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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Cellulose hydrogels prepared from micron-sized bamboo cellulose fibers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We demonstrated for the first time that dimensionally stable hydrogels could be obtained from bamboo pulp fibers through dialysis against distilled water followed by a short time of ultrasonic treatment. Micron-sized short fibers rather than cellulose nanofibrils constituted the majority of fibers in the hydrogels. During the pulping process with HNO3 and KClO3, carboxylic groups could be introduced to cellulose due to the mild oxidation of hydroxyl groups. When presented in aqueous NaOH, the carboxylic groups could be converted into their sodium salt form. The subsequent dialysis treatment against water made the negatively charged COO? groups extensively exposed. The negatively charged cellulose fibers could induce considerable electrostatic repulsion between them, which was discovered to govern the formation of hydrogels. In addition, it was revealed that homogeneous hydrogels could be formed when the pH was at 7, 9 and 11. However, when salt was added, no dimensionally stable hydrogel was obtained.

Xiaofang Zhang; Yaru Wang; Canhui Lu; Wei Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Method for separating the non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked cellulose fibers in cellulosic materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for enzymatically separating the non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked cellulose fibers in cellulosic materials. The cellulosic material, such as newsprint, is introduced into a first chamber containing a plastic canvas basket. This first chamber is in fluid communication, via plastic tubing, with a second chamber containing cellobiase beads in a plastic canvas basket. Cellulase is then introduced into the first chamber. A programmable pump then controls the flow rate between the two chambers. The action of cellulase and stirring in the first chamber results in the production of a slurry of newsprint pulp in the first chamber. This slurry contains non-inked fibers, inked fibers, and some cellobiose. The inked fibers and cellobiose flow from the first chamber to the second chamber, whereas the non-inked fibers remain in the first chamber because they are too large to pass through the pores of the plastic canvas basket. The resulting non-inked and inked fibers are then recovered. 6 figs.

Woodward, J.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Method for separating the non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked cellulose fibers in cellulosic materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for enzymatically separating the non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked cellulose fibers in cellulosic materials. The cellulosic material, such as newsprint, is introduced into a first chamber containing a plastic canvas basket. This first chamber is in fluid communication, via plastic tubing, with a second chamber containing cellobiase beads in a plastic canvas basket. Cellulase is then introduced into the first chamber. A programmable pump then controls the flow rate between the two chambers. The action of cellulase and stirring in the first chamber results in the production of a slurry of newsprint pulp in the first chamber. This slurry contains non-inked fibers, inked fibers, and some cellobiose. The inked fibers and cellobiose flow from the first chamber to the second chamber, whereas the non-inked fibers remain in the first chamber because they are too large to pass through the pores of the plastic canvas basket. The resulting non-inked and inked fibers are then recovered.

Woodward, Jonathan (Kingston, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Studying Cellulose Fiber Structure by SEM, XRD, NMR and Acid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Studying Cellulose Fiber Structure by SEM, XRD, NMR and Acid Hydrolysis. Abstract: Cotton linters were partially hydrolyzed in dilute acid and the morphology of remaining...

5

Evaluation of interphase properties in a cellulose fiber-reinforced polypropylene composite by nanoindentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fiber and polypropylene (PP) matrix in a cellulose fiber-reinforced PP composite were investigatedEvaluation of interphase properties in a cellulose fiber-reinforced polypropylene composite of Material Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, United States c Metals and Ceramic Division, Oak

Wang, Siqun

6

Real-Time Observation of the Swelling and Hydrolysis of a Single Crystalline Cellulose Fiber Catalyzed by Cellulase 7B  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

facilitate its application for the efficient and economical production of cellulosic ethanol. INTRODUCTIONReal-Time Observation of the Swelling and Hydrolysis of a Single Crystalline Cellulose Fiber Information ABSTRACT: The biodegradation of cellulose involves the enzymatic action of cellulases

Dutcher, John

7

Performance Testing of Radiant Barriers (RB) with R11, R19, and R30 Cellulose and Rock Wool Insulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lnvestlgated prevlously by ORNL, FSEC, and TVA. In each case, It was found that RBs, especially the RBR. do cause hlgher roof temperatures but that the Increase Is not large. In the worst case, ORNL found increases in roof temperatures of 10°F wlth the RBR... Attics Contalnlng Radlant Barrlers." Oak Ridge Natl onal Laboratory. Sponsored by the Department of Energy and TVA. ORNL/CON-200, July 1986. 5. Levins, W. P. and Karnitz, M. A.. "Heating Energy Measurement of Unoccupled Single-Faml ly Houses Wlth...

Hall, J. A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Cellulose solventbased biomass pretreatment breaks highly ordered hydrogen bonds in cellulose fibers of switchgrass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solvent-Based Solvent-Based Biomass Pretreatment Breaks Highly Ordered Hydrogen Bonds in Cellulose Fibers of Switchgrass Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, 1,2 Zhiguang Zhu, 1 Sungsool Wi, 3 Y.-H. Percival Zhang 1,2,4 1 Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061; telephone: 540-231-7414, fax: 540-231-3199; e-mail: ypzhang@vt.edu 2 Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 3 Chemistry Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 4 DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee Received 25 June 2010; revision received 23 August 2010; accepted 4 October 2010 Published online 21 October 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com).

9

Cellulose swelling and dissolution as a tool to study the fiber structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ methylmorpholine N-oxide and water mixtures, or soda solutions) or in ionic liquids are studied. Some cellulose. Key words: cellulose, swelling, dissolution, N ­ methylmorpholine N-oxide, ionic liquids, structure; 1 cells grow (2) . Whatever the origin of the native fiber cells, some common morphological architecture

Boyer, Edmond

10

Iodine Treatment of Lignin–Cellulose Acetate Electrospun Fibers: Enhancement of Green Fiber Carbonization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Iodine Treatment of Lignin–Cellulose Acetate Electrospun Fibers: Enhancement of Green Fiber Carbonization ... The chemical composition of the samples were analyzed using an Oxford Instruments X-Max20 energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), Thermo Scientific Nicolet 6700 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with a GladiATR single reflection ATR accessory (operated between 400 and 4000 cm–1 with a 4 cm–1 resolution averaged over 40 scans), and Renishaw Raman spectrometer operated using a 785 nm near-infrared laser (1100–1900 cm–1 with a 0.8 cm–1 resolution averaged over 3 scans). ... This work presents a systematic study of the ratio between the integrated intensities of the disorder-induced D and G Raman bands (ID/IG) in nanographite samples with different crystallite sizes (La) and using different excitation laser energies. ...

Makoto Schreiber; Singaravelu Vivekanandhan; Amar Kumar Mohanty; Manjusri Misra

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

11

Modifying cellulose fibers by adsorption/precipitation of xylan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Xylan was precipitated on bleached and unbleached softwood ... more detailed information of the distribution of adsorbed xylan on cellulosic surfaces. The adsorption step was carried out at ... the beating degree...

Albrecht Miletzky; Manuel Punz; Armin Zankel; Sandra Schlader…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Direct in Situ Observation of Synergism between Cellulolytic Enzymes during the Biodegradation of Crystalline Cellulose Fibers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct in Situ Observation of Synergism between Cellulolytic Enzymes during the Biodegradation types of T. reesei cellulolytic enzymes TrCel6A, TrCel7A, and TrCel7Band their mixtures. TrCel6A and Tr. When acting alone on native cellulose fibers, each of the three enzymes is incapable of significant

Dutcher, John

13

A revised structure and hydrogen bonding system in cellulose II from a neutron fiber diffraction analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal and molecular structure and hydrogen bonding system in cellulose II have been revised using new neutron diffraction data extending to 1.2 {angstrom} resolution collected from two highly crystalline fiber samples of mercerized flax. Mercerization was achieved in NaOH/H{sub 2}O for one sample and in NaOD/D{sub 2}O for the other, corresponding to the labile hydroxymethyl moieties being hydrogenated and deuterated, respectively. Fourier difference maps were calculated in which neutron difference amplitudes were combined with phases calculated from two revised X-ray models of cellulose II. The revised phasing models were determined by refinement against the X-ray data set of Kolpak and Blackwell, using the LALS methodology. Both models have two antiparallel chains organized in a P2{sub 1} space group and unit cell parameters: a = 8.01 {angstrom}, b = 9.04 {angstrom}, c = 10.36 {angstrom}, and {gamma} = 117.1{degree}. One has equivalent backbone conformations for both chains but different conformations for the hydroxymethyl moieties: gt for the origin chain and tg for the center chain. The second model based on the recent crystal structures of cellotetraose, has different conformations for the two chains but nearly equivalent conformations for the hydroxymethyl moieties. On the basis of the X-ray data alone, the models could not be differentiated. From the neutron Fourier difference maps, possible labile hydrogen atom positions were identified for each model and refined using LALS. The second model is significantly different from previous proposals based on the crystal structures of cellotetraose, MD simulations of cellulose II, and any potential hydrogen-bonding network in the structure of cellulose II determined in earlier X-ray fiber diffraction studies. The exact localization of the labile hydrogen atoms involved in this bonding, together with their donor and acceptor characteristics, is presented and discussed. This study provides, for the first time, the coordinates of all of the atoms in cellulose II.

Langan, P.; Nishiyama, Y.; Chanzy, H.

1999-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

14

X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Structure Study of Cellulose Fibers Wet-Spun from Environmentally Friendly NaOH/Urea Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, structure changes of regenerated cellulose fibers wet-spun from a cotton linter pulp (degree of polymerization {approx}620) solution in an NaOH/urea solvent under different conditions were investigated by simultaneous synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). WAXD results indicated that the increase in flow rate during spinning produced a better crystal orientation and a higher degree of crystallinity, whereas a 2-fold increase in draw ratio only affected the crystal orientation. When coagulated in a H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution at 15 {sup o}C, the regenerated fibers exhibited the highest crystallinity and a crystal orientation comparable to that of commercial rayon fibers by the viscose method. SAXS patterns exhibited a pair of meridional maxima in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the existence of a lamellar structure. A fibrillar superstructure was observed only at higher flow rates (>20 m/min). The conformation of cellulose molecules in NaOH/urea aqueous solution was also investigated by static and dynamic light scattering. It was found that cellulose chains formed aggregates with a radius of gyration, R{sub g}, of about 232 nm and an apparent hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, of about 172 nm. The NaOH/urea solvent system is low-cost and environmentally friendly, which may offer an alternative route to replace more hazardous existing methods for the production of regenerated cellulose fibers.

Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Wan, F.; Zhang, J.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.; Cai, J.; Zhang, L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

100 years of cellulose fiber diffraction and the emergence of complementary techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystallinity is a fundamental property of cellulose. Over recent years an understanding has developed of cellulose synthesized at the plasma membrane by protein complexes that add glucose sugars to linear cha...

Alfred French; Paul Langan

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

The bulking effect of dietary fiber in the rat large intestine: an in vivo study of cellulose, guar, pectin, wheat bran and oat bran  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE BULKING EFFECT OF DIETARY FIBER IN THE RAT LARGE INTESTINE: AN IN VIVO STUDY OF CELLULOSE, GUAR, PECTIN, WHEAT BRAN AND OAT BRAN A Thesis by JEANNE MARIE GAZZANIGA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition THE BULKING EFFECT OF DIETARY FIBER IN THE RAT LARGE INTESTINE: AN IN VIVO STUDY OF CELLULOSE, GUAR, PECTIN, WHEAT BRAN AND OAT BRAN A Thesis...

Gazzaniga, Jeanne Marie

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Studying Cellulose Fiber Structure by SEM, XRD, NMR and Acid Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cotton linters were partially hydrolyzed in dilute acid and the morphology of remaining macrofibrils studied with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) under various magnifications. The crystal region (microfibril bundles) in the macrofibrils was not altered by hydrolysis, and only amorphous cellulose was hydrolyzed and leached out from the macrofibrils. The diameter of microfibril bundles was 20-30 nm after the amorphous cellulose was removed by hydrolysis. XRD experiments confirm the unaltered diameter of the microfibrils after hydrolysis. The strong stability of these microfibril bundles in hydrolysis limits both the total sugar monomer yield and the size of nano particles or rods produced in hydrolysis. The large surface potential on the remaining microfibril bundles drives the agglomeration of macrofibrils.

Zhao, Haibo; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhang, Z. Conrad; Brown, Heather M.; Arey, Bruce W.; Holladay, John E.

2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

20

Development of a novel and environmentally friendly method for the separation of non-inked and inked cellulose fibers in wastepaper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is currently no method in existence for the separation of non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked fibers in old newsprint (ONP). Current methods for de-inking involve the pulping of the whole paper in the presence of chemicals (caustic sodium hydroxide, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, sodium silicate, hydrogen peroxide, and a surfactant) followed by washing and flotation operations. The result is a mixture of high- and low-quality de-inked secondary fibers and the production of wastewater that has to be rendered harmless prior to its discharge back to the environment. Water-based inks are a particular problem because of the difficulties in recovering the ink particles after their release from ONP by chemical treatment. Currently, only 15 to 20% of the newsprint market in the USA uses water-based inks. The use of such inks is, however, preferable from an environmental point of view. The work reported here solves several problems: (1) a separation of non-inked from inked cellulose fibers in ONP has been accomplished without the use of de-inking chemicals; (2) the ink is not released to any great extent from the inked fibers; (3) the non-inked fibers contain substantial quantities of long fibers ranging from 1 to 3.5 mm and, as such, are judged to be high-quality secondary fibers that could be recycled without further chemical treatment; and (4) the method is suitable for separating the non-inked and inked fibers in ONP utilizing water- and oil-based inks.

Woodward, J.; Koran, L.J. Jr.; Stephan, L.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wong, K.K.Y.; Saddler, J.H. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Crystal Structure and Hydrogen-Bonding System in Cellulose I? from Synchrotron X-ray and Neutron Fiber Diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystal and molecular structure together with the hydrogen-bonding system in cellulose I? has been determined using synchrotron and neutron diffraction data recorded from oriented fibrous samples prepared by aligning cellulose microcrystals from ...?

Yoshiharu Nishiyama; Paul Langan; Henri Chanzy

2002-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

22

Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) have attracted much attention over the past several years due to their  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) have attracted much attention over the past several years due- hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate). Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared from microcrystilline cellulose (MCC) using and spun into fibers using a spinneret of diameter 370 m and an ethanol coagulation bath. The fibers were

Collins, Gary S.

23

Ionic-Liquid Induced Changes in Cellulose Structure Associated with Enhanced Biomass Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of varying ionic liquid pretreatment parameters on various sources of lignocellulosic biomass have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fiber diffraction, and compositional analysis. Comparative enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar analysis were used to relate the observed changes in cellulose structure to biomass digestibility. In this study, the factor most clearly associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis is the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase.

Samayam, Indira P.; Hanson, B. Leif; Langan, Paul; Schall, Constance A. (Toledo)

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

24

Cellulosic ethanol at last?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cellulosic ethanol at last? 10.1126/science.345...The spigots are open at a new cellulosic ethanol plant in Emmetsburg, Iowa. PHOTO...northwest corner of Iowa? Cellulosic ethanol, in quantities that have never flowed...

Robert F. Service

2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

25

Cellulose and psyllium supplementation in 10 females: the effect on food intake and in vitro fermentation variables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fatty acids. Fleming and Rodriguez studied the effect of dietary fibers on fecal volatile fatty acids in five men (ll). The men were fed xylan, fiber-free, cellulose, pectin and corn bran diets. The corn bran resulted in the highest excretion... of volatile fatty acids, followed by pectin, cellulose, fiber-free and xylan respectively. It is evident that both in vitro fermentation and fiber supplementation studies have been employed to determine the impact of fermentation of dietary fiber...

Haynes, Susan Renee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

26

Trillium FiberFuels Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inc Place: Corvallis, Oregon Zip: 97333 Product: Oregon-based biochemical cellulosic ethanol technology developer. References: Trillium FiberFuels Inc1 This article is a stub....

27

Approaching zero cellulose loss in cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) production: recovery and characterization of cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and CNC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study demonstrated the potential of simultaneously recovering cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and producing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by strong sulfuric acid hydrolysis to minimize cellulose loss to near...

Q. Q. Wang; J. Y. Zhu; R. S. Reiner; S. P. Verrill; U. Baxa; S. E. McNeil

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Cellulosic Biofuels Disappoint  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cellulosic Biofuels Disappoint ... As part of the strategy, a goal of 36 billion gallons per year (bgy) of biofuel production was mandated by a Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) lasting from 2008 through 2022. ...

Jerald L. Schnoor

2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

29

Method of saccharifying cellulose  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

Johnson, Eric A. (Brookline, MA); Demain, Arnold L. (Wellesley, MA); Madia, Ashwin (Decatur, IL)

1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

30

Four Cellulosic Ethanol Breakthroughs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Today, the nation's first ever commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol biorefinery to use corn waste as a feedstock officially opened for business in Emmetsburg, Iowa. POET-DSM’s Project LIBERTY is the second of two Energy Department-funded cellulosic ethanol biorefineries to come on line within the past year. Learn more about how the Energy Department is helping the nation reduce its dependence on foreign oil and move the clean energy economy forward.

31

Method of saccharifying cellulose  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

1983-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

32

Correlating Detergent Fiber Analysis and Dietary Fiber Analysis Data for Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There exist large amounts of detergent fiber analysis data [neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL)] for many different potential cellulosic ethanol feedstocks, since these techniques are widely used for the analysis of forages. Researchers working in the area of cellulosic ethanol are interested in the structural carbohydrates in a feedstock (principally glucan and xylan), which are typically determined by acid hydrolysis of the structural fraction after multiple extractions of the biomass. These so-called dietary fiber analysis methods are significantly more involved than detergent fiber analysis methods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is feasible to correlate detergent fiber analysis values to glucan and xylan content determined by dietary fiber analysis methods for corn stover. In the detergent fiber analysis literature cellulose is often estimated as the difference between ADF and ADL, while hemicellulose is often estimated as the difference between NDF and ADF. Examination of a corn stover dataset containing both detergent fiber analysis data and dietary fiber analysis data predicted using near infrared spectroscopy shows that correlations between structural glucan measured using dietary fiber techniques and cellulose estimated using detergent techniques, and between structural xylan measured using dietary fiber techniques and hemicellulose estimated using detergent techniques are high, but are driven largely by the underlying correlation between total extractives measured by fiber analysis and NDF/ADF. That is, detergent analysis data is correlated to dietary fiber analysis data for structural carbohydrates, but only indirectly; the main correlation is between detergent analysis data and solvent extraction data produced during the dietary fiber analysis procedure.

Wolfrum, E. J.; Lorenz, A. J.; deLeon, N.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Why Sequence Cellulose Degrading Bacteria?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cellulose Degrading Bacteria? Cellulose Degrading Bacteria? One of the major DOE missions is the production of renewable fuels to reduce our dependence on foreign oil, and also to take the place of petroleum-based fuels as these resources dwindle. Biologically produced ethanol is one possible replacement for fossil fuels. Currently, ethanol is produced from corn starch, but there is much research into using lignocellulosic materials (those containing cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) as the raw material for ethanol production. Ethanol production from cellulose requires several steps: pretreatment with steam, acid, or ammonia; digestion of cellulose to sugars; and fermentation of sugars to ethanol. The slowest and most expensive step is the breakdown of cellulose, chemically accomplished by cellulases. The second and third

34

Microbial diversity of cellulose hydrolysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

871; 871; NO. OF PAGES 5 Please cite this article in press as: Wilson DB. Microbial diversity of cellulose hydrolysis, Curr Opin Microbiol (2011), doi:10.1016/j.mib.2011.04.004 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Microbial diversity of cellulose hydrolysis David B Wilson Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by microorganisms is a key step in the global carbon cycle. Despite its abundance only a small percentage of microorganisms can degrade cellulose, probably because it is present in recalcitrant cell walls. There are at least five distinct mechanisms used by different microorganisms to degrade cellulose all of which involve cellulases. Cellulolytic organisms and cellulases are extremely diverse possibly because their natural substrates, plant cell walls, are very diverse. At this time the microbial ecology of cellulose degradation in any environment is still

35

Sandia National Laboratories: cellulosic biofuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cellulosic biofuels Joint BioEnergy Institute Oxime-NIMS Work Featured on the Cover of ACS Chemical Biology On July 31, 2014, in Biofuels, Biomass, Capabilities, Energy,...

36

Biofuel Development from Cellulosic Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Land-use changes resulting in habitat loss and habitat fragmentation can impact native wildlife species. However, cellulosic biomass feedstocks have the potential to provide habitat for...

Kimberly O’Keefe; Clint J. Springer; Jonathan Grennell…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In 2010, Verenium...

38

The effect of dietary protein and fiber on in vivo ammonia concentration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

protein level, ten animals received a basal fiber-free diet, ten received the same diet diluted with 8X cellulose, and ten received the basal diet diluted with BX pectin. Cecal total ammonia (NH + NH ) concentration was highest 4 in the fiber-free high... protein and the cellulose high protein-fed rats. The proximal colon ammonia concentration was greatest in the fiber-free high protein treatment group, and the pectin-fed rats had a significantly greater concentration than the cellulose groups...

Marchant, Linda Jean

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Passively harmonic mode locked erbium doped fiber soliton laser with carbon nanotubes based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Passively harmonic mode locked erbium doped fiber soliton laser with carbon nanotubes based. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, "Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium- doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon

Turitsyn, Sergei K.

40

Compositions and methods for increasing cellulose production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This disclosure relates to methods and compositions for genetically altering cellulose biosynthesis.

Yang, Zhenbiao (Riverside, CA); Karr, Stephen (Camarillo, CA)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

PROCESS DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CELLULOSE HYDROLYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

controlled, ethanol produced from cellulose is not currentlycellulose to sugars that are readily fermentable to ethanol.

Lindsey, R.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorption agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure. 3 figs.

Walsh, M.A.; Morris, R.S.

1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

43

Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

Walsh, Myles A. (Falmouth, MA); Morris, Robert S. (Fairhaven, MA)

1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

44

Fiber type, meal frequency and colonic cytokinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of dietary fiber type (cellulose, pectin or oat bran) and meal frequency (gorge or nibble) on colonic short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), in vivo colonic pH and epithelial cell proliferation were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats...

Zhang, Jianhu

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

X-ray Structure of Mercerized Cellulose II at 1 Å Resolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A revised crystal structure for mercerized cellulose based on high-resolution synchrotron X-ray data collected from ramie fibers is reported (space group P21, a = 8.10(3) Å, b = 9.03(3) Å, c = 10.31(5) Å, ? = 117.10(5)°; 751 reflections in 304 composite ...

Paul Langan; Yoshiharu Nishiyama; Henri Chanzy

2001-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

46

Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic...

47

EFFECT OF NITROGEN OXIDE PRETREATMENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," LBL-of Cellulose and the Production of Ethanol," LBL-6859,the cellulose is a major obstacle to hydrolysis. Ethanol The

Borrevik, R.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Drying of fiber webs  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

Warren, D.W.

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

Cellulosic Biofuels and the Road to Energy Security  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cellulosic Biofuels and the Road to Energy Security ... And we badly need some operating commercial scale cellulosic biofuel plants. ...

Bruce E. Dale

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

50

Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

26 January 1983 research-article Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass [and Discussion...of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel, ethanol. Within the scope of this objective...maximize the conversion efficiency of ethanol production from biomass. This can be...

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass [and Discussion] D. I. C. Wang G...microbiological conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel, ethanol. Within the...efficiency of ethanol production from biomass. This can be achieved through the effective...

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Cellulosic ethanol | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cellulosic ethanol Cellulosic ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Cellethanol.jpg Cellulosic ethanol is identical to first generation bio ethanol except that it can be derived from agricultural residues, other lignocellulosic raw materials or energy crops. These lignocellulosic raw materials are more widely available than the standard material used for ethanol. They are also considered to be more sustainable, however they need to be broken down (hydrolysed) into simple sugars prior to distillation, a much more complex process than the first generation bioethanol. It first must go through pretreatment,hydrolysis then a conversion. Research since the 1970s and large investments are being made in the US and Europe to speed up development of this route to bioethanol. Biomass refineries like Inbicon in Denmark are producing

53

Strong and Tough Cellulose Nanopaper with High Specific Surface Area and Porosity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After all NaClO was consumed, the pulp fibers were filtered and washed several times with deionized water until the filtrate solution was neutral. ... 300 mg solid content of cellulose) was diluted to ca. 0.1 wt %, degassed, and filtrated on top of a 0.65 ?m filter membrane (DVPP, Millipore) until a strong hydrogel is formed (see picture of the hydrogel in Figure 1b). ... The results are preliminary but demonstrate the ability of this method to give cellulose aerogels of large surface areas (400-500 m2 g-1) which may be useful as adsorbents, heat/sound insulators, filters, catalyst supports, or carbon aerogel precursors. ...

Houssine Sehaqui; Qi Zhou; Olli Ikkala; Lars A. Berglund

2011-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

54

Consolidated Bio-Processing of Cellulosic Biomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using Yeast Consortium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

performance, ethanol and cellulose hydrolysis measurementsSimultaneous ethanol fermentation and cellulose hydrolysisand fermentation of cellulose to ethanol. Appl. Environ.

Goyal, Garima

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

57

Catalytic transformation of cellulose into platform chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conversion of biomass to renewable and valuable chemicals has attracted global interest in order to build up sustainable societies. Cellulose is the most abundant and non-food biomass; however, the low reactivity of cellulose has prevented its use in chemical industry except for the paper manufacturing. The heterogeneous catalysis for the conversion of cellulose has been expected to overcome this issue, because various types of heterogeneous catalysts can be designed and applied in a wide range of reaction conditions. Furthermore, solid catalysts are easily recovered and reused. In this review article, we show the present situation and perspective of heterogeneous catalysis for the transformation of cellulose into useful platform chemicals.

Mizuho Yabushita; Hirokazu Kobayashi; Atsushi Fukuoka

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Accelerated Cellulose Depolymerization Catalyzed by Paired Metal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Depolymerization Catalyzed by Paired Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvent. Accelerated Cellulose Depolymerization Catalyzed by Paired Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid...

59

Inverse Temperature-Dependent Pathway of Cellulose Decrystallization...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

unchanged after the dimer diffused into the cellulose matrix. On the other hand, the rate of TFA penetration into the cellulose matrix was greatly retarded at higher...

60

Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes for cellulosic biomass conversion are commercial •and advances in biomass conversion technologies forenhance conversion and extend impact of cellulosic biomass

Wyman, C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Methods for enhancing the degradation or conversion of cellulosic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to methods for degrading or converting a cellulosic material and for producing a substance from a cellulosic material.

Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA) Rey, Michael (Davis, CA); Ding, Hanshu (Davis, CA)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

62

Single-step conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Single-step conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a versatileplatform chemical. Single-step conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a...

63

Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of glucose from cellulose Projected Cellulosic Ethanol CostsEthanol Research • Improve the understanding of biomass fractionation, pretreatment, and cellulosecellulose to glucose, and ferment all sugars Ethanol

Wyman, C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Research and Development  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Cellulosic Ethanol Cellulosic Ethanol Research and Development Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Research and Development Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Research and Development Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Research and Development Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Research and Development Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Research and Development Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Research and Development Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State

65

Project LIBERTY Biorefinery Starts Cellulosic Ethanol Production  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

Project LIBERTY, the nation’s first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plant to use corn waste as a feedstock, announced the start of production today. Once operating at full, commercial-scale, the biorefinery in Emmetsburg, Iowa will produce 25 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year - enough to avoid approximately 210,000 tons of CO2 emissions annually.

66

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Biofuel Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Cellulosic Biofuel Tax Cellulosic Biofuel Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Biofuel Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Biofuel Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Biofuel Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Biofuel Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Biofuel Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Biofuel Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Cellulosic Biofuel Tax Exemption Fuel consisting of cellulosic biofuel or a blend of gasoline and cellulosic

67

Definition: Cellulosic ethanol | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dictionary.png Dictionary.png Cellulosic ethanol An advanced type of biofuel that is produced by breaking down and using the cellulose compound found in trees and grasses.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel produced from wood, grasses, or the inedible parts of plants. It is a type of biofuel produced from lignocellulose, a structural material that comprises much of the mass of plants. Lignocellulose is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Corn stover, Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Miscanthus grass species, wood chips and the byproducts of lawn and tree maintenance are some of the more popular cellulosic materials for ethanol production. Production of ethanol from lignocellulose has the advantage of abundant and

68

Cellulose Pyrolysis A Literature, Review.  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Reaction Mechanisms in Reaction Mechanisms in Cellulose Pyrolysis A Literature, Review. - - pacific N o r t h ~ ~ ~ , baboratwies I - - bCL-T-,,;, .,- , . . . I ' I . - " 1- jl,! # . .' , . - --h 1 , i b - . "I 1.- . . ., .. ' N O T - I C E , , If PACIF tC NORTHWLST U B O R A T ~ R Y .4peiild by B h m E far c h t ,EP4ERGY RESEARCH AN0 PEVELOPMEM ADMtNlSTRAnQN U m h Contract Z Y - ~ ~ - C ~ & I # D w n : m a , m & l 3 Q j l m OIdrfrn m y - !*? 1SI71Y9 1 - m-u3 2s-m .**-2?3 ,Sbca lcPa w m *a0 Iffy &a It- w-% w w @.a SlO.0 m u 6 REACTION MECHANISMS IN CELLULOSE PYROLYSIS A LITERATURE REVIEW by Peter M. Molton T.F. Demmitt Chemical Technology Department BATTELLE Pacific Northwest Laboratories Richland, Washington 99352 CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L I S T OF F I G U R E S iii L I S T O F T A B L E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i v . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . INTRODUCTION 1

69

Effects of Dilute Acid Pretreatment on Cellulose DP and the Relationship Between DP Reduction and Cellulose Digestibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The degree of polymerization(DP) of cellulose is considered to be one of the most important properties affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Various pure cellulosic and biomass materials have been used in a study of the effect of dilute acid treatment on cellulose DP. A substantial reduction in DP was found for all pure cellulosic materials studied even at conditions that would be considered relatively mild for pretreatment. The effect of dilute acid pretreatment on cellulose DP in biomass samples was also investigated. Corn stover pretreated with dilute acid under the most optimal conditions contained cellulose with a DPw in the range of 1600{approx}3500, which is much higher than the level-off DP(DPw 150{approx}300) obtained with pure celluloses. The effect of DP reduction on the saccharification of celluloses was also studied. From this study it does not appear that cellulose DP is a main factor affecting cellulose saccharification.

Wang, W.; Chen, X.; Tucker, M.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords: Cellulose, ethanol, biofuel, Clostridiumincreases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrassincreases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Cellulose- and Xylan-Degrading Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria from Biocompost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to utilize both cellulose and xylan, including strains of Clostridium...species reported to utilize xylan, and the rate of cellulose...able to degrade cellulose, xylan, and their mixture with the...locations 40 to 50 cm below the surface and temperatures ranging from...

M. V. Sizova; J. A. Izquierdo; N. S. Panikov; L. R. Lynd

2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

72

Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

Johnson, B.M.

1986-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

73

Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

Johnson, Bruce M. (Bend, OR)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Carbon Fiber  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

75

Carbon Fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

76

Fiber Bundles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fiber bundles, their morphisms and sections are defined. Transition functions are introduced and used to describe the global structure of a bundle and to build it out of local data. Particular clas...

Lorenzo Fatibene; Mauro Francaviglia

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL underBioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol, LBL-of Cellulose by Coupling with Ethanol Fermentation (with

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Cellulose by Coupling with Ethanol Fermentation." Reportand Continuous Cellulose Hydrolysis with and without EthanolLindsey. CELLULOSE BIOCONVERSION TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

Wilke, C.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Cellulose by Coupling with Ethanol Fermentation." ReportOf Cellulose And Production Of Ethanol I Charles R. WilkeBIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL CharlesBIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL Charlesof Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Lawrence Berkeley

Wilke, Charles R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol." (JuneBIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL CharlesBIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL Charles

Wilke, Charles R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Cellulosic biomass could help meet California’s transportation fuel needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol-production from cellobiose, amorphous cellulose, andsugars into ethanol. hemicellulose and cellulose by hydro-ethanol has been improving the technology for hydro- lysis of recalcitrant cellulose,

Wyman, Charles E.; Yang, Bin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with either enzyme or cellulose, III, ETHANOL FERMENTATIONof Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Progress Report,of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Progress Report,

Wilke, Charles R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to fuel ethanol because it not only contains cellulose andCellulose conversion, % Co-Fermentation Glucose-ethanolamount of cellulose, can be used as fuel ethanol feedstocks

Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL underof Cellulose by Coupling with Ethanol Fermentation, withCandidate. CELLULOSE BIOCONVERSION TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

High-Temperature Enzymatic Breakdown of Cellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Materiais, Campinas/SP, Brazil. Supplemental material...friends at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for...funded by Department of Energy awards 06103-OKL and...Cellulose is an abundant and renewable biopolymer that can be...

Hongliang Wang; Fabio Squina; Fernando Segato; Andrew Mort; David Lee; Kirk Pappan; Rolf Prade

2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

87

Flocculation of microfibrillated cellulose in shear flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose suspensions under stepped flow and constant shear were studied using a combination of rotational dynamic rheometer and digital imaging. Du...

Anni Karppinen; Tapio Saarinen; Juha Salmela; Antti Laukkanen…

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Cellulose biosynthesis and function in bacteria.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for obtaining enhanced or reduced expres- sion by genetic engineering; as mentioned above, the genes for cellulose synthesis reside...food stabilizers (102a), and acoustic diaphragms for audio instruments (80a). Eventually, the wide availability of...

P Ross; R Mayer; M Benziman

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Time-resolved X-ray diffraction microprobe studies of the conversion of cellulose I to ethylenediamine-cellulose I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Structural changes during the treatment of films of highly crystalline microfibers of Cladophora cellulose with ethylenediamine (EDA) have been studied by time-resolved X-ray microprobe diffraction methods. As EDA penetrates the sample and converts cellulose I to EDA-cellulose I, the measured profile widths of reflections reveal changes in the shapes and average dimensions of cellulose I and EDA-cellulose I crystals. The (200) direction of cellulose I is most resistant to EDA penetration, with EDA penetrating most effectively at the hydrophilic edges of the hydrogen bonded sheets of cellulose chains. Most of the cellulose chains in the initial crystals of cellulose I are incorporated into crystals of EDA-cellulose I. The size of the emerging EDA-cellulose I crystals is limited to about half of their size in cellulose I, most likely due to strains introduced by the penetration of EDA molecules. There is no evidence of any gradual structural transition from cellulose I to EDA-cellulose I involving a continuously changing intermediate phase. Rather, the results point to a rapid transition to EDA-cellulose I in regions of the microfibrils that have been penetrated by EDA.

Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Wada, Masahisa; Hanson, B. Leif; Langan, Paul (Toledo); (U of Tokyo); (CNRS-CRMD); (LANL)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

90

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Cellulosic Ethanol Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit A qualified investor may receive a tax credit of up to 40% of an

91

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Cellulosic Ethanol Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Cellulosic Ethanol Investment Tax Credit A tax credit is available for investments in a qualified small business

92

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Cellulosic Ethanol Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing The Kansas Development Finance Authority may issue revenue bonds to cover

93

New Insights into Hydrogen Bonding and Stacking Interactions in Cellulose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this quantum chemical study, we explore hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) and stacking interactions in different crystalline cellulose allomorphs, namely cellulose I and cellulose IIII. We consider a model system representing a cellulose crystalline core, made from six cellobiose units arranged in three layers with two chains per layer. We calculate the contributions of intrasheet and intersheet interactions to the structure and stability in both cellulose I and cellulose IIII crystalline cores. Reference structures for this study were generated from molecular dynamics simulations of water-solvated cellulose I and IIII fibrils. A systematic analysis of various conformations describing different mutual orientations of cellobiose units is performed using the hybrid density functional theory (DFT) with the M06-2X with 6-31+G (d, p) basis sets. We dissect the nature of the forces that stabilize the cellulose I and cellulose IIII crystalline cores and quantify the relative strength of H-bonding and stacking interactions. Our calculations demonstrate that individual H-bonding interactions are stronger in cellulose I than in cellulose IIII. We also observe a significant contribution from cooperative stacking interactions to the stabilization of cellulose I . In addition, the theory of atoms-in-molecules (AIM) has been employed to characterize and quantify these intermolecular interactions. AIM analyses highlight the role of nonconventional CH O H-bonding in the cellulose assemblies. Finally, we calculate molecular electrostatic potential maps for the cellulose allomorphs that capture the differences in chemical reactivity of the systems considered in our study.

Langan, Paul [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Template Synthesis of Nanostructured Metals using Cellulose Nanocrystal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this chapter, cellulose nanocrystal (CNXL) has been used as a template and reducing agent for synthesizing nanoscale inorganic solids such as metal oxide, metal carbide, and nanocrystalline metals. CNXL selectively nucleates metal or metal oxide phases in ordered arrangements commensurate with the attendant structure and chemistry of the fiber. The reaction has an analogy to the well-known Tollen’s reagent where addition of an aldehyde or glucose analyte to a glass vessel containing a soluble ammoniacal silver complex causes reduction of the silver to form a mirror on the vessel surface. For the synthesis of TiO2, CNXL produced mesoporous anatase with 5-10 nm particle sizes and 170-200 m2/g surface area after air-calcination. Silica-infiltrated CNXL produced very homogeneous SiC nanowires with 70 nm in diameter at 1400 oC in Ar. For the syntheses of metal nanoparticles, upon addition of aqueous metal ion containing solutions (Cu(II), Ni(II), Ag(I), Au(III), Pd(II), Pt(IV), or even selenite, Se(IV)) into the CNXL suspension, reduction to the metal occurs under hydrothermal conditions to form ordered metal nanostructures. Ni (II) and Cu(II) ions required high temperature (300-400 oC) to be reduced due to their low reduction potentials. However, metal ions including Ag(I), Au(III), Pt(IV), Pd(II), Se(IV) needed lower temperatures (160-200 oC) to be reduced. Enhanced catalytic activity on these templated surfaces has been demonstrated for a methylene-blue dye photo-induced decomposition (Se nanocrystals resident on crystalline cellulose).

Shin, Yongsoon; Exarhos, Gregory J.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

MICROÖRGANISMS CONCERNED IN THE DECOMPOSITION OF CELLULOSES IN THE SOIL  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1886 ttber garung der Cellulose mit Bildung von Methan und Kohlensiiure. Ztshr. physiol. Chem., 10...OMELIANSKI, W. 1904(a) Ueber die Trennung der Wasserstoff- und Methan- garung der Cellulose. Centrbl. Bakt., 2 Abt...

Selman A. Waksman; C. E. Skinner

1926-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement: Supplementary Material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement: Supplementary Material Erin Baker Keywords: Biofuels; Technology R&D; Uncertainty; Environmental policy 2 #12;1 Introduction This paper contains supplementary material for "Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

97

Electric Field Alignment of Cellulose Based-Polymer Nanocomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cellulose whiskers (CWs) obtained from naturally occuring cellulose are nano-inclusions which show a lot of promise as mechanical reinforcements in polymers. Typically, a relatively high content is added to realize improvement in effective...

Kalidindi, Sanjay Varma

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

98

Simulation studies of the insolubility of cellulose  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Simulation Simulation studies of the insolubility of cellulose Malin Bergenstråhle a , Jakob Wohlert a, , Michael E. Himmel b , John W. Brady a, * a Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States b National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401-3393, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 4 February 2010 Received in revised form 5 June 2010 Accepted 25 June 2010 Available online 6 July 2010 Keywords: Cellulase Cellobiohydrolase I Cellulose Computer modeling Molecular dynamics a b s t r a c t Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate the potentials of mean force for separating short cellooligomers in aqueous solution as a means of estimating the contributions of hydrophobic stacking and hydrogen bonding to the insolubility of crystalline cellulose. A series of four potential of mean force (pmf) calculations

99

Why sequence cellulose degrading fungus Amanita thiersii?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sequence cellulose degrading fungus Amanita thiersii? sequence cellulose degrading fungus Amanita thiersii? Amanita thiersii is a white, sticky mushroom that obtains its carbon by decomposing grasses, playing a role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. The fungus is commonly found in grasslands throughout the central United States and grows in grassy areas away from trees, often seen on lawns after the rain. By sequencing A. thiersii's genome, researchers hope increase the list of fungi that might provide enzymes that can be used to commercialize the production of cellulosic biofuel, which falls in with the U.S. Department of Energy's mission to develop clean energy, by potentially offering a more cost-effective method of breaking down lignocellulose in plant cell walls. Because the fungus is found in regions where the biomass is high in

100

Effects of dietary fat, fiber and carcinogen on fecal diacylglcyerols in the rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of physiological modifiers such as diet and carcinogen on fecal DAG mass and composition have not been reported. We designed a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial study (2 fats: corn oil 'I and fish oil; 2 fibers: pectin and 'Cellulose; with and without carcinogen). Rats were...

Pickering, Jennifer Sharon

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

BSA Treatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose in Lignin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BSA Treatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose in Lignin Containing Substrates Bin Yang cellulose and solids containing 56% cellulose and 28% lignin from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn of cellulase and particularly beta-glucosidase on lignin. Of particular note, BSA treatment of pretreated corn

California at Riverside, University of

102

Biofuel Supply Chain Infrastructure Optimizing the Evolution of Cellulosic Biofuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biofuel Supply Chain Infrastructure Optimizing the Evolution of Cellulosic Biofuel Center infrastructure. Cellulosic-based ad- vanced biofuel has a target of 21 billion gallons by 2022 and requires into a national economic model of biofuel sustainability. Cellulosic biomass relocates the demand

103

Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Fiber Consortium SHARE Carbon Fiber Consortium Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium The Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium was established in 2011 to...

104

Nano-fibrillated cellulose-zeolites based new hybrid composites aerogels with super thermal insulating properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Aerogel monoliths were prepared using combinations of cellulose microfibers, cellulose nanofibers and nanozeolites. It was shown that these hybrid materials have tunable thermal conductivity and mechanical properties. Thermal conductivity value as low as 18 mW m?1 K?1 was obtained that confirms the super-insulation ability of these new fibrous aerogels. Synergism on the thermal conductivity properties was shown by adjunction of nanozeolites to cellulose microfibrils by reaching pore size lower than 100 nm that significantly reduces the thermal conductivity of the hybrid aerogels as predicted by Knudsen et al. In one hand, these properties seem to depend strongly on the interactions between the component and their relative fractions. On the other hand, the addition of nanofibrils to micrometric fibers based aerogel yields a significant increase of its stiffness. The higher improvement of the stiffness was obtained when nanofibrils with high surface charge are added. This study certainly opens a new investigation field to optimize the thermal conductivity properties of hybrid nanocellulose based aerogels.

Dounia Bendahou; Abdelkader Bendahou; Bastien Seantier; Yves Grohens; Hamid Kaddami

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Microbial Cellulose Utilization: Fundamentals and Biotechnology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Microbiology ARTICLE REVIEWS Microbial Cellulose...utilization in natural environments is further enhanced...and comprehensive reviews address this large...and the research literature primarily as an...process engineering literature to refer to a process...a comprehensive review of the pretreatment...

Lee R. Lynd; Paul J. Weimer; Willem H. van Zyl; Isak S. Pretorius

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Thermal degradation of cellulose in alkali  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass in an alkaline aqueous slurry can be liquefied by heat and pressure. Understanding the mechanisms of biomass liquefaction to improve the efficiency of converting biomass to useful products, particularly chemicals and synthetic fuels is discussed. To study the chemical mechanisms of this process, pure cellulose, the main component of biomass, was liquefied. The 78 cellulose liquefaction products that were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry include polyols, furans, ketones, hydrocarbons, and aromatic compounds. Polyols may be formed by hydrogenolytic cleavage. Furans an cyclic ketones may be cyclization products of dicarbonyl intermediates formed by aldol condensation of small initial degradation products such as acetone and acrolein. Several of these small carbonyl compounds were used as model compounds to test proposed mechanisms for furans and cyclic ketones and obtained products supporting five of the mechanisms. For the best case of 26 cellulose liquefaction experiments, 34% of the initial mass of the cellulose was converted to acetone-soluble oil with a heat of combustion of 14,000 Btu/lb.

Miller, R.K.; Molton, P.M.; Russell, J.A.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Biochemistry of Cellulose and Related Polysaccharides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... cereal grains are important in the germination process3. Thus oat glucan is located on the surface of the kernel, and during germination, it has been suggested, it is dissolved ... cellulose arise by resynthesis of fragmented glucose molecules. Similar experiments have been extended to the xylan of the wheat plant by Altermatt and Neish10. The results suggest that the xylose ...

B. A. STONE

1958-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

108

Cellulose-Bound Magnesium Diboride Superconductivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cellulose-Bound Magnesium Diboride Superconductivity Y.L. Lin and M.O. Pekguleryuz Department Canada Abstract--Two-phase superconductor tapes were produced by blending high purity magnesium diboride junctions. I. INTRODUCTION Magnesium diboride was found to be superconducting in 2001 by Nagamatsu et al. [1

Ryan, Dominic

109

Polyethylene fiber drawing optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymer fiber drawing creates fibers with enhanced thermal conductivity and strength compared to bulk polymer because drawing aligns the molecular chains. I optimize the polymer fiber drawing method in order to achieve ...

Chiloyan, Vazrik

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Physical Energy Accounting in California: A Case Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

California's target for greenhouse gas reduction in part relies on the development of viable low-carbon fuel alternatives to gasoline. It is often assumed that cellulosic ethanol--ethanol made from the structural parts of a plant and not from the food parts--will be one of these alternatives. This study examines the physical viability of a switchgrass-based cellulosic ethanol industry in California from the point of view of the physical requirements of land, water, energy and other material use. Starting from a scenario in which existing irrigated pastureland and fiber-crop land is converted to switchgrass production, the analysis determines the total acreage and water supply available and the resulting total biofuel feedstock output under different assumed yields. The number and location of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries that can be supported is also determined, assuming that the distance from field to biorefinery would be minimized. The biorefinery energy input requirement, available energy from the fraction of biomass not converted to ethanol, and energy output is calculated at various levels of ethanol yields, making different assumptions about process efficiencies. The analysis shows that there is insufficient biomass (after cellulose separation and fermentation into ethanol) to provide all the process energy needed to run the biorefinery; hence, the purchase of external energy such as natural gas is required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. The higher the yield of ethanol, the more external energy is needed, so that the net gains due to improved process efficiency may not be positive. On 2.7 million acres of land planted in switchgrass in this scenario, the switchgrass outputproduces enough ethanol to substitute for only 1.2 to 4.0percent of California's gasoline consumption in 2007.

Coughlin, Katie; Fridley, David

2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

111

Strong fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was directed to a new and generic approach to the development of new materials with novel and interesting properties, and to the precision fabrication of these materials in one and two-dimensional forms. Advanced deposition processes and microfabrication technology were used to produce fibers and grids of metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and mixtures of controlled composition and structure, and with new and interesting mechanical and physical properties. Deposition processes included electron beam evaporation, co-deposition of mixtures by dual electron beam evaporation, thermal evaporation, sputtering of a single element or compound, sputtering of a single element in a gaseous atmosphere to produce compounds, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD), and selective tungsten chemical vapor deposition (W-CVD). The approach was to use the deposition processes in coordination with patterns generated by optical lithography to produce fibers with transverse dimensions in the micron range, and lengths from less than a millimeter to several centimeters. The approach is also applicable to the production of two-dimensional grids and particulates of controlled sizes and geometries.

Li, Che-Yu.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

PILOT PLANT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL. REPORT OF WORK PROGRESS, JUNE 30, 1977  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioconversion of Cellulose to Ethanol" to the Professionaland produce ethanol directly from cellulose. The methodof Cellulose by Coupling with Ethanol Fermentation." ,.l

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose by an engineered yeast consortium displaying a functional mini-cellulosome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose by anKeywords: cellulose, cellulosome, ethanol, yeast,growth and ethanol production from cellulose. However,

Goyal, Garima; Tsai, Shen-Long; Madan, Bhawna; DaSilva, Nancy A; Chen, Wilfred

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Cellulosic Biofuels: Importance, Recalcitrance, and Pretreatment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cellulosic Cellulosic Biofuels: Importance, Recalcitrance, and Pretreatment Lee Lynd 1,2 and Mark Laser 1 1 Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, USA 2 BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA 2.1 Our Place in History The two most profound societal transformations in history have been spawned by radical shifts in human- kind's use of natural resources. The agricultural revolution, which spanned about two millennia beginning around 4000 BC, saw hunter-gatherer societies subsisting on wild plants and animals being largely dis- placed by those cultivating the land to produce crops and domesticated livestock. The industrial revolution followed, beginning around 1700 and lasting roughly two hundred years, during which time preindustrial agricultural societies gave way to those harnessing precious metals and fossil energy to develop sophisti- cated economies centered

115

Review: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

2011-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

116

Belize-OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Belize-OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment Belize-OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment Jump to: navigation, search Name Belize-OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment Agency/Company /Organization Organization of American States (OAS) Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Biomass Topics Market analysis, Background analysis Website http://www.sepa-americas.net/p Program Start 2008 Program End 2009 Country Belize UN Region Latin America and the Caribbean References OAS Project Database[1] "The main objective of the Project is to assess the market potential for cellulosic ethanol in Belize through sustainable implementation of cellulosic ethanol technology utilizing agricultural and forest residues as primary biomass feedstock. A supplementary objective will be to help prepare for potential future cellulosic ethanol projects in other Caribbean

117

Fiber optic connector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale SustainableHydrogen Batteries Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth Ethanol •Ethanol, ethyl alcohol, fermentation ethanol, or just “

Wyman, C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

The Journey to Commercializing Cellulosic Biofuels in the United States  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

In Hugoton, Kansas, a state-of-the-art biorefinery has begun producing 25 million gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol.

120

Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

43% Hemicellulose 27% Lignin 17% Other 13% Agricultural45% Hemicellulose 25% Lignin 22% Extractives 5% Ash3% Woody Crops Ash 15% Lignin 10% Cellulose Hemicellulose 9%

Wyman, C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Structures of cellulose acetate membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies under the scanning electron microscope have shown that the cellulose acetate membranes used for reverse osmosis are high-molecular-weight condensation structures of...

I. N. Vlodavets; G. Z. Nefedova…

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Current State of Technology for Cellulosic Ethanol | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

The Current State of Technology for Cellulosic Ethanol At the February 12, 2009 joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Andy Aden (National Renewable...

123

Less is more: Novel cellulose structure requires fewer enzymes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC). Scientists are investigating the unique properties of crystalline cellulose...

124

Phase Transitions in Cellulose Microfibril Dispersions by High-Energy Mechanical Deagglomeration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phase Transitions in Cellulose Microfibril Dispersions by High-Energy Mechanical Deagglomeration ... This is achieved by applying high-energy mechanical deagglomeration to bacterial cellulose (BC) networks in the presence of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). ...

Sandra J. Veen; Anke Kuijk; Peter Versluis; Henk Husken; Krassimir P. Velikov

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

125

EXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBER AND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH OPACITY PAPER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alkalinity, precipitates calcium carbonate (PCC) in situ within pulp fibers. Because paper made from fiber include increasing the recovery and utilization of recycled fiber and optimizing virgin fiber yieldEXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBER AND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH

Abubakr, Said

126

PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL. REPORT OF WORK PROGRESS, JAN. 31, 1977  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioconversion Of Cellulose And Production Of Ethanol CharlesBIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under

Wilke, C.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Department of Energy Delivers on R&D Targets around Cellulosic...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

advances required to produce cellulosic ethanol that is cost competitive with petroleum. Cellulosic ethanol is fuel produced from the inedible, organic material abundant in...

128

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EthanolOf Cellulose And Production Of Ethanol I Charles R. WilkeCELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of U.S.

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Synthesis of ?-Cyclodextrin Functionalized Cellulose Nanocrystals and Their Interactions with Amphiphilic Compounds.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) obtained from acid hydrolysis of cellulose fibres has attracted enormous interests due to its large surface area, high negative surface charge density,… (more)

Zhang, Feifei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Coarse-grained model for the interconversion between different crystalline cellulose allomorphs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the results of Langevin dynamics simulations on a coarse grained model for crystalline cellulose. In particular, we analyze two different cellulose crystalline forms: cellulose I (the natural form of cellulose) and cellulose IIII (obtained after cellulose I is treated with anhydrous liquid ammonia). Cellulose IIII has been the focus of wide interest in the field of cellulosic biofuels as it can be efficiently hydrolyzed to glucose (its enzymatic degradation rates are up to 5 fold higher than those of cellulose I ). In turn, glucose can eventually be fermented into fuels. The coarse-grained model presented in this study is based on a simplified geometry and on an effective potential mimicking the changes in both intracrystalline hydrogen bonds and stacking interactions during the transition from cellulose I to cellulose IIII. The model accurately reproduces both structural and thermomechanical properties of cellulose I and IIII. The work presented herein describes the structural transition from cellulose I to cellulose IIII as driven by the change in the equilibrium state of two degrees of freedom in the cellulose chains. The structural transition from cellulose I to cellulose IIII is essentially reduced to a search for optimal spatial arrangement of the cellulose chains.

Langan, Paul [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

UTILIZATION OF IMMOBILIZED B-GLUCOSIDASE IN THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enzymatic conversion of cellulose to ethanol. Reprinted frombetween the cellulose hydrolysis and ethanol fer- mentationcellulose to glucose in order to ferment the glucose to ethanol

Isaacs, S.H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion Rajeev Kumar degradation products, collectively termed as chars and/or pseudo-lignin. In order to understand the factors derived pseudo-lignin on cellulose conversion at the moderate to low enzyme loadings necessary

California at Riverside, University of

133

Hydration Control of the Mechanical and Dynamical Properties of Cellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Loukas Petridis *†, Hugh M. O’Neill ‡§, Mariah Johnsen †?, Bingxin Fan ?, Roland Schulz †#, Eugene Mamontov ?, Janna Maranas ?, Paul Langan ‡§?, and Jeremy C. Smith †# ... sucrofermentans (ATCC 700178) in minimal media and purification of cellulose has been described previously. ... In vivo generated deuterated bacterial cellulose, cultivated from 100% deuterated glycerol in D2O medium, was analyzed for deuterium incorporation by ionic liq. ...

Loukas Petridis; Hugh M. O’Neill; Mariah Johnsen; Bingxin Fan; Roland Schulz; Eugene Mamontov; Janna Maranas; Paul Langan; Jeremy C. Smith

2014-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

134

Single Molecule Study of Cellulase Hydrolysis of Crystalline Cellulose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report seeks to elucidate the role of cellobiohydrolase-I (CBH I) in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. A single-molecule approach uses various imaging techniques to investigate the surface structure of crystalline cellulose and changes made in the structure by CBH I.

Liu, Y.-S.; Luo, Y.; Baker, J. O.; Zeng, Y.; Himmel, M. E.; Smith, S.; Ding, S.-Y.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking October 6, 2007 - 4:21pm Addthis SOPERTON, GA - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today attended a groundbreaking ceremony for Range Fuels' biorefinery - one of the nation's first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol biorefineries - and made the following statement. "Together, the Department of Energy and private sector pioneers, such as Range Fuels, are blending science and technology to advance the President's goal of reducing our dependence on foreign oil," U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman said. "The production of cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol is a significant part of America's energy future. This new

136

DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol Place Itasca, Illinois Zip 60143 Product DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol is a joint venture to develop technologies for cellulosic ethanol. Coordinates 32.1666°, -97.154369° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.1666,"lon":-97.154369,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

137

EA-1704: Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery,  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

704: Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic 704: Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, BlueFire Fulton Renewable Energy, LLC, Fulton, Mississippi EA-1704: Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, BlueFire Fulton Renewable Energy, LLC, Fulton, Mississippi SUMMARY ThIs EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a propsal, (Fulton Project) that consists of the design, construction and operation of a biorefinery facility producing ethanol and other co-products from cellulosic materials utilizing a patented concentrated acid hydrolysis process. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD June 4, 2010 EA-1704: Finding of No Significant Impact Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, BlueFire

138

Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup ?1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

139

Multimaterial fiber electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As the number of materials that are thermally-drawable into fibers is rapidly expending, numerous new multimaterial fiber architectures can be envisioned and fabricated. High-melting temperature metals, compound materials, ...

Lestoquoy, Guillaume

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Fiber draw synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The synthesis of a high-melting temperature semiconductor in a low-temperature fiber drawing process is demonstrated, substantially expanding the set of materials that can be incorporated into fibers. Reagents in the solid ...

Orf, Nicholas D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Dark Fiber Testbed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net Dark Fiber Testbed Info on dark fiber testbed...

142

Electrospun carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) nanofiber for high rate lithium-ion battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cellulose derivative CMCAB was synthesized, and nanometer fiber composite material was obtained from lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP)/CMCAB by electrospinning. Under the protection of inert gas, modified LFP/carbon nanofibers (CNF) nanometer material was obtained by carbonization in 600 °C. IR, TG-DSC, SEM and EDS were performed to characterize their morphologies and structures. LFP/CNF composite materials were assembled into lithium-ion battery and tested their performance. Specific capacity was increased from 147.6 mAh g?1 before modification to 160.8 mAh g?1 after modification for the first discharge at the rate of 2 C. After 200 charge–discharge cycles, when discharge rate was increased from 2 C to 5 C to 10 C, modified battery capacity was reduced from 152.4 mAh g?1 to 127.9 mAh g?1 to 106 mAh g?1. When the ratio was reduced from 10 C to 5 C to 2 C, battery capacity can be quickly approximate to the original level. Cellulose materials that were applied to lithium battery can improve battery performance by electrospinning.

Lei Qiu; Ziqiang Shao; Mingshan Yang; Wenjun Wang; Feijun Wang; Long Xie; Shaoyi Lv; Yunhua Zhang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Improved oxidation resistance of organic/inorganic composite atomic layer deposition coated cellulose nanocrystal aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels are coated with thin conformal layers of Al2O3 using atomic layer deposition to form hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites. Electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the Al2O3 penetrated more than 1500??m into the aerogel for extended precursor pulse and exposure/purge times. The measured profile of coated fiber radius versus depth from the aerogel surface agrees well with simulations of precursor penetration depth in modeled aerogel structures. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that Al2O3 coated CNC aerogel nanocomposites do not show significant thermal degradation below 295?°C as compared with 175?°C for uncoated CNC aerogels an improvement of over 100?°C.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Surface-Configuration Change of CF4 Plasma Treated Cellulose and Cellulose Acetate by Interaction of Water with Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surface-configuration change due to the change of contacting medium from (dry) air to liquid water and also from (dry) air to a high relative humidity air was investigated for cellulose and cellulose acetate. CF4 plasma treatment was used to tag the ...

Takeshi Yasuda; Tsumuko Okuno; Kaori Tsuji; Hirotsugu Yasuda

1996-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

145

Fiber optic coupled optical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Fiber coating method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY)

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Fiber coating method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Fiber optic laser rod  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

Erickson, G.F.

1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

149

Surface plasmon resonance imaging of the enzymatic degradation of cellulose microfibrils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and provide useful metrics of enzyme activity that are of relevance to the cellulosic ethanol industry. Introduction The degradation of cellulose by enzymes is a key step in the production of cellulosic ethanol.1 the production of cellulosic ethanol more economically viable, however this is challenging because

Dutcher, John

150

Discovery of Cellulose as a Smart Material Jaehwan Kim* and Sungryul Yun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discovery of Cellulose as a Smart Material Jaehwan Kim* and Sungryul Yun Center for EAPap Actuator in cellulose applications and technologies by reporting our discovery of cellulose as a smart material that can, however, the potential of cellulose as a smart lightweight material that can be used as a sensor

Ounaies, Zoubeida

151

Fiber optic vibration sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Fiber optic moisture sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

Kirkham, R.R.

1984-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

153

Fiber optic vibration sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

154

NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Author Proof A ARTICLE Cellulose Hydrolysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

II: II: Numerical Results and Analysis Wen Zhou, 1,2 Zhiqian Hao, 3 Ying Xu, 1,2 Heinz-Bernd Schu ¨ ttler 3 1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; telephone: 706-542-9779; fax: 706-542-9751; e-mail: xyn@bmb.uga.edu 2 BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; telephone: 706-542-3886; fax: 706-542-2492; e-mail: hbs@physast.uga.edu Received 16 December 2008; revision received 13 March 2009; accepted 27 April 2009 Published online 12 May 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22388 ABSTRACT: Numerical simulation results are presented for a cellulose hydrolysis model which incorporates both the enzymatic glucan chain fragmentation kinetics and the hydrolytic

156

Author Proof A ARTICLE Cellulose Hydrolysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

I: I: A General Modeling Formalism Wen Zhou, 1,2 Heinz-Bernd Schu ¨ ttler, 3 Zhiqian Hao, 3 Ying Xu 1,2 1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; telephone: 706-542-9779; fax: 706-542-9751; e-mail: xyn@bmb.uga.edu 2 BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennassee 3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; telephone: 706-542-3886; fax: 706-542-9751; e-mail: hbs@physast.uga.edu Received 16 December 2008; revision received 13 March 2009; accepted 27 April 2009 Published online 8 May 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22389 ABSTRACT: We develop a general framework for a realistic rate equation modeling of cellulose hydrolysis using non- complexed cellulase. Our proposed formalism, for the first time, takes

157

Carbohydrate derivedpseudolignin can retard cellulose biological conversion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbohydrate Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion Rajeev Kumar, 1,2,3 Fan Hu, 3,4 Poulomi Sannigrahi, 3,4 Seokwon Jung, 3,4 Arthur J. Ragauskas, 3,4 Charles E. Wyman 1,2,3 1 Center for Environmental Research and Technology, Bourns College of Engineering, 1084 Columbia Avenue, Riverside, California 92507; telephone: 951-781-5668; fax: 951-781-5790; e-mail: rajeev.dartmouth@gmail.com 2 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, 446 Winston Chung Hall, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, California 92507 3 BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6422 4 School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACT: Dilute acid as well as water only (hydrother- mal) pretreatments often lead to a significant

158

Ectopic Lignification in the Flax lignified bast fiber1 Mutant Stem Is Associated with Tissue-Specific Modifications in Gene Expression and Cell Wall Composition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...figures in this article are displayed in color online but in black and white in the print edition. [W] Online version contains Web-only data. The cell walls of flax bast fibers contain high cellulose and low lignin levels, imparting tensile strength and...

Maxime Chantreau; Antoine Portelette; Rebecca Dauwe; Shingo Kiyoto; David Crônier; Kris Morreel; Sandrine Arribat; Godfrey Neutelings; Malika Chabi; Wout Boerjan; Arata Yoshinaga; François Mesnard; Sebastien Grec; Brigitte Chabbert; Simon Hawkins

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

159

Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Commercial-Scale Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Commercial-Scale July 31, 2013 - 1:37pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department today recognized the nation's first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol production at INEOS Bio's Indian River BioEnergy Center in Vero Beach, Florida. Developed through a joint venture between INEOS Bio and New Planet Energy, the project uses a unique hybrid of gasification and fermentation technology - originally developed with Energy Department support starting in the 1990's - to convert wood scraps, grass clippings and other waste materials into transportation fuels as well as energy for heat and power.

160

Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Commercial-Scale Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Commercial-Scale July 31, 2013 - 1:37pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department today recognized the nation's first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol production at INEOS Bio's Indian River BioEnergy Center in Vero Beach, Florida. Developed through a joint venture between INEOS Bio and New Planet Energy, the project uses a unique hybrid of gasification and fermentation technology - originally developed with Energy Department support starting in the 1990's - to convert wood scraps, grass clippings and other waste materials into transportation fuels as well as energy for heat and power.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Secretary Moniz Dedicates Innovative Commercial-Scale Cellulosic...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

28,000 vehicles off the road. The cellulosic ethanol produced at the Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas (ABBK) facility, located about 90 miles southwest of Dodge City, Kansas,...

162

Silicone rubber membrane bioreactors for bacterial cellulose production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cellulose production byAcetobacter pasteurianus...was investigated in static culture using four bioreactors with silicone rubber membrane submerged in the medium. The shape ... , flat sack, tube and cylindrical b...

Masayuki Onodera; Ikuro Harashima; Kiyoshi Toda…

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Chiral Plasmonic Films Formed by Gold Nanorods and Cellulose Nanocrystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chiral plasmonic films have been prepared by incorporating gold nanorods (NRs) in a macroscopic cholesteric film formed by self-assembled cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). Composite NR-CNC films revealed strong plasmonic chiroptical activity, dependent on ...

Ana Querejeta-Fernández; Grégory Chauve; Myriam Methot; Jean Bouchard; Eugenia Kumacheva

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

164

Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics Dr. Palffy-Muhoray Ines Busuladzic Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics The University of Akron April 21, 2008 #12;Outline · History of optical fibers · What are optical fibers? · How are optical fibers made? · Light propagation through optical fibers · Application

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

165

Hybrid Systems of Silver Nanoparticles Generated on Cellulose Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(4-7) For instance, polymer supported silver NPs at the moment are attracting much attention in biomedical applications, due to the antibacterial character, enabling their use in wound dressing materials, body wall repairs, tissue scaffolds, or even antimicrobial filters. ... (26) Recently, a cellulose acetate nanofibrillar aerogel structure with about 6 wt % loading content of Ag NPs was prepared. ... Graft copolymerization onto cellulose-based filter paper and its further development as silver nanoparticles loaded antibacterial food-packaging material ...

Ana Maria Ferraria; Sami Boufi; Nicolas Battaglini; Ana Maria Botelho do Rego; Manuel ReiVilar

2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

166

Cellulose challenge: where do we go from here  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of its relatively low cost and high level of availability, wood has become a popular biomass resource for the manufacture of fuels and chemical products. The producers of high-purity cellulose pulps face problems because the kraft process which is the standard source of dissolving pulp involves huge investments. The article examines the future of this industry and assesses these new technologies: solvent pulping; low lignin biomass and microbial cellulose. 6 references.

Lipinsky, E.S.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Hydroxypropylation of cellulose as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) suggest that factors such as particle size, surface area, degree of polymerization, and pore volume also influence hydrolytic behavior. Figure 1. Chemical structure of cellulose showing reactive hydroxyl (-OH) groups. Repeating anhydrocellobiose units... unique chemical properties is hydrozypropylcellulose (HPC). The possibility of forming long poly(propylene oxide) side chains during HPC synthesis makes this cellulose derivative particularly interesting for study. The ability of HPC to possess...

Brix, Scott Tyson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

168

Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

None

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Structure and dynamics of a complex of cellulose with EDA: insights into the action of amines on cellulose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The neutron structure of a complex of EDA with cellulose has been determined to reveal the location of hydrogen atoms involved in hydrogen bonding. EDA disrupts the hydrogen bonding pattern of naturally occurring cellulose by accepting a strong hydrogen bond from the O6 hydroxymethyl group as the conformation of this group is rotated from tg to gt. The O3-H O5 intrachain hydrogen bond commonly found in cellulose allomorphs is observed to be disordered in the neutron structure, and quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics calculations show that O3 prefers to donate to EDA. The hydrogen bonding arrangement is highly dynamic with bonds continually being formed and broken thus explaining the difficulty in locating all of the hydrogen atoms in the neutron scattering density maps. Comparison with other polysaccharide-amine complexes supports a common underlying mechanism for amine disruption of cellulose.

Sawada, Daisuke [ORNL; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales (CERMAV-CNRS); Petridis, Loukas [ORNL; Parthasarathi, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gnanakaran, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Forsyth, V. T. [Institut Laue Langevin and Keele University; Wada, Masahisa [University of Tokyo, Japan; Langan, Paul [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Quaternary Ammonium Salts and their Low-Melting Eutectics for the Conversion of Cellulose and Cellulose-Derived Sugars.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The use of Ionic Liquids (ILs) as solvents presents a promising route for the conversion of cellulosic biomass feedstock to value-added products, like 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF),… (more)

Parvathikar, Sameer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- 4M AMO - 1.5M VTP - Remainder covered by carry- over and ARRA project contingency * Cost of carbon fiber * Technology scaling * Market development * Workforce development * Oak...

172

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.1 Building Materials/Insulation  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

3 3 Thermal Performance of Insulation Fiberglass (2) Perlite/Vermiculite Batts (3) Loose-Fill 2.1 - 3.7 Loose-Fill Foam Boards Spray-Applied Expanded Polystyrene 3.9 - 4.4 Rock Wool (2) Polyisocyanurate/Polyurethane 5.6 - 7.0 Loose-Fill Phenolic 4.4 - 8.2 Cellulose Reflective Insulation 2 - 17 Loose-Fill Vacuum Powder Insulation 25 - 30 Spray-Applied Vacuum Insulation Panel 20 - 100 Note(s): Source(s): 3.1 - 3.7 2.9 - 3.5 1) Hr-SF-F/Btu-in. Does not include the effects of aging and settling. 2) Mineral fiber. 3) System R-Value depends on heat-flow direction and number of air spaces. ASHRAE, 1997 ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals, p. 24-4, 22-5; DOE, Insulation Fact Sheet, Jan. 1988, p. 6; Journal of Thermal Insulation, 1987, p. 81-95; ORNL, ORNL/SUB/88-SA835/1, 1990; ORNL, Science and Technology for a Sustainable Energy Future, Mar. 1995, p. 17; and ORNL for vacuum insulation

173

X-ray Crystallographic, Scanning Microprobe X-ray Diffraction, and Cross-Polarized/Magic Angle Spinning [superscript 13]C NMR Studies of the Structure of Cellulose III[subscript II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The X-ray crystallographic structure of cellulose III{sub II} is characterized by disorder; the unit cell (space group P2{sub 1}; a = 4.45 {angstrom}, b = 7.64 {angstrom}, c = 10.36 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = 90{sup o}, {gamma} = 106.96{sup o}) is occupied by one chain that is the average of statistically disordered antiparallel chains. {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR studies reveal the presence of three distinct molecular conformations that can be interpreted as a mixture of two different crystal forms, one equivalent to cellulose III{sub I}, and another with two independent glucosyl conformations in the asymmetric unit. Both X-ray crystallographic and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic results are consistent with an aggregated microdomain structure for cellulose III{sub II}. This structure can be generated from a new crystal form (space group P2{sub 1}; a = 4.45 {angstrom}, b = 14.64 {angstrom}, c = 10.36 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = 90{sup o}, {gamma} = 90.05{sup o}; two crystallographically independent and antiparallel chains; gt hydroxymethyl groups) by multiple dislocation defects. These defects produce microdomains of the new crystal form and cellulose III{sub I} that scanning microprobe diffraction studies show are distributed consistently through the cellulose III{sub II} fiber.

Wada, Masahisa; Heux, Laurent; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Langan, Paul; (U of Tokyo); (CNRS-CRMD); (LANL)

2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

174

Abnormal spectral evolution of fiber Bragg gratings in hydrogenated fibers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the observation of abnormal spectral evolution in regenerated fiber Bragg gratings in hydrogenated B–Ge-codoped and standard telecom fiber with UV overexposure. The...

Liu, Y; Williams, J A R; Zhang, L; Bennion, I

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Efficient Sugar Release by the Cellulose Solvent-Based Lignocellulose Fractionation Technology and Enzymatic Cellulose Hydrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia 24061, and Department of Energy (DOE) BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 ... The biomass samples before pretreatment were prepared in the same way as the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI) (21, 22). ... to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chem. ...

Geoffrey Moxley; Zhiguang Zhu; Y.-H. Percival Zhang

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

performing fiber. (600-750 KSI) Barriers: Addresses the need for higher performance low cost fiber for hydrogen storage tanks and energy management structures of automobiles....

177

Diamond fiber field emitters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B. (Wilmington, DE); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Eaton, David F. (Wilmington, DE); Silzars, Aris K. (Landenburg, PA); Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Multimode optical fiber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

179

Fiber optic hydrophone  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Donald T. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Fiber optic hydrophone  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.

Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling Oak Ridge National fiber reinforced composites have enjoyed limited acceptance in the automotive industry due to high costs to bond with composite matrix material. It is important that a carbon fiber manufacturing cost model

182

Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose by an engineered yeast consortium displaying a functional mini-cellulosome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol. Microbiol Mol Biol RevNext- generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and theirProduction of cellulosic ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Goyal, Garima; Tsai, Shen-Long; Madan, Bhawna; DaSilva, Nancy A; Chen, Wilfred

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer.

Buchanan, Bruce R. (1985 Willis, Batesburg, SC 29006); Prather, William S. (2419 Dickey Rd., Augusta, GA 30906)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are described for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer. 4 figs.

Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

186

In vivo calcium soap formation with two levels of fat and calcium and three types of fiber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, wheat bran and cellulose-supplemented diets led to an increased fecal bulk (16). Thus, certain types of fibers may protect against colon cancer. Recently, dietary calcium has been thought to be protective against colon cancer; however, the mechanism... (lauric, linoleic, and oleic) intrarectally in mice. These acids led to inflammation and lysis of the epithelium. Eventually, colonic mitotic activity was increased. Since an increase in cell proliferation is associated with an increase...

Radulovich, Daniela

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

www.exeter.ac.uk/inspiring-science Cellulose: sustainable and renewable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

www.exeter.ac.uk/inspiring-science Cellulose: sustainable and renewable material for many The talk will cover the use of cellulose as a sustainable and renewable source for use in composites

Mumby, Peter J.

188

Diversity of Glycosyl Hydrolases from Cellulose-Depleting Communities Enriched from Casts of Two Earthworm Species  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...metagenomic fosmid libraries from cellulose-depleting...annotated in public databases as...introducing myRDP space and quality controlled public data. Nucleic...metagenomic fosmid libraries from cellulose-depleting...annotated in public databases as...

Ana Beloqui; Taras Y. Nechitaylo; Nieves López-Cortés; Azam Ghazi; María-Eugenia Guazzaroni; Julio Polaina; Axel W. Strittmatter; Oleg Reva; Agnes Waliczek; Michail M. Yakimov; Olga V. Golyshina; Manuel Ferrer; Peter N. Golyshin

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

189

Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement and Jeffrey Keisler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement Erin Baker and Jeffrey Keisler funding and the likelihood of achieving advances in cellulosic biofuel technologies. While in collecting more information on this technology. Keywords: Biofuels; Technology R&D; Uncertainty

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

190

Requirement of the Type II Secretion System for Utilization of Cellulosic Substrates by Cellvibrio japonicus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cellulose led us to examine its ability to utilize feedstocks relevant to the bioenergy field. We chose two key biomass feedstocks for these studies: corn stover and switchgrass. Because current approaches to cellulosic biofuels typically involve...

Jeffrey G. Gardner; David H. Keating

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

191

J33. CSSC Cellulosic H2 2009 (High Resolution $$$).pdf  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reprint Reprint © Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Supported by  WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Table of Contents X. Ye, Y. Wang, R. C. Hopkins, M. W. W. Adams, B. R. Evans, J. R. Mielenz, Y.-H. P. Zhang* 149 - 152 Spontaneous High-Yield Production of Hydrogen from Cellulosic Materials and Water Catalyzed by Enzyme Cocktails Cocktail reception: Biohydrogen is pro- duced in high yield from cellulosic ma- terials and water in a one-pot process catalyzed by up to 14 enzymes and one coenzyme. This assembly of enzymes re- sults in non-natural catabolic pathways. These spontaneous reactions are con- ducted under modest reaction condi- tions (32 8C and atmospheric pressure). DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200900017 Spontaneous High-Yield Production of Hydrogen from Cellulosic Materials and Water Catalyzed by Enzyme Cocktails Xinhao Ye, [a] Yiran Wang, [a] Robert

192

DOE Joint Genome Institute: Breaking down cellulose without blasting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4, 2011 4, 2011 Breaking down cellulose without blasting lignin: "Dry rot" genome offers lessons for biofuel pretreatment WALNUT CREEK, Calif.-Feared by realtors and homeowners alike, dry rot due to the fungus Serpula lacrymans causes millions of dollars worth of damage to homes and buildings around the world. This brown rot fungus' capacity to break down the cellulose in wood led to its selection for sequencing by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in 2007, with the goal of identifying the enzymes involved in the degradation process and using the information to improve cellulosic biofuels production. Photo: A variant of Serpula lacrymans causes dry rot. (Dave Brown via Flickr/Creative Commons Attribution 2.0) As reported online July 14 in Science Express, an international team of

193

New lignocellulose pretreatments using cellulose solvents: a review  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Received: Received: 7 September 2012 Accepted: 13 September 2012 Published online in Wiley Online Library: (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/jctb.3959 New lignocellulose pretreatments using cellulose solvents: a review Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, a† Anthe George b,c and Y-H Percival Zhang a,d,e∗ Abstract Non-food lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable bioresource as a collectable, transportable, and storable chemical energy that is far from fully utilized. The goal of biomass pretreatment is to improve the enzymatic digestibility of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Many substrate factors, such as substrate accessibility, lignin content, particle size and so on, contribute to its recalcitrance. Cellulose accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes is believed to be the most important substrate characteristic limiting enzymatic hydrolysis. Cellulose

194

Department of Energy Delivers on R&D Targets around Cellulosic Ethanol  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

Scientists at DOE national laboratories successfully demonstrated technical advances required to produce cellulosic ethanol that is cost competitive with petroleum.

195

Primary Radiation Defect Production in Polyethylene and Cellulose Jussi Polvi,* Petri Luukkonen, and Kai Nordlund  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Primary Radiation Defect Production in Polyethylene and Cellulose Jussi Polvi,* Petri Luukkonen in polyethylene and cellulose were examined using molecular dynamics simulations. The governing reactions in both. Crystalline cellulose was found to be more resistant to radiation damage than crystalline polyethylene

Nordlund, Kai

196

Changes in the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Rate of Avicel Cellulose With Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTRODUCTION Cellulose can be hydrolyzed to glucose, a sugar that is easily fermented to ethanol and otherChanges in the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Rate of Avicel Cellulose With Conversion Bin Yang, Deidre M: 10.1002/bit.20942 Abstract: The slow down in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose with conversion has

California at Riverside, University of

197

Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;102: 66­72. � 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. KEYWORDS: cellulose; ethanol; model validation Introduction Conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol and other liquid fuels is of interest

California at Riverside, University of

198

Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from Sugar Wheat straw Variation Cultivar a b s t r a c t Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Decreasing the cost of producing cellulosic ethanol

California at Riverside, University of

199

Production of Cellulase on Mixtures of Xylose and Cellulose in a Fed-Batch Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

saccharification to sugars for ethanol production. In the past decade, enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose hasProduction of Cellulase on Mixtures of Xylose and Cellulose in a Fed-Batch Process Ali Mohagheghi was studied in a fed-batch system. An initial mixture of 30 g/L xylose and 20 g/L cellulose

California at Riverside, University of

200

Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification: cellulose; ethanol; kinetics; reactor design Introduction Plant biomass is the only foreseeable sustainable­803] for simultaneous saccharification of fermentation of cellulosic biomass is extended and modified to accommodate

California at Riverside, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Warren, Mial Evans (Albuquerque, NM); Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe (Albuquerque, NM); Word, V., James Cole (Albuqueruqe, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Optoelectronic fiber interface design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent developments in materials science have led to the development of an exciting, new class of fibers which integrate metals, semiconductors and insulators in the same codrawing process. Various electrical devices have ...

Spencer, Matthew Edmund

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Multimaterial rectifying device fibers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronic and optoelectronic device processing is commonly thought to be incompatible with much simpler thermal drawing techniques used in optical fiber production. The incorporation of metals, polymer insulators, and ...

Orf, Nicholas D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Multimaterial multifunctional fiber devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical fibers and semiconductor devices differ significantly in their properties and their processing approaches. The latter require an assembly of metal, insulator and semiconductor materials into complex geometries with ...

Sorin, Fabien

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Dark Soliton Fiber Laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the experimental observation of stable dark solitons in an all normal dispersion fiber laser. We found experimentally that dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the fiber laser under strong continuous wave (CW) emission. However, only under appropriate pump strength and negative cavity feedback, stable single or multiple dark soliton could be achieved. Furthermore, we show that the features of the observed dark solitons could be well understood based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE).

H. Zhang; D. Y. Tang; L. M. Zhao; X. Wu; Q. L. Bao; K. P. Loh

2009-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

206

Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing Workshop: Summary...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

for carbon fiber, including bio-based materials or natural gas; lower energy conversion of white fiber to carbon fiber; and composite manufacturing. Dr. Johnson then...

207

Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

Francis, Raymond

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

208

Irreversible transformations of native celluloses, upon exposure to elevated temperatures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbohydrate Polymers 100 (2014) 2- 8 Carbohydrate Polymers 100 (2014) 2- 8 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Carbohydrate Polymers j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / c a r b p o l Irreversible transformations of native celluloses, upon exposure to elevated temperatures R.S. Atalla a , M.F. Crowley b , M.E. Himmel b , R.H. Atalla a,c,∗ a Cellulose Sciences International, Madison, WI, United States b National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, United States c University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 29 August 2012 Received in revised form 4 June 2013 Accepted 7 June 2013 Available online 15 June 2013 Keywords: Transformation Irreversible Celluloses Elevated Temperatures Native Accessibility Aggregation a b s t r a c t Current research, basic and applied, assumes that observed recalcitrance of celluloses is an inherent

209

Can Delignification Decrease Cellulose Digestibility in Acid Pretreated Corn Stover?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has previously been shown that the improved digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover is at least partially due to the removal of xylan and the consequent increase in accessibility of the cellulose to cellobiohydrolase enzymes. We now report on the impact that lignin removal has on the accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Samples of corn stover were subjected to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment with and without simultaneous (partial) lignin removal. In addition, some samples were completely delignified after the pretreatment step using acidified sodium chlorite. The accessibility and digestibility of the samples were tested using a fluorescence-labeled cellobiohydrolase (Trichoderma reesei Cel7A) purified from a commercial cellulase preparation. Partial delignification of corn stover during dilute acid pretreatment was shown to improve cellulose digestibility by T. reesei Cel7A; however, decreasing the lignin content below 5% (g g{sup -1}) by treatment with acidified sodium chlorite resulted in a dramatic reduction in cellulose digestibility. Importantly, this effect was found to be enhanced in samples with lower xylan contents suggesting that the near complete removal of xylan and lignin may cause aggregation of the cellulose microfibrils resulting in decreased cellulase accessibility.

Ishizawa, C. I.; Jeoh, T.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.; Davis, M. F.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Unconventional Relationshipsfor Hemicellulose Hydrolysis and Subsequent Cellulose Digestion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid to recover high yields of sugars directly from hemicellulose and subsequently by enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual cellulose, and these sugars can be used to produce fuels and needed technology advances. Hemicellulose removal is affected by solids concentration and flow through

California at Riverside, University of

211

TOPICAL PAPER Potential Synergies and Challenges in Refining Cellulosic Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOPICAL PAPER Potential Synergies and Challenges in Refining Cellulosic Biomass to Fuels, Chemicals that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, enhance energy security, improve the economy, dispose of such products, and sugar costs are predicted to drop with plant size as a result of economies of scale

California at Riverside, University of

212

Optical and optoelectronic fiber devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability to integrate materials with disparate electrical, thermal, and optical properties into a single fiber structure enabled the realization of fiber devices with diverse and complex functionalities. Amongst those, ...

Shapira, Ofer, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Silicon fiber optic sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

214

Automated fiber pigtailing machine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

215

*** How PAN based Carbon Fibers are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

*** How PAN based Carbon Fibers are Manufactured *** How Carbon Fiber Material Properties are Achieved *** Carbon Fiber Markets/Applications CarbonFiber AerospaceEngineeringGuestLecture: Friday as a Business Development Manager for Amoco's carbon fiber business unit (manufacturers of T-300 carbon fiber

Hu, Hui

216

Forest biomass and pulpwood in particular is the most important raw material for cellulose. The most common species for this purpose are pine, spruce and birch in the Nordic countries and eucalyptus and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forest biomass and pulpwood in particular is the most important raw material for cellulose diverse novel processes for separating cellulose, hemi cellulose and lignin from biomass. Biorefineries

Kaski, Samuel

217

Large core fiber optic cleaver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 {micro}m. 30 figs.

Halpin, J.M.

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

218

Aerogel-clad optical fiber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency.

Sprehn, Gregory A. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Sandler, Pamela H. (San Marino, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Introgression & mapping Fiber cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Germplasm Introgression Genomics & mapping Fiber cell initiation Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping and breeding. Research activities commonly include plant breeding, genetics, genomics, cytogenetics, molecular methods. (C, S) · Contribute uniquely to genomics and its relevance to genetic improvement (C,S) · Harness

220

Development of Cellulosic Biofuels (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Summer Lecture Series 2007: Chris Somerville, Director of the Energy Biosciences Institute and an award-winning plant biochemist with Berkeley Lab's Physical Biosciences Division, is a leading authority on the structure and function of plant cell walls. He discusses an overview of some of the technical challenges associated with the production of cellulosic biofuels, which will require an improved understanding of a diverse range of topics in fields such as agronomy, chemical engineering, microbiology, structural biology, genomics, environmental sciences, and socioeconomics.

Somerville, Chris [Director, Energy Biosciences Institute

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Design, Synthesis and Affinity Properties of Biologically Active Peptide and Protein Conjugates of Cotton Cellulose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of peptide and protein conjugates of cellulose on cotton fabrics provides promising leads for the development of wound healing, antibacterial, and decontaminating textiles. An approach to the design, synthesis, and analysis of bioconjugates containing cellulose peptide and protein conjugates includes: 1) computer graphic modeling for a rationally designed structure; 2) attachment of the peptide or protein to cotton cellulose through a linker amino acid, and 3) characterization of the resulting bioconjugate. Computer graphic simulation of protein and peptide cellulose conjugates gives a rationally designed biopolymer to target synthetic modifications to the cotton cellulose. Techniques for preparing these types of conjugates involve both sequential assembly of the peptide on the fabric and direct crosslinking of the peptide or protein as cellulose bound esters or carboxymethylcellulose amides.

Edwards, J. V.; Goheen, Steven C.

2002-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

222

A Probabilistic Inventory Analysis of Biomass for the State of Texas for Cellulosic Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, bioenergy from second generation cellulosic feedstocks cost more than fossil fuels. Another issue in dealing with corn grain as the feedstock for ethanol is that corn is used for food and livestock feed. The cellulosic process takes cellulosic material... Assessment and Utilization Options for Three Counties in Eastern Oregon? which was prepared by McNeil Technologies (2003); ?Biomass Inventory and Bioenergy Assessment: An evaluation of Organic Material Resources for Bioenergy Production in Washington State...

Gleinser, Matthew A.

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

223

The effect of cellulases on the biodegradation and morphology of naturally colored cotton fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the effect of cellulases on the biodegradation and structure of natural colored cotton (Foxfibre{reg_sign}). Compared to the white cotton and palo verde (sage green) varieties, buffalo (mocha brown) and coyote (reddish brown) varieties were quite resistant to hydrolysis by Trichoderma reesei celluclast and purified cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) under the conditions of the assay, but binding of CBH I to buffalo cotton was unaffected. Sodium hydroxide extracts of all the colored cotton varieties were found to be strong inhibitors of cellulase activity and the buffalo cotton was labile in that the inhibitory effect decreased over time in the presence of cellulase; incubation of {beta}-glucosidase with the extract also decreased the inhibition. The chemical composition of the inhibitor is currently under investigation. Atomic force microscopy of the colored cotton fibers with bound cellulase components should prove useful in the context of elucidating the effect of binding on the morphology of cellulose fibers.

Evans, B.R.; Lee, I.; Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fox, S.V. [Natural Cotton Colours, Inc., Wickenburg, AZ (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

60,700 ETHANOL RECOVERY Dist. Column CondenserF2 Steam Exchanger Ethanol Absorber 10 ft. diameter. 38Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Progress Report, LBL-

Wilke, Charles R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOCONVERSION TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL BERKELEY PROGRAM--JulyXylose Fermentation to Ethanol (a) (b) Fusarium oxysporum (OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

13 Javier Perez I II. ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES A. B.Development Studies of Ethanol Production--------------- 19of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol." (June 1979) and (b)

Wilke, Charles R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL Charles R. Wilke andEconomic Evaluation of Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentationa kinetic equation for ethanol production along with design

Wilke, Charles R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol. 2(1):26-40.1995 19941216. Commercial ethanol production process.facility and commercial ethanol production process.

Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Cellulosic biomass could help meet California’s transportation fuel needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

strides in the conversion of biomass to ethanol. Americancostly op- eration in the conversion of biomass to ethanol,The biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol

Wyman, Charles E.; Yang, Bin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose of sustainable products such as nanocellulose and biocomposites from forest biomass; biorefining to develop high

Li, Mo

231

Cellulosic biomass could help meet California’s transportation fuel needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

t uels Cellulosic biomass could help * meet California’smeasures are needed to help overcome the per- ceived risksrun; addition of the word "help." Laboratories at the Center

Wyman, Charles E.; Yang, Bin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

233

The jiaoyao1 Mutant Is an Allele of korrigan1 That Abolishes Endoglucanase Activity and Affects the Organization of Both Cellulose Microfibrils and Microtubules in Arabidopsis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the unsynchronized rate of individual elementary cellulose synthesis and the abrupt disruption...Pelletier, S., and Hofte, H. (2002). Resistance against herbicide isoxaben and cellulose...Modifications of cellulose synthase confer resistance to isoxaben and thiazolidinone herbicides...

Lei Lei; Tian Zhang; Richard Strasser; Christopher M. Lee; Martine Gonneau; Lukas Mach; Samantha Vernhettes; Seong H. Kim; Daniel J. Cosgrove; Shundai Li; Ying Gu

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

234

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

Angel, S.M.

1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

235

Long-period fiber grating as wavelength selective element in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long-period fiber grating as wavelength selective element in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers, 42.79.Dj, 42.81.-i 1. Introduction Cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers belong presently fiber laser with the cladding-pumped YDF a significant increase of the average output power can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Fiber optic geophysical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

Homuth, Emil F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Low loss elliptical core D-fiber to PANDA fiber fusion splicing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Elliptical core D-fiber is difficult to fusion splice to other types of fiber due to its small core and D-shaped cladding. The presented method of splicing D-fiber to PANDA fiber...

Kvavle, Joshua M; Schultz, Stephen M; Selfridge, Richard H

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Fiber lasers and amplifiers by: Khanh Kieu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Active fibers · Laser performances · Cladding pump technology · Fiber laser research at the College fiber laser: > 1GW peak power! Tünnermann's group #12;What can fiber laser do? #12;Cladding pumpFiber lasers and amplifiers by: Khanh Kieu (02/28/2014) #12;Outlines · Introduction · History

Kieu, Khanh

239

Coated metal fiber coalescing cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cell is described for coalescing oil droplets dispersed in a water emulsion including an elongated perforated tube core into which the emulsion is injected, layers of oleophilic plastic covered metal mat wound about the core through which the emulsion is forced to pass, the fibers of the metal mat being covered by oleophilic plastic such as vinyl, acrylic, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, the metal being in the form of layers of expanded metal or metal fibers, either aluminum or stainless steel. In manufacturing the cell a helix wound wire is formed around the cylindrical plastic coated metal to retain it in place and resist pressure drop of fluid flowing through the metal fibers. In addition, the preferred arrangement includes the use of an outer sleeve formed of a mat of fibrous material such as polyester fibers, acrylic fibers, modacrylic fibers and mixtures thereof.

Rutz, W.D.; Swain, R.J.

1980-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

240

EXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBERAND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH OPACITY PAPER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, precipitates calcium carbonate (PCC) in situ within pulp fibers. Because paper made from fiber-loaded pulp increasing the recovery and utilization of recycled fiber and optimizing virgin fiber yield by relying moreEXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBERAND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH

Abubakr, Said

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

LongviewCowlitzFiberCX  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to add about three miles of aerial fiber optic cable to its Longview-Cowlitz...

242

Fiber reinforced hybrid phenolic foam.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Hybrid composites in recent times have been developed by using more than one type of fiber reinforcement to bestow synergistic properties of chosen filler and… (more)

Desai, Amit

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

How biomass is born: understanding cellulose synthesis for second generation Nadav Sorek, Energy Biosciences Institute, UC Berkeley, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How biomass is born: understanding cellulose synthesis for second generation biofuels Nadav Sorek, Energy Biosciences Institute, UC Berkeley, USA Lignocellulosic biofuels, also known as second generation utilization of cellulose in terms of energy production. . #12;

Shamir, Ron

244

Analysis of an imperfectly competitive cellulosic biofuel supply chain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We study the strategic behavior in an imperfectly competitive cellulosic biofuel supply chain. An optimization-based supply chain model is used to obtain long-run planning outcomes, based on which we develop market models considering both perfect and imperfect competitions. The equilibrium among stakeholders in the multi-echelon supply chain can be obtained by solving a collection of first-order conditions associated with their profit-maximization problems. For the imperfect competition, the model, additionally, allows firms with significant market share at different segment of the supply chain to exercise market power. We apply the models to an illustrative case study of California.

Yongxi Huang; Yihsu Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Supramolecular Composite Materials from Cellulose, Chitosan, and Cyclodextrin: Facile Preparation and Their Selective Inclusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supramolecular Composite Materials from Cellulose, Chitosan, and Cyclodextrin: Facile Preparation-performance supramolecular polysaccharide composites from cellulose (CEL), chitosan (CS), and (2,3,6-tri to dissolve and prepare the composites. Because a majority (>88%) of the IL used was recovered for reuse

Reid, Scott A.

246

Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose During Hydrothermal Pretreatment, Its Effect on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose During Hydrothermal Pretreatment, Its Effect Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT: In dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, lignin has been shown formed by hydrothermal pretreatment of a mixture of Avicel cellulose and poplar wood showed that lignin

California at Riverside, University of

247

Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad [Food Science Program, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Ishak [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

248

Comparison of low-energy radiation effects in polyethylene and cellulose Jussi Polvi, Kai Nordlund  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of low-energy radiation effects in polyethylene and cellulose Jussi Polvi, Kai Nordlund, for a carbon atom in polyethylene chain, and for one of the carbon atoms in cellulose chain. Our analysis shows and on average slightly higher for the carbon atoms in the polyethylene chain than for the target carbon atom

Nordlund, Kai

249

1 Electrospun Polyethylene Oxide/Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite 2 Nanofibrous Mats with Homogeneous and Heterogeneous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Electrospun Polyethylene Oxide/Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite 2 Nanofibrous Mats(acrylic acid) (PAA),14 polyethylene oxide (PEO),15 poly(lactic 57acid) (PLA),16,17 polystyrene (PS),18 was successfully used 9 to fabricate polyethylene oxide/cellulose nanocrystal (PEO/ 10 CNC) composite nanofibrous

250

The self-heating of damp cellulosic materials: I. High thermal conductivity and diffusivity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......self-heating of damp cellulosic materials: I. High thermal conductivity...stockpiles of cellulosic materials are analysed. The model...distinct bifurcation diagrams. In particular it is...stockpile sizes for materials prone to self-heating...surfaces by breakage on handling. In such circumstances......

R. A. SISSON; A. SWIFT; G. C. WAKE; B. F. GRAY

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Increased enzyme binding to substrate is not necessary for more efficient cellulose hydrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...desorption, despite high xylan solubilization, which...inactive enzymes from the surface of cellulose is competitive...the increased fibril surface hydrophilicity as confirmed...enzyme binding, cellulose surface chain extraction, and...substrates and chemical treatment methods used are provided in SI...

Dahai Gao; Shishir P. S. Chundawat; Anurag Sethi; Venkatesh Balan; S. Gnanakaran; Bruce E. Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion investigations1 of water retention mechanism by cellulose ethers in mortars2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion investigations1 of water retention mechanism by cellulose : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.06.002 #12;2 ABSTRACT22 23 We show how nuclear magnetic spin-lattice relaxation dispersion of protons-water24 (NMRD) can be used to elucidate the effect of cellulose ethers

Boyer, Edmond

253

Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation and electrohydrogenesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation primarily of: acetic, lactic, succinic, and formic acids and ethanol. An additional 800 Ã? 290 mL H2/g #12;1. Introduction Biohydrogen production from cellulose has received consid- erable attention

254

Carbon Fiber Cluster Strategy | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Economic Development | Carbon Fiber Cluster Strategy SHARE Carbon Fiber Cluster Strategy ORNL has a 40-year history in R&D on fiber-reinforced composite materials, and has been...

255

Carbon Fiber Composite Cellular A Dissertation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Fiber Composite Cellular Structures ____________________________________ A Dissertation and honeycombs. However, for weight sensitive, ambient temperature applications, carbon fiber composites have emerged as a promising material due to its high specific strength and low density. Carbon fiber reinforced

Wadley, Haydn

256

Precursor and Fiber Evaluation | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2009 -- Washington D.C. lm05warren.pdf More Documents & Publications Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors...

257

Biomimetic synthesis of hierarchical crystalline hydroxyapatite fibers in large-scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Crystalline hierarchical hydroxyapatite (HAp) fibers are synthesized. ? We employ a biomimetic route by using cotton cloth as a natural bio-template. ? We study the effects of pH, ultrasonic cleaning time, and calcination temperature. ? We obtain an optimized reaction condition. ? This is a low cost method for production of hierarchical HAp fibers. -- Abstract: Crystalline hierarchical hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, HAp)] fibers were successfully synthesized via a biomimetic route by using cotton cloth as a natural bio-template. The effects of pH value, aging time, ultrasonic cleaning time, and calcination temperature on the purity and morphology of the resulting hydroxyapatite (HAp) were monitored by scanning election microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectrophotometer (IR) to obtain an optimized reaction condition, namely, pH 9, ultrasonic cleaning for 1 min, aging for 24 h, and calcination at 600 °C for 4 h. We found that the natural cellulose could not only control the morphology of HAp but also lower its phase transformation temperature. The impact of this method lies in its low cost and successful production of large-scale patterning of three-dimensional hierarchical HAp fibers.

Xing, Chaogang; Ge, Suxiang; Huang, Baojun; Bo, Yingying [Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan Province 461000 (China)] [Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan Province 461000 (China); Zhang, Di [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)] [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zheng, Zhi, E-mail: zhengzhi9999@yahoo.com.cn [Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan Province 461000 (China)] [Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan Province 461000 (China)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

Fiber optic geophysical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

Homuth, E.F.

1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

259

Fiber for the future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is an interview with J.P. van Buijtenen, principal geneticist of the Texas Forest Service and professor at the Texas Agriculture Experiment Station, College Station, Texas. The maintenance of adequate supplies of wood and fiber for the pulp and paper industry is discussed. Tree improvement and more intensive forestry are highlighted as critical in attaining increased yields. Other topics discussed include: the establishment of second generation southern pine seed orchards, the economics of hardwood production in the South, and the future of short rotation energy plantations.

Not Available

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Chapter 3 - Emerging Catalysis for 5-HMF Formation from Cellulosic Carbohydrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The main fundamental building blocks of cellulosic biomass are C-6 carbohydrates followed by C-5 carbohydrates. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is a potential platform chemical from C-6 carbohydrates for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Converting glucose to 5-HMF is a critical step in the utilization of cellulosic biomass because ?-d-glucose is the fundamental building block of cellulose polymer. The current understanding of the mechanisms involved in glucose isomerization to fructose and subsequent dehydration to 5-HMF in different solvents is presented and discussed. New breakthroughs in catalytic systems efficient for the isomerization between aldohexose and ketohexose are reviewed, with a focus on the mechanistic understanding. One of the challenges of cellulosic biomass utilization by a catalytic system is the presence of a large variety of and often in high loadings of minerals. Understanding the effects of the minerals or other contaminants is emphasized. Keywords 5-HMF, Platform chemicals, Cellulose, Carbohydrates

Z. Conrad Zhang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Multimaterial Fibers in Photonics and Nanotechnology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

I will describe recent progress in leveraging multimaterial fiber fabrication technology is ushering in a new generation of unforeseen applications for fibers in photonics,...

Abouraddy, Ayman F

262

Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters...

263

Cotton mutants with divergent fiber quality characteristics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In the U.S. cotton industry there is a need for improved fiber quality to compete in International Markets. This market demands cotton fibers that are… (more)

Vining, Kimberly

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

CFTF | Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BTRIC CNMS CSMB CFTF Working with CFTF HFIR MDF NTRC OLCF SNS Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Home | User Facilities | CFTF CFTF | Carbon Fiber Technology Facility SHARE Oak...

265

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Technology Facility 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

266

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Technology Facility 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

267

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Technology Facility 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

268

Fiber optic refractive index monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

Weiss, Jonathan David (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

STANDARD LAN -1 Fiber Channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STANDARD LAN - 1 Fiber Channel Gruppo Reti TLC nome.cognome@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.it/ #12;STANDARD LAN - 2 Fibre Channel · Born to interconnect mainframes and servers to storage systems: fibERs, but not only... · Interoperability with SCSI, Internet Protocol (IP), ... · Standard ANSI X3

Mellia, Marco

270

Strong fibers. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was directed to a new and generic approach to the development of new materials with novel and interesting properties, and to the precision fabrication of these materials in one and two-dimensional forms. Advanced deposition processes and microfabrication technology were used to produce fibers and grids of metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and mixtures of controlled composition and structure, and with new and interesting mechanical and physical properties. Deposition processes included electron beam evaporation, co-deposition of mixtures by dual electron beam evaporation, thermal evaporation, sputtering of a single element or compound, sputtering of a single element in a gaseous atmosphere to produce compounds, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD), and selective tungsten chemical vapor deposition (W-CVD). The approach was to use the deposition processes in coordination with patterns generated by optical lithography to produce fibers with transverse dimensions in the micron range, and lengths from less than a millimeter to several centimeters. The approach is also applicable to the production of two-dimensional grids and particulates of controlled sizes and geometries.

Li, Che-Yu

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

HIPed carbon fiber reinforced silicon nitride composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon fiber/Si3N4 composites were fabricated using slip infiltration of fiber bundles subsequently stacked in a plaster mold, dried, glass encapsulated, and HIPed to form unidirectional composite test bars. Neither chemical reactions between fiber and matrix nor thermal mismatch cracks in the matrix were observed. The bend fracture behavior of the composites was nonbrittle with extensive fiber pullout. 14 references.

Lundberg, R.; Pompe, R.; Carlsson, R.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Assessing Resource Intensity and Renewability of Cellulosic Ethanol Technologies Using Eco-LCA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Assessing Resource Intensity and Renewability of Cellulosic Ethanol Technologies Using Eco-LCA ... Recognizing the contributions of ecosystem services and the lack of their comprehensive accounting in life cycle assessment (LCA), an in-depth analysis of their contribution in the life cycle of cellulosic ethanol derived from five different feedstocks was conducted, with gasoline and corn ethanol as reference fuels. ... The relative use intensity of natural resources encompassing land and ecosystem goods and services by cellulosic ethanol was estimated using the Eco-LCA framework. ...

Anil Baral; Bhavik R. Bakshi; Raymond L. Smith

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

274

Cellulose hydrolysis in evolving substrate morphologies III: Timescale analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrolysis Hydrolysis in Evolving Substrate Morphologies III: Time-Scale Analysis Wen Zhou, 1,2 Ying Xu, 1,2 Heinz-Bernd Schu ¨ ttler 3 1 Computational Systems Biology Lab, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Bioinformatics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; telephone: 706-542-9779; fax: 706-542-9751; e-mail: xyn@bmb.uga.edu 2 BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; telephone: 706-542-3886; fax: 706-542-2492; e-mail: hbs@physast.uga.edu Received 11 December 2009; revision received 4 May 2010; accepted 10 May 2010 Published online 1 June 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22814 ABSTRACT: We present a time-scale analysis for the enzy- matic hydrolysis of solid cellulosic substrates,

275

Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

276

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated fiber pigtailing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fiber pigtailing is based... Epoxyless Fiber-to-Submount Bonding for Active Fiber Optoelectronic and Fiber Backplane Applications Don C... Abstract--A fiber-coupled optical...

277

High repetition rate fiber lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Strength; Fiber Format & Manufacturing Methods 1-10 M lbsyr 100M - 1B lbsyr Oil & Gas Deep Water Production Enabler Pipes, Drill Shafts, Off-Shore Structures Low Mass, High...

279

Scintillator fiber optic long counter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected.

McCollum, Tom (Sterling, VA); Spector, Garry B. (Fairfax, VA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors P.I. Name: Dave Warren Presenter: Dr. Amit K. Naskar Oak Ridge National Laboratory 05162012 Project ID LM004 This presentation does not...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Light diffusing fiber optic chamber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

Maitland, Duncan J. (Lafayette, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

NREL: Continuum Magazine - At $2.15 a Gallon, Cellulosic Ethanol Could Be  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

At $2.15 a Gallon, Cellulosic Ethanol Could Be Cost Competitive At $2.15 a Gallon, Cellulosic Ethanol Could Be Cost Competitive Issue 5 Print Version Share this resource At $2.15 a Gallon, Cellulosic Ethanol Could Be Cost Competitive DOE challenge met-research advances cut costs to produce fuel from non-food plant sources. A photo showing a silhouette of a man wearing glass in a dark room lit only by a band of light consisting or red, blue, and white dots (26186). Enlarge image In NREL's new Energy Systems Integration Facility, the Insight Collaboration Laboratory shows a 3D model of cellulose microfibrils. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL Imagine a near perfect transportation fuel-it's clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable. Now imagine that it's also affordable. Bringing this vision closer to reality was the challenge the U.S.

283

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of22 Mohammad Riaz ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES II I. A. B.Hydrolyzates to Ethanol J2 Ren-Der Yang

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Increased enzyme binding to substrate is not necessary for more efficient cellulose hydrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ultrastructure, which was reported in a recent review article (1). However, the impact...the Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research...based on the values available in the literature for CBH-I acting on cellulose...

Dahai Gao; Shishir P. S. Chundawat; Anurag Sethi; Venkatesh Balan; S. Gnanakaran; Bruce E. Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Energy Department Announces Up to $14 Million for Applying Landscape Design to Cellulosic Bioenergy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Energy Department today announced up to $14 million to support landscape design approaches that maintain or enhance the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of cellulosic bioenergy through the improvement of feedstock production, logistics systems, and technology development.

286

Breakthrough in Bioenergy: American Process Sells First RIN-qualified Cellulosic Ethanol Shipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

?Imagine powering a plane or car with fuels made from grasses, wood, or other plant residues. This type of fuel, called cellulosic ethanol, has the potential to be a major source of renewable fuel...

287

Graphene for reducing bubble defects and enhancing mechanical properties of graphene/cellulose acetate composite films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we have demonstrated a strategy by which graphene was used to reduce the bubble defects and enhance the mechanical properties in graphene/cellulose acetate (Gr/CA) composite films. Mono- and multil...

Lei Liu; Zhigang Shen; Shuaishuai Liang; Min Yi…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Adsorption and viscoelastic properties of cationic xylan on cellulose film using QCM-D  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The adsorption and viscoelastic properties of cationic xylan layers adsorbed from an aqueous electrolyte solution ... 10, 100 mM) on a cellulose model surface were studied using quartz crystal microbalance with ....

Sang Hoon Lee; Hak Lae Lee; Hye Jung Youn

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

The Effects of Surfactant Pretreatment and Xylooligomers on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose and Pretreated Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the surface was more hydrophilic while the glucan and xylanxylan is a physical barrier that covers up the crystalline cellulose surfacesurface available for enzyme adsorption compared to the looser amorphous structure of xylan.

Qing, Qing

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

The molecular basis of the adsorption of xylans on cellulose surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to model the adsorption of xylan on cellulose, we have simulated, at ... level, the gas phase adsorption of small xylan fragments having 5 skeletal ? (1 ?...5...), using molecular dynamics simulations. A...

Karim Mazeau; Landry Charlier

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Catalytic transformations of cellulose and its derived carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, and lactic acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic transformation of cellulose into key building-block or platform chemicals such as 5-hydoxymethylfurfural (HMF), levulinic acid, and lactic acid under mild conditions, has attracted much attention...

Weiping Deng; Qinghong Zhang; Ye Wang

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Kinetic Study on the Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A variety of interesting bulk chemicals is accessible by the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose. An interesting example is levulinic acid, a versatile precursor for fuel additives, polymers, and resins. A detailed kinetic study on the acid-catalyzed ...

B. Girisuta; L. P. B. M. Janssen; H. J. Heeres

2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

293

DuPont’s Journey to Build a Global Cellulosic BioFuel Business Enterprise  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Plenary I: Progress in Advanced Biofuels DuPont’s Journey to Build a Global Cellulosic BioFuel Business Enterprise William Provine, Director–Science and Technology External Affairs, DuPont

294

Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263+-0.02 g cellulose L{sup -1} for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci [Chemical Engineering Department of Istanbul Technical University, Ayazaga, Maslak, Istanbul, 34469 (Turkey)

2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

295

Modified cellulose synthase gene from 'Arabidopsis thaliana' confers herbicide resistance to plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cellulose synthase ('CS'), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl) phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

Somerville, Chris R.; Scieble, Wolf

2000-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

296

Conduction mechanism of lithium bis(oxalato)borate–cellulose acetate polymer gel electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polymer gel electrolytes (PGE) belonging to salt–solvent–polymer hybrid systems are prepared using a mixture of lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), ?-butyrolactone (?-BL), and cellulose acetate (CA). The increase...

S. Z. Z. Abidin; M. Z. A. Yahya; O. H. Hassan; A. M. M. Ali

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent...

Deepak Kumar; Ganti S Murthy

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Ab initio calculation of the structure of acetate cellulose membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The elementary unit of the monoacetate cellulose membrane in lithium, sodium, and potassium chloride solutions was simulated with the Gaussian-98 program package. The results are used for qualitative explanation ...

E. V. Butyrskaya; V. A. Shaposhnik; A. A. Reznikov

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Comparison of cellulose consumption between Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) under laboratory conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We are interested in determining the effects of subterranean termite soldier ratios on the overall cellulose consumption of Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes. In nature, Coptotermes formosanus is found in very large colonies and a...

Lancaster, Denise

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

300

Catalytic conversion of cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over chromium trichloride in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An efficient method for converting cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) using an inexpensive ionic...3·6H2O) was developed. The effects of hydrochloric acid loading, catalyst dosage, reaction temperatur...

Shui Wang; Yizhen Du; Wenqian Zhang…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Catalytic conversion of cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in high yields via a two-step process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a key renewable chemical for plastics and fine chemicals, the preparation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) from biomass is an...3 was added which lead to a 5-HMF yield of 73% based on cellulose substrate. Th...

Xinhua Qi; Masaru Watanabe; Taku M. Aida; Richard L. Smith Jr.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

The Effects of Surfactant Pretreatment and Xylooligomers on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose and Pretreated Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cellulose and/or hemicellulose to monomer sugars that could be subsequently fermented into ethanol andcellulose and hemicellulose must be broken down fully to monomers for fermentation to ethanol

Qing, Qing

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Comparison of Cellulosic Ethanol Yields from Midwestern Maize and Reconstructed Tallgrass Prairie Systems Managed for Bioenergy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Maize- and prairie-based systems were investigated as cellulosic feedstocks by conducting a 9 ha side-by-side comparison on fertile soils in the Midwestern United States. Maize was grown continuously with adequat...

V. A. Nichols; F. E. Miguez; M. E. Jarchow; M. Z. Liebman; B. S. Dien

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

EA-1705: Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, Mascoma Corporation, Kinross Charter Township, Michigan  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The frontier Project consists of the design, construction and operation of a biorefinery producing ethanol and other co-products from cellulosic materials utilizing a proprietary pretreatment and fermentation process.

305

Optical fiber inspection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

Moore, F.W.

1985-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

306

Fiber optic temperature sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

Rabold, D.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

A Revised Structure and Hydrogen-Bonding System in Cellulose II from a Neutron Fiber Diffraction Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

P. Langan , Y. Nishiyama , and H. Chanzy ... Daisuke Sawada, Yoshiharu Nishiyama, Paul Langan, V. Trevor Forsyth, Satoshi Kimura, and Masahisa Wada ... Daisuke Sawada, Yoshiharu Nishiyama, Paul Langan, V. Trevor Forsyth, Satoshi Kimura, and Masahisa Wada ...

P. Langan; Y. Nishiyama; H. Chanzy

1999-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

308

Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda carbonfiberworkshopagenda.pdf More...

309

The quantification of oxygen toxicity by the technique of cellulose acetate electrophoresis of rat serum proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE QUANTIFICATION OF OXYGEN TOXICITY BY THE TECHNIQUE OF CELLULOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS OF RAT SERUM PROTEINS A Thesis by MARCIA WAGNER BARKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&ii University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Biology THE QUANTIFICATION OF OXYGEN TOXICITY BY THE TECHNIQUE OF CELLULOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS OF RAT SERUM PROTEINS A Thesis by MARCIA WAGNER BARKER Approved...

Barker, Marcia Wagner

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

310

Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

311

Graphitized-carbon fiber/carbon char fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for recovery of intact graphitic fibers from fiber/polymer composites is described. The method comprises first pyrolyzing the graphite fiber/polymer composite mixture and then separating the graphite fibers by molten salt electrochemical oxidation.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

312

Use of hollow core fibers, fiber lasers, and photonic crystal fibers for spark delivery and laser ignition in gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fiber-optic delivery of sparks in gases is challenging as the output beam must be refocused to high

Joshi, Sachin; Yalin, Azer P; Galvanauskas, Almantas

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added in an excess amount needed. 3 figures.

Moens, L.

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

314

ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process Using High-Impact Feedstock for Commercialization  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This pilot-scale integrated biorefinery will produce 250,000 gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol when running at full operational status.

315

Breakthrough: Better Fiber for Better Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have developed a cost-effective method for the continuous production of alpha silicon carbide fiber. The exceptionally strong, lightweight fiber could enable significant performance improvements in many everyday products.

Griffith, George; Garnier, John

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Fusion splicing of polarization preserving fibers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel technique is developed to detect any principal axis misalignment of polarization preserving fiber. The technique is based on measurement of reflect–returned power for the fiber...

Kato, Yasuyuki

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Sealed fiber-optic bundle feedthrough  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sealed fiber-optic bundle feedthrough by which a multitude of fiber-optic elements may be passed through an opening or port in a wall or structure separating two environments at different pressures or temperatures while maintaining the desired pressure or temperature in each environment. The feedthrough comprises a rigid sleeve of suitable material, a bundle of individual optical fibers, and a resin-based sealing material that bonds the individual optical fibers to each other and to the rigid sleeve.

Tanner, Carol E. (Niles, MI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

High pressure fiber optic sensor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

319

Fiber-optic displacement sensor system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Light pulses from a light emitting diode (LED) were coupled into a multimode fiber. The displacement of a mirror positioned near the end of the fiber was measured by monitoring the amplitude of the reflected pulses. A reference reflection from a.... Light pulses from a light emitting diode (LED) were coupled into a multimode fiber. The displacement of a mirror positioned near the end of the fiber was measured by monitoring the amplitude of the reflected pulses. A reference reflection from a...

Cava, Norayda Nora

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

320

Officials launch Carbon Fiber Technology Facility, announce  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to reduce carbon fiber's high cost, Danielson noted: "Many of these new clean energy technologies are withinSCIENCE Officials launch Carbon Fiber Technology Facility, announce new manufacturing initiative and a large crowd of local business and civic leaders came to the Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF

Pennycook, Steve

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Assessing Deterioration of ADSS Fiber Optic Cables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing Deterioration of ADSS Fiber Optic Cables Due to Corona Discharge Final Project Report of ADSS Fiber Optic Cables Due to Corona Discharge Final Project Report George G. Karady, Project Leader-Supporting) fiber optic cables installed on high voltage lines. The high electric field on those lines generates

322

Lee McGetrick Director, Carbon Fiber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contact Lee McGetrick Director, Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (865) 574-6549 mcgetricklb@ornl.gov INNOVATIONS IN MANUFACTURING www.ornl.gov/manufacturing Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber of Energy's (DOE) new Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF)--a 42,000 ft2 innovative technology facility

323

Single-step conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a versatile platform chemical  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability to use cellulosic biomass as feedstock for the large-scale production of liquid fuels and chemicals depends critically on the development of effective low temperature processes. One promising biomass-derived platform chemical is 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which is suitable for alternative polymers or for liquid biofuels. While HMF can currently be made from fructose and glucose, the ability to synthesize HMF directly from raw natural cellulose would remove a major barrier to the development of a sustainable HMF platform. Here we report a single-step catalytic process where cellulose as the feed is rapidly depolymerized and the resulting glucose is converted to HMF under mild conditions. A pair of metal chlorides (CuCl2 and CrCl2) dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIM]Cl) at temperatures of 80–120 °C collectively catalyze the single-step process of converting cellulose to HMF with an unrefined 96% purity among recoverable products (at 55.4 ± 4.0% HMF yield). After extractive separation of HMF from the solvent, the catalytic performance of recovered [EMIM]Cl and the catalysts was maintained in repeated uses. Cellulose depolymerization occurs at a rate that is about one order of magnitude faster than conventional acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. In contrast, single metal chlorides at the same total loading showed considerably less activity under similar conditions.

Yu Su; Heather M. Brown; Xiwen Huang; Xiao-dong Zhou; James E. Amonette; Z. Conrad Zhang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

The proteome and phosphoproteome of Neurospora crassa in response to cellulose, sucrose and carbon starvation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Improving cellulolytic enzyme production by plant biomass degrading fungi holds great potential in reducing costs associated with production of next-generation biofuels generated from lignocellulose. How fungi sense cellulosic materials and respond by secreting enzymes has mainly been examined by assessing function of transcriptional regulators and via transcriptional profiling. Here, we obtained global proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of the plant biomass degrading filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa grown on different carbon sources, i.e. sucrose, no carbon, and cellulose, by performing isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based LC–MS/MS analyses. A comparison between proteomes and transcriptomes under identical carbon conditions suggests that extensive post-transcriptional regulation occurs in N. crassa in response to exposure to cellulosic material. Several hundred amino acid residues with differential phosphorylation levels on crystalline cellulose (Avicel) or carbon-free medium vs sucrose medium were identified, including phosphorylation sites in a major transcriptional activator for cellulase genes, CLR1, as well as a cellobionic acid transporter, CBT1. Mutation of phosphorylation sites on CLR1 did not have a major effect on transactivation of cellulase production, while mutation of phosphorylation sites in CBT1 increased its transporting capacity. Our data provides rich information at both the protein and phosphorylation levels of the early cellular responses to carbon starvation and cellulosic induction and aids in a greater understanding of the underlying post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in filamentous fungi.

Yi Xiong; Samuel T. Coradetti; Xin Li; Marina A. Gritsenko; Therese Clauss; Vlad Petyuk; David Camp; Richard Smith; Jamie H.D. Cate; Feng Yang; N. Louise Glass

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Single-step conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a versatile platform chemical  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to use cellulosic biomass as feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals currently derived from petroleum depends critically on the development of effective low-temperature processes. While HMF, as a versatile platform chemical suitable for use in polymer synthesis or production of liquid biofuels, can currently be made from fructose and glucose, synthesis of HMF directly from raw natural cellulose represents the last major barrier toward the development of a sustainable HMF platform. Here we report an unprecedented single-step pathway that depolymerizes cellulose rapidly under mild conditions and converts the resulting glucose to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A pair of metal chlorides (CuCl2 and CrCl2) dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride at temperatures of 80-120°C catalyzes cellulose depolymerization and the subsequent glucose conversion to HMF with 95% selectivity among recoverable products (at 56% HMF yield). Cellulose depolymerization, which can also be catalyzed by other metalchloride pairs such as CuCl2 paired with PdCl2, CrCl3, or FeCl3, occurs at a rate that is more than one order of magnitude faster than conventional acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. In contrast, single-metal chlorides at the same total loading showed low activity under similar conditions. Mechanistic studies suggest that the C2 hydrogen of the imidazolium ring is activated by the paired metal-chloride catalysts.

Su, Yu; Brown, Heather M.; Huang, Xiwen; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Amonette, James E.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2009-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

326

469nm Fiber Laser Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have demonstrated 466mW of 469nm light from a frequency doubled continuous wave fiber laser. The system consisted of a 938nm single frequency laser diode master oscillator, which was amplified in two stages to 5 Watts using cladding pumped Nd{sup 3+} fiber amplifiers and then frequency doubled in a single pass through periodically poled KTP. The 3cm long PPKTP crystal was made by Raicol Crystals Ltd. with a period of 5.9 {micro}m and had a phase match temperature of 47 degrees Centigrade. The beam was focused to a 1/e{sup 2} diameter in the crystal of 29 {micro}m. Overall conversion efficiency was 11% and the results agreed well with standard models. Our 938nm fiber amplifier design minimizes amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm by employing an optimized core to cladding size ratio. This design allows the 3-level transition to operate at high inversion, thus making it competitive with the 1088nm 4-level transition. We have also carefully chosen the fiber coil diameter to help suppress propagation of wavelengths longer than 938 nm. At 2 Watts, the 938nm laser had an M{sup 2} of 1.1 and good polarization (correctable with a quarter and half wave plate to >10:1).

Drobshoff, A; Dawson, J W; Pennington, D M; Payne, S A; Beach, R

2005-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

327

Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

Joseph, Paul, E-mail: p.joseph@ulster.ac.uk [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic.

Graham, A.L.; Mondy, L.A.; Guell, D.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

Fiber-type dosimeter with improved illuminator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single-piece, molded plastic, Cassigrainian-type condenser arrangement is incorporated in a tubular-shaped personal pocket dosimeter of the type which combines an ionization chamber with an optically-read fiber electrometer to provide improved illumination of the electrometer fiber. The condenser routes incoming light from one end of the dosimeter tubular housing around a central axis charging pin assembly and focuses the light at low angles to the axis so that it falls within the acceptance angle of the electrometer fiber objective lens viewed through an eyepiece lens disposed in the opposite end of the dosimeter. This results in improved fiber illumination and fiber image contrast.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Fiber-type dosimeter with improved illuminator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single-piece, molded plastic, Cassigrainian-type condenser arrangement is incorporated in a tubular-shaped personal pocket dosimeter of the type which combines an ionization chamber with an optically-read fiber electrometer to provide improved illumination of the electrometer fiber. The condenser routes incoming light from one end of the dosimeter tubular housing around a central axis charging pin assembly and focuses the light at low angles to the axis so that it falls within the acceptance angle of the electrometer fiber objective lens viewed through an eyepiece lens disposed in the opposite end of the dosimeter. This results in improved fiber illumination and fiber image contrast.

Fox, R.J.

1985-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

331

Supplementation with xylanase and ?-xylosidase to reduce xylo-oligomer and xylan inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and pretreated corn stover  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hemicellulose is often credited with being one of the important physical barriers to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, and acts by blocking enzyme access to the cellulose surface. In addition, our recent researc...

Qing Qing; Charles E Wyman

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

CHITINASE-LIKE1/POM-POM1 and Its Homolog CTL2 Are Glucan-Interacting Proteins Important for Cellulose Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and Fratzl, P. (1995). The elementary cellulose fibril in Picea abies...Modifications of cellulose synthase confer resistance to isoxaben and thiazolidinone...polysaccharide composition in disease resistance. Trends Plant Sci. 9 : 203-209...

Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez; Stefan Bauer; Kian Hématy; Friederike Saxe; Ana Belén Ibáñez; Vera Vodermaier; Cornelia Konlechner; Arun Sampathkumar; Markus Rüggeberg; Ernst Aichinger; Lutz Neumetzler; Ingo Burgert; Chris Somerville; Marie-Theres Hauser; Staffan Persson

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

333

Fabrication of miniature fiber-optic temperature sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of coupling a silica fiber and a sapphire fiber includes providing a silica fiber having a doped core and a cladding layer, with the doped core having a prescribed diameter, providing a sapphire fiber having a diameter less than the doped core, placing an end of the sapphire fiber in close proximity to an end of the silica fiber, applying a heat source to the end of silica fiber and introducing the end of sapphire fiber into the heated doped core of the silica fiber to produce a coupling between the silica and sapphire fibers.

Zhu, Yizheng (Durham, NC); Wang, Anbo (Blacksburg, VA)

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

334

Investigation of brucite-fiber-reinforced concrete  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were made on the brucite-fiber-reinforced concrete composites. Effects of brucite fiber grades and the dosage on flexural strength, compressive strength, impact strength, sulfate corrosion resistance and the slump, cohesiveness, as well as the water retentiveness were also investigated. Different water reducers were tested. The particle-size characteristics of brucite fibers, the densities of the concrete, and the viscosities of the fiber/water-reducer suspensions were also measured. Results show that proper addition of brucite fibers in concrete can improve the mechanical properties, especially the flexural strength. In the test, the optimum quantity was about 0.5 wt.% of concrete. With the dosage increase of brucite fibers in concrete, the fluidity and the density of the concrete decrease. The performance of the concrete strengths is the collective interactions of the fiber reinforcement and the density reduction. The aspect ratio and the surface area of brucite fibers are the important affecting factors to the workability and the mechanical properties of the fiber concrete. Larger aspect ratios and smaller surface areas benefit the reinforcement. Water reducers with lower fiber suspension viscosities are favorable in improving the workability and strengths of the brucite fiber concrete.

Liu Kaiping; Cheng Hewei; Zhou Jing'en

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

336

NREL: News - NREL Finds a New Cellulose Digestion Mechanism by a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

114 114 NREL Finds a New Cellulose Digestion Mechanism by a Fast-eating Enzyme CelA digests cellulose faster than enzymes from commercial preparations January 2, 2014 Researchers at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have discovered that an enzyme from a microorganism first found in the Valley of Geysers on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia in 1990 can digest cellulose almost twice as fast as the current leading component cellulase enzyme on the market. If the enzyme continues to perform well in larger tests, it could help drive down the price of making lignocellulosic fuels, from ethanol to other biofuels that can be dropped into existing infrastructure. A paper reporting this finding, "Revealing Nature's Cellulase Diversity: The

337

Direct analysis of cellulose in poplar stem by matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

analysis analysis of cellulose in poplar stem by matrix- assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry Seokwon Jung 1,3 , Yanfeng Chen 3 , M. Cameron Sullards 1,3 and Arthur J. Ragauskas 1,2,3 * 1 BioEnergy Science Center, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10 th St., Atlanta, GA 30332, USA 2 Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10 th St., Atlanta, GA 30332, USA 3 School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA Received 10 July 2010; Revised 9 August 2010; Accepted 23 August 2010 Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) was applied to the analysis of the spatial distribution of cellulose on a cross-section of juvenile poplar (Populus deltoids) stems. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used to optimize matrix (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic

338

Catalytic conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethylene glycol: Effects of inorganic impurities in biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effects of typical inorganic impurities on the catalytic conversion of cellulose to ethylene glycol (EG) were investigated, and the mechanism of catalyst deactivation by certain impurities were clarified. It was found that most impurities did not affect the EG yield, but some non-neutral impurities or Ca and Fe ions greatly decreased the EG yield. Conditional experiments and catalyst characterization showed that some impurities changed the pH of the reaction solution and affected the cellulose hydrolysis rate; Ca and Fe cations reacted with tungstate ions and suppressed the retro-aldol condensation. To obtain a high EG yield, the pH of the reaction solution and the concentration of tungstate ions should be respectively adjusted to 5.0–6.0 and higher than 187 ppm. For raw biomass conversion, negative effects were eliminated by suitable pretreatments, and high EG yields comparable to those from pure cellulose were obtained.

Jifeng Pang; Mingyuan Zheng; Ruiyan Sun; Lei Song; Aiqin Wang; Xiaodong Wang; Tao Zhang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Electrospun and oxidized cellulose materials for environmental remediation of heavy metals in groundwater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter focuses on the use of modified cellulosic materials in the field of environmental remediation. Two different chemical methods were involved in fabricating oxidized cellulose (OC), which has shown promise as a metal ion chelator in environmental applications. Electrospinning was utilized to introduce a more porous structure into an oxidized cellulose matrix. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were used to study both the formation of OC and its surface complexation with metal ions. IR and Raman spectroscopic data demonstrate the formation of characteristic carboxylic groups in the structure of the final products and the successful formation of OC-metal complexes. Subsequent field tests at the Field Research Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory confirmed the value of OC for sorption of both U and Th ions.

Han, Dong [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Halada, Gary P. [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Spalding, Brian Patrick [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Efficient conversion of cellulose into biofuel precursor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in dimethyl sulfoxide–ionic liquid mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In recent years, cellulose has received increasing attention as a potential material for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. In this study, a new process for the efficient conversion of cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was developed by the use of AlCl3 as the catalyst in DMSO–ionic liquid ([BMIM]Cl) mixtures. Various reaction parameters such as reaction time, reaction temperature, solvent and catalyst dosage were investigated in detail. A high HMF yield of 54.9% was obtained from cellulose at 150 °C after 9 h in a mixed solvent of DMSO–[BMIM]Cl (10 wt.%). More importantly, the catalytic system could be reused for several times despite of the slight loss of its catalytic activity.

Shaohua Xiao; Bing Liu; Yimei Wang; Zhongfeng Fang; Zehui Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Ultrastable phosphoglucose isomerase through immobilization of cellulosebinding moduletagged thermophilic enzyme on lowcost highcapacity cellulosic adsorbent  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ultra-stable phosphoglucose isomerase through immobilization of cellulose- Ultra-stable phosphoglucose isomerase through immobilization of cellulose- binding module-tagged thermophilic enzyme on low-cost high-capacity cellulosic adsorbent Suwan Myung 1,2 , Xiao-Zhou Zhang 1 , Y.-H. Percival Zhang 1,2,3* Running title: One-step protein purification and immobilization 1 Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA 2 Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA 3 DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA *Corresponding author. Tel: 540-231-7414; Fax: 540-231-7414; Email: ypzhang@vt.edu Biocatalysts and Bioreactor Design

342

Supplementation with xylanase and beta-xylosidase to reduce xylo-oligomer and xylan inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and pretreated corn stover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in pretreated biomass through conversion of xylan and xylo-dioxide makes conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol

Qing, Qing; Wyman, Charles E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Assembly of Xylanases into Designer Cellulosomes Promotes Efficient Hydrolysis of the Xylan Component of a Natural Recalcitrant Cellulosic Substrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Cellulosomes Promotes Efficient Hydrolysis of the Xylan Component of a Natural Recalcitrant Cellulosic...cellulosomes promotes efficient hydrolysis of the xylan component of a natural recalcitrant cellulosic...hemicelluloses, a major component of which is xylan. In order to enhance enzymatic degradation...

Sarah Moraïs; Yoav Barak; Yitzhak Hadar; David B. Wilson; Yuval Shoham; Raphael Lamed; Edward A. Bayer

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Cellulose Hydrolysis over Highly Active Bimodal Micro/Mesoporous H-ZSM-5 Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Cellulose Hydrolysis over Highly Active Bimodal Micro/Mesoporous H-ZSM-5 Catalyst ... Direct synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), a useful renewable biofuel and biochemical, was systematically studied by hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose over Bimodal-HZ-5 zeolite. ... Microcrystalline cellulose; Hydrolysis; Biomodal-HZ-5; Glucose; 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural ...

Kakasaheb Y. Nandiwale; Nitish D. Galande; Pratika Thakur; Sanjay D. Sawant; Vishal P. Zambre; Vijay V. Bokade

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

345

Cellulose and cellobiose: adventures of a wandering organic chemist in theoretical chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energies arising from the rotation of free hydroxyl groups in the central glucose residue of a cellulose crystalline assembly, calculated using RHF, DFT, and FMO2/MP2 methods, will be presented. In addition, interactions of this central glucose residue with some of the surrounding residues (selected on the basis of the interaction strengths) are analyzed. The mechanism of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellobiose, which is the repeating unit of cellulose. Energies corresponding to the different steps of this mechanism calculated using RHF and DFT are compared with those previously reported using molecular dynamics calculations and with experimental data.

Baluyut, John

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

346

Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Science Computing, Environment & Life Sciences Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Science Highlights Postdoctoral Researchers Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic ethanol July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that may accompany land-use change (LUC) from increased biofuel feedstock production are a source of debate in the discussion of drawbacks and advantages of biofuels. Estimates of LUC GHG emissions focus mainly on corn ethanol and vary widely. Increasing the understanding of LUC GHG impacts associated with both corn and cellulosic ethanol will inform the on-going debate concerning their magnitudes and

347

Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

348

Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated fiber placement Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bonding for Active Summary: Epoxyless Fiber-to-Submount Bonding for Active Fiber Optoelectronic and Fiber Backplane Applications Don C... Abstract--A fiber-coupled optical...

350

Increasing cellulose accessibility is more important than removing lignin: A comparison of cellulose solventbased lignocellulose fractionation and soaking in aqueous ammonia  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Increasing Increasing Cellulose Accessibility Is More Important Than Removing Lignin: A Comparison of Cellulose Solvent-Based Lignocellulose Fractionation and Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia Joseph A. Rollin, 1 Zhiguang Zhu, 1 Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, 1,2 Y.-H. Percival Zhang 1,2,3 1 Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061; telephone: 1-540-231-7414; fax: þ1- 540-231-3199; e-mail: ypzhang@vt.edu 2 Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Sciences (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 3 DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee Received 18 May 2010; revision received 11 August 2010; accepted 17 August 2010 Published online 1 September 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22919

351

Carbon fibers from SRC pitch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to an improved method of manufacturing carbon fibers from a coal derived pitch. The improvement resides in the use of a solvent refined coal which has been hydrotreated and subjected to solvent extraction whereby the hetero atom content in the resulting product is less than 4.0% by weight and the softening point is between about 100.degree.-250.degree. F.

Greskovich, Eugene J. (Allentown, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 29 figs.

Farah, J.

1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

353

STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF COMPOSITE LAMINATES WITH EMBEDDED PIEZOELECTRIC FIBERS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The actuation of ultrasonic guided waves in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer plate from embedded metal core piezoelectric fibers is studied for structural health monitoring applications. A linear array of fibers embedded at the midplane can generate guided waves transverse to the fiber direction. Finite element simulations show that a significant source influence is associated with the small diameter piezoelectric fibers.

Cliff J. Lissenden; James L. Blackshire; Padma K. Puthillath

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Rugged fiber optic probe for raman measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical probe for conducting light scattering analysis is disclosed. The probe comprises a hollow housing and a probe tip. A fiber assembly made up of a transmitting fiber and a receiving bundle is inserted in the tip. A filter assembly is inserted in the housing and connected to the fiber assembly. A signal line from the light source and to the spectrometer also is connected to the filter assembly and communicates with the fiber assembly. By using a spring-loaded assembly to hold the fiber connectors together with the in-line filters, complex and sensitive alignment procedures are avoided. The close proximity of the filter assembly to the probe tip eliminates or minimizes self-scattering generated by the optical fiber. Also, because the probe can contact the sample directly, sensitive optics can be eliminated.

O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Toole, Jr., William R. (Aiken, SC); Nave, Stanley E. (Evans, GA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Laser Cooled High-Power Fiber Amplifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A theoretical model for laser cooled continuous-wave fiber amplifier is presented. The amplification process takes place in the Tm3+-doped core of the fluoride ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass fiber. The cooling process takes place in the Yb3+:ZBLAN fiber cladding. It is shown that for each value of the pump power and the amplified signal there is a distribution of the concentration of the Tm3+ along the length of the fiber amplifier, which provides its athermal operation. The influence of a small deviation in the value of the amplified signal on the temperature of the fiber with the fixed distribution of the Tm3+ions in the fiber cladding is investigated.

Nemova, Galina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate a novel in-line saturable absorber based on hollow optical fiber (HOF) filled with graphene composite for high power operation of mode-locked fiber laser. Evanescent...

Choi, Sun Young; Cho, Dae Kun; Song, Yong-Won; Oh, Kyunghwan; Kim, Kihong; Rotermund, Fabian; Yeom, Dong-Il

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Characterization of three dimensional fiber orientation in short-fiber composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mathematical procedure for recovering from image analysis the three dimensional nonsymmetric fiber-orientation distribution in short-fiber composites is proposed. Microphotographs from two orthogonal faces of a composite sample are needed to determine the three dimensional fiber orientation. A simple weighting function is derived to take into account the probability of intercepting fibers at varying inclination angles. The present procedure improves the previous works of other researchers in the following two aspects. First, it can obtain the single-angle fiber-orientation distribution from one micrograph in reference to the normal of the photographed surface. This distribution is often needed in predicting the mechanical and physical properties of short-fiber composites in this direction. Second, no symmetry in fiber-orientation distribution is assumed in the determination of the three dimensional fiber-orientation, which makes the present procedure more practical and versatile.

Zhu, Yuntian T.; Blumenthal, W.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Hydrochloric Acid-Catalyzed Levulinic Acid Formation from Cellulose: Data and Kinetic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

formation initially to HMF forma- tion later. VVC 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 00 and chemicals.1 LA can be produced from glu- cose,2,3 cellulose,4,5 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF),6 normal, and Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept., Bourns College of Engineering, University of California

California at Riverside, University of

359

Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO{sub 2} balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

Rapp, F., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de; Schneider, A., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT (Germany); Elsner, P., E-mail: peter.elsner@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT, Germany and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Complete Genome Sequence of the Cellulose-Degrading Bacterium Cellulosilyticum lentocellum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cellulosilyticum lentocellum DSM 5427 is an anaerobic, endospore-forming member of the Firmicutes. We describe the complete genome sequence of this cellulose-degrading bacterium; originally isolated from estuarine sediment of a river that received both domestic and paper mill waste. Comparative genomics of cellulolytic clostridia will provide insight into factors that influence degradation rates.

Miller, David A [Cornell University; Suen, Garret [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Fox, Brian G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Angert, Esther R. [Cornell University; Currie, Cameron [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Solution Structure of the CBM10 Cellulose Binding Module from Pseudomonas Xylanase A,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residues (Tyr8, Trp22, and Trp24), which are exposed and form a flat surface on one face, in a classical). Although there are domains that bind specifically to xylan (denoted xylan-binding modules or XBMs) (4), many xylanases contain domains that bind specifically to cellulose rather than xylan (5). It has been

Williamson, Mike P.

362

Structural insights into a unique cellulase fold and mechanism of cellulose hydrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cellulosome presented on the surface of C. thermocellum...cellulosome or displayed on the surface of C. thermocellum...end of cellulose and xylan chains and thus provides...disrupted, after cellulase treatment. Although CBM9...the cellulases to the surface of the...

Joana L. A. Brás; Alan Cartmell; Ana Luísa M. Carvalho; Genny Verzé; Edward A. Bayer; Yael Vazana; Márcia A. S. Correia; José A. M. Prates; Supriya Ratnaparkhe; Alisdair B. Boraston; Maria J. Romão; Carlos M. G. A. Fontes; Harry J. Gilbert

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Ab Initio Dynamics of Cellulose Pyrolysis: Nascent Decomposition Pathways at 327 and 600 C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reserves in lignocellulosic biomass.1 Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, which involves rapidAb Initio Dynamics of Cellulose Pyrolysis: Nascent Decomposition Pathways at 327 and 600 °C Vishal pyrolysis at 327 and 600 °C using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations with rare events

Auerbach, Scott M.

364

Aquatic Botany 64 (1999) 381398 Controls on soil cellulose decomposition along a salinity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aquatic Botany 64 (1999) 381­398 Controls on soil cellulose decomposition along a salinity gradient gradient, where nutrients, soil moisture, temperature and salinity among other factors also varied. Our placed at seven marsh sites along the salinity gradient, and soil and in- terstitial water samples were

Brix, Hans

365

Recovery and reuse of cellulase catalyst in an enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for recovering cellulase from the hydrolysis of cellulose, and reusing it in subsequent hydrolyois procedures. The process utilizes a commercial adsorbent that efficiently removes cellulase from reaction products which can be easily removed by simple decantation. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Woodward, J.

1987-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

366

DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000426 A Study of the Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Cellulose  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or diesel additives by either dehydration of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5- HMF) followed chloride ([Emim][Cl]) could increase the yield of glucose to 89% and limit the yield of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) to 7%.[8] In this study, HCl was used as the catalyst and the hy- drolysis of cellulose

Iglesia, Enrique

367

Bacterial cellulose based hydrogel (BC-g-AA) and preliminary result of swelling behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, hydrogel based on Bacterial cellulose (BC) or local known as Nata de Coco, which grafted with monomer: Acrylic acid (AA) is synthesis by using gamma radiation technique. These hydrogel (BC-g-AA) has unique characteristic whereby responsive to pH buffer solution.

Hakam, Adil; Lazim, Azwan Mat [UKM-MIMOS Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, National University of Malaysia (UKM) (Malaysia); Abdul Rahman, I. Irman [Laboratory of Gamma Radiation Instrument, Science Nuclear Program, School of Applied Physics, National University of Malaysia (UKM) (Malaysia)

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

368

Gradient of nanomechanical properties in the interphase of cellulose nanocrystal composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)­poly (acrylic acid) (PAA)­cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) composites. In comparison to the polymer matrix at the interface of CNC to 9.9 GPa in PVA­PAA matrix. It was observed that the existence of PAA increased nanocrystals (CNCs) to PVA and cross linking it using 10 wt.% poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) improves the overall

Endres. William J.

369

Sucrose synthase affects carbon partitioning to increase cellulose production and altered cell wall ultrastructure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and Paper Industry Useful Method 250 (TAPPI UM-250) (47). Determination of {alpha}-Cellulose...of the Pulp and Paper Industry ( 1991 ) Tappi Useful Method UM-250. Acid-soluble lignin in wood and pulp ( Tappi Press , Atlanta ). 48 Yokoyama T Kadla...

Heather D. Coleman; Jimmy Yan; Shawn D. Mansfield

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

The Arabidopsis Cellulose Synthase Complex: A Proposed Hexamer of CESA Trimers in an Equimolar Stoichiometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in the Instructions for Authors ( www.plantcell.org ) is: Ming Tien ( mxt3@psu.edu ). [W] Online version contains Web-only data. The three plant cellulose synthases of secondary cell wall synthesis are present in an equimolar ratio; this 1...

Joseph L. Hill; Jr.; Mustafa B. Hammudi; Ming Tien

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

371

Green Jute-Based Cross-Linked Soy Flour Nanocomposites Reinforced with Cellulose Whiskers and Nanoclay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Green Jute-Based Cross-Linked Soy Flour Nanocomposites Reinforced with Cellulose Whiskers and Nanoclay ... The extracted CWs alone and in combination with nanoclay were used as reinforcing agents for the preparation of green nanocomposites based on jute fabric and glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linked soy flour (SF). ...

Murshid Iman; Kusum K. Bania; Tarun K. Maji

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

372

Less is more: Novel cellulose structure requires fewer enzymes to process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratory (LANL) and the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC). Scientists are investigating columns," says GLBRC's Shishir Chundawat. "The key to cheaper biofuel production is to unravel strategy, currently under development at GLBRC, to selectively alter the cellulose crystal structure may

373

ELECTROSPUN POLYMER-FIBER SOLAR CELL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A study of fabricating the first electrospun polymer-fiber solar cell with MEHPPV is presented. Motivation for the work and a brief history of solar cell… (more)

Nagata, Shinobu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

Van't Hof, Jack (Brookhaven, NY)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

Van`t Hof, J.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

In Home Networking using Optical Fiber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Increased bandwidth requirements for in-home networks create opportunities for optical fiber interconnects. We outline the requirements for in-home networking and discuss the...

Ten, Sergey

377

Carbon Fiber Damage in Accelerator Beam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in Beam Wire Scanners. Because of their thermomechanical properties they are very resistant to particle beams. Their strength deteriorates with time due to radiation damage and low-cycle thermal fatigue. In case of high intensity beams this process can accelerate and in extreme cases the fiber is damaged during a single scan. In this work a model describing the fiber temperature, thermionic emission and sublimation is discussed. Results are compared with fiber damage test performed on SPS beam in November 2008. In conclusions the limits of Wire Scanner operation on high intensity beams are drawn.

Sapinski, M; Guerrero, A; Koopman, J; Métral, E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Solar Day-Lighting Using Optical Fibers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Green lighting alternatives can substantially reduce electricity consumption. Solar day-lighting system, by transporting the concentrated sunlight through optical fibers, has been...

Kumar, Naveen; Patil, Sanket

379

Large Pitch Hollow Core Honeycomb Fiber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new kind of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) for broadband guidance is introduced. Structural and optical properties of a fabricated example are detailed.

Beaudou, Benoît; Couny, François; Benabid, Fetah; Roberts, Peter John

380

Hollow-Fiber Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hollow-fiber membranes for reverse osmosis desalination are typically of the dense wall ... compact modules and further improve the economics of reverse osmosis desalination.

Mark E. Cohen; Michael A. Grable; Billy M. Riggleman

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Natural Fiber Composites: Retting, Preform Manufacture & Molding...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. lm12smith.pdf More Documents & Publications Natural Fiber Composites: Retting, Preform...

382

Natural Fiber Composites: Retting, Preform Manufacture & Molding...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

"Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08smith3.pdf More Documents & Publications Natural Fiber Composites: Retting, Preform...

383

Xylan and Lignin Deposition on the Secondary Wall of Fagus Crenata Fibers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The secondary wall ultrastructure of Fagus crenata fibers was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Specimens were treated with sodium chlorite and xylanase to remove lignin and xylan, respectively. Microfibrils were clearly visible at the innermost surface of the differentiating fiber secondary wall and there were no globular substances observed in the control specimen. After delignification or xylanase-degradation, microfibrils remained almost the same size and had the same appearance as controls. Anti-xylan antiserum immunolabeling, however, indicated that the microfibrils were coated with very thin layer of xylan1. Microfibrils were not apparent in the secondary wall of the mature fiber in control specimens. The secondary wall appeared to be a single homogeneous substance. Microfibrils with many globular substances were observed in the delignified specimens and their diameter was larger than that of microfibrils at the surface of the differentiating secondary wall. Following xylanase treatment, the microfibrils had a smooth surface without any globules, indicating that the globular structure is xylan. On the basis of these results, we propose the following mechanism for secondary wall assembly. Cellulose microfibrils synthesized on the plasma membrane are released into the innermost surface of the secondary wall and coated with a very thin layer of xylan that was previously deposited there. Successive deposition of xylan into the cell wall increases the diameter of the microfibrils. The large amount of xylan deposited on the microfibrils has a globular appearance. Lignin deposition occurs simultaneously with xylan deposition and, finally, microfibrils with globular xylan are masked with lignin, resulting in the homogeneous appearance of the cell wall.

Tatsuya Awano; Keiji Takabe; Minoru Fujita

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated carbon fiber Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fiber Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: activated carbon fiber...

385

Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report This report outlines the final...

386

Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June...

387

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Carbon Fiber Technology Facility  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Low-Cost Carbon Fiber | Proposal Guidelines Proposal Guidelines Proposals should be no more than 5 single spaced...

388

Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Pursuing the Promise | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Pursuing the Promise Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Pursuing the Promise High-strength, lightweight advanced composites will deliver a...

389

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Carbon Fiber Technology...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Presentation given...

390

High power fiber delivery for laser ignition applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present contribution provides a concise review of high power fiber delivery research for laser ignition applications. The fiber delivery requirements are discussed in terms of exit...

Yalin, Azer P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

392

Fiber optic probe having fibers with endfaces formed for improved coupling efficiency and method using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic probe for detecting scattered light, with transmitting and receiving fibers having slanted ends and bundled together to form a bevel within the tip of the probe. The probe comprises a housing with a transparent window across its tip for protecting the transmitting and receiving fibers held therein. The endfaces of the fibers are slanted, by cutting, polishing and the like, so that they lie in a plane that is not perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the respective fiber. The fibers are held in the tip of the probe using an epoxy and oriented so that lines normal to the slanted endfaces are divergent with respect to one another. The epoxy, which is positioned substantially between the transmitting and receiving fibers, is tapered so that the transmitting fiber, the epoxy and the receiving fiber form a bevel of not more than 20 degrees. The angled fiber endfaces cause directing of the light cones toward each other, resulting in improved light coupling efficiency. A light absorber, such as carbon black, is contained in the epoxy to reduce crosstalk between the transmitting and receiving fibers.

O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Fiber optic probe having fibers with endfaces formed for improved coupling efficiency and method using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic probe is disclosed for detecting scattered light, with transmitting and receiving fibers having slanted ends and bundled together to form a bevel within the tip of the probe. The probe comprises a housing with a transparent window across its tip for protecting the transmitting and receiving fibers held therein. The endfaces of the fibers are slanted, by cutting, polishing and the like, so that they lie in a plane that is not perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the respective fiber. The fibers are held in the tip of the probe using an epoxy and oriented so that lines normal to the slanted endfaces are divergent with respect to one another. The epoxy, which is positioned substantially between the transmitting and receiving fibers, is tapered so that the transmitting fiber, the epoxy and the receiving fiber form a bevel of not more than 20 degrees. The angled fiber endfaces cause directing of the light cones toward each other, resulting in improved light coupling efficiency. A light absorber, such as carbon black, is contained in the epoxy to reduce crosstalk between the transmitting and receiving fibers. 3 figures.

O`Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.

1995-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Fiber-optic liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber-optic liquid level sensor measures the height of a column of liquid through the hydrostatic pressure it produces. The sensor employs a fiber-optic displacement sensor to detect the pressure-induced displacement of the center of a corrugated diaphragm.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Carbon Fiber Composite Pyramidal Lattice Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Fiber Composite Pyramidal Lattice Structures A Thesis Presented to the faculty of the School the facesheets and the core were created from pre-cured, bi-axial carbon fiber laminated plates. The cores were approach which permits lattice fabrication from high specific strength aluminum and titanium alloys. Carbon

Wadley, Haydn

396

Triangular-profile single-mode fiber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A low-loss triangular-profile single-mode fiber is reported. The fiber loss at 1.3–1.55-?m wavelengths is below 0.4 dB/km, and its zero-chromatic-dispersion wavelength is 1.402 ?m.

Saifi, M A; Cohen, L G; Stone, J; Jang, S J

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

The Transport Properties of Activated Carbon Fibers  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

The transport properties of activated isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers with surface area 1000 m{sup 2}/g have been investigated. We report preliminary results on the electrical conductivity, the magnetoresistance, the thermal conductivity and the thermopower of these fibers as a function of temperature. Comparisons are made to transport properties of other disordered carbons.

di Vittorio, S. L.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Endo, M.; Issi, J-P.; Piraux, L.

1990-07-00T23:59:59.000Z

398

Fiber-optic voltage sensor with cladded fiber and evanescent wave variation detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic voltage sensor is described which includes a source of light, a reference fiber for receiving a known percentage of the light and an electrostrictive element having terminals across which is applied, a voltage to be measured. The electrostrictive element is responsive to the applied voltage to assume an altered physical state. A measuring fiber also receives a known percentage of light from the light source and is secured about the electrostrictive element. The measuring fiber is provided with a cladding and exhibits an evanescent wave in the cladding. The measuring fiber has a known length which is altered when the electrostrictive element assumes its altered physical state. A differential sensor is provided which senses the intensity of light in both the reference fiber and the measuring fiber and provides an output indicative of the difference between the intensities. 3 figs.

Wood, C.B.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Fiber-optic voltage sensor with cladded fiber and evanescent wave variation detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic voltage sensor is described which includes a source of light, a reference fiber for receiving a known percentage of the light and an electrostrictive element having terminals across which is applied, a voltage to be measured. The electrostrictive element is responsive to the applied voltage to assume an altered physical state. A measuring fiber also receives a known percentage of light from the light source and is secured about the electrostrictive element. The measuring fiber is provided with a cladding and exhibits an evanescent wave in the cladding. The measuring fiber has a known length which is altered when the electrostrictive element assumes its altered physical state. A differential sensor is provided which senses the intensity of light in both the reference fiber and the measuring fiber and provides an output indicative of the difference between the intensities.

Wood, Charles B. (Lakewood, CO)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Remotely readable fiber optic compass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A remotely readable fiber optic compass. A sheet polarizer is affixed to a magnet rotatably mounted in a compass body, such that the polarizer rotates with the magnet. The optical axis of the sheet polarizer is preferably aligned with the north-south axis of the magnet. A single excitation light beam is divided into four identical beams, two of which are passed through the sheet polarizer and through two fixed polarizing sheets which have their optical axes at right angles to one another. The angle of the compass magnet with respect to a fixed axis of the compass body can be determined by measuring the ratio of the intensities of the two light beams. The remaining ambiguity as to which of the four possible quadrants the magnet is pointing to is resolved by the second pair of light beams, which are passed through the sheet polarizer at positions which are transected by two semicircular opaque strips formed on the sheet polarizer. The incoming excitation beam and the four return beams are communicated by means of optical fibers, giving a remotely readable compass which has no electrical parts.

Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Garrett, Steven L. (Pebble Beach, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Method for preparing polyaniline fibers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline. In order to process high quality fibers and other articles possessing good mechanical properties, it is known that solution concentrations of the chosen polymer should be in the range from 15-30% (w/w). Moreover, it is desirable to use the highest molecular weight consistent with the solubility properties of the polymer. However, such solutions are inherently unstable, forming gels before processing can be achieved. The present invention describes the addition gel inhibitors (GIs) to the polymer solution, thereby permitting high concentrations (>15% (w/w)) of high molecular weight ((M.sub.w)>120,000, and (M.sub.n)>30,000) emeraldine base (EB) polyaniline to be dissolved. Secondary amines have been used for this purpose in concentrations which are small compared to those which might otherwise be used in a cosolvent role therefor. The resulting solutions are useful for generating excellent fibers, films, coatings and other objects, since the solutions are stable for significant time periods, and the GIs are present in too small concentrations to cause polymer deterioration. It is demonstrated that the GIs found to be useful do not act as cosolvents, and that gelation times of the solutions are directly proportional to the concentration of GI. In particular, there is a preferred concentration of GI, which if exceeded causes structural and electrical conductivity degradation of resulting articles. Heating of the solutions significantly improves solubility.

Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Low Cost Carbon Fiber.pub  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract number DE-AC05-00OR22725 Research Areas Freight Flows Passenger Flows Supply Chain Efficiency Transportation: Energy Environment Safety Security Vehicle Technologies Research Brief Background The automotive industry has long been identified by carbon fiber manufacturers as a market with substantial growth potential. When manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able to achieve requisite levels of strength and stiffness with significantly less overall vehicle weight. These potential large reductions in vehicle weight, in turn, afford the

403

Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

David (Dave) Warren David (Dave) Warren Field Technical Manager Transportation Materials Research Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2009, M/S 8050 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8050 Phone: 865-574-9693 Fax: 865-574-0740 Email: WarrenCD@ORNL.GOV Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber 14 February 2011 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Questions for Today Materials How can the cost of carbon fiber suitable for higher performance applications (H 2 Storage) be developed? H 2 Storage requirements implies Aerospace grade fibers. Can we build off of work previously done for more modest structural applications? To accurately answer: We need to know the minimum performance and maximum cost requirements of the fiber not simply the properties of current fiber.

404

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced dti fiber Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results for: advanced dti fiber Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Free-Form Fibers: A Whole Brain Fiber-to-DTI Registration Method Summary: Free-Form Fibers: A Whole Brain Fiber-to-DTI...

405

EA-1694: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for the Cellulosic Ethanol Facility in Highlands County, Florida  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to issue a Federal loan guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for a cellulosic ethanol facility in Highlands County, Florida. This EA is on hold.

406

THE USE OF THE SILICA GEL PLATE FOR DEMONSTRATING THE OCCURRENCE AND ABUNDANCE OF CELLULOSE-DECOMPOSING BACTERIA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...decomposition of cellulose in soils. Soil Sci., 1, 436. OMELIANSKI, W. 1903-4 tJber die Trennung der Wasserstoff und Methan- Garung der Zellulose. Centrbl. f. Bakteriol., 2 Abt., 11, 369-377. OMELIANSKI, W. 1913 Zur Frage...

Selman A. Waksman; Cornelia Carey

1926-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Cellulosic materials recovered from steam classified municipal solid wastes as feedstocks for conversion to fuels and chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A process has been developed for the treatment of municipal solid waste to separate and recover the cellulosic biomass from the nonbiomass components. ... highly suitable as a feedstock for conversion to fuel, fe...

Michael H. Eley; Gerald R. Guinn; Joyita Bagchi

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Evaluation of Microbial Communities from Extreme Environments as Inocula in a Carboxylate Platform for Biofuel Production from Cellulosic Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The carboxylate biofuels platform (CBP) involves the conversion of cellulosic biomass into carboxylate salts by a mixed microbial community. Chemical engineering approaches to convert these salts to a variety of fuels (diesel, gasoline, jet fuel...

Cope, Julia Lee

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

409

Analytical description of the scattering of cellulose nanocrystals in tracheid wood cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model is described which allows the azimuthal X-ray diffraction pattern to be calculated for any hkl reflection of tracheid cells in any orientation. The same description can also be applied to fibers with an additional level of organization, e.g. twisted fibers.

Ogurreck, M.

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

410

Arabidopsis Fragile Fiber8, Which Encodes a Putative Glucuronyltransferase, Is Essential for Normal Secondary Wall Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...suggesting that a reduction in xylan synthesis affects cellulose synthesis. Xylan is a matrix polysaccharide that spontaneously binds to the surface of cellulose microfibirils...The acidic substituents of xylan have been proposed to play...

Ruiqin Zhong; Maria J. Peña; Gong-Ke Zhou; C. Joseph Nairn; Alicia Wood-Jones; Elizabeth A. Richardson; W. Herbert Morrison III; Alan G. Darvill; William S. York; Zheng-Hua Ye

2005-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

411

Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8 8 June 2010 Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol F. Kabir Kazi, J. Fortman, and R. Anex Iowa State University G. Kothandaraman ConocoPhillips Company D. Hsu, A. Aden, and A. Dutta National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-46588 June 2010 Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol F. Kabir Kazi, J. Fortman, and R. Anex

412

Degradation of Cellulose to Organic Acids in its Homogeneous Alkaline Aqueous Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, P.R. ... Malonic acid (MA), lactic acid (LA), formic acid (FA), and acetic acid (AA) are the major valuable products, among them MA and LA are the top valuable platform molecules for synthesis of bulk chemicals and fuels. ... (21-24) Plenty of research has been reported using ionic liquid as solvent to convert cellulose in its homogeneous solution over solid or liquid catalysts, such as conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) or lactic acid, etc.(25-27) However, the high-cost of ionic liquids and the difficult in recovery and the difficult in reutilization of ionic liquid limit their application in large scale by now. ...

Lifeng Yan; Xiaoya Qi

2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

413

Liquefaction of cellulosic wastes. 6: Oxygen compounds in pyrolytic oil and water fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid hydrocarbon oil and water have been produced from the liquefaction of cellulosic matter present in municipal solid wastes. The produced pyrolytic oil and water fraction seemed to be contaminated with considerable amounts of oxygen compounds as compared with fuels derived from a petroleum origin. The oxygen compounds included organic acids (fatty and naphthenic acids), phenols, and carbonyl compounds. These classes of oxygen compounds were extracted selectively from the pyrolytic oils and water using chemical extraction methods. Methyl esters of fatty acids and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones of carbonyl compounds were identified by gas chromatography and thin layer chromatography, respectively. It was suggested that the identified oxygen compounds could be produced from the pyrolysis of volatiles (e.g., levoglucosane, which is the primary product of cellulose depolymerization) via different mechanistic pathways.

Gharieb, H.K.; Faramawy, S.; El-Amrousi, F.A.; El-Sabagh, S.M. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst., Cairo (Egypt)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

One-step degradation of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in ionic liquid under mild conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract One-step conversion of cellulose to HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural) has been achieved by using metal chlorides (CrCl3, CuCl2, SnCl4, WCl6) in [BMIM]Cl. The effects of temperature, reaction time, amount of catalysts, and the purity of [BMIM]Cl on the performance have been studied and discussed in detail. More than 63% yield of HMF and 80% yield of TRS (total reducing sugar) were obtained in [BMIM]Cl with CrCl3 at 120 °C under atmospheric pressure. Filter paper and cotton were also used as a source for cellulose degradation to HMF, but only a moderate yield of HMF was obtained (40% for filter paper and 12% for cotton). The reutilization of this system was examined and the reaction mechanism was also discussed.

Lilong Zhou; Yiming He; Zhanwei Ma; Runjuan Liang; Tinghua Wu; Ying Wu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

Wrenn, Jr., George E. (Clinton, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Ionic Liquid?Water Mixtures: Enhanced Kw for Efficient Cellulosic Biomass Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Departments of Chemistry and ... Under relatively mild conditions (?140 °C, 1 atm) and in the absence of added acid catalysts typically employed in biomass conversion, cellulose dissolved in certain ionic liquids (ILs) has been converted into water-soluble reducing sugars in high total reducing sugar yield (up to 97%), or directly into the biomass platform chemical 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) in high conversion (up to 89%) when CrCl2 is added. ...

Yuetao Zhang; Hongbo Du; Xianghong Qian; Eugene Y.-X. Chen

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

417

The action of Trichoderma viride cellulase on purified and partially purified cellulosic substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of practical importance are usually fungal in origin, and each particular one is really a complex of enzymes whose overall action is the degradation of cellulose to glucose. The past work has been limited somewhat in that although many fungi produce... digestion some workers have used the culture filtrate with no special treatments other than filtration through glass wool and pH adjustment (24). In the past, attempts have been made to convert wood to an energy source for ruminant animal nutrition...

Villarreal, Anita

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

2 micron femtosecond fiber laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and systems for generating femtosecond fiber laser pulses are disclose, including generating a signal laser pulse from a seed laser oscillator; using a first amplifier stage comprising an input and an output, wherein the signal laser pulse is coupled into the input of the first stage amplifier and the output of the first amplifier stage emits an amplified and stretched signal laser pulse; using an amplifier chain comprising an input and an output, wherein the amplified and stretched signal laser pulse from the output of the first amplifier stage is coupled into the input of the amplifier chain and the output of the amplifier chain emits a further amplified, stretched signal laser pulse. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

Liu, Jian; Wan, Peng; Yang, Lihmei

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

419

Fiber optic D dimer biosensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic sensor for D dimer (a fibrinolytic product) can be used in vivo (e.g., in catheter-based procedures) for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. It has been estimated that strokes and stroke-related disorders cost Americans between $15-30 billion annually. Relatively recently, new medical procedures have been developed for the treatment of stroke. These endovascular procedures rely upon the use of microcatheters. These procedures could be facilitated with this sensor for D dimer integrated with a microcatheter for the diagnosis of clot type, and as an indicator of the effectiveness, or end-point of thrombolytic therapy.

Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Grant, Sheila A. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Effects of hadron irradiation on scintillating fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trackers based on scintillating-fiber technology are being considered by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration at SSC and the D[phi] collaboration at Fermilab. An important issue is the effect of the radiation existing in the detector cores on fiber properties. Most studies of radiation damage in scintillators have irradiated small bulk samples rather than fibers, and have used X-rays, [sup 60]Co gammas, or electron beams, often at accelerated rates. The authors have irradiated some 600 fibers in the Fermilab Tevatron C[phi] area, thereby obtaining a hadronic irradiation at realistic rates. Four-meter-long samples of ten Bicron polystyrene-based fiber types, maintained in air, dry nitrogen, argon, and vacuum atmospheres within stainless-steel tubes, were irradiated for seven weeks at various distances from the accelerator beam pipes. Maximum doses, measured by thermoluminescence detectors, were about 80 Krad. Fiber properties, particularly light yield and attenuation length, have been measured over a one-year period. A description of the work together with the results is presented. At the doses achieved, corresponding to a few years of actual fiber-tracking detector operation, little degradation is observed. In addition, recovery after several days' exposure to air has been noted. Properties of unirradiated samples kept in darkness show no changes after one year.

Atac, M. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Buchanan, C.; Chrisman, D.; Cline, D.; Kolonko, J.; Kubic, J.; Park, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Baumbaugh, A.; Binkley, M.; Bross, A.D.; Finley, D.; Elias, J.; Foster, G.W.; Kephart, R.; Kephart, R.; Kim, C.; Park, H.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Rivetta, C.; Tkaczyk, S.; Wagner, R. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Chung, M.; Goldberg, H.; Jeskik, R.; Margulies, S.; Mendez, H.; Solomon, J.; Vaca, F. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)); Kelley, C. (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Boston, MA (United States)); Baumbaugh, B.; Bishop, J.; Biswas, N.; Cason, N.; Jacques, J.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M.; Kenney, V.; LoSecco, J.; Ruchti, R.; Shephard, W.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Marchant, J.; Mountain, R.J. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)); Davis, D.; Vandergriff, D. (O

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Fabrication and characterization of nanofibrillated cellulose and its aerogels from natural pine needles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To obtain the nanofibriled cellulose from natural pine needles, a combination of chemical pretreatments and subsequently ultrasonic treatments was employed for removing the hemicelluloses and lignins and splitting the bundled cellulose into pine needle nanofibres. Using SEM and diameter distribution method, it was confirmed that the obtained pine needle nanofibres had a narrow diameter from 30-70 nm. The crystalline type of the pine needle nanofibres was the cellulose I type. The crystallinity reached 66.19%, which was increased by 7.61% as compared with the raw material pine needles. The TGA and DTG results showed that the degradation temperature of the nanofibres was increased to approximately 267 °C and 352 °C compared with 221 °C and 343 °C of the raw material fibres, respectively. Furthermore, the highly flexible and ultralight pine needle nanofibres aerogels were prepared from the aqueous pine needle nanofibres solution using the freezing-drying technique. Aerogels were studied by SEM observation and nitrogen gas adsorption. The mechanical properties were measured in compression for aerogels. This study provides a new opportunity to fabricate novel nanomaterials from waste biomass materials, which is crucial for the fully utilising of abundant biomass resources.

Shaoliang Xiao; Runan Gao; Yun Lu; Jian Li; Qingfeng Sun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Communication Electric polarization in carbon fiber-reinforced cement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Communication Electric polarization in carbon fiber-reinforced cement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung Abstract Electric polarization induced an increase of the measured electrical resistivity of carbon fiber of the cement paste through the use of carbon fibers that were more crystalline, the increase of the fiber

Chung, Deborah D.L.

423

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Carbon Fiber Technology Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Low-Cost Carbon Fiber | Proposal opportunity and how low-cost carbon fiber can facilitate successful entry. Submit completed proposal package and equipment, visit www.ornl.gov/manufacturing. #12;MDF: CFTF Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Proposal Guidelines 2 4

Pennycook, Steve

424

Compact, stable 1 ghz femtosecond er-doped fiber lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate a high-repetition-rate soliton fiber laser that is based on highly-doped anomalously-dispersive erbium-doped fiber. By splicing an 11-mm single mode fiber to the erbium-doped fiber, thermal damage of the ...

Byun, Hyunil

425

Characterization of Fiber Optic CMM Probe System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a study completed on the fiber optic probe system that is a part of the Werth optical CMM. This study was necessary due to a lack of documentation from the vendor for the proper use and calibration of the fiber probe, and was performed in support of the Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) development program at the FM&T. As a result of this study, a better understanding of the fiber optic probe has been developed, including guidelines for its proper use and calibration.

K.W.Swallow

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Microbend fiber-optic chemical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microbend fiber-optic chemical sensor for detecting chemicals in a sample, and a method for its use, is disclosed. The sensor comprises at least one optical fiber having a microbend section (a section of small undulations in its axis), for transmitting and receiving light. In transmission, light guided through the microbend section scatters out of the fiber core and interacts, either directly or indirectly, with the chemical in the sample, inducing fluorescence radiation. Fluorescence radiation is scattered back into the microbend section and returned to an optical detector for determining characteristics of the fluorescence radiation quantifying the presence of a specific chemical.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

428

Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

429

Long-period fiber grating as wavelength selective element in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selection of operating wavelength of the Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers using longperiod fiber gratings (LPFGs) is suggested. In the proposed method, customized LPFG that sustains high powers serves as a broad-band rejection filter. It modifies the net gain profile of the laser, enabling the peak gain to occur at a designed wavelength. Spectral range of oscillation between 1050-1110 nm was experimentally demonstrated. This range can be extended to both shorter and longer wavelengths with proper design of the LPFG and length of the Yb-doped fiber. The gratings were inscribed by CO2 laser and the grating period down to 175 ?m was achieved being, to our best knowledge, the shortest reported LPFG period using this technique.

Peterka, P; Dussardier, Bernard; Slavik, R; Honzatko, P; Kubecek, V

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Introduction The Fiber-Lite MI-150 is a 150 Watt quartz halogen fiber optic illuminator designed for general microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction ® The Fiber-Lite MI-150 is a 150 Watt quartz halogen fiber optic illuminator designed for general microscopy use. When used with specialty fiber optic cables the MI-150 illuminator can also Illuminator from the carton and retain the manual and any additional documents. ! Remove the fiber optic cable

Kleinfeld, David

431

The effect of second phase particles in the fiber/matrix interfacial strength of carbon fiber reinforced thermoset composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the failure of the single fiber test specimen prior to saturation in the fiber fragmentation process. The microindentation tests were also unsuccessful due to fracture in the carbon fiber prior to interfacial debond. The fiber push-out test results were twice...

Lu, Chung-Yuan

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

MICROMECHANICS IN CONTINOUS GRAPHITE FIBER/EPOXY COMPOSITES DURING CREEP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro Raman spectroscopy and classic composite shear-lag models were used to analyze the evolution with time of fiber and matrix strain/stress around fiber breaks in planar model graphite fiber-epoxy matrix composites. Impressive agreements were found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The local matrix creep leads to an increase in the load transfer length around the break under a constant load. This increases the chance of fiber breakage in the neighboring intact fibers.

C. ZHOU; ET AL

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Strength; Fiber Format & Manufacturing Methods 1-10 M lbsyr 100M - 1B lbsyr Oil & Gas Deep Water Production Enabler Pipes, Drill Shafts, Off-Shore Structures Low Mass, High...

434

PROJECT REPORT COUPLING OF LIGHT THROUGH FIBER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 PROJECT REPORT COUPLING OF LIGHT THROUGH FIBER PHY 564 SUBMITTED BY: GAGANDEEP KAUR (952549116 size simplifies connections and also allows the use of lower-cost electronics such as light

La Rosa, Andres H.

435

Optoelectronic fiber webs for imaging applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate the use of novel visible and infrared light-sensitive optoelectronic fiber in the development of large scale photodector arrays. Unlike conventional point photodetectors these one-dimensional linear photodectors ...

Arnold, Jerimy Reeves

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Fiber to waveguide couplers for silicon photonics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As silicon photonics enters mainstream technology, we find ourselves in need of methods to seamlessly transfer light between the optical fibers of global scale telecommunications networks and the on-chip waveguides used ...

Montalbo, Trisha M., 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Fabrication of microscale carbon nanotube fibers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have excellent mechanical, chemical, and electronic properties, but realizing these excellences in practical applications needs to assemble individual CNTs into larger-scale products. Recently, CNT fibers demonstrate the potential ...

Gengzhi Sun; Yani Zhang; Lianxi Zheng

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

439

Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO); Joshi, Sachin (Fort Collins, CO); Reynolds, Adam (Fort Collins, CO)

2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

440

Indigestible fiber components as possible internal markers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INDIGESTIBLE FIBER COMPONENTS AS POSSIBLE INZERNAL MARKERS A Thesis by BERNARD FREDERICK JACOBS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AQf University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1975 Major Subject: Animal Nutrition INDIGESTIBLE FIBER COMPONENTS AS POSSIBLE INTERNAL MARKERS A Thesis by BERNARD FREDERICK JACOBS Approved as to style and content by: !, /, (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Depar ent) (Member) (Member...

Jacobs, Bernard Frederick

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Fiber optic detector for immuno-testing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals in air or a gas by exchanging the target chemical for a fluoroescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Thomas E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is comprised of a fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman- scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

Nave, S.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman-scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

Nave, Stanley E. (Evans, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

The effect of irregular fiber distribution and error in assumed transverse fiber CTE on thermally induced fiber/matrix interfacial stresses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermally induced interfacial stress states between fiber and matrix at cryogenic temperature were studied using three-dimensional finite element based micromechanics. Mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between fiber and matrix...

Zu, Seung-Don

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

445

Optical fibers go nano The manufacture of nanowires from optical fibers provides the longest, most uniform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical fibers go nano The manufacture of nanowires from optical fibers provides the longest, most uniform and robust nanowires. Most important, the low optical loss associated to small surface roughness and high homogeneity allows the use of nanowires for optical applications and opens the way to a host

446

Reversion and dehydration reactions of glucose during the dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The inaccessibility of all glycosidic bonds necessitates industrial conversion schemes which employ a dilute acid catalyst at high temperatures. Process conditions also promote further reactions of glucose via the reversion and dehydration pathways. Quantitative determination of the yields of the major reversion and dehydration products is important for understanding and predicting the amounts of these materials expected under envisioned industrial operating conditions. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) was hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid (0.0-1.25 wt.%), at high temperatures (160-250/sup 0/C), and at a 3:1 liquid-to-solid ratio. The hydrolysis was monitored by evaluating the amount of cellulose remaining and the yields of glucose, solid humin, levulinic acid, formic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and reversion products as a function of the aforementioned reaction conditions. Analysis of the reversion products required the development of a technique for the quantitation of trace carbohydrates in complex mixtures and led to the development of a reduction/permethylation gas chromatographic procedure. Cellulose hydrolysis followed pseudo-homogeneous first-order kinetics. Glucose yield was adequately described as consecutive first-order reactions. Anhydrosugars formed via reversion followed equilibrium reaction kinetics whereas the disaccharides did not. Total reversion product yields approached 10% at 250/sup 0/C. Quantitative determination of the major dehydration products provided important information concerning the destruction of glucose. HMF was produced in up to 12% yields based on the theoretical amount of glucose available, and furfural was detected in up to 5% yields. A carbon mass balance based on the determined product yields revealed that approximately 90% of all carbon was accounted for at maximum glucose yields.

Helm, R.F.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

Baker, Frederick S

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

448

Solid-state flexible polyaniline/silver cellulose nanofibrils aerogel supercapacitors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hereby we report solid-state flexible aerogel supercapacitors fabricated from cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), Ag and polyaniline (PANI) nanoparticles. The electrochemical performances of PANI/Ag/CNF supercapacitors were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic chargedischarge curves and electric impedance spectroscopy. The specific capacitance was calculated to be 176 mF/cm2 at 10 mV s?1 from cyclic voltammetry. This value is significantly higher than most flexible supercapacitors reported in literature. The electrochemical properties of the as-fabricated supercapacitors also remain the same when they are bent with different bending radius.

Xiaodan Zhang; Ziyin Lin; Bo Chen; Wei Zhang; Sudhir Sharma; Wentian Gu; Yulin Deng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Steam Gasification of Cellulose with Cobalt Catalysts in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic performance of Co/MgO catalysts for the treatment of tar derived from cellulose steam gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier of 22 mm i.d. and 500 mm height was investigated by means of two different methods:? hot gas cleaning in a fixed bed reactor after the fluidized bed gasifier (secondary method) and treatment inside the gasifier with catalyst as a fluidizing medium (primary method). ... From this perspective, developing a more effective catalyst is essential for scaling down the plant size while still facilitating high and stable catalytic performance. ... At 720-760°, space-times 0.10-0.20 s, catalyst sizes <1.0 ...

Kazuhiko Tasaka; Takeshi Furusawa; Atsushi Tsutsumi

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

450

Compositions for enhancing hydroysis of cellulosic material by cellulolytic enzyme compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to compositions comprising a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and an organic compound comprising a carboxylic acid moiety, a lactone moiety, a phenolic moiety, a flavonoid moiety, or a combination thereof, wherein the combination of the GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and the organic compound enhances hydrolysis of a cellulosic material by a cellulolytic enzyme compared to the GH61 polypeptide alone or the organic compound alone. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Johansen, Katja Salomon

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

451

Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation enabled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation ena- Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation ena- bled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, Zhiguang Zhu, Y.-H. Percival Zhang PII: S0960-8524(12)00712-2 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.04.088 Reference: BITE 9966 To appear in: Bioresource Technology Received Date: 29 February 2012 Revised Date: 21 April 2012 Accepted Date: 21 April 2012 Please cite this article as: Sathitsuksanoh, N., Zhu, Z., Percival Zhang, Y.-H., Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent- based lignocellulose fractionation enabled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks, Bioresource Technology (2012), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.04.088 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers

452

Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed Construction and Operation of a Cellulosic Ethanol Plant, Treutlen County, Georgia  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

05 05 October 15, 2007 FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT for the PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF A CELLULOSIC ETHANOL PLANT, TREUTLEN COUNTY, GEORGIA SUMMARY: The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential impacts associated with the construction and operation of a proposed cellulosic ethanol plant in Treutlen County, Georgia. DOE, through its Golden Field Office, in Golden, Colorado, would provide funding to Range Fuels, Inc., a Colorado based corporation, to support the construction and initial operation of the proposed plant. All discussion, analysis and findings related to the potential impacts of construction and operation ofthe proposed cellulosic ethanol plant (including the applicant-committed practices presented in the Proposed Action) are contained in the Final EA. The Final EA is hereby incorporated

453

Develop and Demonstrate the Cellulose to Ethanol Process: Executive Summary of the Final Technical Report, 17 September 1980 - 17 March 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Biomass Research Center at the University of Arkansas was contracted by the Solar Energy Research Institute to 'Develop and Demonstrate the Cellulose to Ethanol Process.' The purpose of the contract was to accelerate site selection, site specific engineering, and research and development leading to the determination of the feasibility of economically operating a cellulose to ethanol commercial scale plant.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Concentric core optical fiber with multiple-mode signal transmission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A concentric core optical fiber provides for the simultaneous but independent transmission of signals over a single optical fiber. The concentric optical fiber is constructed of a single-mode or multimode inner optical fiber defined by a core and a cladding of a lower index of refraction than the core and an outer optical fiber defined by additional cladding concentrically disposed around the cladding and of an index of refraction lower than the first mentioned cladding whereby the latter functions as the core of the outer optical fiber. By employing such an optical fiber construction with a single-mode inner core or optical fiber, highly sensitive interferometric and stable less sensitive amplitude based sensors can be placed along the same length of a concentric core optical fiber. Also, by employing the concentric core optical fiber secure telecommunications can be achieved via the inner optical fiber since an intrusion of the concentric optical fiber will first cause a variation in the light being transmitted through the outer optical fiber and this variation of light being used to trigger a suitable alarm indicative of the intrusion.

Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

A Novel Method for the Determination of Carbonyl Groups in Cellulosics by Fluorescence Labeling. 3. Monitoring Oxidative Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work, as the third and last part of this series, gives four illustrative examples, which are not only scientifically interesting but also industrially relevant:? solutions of cellulose in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) as used in the Lyocell process; alkalization and aging of pulp in 18% NaOH as the initial step in the viscose rayon production; electron beaming of pulp as a means of activation for further processing to derivatives; cellulose changes as occurring upon prolonged drying and storage of pulp under thermal stress. ... It was evident that both processes, carbonyl generation and chain shortening, were closely interrelated and proceeded simultaneously. ...

Antje Potthast; Jürgen Röhrling; Thomas Rosenau; Andrea Borgards; Herbert Sixta; Paul Kosma

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

456

Fermentation of pectin and cellulose to short chain fatty acids: a comparative study with humans, baboons, pigs, and rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%I@ W, W, '. '" yW~, t . . . M~~~)~ '1 r FERMENTATION OF PECTIN AND CELLULOSE TO SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH HUMANS, BABOONS, PIGS, AND RATS A Thesis by LEONILDE NONITA VILLALBA IL W I Z IJ Z 4 Z 4 2 5 V Z I... Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Nutrition FERMENTATION OF PECTIN AND CELLULOSE TO SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS: A...

Villalba, Leonilde Nonita

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Fiber Delivery of mid-IR lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fiber optics for the visible to near infrared (NIR) wavelength regimes (i.e. = 0.42 {mu}m) have proven to be extremely useful for a myriad of applications such as telecommunications, illumination, and sensors because they enable convenient, compact, and remote delivery of laser beams. Similarly, there is a need for fiber optics operating at longer wavelengths. For example, systems operating in the mid-IR regime (i.e., = 314 {mu}m) are being developed to detect trace molecular species with far-reaching applications, such as detecting explosives on surfaces, pollutants in the environment, and biomarkers in the breath of a patient. Furthermore, with the increasing availability of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) which are semiconductor lasers that operate in the mid-IR regime additional uses are rapidly being developed. Here, we describe the development of hollow-core fibers for delivery of high-quality mid-IR laser beams across a broad spectral range.

Kriesel, J.M.; Gat, N.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bledt, Carlos M.; Harrington, James P.

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

458

Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Carbon Fiber Damage in Particle Beam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in beam wire scanners. The heating of the fiber due to energy loss of the particles travelling through is simulated with Geant4. The heating induced by the beam electromagnetic field is estimated with ANSYS. The heat transfer and sublimation processes are modelled. Due to the model nonlinearity, a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used to solve it for particular beams. Radiation damage to the fiber is estimated with SRIM. The model is tested with available SPS and LEP data and a dedicated damage test on the SPS beam is performed followed by a post-mortem analysis of the wire remnants. Predictions for the LHC beams are made.

Dehning, B; Kroyer, T; Meyer, M; Sapinski, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Extraction of hemicelluloses from fiberized spruce wood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel mechanical pre-treatment method was used to separate the wood chips into fiber bundles in order to extract high molecular weight wood polymers. The mechanical pre-treatment involved chip compression in a conical plug-screw followed by defibration in a fiberizer. The fiberized wood was treated with hot water at various combinations of time and temperature in order to analyze the extraction yield of hemicelluloses at different conditions. Nearly 6 mg/g wood of galactoglucomannan was obtained at 90 °C/120 min which was about three times more than what could be extracted from wood chips. The extracted carbohydrates had molecular weight ranging up to 60 kDa. About 10% of each of the extracted material had a molecular weight above 30 kDa. The extraction liquor could also be reused for consecutive extractions with successive increase in the extraction yield of hemicelluloses.

Shoaib Azhar; Gunnar Henriksson; Hans Theliander; Mikael E. Lindström

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An interlayer toughening mechanism to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0.degree. to 90.degree. to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles.

Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA); Deteresa, Steven J. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Development of Fiber Bragg Grating Strain, Thermal, and Magnetic Sensors for Smart Structure Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fiber Bragg gratings,” Troutdale, OR, USA, 1996, pp. 24-in AD072 fibercore fiber,” Troutdale, OR, USA, 1998, pp. 79-

Emmons, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Catalytic conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over cellulose-derived carbonaceous catalyst in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Three environmental-benign and low-cost carbon-based solid acid catalysts containing –SO3H, –COOH and phenolic –OH groups were prepared and used for the conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl). The results demonstrated that cellulose-derived carbonaceous catalyst (CCC) possessed the highest catalytic activity, which resulted in 46.4% HMF yield at 160 °C for only 15 min. In addition, the reaction kinetics for the conversion of glucose into HMF over CCC was fitted with the first-order rate equation. The slightly-deactivated CCC after four successive reaction runs could be easily regenerated by a simple carbonization and sulfonation process. More gratifyingly, the combination of CCC and [BMIM]Cl were confirmed to be suitable for converting other carbohydrates such as fructose, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, starch and cellulose into HMF. Particularly, a plausible mechanism involving hydrolysis, isomerization and dehydration for the conversion of carbohydrates into HMF was also proposed.

Lei Hu; Geng Zhao; Xing Tang; Zhen Wu; Jiaxing Xu; Lu Lin; Shijie Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Significance of xylan on the stability and water interactions of cellulosic nanofibrils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, the significance of xylan on the behaviour of kraft birch pulp based nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) is discussed. The influence of CNF xylan content on fibril morphology, charge and stability as well as on the film formation ability was investigated, and the features detected on nanoscale and on macroscale are compared. In addition to this, the ability of fibrils to uptake water molecules were investigated by bulk and surface sensitive methods which are dynamic water sorption analysis (DVS) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) equipped with the humidity module, respectively. Surface xylan plays a significant role as an electrosteric stabilizer in dilute CNF dispersions when the surface forces are dominant whereas the removal of xylan drastically changes the CNF dispersion properties. The settling of the unstable CNF dispersions displays behaviour which is typical for hindered sedimentation. When considering thin nanoscale layers of CNF, nanofibrillated cellulosic materials with high content of surface xylan has somewhat higher ability to bind water molecules. However, it seems that in more concentrated CNF dispersions where the fibrillar network itself plays also a decisive role, especially with respect to film formation ability, the impact of xylan diminishes. Solvent cast macroscale CNF films are still enough dense to maintain good oxygen barrier performance at higher humid conditions although agglomeration tendency of fibrils is higher due to the excessive xylan removal. These findings are of high relevance when considering nanocellulosic materials, especially in the form of gels and films, as templates for high added value material solutions.

Tiia-Maria Tenhunen; Maria Soledad Peresin; Paavo A. Penttilä; Jaakko Pere; Ritva Serimaa; Tekla Tammelin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as carriers for a spirooxazine dye and its effect on photochromic efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) as a renewable/sustainable material, has received much attention. Herein we studied CNC as carriers for a hydrophobic spirooxazine (SO)-based dye, 1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethylspiro[2H-indole-2,3?-[3H]naphtha[2,1-b][1,4]oxazine], which may have potential applications in reversible memory photo-devices, textiles, photo-sensitive paper coatings, and inkjet printing inks. Due to the high cost and water-insolubility of this dye, it is desirable to improve its coloration efficiency and water-dispersibility. The experimental approach was to use CNC as carriers for the SO dye, thus obtaining a stable photochromic dye in aqueous systems. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation confirmed that the SO dye adsorbed on the surface of the CNC, which functioned as carriers for the photochromic dye. An impregnation process was adopted to anchor the dye onto cellulosic paper. It was found that the use of CNC resulted in a significant improvement in the SO coloration efficiency. The color stability and fatigue resistance were also studied. The use of CNC as carriers for a hydrophobic compound, its enhancement of associated properties, and its subsequent application were demonstrated.

Bo Sun; Qingxi Hou; Zhibin He; Zehua Liu; Yonghao Ni

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

Derr, Dan

2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

467

Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a mucilage glue fiber factory, the design of the refrigeration system takes into account the characteristics of mucilage glue fiber production and fully uses the refrigeration compressor heat to economize energy and reduce the production cost...

Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010...

469

Genetically engineered phage fibers and coatings for antibacterial applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multifunctionality can be imparted to protein-based fibers and coatings via either synthetic or biological approaches. Here, we demonstrate potent antimicrobial functionality of genetically engineered, phage-based fibers ...

Mao, Joan Y

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Indentation experiments on silica optical fibers Bochien Lin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fibers, the intrinsic strength seems close to "perfect" 1 Currently, the standard subcritical crack water, fibers exhibit a lower value of n at low applied stress/long time to failure which shows

Matthewson, M. John

471

Natural fiber reinforced aerated concrete : an experimental investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this study is to compare existing research with aerated concrete and fiber reinforcement to original experiments completed investigating the benefits of adding natural fiber tensile reinforcement to aerated ...

Garbis, Leonidia Maria

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Environmentally benign scouring of wool fibers using mesophile acidic lipase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surfaces of raw wool fibers possess high amounts of greasy substances...Bacillus licheniformis...(MTCC 2618) were produced with the optimum activity levels closer to the room temperature. Scouring of wool fibers ...

D. Saravanan; C. A. Anusuya; Bharathi B. Divya; M. Usha

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Photosensitivity of optical fibers with extremely high germanium concentration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Writing and thermal annealing of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in an optical fiber containing 75 mol.% GeO2 in the core have been studied by analyzing the first three...

Medvedkov, Oleg I; Vasiliev, Sergei A; Gnusin, Pavel I; Dianov, Evgeny M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Graphene-clad tapered fiber: effective nonlinearity and propagation losses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We derive a pulse propagation equation for a graphene-clad optical fiber, treating the optical response of the graphene and nonlinearity of the dielectric fiber core as perturbations...

Gorbach, A V; Marini, A; Skryabin, D V

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process J. Z. Lu,1 Q. Wu,1 I. I parameters for the wood-fiber/high-density-polyethylene blends at 60 rpm were a temperature of 180°C

476

Microsoft Word - LSN_FiberInstall_CX.docx  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- TEP-TPP-4 Proposed Action: Lightspeed Network's Fiber Installation near Pilot Butte Substation Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B4.7 Fiber...

477

Atmospheric plasma advantages for mohair fibers in textile applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, mohair fibers were treated by air and argon plasma for modifying some properties of fibers. The ... SEM images. The results showed that the atmospheric plasma has an etching effect and increases th...

Asl Demir

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Enriched arabinoxylan in corn fiber for value-added products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A two-step process is evaluated to separate the hexose component in wet milling corn fibers from the pentose component for production of value-added products. Corn fibers were first pretreated with hot water ... ...

Bin Wang; Biao Cheng; Hao Feng

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors and their multiplexing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical sensor includes a thin film sandwiched between two fiber ends. When light is launched into the fiber, two reflections are generated at the two fiber/thin film interfaces due to a difference in refractive indices between the fibers and the film, giving rise to the sensor output. In another embodiment, a portion of the cladding of a fiber is removed, creating two parallel surfaces. Part of the evanescent fields of light propagating in the fiber is reflected at each of the surfaces, giving rise to the sensor output. In a third embodiment, the refractive index of a small portion of a fiber is changed through exposure to a laser beam or other radiation. Interference between reflections at the ends of the small portion give rise to the sensor output. Multiple sensors along a single fiber are multiplexed using an optical time domain reflectometry method.

Wang, Anbo (Blacksburg, VA)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

480

SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's First 3D-Printed Vehicle at IMTS 2014 SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rock-wool fibers cellulose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Fatigue Enhancement of a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Nanocomposite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary objective of the present investigation is to study the fatigue characteristics of a woven carbon fiber reinforced polymer which has been modified with either amine or fluorine functionalized carbon nanotubes on the fiber-matrix interface...

Wilkerson, Justin W.

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

482

Graphene passively Q-switched two-micron fiber lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate a passively Q-switched thulium fiber laser, using a graphene-based saturable absorber. The laser is based on an all-fiber ring cavity and produces ~2.3?s pulses at...

Wang, Fengqiu; Torrisi, Felice; Jiang, Zhe; Popa, Daniel; Hasan, Tawfique; Sun, Zhipei; Cho, Wonbae; Ferrari, Andrea C

483

Femtosecond accumulated photon echo in Er-doped fibers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the observation of accumulated photon echo in Er-doped fibers. We also demonstrate time reversal and autoconvolution of femtosecond pulses, which suggest that Er-doped fibers...

da Silva, V L; Silberberg, Y; Heritage, J P; Chase, E W; Saifi, M A; Andrejco, M J

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Vibration-insensitive fiber-optic current sensor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The measurement of the electric current with an optical fiber sensor can be made insensitive to external vibrations that act on the leading fiber by using a circuit involving a...

Pistoni, Natale C; Martinelli, Mario

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Triangularly phase-modulated optical fiber ring resonator sensor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An optical fiber ring resonatory sensor system has been demonstrated by applying a triangular phase modulation signal to a fiber loop. The dynamic range for detection of optical phase...

Chien, Pie-Yau; Pan, Ci-Ling

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Implementation of a fiber-optic delay-line memory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The construction and operation of a 50-MHz 64 × 16 bit fiber-optic bit-serial delay-line memory is described. It consists of LiNbO3 directional coupler switches, fused-fiber...

Soukup, T J; Feuerstein, R J; Heuring, V P

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Manufacture of thermoelectric generator structures by fiber drawing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of manufacturing a thermoelectric generator via fiber drawing and corresponding or associated thermoelectric generator devices are provided.

McIntyre, Timothy J; Simpson, John T; West, David L

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

488

Photonic crystal fiber interferometer composed of a long period fiber grating and one point collapsing of air holes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present an all-fiber interferometer fabricated with a single piece of an endless single-mode photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by an electric arc discharge. By forming a long period...

Choi, Hae Young; Park, Kwan Seob; Lee, Byeong Ha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Fabrication of ultrafine carbon fibers possessing a nanoporous structure from electrospun polyvinyl alcohol fibers containing silica nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultrafine carbon fibers with a nanoporous structure were fabricated by the template method using silica nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in fibers of approximate diameter 500 nm, electrospun from an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol, CoCl2, ...

Koichi Sawada, Shinji Sakai, Masahito Taya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

HANSEN SOLUBILITY PARAMETERS FOR A CARBON FIBER/EPOXY COMPOSITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HANSEN SOLUBILITY PARAMETERS FOR A CARBON FIBER/EPOXY COMPOSITE Hélène Launay* , Charles Medom demonstrated as appropriate for the study of interactions between the materials in composite carbon fiber. INTRODUCTION Fiber-reinforced composites are used in a wide range of applications where high stiffness

491

TRANSGENIC COTTON WITH IMPROVED FIBER MICRONAIRE, STRENGTH, AND LENGTH AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

483 TRANSGENIC COTTON WITH IMPROVED FIBER MICRONAIRE, STRENGTH, AND LENGTH AND INCREASED FIBER. Keating, N. G. Srinivas, C. Wu and A. S. Holaday Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX G. J. Jividen Cotton Incorporated Raleigh, NC Abstract We set out to use genetic engineering to make cotton crop yield and fiber

Strauss, Richard E.

492

ON THE GAGE FACTOR FOR OPTICAL FIBER GRATING STRAIN GAGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of grating and fiber types. KEY WORDS: Fiber-Optic Gratings, Fiber-Optic Sensors, Strain Gage Factor 1 theoretical background. Then, in Section 3, we discuss measurement methods followed by the experimental tests and results in Section 4, before concluding in Section 5. 2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Consider an FBG fabricated

Park, Yong-Lae

493

CURE MONITORING AND SHM OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CURE MONITORING AND SHM OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER PART I : IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS-performance composite materials based on carbon fiber are increasingly used in critical security areas (aeronautics contains a conductor part (carbon fiber) and an insulator part (resin), a model of electrical conduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

494

Hybrid carbon fiber composite lattice truss structures T. George a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hybrid carbon fiber composite lattice truss structures T. George a, , V.S. Deshpande b , H June 2014 Accepted 14 June 2014 Available online 22 June 2014 Keywords: A. Carbon fiber A. Polymer­matrix composites (PMCs) D. Mechanical testing a b s t r a c t Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite

Wadley, Haydn

495

Polymer Communication Fibers from polypropylene/nano carbon ber composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymer Communication Fibers from polypropylene/nano carbon ®ber composites Satish Kumara,*, Harit Doshia , Mohan Srinivasaraoa , Jung O. Parka , David A. Schiraldib a School of Textile and Fiber in revised form 26 October 2001; accepted 31 October 2001 Abstract Fibers from polypropylene

Srinivasarao, Mohan

496

Fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays using low reflectance internal mirrors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new design of fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays phics. using low reflectance internal mirrors in optical fibers is investigated. The mirrors are produced by fusion arc splicing of two fibers, one of which has a thin film of TiO2 on the end. A...

Lee, Jong-Seo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

497

STABILITY PROPERTIES OF LIGHT PROPAGATING IN FIBER OPTICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STABILITY PROPERTIES OF LIGHT PROPAGATING IN FIBER OPTICS ST´EPHANE LAFORTUNE Summary The study is crucial in applications such as lasers and optical fibers. In this proposal I will focus on a model of fiber optics: the Manakov system. This system consists of two differential equations, that is two

Kasman, Alex

498

A study of micro fiber dispersion using digital image analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this dissertation is to investigate the use of texture analysis as a tool to micro fiber dispersion measurement. Micro fiber dispersion can be found in many applications such as in paper and industry powder engineering. Three cases related to micro fiber...

Hendrarsakti, Jooned

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

499

Method for the continuous processing of hermetic fiber optic components and the resultant fiber optic-to-metal components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components and method for making hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components by assembling and fixturing elements comprising a metal shell, a glass preform, and a metal-coated fiber optic into desired relative positions and then sealing said fixtured elements preferably using a continuous heating process. The resultant hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components exhibit high hermeticity and durability despite the large differences in thermal coefficients of expansion among the various elements.

Kramer, Daniel P. (Centerville, OH)

1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

500

Analysis of White Matter Fiber Tracts via Fiber Clustering and Parametrization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coefficient" (ADC, trace of tensor) and the "fractional anisotropy" (FA, normalized elongation). Previous], scientific visualization [2] and fiber tracking [3,4,5,6,7,8]. Atlas building and comparison of subject