruction of the affected joints and another common symptom of rheumatoid arthritis is ...

  20. Two-electron mixed-valence complexes small molecule activation and photocatalytic hydrogen production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heyduk, Alan F. (Alan Frank), 1974-

    2001-01-01

    Two-electron mixed-valence complexes of rhodium may be supported by diphosphazane ligands (RN(PY2)2). Whereas diphosphazane ligands with strongly [pi]-acidic phosphine groups (Y = F, OCH2CF3) react with RhI starting materials ...

  1. A Characterization of Small Molecule and Polymer Dyes for Use in Luminescent Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belanger, David P.

    back by cost. The price of solar generated electricity can run up to approximately $3 per Watt. [4, and use the equipment and supplies I needed to complete this project. Finally, I would like to thank Dr a smaller area, the price of a photovoltaic system can be cut drastically. The standard ways

  2. Structural Elucidation of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockwell, Brent R.

    this unexpected activity of securinine, this study provides a systematic roadmap to those who encounter compounds

  3. Proton-coupled electron transfer : from basic principles to small molecule activation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Joel, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is the basic mechanism for bioenergetic conversion. Hallmark examples of such reactivities include water oxidation which is coupled to photosynthesis and oxygen reduction which is ...

  4. Small molecule binding to electrophilic trigonal pyramidal platinum, palladium, and nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsay, Charlene

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 1 A general introduction to the concepts and background of several types of transition metal complexes that motivate and inform the research described herein. These include a-complexes and molecular adducts of ...

  5. Selectivity in the interactions between positively charged small molecules and negatively charged biopolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elson-Schwab, Lev

    2006-01-01

    under 1 atmosphere of hydrogen. After 18 hours palladium waspalladium on carbon (0.05 g) in methanol (10 mL) was stirred under 1 atmosphere of hydrogenHydrogen gas was bubbled through a solution of (57) (180 mg, 76 µmol) and palladium

  6. A phosphoproteomics approach towards identifying signaling pathway modulators induced by small molecules :

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Frederick Buin-sing

    2011-01-01

    Language (HTML) used to store and format Internet web pagesuses a web browser to visit the applet HTML page and acceptsoutputs HTML, which can then be displayed on a web page via

  7. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01

    information in hand, thin film solar cells (glass/ITO/PEDOT:in the zoom-in. Thin film solar cells (glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/thin film absorbance, are 1.50 eV for both polymers, close to the ideal value for a single layer solar cell.

  8. Improving Blood Brain Barrier Permeation of Small Molecules Exhibiting Chemotherapeutic and Neuroprotective Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desino, Kelly Elizabeth

    2008-05-06

    . Somerville, NJ) was used for the permeability studies described in the following chapters. This set up consists of two glass chambers surrounded by thermal jackets which are maintained by a circulating water bath. BBMECs are grown on polycarbonate... Figure 1.1 Schematic of the Side-bi-Side? diffusion apparatus (Ho et al., 1999) Permeability studies are conducted by filling the donor (luminal) and receiver (abluminal) chambers with PBSA (phosphate buffered saline supplemented with CaCl2, MgSO4...

  9. Small Molecule Target Identification using Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability (DARTS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lomenick, Brett Eugene

    2013-01-01

    FIGURE 2.8: Resveratrol does not inhibitFIGURE 2.9: Resveratrol target analysis withFIGURE 2.10: Resveratrol target analysis with

  10. Small molecule activation using electropositive metal N-heterocyclic carbene complexes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Zoe Rose

    2011-06-27

    The versatility of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) is demonstrated by numerous practical applications in homogeneous transition metal catalysis, organocatalysis and materials science. There remains a paucity of electropositive ...

  11. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01

    Rizzardo, E. ; Thang, S. H. Polymer 2008, 49, 1079-1131. (b)V. L. ; Pezdirtz, G. F. Polymer Letters 1965, 3, 977-984. [efficiencies of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction OPVs

  12. Small Molecule Adsorption in Open-Site Metal-Organic Frameworks: A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment Top Scientific ImpactTechnologies |SiteSitesmr

  13. Development of chiral LC-MS methods for small molecules and their applications i

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street Lighting Host Site: City ofNovel COchiral LC-MS

  14. Mathematical modeling of the aptamers and its effect on small molecule

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter By Sarah Schlieder *8 Materials ScienceMathtransport

  15. Fast and Scalable Printing of Large Area Monolayer Nanoparticles for Nanotexturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    solar cells, fuel cells, light emitting diodes and other devices where ordered nanoscale texturing is critical for optimal performance. KEYWORDS Nanotexture, printing, roll-to-roll, light trapping

  16. Sensors and Controls Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review ORNL researchers are experimenting with additive roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques to develop low-cost wireless sensors....

  17. NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY -OFFICE OF RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT Limited Submission Funding Opportunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    and nanostructured materials, composites, coatings, and surfaces; geophysical, geochemical, and environmental integration, and testing of manufacturing concepts, including high-speed roll-to-roll fabrication processes

  18. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Secondary Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrode Coating Defect Analysis and Processing NDE for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries Roll-to-Roll...

  19. Innovative, lower cost sensors and controls yield better energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are experimenting with additive roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques to develop low-cost wireless sensors. ORNL's Pooran Joshi shows how the process enables electronics components...

  20. Electronics 2014, 3, 624-635; doi:10.3390/electronics3040624 electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Article Towards Realizing High-Throughput, Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing of Flexible Electronic Systems2R) tracker systems are utilized for large volume flexible electronic device manufacturing/min. Keywords: roll-to-roll; ink-jet printing; flexible electronics; alignment OPEN ACCESS #12;Electronics 2014

  1. Computational study of viscoelastic effects on liquid transfer during gravure printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    Liquid bridge Finite element a b s t r a c t High speed roll-to-roll coating and printing are important speed roll-to-roll coating or printing (patterned coating) method in a variety of prod- ucts including in coating continuous thin films. Despite its long standing use, gravure is still poorly understood

  2. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 6, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2013 3401115 Polymer-Based Hybrid-Integrated Photonic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    , cost-effective roll-to-roll fabrication of electronic and photonic sys- tems on flexible substrates has-board optical interconnects using microlens integrated 45 mir- ror couplers compatible with the roll-to-roll-temperature process and wet- coating process of large areas suitable for almost all kinds of substrates are key

  3. Ultraviolet imprinting and aligned ink-jet printing for multilayer patterning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    shows great potential in minimizing the fabrication complexity and roll-to-roll compatibility overcome these shortcomings and provide the potential for roll- to-roll patterning capabilities at both a layer, other material layers were still processed via spin coating, evaporation, etching, or lift

  4. P-128 / Y. Kurioz P-128: Orientation of a Reactive Mesogen on Photosensitive Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reznikov, Yuri

    polymer films by roll- to-roll technology. 1. Introduction Optical compensating birefringence films-films are coated on a polymer substrate and overall alignment of the optical axis in the film is determined alignment provided by the rubbing technique, this technology is difficult to apply for roll-to-roll

  5. CW1O.2.pdf CLEO:2013 Technical Digest OSA 2013 Printable EO-Polymer Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    methods, such as ink-jet printing or coating process, will enable the realization of a viable manufacturing technology. Such a roll-to-roll compatible process will not only enable high throughput manufacturing, but will also drive the cost of the system down considerably. In this work, a roll-to-roll

  6. This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. Download details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    of dimensional integrity of the nanofeatures, nearly defect free pattern transfer and exceptional mold recovering that terms and conditions apply. Large-area, continuous roll-to-roll nanoimprinting with PFPE composite molds.1088/0957-4484/24/50/505307 Large-area, continuous roll-to-roll nanoimprinting with PFPE composite molds Jacob John1,2, YuYing Tang1

  7. Rescue of Fragile X Syndrome phenotypes in Fmr1 KO mice by the small molecule PAK inhibitor FRAX486

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolan, Bridget M

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a diverse and complex family of disorders, and its prevalence is on the rise: 1 in 110 children have autism. There is no effective treatment for the symptoms which often include language and communication deficits, ...

  8. David Bartel investigates microRNAs, small molecules that play an active role in regulating the genomes of both

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabatini, David M.

    of energy and new ideas never stops, from the formal research retreat, to the faculty lunches of their training and are given the space and resources necessary to run their own labs and pursue independent.258.6851 (Public Affai

  9. Implementation of a High-Throughput Screen for Identifying Small Molecules to Activate the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE Pathway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Kai Connie; McDonald, Peter R.; Liu, Jie Jerry; Chaguturu, Rathnam; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-10-08

    of these genes. To identify Nrf2 activators for the treatment of oxidative/electrophilic stress-induced diseases, the present study developed a high-throughput assay to evaluate Nrf2 activation using AREc32 cells that contain a luciferase gene under the control...

  10. Discovery of Small Molecule Isozyme Non-specific Inhibitors of Mammalian Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbett, J.; Freeman-Cook, K; Elliott, R; Vajdos, F; Rajamohan, F; Kohls, D; Marr, E; Harwood Jr., H; Esler, W; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Screening Pfizer's compound library resulted in the identification of weak acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors, from which were obtained rACC1 CT-domain co-crystal structures. Utilizing HTS hits and structure-based drug discovery, a more rigid inhibitor was designed and led to the discovery of sub-micromolar, spirochromanone non-specific ACC inhibitors. Low nanomolar, non-specific ACC-isozyme inhibitors that exhibited good rat pharmacokinetics were obtained from this chemotype.

  11. Effect of Secondary Interactions on the Fundamental Properties of Small Molecule Models of the Diiron Hydrogenase Active Site 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singleton, Michael Lee

    2012-02-14

    (triphenylphosphine)iminium PTA 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane Fc Ferrocene Fc+ Ferrocenium CyD Cyclodextrin NHC N-Heterocyclic Carbene ix Complex III-1 (?-dmpdt)[Fe(CO)3]2 Complex III-2 (?-depdt)[Fe(CO)3]2 Complex III-3 (?-bepdt)[Fe(CO)3]2 Complex III-4 (?-dmpdt...)[Fe(CO)3][Fe(CO)2IMes] Complex III-5 (?-depdt)[Fe(CO)3][Fe(CO)2IMes] Complex III-6 (?-depdt)[Fe(CO)3][Fe(CO)2IMe] Complex III-7 (?-dmpdt)[Fe(CO)3][Fe(CO)2PPh3] Complex III-8 (?-depdt)[Fe(CO)3][Fe(CO)2PTA] Complex IV-1 (?-pdt)[Fe(CO)2PMe3][Fe(CO)2IMes...

  12. Application of protein and small-molecule microarrays to study stem cell differentiation, cancer growth, and personalized therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teng, Dayu

    2010-01-01

    advancement such as the human genome project has shed lightyears such as the human genome project has made it possible

  13. SMALL MOLECULE INHIBITORS OF THE SARS-COV NSP15 ENDORIBONUCLEASE, MECHANISM OF ACTION AND INSIGHT INTO CORONAVIRUS INFECTION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz Alcantara, Joanna M.

    2010-07-14

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) virus encodes several unusual RNA processing enzymes, including Nsp15, an endoribonuclease that preferentially cleaves 3? of uridylates through a Ribonuclease A-like mechanism. ...

  14. Lifting the Mask: Identification of New Small Molecule Inhibitors of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Group 2 Capsule Biogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goller, Carlos C.; Arshad, Mehreen; Noah, James W.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Evans, Carrie W.; Nebane, N. Miranda; Rasmussen, Lynn; Sosa, Melinda; Tower, Nichole A.; White, E. Lucile; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Porubsky, Patrick R.; Maki, Brooks E.; Rogers, Steven A.; Schoenen, Frank; Seed, Patrick C.

    2014-07-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs), with over 100 million UTIs occurring annually throughout the world. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among ...

  15. 1170 | VOL.11 NO.11 | NOVEMBER 2014 | nature methods small molecules facilitate rapid and synchronous iPsC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    and synchronous iPsC generation Ori Bar-Nur1­4,7, Justin Brumbaugh1­4,7, Cassandra Verheul1­4, Effie Apostolou1- inhibitor (aGi) facilitates more synchronous and rapid iPsC formation from several mouse cell types. a. The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)1­3 with defined transcription factors such as POU5F1

  16. Influence of gold-silica nanoparticles on the performance of small-molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    )-silica nanospheres and nanorods embedded in the active layer of small-mole- cule (SM) organic solar cell has been film organic solar cells include the cells with V-shaped (folded) geometry, incoupler at the front sur solar cells Xiaoyan Xu a , Aung Ko Ko Kyaw b , Bo Peng c , Qihua Xiong c , Hilmi Volkan Demir a,c,d , Ye

  17. Selective Killing of K-ras Mutant Cancer Cells by Novel Small Molecule Inducers of Oxidative Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Alice

    Activating K-RAS mutations are the most frequent oncogenic mutations in human cancer. Numerous downstream signaling pathways have been shown to be deregulated by oncogenic K-ras. However, to date there are still no effective ...

  18. Connecting gene expression data from connectivity map and in silico target predictions for small molecule mechanism-of-action analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravindranath, Aakash Chavan; Perualila-Tan, Nolen; Kasim, Adetayo; Drakakis, Georgios; Liggi, Sonia; Brewerton, Suzanne C.; Mason, Daniel; Bodkin, Michael J.; Evans, David A.; Bhagwat, Aditya; Talloen, Willem; Göhlmann, Hinrich W. H.; QSTAR Consortium; Shkedy, Ziv; Bender, Andreas

    2014-09-16

    cc es s A rti cl e. P ub lis he d on 1 6 Se pt em be r 2 01 4. D ow nl oa de d on 1 4/ 04 /2 01 5 11 :1 4: 46 . Th is ar tic le is li ce ns ed u nd er a C re at iv e Co m m on s A ttr ib ut io n 3. 0 U np or te d Li ce nc e. View... . This method establishes the link between the compound and protein targets, further linking it to the MoA. Paper Molecular BioSystems O pe n A cc es s A rti cl e. P ub lis he d on 1 6 Se pt em be r 2 01 4. D ow nl oa de d on 1 4/ 04 /2 01 5 11 :1 4: 46...

  19. Lifting the Mask: Identification of New Small Molecule Inhibitors of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Group 2 Capsule Biogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goller, Carlos C.; Arshad, Mehreen; Noah, James W.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Evans, Carrie W.; Nebane, N. Miranda; Rasmussen, Lynn; Sosa, Melinda; Tower, Nichole A.; White, E. Lucile; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Porubsky, Patrick R.; Maki, Brooks E.; Rogers, Steven A.; Schoenen, Frank; Seed, Patrick C.

    2014-07-01

    effort entailing 338,740 compounds was conducted in a cell-based, phenotypic screen for inhibition of capsule biogenesis in UPEC. The primary and concentration-response assays yielded 29 putative inhibitors of capsule biogenesis, of which 6 were selected...

  20. Control of structure and reactivity by ligand design : applications to small molecule activation by low-valent uranium complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Oanh Phi

    2010-01-01

    Coordination Chemistry of Uranium………………………………….11 1.4researchers from uranium chemistry. Fortunately, despiteclassical coordination chemistry of uranium has flourished

  1. Dual Binding of an Antibody and a Small Molecule Increases the Stability of TERRA G-Quadruplex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yangyuoru, Philip M.; Di Antonio, Marco; Ghimire, Chiran; Biffi, Giulia; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Mao, Hanbin

    2014-11-24

    stream_source_info Yangyuoru_et_al-2015-Angewandte_Chemie_International_Edition.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 19110 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Yangyuoru_et_al-2015-Angewandte_Chemie... . Solid curves represent fitting from a two-state model (see the Supporting Information). Angewandte Chemie 911Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 910 –913 ? 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim www.angewandte.org GQ...

  2. Structure-Guided Design and Synthesis of Small Molecules Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site RNA /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Kejia

    2014-01-01

    carboxylate (80a).296 2-Amino-nitro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylate (80a) 1 H (400MHz, CDClnitro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylate (80a) 13 C (400MHz, CDCl

  3. Identification and design of small molecules that associate with aggregated Alzheimer's-related beta-amyloid peptides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bautista, Mahealani Roberts

    2009-01-01

    Naringenin Quercetin Resveratrol Rutin Scyllo-inositolµM 10mM Concentration of Resveratrol OH HO OH Inhibition (%)

  4. Catalytic site inhibition of insulin-degrading enzyme by a small molecule induces glucose intolerance in mice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deprez-Poulain, Rebecca; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Bosc, Damien; Liang, Wenguang G.; Enée, Emmanuelle; Marechal, Xavier; Charton, Julie; Totobenazara, Jane; Berte, Gonzague; Jahklal, Jouda; et al

    2015-09-23

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a protease that cleaves insulin and other bioactive peptides such as amyloid-?. Knockout and genetic studies have linked IDE to Alzheimer’s disease and type-2 diabetes. As the major insulin-degrading protease, IDE is a candidate drug target in diabetes. Here we have used kinetic target-guided synthesis to design the first catalytic site inhibitor of IDE suitable for in vivo studies (BDM44768). Crystallographic and small angle X-ray scattering analyses show that it locks IDE in a closed conformation. Among a panel of metalloproteases, BDM44768 selectively inhibits IDE. Acute treatment of mice with BDM44768 increases insulin signalling and surprisinglymore »impairs glucose tolerance in an IDE-dependent manner. These results confirm that IDE is involved in pathways that modulate short-term glucose homeostasis, but casts doubt on the general usefulness of the inhibition of IDE catalytic activity to treat diabetes.« less

  5. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    S. Guha, High-Efficiency Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells with a TiNfurther improvement on CZTS solar cells efficiency. Finally,Route to High-Efficiency CZTSSe Thin-film Solar Cells, Proc.

  6. Characterization of Solution-Processed Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ounaies, Zoubeida

    it is conductive, was calculated to be 1.0 wt.-% for the MWNTs. Ounaies Full Paper Dispersion of CNTs in polymers) Nanocomposites Atheer Almasri, Zoubeida Ounaies,* Yeon Seok Kim, Jaime Grunlan Introduction Carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composites are of great interest due to the unusual combination of CNT properties with apparently paradoxical

  7. Solution-processed amorphous silicon surface passivation layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mews, Mathias Sontheimer, Tobias; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd; Mader, Christoph; Traut, Stephan; Wunnicke, Odo

    2014-09-22

    Amorphous silicon thin films, fabricated by thermal conversion of neopentasilane, were used to passivate crystalline silicon surfaces. The conversion is investigated using X-ray and constant-final-state-yield photoelectron spectroscopy, and minority charge carrier lifetime spectroscopy. Liquid processed amorphous silicon exhibits high Urbach energies from 90 to 120?meV and 200?meV lower optical band gaps than material prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Applying a hydrogen plasma treatment, a minority charge carrier lifetime of 1.37?ms at an injection level of 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3} enabling an implied open circuit voltage of 724?mV was achieved, demonstrating excellent silicon surface passivation.

  8. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    Energy Materials and Solar Cells (2012), doi:10.1016/j.Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2012, [4-4] Q. Guo,Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2011, 95, 1421–1436. [4-18

  9. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 Solar Cells,” Advanced Energy Materials,processed CuInSxSe2?x solar cells and its effect on defectEnergy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 2384–

  10. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    a renewable, sustainable, and clean energy future whilerenewable energy sources capable of powering a sustainable future.

  11. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    future global energy production. Solar electricity represents a direction of great potential toward a renewable,

  12. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    B. To, R. Noufi, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research andGokmen, D. B. Mitzi, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research andR. Noufi, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and

  13. Sensitive Solution-Processed Bi2S3 Nanocrystalline Photodetectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    , photodetectors and photovoltaics based on spin-coated nanoparticle films have shown tremendous progress for monolithic low-cost large-scale integration with CMOS electronics. In addition, progress in organic architectures.5 Recently, progress has been reported in light-emitting diodes,6-8 photodetectors,9-11 and solar

  14. High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Polymer solar cells have shown potential to harness solar energy in a cost-effective way. Significant as a promising cost-effective alternative to silicon-based solar cells1­3 . Some of the important advantages of these so-called `plastic' solar cells include low cost of fabrication, ease of processing, mechanical

  15. Solution-processed photovoltaics with advanced characterization and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Hsin-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    at the 37th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference (D. B. Mitzi, Prog. Photovoltaics 2011, 20, 6. [23] S. Bag,R. Noufi, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2012, T. Todorov, J. Tang,

  16. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    3-6,3-7] Chalcopyrite CIGS solar cells, without introducingperformance CISS and CIGS solar cells with efficiencies uptellurium might impede CIGS/CdTe solar cells from reaching

  17. Solution-processed photovoltaics with advanced characterization and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Hsin-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    J. Mann, W. -C. Hsu, A. Goodrich, and R. Noufi, Solar EnergyMaterials and Solar Cells 101, 154–159 (2012). [4] V. ChawlaHillhouse, and R. Agrawal, Solar Energy Materials and Solar

  18. Solution Processed Silver Sulfide Thin Films for Filament Memory Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Shong

    2010-01-01

    Film for Flexible Electronics. ” [Online]. Available:Conductors for Flexible Electronics,” Journal of Theelectronics. This field targets novel low-cost, large device area applications such as flexible

  19. Solution Processed Silver Sulfide Thin Films for Filament Memory Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Shong

    2010-01-01

    produces a dense adherent oxide layer. Although this studiedtransport across a growing oxide layer and reaction at thetransport across a thin oxide layer. The thickness is

  20. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    properties,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol.G. Dhere, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2006 , 90,devices, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells (2012), doi:

  1. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2006 , 90, 2181–Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 8, pp.Energy Materials and Solar Cells (2012), doi:10.1016/j.

  2. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    D. B. Mitzi, Energy & Environmental Science 2012, 5, 7060. [D. B. Mitzi, Energy & Environmental Science 2012, 5, 7060. [precursor inks,” Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 5, no.

  3. Solution-processed photovoltaics with advanced characterization and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Hsin-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    D.B. Mitzi, Energy & Environmental Science 2012, 5, 7060.controllability”, Energy and Environmental Science, 2014, 7,photovoltaics”, Energy and Environmental Science, 2013, 6,

  4. Solution Processed Silver Sulfide Thin Films for Filament Memory Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Shong

    2010-01-01

    Electric field-induced filament formation in As---Te---GeBerry, “Growth of Silver Filaments and Dendrites,” Journalstructure, and study of the filament formation in a cationic

  5. Solution Processed Silver Sulfide Thin Films for Filament Memory Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Shong

    2010-01-01

    vibrational enthalpy. N A is avogadro’s number. Equation 2-of Species, N A is Avogadro’s number Adding the electricare divided by N A , avogadro’ s number to relate to the

  6. Solution Processed Silver Sulfide Thin Films for Filament Memory Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Shong

    2010-01-01

    programmable solid-electrolyte nanometer switch,” Solid-Effects in Heterogeneous Solid Electrolytes,” Journal of Thesilver microwires on a solid electrolyte surface,” Applied

  7. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    to High-Efficiency CZTSSe Thin-film Solar Cells, Proc. IEEEMetal chalcogenide-based thin film solar cells are currentlyof metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells A dissertation

  8. Functional Polymer Architectures for Solution Processed Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Daniel Andrew

    2010-01-01

    developing new OLED displays and lighting devices withOLED technology has reached a point where highly efficient thin film devices which rival other lighting

  9. Horizontal molecular orientation in solution-processed organic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (JournalArchitectures. (Journal

  10. In-situ characterization of colloidal soft solution processes. (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers(Journal Article)CurvesAnodicthree-nucleonReport) | SciTech

  11. In-situ characterization of colloidal soft solution processes. (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers(Journal Article)CurvesAnodicthree-nucleonReport) |

  12. The challenges of organic polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saif Addin, Burhan K. (Burhan Khalid)

    2011-01-01

    The technical and commercial prospects of polymer solar cells were evaluated. Polymer solar cells are an attractive approach to fabricate and deploy roll-to-roll processed solar cells that are reasonably efficient (total ...

  13. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01

    of CIGS solar cells . Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . .roll-to-roll printed CIGS solar cell on aluminum substrateDepth profiling of CIGS solar cell using a nanosecond Nd:YAG

  14. Utilizing Bacteria for Sustainable Manufacturing of Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Sustainable Manufacturing of Low-Cost Nanoparticles Chad Duty, Ph.D. Technical Lead Additive Manufacturing Roll-to-Roll Processing June 26, 2012 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for...

  15. CX-009536: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In-situ Roll-to-Roll Printing of Highly Efficient Organic Solar Cells CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 11/21/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  16. Improved Efficiency of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaics by Pulsed Laser Sintering of Silver Nanowire Network Transparent Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    in the laboratory atmosphere via spray coating, spin coating, or drop casting whereas ITO is typically sputtered onto a substrate in a high vacuum process.3,4 This makes silver nanowires amenable to "roll-to-roll

  17. February 14, 2013 Koto Electric Ltd., Co.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    , Paints, Adhesive materials, Resin coating etc. #12;UV (Ultra Violet) Surface Treatment System #12 to 200"200"700(mm) #12;#12;Roll-to-Roll UV Surface Treatment System !Specification Effective irradiation

  18. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an OPV solution onto a spinning substrate to spread the solution into a thin film (spin coating). In commercial roll-to-roll printing, the OPV "ink" is deposited through a slot...

  19. NA ET AL. VOL. 9 ' NO. 2 ' 13251335 ' 2015 www.acsnano.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Rui

    development; removing graphene from its seed copper foil, which is an attractive substrate for roll-to-roll. This has been achieved by bonding silicon backing layers to both sides of the graphene-coated copper foil

  20. Flexographically Printed Rechargeable Zinc-based Battery for Grid Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zuoqian

    2013-01-01

    In roll-to-roll equipment, slot- die coating stations orroll processed polymer solar cells free from indium- tin-oxide and vacuum coatingroll processed polymer solar cell modules: methods and manufacture using flexographic printing, slot-die coating

  1. Electrical Engineering Department Los Angeles, California 90095-1594

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Francis F.

    , inexpensive helicon arrays can cover large substrates with uniform plasma for roll-to-roll processing coatings. It has been shown4 that helicon sources can produce an interesting amount of thrust

  2. Electrolessly Deposited Electrospun Metal Nanowire Transparent Po-Chun Hsu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    temperature and pressure, which opens new opportunities for flexible electronics and roll-to-roll large by post-treatments such as thermal annealing,6d wet chemical coating,8 nanoplasmonic welding,9

  3. Influence of Nonadiabatic Annealing on the Morphology and Molecular Structure of PEDOT-PSS Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the possibility of using flexible substrates,4 roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques,5 and more. However (AFM). A PEDOT-PSS aqueous dispersion from Sigma-Aldrich was spin coated onto a precleaned silicon

  4. Highly Conductive and Porous Activated Reduced Graphene Oxide Films for High-Power Supercapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with existing industrial level KOH activation processes and roll-to-roll thin-film fabrication technologies are of great interest. Electronic and wearable devices, optical coatings, mem- brane filtration, energy storage

  5. Performance of a permanent-magnet helicon source at 27 and 13 MHz Francis F. Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Francis F.

    plasma for roll-to-roll process- ing. In the present work, one of the helicon sources in the array for other applications such as spacecraft thrusters or optical coatings. It has been shown4 that helicon

  6. EERE QC Workshop: Overview of Relevant Processes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ECS PRiME 2012, October, 2012. 4 Line Types * Continuous sheet o Roll-to-roll o Float o Belt Used with permission, Ballard Power Systems NREL Image Gallery 08527 Used with...

  7. Core-Shell Nanopillar Array Solar Cells using Cadmium Sulfide Coating on Indium Phosphide Nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Bor-An Clayton

    2013-01-01

    using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over- edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing,” Solar Energy Materials andCells using Cadmium Sulfide Coating on Indium Phosphide

  8. R2R Breakout Session

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Renewable Energy Screen-Printed Patterns on Ultra-Thin Flex-Glass Roll to Roll Graphene MCC, YSZ, Spinel Other polymer materials: Polyester (Mylar(tm)) , Polyethylene (PE),...

  9. Published: April 12, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 2285 dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm1036869 |Chem. Mater. 2011, 23, 22852288

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as active materials in field-effect transistors and organic solar cells.1 Recent examples include DPP) in solution-processed ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs)1a and DPP-based "transistor paint work, DPP-based small molecules are also yielding promising results for organic photovoltaics.1i

  10. The Biochemical Investigation and Isolation of Small Molecule Inhibitors for Two Essential Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: IspD and Wag31 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Sonia

    2014-06-12

    Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death due to infectious disease. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a facultative intracellular parasite with a slow regeneration rate. Though there is a decline ...

  11. Synthesis and Exploratory Catalysis of 3d Metals: Group-Transfer Reactions, and the Activation and Functionalization of Small Molecules Including Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mindiola, Daniel J.

    2014-05-07

    Our work over the past three years has resulted in the development of electron rich and low-coordinate vanadium fragments, molecular nitrides of vanadium and parent imide systems of titanium, and the synthesis of phosphorus containing molecules of the 3d transition metal series. Likewise, with financial support from BES Division in DOE (DE-FG02-07ER15893), we now completed the full characterization of the first single molecular magnet (SMM) of Fe(III). We demonstrated that this monomeric form of Fe(III) has an unusual slow relaxation of the magnetization under zero applied field. To make matters more interesting, this system also undergoes a rare example of an intermediate to high-spin transition (an S = 3/2 to S = 5/2 transition). In 2010 we reported the synthesis of the first neutral and low-coordinate vanadium complexes having the terminal nitride functionality. We have now completed a full study to understand formation of the nitride ligand from the metastable azide precursor, and have also explored the reactivity of the nitride ligand in the context of incomplete and complete N-atom transfer. During the 2010-2013 period we also discovered a facile approach to assemble low-coordinate and low-valent vanadium(II) complexes and exploit their multielectron chemistry ranging from 1-3 electrons. Consequently, we can now access 3d ligand frameworks such as cyclo-P3 (and its corresponding radical anion), nitride radical anions and cations, low-coordinate vanadium oxo’s, and the first example of a vanadium thionitrosyl complex. A cis-divacant iron(IV) imido having some ligand centered radical has been also discovered, and we are in the process of elucidating its electronic structure (in particular the sign of zero field splitting and the origin of its magnitude), bonding and reactivity. We have also revisited some paramagnetic and classic metallocene compounds with S >1/2 ground states in order to understand their reactivity patterns and electronic structure. Lastly, we are completing the synthesis and characterization of a titanium nitride anion and formation of the first example of boryl and aluminyl imido titanium complexes.

  12. Neutral and Cationic Vanadium Bisimido Complexes: Their Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in the Binding, Activation, and Catalytic Functionalization of Small Molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Pierre, Henry Storms

    2011-01-01

    John Arnold, Robert G. Bergman, and F. Dean Toste J. Am.S. La Pierre, Robert G. Bergman, F. Dean Toste, and JohnProfs. John Arnold, Robert G. Bergman, and F. Dean Toste •

  13. The chemistry of transition metal complexes related to solar energy storage : H? production and small molecule (CO? and HX; X = Cl, Br) chemistry.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Changhoon, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    The studies in this thesis have focused on the chemistry of transition metal complexes related to solar energy storage: electrochemical H? production, HX splitting and CO? activation mediated by transition metal complexes. ...

  14. The Toxoplasma dense granule proteins GRA17 and GRA23 mediate the movement of small molecules between the host and the parasitophorous vacuole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Daniel A. Gold, 1 Aaron D. Kaplan, 2,3 Agnieszka Lis, 2,3Daniel A. Gold, Aaron D. Kaplan, , Randall L. Rasmusson,

  15. The Toxoplasma dense granule proteins GRA17 and GRA23 mediate the movement of small molecules between the host and the parasitophorous vacuole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    PLoS ONE 9, e100450. Speer, C.A. , Tilley, M. , Temple,a role in this process (Speer et al. , 1995). The PV1 has a

  16. The development of a chemical biology pipeline for the identification of small molecules that induce cardiopoiesis in murine embryonic stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushway, Paul Jay

    2012-01-01

    natural products derived from complex mixtures usually obtained through homogenization and solvent extraction

  17. Description and procedures for synchrotron radiation, small molecule, single crystal crystallography of plutonium complexes at ALS beamline 11.3.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorden, A.E.V.; Raymond, K.N.; Shuh, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Crystallography of Plutonium Complexes at ALS Beamlineof the Structural Parameters of Plutonium Complexes by Smallpreparation and growth of the plutonium complexes (crystals)

  18. 1. MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY OF A SMALL MOLECULE DRUG LEAD: TAMOXILOG. 2. ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION THROUGH RUTHENIUM NANOPARTICLES: SYNTHESIS OF CUSTOM LIGANDS AND NANOPARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuckerman, Nathaniel Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    for cis-1.11. Table 1.3 Atomic coordinates and equivalentfor cis-1.9. Table 1.10 Atomic coordinates and equivalentfor cis-1.13. Table 1.16 Atomic coordinates and equivalent

  19. Cytosolic Delivery of Proteins, Peptides and Cell-Impermeable Small Molecules Into Live Cells Utilizing Virus-Inspired Multivalent Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Principles and Mechanisms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erazo, Alfredo

    2014-12-16

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) facilitate the delivery of cell-impermeable macrmolecules across the plasma membrane of live cells. CPPs act as biological Trojan horses by hijacking and inducing endocytosis to enter cells, which leads to entrapment...

  20. Controlling multipotent stromal cell migration by integrating “course-graining” materials and “fine-tuning” small molecules via decision tree signal-response modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shan

    Biomimetic scaffolds have been proposed as a means to facilitate tissue regeneration by multi-potent stromal cells (MSCs). Effective scaffold colonization requires a control of multiple MSC responses including survival, ...

  1. Study of the N-terminal domains of MDM2 and MDM4, and their potential for targeting by small-molecule drugs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez Perez, Maria Concepcion

    2011-11-24

    The MDM2 and MDM4 oncoproteins are both involved in regulating the tumour suppressor, p53. While the MDM2–p53 interface is structurally and biophysically well characterised, the MDM4-p53 interaction has only recently ...

  2. The development of a chemical biology pipeline for the identification of small molecules that induce cardiopoiesis in murine embryonic stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushway, Paul Jay

    2012-01-01

    of a Chemical Biology Pipeline for the Identification ofof a Chemical Biology Pipeline for the Identification ofhinge on the drug development pipeline and the importance of

  3. Development of a Breast Cancer Stem Cell Model and the Inhibitory Regulation of Small Molecule Phytochemicals on Various Stages of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tin, Antony Shen

    2013-01-01

    stem   cells   in   breast   cancer   and   metastasis.  Breast  cancer  research  and  treatment  118(2):241-­?Birnbaum  D  (2009)  Breast  cancer  stem  cells:  tools  

  4. Solution-processed photodetectors from colloidal silicon nano/micro particle composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Lih Y.

    -inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310(5747), 462­465 (2005). 2. J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, "Schottky solar cells based. Arango, and V. Bulovic, "Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum- dot films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87

  5. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01

    of a CIGS film of 19.9% efficiency solar cells taken fromCIGS grains of 19.9% efficiency solar cells [5] and currentof a CIGS film of 19.9% efficiency solar cells taken from

  6. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01

    Printing and Low Temperature Laser Processing”, Sensor andCo. , Inc B Bäuerle, D. , Laser Processing and Chemistry (Conductor Microstructures by Laser Curing of Printed Gold

  7. Self-Assembly, Molecular Ordering, and Charge Mobility in Solution-Processed Ultrathin Oligothiophene Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy,A.; Chang, P.; VanDyke, P.; Liu, J.; Frechet, J.; Subramanian, V.; Delongchamp, D.; Sambasivan, S.; Fischer, D.; Lin, E.

    2005-01-01

    Symmetrical {alpha}, {omega}-substituted quarter-(T4), penta-(T5), sexi-(T6), and heptathiophene (T7) oligomers containing thermally removable aliphatic ester solubilizing groups were synthesized, and their UV-vis and thermal characteristics were compared. Spun-cast thin films of each oligomer were examined with atomic force microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to evaluate the ability of the material to self-assemble from a solution-based process while maintaining complete surface coverage. Films of the T5-T7 oligomers self-assemble into crystalline terraces after thermal annealing with higher temperatures required to affect this transformation as the size of the oligomers increases. A symmetrical {alpha}, {omega}-substituted sexithiophene (T6-acid) that reveals carboxylic acids after thermolysis was also prepared to evaluate the effect of the presence of hydrogen-bonding moieties. The charge transport properties for these materials evaluated in top-contact thin film transistor devices were found to correlate with the observed morphology of the films. Therefore, the T4 and the T6-acid performed poorly because of incomplete surface coverage after thermolysis, while T5-T7 exhibited much higher performance as a result of molecular ordering. Increases in charge mobility correlated to increasing conjugation length with measured mobilities ranging from 0.02 to 0.06 cm2/(V{center_dot}s). The highest mobilities were measured when films of each oligomer had an average thickness between one and two monolayers, indicating that the molecules become exceptionally well-ordered during the thermolysis process. This unprecedented ordering of the solution-cast molecules results in efficient charge mobility rarely seen in such ultrathin films.

  8. Solution-Processed Carbon Nanotube and Chemically Synthesized Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Patrick B.

    2014-01-01

    as well interesting spintronic behavior 42 . Spin- dependentperformance, nanoelectronic, spintronic, and optoelectronicoptoelectronic and spintronic studies, optical fluorescence

  9. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01

    Electronics and Photovoltaics by Heng Pan A dissertationcost Electronics and Photovoltaics Copyright © 2009 By HengLow-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics by Heng Pan Doctor of

  10. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01

    cm 2 ) efficiency CIGS solar cells taken from reference [and 20.3% efficiency CIGS solar cells [6] through the use ofcm 2 ) efficiency CIGS solar cells taken from reference [6].

  11. High-Performance Solution-Processed Amorphous-Oxide-Semiconductor TFTs with Organic Polymeric Gate Dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pecunia, Vincenzo; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2015-01-13

    are shown in Table 1: CYTOP™, an amorphous fluoropolymer of the PTFE family; poly(?-methylstyrene) (P?MS), a hydrophobic polymer with a phenyl functionality; poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN), a copolymer with nitrile functionality; poly(bisphenol A...

  12. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01

    etc. Fig. 1. 1 Flexible electronics and flexible solarFig. 3.3 Fig. 3.4 Flexible electronics and flexible solarEnergy Harvesting Devices Flexible electronics refers to the

  13. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01

    and for emerging flexible electronics. Calculations predictto flexible solar cells, displays, and other electronics

  14. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01

    Fig. 1. 1 Flexible electronics and flexible solar cells. Inof metal oxide based electronics on heat sensitive flexibleNanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics by

  15. Strong photocurrent from 2D excitons in solution-processed stacked perovskite semiconductor sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Shahab; Kanaujia, Pawan Kumar; Beeson, Harry J.; Abate, Antonio; Deschler, Felix; Credgington, Dan; Steiner, Ullrich; Prakash, G. Vijaya; Baumberg, Jeremy

    2015-10-26

    Room-temperature photocurrent measurements in two-dimensional inorganic-organic perovskite devices reveal that excitons strongly contribute to the photocurrents despite possessing binding energies over ten times larger than thermal energies. The p...

  16. Anisotropic mobility in large grain size solution processed organic semiconductor thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sansoz, Frederic

    , University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA 2 School of Engineering and Materials Science Program, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA 3 Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky

  17. Solution-processed infrared photovoltaic devices with >10% monochromatic internal quantum efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    tandem or multijunction solar cells.6 These first solution-cast photovoltaics operating beyond 1 m, solution-cast photovoltaics are of urgent interest to realize low-cost solar cells. Polymer, polymer

  18. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01

    CuIn(Se,S) 2 thin film solar cells: secondary phaseChalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry,Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry,

  19. Solution-Processable Transparent Conductive Hole Injection Electrode for OLED SSL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-07-15

    An interconnected network of silver nanowires has been used as transparent anode in OLED devices. This layer was deposited by spin-coating and slot-die coating from an aqueous nanowire suspension. The sheet resistance of the film was 10ohms/sq with a transmission (including the glass substrate) of higher than 85%. The first phase of the project focused on the implementation of this nanowire layer with a hole-injection-layer (HIL) which has been developed at Plextronics and has been shown to provide good stability and efficiency in conventional OLED devices. We modified the HIL solution such that it coated reasonably well with suitable surface morphology so that actual devices can be manufactured. During the second phase we investigated the hole-injection and stability of hole-onlydevices. We determined that the use of the nanowire network as anode does not introduce an additional degradation mechanism since the observed device characteristics did not differ from those made with ITO anode. We then proceeded to make actual OLED devices with this nanowire / HIL stack and achieved device characteristics similar state-of-the-art OLED devices with a single junction. In order to gain traction with potential OLED manufacturers, we decided to contract Novaled to prepare large-area demonstrators for us. For these devices, we used an allevaporated stack, i.e. we did use Novaledâ??s HIL material instead of Plextronicsâ??. We successfully fabricated demonstrators with an area of 25cm2 with a double or triple junction stack. Minor stack optimizations were necessary to achieve efficacies and lifetime equivalent with ITO devices made with the same devices stack. Due to the reduced microcavity effect, the color of the emitted light is significantly more stable with respect to the viewing angle compared to ITO devices. This fact in conjunction with the promise of lower production cost due to the elimination of the ITO sputtering process and the direct patterning of the anode layer are the obvious advantages of this technology. The project has shown that this nanowire technology is a viable option to achieve OLED devices with good lifetime and efficiency and we are currently working with manufacturers to utilize this technology in a production setting.

  20. Enhancing performance characteristics of organic semiconducting films by improved solution processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazan, Guillermo C. (Santa Barbara, CA); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Moses, Daniel (Santa Barbara, CA); Peet, Jeffrey (Goleta, CA)

    2013-09-25

    Improved processing methods for enhanced properties of conjugated polymer films are disclosed, as well as the enhanced conjugated polymer films produced thereby. Addition of low molecular weight alkyl-containing molecules to solutions used to form conjugated polymer films leads to improved photoconductivity and improvements in other electronic properties. The enhanced conjugated polymer films can be used in a variety of electronic devices, such as solar cells and photodiodes.

  1. Enhancing performing characteristics of organic semiconducting films by improved solution processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazan, Guillermo C; Moses, Daniel; Peet, Jeffrey; Heeger, Alan J

    2014-05-13

    Improved processing methods for enhanced properties of conjugated polymer films are disclosed, as well as the enhanced conjugated polymer films produced thereby. Addition of low molecular weight alkyl-containing molecules to solutions used to form conjugated polymer films leads to improved photoconductivity and improvements in other electronic properties. The enhanced conjugated polymer films can be used in a variety of electronic devices, such as solar cells and photodiodes.

  2. Enhancing performance characteristics of organic semiconducting films by improved solution processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazan, Guillermo C; Mikhailovsky, Alexander; Moses, Daniel; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Peet, Jeffrey; Soci, Cesare

    2012-11-27

    Improved processing methods for enhanced properties of conjugated polymer films are disclosed, as well as the enhanced conjugated polymer films produced thereby. Addition of low molecular weight alkyl-containing molecules to solutions used to form conjugated polymer films leads to improved photoconductivity and improvements in other electronic properties. The enhanced conjugated polymer films can be used in a variety of electronic devices, such as solar cells and photodiodes.

  3. Oxidation-resistant, solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x}

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to(Conference) |of lithium-ion cells (Journal Article) |(x

  4. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 1351wileyonlinelibrary.com www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    , in order to take full advantage of the cost reductions of organic solar cells from roll- to-roll printing, Dr. A. M. Nardes, N. Kopidakis National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Blvd, Golden, CO 80401, USA 1. Introduction Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) offer the potential of providing energy

  5. IMPRINTED MICROFLUIDIC DEVICE FOR BIOIN-SPIRED DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUNZA VIRUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPRINTED MICROFLUIDIC DEVICE FOR BIOIN- SPIRED DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUNZA VIRUS USING NANOWIRES for the detection of avian influenza virus. A roll-to-roll im- printed microfluidic device suitable for simple process were integrated to the designed microfluidic chip (Figure 1). Using this system, we developed

  6. Novel Materials and Devices 1 Abstract --Recently, there has been a lot of interest in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    shows the simplified schematic of an organic excitonic solar cell and various aspects involved and high efficiency solar cells due to cost advantages of roll to roll printing. Traditionally, ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) or ZnO (Zinc Oxide) electrodes have been used as top contacts for solar cells because

  7. A National Resource for Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    additive Manufacturing ORNL is collaborating with equipment manufacturers and end users to advance state an unmatched environment for breakthroughs in additive manufacturing. Roll-to-Roll Processing developing lowA National Resource for Industry Manufacturing DeMonstration facility #12;As the nation's premier

  8. 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim COMMUNICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    through roll coating methods. The typical thickness for the battery elec- trode material is 50 µm electrodes tend to delaminate from the flat current collectors during the high-speed roll-to-roll coating the total energy stored in a battery, the cells are packed in rolls and stacks and then into modules before

  9. Liquid-Crystal Photoalignment by Super Thin Azo Dye Layer Xihua LI, Vladimir M. KOZENKOV, Fion Sze-Yan YEUNG, Peizhi XU, Vladimir G. CHIGRINOV and Hoi-Sing KWOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    knitwear and uniform alignment by azo dye layer without spin coating and rubbing processes. The thickness, better adhesion on indium tin oxide (ITO) surface and compatibility with roll-to-roll process. [DOI: 10. On the other hand, the spin coating is needed in liquid crystal display (LCD) fabrication process to be sure

  10. Sains Malaysiana 37(3)(2008): 295-298 Reliability Issues of Bottom-Contact Pentacene Thin-Film Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    2008-01-01

    fabricating methods such as inkjet printing or roll-to-roll processing (Song et al. 2007). However, researches and high-k properties.After spin coating of an aqueous PVA solution mixed with ammonium dichromate photo-enhanced chemical vapor deposition(PECVD) SiO2 layer of 35 nm is deposited before the spin-coating of PVA

  11. Mechanics of rollable and foldable film-on-foil electronics Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Princeton Materials Institute,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    the foils are rolled to small radii of curvature. When a substrate with a lower elastic modulus is used to roll-to-roll fabrication. We show in this letter that such devices can be made particularly rugged. We deposition. First, the substrate foil was coated with a 0.5 m thick SiNx layer. An 100 nm thick Cr layer

  12. Click Here to Subscribe! Previous Page | Cover | Contents | Full Screen | Print | Search | Next Page Nanotech BriefsTM June 2006 Vol.3 / No.6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    / No.6 www.nanotechbriefs.com Making the Switch to Nanoparticle-Enhanced Coatings The EPA to Nanoparticle-Enhanced Coatings The EPA's Nanomaterial Extramural Research Program Inside the Center and roll-to-roll printable elec- tronic devices. Even in medium-impact sectors like automotive and food

  13. Weitere Kolloquiumstermine sind im WWW abrufbar. Fakultt II Informatik, Wirtschafts-und

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damm, Werner

    as well as roll-to-roll (R2R) coating on polymeric substrates, offering an attractive proposition and metal nanoparticles. I will then move to graphene based TCE fabrication by employing rod coating on a polymeric substrate. The TCE coating have ~900/ sheet resistance with 90

  14. Effect of viscoelasticity on liquid transfer during gravure printing Ashwin K. Sankaran, Jonathan P. Rothstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    the many existing web coating and printing techniques for large-scale fabrication such as slit, roll, dip]. The primary advantage of roll-to-roll processing that is large areas of coated/printed films can be processed March 2012 Keywords: Viscoelasticity Gravure printing Pickout process Extensional rheology Coating a b

  15. Thin, Flexible Secondary Li-Ion Paper Liangbing Hu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    can be paper- thin, flexible, lightweight and manufactured by a low cost, roll-to-roll printing for su- percapacitors.6 We recently demonstrated that paper coated with CNTs or silver nanowires can coating and peeling process. The double layer films were laminated onto commercial paper, and the paper

  16. 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim5742 www.advmat.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    , which together allow bandgap tuning over the full solar spectral range.[4] Among other third-generation to be developed, such as roll-to-roll processing. Advances in CQD photovoltaics have recently resulted in solar of nanoparticle surfaces in these liquids. By contrast, prior CQD photovoltaic device works have relied on steric

  17. EELS measurements of boron concentration profiles in p-a-Si and nip a-Si solar cells Bas B. Van Aken a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    populated, developed countries [1,2]. ECN is developing a concept for roll-to-roll production of high requirements. The layer is necessary to create the electric field that separates the photo-generated charge is necessary to create the electric field that separates the photo-generated charge carriers; the doping also

  18. Air-stable ink for scalable, high-throughput layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Benjamin D; Connor, Stephen T; Cui, Yi

    2014-02-11

    A method for producing and depositing air-stable, easily decomposable, vulcanized ink on any of a wide range of substrates is disclosed. The ink enables high-volume production of optoelectronic and/or electronic devices using scalable production methods, such as roll-to-roll transfer, fast rolling processes, and the like.

  19. Revealing invisible photonic inscriptions: Images from strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Tao; Cao, Guoshuai; Schäfer, Christian G.; Zhao, Qibin; Gallei, Markus; Smoukov, Stoyan K.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2015-06-03

    and releasing it. The unique advantages of this soft polymer opal system compared with other types of photonic gels are that it can be produced in roll to roll quantities, vigorously deformed to achieve strong color changes, and has no solvent evaporation issues...

  20. BORON CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS AT THE I/P INTERFACE IN NIP A-SI SOLAR CELLS B.B. Van Aken1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    , bulk plasmon energy using EELS 1 INTRODUCTION Roll-to-roll production of thin film Si solar cells has Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten, the Netherlands 2 Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich, Germany 4 CEA-Leti, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, FR-38054 Grenoble

  1. Nanopatterning Fabrication of a 60-nm-Diameter Perfectly Round

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    660%. This new technology can be scaled to much larger areas (including roll-to-roll web processing-diameter, perfectly round metal dots over a large area on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with high (HSQ) layer on top of PET, nanoimprint litho- graphy, and self-perfection by liquefaction (SPEL

  2. SOLAR CELLS FABRICATED WTH CuInS2 FILMS DEPOSITED USING SINGLE-SOURCE PRECURSORS Michael H. Jin1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    report a chalcopyrite thin film solar cell fabrication process established at NASA Glenn Research Center benefit of enabling roll-to-roll processing [3]. The first major thin film solar cell was the "CdS solar, however, remain below 15 % [8]. Several groups have attempted to fabricate thin film solar cells on metal

  3. This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. Download details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cincinnati, University of

    the global distribution of electronic products and their ever-decreasing life cycle, biodegradable electronics is a potential solution for the ecological problems caused by electronic wastes [2 transistor (OFET) arrays [5], roll-to-roll printed solar cells [6], chemical vapor deposited solar cells [7

  4. Design and Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers and Small Molecules Based on Thiophene-Substituted Isoindigo, 5-acetyl-4H- cyclopenta[c]thiophene-4,6(5H)-dione, and Diketopyrrolopyrrole Electron-Deficient Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard, Eric Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Tang,  C.  W.  Organic  solar  cell.  US  4,164,431,  record  for  organic  solar  technology  with  a  cell  23 Solar Cell Device Performance Results and

  5. A Small Molecule Agonist of an Integrin, L 2 Received for publication,July 19, 2006 Published, JBC Papers in Press,October 5, 2006, DOI 10.1074/jbc.M606888200

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Springer, Timothy A.

    that blocks its binding to the ligand ICAM-1 has been approved by the FDA for treatment of psoriasis, a T cell

  6. Thin Film Deposition of Conducting Polymers and Carbon Allotropes via Interfacial Solution Processing and Evaporative Vapor Phase Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Arcy, Julio Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    temperature and soda lime glass possesses the greatestNumber of peels (55 o C) Soda lime glass Borosilicate glasswas investigated using soda lime glass (i.e. a microscope

  7. Thin Film Deposition of Conducting Polymers and Carbon Allotropes via Interfacial Solution Processing and Evaporative Vapor Phase Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Arcy, Julio Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    changes the wetting properties of a plastic from hydrophobicchloride plastic slides. c. The optoelectronic properties ofchloride plastic slides. c. The optoelectronic properties of

  8. High Photoluminescence E?ciency and Optically Pumped Lasing in Solution-Processed Mixed Halide Perovskite Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deschler, Felix; Price, Michael; Pathak, Sandeep; Klintberg, Lina E.; Jarausch, David-Dominik; Higler, Ruben; Hu?ttner, Sven; Leijtens, Tomas; Stranks, Samuel D.; Snaith, Henry J.; Atatu?re, Mete; Phillips, Richard T.; Friend, Richard H.

    2014-03-24

    The study of the photo-physical properties of organic-metallic lead-halide perovskites, which demonstrate excellent photovoltaic performance in devices with electron- and hole-accepting layers, helps to understand their charge photo...

  9. nature materials | ADVANCE ONLINE PUBLICATION | www.nature.com/naturematerials 1 Solution-processed PbS quantum dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    (>1,900 nm), and solar cells (800­2,000 nm). Photoconductive polymer devices have yet to demonstrate efficiency of 10­5 at 5 V bias that necessitated the use of modulated illumination and a lock-in amplifier­2,000 nm spectral region. The selection of the semiconducting po

  10. 138 nature materials | VOL 4 | FEBRUARY 2005 | www.nature.com/naturematerials Solution-processed PbS quantum dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    (>1,900 nm), and solar cells (800­2,000 nm). Photoconductive polymer devices have yet to demonstrate efficiency of 10­5 at 5 V bias that necessitated the use of modulated illumination and a lock-in amplifier­2,000 nm spectral region. The selection of the semiconducting poly

  11. Electronic Structure of Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Amorphous Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Thin-Film Transistor Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Socratous, Josephine; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Vaynzof, Yana; Sadhanala, Aditya; Brown, Adam D.; Sepe, Alessandro; Steiner, Ullrich; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2015-02-18

    of vehicles or build- ings. [ 3 ] Most of the research so far, has focused on oxides deposited via low- temperature sputtering techniques and a wide range of ternary and quaternary elemental compositions has been explored with InGaZnO (IGZO) being one... annealing temperature. Figure S5 (Supporting Information) shows corroborating electrical data for the quaternary oxide IGZO for different gallium doping. The presence of gallium is known to suppress oxygen vacan- cies due to its strong bond with oxygen...

  12. Thin Film Deposition of Conducting Polymers and Carbon Allotropes via Interfacial Solution Processing and Evaporative Vapor Phase Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Arcy, Julio Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    K. ; Shimidzu, T. Thin Solid Films 1989, 179, Matharu, Z. ;V. ; Malhotra, B. D. Thin Solid Films 2011, 519, 1110- (27)H. ; Rubner, M. F. Thin Solid Films 1994, 244, 990-994. (28)

  13. Thin Film Deposition of Conducting Polymers and Carbon Allotropes via Interfacial Solution Processing and Evaporative Vapor Phase Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Arcy, Julio Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    produced by mixing water, a heavy oil, and a dye. a. Tiltedproduced by mixing water, a heavy oil, and a dye. a. Tiltednanofibers, water and a heavy oil such as chloroform or

  14. Thin Film Deposition of Conducting Polymers and Carbon Allotropes via Interfacial Solution Processing and Evaporative Vapor Phase Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Arcy, Julio Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    that house three cartridge heaters and a thermocouple. d.that house three cartridge heaters and a thermocouple. d.the CVD chamber. A cartridge heater and a thermocouple are

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 90, 035208 (2014) Direct measurement of coherent phonon dynamics in solution-processed stibnite thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, Qihua

    2014-01-01

    on their solar energy conversion efficiency. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.035208 PACS number(s): 72.15.Jf, 63.20.kd system could be fur- ther improved [8]. Although device engineering and materials optimization of these lattice dynamics would shed light on the suitability of Sb2S3 as an absorber layer for solar energy

  16. Thin Film Deposition of Conducting Polymers and Carbon Allotropes via Interfacial Solution Processing and Evaporative Vapor Phase Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Arcy, Julio Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    adsorption, 19 drop-casting, 20,21 grafting, 22 slide-5 such as spin-coating, 6 dip-coating, drop-casting, 11 andtilt- drop casting. 7 These techniques, however, suffer from

  17. Thin Film Deposition of Conducting Polymers and Carbon Allotropes via Interfacial Solution Processing and Evaporative Vapor Phase Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Arcy, Julio Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    produced by mixing water, a heavy oil, and a dye. a. Tiltednanofibers, water and a heavy oil such as chloroform orproduced by mixing water, a heavy oil, and a dye. a. Tilted

  18. High-Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors with Dielectric and Active Layers Printed Sequentially by Ultrasonic Spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Ming [ORNL; Sanjib, Das [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Gu, Gong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    High-performance, flexible organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are reported with PVP dielectric and TIPS-PEN active layers sequentially deposited by ultrasonic spray-coating on plastic substrate. OFETs fabricated in ambient air with a bottom-gate/top-contact geometry are shown to achieve on/off ratios of >104 and mobilities as high as 0.35 cm2/Vs. These rival the characteristics of the best solution-processible small molecule FETs fabricated by other fabrication methods such as drop casting and ink-jet printing.

  19. Solution-processed ambipolar vertical organic field effect transistor Ariel J. Ben-Sasson, Zhihua Chen, Antonio Facchetti, and Nir Tessler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessler, Nir

    1 and as the logic element for low-end off-grid applications such as smart cards and radio frequency field effect transistors (OFETs) attract increasing interest for low-cost, flexible, large

  20. Solution-Processable Low-Molecular Weight Extended Arylacetylenes: Versatile p-Type Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors and Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, F.; Marrocchi, A.; Seri, M.; Kim, C,; Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Taticchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of five extended arylacetylenes, 9,10-bis-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-anthracene (A-P6t, 1), 9,10-bis-[(p-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy) phenyl]ethynyl}phenyl)ethynyl]-anthracene (PA-P6t, 2), 4,7-bis-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTZ-P6t, 5), 4,7-bis(5-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}thien-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (TBTZ-P6t, 6), and 7,7?-({[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,4?-ethynyl)-2,5-thiophene (BTZT-P6t, 7), and two arylvinylenes, 9,10-bis-{(E)-[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]vinyl}-anthracene (A-P6d, 3), 9,10-bis-[(E)-(p-{(E)-[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]vinyl}phenyl)vinyl]-anthracene (PA-P6d, 4). Trends in optical absorption spectra and electrochemical redox processes are first described. Next, the thin-film microstructures and morphologies of films deposited from solution under various conditions are investigated, and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and bulk heterojunction photovoltaic (OPV) cells fabricated. We find that substituting acetylenic for olefinic linkers on the molecular cores significantly enhances device performance. OFET measurements reveal that all seven of the semiconductors are FET-active and, depending on the backbone architecture, the arylacetylenes exhibit good p-type mobilities (? up to ?0.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}) when optimum film microstructural order is achieved. OPV cells using [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 1.3% under a simulated AM 1.5 solar irradiation of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. These results demonstrate that arylacetylenes are promising hole-transport materials for p-channel OFETs and promising donors for organic solar cells applications. A direct correlation between OFET arylacetylene hole mobility and OPV performance is identified and analyzed.

  1. Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly of CIGS Nanoparticles and Polymers for All-Solution Processable Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    -Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells Tung Ho1 , Robert Vittoe3 , Namratha Kakumanu2 , Sudhir Shrestha2-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN 46202 Thin film solar cells made from copper indium gallium thereby affecting solar cell efficiency. This research aims to study various polymer materials to replace

  2. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 14, NO. 4, JULY/AUGUST 2008 1223 Solution-Processed Infrared Optoelectronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    higher efficiencies are needed, multijunction solar cells consisting of a stacked series of visible importance to a significant number of applications (Fig. 2). In energy conversion, multijunction cells 2000s. Here, we review progress in IR so- lar cells, image sensors, and optical sources based

  3. Chemical Tools for Imaging Glycans in Living Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Small molecule ROS and RNS indicators Chemical reporter1–5 Small molecule fluorescent ROS/RNS sensors Figure 1–6sensors. Small molecule ROS and RNS indicators As discussed

  4. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiang, Joseph [General Electric (GE) Global Research, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  5. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ip, Alexander H.; Labelle, André J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2013-12-23

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells.

  6. 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimAdv. Mater. 2011, XX, 14 1 www.advmat.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , making MOFs promising materials for applications such as gas storage,[2] gas and small molecule sep

  7. Metalorganic frameworks Gas-Sorption Properties of Cobalt(II)Carborane-Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    catalysis,[3] gas storage,[4] separation processes,[5] ion exchange,[6] small- molecule detection,[7] drug

  8. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  9. New methods for the synthesis of biologically active phenanthridine-based libraries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donaldson, Lauren Rona

    2009-06-29

    Small molecule libraries have become essential for the development of drug discovery campaigns and chemical genetics. The studies towards the synthesis of a small molecule library, based upon the cis-ring fused phenanthridine ...

  10. WU ET AL. VOL. 5 ' NO. 10 ' 76967699 ' 2011 www.acsnano.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Weihong

    that can bind a wide range of biomedically rele- vant molecules, such as proteins, drugs, small molecules

  11. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, P. Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Martinez, J.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ?10{sup 7?}cm{sup ?2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300?cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  12. Monolithic amorphous silicon modules on continuous polymer substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimmer, D.P. (Iowa Thin Film Technologies, Inc., Ames, IA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This report examines manufacturing monolithic amorphous silicon modules on a continuous polymer substrate. Module production costs can be reduced by increasing module performance, expanding production, and improving and modifying production processes. Material costs can be reduced by developing processes that use a 1-mil polyimide substrate and multilayers of low-cost material for the front encapsulant. Research to speed up a-Si and ZnO deposition rates is needed to improve throughputs. To keep throughput rates compatible with depositions, multibeam fiber optic delivery systems for laser scribing can be used. However, mechanical scribing systems promise even higher throughputs. Tandem cells and production experience can increase device efficiency and stability. Two alternative manufacturing processes are described: (1) wet etching and sheet handling and (2) wet etching and roll-to-roll fabrication.

  13. Method for forming a nano-textured substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Cui, Yi

    2015-04-07

    A method for forming a nano-textured surface on a substrate is disclosed. An illustrative embodiment of the present invention comprises dispensing of a nanoparticle ink of nanoparticles and solvent onto the surface of a substrate, distributing the ink to form substantially uniform, liquid nascent layer of the ink, and enabling the solvent to evaporate from the nanoparticle ink thereby inducing the nanoparticles to assemble into an texture layer. Methods in accordance with the present invention enable rapid formation of large-area substrates having a nano-textured surface. Embodiments of the present invention are well suited for texturing substrates using high-speed, large scale, roll-to-roll coating equipment, such as that used in office product, film coating, and flexible packaging applications. Further, embodiments of the present invention are well suited for use with rigid or flexible substrates.

  14. Active barrier films of PET for solar cell application: Processing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossi, Gabriella; Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132 - 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    A preliminary investigation was carried out on the possibility to improve the protective action offered by the standard multilayer structures used to encapsulate photovoltaic devices. With this aim, a commercial active barrier PET-based material, able to absorb oxygen when activated by liquid water, was used to produce flexible and transparent active barrier films, by means of a lab-scale film production plant. The obtained film, tested in terms of thermal, optical and oxygen absorption properties, shows a slow oxygen absorption kinetics, an acceptable transparency and an easy roll-to-roll processability, so proving itself as a good candidate for the development of protective coating for solar cells against the atmospheric degradation agents like the rain.

  15. High mobility high efficiency organic films based on pure organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzman, Rhonda F. (Ann Arbor, MI); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2009-01-27

    A method of purifying small molecule organic material, performed as a series of operations beginning with a first sample of the organic small molecule material. The first step is to purify the organic small molecule material by thermal gradient sublimation. The second step is to test the purity of at least one sample from the purified organic small molecule material by spectroscopy. The third step is to repeat the first through third steps on the purified small molecule material if the spectroscopic testing reveals any peaks exceeding a threshold percentage of a magnitude of a characteristic peak of a target organic small molecule. The steps are performed at least twice. The threshold percentage is at most 10%. Preferably the threshold percentage is 5% and more preferably 2%. The threshold percentage may be selected based on the spectra of past samples that achieved target performance characteristics in finished devices.

  16. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    research on organic photovoltaic cells since small molecule10 years prior (4). Photovoltaic cells with an active layerof the associated photovoltaic cells. 2.4 Charge transport

  17. Peptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity of Functionalities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    materials that can be chemically tailored and built from the bottom up, through the self-assembly of small molecule, protein, or polymer building blocks. Polymer-based...

  18. Structure and allosteric regulation of the X 2 integrin I domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Springer, Timothy A.

    that of small G proteins, with seven amphipathic helices surrounding a hydro- phobic -sheet core (15). A Mg2 ion by small molecules th

  19. Spontaneous Formation of Biomimetic, Nanoporous Membrane Channels...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    of porins (protein-based biological channels), such as selective transport of protons, water, ions, and small molecules. The Impact The predictive design and creation of robust...

  20. Beyond iron: non-classical biological functions of bacterial siderophores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    Bacteria secrete small molecules known as siderophores to acquire iron from their surroundings. For over 60 years, investigations into the bioinorganic chemistry of these molecules, including fundamental coordination ...

  1. LANL >> GFP Website >> Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a protein are soluble Evaluate how a protein interacts with other proteins (protein-protein interaction) Reveal the effect of a small molecule on the protein's folding...

  2. Large-scale screening of hypothetical metalorganic frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of small molecules for gas storage1­6 , separ- ating mixtures7­12, catalysis13,14, analysis and detection15

  3. The eects of spermine and spermidine on the structure of photosystem II proteins in relation to inhibition of electron transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpentier, Robert

    ) conjugated with small molecules such as phenolic acids, and (c) bound to various macromolecules cycle, chlorophyll degradation, and the rate of photosynthetic oxygen evolution [6^10]. While

  4. Photon Science for Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussain, Zahid

    2010-01-01

    small molecules. Thin-film solar cells, widely consid- eredin a variety of thin-film solar-cell devices. The map,

  5. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    secondary metabolites from endophylrl' IIIlnuorganisllls found in association with hitherto unexploitcd, and biological activity of some selected small molecule metabolites. Keywords: endophytic fungi, small molecule compounds to enhance the growth and competitiveness of the host and to protect it from herbivores and plant

  6. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  7. USFOE: Extended Summary - Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    There is no one lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples at our disposal as shown in the previous talks, we have the opportunity to design battery cells specific for their applications. Such applications require optimization of voltage, state of charge utilization, lifetime needs, and safety considerations. Electrochemical couples allow for designing power and energy ratios and available energy for the application. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll to roll electrode manufacturing and active material utilization. Electrodes are coated on a current collector in a composite structure comprised of active material, binders, and conductive additives which requires careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. These added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can impede or enhance battery performance. Pathways are explored to bring batteries from currently commercially available 100Wh/kg and 200Wh/L at $500/kWh to 250Wh/kg and 400Wh/L at $125/kWh.

  8. Rapid low-temperature processing of metal-oxide thin film transistors with combined far ultraviolet and thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leppäniemi, J. Ojanperä, K.; Kololuoma, T.; Huttunen, O.-H.; Majumdar, H.; Alastalo, A.; Dahl, J.; Tuominen, M.; Laukkanen, P.

    2014-09-15

    We propose a combined far ultraviolet (FUV) and thermal annealing method of metal-nitrate-based precursor solutions that allows efficient conversion of the precursor to metal-oxide semiconductor (indium zinc oxide, IZO, and indium oxide, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) both at low-temperature and in short processing time. The combined annealing method enables a reduction of more than 100?°C in annealing temperature when compared to thermally annealed reference thin-film transistor (TFT) devices of similar performance. Amorphous IZO films annealed at 250?°C with FUV for 5?min yield enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of ?1?cm{sup 2}/(V·s). Amorphous In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films annealed for 15?min with FUV at temperatures of 180?°C and 200?°C yield TFTs with low-hysteresis and saturation mobility of 3.2?cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and 7.5?cm{sup 2}/(V·s), respectively. The precursor condensation process is clarified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Introducing the FUV irradiation at 160?nm expedites the condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation that results in the rapid formation of a continuous metal-oxygen-metal structure in the film. The results of this paper are relevant in order to upscale printed electronics fabrication to production-scale roll-to-roll environments.

  9. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  10. 14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rance, W. L.; Burst, J. M.; Reese, M. O.; Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Barnes, T. M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Meysing, D. M.; Wolden, C. A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Garner, S.; Cimo, P. [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    Flexible glass enables high-temperature, roll-to-roll processing of superstrate devices with higher photocurrents than flexible polymer foils because of its higher optical transmission. Using flexible glass in our high-temperature CdTe process, we achieved a certified record conversion efficiency of 14.05% for a flexible CdTe solar cell. Little has been reported on the flexibility of CdTe devices, so we investigated the effects of three different static bending conditions on device performance. We observed a consistent trend of increased short-circuit current and fill factor, whereas the open-circuit voltage consistently dropped. The quantum efficiency under the same static bend condition showed no change in the response. After storage in a flexed state for 24 h, there was very little change in device efficiency relative to its unflexed state. This indicates that flexible glass is a suitable replacement for rigid glass substrates, and that CdTe solar cells can tolerate bending without a decrease in device performance.

  11. Final Technical Report CONDUCTIVE COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS USING CARBON NANOTUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul J Glatkowski; Jorma Peltola; Christopher Weeks; Mike Trottier; David Britz

    2007-09-30

    US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a grant for Eikos Inc. to investigate the feasibility of developing and utilizing Transparent Conducting Coatings (TCCs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) for solar cell applications. Conventional solar cells today employ metal oxide based TCCs with both Electrical Resistivity (R) and Optical Transparency (T), commonly referred to as optoelectronic (RT) performance significantly higher than with those possible with CNT based TCCs available today. Transparent metal oxide based coatings are also inherently brittle requiring high temperature in vacuum processing and are thus expensive to manufacture. One such material is indium tin oxide (ITO). Global demand for indium has recently increased rapidly while supply has diminished causing substantial spikes in raw material cost and availability. In contrast, the raw material, carbon, needed for CNT fabrication is abundantly available. Transparent Conducting Coatings based on CNTs can overcome not only cost and availability constraints while also offering the ability to be applied by existing, low cost process technologies under ambient conditions. Processes thus can readily be designed both for rigid and flexible PV technology platforms based on mature spray or dip coatings for silicon based solar cells and continuous roll to roll coating processes for polymer solar applications.

  12. Oxygen Incorporation During Fabrication of Substrate CdTe Photovoltaic Devices: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duenow, J. N.; Dhere, R. G.; Kuciauskas, D.; Li, J. V.; Pankow, J. W.; DeHart, C. M.; Gessert, T. A.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices fabricated in the nonstandard substrate configuration have attracted increasing interest because of their potential compatibility with flexible substrates such as metal foils and polymer films. This compatibility could lead to the suitability of CdTe for roll-to-roll processing and building-integrated PV. Currently, however, the efficiencies of substrate CdTe devices reported in the literature are significantly lower ({approx}6%-8%) than those of high-performance superstrate devices ({approx}17%) because of significantly lower open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). In our recent device development efforts, we have found that processing parameters required to fabricate high-efficiency substrate CdTe PV devices differ from those necessary for traditional superstrate CdTe devices. Here, we investigate how oxygen incorporation in the CdTe deposition, CdCl2 heat treatment, CdS deposition, and post-deposition heat treatment affect device characteristics through their effects on the junction. By adjusting whether oxygen is incorporated during these processing steps, we have achieved Voc values greater than 860 mV and efficiencies greater than 10%.

  13. Airbrushed Nickel Nanoparticles for Large-Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarac, Mehmet; ANDERSON, BRYAN; Pearce, Ryan; Railsback, Justin; Oni, Adedapo; White, Ryan M.; Hensley, Dale K; Lebeau, James M; Melechko, Anatoli; Tracy, Joseph B

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) were grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using Ni nanoparticle (NP) catalysts that were deposited by airbrushing onto Si, Al, Cu, and Ti substrates. Airbrushing is a simple method for depositing catalyst NPs over large areas that is compatible with roll-to-roll processing. The distribution and morphology of VACNFs are affected by the airbrushing parameters and the composition of the metal foil. Highly concentrated Ni NPs in heptane give more uniform distributions than pentane and hexanes, resulting in more uniform coverage of VACNFs. For VACNF growth on metal foils, Si micropowder was added as a precursor for Si-enriched coatings formed in situ on the VACNFs that impart mechanical rigidity. Interactions between the catalyst NPs and the metal substrates impart control over the VACNF morphology. Growth of carbon nanostructures on Cu is particularly noteworthy because the miscibility of Ni with Cu poses challenges for VACNF growth, and carbon nanostructures anchored to Cu substrates are desired as anode materials for Li-ion batteries and for thermal interface materials.

  14. High-Efficiency Amorphous Silicon Alloy Based Solar Cells and Modules; Final Technical Progress Report, 30 May 2002--31 May 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S.; Yang, J.

    2005-10-01

    The principal objective of this R&D program is to expand, enhance, and accelerate knowledge and capabilities for development of high-efficiency hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and amorphous silicon-germanium alloy (a-SiGe:H) related thin-film multijunction solar cells and modules with low manufacturing cost and high reliability. Our strategy has been to use the spectrum-splitting triple-junction structure, a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H, to improve solar cell and module efficiency, stability, and throughput of production. The methodology used to achieve the objectives included: (1) explore the highest stable efficiency using the triple-junction structure deposited using RF glow discharge at a low rate, (2) fabricate the devices at a high deposition rate for high throughput and low cost, and (3) develop an optimized recipe using the R&D batch large-area reactor to help the design and optimization of the roll-to-roll production machines. For short-term goals, we have worked on the improvement of a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H alloy solar cells. a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H are the foundation of current a-Si:H based thin-film photovoltaic technology. Any improvement in cell efficiency, throughput, and cost reduction will immediately improve operation efficiency of our manufacturing plant, allowing us to further expand our production capacity.

  15. High-Performance Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells by Using a Combination of Ultrasonic Spray-Coating and Low Thermal Budget Photonic Curing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanjib, Das; Yang, Bin; Gu, Gong; Joshi, Pooran C; Ivanov, Ilia N; Rouleau, Christopher; Aytug, Tolga; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the commercialization of high-performance and robust perovskite solar cells urgently requires the development of economically scalable processing techniques. Here we report a high-throughput ultrasonic spray-coating (USC) process capable of fabricating perovskite film-based solar cells on glass substrates with power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 13.04%. Perovskite films with high uniformity, crystallinity, and surface coverage are obtained in a single step. Moreover, we report USC processing on TiOx/ITO-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates to realize flexible perovskite solar cells with PCE as high as 8.02% that are robust under mechanical stress. In this case, an optical curing technique was used to achieve a highly-conductive TiOx layer on flexible PET substrates for the first time. The high device performance and reliability obtained by this combination of USC processing with optical curing appears very promising for roll-to-roll manufacturing of high-efficiency, flexible perovskite solar cells.

  16. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells on curved and flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Illan J.; Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel; Minor, James C.; Kopilovic, Damir; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-10-20

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized with, processed in, and deposited from the solution phase, potentially enabling low-cost, facile manufacture of solar cells. Unfortunately, CQD solar cell reports, until now, have only explored batch-processing methods—such as spin-coating—that offer limited capacity for scaling. Spray-coating could offer a means of producing uniform colloidal quantum dot films that yield high-quality devices. Here, we explore the versatility of the spray-coating method by producing CQD solar cells in a variety of previously unexplored substrate arrangements. The potential transferability of the spray-coating method to a roll-to-roll manufacturing process was tested by spray-coating the CQD active layer onto six substrates mounted on a rapidly rotating drum, yielding devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 6.7%. We further tested the manufacturability of the process by endeavoring to spray onto flexible substrates, only to find that spraying while the substrate was flexed was crucial to achieving champion performance of 7.2% without compromise to open-circuit voltage. Having deposited onto a substrate with one axis of curvature, we then built our CQD solar cells onto a spherical lens substrate having two axes of curvature resulting in a 5% efficient device. These results show that CQDs deposited using our spraying method can be integrated to large-area manufacturing processes and can be used to make solar cells on unconventional shapes.

  17. Design and synthesis of organic chromophores for imaging, lithography and organic electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Trisha Lionel

    2011-01-01

    The absorption and emission maxima, photostabilities and photoreactivities of small-molecule organic chromophores can be tailored by (a) the choice of an appropriate parent structure and (b) the deliberate introduction of ...

  18. Frederic Laquai Seminar: Photocurrent Generation in Low-Bandgap...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frederic Laquai Seminar: Photocurrent Generation in Low-Bandgap Polymer and Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells Apr 18, 2014 | 3:30 PM - 4:30 PM Frederic Laquai Head, Max Planck...

  19. The reactivity and cation exchange of MOF-5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brozek, Carl Kavanaugh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate that the inorganic clusters within MOF-5 can be derivatized with redox-active cations for subsequent use in coordination chemistry and small-molecule activation. Rather than reproduce ...

  20. Synthesis and Physiochemical Characterization of Sulfenamide Prodrugs of Antimicrobial Oxazolidinones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nti-Addae, Kwame Wiredu

    2008-10-24

    stability characteristics may pose potential problems for future development of sulfenamide prodrugs as ready to use liquid formulations. The stability of the sulfenamide prodrugs was studied in the presence of small molecule thiols with varying thiol p...

  1. Development of a Multi-Step Synthesis and Workup Sequence for an Integrated, Continuous Manufacturing Process of a Pharmaceutical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heider, Patrick L.

    The development and operation of the synthesis and workup steps of a fully integrated, continuous manufacturing plant for synthesizing aliskiren, a small molecule pharmaceutical, are presented. The plant started with ...

  2. Late transition metal bimetallics for photocatalytic hydrogen production, M-X and C-H bond activation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esswein, Arthur J

    2007-01-01

    Broadly defined this thesis has focused on the design and study of molecular catalysts that engender multi-electron reactions and photoreactions on small molecule substrates relevant to solar energy conversion. Specifically ...

  3. Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Polysaccharide Depolymerase from Acinetobacter baumannii Bacteriophage AbauYa1 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migl, David 1990-

    2012-04-20

    are needed for the control of pathogenic bacteria, and the use of bacteriophages offers an appealing alternative to small-molecule antibiotics for controlling bacterial infections (3). Phage therapy is built on the premise that bacteriophages could...

  4. Equilibrium structures from gas-phase electron-diffraction data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCaffrey, Philip D

    2007-01-01

    For the past 75 years gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) has remained the most valuable technique for determining structures of small molecules, free from intermolecular interactions. Throughout this period many ...

  5. A macrocyclic approach to transition metal and uranyl Pacman complexes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Love J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Multielectron redox chemistry involving small molecules such as O-2, H2O, N-2, CO2, and CH4 is intrinsic to the chemical challenges surrounding sustainable, low-carbon energy generation and exploitation. Compounds with ...

  6. Research Scholarship, Collaboration, and Outreach at Northwestern University SPRING 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engman, David M.

    of the mustard gas introduced as chemical warfare during World War I. CMIDD medicinal chemist Gary Schiltz to discover novel small molecule therapeutics. #12;CenterPiece | Spring 2014 3 Like mustard gas, nitrogen

  7. Microfluidic Platform for Combinatorial Synthesis and Optimization of Targeted Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valencia, Pedro M.

    Taking a nanoparticle (NP) from discovery to clinical translation has been slow compared to small molecules, in part by the lack of systems that enable their precise engineering and rapid optimization. In this work we have ...

  8. Development of New Absorber Materials to Achieve Organic Photovoltaic Commercial Modules with 15% Efficiency and 20 Years Lifetime: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-498

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2014-08-01

    Under this CRADA the parties will develop intermediates or materials that can be employed as the active layer in dye sensitized solar cells printed polymer systems, or small molecule organic photovoltaics.

  9. Applications of nanoimprinted structures to organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Eletha J

    2013-01-01

    Small-molecule organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) have the potential to be a low-cost, flexible power conversion solution to many energy problems. These OPVs take advantage of an extremely thin active layer which enables ...

  10. BRANDI M. BAUGHMAN Current position: Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hergenrother, Paul J.

    and evaluating small molecules in model systems. (Read Finch's article, DOI: 10.1021/cb200506t) Published: March, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Re- search Advisor: Thomas R. Webb, St. Jude Children

  11. Nonstationary metabolic flux analysis (NMFA) for the elucidation of cellular physiology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walther, Jason L

    2010-01-01

    Many current and future applications of biological engineering hinge on our ability to measure, understand, and manipulate metabolism. Many diseases for which we seek cures are metabolic in nature. Small-molecule ...

  12. BP205 Molecular Dynamics of the Cell Problem Set 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voigt, Chris

    -small molecule interactions? Now, produce a MATLAB simulation of the system ­ represent the line of cells. First, set C=0 initially at all points. Simulate the system using one of MATLAB's ode solvers until C

  13. Dynamic control of Escherichia coli central metabolism for improvement of glucaric acid production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brockman, Irene Marie

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic engineering strategies have enabled improvements in yield and titer for a variety of valuable small molecules produced in microorganisms. Past approaches have been focused on up- and downregulation of genes to ...

  14. Microfluidic in vivo screen identifies compounds enhancing neuronal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggarty, Stephen J.

    Compound screening is a powerful tool to identify new therapeutic targets, drug leads, and elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of biological processes. We report here the results of the first in vivo small-molecule screens ...

  15. Temperature dependence of electron mobility, electroluminescence and photoluminescence This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klotzkin, David

    mobility were investigated over temperature from 60 to 300 K in small-molecule organic light emitting diode technological advances have been achieved in this decade on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) driven

  16. Computational approaches for identifying inhibitors of protein interactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehio, Wissam

    2011-06-27

    Inter-molecular interaction is at the heart of biological function. Proteins can interact with ligands, peptides, small molecules, and other proteins to serve their structural or functional purpose. With advances in ...

  17. Target-guided synthesis approach to the discovery of novel bivalent inhibitors of Glutathione Transferases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clipson, Alexandra Jayne

    2012-06-22

    Target-guided synthesis is an approach to drug discovery that uses the biological target as a template to direct synthesis of its own best inhibitors from small molecule fragments. The process bridges the gap between ...

  18. nature biotechnology volume 30 number 9 september 2012 841 sion engineering circuits in human cells. Khalil et al. use artificial zinc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, Ahmad S.

    . Khalil et al. use artificial zinc finger domains, which can be readily engineered to recognize various challenges. Now Polosukhina et al. demonstrate how a small- molecule photoswitch can restore vision in mutant

  19. Synthetic mimics of mammalian cell surface receptors: prosthetic molecules that augment living cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Blake R.

    2005-09-08

    -alkyl derivatives of 3?-cholesterylamine linked to motifs that bind cell-impermeable ligands. When added to living mammalian cells, these synthetic receptors insert into cellular plasma membranes, project ligand-binding small molecules or peptides from the cell...

  20. HaloTag protein-mediated specific labeling of living cells with quantum dots Min-kyung So, Hequan Yao 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Jianghong

    as quantum dots, QDs). Semiconductor QDs are a class of new material intermediate be- tween small molecules and bulk size materials, and possess unique electrical and optical properties due to the quantum

  1. Druggable Protein Interaction Sites Are More Predisposed to Surface Pocket Formation than the Rest of the Protein Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, David K.; Karanicolas, John

    2013-03-07

    in conformations containing surface pockets suitable for small molecule binding. Starting from a set of seven unbound protein structures, we find that the presence of low-energy pocket-containing conformations is indeed a signature of druggable protein interaction...

  2. Identification and analysis of hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase inhibitors using nucleic acid binding assays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Hanson, Alica M.; Shadrick, William R.; Ndjomou, Jean; Sweeney, Noreena L.; Hernadez, John J.; Bartczak, Diana; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J.; Heck, Julie A.; Arnold, Leggy A.; Schoenen, Frank; Frick, David N,

    2012-06-27

    Typical assays used to discover and analyze small molecules that inhibit the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 helicase yield few hits and are often confounded by compound interference. Oligonucleotide binding assays are examined here as an alternative...

  3. Vaccine delivery with microneedle skin patches in nonhuman primates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Adrienne V

    Transcutaneous drug delivery from planar skin patches is effective for small-molecule drugs and skin-permeable vaccine adjuvants. However, to achieve efficient delivery of vaccines and other macromolecular therapeutics ...

  4. Evaluation of polyelectrolyte multilayer thin-film coated microneedle arrays for transcutaneous vaccine delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fung, Peter W. (Peter Waitak)

    2011-01-01

    The skin is an ideal organ for the safe and convenient delivery of vaccines, small molecules, and other biologics. Members of the Irvine and Hammond groups have developed a polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film-coated ...

  5. Development of an Analytical Method for the Detection and Quantitation of Nitrite as a Biomarker of Nitric Oxide and Reactive Nitrogen Species in Biological Samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willis, Sean Dustin

    2013-05-31

    complex microenvironment, containing proteins, growth factors, neurotransmitters, and other small molecules. Microdialysis has been extensively used for sampling analytes from extracellular spaces in tissues. The microdialysis membrane excludes large...

  6. Wrapping cytochrome c around single-wall carbon nanotube: engineered nanohybrid building blocks for infrared detection at high quantum efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Youpin; Liu, Qingfeng; Wilt, Jamie Samantha; Gong, Maogang; Ren, Shenqiang; Wu, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Biomolecule cytochrome c (Cty c), a small molecule of a chain of amino acids with extraordinary electron transport, was helically wrapped around a semiconductive single-wall carbon nanotube (s-SWCNT) to form a molecular building block for uncooled...

  7. Fabrication of Ordered Array of Tips-pentacene Micro- and Nano-scale Single Crystals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xia, Ning

    2013-04-26

    As an important type of organic semiconductors, organic small molecule crystals have great potential for low-cost applications such as plastic solar cells (PSC), organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic field-effect transistors (OFET). Among...

  8. Magnetic Exchange Coupling and Single-Molecule Magnetism in Uranium Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinehart, Jeffrey Dennis

    2010-01-01

    in molecular uranium cluster chemistry. 13 Compound 2 ischemistry and small-molecule reactivity of uranium. AmongUranium Complexes by Jeffrey Dennis Rinehart Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry

  9. Functional Characterization and Surface Mapping of Frataxin (FXN) Interactions with the Fe-S Cluster Assembly Complex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorstad, Melissa

    2013-05-23

    defining FXN function at a molecular level then using this information to identify small molecule functional replacements. Recently, our group has discovered that FXN functions as an allosteric activator for the human Fe-S cluster assembly complex. The work...

  10. Protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, Venugopal T.

    2011-11-23

    Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) is a novel approach to medicinal chemistry which integrates the synthesis and screening of small molecule libraries into a single step. The concept uses reversible chemical reactions to present a dynamic library...

  11. Spectroscopy and theory of cis-trans isomerization in the S? state of acetylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changala, P. Bryan (Peter Bryan)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of parallel experimental and theoretical studies of the rovibrational structure and dynamics of the Si state of acetylene, C2H2 . This small molecule is a prototypical system for the study of cis-trans ...

  12. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of siRNA targeting Parp1 extends survival bearing tumors derived from Brca1-deficient ovarian cancer cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Michael Solomon

    Inhibition of the DNA repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) with small molecules has been shown to be an effective treatment for ovarian cancer with BRCA mutations. Here, we report the in vivo administration ...

  13. Tribochemical properties of metastable states of transition metals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Prasenjit

    2009-05-15

    Mechanical forces can be used to trigger chemical reactions through activating bonds and to direct the course of such reactions in organic materials, particularly in polymers. In inorganic materials, the small molecules ...

  14. Building biomedical materials layer-by-layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammond, Paula T.

    In this materials perspective, the promise of water based layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly as a means of generating drug-releasing surfaces for biomedical applications, from small molecule therapeutics to biologic drugs and ...

  15. High-Content Chemical and RNAi Screens for Suppressors of Neurotoxicity in a Huntington's Disease Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chaohong

    To identify Huntington's Disease therapeutics, we conducted high-content small molecule and RNAi suppressor screens using a Drosophila primary neural culture Huntingtin model. Drosophila primary neurons offer a sensitive ...

  16. Alpha Pi Mu 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    for the separation of small molecule ampholytic mixtures, for the separation of protein isoforms, and direct purification of a target pI marker from a crude reaction mixture....

  17. Consequences of redox-active phenazines on the physiology of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kern, Suzanne E

    2013-01-01

    Phenazines are redox-active small molecules produced by bacteria. Although phenazines have been studied extensively for their roles as toxins, how phenazines benefit producing organisms is still being uncovered. Pseudomonas ...

  18. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arrays. By adding specific types of small molecules to mixtures of nanoparticles and polymers, they were able to direct the self-assembly of the nanoparticles into arrays of one,...

  19. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.

  20. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Min

    2011-11-30

    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is costeffective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs’ performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to other OLEDs' attributes such as mechanical flexibility and potential low cost), the OLED technology is promising to successfully compete with current technologies, such as LCDs and inorganic LEDs.

  1. NREL Researchers Demonstrate External Quantum Efficiency Surpassing 100% in a Quantum Dot Solar Cell (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    A new device that produces and collects multiple electrons per photon could yield inexpensive, high-efficiency photovoltaics. A new device developed through research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reduces conventional losses in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, potentially increasing the power conversion efficiency-but not the cost-of the solar cells. Solar cells convert optical energy from the sun into usable electricity; however, almost 50% of the incident energy is lost as heat with present-day technologies. High-efficiency, multi-junction cells reduce this heat loss, but their cost is significantly higher. NREL's new device uses excess energy in solar photons to create extra charges rather than heat. This was achieved using 5-nanometer-diameter quantum dots of lead selenide (PbSe) tightly packed into a film. The researchers chemically treated the film, and then fabricated a device that yielded an external quantum efficiency (number of electrons produced per incident photon) exceeding 100%, a value beyond that of all current solar cells for any incident photon. Quantum dots are known to efficiently generate multiple excitons (a bound electron-hole pair) per absorbed high-energy photon, and this device definitively demonstrates the collection of multiple electrons per photon in a PV cell. The internal quantum efficiency corrects for photons that are not absorbed in the photoactive layer and shows that the PbSe film generates 30% to 40% more electrons in the high-energy spectral region than is possible with a conventional solar cell. While the unoptimized overall power conversion efficiency is still low (less than 5%), the results have important implications for PV because such high quantum efficiency can lead to more electrical current produced than possible using present technologies. Furthermore, this fabrication is also amenable to inexpensive, high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing.

  2. Metathesis depolymerizable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Tucson, AZ); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Long, Timothy M. (Evanston, IL); McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-15

    A class of surfactant molecules whose structure includes regularly spaced unsaturation in the tail group and thus, can be readily decomposed by ring-closing metathesis, and particularly by the action of a transition metal catalyst, to form small molecule products. These small molecules are designed to have increased volatility and/or enhanced solubility as compared to the original surfactant molecule and are thus easily removed by solvent extraction or vacuum extraction at low temperature. By producing easily removable decomposition products, the surfactant molecules become particularly desirable as template structures for preparing meso- and microstructural materials with tailored properties.

  3. NMR approaches in structure-based lead discovery: Recent developments and new frontiers for targeting multi-protein complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dias, David M.; Ciulli, Alessio

    2014-08-28

    . Using 2D HSQC one can collect the spectra in the absence and in the presence of small-molecule compounds or other target proteins. This simple approach allows obtaining chemical shift perturbation (CSP) (Williamson, 2013) data. A comparison of 2D 1H... . The chemical shift perturbation assay has been used extensively to identify binding sites of small molecules. This approach gained even more popularity when SAR by NMR was introduced in 1996. (Shuker et al., 1996) SAR by NMR (Fig. 2) first uses CSP data...

  4. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the redirected light spreading it within a small range of outgoing angles. This solution was found to reduce glare to imperceptible levels while retaining for the most part the illuminance levels achieved solely by the daylighting film.

  5. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatkowski, P.J.; Landis, D.A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT patterning and alignment, advances in commercial and research materials and field effect schemes. In addition, Eikos continued to develop improved efficiency coating materials and transfer methods suitable for batch and continuous roll-to-roll fabrication requirements. Finally, Eikos collaborated with NREL and the PV-community at large in fabricating and characterizing Invisicon���® enabled solar cells.

  6. Photophysics of dopamine-modified quantum dots and effects on biological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minarik, William

    between a small molecule (the neurotransmitter dopamine) and CdSe/ZnS QDs. QD­dopamine conjugates label that has been studied extensively for the creation of solar cells and optoelectronic devices (see ref. 1 established with CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs)3­5 , its application to living systems has not yet been

  7. Disordered organic electronic materials based on non-benzenoid 1,6-methano[10]annulene rings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tovar, John D; Streifel, Benjamin C; Peart, Patricia A

    2014-10-07

    Conjugated polymers and small molecules including the nonplanar aromatic 1,6-methano[10]annulene ring structure along with aromatic subunits, such as diketopyrrolopyrrole, and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, substituted with alkyl chains in a "Tail In," "Tail Out," or "No Tail" regiochemistry are disclosed.

  8. 11 August 2000 Z .Chemical Physics Letters 326 2000 1121

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reisler, Hanna

    . At a translational energy of 0.11 eV, incident HCl is adsorbed. Thermal desorption yields Õs2 molecules whose rebound with- out sticking. This has led to a good understanding of such processes, at least for small molecules. When the incident translational energy, E , isinc sufficiently low, the sticking coefficient

  9. Red Electrophosphorescence from Polyacetylene-Based Light Emitting Z. L. Xie, J. W. Y. Lam,* H. J. Peng, M. Wong, B. Z. Tang,* and H. S. Kwok

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -containing polyacetylene (PA) was used as a host material in the construction of red phosphorescent LEDs/electron and a luminance power efficiency of 70 L/W have been demonstrated in OLEDs based on small molecules [2, there are only a few reports on utilizing polymer as host matrix in electrophosphorescent LEDs. So far most work

  10. www.afm-journal.de 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 4295

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreiber, Frank

    with metal-organic Schottky junctions, a seminal step towards more efficient organic photovoltaic cells (OPVC Photovoltaic Cells with Diindenoperylene as Donor Material Small-molecule photovoltaic cells using semiconductors in pho- tovoltaic cells has been under investigation since the 1970s.[1] After poor success

  11. University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushman, Frederic

    TRC1.0 Lentivirus shRNA library · Screening pools: GO categories; user-defined sets · Order groups and technically trained staff for HTS · To provide libraries of small molecule and genetic tools for HTS · To facilitate small-scale screens from user-defined gene-sets Develop novel technology Seed collaborative

  12. Sensors and Actuators B 120 (2007) 392398 Self-referenced assay method for photonic crystal biosensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Brian

    2007-01-01

    biosensors: Application to small molecule analytes Leo L. Chana, Brian T. Cunninghama,, Peter Y. Lib, Derek of biochemical binding density distribution on the surface of a photonic crystal biosensor embedded within application of the immobilized ligand upon the biosensor surface as a small spot, so that uncoated regions

  13. 26 May 2000 Z .Chemical Physics Letters 322 2000 412418

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -ray absorption fine structure NEXAFS spectra of hydro- genated and deuterated polystyrene. The differences ns1 transition. Since the en- ergy separation between vibrational modes is small on the energy scale in the core excitation of small molecules acquired by NEXAFS w xspectroscopy 5,6 and Electron Energy Loss Spec

  14. Derivation of the Configuration Interaction Singles (CIS) Method for Various Single Determinant References and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    of Chemistry and Biochemistry Georgia Institute of Technology September 1996 1 Introduction The configuration% of the correlation energy for small molecules near their equilibrium geometries. Head-Gordon, Pople, and others have] list the following desirable properties of CIS: well defined (and differentiable), applicable to large

  15. A Novel Automethylation Reaction in the Aspergillus nidulans LaeA Protein Generates S-Methylmethionine*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Steven

    by producing various secondary metabolites, including lovastatin, penicillin, and aflatoxin. The synthesis of the small molecule secondary metabolites it synthesizes. These include beneficial molecules of a secondary metabolite are organized into gene clusters composed of hall- mark enzymes (5, 7), including

  16. NCI: a server to identify non-canonical interactions in protein structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babu, M. Madan

    NCI: a server to identify non-canonical interactions in protein structures M. Madan Babu* MRC in protein structures. These interac- tions, which include N-HÁÁÁp, Ca -HÁÁÁp, Ca -HÁÁÁO¼C and variants of them, were first observed in small molecules and subsequently in high-resolution pro- tein structures

  17. The Interactions of Zinc Thiolate Complexes and Exogenous Metal Species: Investigations of Thiolate Bridging and Metal Exchange 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almaraz, Elky

    2010-07-14

    Small molecule Zn(II) complexes containing N- and S- donor environments may serve as appropriate models for mimicking Zn protein sites, and thus, their reactions with heavy metal ions such as Pt(II) and W(0) may provide insight into possible adduct...

  18. A molecular thermodynamic view of DNAdrug interactions: a case study of 25 minor-groove binders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

    A molecular thermodynamic view of DNA­drug interactions: a case study of 25 minor-groove binders-groove recognition by small molecules via a computational study on 25 DNA­drug complexes. The studies are configured of this study. While highlighting the favorable role of packing, shape complementarity, and van der Waals

  19. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 045134 (2012) Time-dependent density functional theory for strong electromagnetic fields in crystalline solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertsch George F.

    2012-01-01

    -dependent Schr¨odinger equation under intense electric fields have been developed for atoms and small molecules.1,17 Experimentally, electron-hole plasmas are generated by irradiating solids with strong laser pulses a first-principles approach.9,34 We calculated the dielectric breakdown in crystalline diamond9 and quartz

  20. A trans-homologue interaction between reciprocally imprinted miR-127 and Rtl1 regulates placenta development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Mitsuteru; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Edwards, Carol A.; Adalsteinsson, Bjorn T.; Allen, Sarah E.; Loo, Tsui-Han; Kitazawa, Moe; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Stewart, Colin L.; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.

    2015-07-02

    ability of small molecules like oxygen to transfer by passive diffusion from mother to fetus (Laga et al., 1973). The TDC and SDC values of the mutant placentae indicate that ?miR-127 mice have a higher diffusive capacity than WTs and conversely...

  1. Solar Cells DOI: 10.1002/ange.201203330

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under award number DE-SC0001085) and the FENA (Grant 2009-NTSolar Cells DOI: 10.1002/ange.201203330 A Supramolecular Complex in Small-Molecule Solar Cells is surrounded by the electron-rich aromatic compound. When these materials are deposited as either bilayered

  2. Spectroscopic and Optical Characterization of a Series of Azobenzene-Containing Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezolet, Michel

    Crystalline Polymers Franc¸ois Lagugne´ Labarthet, Stephan Freiberg, Christian Pellerin,§ Michel Pe ABSTRACT: A series of azobenzene-containing side chain liquid crystalline polymers with various spacer, a binary composite containing liquid crystalline small molecules and a cross-linked polymer bearing

  3. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 14 MARCH 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1615 Band dispersion in the deep 1s core level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    a few small molecules in the gas phase such as C2H2 or N2 with much stronger bonding and shorter bonding of Fig. 1 serve to illustrate the nature of the effect and the fitting procedure, they are insufficient, Denmark, 6Institut für Festkörperforschung and Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Jülich

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access A physicochemical descriptor-based scoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an equivalent number of randomly selected compounds. Beyond library design, our findings also impact the broader-based profiling, such as Lipinski's rule-of-five for drug-likeness and Oprea's criteria of lead-likeness, as early Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR), and the World Drug Index (WDI) database, is analyzed. Three

  5. Published online 21 May 2009 Nucleic Acids Research, 2009, Vol. 37, No. 12 e87 doi:10.1093/nar/gkp408

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and (iii) high-throughput virtual screening of this library to select aptamers with binding affinity to a desired small molecule. We developed a set of criteria that allows one to select a sequence with potential/gkp408 In silico selection of RNA aptamers Yaroslav Chushak1, * and Morley O. Stone2 1 Biotechnology HPC

  6. Approximation of the Time-Dependent Electronic Schrodinger Equation by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koch, Othmar

    ], [2]. Large-scale computations of electronic structure and dynamics pose extremely challenging powerful standard tools in electronic structure calculations of atoms and small molecules. Similar to DFT-dependent electronic Schr¨odinger equa- tion (TDSE) arising in ultrafast laser dynamics, which was first proposed in [1

  7. High-resolution sequencing of DNA G-quadruplex secondary structures in the human genome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambers, Vicki S.; Marsico, Giovanni; Boutell, Jonathan M.; Antonio, Marco Di; Smith, Geoffrey P.; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2015-07-20

    . A novel small molecule that alters shelterin integrity and triggers a 215 DNA-damage response at telomeres. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 15758-15759, (2008). 216 22 Hud, N. V., Smith, F. W., Anet, F. A. L. & Feigon, J. The selectivity for K+ versus Na...

  8. Optogalvanic intracavity quantitative detector and method for its use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zalewski, E.F.; Keller, R.A.; Apel, C.T.

    1981-02-25

    The disclosure relates to an optogalvanic intracavity detector and method for its use. Measurement is made of the amount of light absorbed by atoms, small molecules and ions in a laser cavity utilizing laser-produced changes in plasmas containing the same atoms, molecules or ions.

  9. IL NUOVO CIMENTO VOL. 113 B, N. 5 Maggio 1998 Importance of two-body correlations in the 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lagaris, Isaac

    energies and the root mean-square radii for small molecules are calculated and the results obtained and intermolecular potentials and forces, potential energy surfaces for collisions. 1. ­ Introduction Various methods of the intermolecular force in the many-body environment and in this way vari- ous properties of the system

  10. Styrene Clusters in a Supersonic Jet: Reactive and Nonreactive Systems S. Kendler and Y. Haas*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haas, Yehuda

    Styrene Clusters in a Supersonic Jet: Reactive and Nonreactive Systems S. Kendler and Y. Haas of styrene with several atoms and small molecules were prepared and studied in a supersonic jet by laser) by recording the excess energy at which fluorescence from the cluster disappears and styrene fluorescence

  11. MSc Programme NATURAL PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ott, Albrecht

    - pounds and Drugs 9/7 cp Inorganic Materials: Nano chemis- try 7/9 cp Proteins ­ Structure, Dynamics of small molecules with biological targets. Based on a strong ex- pertise in organic synthesis the students Chemistry 9/7 cp Stereoselective Organic Synthesis 7/9 cp Bioinformatics 9/7 cp Molecular Modelling 7 cp

  12. Improving the Yeast Three-Hybrid System for High-Throughput Target Discovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Kyle

    2011-05-27

    -protein interactions. The yeast three-hybrid system is an attractive alternative that uses genetic tools to screen for protein-small molecule interactions in cellulo. This thesis describes efforts to improve the utility of the yeast three-hybrid system to screen...

  13. Uranium Cluster Chemistry DOI: 10.1002/anie.200906605

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uranium Cluster Chemistry DOI: 10.1002/anie.200906605 Tetranuclear Uranium Clusters by Reductive in the coordination chemistry and small-molecule reactivity of uranium. Among the intriguing reactivity patterns of tetravalent uranium with 3,5-dimethylpyrazolate (Me2PzÀ ) led to forma- tion of an unprecedented homoleptic

  14. Abstract. Experimental enthalpies of formation have been approximated using single-point HartreeFock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Csonka, Gábor István

    Abstract. Experimental enthalpies of formation have been approximated using single-point Hartree from the G2/97 thermochem- istry database (containing small molecules) together with natural population deviations from the experimental enthalpies of formation for the selected 51 molecules are 1.15, 3.96, and 2

  15. ne of the first and most enduring facts most students learn in biology class is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    another. The universal fuel, in effect, serves as a common language as well. When ATP's dual function is that all living cells use a small molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as fuel. That universal into therapies. KEY CONCEPTS ATP, best known as a uni- versal fuel inside living cells, also serves as a mo

  16. Acid-Base Equilibria of Weak Polyelectrolytes in Multilayer Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Christopher

    charged substrate from dilute aqueous solution leading to charge reversal on the surface. This simple,4 The stratified structure of polyelectrolyte multilayer films has also been combined with small molecules polyelectrolytes because they remain fully charged over a wide pH range.14 Although manipulating the ionic strength

  17. Library versus Library Recognition and Inhibition of the HIV-1 Nef Allelome Allison Olszewski and Gregory A. Weiss*,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Gregory A.

    Library versus Library Recognition and Inhibition of the HIV-1 Nef Allelome Allison Olszewski resistance. Targeting HIV Nef with small molecules screened against a combinatorial library of Nef variants studies. We asked whether a library versus library approach could simultaneously uncover structure

  18. Towards an understanding of light activation processes in titanium oxide based inverted organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    solar cells S. Chambon, E. Destouesse, B. Pavageau, L. Hirsch, and G. Wantz Citation: J. Appl. Phys. 112. Related Articles Power losses in bilayer inverted small molecule organic solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 233903 (2012) Thin-film encapsulation of inverted indium-tin-oxide-free polymer solar cells by atomic

  19. Substrate-specific Activation of Sirtuins by Resveratrol* Received for publication, January 19, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fields, Stan

    Substrate-specific Activation of Sirtuins by Resveratrol* Received for publication, January 19 Resveratrol, a small molecule found in red wine, is reported to slow aging in simple eukaryotes and has been suggested as a potential calorie restriction mi- metic. Resveratrol has also been reported to act

  20. Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a silole-based compound Center for Display Research, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the emission efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes OLED . For con- ventional undoped small-molecule OLEDHighly efficient organic light-emitting diodes with a silole-based compound H. Y. Chen Center Efficient light emission was obtained in a silole-based organic light-emitting diode. A high luminous

  1. Optical constants of methyl-pentaphenylsilole by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs have attracted a great deal of attention because of their great capability.1 OLEDs are also relatively easy to manufacture and package. The most commonly used emitter. Conventional undoped small-molecule OLED using Alq3 can achieve a high external quantum efficiency QE of 1

  2. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Having Carbon Nanotube Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, George

    , flexible anodes for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). For polymer-based OLEDs having the structure applications. Polymer and small molecule-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are rapidly approachingOrganic Light-Emitting Diodes Having Carbon Nanotube Anodes Jianfeng Li, Liangbing Hu, Lian Wang

  3. Control of Polymer Structures in Phase-Separated Liquid Crystal-Polymer Composite Systems Qingbing WANG, Jung O. PARK1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasarao, Mohan

    Control of Polymer Structures in Phase-Separated Liquid Crystal-Polymer Composite Systems Qingbing, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA 1 School of Polymer, Textile and Fiber Engineering and diffusion of small molecules, play important roles in determining a specific PSCOF polymer structure

  4. Study of Device Physics and Active Layer Morphology in Polymer-Fullerene Based Solar Cells: The Role of Vertical Phase Segregation and Organic/Metal Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guangye

    2015-01-01

    Charge Carrier Mobility and Solar Cell Performance. Org.Solution-Processed Polymer Solar Cells Based on CrosslinkedProcessed “Bilayer” Organic Solar Cells. Adv. Mater. 2011,

  5. Conjugated Polymer Design and Engineering for Organic Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Claire Hoi Kar

    2011-01-01

    W. ; Forrest, S. R. Organic Electronics 2003, 4, 77-87. (24)Aspects of Organic Electronics: From Fundamentals toof solution-processed organic electronics rapidly advancing,

  6. 2007 Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms Gordon Research Conference-February 18-23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreja Bakac

    2008-01-01

    This conference focuses on kinetic, mechanistic, and thermodynamic studies of reactions that play a role in fields as diverse as catalysis, energy, bioinorganic chemistry, green chemistry, organometallics, and activation of small molecules (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, alkanes). Participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories present results and engage in discussions of pathways, intermediates, and outcome of various reactions of inorganic, organic, coordination, organometallic, and biological species. This knowledge is essential for rational development and design of novel reactions, compounds, and catalysts.

  7. Preparation and supramolecular recognition of multivalent peptide-polysaccharide conjugates by cucurbit[8]uril in hydrogel formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowland, Matthew James; Atgie, Marina; Hoogland, Dominique; Scherman, Oren A.

    2015-07-02

    of highly viscous reaction mixtures, large degrees of steric hindrance, and strong hydrogen bonding networks that render many reactive handles such as hydroxyl groups prac- tically inert. Nevertheless, supramolecular hydrogels formed from polysaccharides... cationic amines, metals, imidazolium ions and small molecule drugs).22–25 In contrast to the smaller CB[n] homologues, CB[8] has a larger cavity volume (479 Å3)26,27 capable of simultaneously accommodating two planar and hydrophobic guests in a pi...

  8. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2015-11-24

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  9. Matrix Infrared Spectroscopic and Computational Investigations of Novel Small Uranium Containing Molecules - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Lester

    2014-10-17

    Direct reactions of f-element uranium, thorium and lanthanide metal atoms were investigated with small molecules. These metal atoms were generated by laser ablation and mixed with the reagent molecules then condensed with noble gases at 4K. The products were analyzed by absorption of infrared light to measure vibrational frequencies which were confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. We have learned more about the reactivity of uranium atoms with common molecules, which will aid in the develolpment of further applications of uranium.

  10. CEEM Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, John

    2014-11-26

    The mission of the Center for Energy Efficient Materials (CEEM) was to serve the Department of Energy and the nation as a center of excellence dedicated to advancing basic research in nano-structured materials and devices for applications to solar electricity, thermoelectric conversion of waste heat to electricity, and solidstate lighting. The foundation of CEEM was based on the unique capabilities of UCSB and its partner institutions to control, synthesize, characterize, model, and apply materials at the nanoscale for more efficient sustainable energy resources. This unique expertise was a key source of the synergy that unified the research of the Center. Although the Center’s focus was basic research, It’s longer-term objective has been to transfer new materials and devices into the commercial sector where they will have a substantial impact on the nation’s need for efficient sustainable energy resources. As one measure of the impact of the Center, two start-up companies were formed based on its research. In addition, Center participants published a total of 210 archival journal articles, of which 51 were exclusively sponsored by the DOE grant. The work of the Center was structured around four specific tasks: Organic Solar Cells, Solid-State Lighting, Thermoelectrics, and High Efficiency Multi-junction Photovoltaic devices. A brief summary of each follows – detailed descriptions are in Sections 4 & 5 of this report. Research supported through CEEM led to an important shift with respect to the choice of materials used for the fabrication of solution deposited organic solar cells. Solution deposition opens the opportunity to manufacture solar cells via economically-viable high throughput tools, such as roll to roll printing. Prior to CEEM, most organic semiconductors utilized for this purpose involved polymeric materials, which, although they can form thin films reliably, suffer from batch to batch variations due to the statistical nature of the chemical reactions that produce them. In response, the CEEM team developed well-defined molecular semiconductors that produce active layers with very high power conversion efficiencies, in other words they can convert a very high fraction of sunlight into useful electrical power. The fact that the semiconductor is formed from molecular species provides the basis for circumventing the unreliability of polymer counterparts and, as an additional bonus, allows one to attain much grater insight into the structure of the active layer. The latter is particularly important because efficient conversion is the result of a complex arrangement of two semiconductors that need to phase separate in a way akin to oil and water, but with domains that are described by nanoscale dimensions. CEEM was therefore able to provide deep insight into the influence of nanostructure, through the application of structural characterization tools and theoretical methods that describe how electrical charges migrate through the organic layer. Our research in light emitting diode (LED)-based solid state lighting (SSL) was directed at improving efficiency and reducing costs to enable the widespread deployment of economically-viable replacements for inefficient incandescent, halogen, and fluorescent-based lighting. Our specific focus was to advance the fundamental science and technology of light emitting diodes to both understand factors that limit efficiencies and to provide innovative and viable solutions to the current impediments. One of the main challenges we faced is the decrease in efficiency when LEDs are driven harder to increase light output---the so called “droop” effect. It requires large emitting surfaces to reach a desired optical output, and necessitates the use of costly heat sinks, both of which increase the cost. We successfully reduced droop by growing LED crystals having non-conventional orientations. As recognized by the award of the 2014 Nobel prize to the inventors of the nitride LEDs (one of whom was a member of CEEM), LEDs already have a large societal impact in both developed (l

  11. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  12. Increasing the efficiency of organic solar cells by photonic and electrostatic-field enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalwa, Kanwar

    2012-11-03

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology is an attractive solar-electric conversion paradigm due to the promise of low cost roll-to-roll production and amenability to flexible substrates. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 7% has recently been achieved. OPV cells suffer from low charge carrier mobilities of polymers, leading to recombination losses, higher series resistances and lower fill-factors. Thus, it is imperative to develop fabrication methodologies that can enable efficient optical absorption in films thinner than optical absorption length. Active layers conformally deposited on light-trapping, microscale textured, grating-type surfaces is one possible approach to achieve this objective. In this study, 40% theoretical increase in photonic absorption over flat OPVs is shown for devices with textured geometry by the simulation results. For verifying this theoretical result and improving the efficiency of OPVs by light trapping, OPVs were fabricated on grating-type textured substrates possessing t pitch and -coat PV active-layer on these textured substrates led to over filling of the valleys and shunts at the crest, which severely affected the performance of the resultant PV devices. Thus, it is established that although the optical design is important for OPV performance but the potential of light trapping can only be effectively tapped if the textures are amenable for realizing a conformal active layer. It is discovered that if the height of the underlying topographical features is reduced to sub-micron regime (e.g. 300 nm) and the pitch is increased to more than a micron (e.g. 2 ?m), the textured surface becomes amenable to coating a conformal PV active-layer. The resultant PV cells showed 100% increase in average light absorption near the band edge due to trapping of higher wavelength photons, and 20% improvement in power conversion efficiency as compared with the flat PV cell. Another factor that severely limits the performance of OPVs is recombination of charge carriers. Thus it becomes imperative to understand the effect of processing conditions such as spin coating speed and drying rate on defect density and hence induced carrier recombination mechanism. In this study, It is shown that slow growth (longer drying time) of the active-layer leads to reduction of sub-bandgap traps by an order of magnitude as compared to fast grown active-layer. By coupling the experimental results with simulations, it is demonstrated that at one sun condition, slow grown device has bimolecular recombination as the major loss mechanism while in the fast grown device with high trap density, the trap assisted recombination dominates. It has been estimated that non-radiative recombination accounts nearly 50% of efficiency loss in modern OPVs. Generally, an external bias (electric field) is required to collect all the photogenerated charges and thus prevent their recombination. The motivation is to induce additional electric field in otherwise low mobility conjugated polymer based active layer by incorporating ferroelectric dipoles. This is expected to facilitate singlet exciton dissociation in polymer matrix and impede charge transfer exciton (CTE) recombination at polymer:fullerene interface. For the first time, it is shown that the addition of ferroelectric dipoles to modern bulk heterojunction (BHJ) can significantly improve exciton dissociation, resulting in a ~50% enhancement of overall solar cell efficiency. The devices also exhibit the unique ferroelectric-photovoltaic effect with polarization-controlled power conversion efficiency.

  13. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be glass encapsulated white OLED lighting products commercialized in niche markets during the 2008 calendar year. This commercializ

  14. Nanostructured architectures for colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean, Joel, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This thesis introduces a novel ordered bulk heterojunction architecture for colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells. Quantum dots are solution-processed nanocrystals whose tunable bandgap energies make them a promising ...

  15. Modeling the structure of collective intelligence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Wen, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    The human problem solution process has attracted an increasing amount of interest among educators, managers, computer scientists and others. However, the discussion of the subject has suffered from the lack of stochastic ...

  16. Colloidal cluster phases and solar cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailer, Alastair George

    2012-11-28

    The arrangement of soft materials through solution processing techniques is a topic of profound importance for next generation solar cells; the resulting morphology has a major influence on construction, performance and ...

  17. The renaissance of hybrid solar cells: progresses, challenges, and perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Gao; Ren, Shenqiang; Jianpu, Wang

    2013-06-12

    Solution-processed hybrid solar cells, a blend of conjugated polymers and semiconducting nanocrystals, are a promising candidate for next-generation energy-conversion devices. The renaissance of this field in recent years ...

  18. IOP PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 424015 (7pp) doi:10.1088/0957-4484/19/42/424015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    IOP PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 424015 (7pp) doi:10;Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 424015 C R McNeill et al 1. Introduction Organic solar cells based on solution processed

  19. ROBUST STRUCTURED MULTIFRONTAL FACTORIZATION AND ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-05-17

    Iterative methods take good advantage of sparsity and require less ...... The complexity of the solution process is also almost linear in N2 in practice. Theorem .... of algebraic eigenvalue problems: a practical guide, SIAM, Philadelphia, 2000.

  20. Colloidal quantum dot photodetectors Gerasimos Konstantatos a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    review recent progress in light sensors based on solution-processed materials. Spin-coated semicon for optical signal processing, and the possibility of enhanced light harvesting in photovoltaics

  1. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 8 JUNE 2014 | DOI: 10.1038/NMAT4007 Air-stable n-type colloidal quantum dot solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    ,2 , photovoltaics3­7 , photodectors8 and field-effect transistors9­12 . Their facile solution processing, quantum absorbing layer in solar cells13 . Progress in CQD solar cells--much based on the lead chalcogenide (Pb

  2. Cathode buffer layers based on vacuum and solution deposited poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for efficient inverted organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, Miles C.

    Vacuum and solution processed versions of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) are used as cathode interlayers in inverted organic photovoltaic cells comprising tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene as the electron donor and ...

  3. High Efficiency CdTe Ink-Based Solar Cells Using Nanocrystals (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    This NREL Highlight is being developed for the 2015 February Alliance S&T Board meeting and describes a solution-processable ink to produce high-efficiency solar cells using low temperature and simple processing.

  4. Bright Light-Emitting Diodes based on Organometal Halide Perovskite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Zhi-Kuang; Moghaddam, Reza Saberi; Lai, May Ling; Docampo, Pablo; Higler, Ruben; Deschler, Felix; Price, Michael; Sadhanala, Aditya; Pazos, Luis M.; Credgington, Dan; Hanusch, Fabian; Bein, Thomas; Snaith, Henry J.; Friend, Richard H.

    2014-08-03

    temperature and high vacuum processes, rendering them uneconomical for use in large area displays. Here, we report high brightness light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed organometal halide perovskites. We demonstrate electroluminescence in the near...

  5. Enhanced electrical, optical and chemical properties of graphene oxide through a novel phase transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Priyank Vijaya

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a versatile, solution-processable candidate material for next-generation, large-area, ultrathin electronics, optoelectronics, energy conversion and storage technologies. GO is an atom-thick sheet of ...

  6. Artist's rendition of a 1.54 mm-emitting laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    Artist's rendition of a 1.54 mm-emitting laser made by solution- processing a colloidal quantum dot detectivity, represented by the symbol D*. Epitaxially grown InGaAs devices on an InP substrate achieve

  7. FINAL GRADUATION LIST GRADUATION DATE: 1 JULY 2015 TIME: 13:30

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    and characterization of copper chalcogenide nanoparticles and their use in solution processed photovoltaics PAULINE, South Africa CORREIA, Michelle (with Distinction) Radiation Protection RESEARCH REPORT: Criticality Asiatica (Pennywort) growing in South Africa HAMITY, Guillermo Nicolas Physics DISSERTATION: Search

  8. Improved performance and stability in quantum dot solar cells through band alignment engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bawendi, Moungi G.

    Solution processing is a promising route for the realization of low-cost, large-area, flexible and lightweight photovoltaic devices with short energy payback time and high specific power. However, solar cells based on ...

  9. VUV studies of molecular photofragmentation dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M.G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    State-resolved, photoion and photoelectron methods are used to study the neutral fragmentation and ionization dynamics of small molecules relevant to atmospheric and combustion chemistry. Photodissociation and ionization are initiated by coherent VUV radiation and the fragmentation dynamics are extracted from measurements of product rovibronic state distributions, kinetic energies and angular distributions. The general aim of these studies is to investigate the multichannel interactions between the electronic and nuclear motions which determine the evolution of the photoexcited {open_quotes}complex{close_quotes} into the observed asymptotic channels.

  10. Spectroscopic and dynamical studies of highly energized small polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, R.W.; Silbey, R.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The authors have initiated a program to perform spectroscopic and dynamic studies of small molecules. Large amplitude motions in excited acetylene were discussed along with plans to record the dispersed fluorescence (DF) and the stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra. SEP spectra were reported for the formyl radical. A Fourier transform spectrometer was discussed with respect to its ability to probe the structure of radicals. This instrument is capable of performing studies using various techniques such as magnetic rotation spectroscopy and sub-Doppler sideband-OODR Zeman (SOODRZ) spectroscopy.

  11. Kinetic data base for combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, W.; Herron, J.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a set of evaluated rate constants for use in the simulation of hydrocarbon combustion. The approach has been to begin with the small molecules and then introduce larger species with the various structural elements that can be found in all hydrocarbon fuels and decomposition products. Currently, the data base contains most of the species present in combustion systems with up to four carbon atoms. Thus, practically all the structural grouping found in aliphatic compounds have now been captured. The direction of future work is the addition of aromatic compounds to the data base.

  12. Two glass transitions in miscible polymer blends?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2014-06-28

    In contrast to mixtures of two small molecule fluids, miscible binary polymer blends often exhibit two structural relaxation times and two glass transition temperatures. Qualitative explanations postulate phenomenological models of local concentration enhancements due to chain connectivity in ideal, fully miscible systems. We develop a quantitative theory that explains qualitative trends in the dynamics of real miscible polymer blends which are never ideal mixtures. The theory is a synthesis of the lattice cluster theory of blend thermodynamics, the generalized entropy theory for glass-formation in polymer materials, and the Kirkwood-Buff theory for concentration fluctuations in binary mixtures.

  13. TFB:TPDSi2 interfacial layer usable in organic photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Iobin J. (Evanston, IL); Hains, Alexander W. (Evanston, IL)

    2011-02-15

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode; an active organic layer comprising an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material; and an interfacial layer formed between the anode and active organic layer, where the interfacial layer comprises a hole-transporting polymer characterized with a hole-mobility higher than that of the electron-donating organic material in the active organic layer, and a small molecule that has a high hole-mobility and is capable of crosslinking on contact with air.

  14. Tellurium-Containing Conjugated Materials for Solar Cells: From Sulfur to Tellurium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park Y. S.; Kale, T.; Wu, Q.; Ocko, B.M.; Black, C.T., Grubbs, R.B.

    2013-04-03

    A series of diketopyrrolopyrrole(DPP)-based small molecules have been synthesized by palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions. Electron-donating moieties (benzothiophene, benzoselenophene, and benzotellurophene) are bridged by an electron-withdrawing DPP unit to generate donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) type molecules. We observe red-shifts in absorption spectra of these compounds by varying heteroatoms from sulfur to tellurium. In bulk heterojunction solar cells with [6,6]phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as acceptor, we obtain power conversion efficiencies of 2.4% (benzothiophene), 4.1% (benzoselenophene), and 3.0% (benzotellurophene), respectively.

  15. Thermotropic Uniaxial and Biaxial Nematic and Smectic Phases in Bent-Core Mesogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Venna; Kang, Shin-Woong; Suresh, K.A.; Joshi, Leela; Wang, Qingbing; Kumar, Satyendra (Raman); (Kent); (CLCR)

    2010-07-20

    Two azo substituted achiral bent-core mesogens have been synthesized. Optical polarizing microscopy and synchrotron X-ray scattering studies of both compounds reveal the existence of the thermotropic uniaxial and biaxial nematic and three smectic phases at different temperatures in these single component small molecule systems. The transition from the uniaxial to biaxial nematic phase is confirmed to be second order. The transitions from the biaxial nematic to the underlying smectic phase and between the smectic phases have barely discernible heat capacity signatures and thus are also second order.

  16. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-06-05

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  17. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, Robert S.

    2007-02-20

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  18. Structural basis of substrate discrimination and integrin binding by autotaxin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausmann, Jens; Kamtekar, Satwik; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Day, Jacqueline E.; Wu, Tao; Fulkerson, Zachary; Albers, Harald M.H.G.; van Meeteren, Laurens A.; Houben, Anna J.S.; van Zeijl, Leonie; Jansen, Silvia; Andries, Maria; Hall, Troii; Pegg, Lyle E.; Benson, Timothy E.; Kasiem, Mobien; Harlos, Karl; Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Smyth, Susan S.; Ovaa, Huib; Bollen, Mathieu; Morris, Andrew J.; Moolenaar, Wouter H.; Perrakis, Anastassis (Pfizer); (Leuven); (Oxford); (NCI-Netherlands); (Kentucky)

    2013-09-25

    Autotaxin (ATX, also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-2, ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a mitogen and chemoattractant for many cell types. ATX-LPA signaling is involved in various pathologies including tumor progression and inflammation. However, the molecular basis of substrate recognition and catalysis by ATX and the mechanism by which it interacts with target cells are unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of ATX, alone and in complex with a small-molecule inhibitor. We have identified a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and mapped key residues for catalysis and selection between nucleotide and phospholipid substrates. We have shown that ATX interacts with cell-surface integrins through its N-terminal somatomedin B-like domains, using an atypical mechanism. Our results define determinants of substrate discrimination by the ENPP family, suggest how ATX promotes localized LPA signaling and suggest new approaches for targeting ATX with small-molecule therapeutic agents.

  19. Mechanism-Based Design of Green Oxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rybak-Akimova, Elena

    2015-03-16

    In modern era of scarce resources, developing chemical processes that can eventually generate useful materials and fuels from readily available, simple, cheap, renewable starting materials is of paramount importance. Small molecules, such as dioxygen, dinitrogen, water, or carbon dioxide, can be viewed as ideal sources of oxygen, nitrogen, or carbon atoms in synthetic applications. Living organisms perfected the art of utilizing small molecules in biosynthesis and in generating energy; photosynthesis, which couples carbohydrate synthesis from carbon dioxide with photocatalytic water splitting, is but one impressive example of possible catalytic processes. Small molecule activation in synthetic systems remains challenging, and current efforts are focused on developing catalytic reactions that can convert small molecules into useful building blocks for generating more complicated organic molecules, including fuels. Modeling nature is attractive in many respects, including the possibility to use non-toxic, earth-abundant metals in catalysis. Specific systems investigated in our work include biomimetic catalytic oxidations with dioxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and related oxygen atom donors. More recently, a new direction was been also pursued in the group, fixation of carbon dioxide with transition metal complexes. Mechanistic understanding of biomimetic metal-catalyzed oxidations is critical for the design of functional models of metalloenzymes, and ultimately for the rational synthesis of useful, selective and efficient oxidation catalysts utilizing dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide as terminal oxidants. All iron oxidases and oxygenases (both mononuclear and dinuclear) utilize metal-centered intermediates as reactive species in selective substrate oxidation. In contrast, free radical pathways (Fenton chemistry) are common for traditional inorganic iron compounds, producing hydroxyl radicals as very active, non-selective oxidants. Recent developments, however, changed this situation. Growing families of synthetic iron complexes that resemble active sites of metalloenzymes produce metal-based intermediates (rather than hydroxyl radicals) in reactions with oxygen donors. These complexes are very promising for selective oxygen and peroxide activation. In order to understand the mechanisms of metal-based small molecule activation, kinetically competent metal-oxygen intermediates must be identified. One of the grand challenges identified by the Department of Energy workshop "Catalysis for Energy" is understanding mechanisms and dynamics of catalyzed reactions. The research summarized herein focuses on detailed characterization of the formation and reactivity of various iron-peroxo- and iron-oxo intermediates that are involved in catalysis. Rates of rapid reactions were studied at low temperatures by a specialized technique termed cryogenic stopped-flow spectrophotometry. These measurements identified reaction conditions which favor the formation of catalytically competent oxidants. Chemical structures of reactive complexes was determined, and new, efficient catalysts for hydrocarbon oxidation were synthesized. Importantly, these catalysts are selective, they promote oxidation of hydrocarbons at a specific site. The catalysts are also efficient and robust, hundreds of cycles of substrate oxidation occur within minutes at room temperature. Furthermore, they enable utilization of environmentally friendly oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, which produces water as the only byproduct. Mechanistic insights uncovered the role of various acid-containing additives in catalytic oxidations. Proton delivery to the active catalytic sites facilitated oxidations, similarly to the catalytic pathways in metal-containing enzymes. Under certain conditions, two metals in one complex can act in concert, modeling the reactivity of a bacterial enzyme which converts methane into methanol. In related studies, a family of nickel complexes that react with carbon dioxide at the rates comparable to enzyme carbonic anhydrase, was discovered. Sequestration and che

  20. Osmoregulation in Methanogens (and Other Interesting Organisms)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Mary Fedarko [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2014-12-03

    Our research has been aimed at (i) identifying, (ii) determining mode of regulation, and (iii) understanding how different classes of compatible solutes (also termed osmolytes) affect macromolecular stability in response to osmotic and thermal stress. For solutes we have identified (e.g., di-inositol-1,1’-phosphate (DIP)), we used NMR to elucidate biosynthetic pathways and then cloned suspected enzymes in the pathway to explore how they are regulated. Compatible solutes are thought to protect proteins from thermal and osmotic stresses by being excluded from the surface, allowing critical water molecules to interact with the protein. This implies there are no specific binding interactions between osmolytes and proteins. However, we and others have often observed very specific solute effects for proteins that suggest a more direct interaction between solute and protein is likely can occur. Measuring such a weak interaction is extremely difficult. We have developed a solution NMR method, high-resolution field cycling relaxometry, that can measure spin-lattice relaxation rates as a function of magnetic field from 11.7 (the field of a 500 MHz spectrometer) to 0.003 T. The methodology is ideal for nuclei in small molecules with moderately long relaxation times at high fields – phosphate groups (31P), enriched carbonyls (13C), or methyl groups (1H). The protein of interest is spin-labeled to introduce a large dipole on it that will dominate the relaxation of nuclei on any small molecules that bind transiently. The key is to measure relaxation below 1-2 T (and extract nuclei-spin label distances in the bound complex) where the small molecule relaxation will be dominated by dipolar mechanisms with a correlation time indicative of the large protein complex. Our explorations of an inositol monophosphatase (the last step in DIP generation) localized four discrete binding sides for the thermoprotectant ?-glutamate. This is a novel approach, and while the work did not fully explain how this solute protected the IMPase from thermal denaturation, it did showcase a new and exciting method to monitor weak binding in biological systems.