Sample records for rock-wool fibers cellulose

  1. Improved microstructure of cement-based composites through the addition of rock wool particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wei-Ting [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan 26047, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan (China); Cheng, An, E-mail: ancheng@niu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan 26047, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ran; Zou, Si-Yu [Dept. of Harbor and River Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Rock wool is an inorganic fibrous substance produced by steam blasting and cooling molten glass. As with other industrial by-products, rock wool particles can be used as cementitious materials or ultra fine fillers in cement-based composites. This study investigated the microstructure of mortar specimens produced with cement-based composites that include various forms of rock wool particles. It conducted compressive strength testing, rapid chloride penetration tests, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and scanning electronic microscopy to evaluate the macro- and micro-properties of the cement-based composites. Test results indicate that inclusion of rock wool particles in composites improved compressive strength and reduced chloride ion penetration at the age of 91 days due to the reduction of calcium hydroxide content. Microscopic analysis confirms that the use of rock wool particles contributed to the formation of a denser, more compact microstructure within the hardened paste. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis shows few changes in formation of pozzolanic reaction products and no new hydrations are formed with incorporating rock wool particles. - Highlights: • We report the microstructural characterization of cement-based composites. • Different mixes produced with various rock wool particles have been tested. • The influence of different mixes on macro and micro properties has been discussed. • The macro properties are included compressive strength and permeability. • XRD and SEM observations confirm the pozzolanic reaction in the resulting pastes.

  2. Method for separating the non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked cellulose fibers in cellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodward, J.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for enzymatically separating the non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked cellulose fibers in cellulosic materials. The cellulosic material, such as newsprint, is introduced into a first chamber containing a plastic canvas basket. This first chamber is in fluid communication, via plastic tubing, with a second chamber containing cellobiase beads in a plastic canvas basket. Cellulase is then introduced into the first chamber. A programmable pump then controls the flow rate between the two chambers. The action of cellulase and stirring in the first chamber results in the production of a slurry of newsprint pulp in the first chamber. This slurry contains non-inked fibers, inked fibers, and some cellobiose. The inked fibers and cellobiose flow from the first chamber to the second chamber, whereas the non-inked fibers remain in the first chamber because they are too large to pass through the pores of the plastic canvas basket. The resulting non-inked and inked fibers are then recovered. 6 figs.

  3. Method for separating the non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked cellulose fibers in cellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodward, Jonathan (Kingston, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for enzymatically separating the non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked cellulose fibers in cellulosic materials. The cellulosic material, such as newsprint, is introduced into a first chamber containing a plastic canvas basket. This first chamber is in fluid communication, via plastic tubing, with a second chamber containing cellobiase beads in a plastic canvas basket. Cellulase is then introduced into the first chamber. A programmable pump then controls the flow rate between the two chambers. The action of cellulase and stirring in the first chamber results in the production of a slurry of newsprint pulp in the first chamber. This slurry contains non-inked fibers, inked fibers, and some cellobiose. The inked fibers and cellobiose flow from the first chamber to the second chamber, whereas the non-inked fibers remain in the first chamber because they are too large to pass through the pores of the plastic canvas basket. The resulting non-inked and inked fibers are then recovered.

  4. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael [Laboratoire d'Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux (LISM EA 4695), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)] [Laboratoire d'Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux (LISM EA 4695), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51687 Reims cedex 2 (France); Dellis, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC EA 2081), Université de Picardie Jules Vernes, 80009 Amiens cedex 1 (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC EA 2081), Université de Picardie Jules Vernes, 80009 Amiens cedex 1 (France)

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  5. Fiber ReinforcedFiber Reinforced CementitiousCementitious CompositesComposites B. Mobasher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobasher, Barzin

    prefabricated shapes panels shotcrete curtain walls Slabs on grade precast elements Composite decks Vaults Continuous and discontinuous fibers Natural, Asbestos, Wood, rock wool. Synthetic, Steel, E-glass, AR Glass of Interface Weak Zone Steel fibers, high w/c, CH formation Glass fibers strand effect, embrittlement, filling

  6. Performance Testing of Radiant Barriers (RB) with R11, R19, and R30 Cellulose and Rock Wool Insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, J. A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METHODOLOGY Because of the large number of varlables In the sumner testlng (3 R-values, 2 Insulatlon types, and 2 test conf lguratlons--no RB and RBT), thf Latin Square deslgn used In the prevlous TVA testlng could no be used. Instead. a split... wlth 40-pound kraft paper backing was used. The emisslvlty of both sldes of thls RB was approxlmately 0.05. Because of the large number of varlables to be studled In the sumner (3 R-values, 2 types of Insulatlon. 2 attlc conf lguratlons--no RB...

  7. Performance Testing of Radiant Barriers (RB) with R11, R19, and R30 Cellulose and Rock Wool Insulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, J. A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METHODOLOGY Because of the large number of varlables In the sumner testlng (3 R-values, 2 Insulatlon types, and 2 test conf lguratlons--no RB and RBT), thf Latin Square deslgn used In the prevlous TVA testlng could no be used. Instead. a split... wlth 40-pound kraft paper backing was used. The emisslvlty of both sldes of thls RB was approxlmately 0.05. Because of the large number of varlables to be studled In the sumner (3 R-values, 2 types of Insulatlon. 2 attlc conf lguratlons--no RB...

  8. Electrospinning of Cellulose and Carbon Nanotube-Cellulose Fibers for Smart Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pankonien, Alexander

    2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose is one of the Earth’s most abundant natural polymers and is used as a raw material in various applications. Recently, cellulose based electro-active paper (EAPap) has been investigated for its potential as a smart material...

  9. Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Baker, Fred S [ORNL; Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL; Boeman, Raymond G [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg-1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%. Using lignin-derived carbon fiber in 15 million vehicles per year in the US could reduce fossil fuel consumption by 2-5 billion liters year-1, reduce CO2 emissions by about 6.7 million Mg year-1, and realize fuel savings through vehicle lightweighting of $700 to $1,600 per Mg biomass processed. The value of fuel savings from vehicle lightweighting becomes economical at carbon fiber price of $6.60 kg-1 under current fuel prices, or $13.20 kg-1 under fuel prices of about $1.16 l-1.

  10. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  11. The bulking effect of dietary fiber in the rat large intestine: an in vivo study of cellulose, guar, pectin, wheat bran and oat bran

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gazzaniga, Jeanne Marie

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE BULKING EFFECT OF DIETARY FIBER IN THE RAT LARGE INTESTINE: AN IN VIVO STUDY OF CELLULOSE, GUAR, PECTIN, WHEAT BRAN AND OAT BRAN A Thesis by JEANNE MARIE GAZZANIGA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... JEANNE MARIE GAZZANIGA Approved as to style and content by: o~P L sc J nne R. Lupton (Chair of Committee) Karen S. Kubena (Member) ayne Suter (Member) G. C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1985 ABSTRACT The Bulking Effect of Dietary Fiber...

  12. 2006/07 Field Testing of Cellulose Fiber Insulation Enhanced with Phase Change Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Yarbrough, David W [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Petrie, Thomas [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Syed, Azam M [ORNL

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most recent improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that in the near future, residences will be routinely constructed to operate with very low heating and cooling loads. In that light, the application of novel building materials containing active thermal components (e.g., phase change materials [PCMs,] sub-venting, radiant barriers, and integrated hydronic systems) is like a final step in achieving relatively significant heating and cooling energy savings from technological improvements in the building envelope. It is expected that optimized building envelope designs using PCMs for energy storage can effectively bring notable savings in energy consumption and reductions in peak hour power loads. During 2006/07, a research team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a series of laboratory and field tests of several wall and roof assemblies using PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. This report summarizes the test results from the perspective of energy performance. The ORNL team is working on both inorganic and organic PCMs; this report discusses only paraffinic PCMs. A limited economical analysis also is presented. PCMs have been tested as a thermal mass component in buildings for at least 40 years. Most of the research studies found that PCMs enhanced building energy performance. In the case of the application of organic PCMs, problems such as high initial cost and PCM leaking (surface sweating) have hampered widespread adoption. Paraffinic hydrocarbon PCMs generally performed well, with the exception that they increased the flammability of the building envelope.

  13. Solvent-Driven Preferential Association of Lignin with Regions of Crystalline Cellulose in Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindner, Benjamin [ORNL] [ORNL; Petridis, Loukas [ORNL] [ORNL; Schulz, Roland [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The precipitation of lignin onto cellulose after pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an obstacle to economically viable cellulosic ethanol production. Here, 750 ns nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are reported of a system of lignin and cellulose in aqueous solution. Lignin is found to strongly associate with itself and the cellulose. However, noncrystalline regions of cellulose are observed to have a lower tendency to associate with lignin than crystalline regions, and this is found to arise from stronger hydration of the noncrystalline chains. The results suggest that the recalcitrance of crystalline cellulose to hydrolysis arises not only from the inaccessibility of inner fibers but also due to the promotion of lignin adhesion.

  14. Magnetic Alignment of Cellulose Nanowhiskers in an All-Cellulose Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Zuyan; Al-Haik, Marwan; Tehrani, Mehran; Murray, Frank; Tennenbaum, Rina; Garmestani, Hamid

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unidirectional reinforced nanocomposite paper was fabricated from cellulose nanowhiskers and wood pulp under an externally-applied magnetic field. A 1.2 Tesla magnetic field was applied in order to align the nanowhiskers in the pulp as it was being formed into a sheet of paper. The magnetic alignment was driven by the characteristic negative diamagnetic anisotropy of the cellulose nanowhiskers. ESEM micrographs demonstrated unidirectional alignment of the nanowhiskers in the all-cellulose composite paper. Comparing with control paper sheets made from wood pulp only, the storage modulus in the all-cellulose nanocomposites increased dramatically. The storage modulus along the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field was much stronger than that parallel to the magnetic field. This new nanocomposite, which contains preferentially-oriented microstructures and has improved mechanical properties, demonstrates the possibility of expanding the functionality of paper products and constitutes a promising alternative to hydrocarbon based materials and fibers.

  15. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  16. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy (Davis, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  17. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  18. Cellulose Pyrolysis A Literature, Review.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the cellulose chains, and in fact the observed rapid decline in the resonance absorption intensity at temperatures in excess of 600C was attributed to aromatization...

  19. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    number = just monomers . Refinery for Cellulosic Biomass tofrom biomass through cellulosic refinery concept that could

  20. Accelerated Cellulose Depolymerization Catalyzed by Paired Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cellulose to sugars is a critical step and has been a major barrier for improved economics in the utilization of cellulosic biomass. We report a novel catalytic system...

  1. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modolo, R., E-mail: regina.modolo@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Civil Engineering Department/CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ferreira, V.M. [University of Aveiro, Civil Engineering Department/CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Machado, L.M. [RAIZ - Forest and Paper Research Institute, Portucel-Soporcel, Eixo (Portugal); Rodrigues, M.; Coelho, I. [CIMIANTO - Sociedade Tecnica Hidraulica, S.A., Alhandra (Portugal)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  2. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  3. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  4. Compositions and methods for increasing cellulose production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenbiao (Riverside, CA); Karr, Stephen (Camarillo, CA)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure relates to methods and compositions for genetically altering cellulose biosynthesis.

  5. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, Myles A. (Falmouth, MA); Morris, Robert S. (Fairhaven, MA)

    1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

  6. Design of Superhydrophobic Paper/Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Enhanced Etching and Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breedveld, Victor

    Design of Superhydrophobic Paper/Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Enhanced Etching and Deposition Superhydrophobicity has been achieved on different paper surfaces via plasma enhanced etching and film deposition. The effects of fiber types and paper making parameters on the superhydrophobic behavior were studied

  7. Inverse Temperature-Dependent Pathway of Cellulose Decrystallization...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inverse Temperature-Dependent Pathway of Cellulose Decrystallization in Trifluoroacetic Acid. Inverse Temperature-Dependent Pathway of Cellulose Decrystallization in...

  8. Cellulose degradation system of Cytophaga hutchinsonii 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Chao-Kuo

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, Cytophaga hutchinsonii, an aerobic gliding bacterium with cellulose-degrading ability, was studied, since its cellulase system was unknown and might be very different from those of other cellulose-degrading ...

  9. Compositions for saccharification of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBrayer, Brett; Shaghasi, Tarana; Vlasenko, Elena

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to enzyme compositions for high temperature saccharification of cellulosic material and to uses thereof.

  10. Fiber type, meal frequency and colonic cytokinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jianhu

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of dietary fiber type (cellulose, pectin or oat bran) and meal frequency (gorge or nibble) on colonic short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), in vivo colonic pH and epithelial cell proliferation were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats...

  11. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Determination of mechanisms by which soluble fibers lower serum cholesterol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Xiao-Qing

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    suggested that one mechanism for the hypo- cholesterolemic effect of certain soluble fibers might be related to the absorption of propionate& a fermentation metabolite of soluble plant fiber, which may inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis. In rats, oat... gels and are highly fermentable. In contrast, insoluble fibers do not form gels and are poorly fermentable, but are excellent as bulking agents [37]. This is supported by data from the present study that showed that cellulose-fed rats had...

  13. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

  14. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, David W. (9253 Glenoaks Blvd., Sun Valley, CA 91352)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  15. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  16. CELLULOSE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY Cellulose Chem. Technol., 44 (7-8), 217-221 (2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .e. how the solid cellulose xanthate fibres are dissolved under mixing conditions. A probable reason or a thermal treatment that reverts the cellulose derivative back to cellulose, with a noticeable change such experiments. The dissolution of a solid material into a solvent is a process of great importance in many

  17. Less is more: Novel cellulose structure requires fewer enzymes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cellulose requires fewer enzymes to process biomass to fuel Less is more: Novel cellulose structure requires fewer enzymes to process biomass to fuel Improved methods for breaking...

  18. Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking October...

  19. Methods for enhancing the degradation or conversion of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA) Rey, Michael (Davis, CA); Ding, Hanshu (Davis, CA)

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods for degrading or converting a cellulosic material and for producing a substance from a cellulosic material.

  20. Methods for enhancing the degradation or conversion of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Rey, Michael (Davis, CA); Ding, Hanshu (Davis, CA)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods for degrading or converting a cellulosic material and for producing a substance from a cellulosic material.

  1. Advanced and Cellulosic Biofuels and Biorefineries: State of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Cellulosic Biofuels and Biorefineries: State of the Industry, Policy and Politics Advanced and Cellulosic Biofuels and Biorefineries: State of the Industry, Policy and Politics...

  2. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

  3. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Avgerinos, George C. (Newton Center, MA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15.degree. and about 70.degree. C. and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours.

  4. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  5. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 15 figs.

  6. Mascoma Announces Major Cellulosic Biofuel Technology Breakthrough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the flexibility to run on numerous biomass feedstocks including wood chips, tall grasses, corn stover (residual biofuels from cellulosic biomass. The company's Consolidated Bioprocessing method converts non-food biomass feedstocks #12;into cellulosic ethanol through the use of a patented process that eliminates the need

  7. Cellulosic Fiber Composites Using Protein Hydrolysates and Methods of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o .FornlA Series ofTransforming BiomassMaking Same

  8. Cellulosic Fiber Composites Using Protein Hydrolysates and Methods of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o .FornlA Series ofTransforming BiomassMaking

  9. Effects of Dilute Acid Pretreatment on Cellulose DP and the Relationship Between DP Reduction and Cellulose Digestibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.; Chen, X.; Tucker, M.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The degree of polymerization(DP) of cellulose is considered to be one of the most important properties affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Various pure cellulosic and biomass materials have been used in a study of the effect of dilute acid treatment on cellulose DP. A substantial reduction in DP was found for all pure cellulosic materials studied even at conditions that would be considered relatively mild for pretreatment. The effect of dilute acid pretreatment on cellulose DP in biomass samples was also investigated. Corn stover pretreated with dilute acid under the most optimal conditions contained cellulose with a DPw in the range of 1600{approx}3500, which is much higher than the level-off DP(DPw 150{approx}300) obtained with pure celluloses. The effect of DP reduction on the saccharification of celluloses was also studied. From this study it does not appear that cellulose DP is a main factor affecting cellulose saccharification.

  10. Synthetic biology approach to cellulose degradation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakhundi, Sahreena Saleem

    2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on earth, is composed of ? – 1,4 – linked glucose units, which in turn form a highly ordered crystalline structure that is insoluble and recalcitrant to degradation. It is the ...

  11. Enzymatic hydrolysis of low substituted carboxymethyl cellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chanona Dominquez, Guadalupe

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by liquid chromatography. Some of the hydrolyzates were subjected to fermentation by Saccharomyces spp. , and ethanol yields were determined by gas chromatography. Subjecting acetate grade cellulose pulp to mild carboxymethyl derivatization conditions...ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF LOW SUBSTITUTED CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE A Thesis by GUADALUPE CHANONA DOMINGUEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  12. Consolidated Bio-Processing of Cellulosic Biomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using Yeast Consortium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Garima

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the yeast chromosomes for direct conversion of cellulose tothe yeast chromosomes for direct conversion of cellulose to

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Two Cellulose Morphology Mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769 Producing Cellulose with Lower Crystallinity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Fang, Lin; Luan, Xin; Catchmark, Jeffrey M.; Tien, Ming; Kao, Teh-hui; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2015-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a Gram-negative bacterium, produces and secrets highly crystalline cellulose into growth medium, and has long been used as a model system for studying cellulose synthesis in higher plants. Cellulose synthesis involves the formation of ?-1,4 glucan chains via the polymerization of glucose units by a multi-enzyme cellulose synthase complex (CSC). These glucan chains assemble into ordered structures including crystalline microfibrils. AcsA is the catalytic subunit of the cellulose synthase enzymes in the CSC, and AcsC is required for the secretion of cellulose. However, little is known about other proteins required for the assembly of crystalline cellulose. To addressmore »this question, we visually examined cellulose pellicles formed in growth media of 763 individual colonies of G. hansenii generated via Tn5 transposon insertion mutagenesis, and identified 85 that produced cellulose with altered morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis of these 85 mutants identified two that produced cellulose with significantly lower crystallinity than wild type. The gene disrupted in one of these two mutants encoded a lysine decarboxylase and that in the other encoded an alanine racemase. Solid-state NMR analysis revealed that cellulose produced by these two mutants contained increased amounts of non-crystalline cellulose and monosaccharides associated with noncellulosic polysaccharides as compared to the wild type. Monosaccharide analysis detected higher percentages of galactose and mannose in cellulose produced by both mutants. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that cellulose produced by the mutants was unevenly distributed, with some regions appearing to contain deposition of non-cellulosic polysaccharides; however, the width of the ribbon was comparable to that of normal cellulose. As both lysine decarboxylase and alanine racemase are required for the integrity of peptidoglycan, we propose a model for the role of peptidoglycan in the assembly of crystalline cellulose.« less

  14. Electric Field Alignment of Cellulose Based-Polymer Nanocomposites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalidindi, Sanjay Varma

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose whiskers (CWs) obtained from naturally occuring cellulose are nano-inclusions which show a lot of promise as mechanical reinforcements in polymers. Typically, a relatively high content is added to realize improvement in effective...

  15. Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement: Supplementary Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement: Supplementary Material Erin Baker Keywords: Biofuels; Technology R&D; Uncertainty; Environmental policy 2 #12;1 Introduction This paper contains supplementary material for "Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement

  16. Research Advances Cellulosic Ethanol, NREL Leads the Way (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure highlights NREL's recent advances in cellulosic ethanol production. Research at NREL addresses both biochemical and thermochemical processes.

  17. Biofuel Supply Chain Infrastructure Optimizing the Evolution of Cellulosic Biofuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biofuel Supply Chain Infrastructure Optimizing the Evolution of Cellulosic Biofuel Center infrastructure. Cellulosic-based ad- vanced biofuel has a target of 21 billion gallons by 2022 and requires into a national economic model of biofuel sustainability. Cellulosic biomass relocates the demand

  18. Structure and processing of fibrous cellulose: bacterial and ascidian material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandelwal, Mudrika

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    of bacterial cellulose gel produced at ridged PDMS/liquid interfaces (scale bar 50 ?m) [113] b) SEM images of the cellulose networks produced under voltage gradient 0.45 V/cm (scale bar 1?m)[114] 2.8 Cellulose Nanoparticles The properties, functionality... Few microns 20 x 20 5 x 20-30 Algae 100-4000 nm 8 x 20 nm Tunicates 50-500 nm 3-5 nm Plant, wood % crystallinity and % cellulose content increases Acid hydrolysis Acid hydrolysis 26 Figure 2.18: Cellulose nanoparticles a) SEM image...

  19. Method of forming an electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Ashtead, GB)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  20. Introduction Proposed Strategy for Cellulosic Bioethanol Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Introduction Proposed Strategy for Cellulosic Bioethanol Production Bioethanol: Eco for industries interested in new approaches for synthesizing bioethanol. Lastly, we suggest which downstream use of bioethanol would be the most eco-effective and the most economic by considering both environmental health

  1. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms. This research is aimed at advancing understanding of biofilm formation and other complex processes involved in the degradation of the abundant cellulosic biomass, and the biology of the microbes involved. Information obtained from these studies is invaluable in the development of practical applications, such as the single-step bioconversion of cellulose-containing residues to fuels and other bioproducts. Our results have clearly shown that cellulose-decomposing microbes rapidly colonize cellulose and form complex structures typical of biofilms. Furthermore, our observations suggest that, as cells multiply on nutritive surfaces during biofilms formation, dramatic cell morphological changes occur. We speculated that morphological changes, which involve a transition from rod-shaped cells to more rounded forms, might be more apparent in a filamentous microbe. In order to test this hypothesis, we included in our research a study of biofilm formation by T. fusca, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete commonly found in compost. The cellulase system of T. fusca has been extensively detailed through the work of David Wilson and colleagues at Cornell, and also, genome sequence of a T. fusca strain has been determine by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. Thus, T. fusca is an excellent subject for studies of biofilm development and its potential impacts on cellulose degradation. We also completed a study of the chitinase system of C. uda. This work provided essential background information for understanding how C. uda colonizes and degrades insoluble substrates. Major accomplishments of the project include: • Development of media containing dialysis tubing (described by the manufacturer as “regenerated cellulose”) as sole carbon and energy source and a nutritive surface for the growth of cellulolytic bacteria, and development of various microscopic methods to image biofilms on dialysis tubing. • Demonstration that cultures of C. phytofermentans, an obligate anaerobe, C. uda, a facultative aerobe, and T. fusca, a filamentous aerobe, formed microbial communities on the surface of dialysis tubing, which possessed architectural features and functional characteristics typical of biofilms. • Demonstration that biofilm formation on the nutritive surface, cellulose, involves a complex developmental processes, including colonization of dialysis tubing, formation of cell clusters attached to the nutritive surface, cell morphological changes, formation of complex structures embedded in extracellular polymeric matrices, and dispersal of biofilm communities as the nutritive surface is degraded. • Determination of surface specificity and regulatory aspects of biofilm formation by C. phytofermentans, C. uda, and T. fusca. • Demonstration that biofilm formation by T. fusca forms an integral part of the life cycle of this filamentous cellulolytic bacterium, including studies on the role of mycelial pellet formation in the T. fusca life cycle and a comparison of mycelial pellets to surface-attached T. fusca biofilms. • Characterization of T. fusca biofilm EPS, including demonstration of a functional role for EPS constituents. • Correlation of T. fusca developmental life cycle and cellulase gene expression.

  2. Physical Energy Accounting in California: A Case Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie; Fridley, David

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    California's target for greenhouse gas reduction in part relies on the development of viable low-carbon fuel alternatives to gasoline. It is often assumed that cellulosic ethanol--ethanol made from the structural parts of a plant and not from the food parts--will be one of these alternatives. This study examines the physical viability of a switchgrass-based cellulosic ethanol industry in California from the point of view of the physical requirements of land, water, energy and other material use. Starting from a scenario in which existing irrigated pastureland and fiber-crop land is converted to switchgrass production, the analysis determines the total acreage and water supply available and the resulting total biofuel feedstock output under different assumed yields. The number and location of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries that can be supported is also determined, assuming that the distance from field to biorefinery would be minimized. The biorefinery energy input requirement, available energy from the fraction of biomass not converted to ethanol, and energy output is calculated at various levels of ethanol yields, making different assumptions about process efficiencies. The analysis shows that there is insufficient biomass (after cellulose separation and fermentation into ethanol) to provide all the process energy needed to run the biorefinery; hence, the purchase of external energy such as natural gas is required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. The higher the yield of ethanol, the more external energy is needed, so that the net gains due to improved process efficiency may not be positive. On 2.7 million acres of land planted in switchgrass in this scenario, the switchgrass outputproduces enough ethanol to substitute for only 1.2 to 4.0percent of California's gasoline consumption in 2007.

  3. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  4. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  5. Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-Desert SouthwestofDepartmentCellulosic

  6. Review: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

  7. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh (Memphis, TN) [Memphis, TN; Woodward, Jonathan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the deposition of metals in bacterial cellulose and for the employment of the metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The method for impregnating bacterial cellulose with a metal comprises placing a bacterial cellulose matrix in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal salt is reduced to metallic form and the metal precipitates in or on the matrix. The method for the construction of a fuel cell comprises placing a hydrated bacterial cellulose support structure in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal precipitates in or on the support structure, inserting contact wires into two pieces of the metal impregnated support structure, placing the two pieces of metal impregnated support structure on opposite sides of a layer of hydrated bacterial cellulose, and dehydrating the three layer structure to create a fuel cell.

  8. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN); Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh (Memphis, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the deposition of metals in bacterial cellulose and for the employment of the metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The method for impregnating bacterial cellulose with a metal comprises placing a bacterial cellulose matrix in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal salt is reduced to metallic form and the metal precipitates in or on the matrix. The method for the construction of a fuel cell comprises placing a hydrated bacterial cellulose support structure in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal precipitates in or on the support structure, inserting contact wires into two pieces of the metal impregnated support structure, placing the two pieces of metal impregnated support structure on opposite sides of a layer of hydrated bacterial cellulose, and dehydrating the three layer structure to create a fuel cell.

  9. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh; Woodward, Jonathan

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The employment of metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The fuel cell includes an electrolyte membrane comprising a membrane support structure comprising bacterial cellulose, an anode disposed on one side of the electrolyte membrane, and a cathode disposed on an opposite side of the electrolyte membrane. At least one of the anode and the cathode comprises an electrode support structure comprising bacterial cellulose, and a catalyst disposed in or on the electrode support structure.

  10. Fiber-Level Modeling of Dynamic Strength KM2 Ballistic Fabric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    .g., as reinforcements in rigid polymer matrix composites (PMCs) for lightweight vehicle- armor systems). Flexible agile, and more mobile so that they can be quickly transported to operations conducted throughout-amide) fabric and an E-glass fiber/ethyl cellulose composite in body-armor systems can be linked to the Korean

  11. acid swollen cellulose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a uniaxial extensional flow that mimics 178 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  12. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale SustainableHydrogen Batteries Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth Ethanol •Ethanol, ethyl alcohol, fermentation ethanol, or just “

  13. Enzymatic Degradation of Cellulose by the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Christopher Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of plant cell wall degradation by the model filamentousessential for chitin degradation, J. Biol. Chem. 280, 28492-Trichoderma-Reesei in the Degradation of Cellulose, Bio-

  14. Single-step conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of HMF directly from raw natural cellulose represents the last major barrier toward the development of a sustainable HMF platform. Here we report an unprecedented single-step...

  15. acetobacter xylinum cellulose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the structure and properties (more) Kuutti, Lauri 2013-01-01 78 HYDROGELS AND AEROGELS BASED ON CHEMICALLY CROSS-LINKED CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTALS. Open Access Theses and...

  16. Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Hua [Savannah State University; Jones, Cecil L [Savannah State University; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Xia, Shuqian [Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; Olubajo, Olarongbe [Savannah State University; Person, Vernecia [Savannah State University

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel ethanol has become a research priority in producing affordable and renewable energy. The pretreatment of lignocelluloses is known to be key to the fast enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, certain ionic liquids (ILs)were found capable of dissolving more than 10 wt% cellulose. Preliminary investigations [Dadi, A.P., Varanasi, S., Schall, C.A., 2006. Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 95, 904 910; Liu, L., Chen, H., 2006. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose materials treated with ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl. Chin. Sci. Bull. 51, 2432 2436; Dadi, A.P., Schall, C.A., Varanasi, S., 2007. Mitigation of cellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis by ionic liquid pretreatment. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 137 140, 407 421] suggest that celluloses regenerated from IL solutions are subject to faster saccharification than untreated substrates. These encouraging results offer the possibility of using ILs as alternative and nonvolatile solvents for cellulose pretreatment. However, these studies are limited to two chloride-based ILs: (a) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), which is a corrosive, toxic and extremely hygroscopic solid (m.p. 70 C), and (b) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl), which is viscous and has a reactive side-chain. Therefore, more in-depth research involving other ILs is much needed to explore this promising pretreatment route. For this reason, we studied a number of chloride- and acetate-based ILs for cellulose regeneration, including several ILs newly developed in our laboratory. This will enable us to select inexpensive, efficient and environmentally benign solvents for processing cellulosic biomass. Our data confirm that all regenerated celluloses are less crystalline (58 75% lower) and more accessible to cellulase (>2 times) than untreated substrates. As a result, regenerated Avicel cellulose, filter paper and cottonwere hydrolyzed 2 10 times faster than the respective untreated celluloses. A complete hydrolysis of Avicel cellulose could be achieved in 6 h given the Trichoderma reesei cellulase/substrate ratio (w/w) of 3:20 at 50 C. In addition,we observed that cellulase is more thermally stable (up to 60 C) in the presence of regenerated cellulose. Furthermore, our systematic studies suggest that the presence of various ILs during the hydrolysis induced different degrees of cellulase inactivation. Therefore, a thorough removal of IL residues after cellulose regeneration is highly recommended, and a systematic investigation on this subject is much needed.

  17. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EthanolOf Cellulose And Production Of Ethanol I Charles R. WilkeCELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of U.S.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric cellulose acetate Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    producing cellulosic ethanol cost competitive with corn-based ethanol by 2012 Hydrogen Vehicles... Batteries Biomass 12;Cellulosic Ethanol Pretreatment Enzymatic Hydrolysis...

  19. Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded (Shimshon, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (North Gallilea, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  20. What is (and is not) vital to advancing cellulosic ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    to many, the uniqueness of cellu- losic ethanol as a sustainable, liquid transportation fuel, which canWhat is (and is not) vital to advancing cellulosic ethanol Charles E. Wyman Chemical of Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92506, USA Ethanol made biologically from cellulosic

  1. Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 34 figs.

  2. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  3. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  4. In vivo calcium soap formation with two levels of fat and calcium and three types of fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radulovich, Daniela

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are then excreted as harmless soaps. To test the effect of calcium and fiber on soap formation, 240 male Sprague- Dawley rats were fed one of 16 diets consisting of 8/ fiber from cellulose (C), guar (G), or wheat bran (WB) or a control fiber-free (FF); two... the WB and G (p&0. 05). The high calcium diet resulted in a higher concentration of soaps than the low calcium diet (p(0. 05) and also produced a greater concentration of free calcium (p=0. 02). Fiber type affected calcium soap formation at all sites...

  5. Fermentation of pectin and cellulose to short chain fatty acids: a comparative study with humans, baboons, pigs, and rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villalba, Leonilde Nonita

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    digestibility to the human results. SCFA were measured using gas chromatography. The pH was measured before and after the fermentations. The percent fiber remaining after fermentation was assayed colorimetrically. The greatest interspecies differences were...%I@ W, W, '. '" yW~, t . . . M~~~)~ '1 r FERMENTATION OF PECTIN AND CELLULOSE TO SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH HUMANS, BABOONS, PIGS, AND RATS A Thesis by LEONILDE NONITA VILLALBA IL W I Z IJ Z 4 Z 4 2 5 V Z I...

  6. Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate Surface Area and Enzymatic Digestibility. Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate...

  7. Exploiting Genetic Variation of Fiber Components and Morphology in Juvenile Loblolly Pine.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou-min Chang, John F. Kadla, Bailian Li, Ron Sederoff,

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to ensure the global competitiveness of the Pulp and Paper Industry in the Southeastern U.S., more wood with targeted characteristics have to be produced more efficiently on less land. The objective of the research project is to provide a molecular genetic basis for tree breeding of desirable traits in juvenile loblolly pine, using a multidisciplinary research approach. We developed micro analytical methods for determine the cellulose and lignin content, average fiber length, and coarseness of a single ring in a 12 mm increment core. These methods allow rapid determination of these traits in micro scale. Genetic variation and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) were studied in several juvenile wood traits of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Over 1000 wood samples of 12 mm increment cores were collected from 14 full-sib families generated by a 6-parent half-diallel mating design (11-year-old) in four progeny tests. Juvenile (ring 3) and transition (ring 8) for each increment core were analyzed for cellulose and lignin content, average fiber length, and coarseness. Transition wood had higher cellulose content, longer fiber and higher coarseness, but lower lignin than juvenile wood. General combining ability variance for the traits in juvenile wood explained 3 to 10% of the total variance, whereas the specific combining ability variance was negligible or zero. There were noticeable full-sib family rank changes between sites for all the traits. This was reflected in very high specific combining ability by site interaction variances, which explained from 5% (fiber length) to 37% (lignin) of the total variance. Weak individual-tree heritabilities were found for cellulose, lignin content and fiber length at the juvenile and transition wood, except for lignin at the transition wood (0.23). Coarseness had moderately high individual-tree heritabilities at both the juvenile (0.39) and transition wood (0.30). Favorable genetic correlations of volume and stem straightness were found with cellulose content, fiber length and coarseness, suggesting that selection on growth or stem straightness would results in favorable response in chemical wood traits. We have developed a series of methods for application of functional genomics to understanding the molecular basis of traits important to tree breeding for improved chemical and physical properties of wood. Two types of technologies were used, microarray analysis of gene expression, and profiling of soluble metabolites from wood forming tissues. We were able to correlate wood property phenotypes with expression of specific genes and with the abundance of specific metabolites using a new database and appropriate statistical tools. These results implicate a series of candidate genes for cellulose content, lignin content, hemicellulose content and specific extractible metabolites. Future work should integrate such studies in mapping populations and genetic maps to make more precise associations of traits with gene locations in order to increase the predictive power of molecular markers, and to distinguish between different candidate genes associated by linkage or by function. This study has found that loblolly pine families differed significantly for cellulose yield, fiber length, fiber coarseness, and less for lignin content. The implication for forest industry is that genetic testing and selection for these traits is possible and practical. With sufficient genetic variation, we could improve cellulose yield, fiber length, fiber coarseness, and reduce lignin content in Loblolly pine. With the continued progress in molecular research, some candidate genes may be used for selecting cellulose content, lignin content, hemicellulose content and specific extractible metabolites. This would accelerate current breeding and testing program significantly, and produce pine plantations with not only high productivity, but desirable wood properties as well.

  8. Improved oxidation resistance of organic/inorganic composite atomic layer deposition coated cellulose nanocrystal aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Sean W.; Matthews, David J.; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1148 Kelley Engineering Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Buesch, Christian; Simonsen, John [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels are coated with thin conformal layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using atomic layer deposition to form hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites. Electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} penetrated more than 1500??m into the aerogel for extended precursor pulse and exposure/purge times. The measured profile of coated fiber radius versus depth from the aerogel surface agrees well with simulations of precursor penetration depth in modeled aerogel structures. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CNC aerogel nanocomposites do not show significant thermal degradation below 295?°C as compared with 175?°C for uncoated CNC aerogels, an improvement of over 100?°C.

  9. What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    mandates for cellulosic ethanol production, spurring an increase in bioethanol companies looking to profit

  10. NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

  11. Polyethylene fiber drawing optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiloyan, Vazrik

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer fiber drawing creates fibers with enhanced thermal conductivity and strength compared to bulk polymer because drawing aligns the molecular chains. I optimize the polymer fiber drawing method in order to achieve ...

  12. Multimaterial acoustic fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chocat, Noémie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emergence of multimaterial fibers that combine a multiplicity of solid materials with disparate electrical, optical, and mechanical properties into a single fiber presents new opportunities for extending fiber applications ...

  13. Fiber Lasers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHall ATours, Programs and EventsFiber Lasers NIF

  14. The structure and mechanics of nanofibrillar cellulose foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Zubaidah Mohammed

    Crystalline nanofibrillar cellulose has remarkable mechanical properties: a Young's modulus of about 130 GPa and a tensile strength in the range of 750–1000 MPa. Recently, there has been increasing interest in exploiting ...

  15. Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haward, Simon J.

    In this study, we characterize the shear and extensional rheology of dilute to semidilute solutions of cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIAc). In steady shear flow, the semidilute solutions ...

  16. affecting cellulose content: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and mass loss are important data to be measured for wildland fires modelling purpose and fire hazard studies on ligno-cellulosic fuels. Around 638 and 778 K, two dominating and...

  17. Life cycle analysis of hybrid poplar trees for cellulosic ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jessica J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this paper is to assess the energy and environmental benefits of cultivating hybrid poplars as a biomass crop for cellulosic ethanol. A "Life Cycle Assessment" (LCA) methodology is used to systematically ...

  18. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Carbon Fiber Technology Facility is relevant in proving the scale- up of low-cost carbon fiber precursor materials and advanced manufacturing technologies * Significant...

  19. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  20. Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose by an engineered yeast consortium displaying a functional mini-cellulosome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Garima; Tsai, Shen-Long; Madan, Bhawna; DaSilva, Nancy A; Chen, Wilfred

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol. Microbiol Mol Biol RevNext- generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and theirProduction of cellulosic ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  1. Cellulose Simulations Demystify High-Temperature Behavior (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular simulations that model cellulose microfibrils at high temperature indicate regions that may be easier to break down, which could lead to more efficient processing of cellulose into biofuel.

  2. ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process Using High-Impact Feedstock for Commercialization ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol...

  3. Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement and Jeffrey Keisler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement Erin Baker and Jeffrey Keisler funding and the likelihood of achieving advances in cellulosic biofuel technologies. While in collecting more information on this technology. Keywords: Biofuels; Technology R&D; Uncertainty

  4. DuPont's Journey to Build a Global Cellulosic BioFuel Business...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DuPont's Journey to Build a Global Cellulosic BioFuel Business Enterprise DuPont's Journey to Build a Global Cellulosic BioFuel Business Enterprise Plenary I: Progress in Advanced...

  5. MICROBIAL FERMENTATION OF ABUNDANT BIOPOLYMERS: CELLULOSE AND CHITIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Our research has dealt with seven major areas of investigation: i) characterization of cellulolytic members of microbial consortia, with special attention recently given to Clostridium phytofermentans, a bacterium that decomposes cellulose and produces uncommonly large amounts of ethanol, ii) investigations of the chitinase system of Cellulomonas uda; including the purification and characterization of ChiA, the major component of this enzyme system, iii) molecular cloning, sequence and structural analysis of the gene that encodes ChiA in C. uda, iv) biofilm formation by C. uda on nutritive surfaces, v) investigations of the effects of humic substances on cellulose degradation by anaerobic cellulolytic microbes, vi) studies of nitrogen metabolism in cellulolytic anaerobes, and vii) understanding the molecular architecture of the multicomplex cellulase-xylanase system of Clostridium papyrosolvens. Also, progress toward completing the research of more recent projects is briefly summarized. Major accomplishments include: 1. Characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans, a cellulose-fermenting, ethanol-producing bacterium from forest soil. The characterization of a new cellulolytic species isolated from a cellulose-decomposing microbial consortium from forest soil was completed. This bacterium is remarkable for the high concentrations of ethanol produced during cellulose fermentation, typically more than twice the concentration produced by other species of cellulolytic clostridia. 2. Examination of the use of chitin as a source of carbon and nitrogen by cellulolytic microbes. We discovered that many cellulolytic anaerobes and facultative aerobes are able to use chitin as a source of both carbon and nitrogen. This major discovery expands our understanding of the biology of cellulose-fermenting bacteria and may lead to new applications for these microbes. 3. Comparative studies of the cellulase and chitinase systems of Cellulomonas uda. Results of these studies indicate that the chitinase and cellulase systems of this bacterium are distinct in terms of the proteins involved and the regulation of their production. 4. Characterization of the chitinase system of C. uda. A 70,000-Mr endochitinase, designated ChiA, was purified from C. uda culture supernatant fluids and characterized. 5. Analysis of chiA, which codes for the major enzymatic component of the chitinase system of C. uda. The gene encoding the endochitinase ChiA in C. uda was cloned, its complete nucleotide sequence was determined and its implications were investigated. 6. Formation of biofilms by C. uda on cellulose and chitin. Microscopic observations indicated that, under conditions of nitrogen limitation, C. uda cells grew as a biofilm attached tightly to the surface of cellulose or chitin. 7. Development of tools for a genetic approach to studies of cellulose fermentation by cellulolytic clostridia. We have explored the potential of various techniques, and obtained evidence indicating that Tn916 mutagenesis may be particularly effective in this regard. As part of this research, we identified the presence of a plasmid in one strain, which was cloned, sequenced, and analyzed for its utility in the development of vectors for genetic studies. 8. Effects of humic substances on cellulose degradation by anaerobic cellulolytic microbes. We determined that humic substances play an important role in the anaerobic cellulose decomposition and in the physiology of cellulose-fermenting soil bacteria. 9. Nitrogenases of cellulolytic clostridia. We described a nitrogenase gene from a cellulolytic clostridium and presented evidence, based on sequence analyses and conserved gene order, for lateral gene transfer between this bacterium and a methanogenic archaeon. 10. Characterization of Clostridium hungatei, a new N2-fixing cellulolytic species isolated from a methanogenic consortium from soil. 11. Understanding the molecular architecture of the multicomplex cellulase-xylanase system of Clostridium papyrosolvens. We discovered that C. papyrosolvens produces a multiprotein, multicom

  6. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e.g. waste water treatment, solid waste combustion) weretreatments. Results and Discussions Cellulosic MSW Feedstocks Municipal solid waste (

  7. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system.

  8. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  9. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

  10. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

  11. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  12. Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly§ , and Sergey Paltsev§ Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have

  13. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wastes • Sugar cane bagasse • Corn stover and fiber • FutureSugarcane Sugarcane Bagasse Louisiana Rice Hulls Pile Energy

  14. Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

    1983-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

  15. Multimaterial fiber electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lestoquoy, Guillaume

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the number of materials that are thermally-drawable into fibers is rapidly expending, numerous new multimaterial fiber architectures can be envisioned and fabricated. High-melting temperature metals, compound materials, ...

  16. Fiber optic coupled optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

  17. Helical Fiber Amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P. (Washington, DC); Kliner, Dahy (San Ramon, CA); Goldberg, Lew (Fairfax, VA)

    2002-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-mode gain fiber is provided which affords substantial improvements in the maximum pulse energy, peak power handling capabilities, average output power, and/or pumping efficiency of fiber amplifier and laser sources while maintaining good beam quality (comparable to that of a conventional single-mode fiber source). These benefits are realized by coiling the multimode gain fiber to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode(s).

  18. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Chun-Mei

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of California. Lu et al. : DNA Fiber Mapping page - 35 Lu etal. : DNA Fiber Mapping page - 36 a b c d e f g OV P1 cloneSp6 end T7 end Lu et al. : DNA Fiber Mapping page - 37 a b c

  19. Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, Raymond

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

  20. Cellulose and Biomass Conversion Technology and Its Application to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    have risen markedly over the last few years.' Because OPEC con- trols about 75% of tbe world's oil re-carbon sugar that has historically been more difficult to con- 68 FUEL REFORMULATION vert into useful products,700 million dry tons of cellulosic biomass per year at prices from $20-70 per dry ton." 10 This quantity

  1. Evaluation of interphase properties in a cellulose fiber-reinforced polypropylene composite by nanoindentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    by nanoindentation and finite element analysis Seung-Hwan Lee a,*, Siqun Wang a , George M. Pharr b,c , Haitao Xu b- ing and separation, and biodegradability. Furthermore, the use of natural resources reduces releases author. Tel.: +1 865 974 4965; fax: +1 865 946 1109. E-mail address: lshyhk@hotmail.com (S.-H. Lee). www

  2. Photocatalytic cellulosic electrospun fibers for the degradation of potent cyanobacteria toxin microcystin-LR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    sources of pollution attributed from industrial and natural sources.1­6 Solar light driven photocatalysis% of the solar spectrum, which limits the amount of available sunlight that can be used for photocatalysis

  3. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  4. Fiber optic laser rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  5. Fiber coating method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

  6. Fiber optic moisture sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  7. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

  8. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

    1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

  9. Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics Dr. Palffy-Muhoray Ines Busuladzic Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics The University of Akron April 21, 2008 #12;Outline · History of optical fibers · What are optical fibers? · How are optical fibers made? · Light propagation through optical fibers · Application

  10. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attrition mill and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system. 1 fig.

  11. Study of polyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan and sulfoethyl cellulose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baklagina, Yu. G., E-mail: membrane@hq.macro.ru; Kononova, S. V.; Petrova, V. A.; Kruchinina, E. V.; Nud'ga, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation); Romanov, D. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Orekhov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Bogomazov, A. V.; Arkhipov, S. N. [ZAO Nauchnye Pribory (Russian Federation)] [ZAO Nauchnye Pribory (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The complexing of polycation chitosan and polyanion sulphoethyl cellulose during the formation of polyelectrolyte simplex membranes using the layer-by-layer deposition of a solution of one polyion on a gel-like film of another one has been studied. The structural characteristics of the multilayer composites and their components have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. A technique is proposed for studying the structure of surface layers of thin polymer films (15-20 {mu}m) using a portable DIFREI-401 diffractometer. It is shown that the sequence of layer deposition during the formation of membrane films does not affect their structural characteristics. The interaction between positively charged chitosan groups (-NH{sub 3}{sup +}) and negatively charged sulfoethyl cellulose groups (-SO{sub 3}{sup -}) during the growth of polyelectrolyte complexes results in a packing of chitosan chains in the multilayer film.

  12. Fiber composite flywheel rim

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, D.E.; Ingham, K.T.

    1987-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A flywheel comprising a hub having at least one radially projecting disc, an annular rim secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface. 2 figs.

  13. Fiber optic micro accelerometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An accelerometer includes a wafer, a proof mass integrated into the wafer, at least one spring member connected to the proof mass, and an optical fiber. A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially reflective surface on the proof mass and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. The two partially reflective surfaces are used to detect movement of the proof mass through the optical fiber, using an optical detection system.

  14. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  15. Fiber composite flywheel rim

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Donald E. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Ingham, Kenneth T. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flywheel 2 comprising a hub 4 having at least one radially projecting disc 6, an annular rim 14 secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers 22 wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell 26 enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface.

  16. Development of Cellulosic Biofuels (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Somerville, Chris [Director, Energy Biosciences Institute

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Summer Lecture Series 2007: Chris Somerville, Director of the Energy Biosciences Institute and an award-winning plant biochemist with Berkeley Lab's Physical Biosciences Division, is a leading authority on the structure and function of plant cell walls. He discusses an overview of some of the technical challenges associated with the production of cellulosic biofuels, which will require an improved understanding of a diverse range of topics in fields such as agronomy, chemical engineering, microbiology, structural biology, genomics, environmental sciences, and socioeconomics.

  17. Carbon Fiber SMC

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    confidential, or otherwise restricted information. ACC932 Materials and Processes Technology Development Carbon Fiber SMC 5-20-09 Charles Knakal USCAR C. S. Wang General Motors...

  18. Fiber Mesh Diagnostic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fiber Mesh Diagnostic for Transverse Profile Measurements RadiaBeam Technologies October 2010 ATF User's Meeting R. Agustsson (PI), G. Andonian, A. Murokh, R. Tikhoplav Funded by...

  19. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    conventional and alternative precursors to carbon fiber Advance high-volume composite design and manufacturing capabilities Transition technology to industry partners...

  20. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  1. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol. 2(1):26-40.1995 19941216. Commercial ethanol production process.facility and commercial ethanol production process.

  2. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    13 Javier Perez I II. ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES A. B.Development Studies of Ethanol Production--------------- 19of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol." (June 1979) and (b)

  3. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    60,700 ETHANOL RECOVERY Dist. Column CondenserF2 Steam Exchanger Ethanol Absorber 10 ft. diameter. 38Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Progress Report, LBL-

  4. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BIOCONVERSION TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL BERKELEY PROGRAM--JulyXylose Fermentation to Ethanol (a) (b) Fusarium oxysporum (OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of

  5. Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose of sustainable products such as nanocellulose and biocomposites from forest biomass; biorefining to develop high

  6. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    process streams. Handb. Bioethanol:395-415. 10. Ehrman T.solid waste used as bioethanol sources and its relatedof cellulosic biomass into bioethanol as an alternative

  7. The Effects of Surfactant Pretreatment and Xylooligomers on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose and Pretreated Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qing, Qing

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    demand elasticities in the US ethanol fuel market. Energygreat opportunity for producing ethanol fuel. The new energyscenario for cellulosic ethanol fuel production, and speaks

  8. Composite polymer electrolytes based on MG49 and carboxymethyl cellulose from kenaf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafirin, Serawati; Ahmad, Ishak; Ahmad, Azizan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of 49% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG49) and carboxymethyl cellulose as a composite polymer electrolyte film incorporating LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} were explored. Carboxymethyl cellulose was synthesized from kenaf bast fibres via carboxymethylation process by alkali catalyzed reaction of cellulose with sodium chloroacetate. Reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy showed the presence of carboxyl peak after modification of cellulose with sodium chloroacetate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity of cellulose was decrease after synthesis. High performance composite polymer electrolytes were prepared with various composition of carboxymethyl cellulose (2–10 wt%) via solution-casting method. The conductivity was increased with carboxymethyl cellulose loading. The highest conductivity value achieved was 3.3 × 10{sup ?7} Scm{sup ?1} upon addition of 6% wt carboxymethyl cellulose. 6% wt carboxymethyl cellulose composition showed the highest tensile strength value of 7.9 MPa and 273 MPa of modulus value which demonstrated high mechanical performance with accepatable level of ionic conductivity.

  9. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yao; Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY-ESF; Winter, William T. [SUNY-ESF; Wilson, David B.; Kim, Young-Jun

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA "Roadmap" objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled "The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases" was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by "pure" enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH "pretreatment" provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  10. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  11. Multimode optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  12. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.

    1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.

  13. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  14. Fiber optic compass development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Kyongtae

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is illustrated schematically in Fig. 3-1. The light source is an erbium doped fiber (EDF) laser in the ring configuration [11-12]. Total amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) power is 7 mW at 45 mW pump power. The laser is spectrally scanned in the 1525 ~ 1565... optic modulator and amplified by a commercial erbium- doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The spectrum of the laser after amplification at 6 different wavelengths is shown in Fig. 3-3. After amplification, the light passes through a fiber coupler...

  15. Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding RemovalCSS LetterStateDepartment ofEqualityCellulosic Liquid

  16. Fiber bundle phase conjugate mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Benjamin G.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and apparatus for passively conjugating the phases of a distorted wavefronts resulting from optical phase mismatch between elements of a fiber laser array are disclosed. A method for passively conjugating a distorted wavefront comprises the steps of: multiplexing a plurality of probe fibers and a bundle pump fiber in a fiber bundle array; passing the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle array through a collimating lens and into one portion of a non-linear medium; passing the output from a pump collection fiber through a focusing lens and into another portion of the non-linear medium so that the output from the pump collection fiber mixes with the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle; adjusting one or more degrees of freedom of one or more of the fiber bundle array, the collimating lens, the focusing lens, the non-linear medium, or the pump collection fiber to produce a standing wave in the non-linear medium.

  17. Alkaline stability of cellulose ethers and impact of their degradation products on cement hydration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Alkaline stability of cellulose ethers and impact of their degradation products on cement-mail address: pourchez@emse.fr emse-00449712,version1-18Sep2010 Author manuscript, published in "Cement the potential role of cellulose ethers degradation on the alteration of the cement hydration kinetics

  18. Cellulosic Ethanol Technology on Track to Being Competitive With Other Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have been driving down the cost of cellulosic ethanol and overcoming the technical challenges that surround it-major milestones toward the Department of Energy (DOE) goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive by 2012.

  19. Surface pre-coating of talc particles by carboxyl methyl cellulose adsorption : study of adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Surface pre-coating of talc particles by carboxyl methyl cellulose adsorption : study of adsorption and consequences on surface properties and settling rate P. Bacchin1 , J-P. Bonino2 , F. Martin3 This paper investigates the adsorption of different sized carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) onto talc particles

  20. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose Coupled With Electricity Generation in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the exoelectrogen Geobacter sulfurreducens generated electricity, and the power generated using soluble celluloseARTICLE Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose Coupled With Electricity Generation in a Microbial Fuel.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22015 ABSTRACT: Electricity can be directly generated by bacteria in microbial fuel

  1. Kits and methods of detection using cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  2. Kits and methods of detection using cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  3. Less is more: Novel cellulose structure requires fewer enzymes to process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC), the Center for Non-Linear Studies, and the Laboratory are central to cost-effective biofuel production and the subject of new research from Los Alamos National and designer enzymes for biofuel production from cellulosic--or non-food--plant derived biomass. "Cellulose

  4. Silicon cantilever functionalization for cellulose-specific chemical force imaging of switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ida [ORNL; Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Foston, Marcus B [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for direct functionalization of silicon and silicon nitride cantilevers with bifunctional silanes was tested with model surfaces to determine adhesive forces for different hydrogen-bonding chemistries. Application for biomass surface characterization was tested by mapping switchgrass and isolated switchgrass cellulose in topographic and force-volume mode using a cellulose-specific cantilever.

  5. Topic T4 Claudia Hildenbrand #274 EDLC electrodes from cellulose-based carbon aerogels: influence of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Topic T4 Claudia Hildenbrand #274 EDLC electrodes from cellulose-based carbon aerogels: influence performance if used as EDLC electrode material. Carbon aerogels were synthesized by crosslinking cellulose atmosphere (1000°C, nitrogen atmosphere). Subsequently, the surface chemistry of the carbon aerogels

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER Reactor scale up for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    ORIGINAL PAPER Reactor scale up for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol Xiongjun scale-up approach for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to com- modity products of large scale bioreactors based on bench scale experimentation. Keywords CFD Á SSF Á Scale up Á Solids

  7. Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    ARTICLE Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation: Part II. Experimental Validation Using Waste Paper Sludge and Anticipation of CFD AnalysisScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22047 ABSTRACT: A kinetic model of cellulosic biomass

  8. Fabrication of "Roll-off" and "Sticky" Superhydrophobic Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breedveld, Victor

    Fabrication of "Roll-off" and "Sticky" Superhydrophobic Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Processing. In Final Form: January 10, 2008 Most of the artificial superhydrophobic surfaces that have been fabricated, but it is not superhydrophobic. Superhydrophobicity on cellulose paper was obtained by domain- selective etching of amorphous

  9. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Warren, Mial Evans (Albuquerque, NM); Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe (Albuquerque, NM); Word, V., James Cole (Albuqueruqe, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

  10. Preliminary Review of the Degradation of Cellulosic, Plastic, and Rubber Materials in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and Possible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preliminary Review of the Degradation of Cellulosic, Plastic, and Rubber Materials in the Waste............................................... 2-1 2.1.1 Microbial Degradation of Cellulosic, Plastic, and Rubber Materials ...... 2-1 2.1.2 Anoxic-Biodegradable.............................................................................. 3-4 3.2.4 Uncertainties in Cellulosics, Plastics, and Rubber Inventory.................. 3-6 4

  11. Introgression & mapping Fiber cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Germplasm Introgression Genomics & mapping Fiber cell initiation Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping and breeding. Research activities commonly include plant breeding, genetics, genomics, cytogenetics, molecular methods. (C, S) · Contribute uniquely to genomics and its relevance to genetic improvement (C,S) · Harness

  12. Optoelectronic fiber interface design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, Matthew Edmund

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developments in materials science have led to the development of an exciting, new class of fibers which integrate metals, semiconductors and insulators in the same codrawing process. Various electrical devices have ...

  13. Multimaterial rectifying device fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orf, Nicholas D

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronic and optoelectronic device processing is commonly thought to be incompatible with much simpler thermal drawing techniques used in optical fiber production. The incorporation of metals, polymer insulators, and ...

  14. Dark Soliton Fiber Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Zhang; D. Y. Tang; L. M. Zhao; X. Wu; Q. L. Bao; K. P. Loh

    2009-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the experimental observation of stable dark solitons in an all normal dispersion fiber laser. We found experimentally that dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the fiber laser under strong continuous wave (CW) emission. However, only under appropriate pump strength and negative cavity feedback, stable single or multiple dark soliton could be achieved. Furthermore, we show that the features of the observed dark solitons could be well understood based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE).

  15. Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economic competitiveness of cellulosic ethanol production is highly dependent on feedstock cost, which constitutes 35–50% of the total ethanol production cost, depending on various geographical factors and the types of systems used for harvesting, collecting, preprocessing, transporting, and handling the material. Consequently, as the deployment of cellulosic ethanol biorefi neries approaches, feedstock cost and availability are the driving factors that infl uence pioneer biorefi nery locations and will largely control the rate at which this industry grows. Initial scenarios were postulated to develop a pioneer dry feedstock supply system design case as a demonstration of the current state of technology. Based on this pioneer design, advanced scenarios were developed to determine key cost barriers, needed supply system improvements, and technology advancements to achieve government and private sector cost targets. Analysis of the pioneer supply system resulted in a delivered feedstock cost to the throat of the pretreatment reactor of $37.00 per dry tonne (2002 $). Pioneer supply systems will start by using current infrastructure and technologies and be individually designed for biorefi neries using specifi c feedstock types and varieties based on local geographic conditions. As the industry develops and cost barriers are addressed, the supply systems will incorporate advanced technologies that will eliminate downstream diversity and provide a uniform, tailored feedstock for multiple biorefi neries located in different regions.

  16. Carbon Fiber Pilot Plant and Research Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentationname Carbon Fiber Facilities Materials Carbon Fiber Research Facility Type Production Fiber Types Tow Size Tensioning Line...

  17. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  18. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM); Looney, Larry D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

  19. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, play an integral role in our daily lives. Naturally-occurring polymers include cellulose (mentioned in gun cotton demo), rubber, skin, hair,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    . Naturally- occurring polymers include cellulose (mentioned in gun cotton demo), rubber, skin, hair, DNA, etc

  20. Development of efficient, integrated cellulosic biorefineries : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Hecht, Ethan S.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Buffleben, George M.; Dibble, Dean C.; Lutz, Andrew E.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic ethanol, generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources such as grasses and trees, is a promising alternative to conventional starch- and sugar-based ethanol production in terms of potential production quantities, CO{sub 2} impact, and economic competitiveness. In addition, cellulosic ethanol can be generated (at least in principle) without competing with food production. However, approximately 1/3 of the lignocellulosic biomass material (including all of the lignin) cannot be converted to ethanol through biochemical means and must be extracted at some point in the biochemical process. In this project we gathered basic information on the prospects for utilizing this lignin residue material in thermochemical conversion processes to improve the overall energy efficiency or liquid fuel production capacity of cellulosic biorefineries. Two existing pretreatment approaches, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) and the Arkenol (strong sulfuric acid) process, were implemented at Sandia and used to generated suitable quantities of residue material from corn stover and eucalyptus feedstocks for subsequent thermochemical research. A third, novel technique, using ionic liquids (IL) was investigated by Sandia researchers at the Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), but was not successful in isolating sufficient lignin residue. Additional residue material for thermochemical research was supplied from the dilute-acid simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) pilot-scale process at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The high-temperature volatiles yields of the different residues were measured, as were the char combustion reactivities. The residue chars showed slightly lower reactivity than raw biomass char, except for the SSF residue, which had substantially lower reactivity. Exergy analysis was applied to the NREL standard process design model for thermochemical ethanol production and from a prototypical dedicated biochemical process, with process data supplied by a recent report from the National Research Council (NRC). The thermochemical system analysis revealed that most of the system inefficiency is associated with the gasification process and subsequent tar reforming step. For the biochemical process, the steam generation from residue combustion, providing the requisite heating for the conventional pretreatment and alcohol distillation processes, was shown to dominate the exergy loss. An overall energy balance with different potential distillation energy requirements shows that as much as 30% of the biomass energy content may be available in the future as a feedstock for thermochemical production of liquid fuels.

  1. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to bond with composite matrix material. It is important that a carbon fiber manufacturing cost model manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able associated with both the manufacture of carbon fibers themselves as well as their composites. Traditional

  2. Optical and optoelectronic fiber devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapira, Ofer, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to integrate materials with disparate electrical, thermal, and optical properties into a single fiber structure enabled the realization of fiber devices with diverse and complex functionalities. Amongst those, ...

  3. Distributed optical fiber vibration sensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hui

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a distributed optical fiber vibration sensor. The purpose of this sensing system is to monitor, in real time, the status of railcars by burying an optical fiber underground beside the rails. Using a coherent homodyne technique...

  4. Fiber Supply Associate Company Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzotti, Frank

    materials acquisition, harvesting, logistics coordination, contract negotiations, and inventory management, Purchasing, Industrial Engineering, Operations management, Materials Management, Supply Chain) Authorized leadership roles such as Fiber Specialist, Fiber Supply Manager, Region Manager, Director, General Manager

  5. Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

  6. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  7. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strand, Oliver T. (Castro Valley, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  8. Silicon fiber optic sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

  9. Genetics of Cotton Fiber Elongation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Eng Hwa

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    ability GxE Genotype by environment interaction HVI High volume instrument Mic Micronaire (HVI) SCA Specific combining ability Str-H Fiber strength (HVI) Str-S Fiber strength (Stelometer) UHML Upper-half mean length (HVI) UI Uniformity index... Station, TX .................................................................................... 38 5 Mean squares of GCA and SCA for HVI fiber properties in 2010 and 2011 in College Station, TX...

  10. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprehn, G.A.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Sandler, P.H.

    1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency. 4 figs.

  11. Large core fiber optic cleaver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpin, J.M.

    1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 {micro}m. 30 figs.

  12. Large core fiber optic cleaver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpin, John M. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 .mu.m.

  13. Journal of Biotechnology 77 (2000) 3747 H NMR study of cellulose metabolism by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -echo difference 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The degradation of unlabelled cellulose synthesised by Acetobacter xylinum bacterial fermentation products (glycogen, succinate, acetate). During the pre-incubation period of F

  14. A Probabilistic Inventory Analysis of Biomass for the State of Texas for Cellulosic Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleinser, Matthew A.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Agricultural and forestry wastes for the use of creating cellulosic ethanol were inventoried for each county in Texas. A simple forecast was created for each of the agricultural wastes and then a multivariate empirical distribution was used...

  15. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of22 Mohammad Riaz ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES II I. A. B.Hydrolyzates to Ethanol J2 Ren-Der Yang

  16. Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentations of cellulose. Progress report, September 1, 1979-May 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peck, H.D. Jr.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reseach progress is reported for the period September, 1979 to May, 1980. Studies on the mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms fermenting cellulose to various products (ethanol, acetate, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, and methane) are summarized. (ACR)

  17. Modified cellulose synthase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana confers herbicide resistance to plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris R. (Portola Valley, CA); Scheible, Wolf (Golm, DE)

    2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose synthase ("CS"), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl)phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  18. EA-1705: Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, Mascoma Corporation, Kinross Charter Township, Michigan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The frontier Project consists of the design, construction and operation of a biorefinery producing ethanol and other co-products from cellulosic materials utilizing a proprietary pretreatment and fermentation process.

  19. DuPont’s Journey to Build a Global Cellulosic BioFuel Business Enterprise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary I: Progress in Advanced Biofuels DuPont’s Journey to Build a Global Cellulosic BioFuel Business Enterprise William Provine, Director–Science and Technology External Affairs, DuPont

  20. Daylight photocatalysis performance of biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers prepared with lens cleaning paper as biotemplate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Junchao; Chen, Feng [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China)] [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China); Wang, Fang; Zhao, Xiaobing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Changzhou (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Changzhou (China); Chen, Zhigang, E-mail: ziyou1900@gmail.com [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China) [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Environment Functional Materials, 215009 Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); State Key laboratory of Crystal Material, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? A novel, simple and eco-friendly approach for hierarchical, biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls is presented by using paper as template. ? The biomorphic CeO{sub 2} fibers was composed of nanosheets with bimodal pore-size mesoporous distribution and exhibited high light-harvesting under sunlight irradiation. ? The CeO{sub 2} microfibers biomimicking the natural plant structures have promising application for photodegradation of organic pollutants in water. -- Abstract: Hierarchical, biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls have been fabricated using lens cleaning paper as biotemplates. After sintered at 550 °C in air, the cellulosic fibers of paper were converted into micro-tubes composing of CeO{sub 2} crystallites with grain size about 8 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the CeO{sub 2} fibers was evaluated by photodegradation efficiency of methylene blue in aqueous solution under daylight irradiation. The characterized results show that the CeO{sub 2} fibers faithfully replicated micro-fibrous structure derived from original template and possessed dramatic enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with bulk CeO{sub 2}. This simple biotemplate method provides a cost-effective and eco-friendly route to obtain high performance photocatalysts.

  1. The action of Trichoderma viride cellulase on purified and partially purified cellulosic substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarreal, Anita

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE ACTION OF TRICHODERMA VIRIDE CELLUI ASE ON PURIFIED AND PARTIALLY PURIFIED CELLULOSIC SUBSTRATES A Thesis by ANITA VILLARREAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirenent... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972 Major Subject: Forest Science THE ACTION OF TRICHODERMA VIRIDE CELLULASE ON PURIFIED AND PARTIALLY PURIFIED CELLULOSIC SUBSTRATES A Thesis by ANITA VILLARREAL Approved as to style and content by...

  2. Optical and mechanical behavior of the optical fiber infrasound sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWolf, Scott

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 The Optical Fiber Infrasound Sensor . . . . . . .Fiber Infrasound Sensor Optical fibers are well known forSchnidrig. An optical fiber infrasound sensor: A new lower

  3. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  4. Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added in an excess amount needed. 3 figures.

  5. Buried fiber optic sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jaehee

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and TMom modes. Otherwise vm gives the HEv hm and EHv-hm modest20] 18 Table I. Parameters of the laser source and the fused silica fiber which are used in this experiment. n=n1=1. 4527 n2= 1. 4483 D (core diameter )= 8 um Cladding Diameter = 125 um... Interferometer . B. Frequency Chirping of Laser Diode C. Pressure Sensitivity to Uniform Pressure . . . . . . . . . . D. Pressure Sensitivity to Transverse Pressure . . . . E. Pressure Sensitivity to Longitudinal Pressure . . . . . . . . . . I 3 . . . . 20...

  6. Fiber optic sensor and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vartuli, James Scott; Bousman, Kenneth Sherwood; Deng, Kung-Li; McEvoy, Kevin Paul; Xia, Hua

    2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic sensor including a fiber having a modified surface integral with the fiber wherein the modified surface includes an open pore network with optical agents dispersed within the open pores of the open pore network. Methods for preparing the fiber optic sensor are also provided. The fiber optic sensors can withstand high temperatures and harsh environments.

  7. Fiber laser development for LISA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenji Numata; Jeffrey R. Chen; Jordan Camp

    2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a linearly-polarized Ytterbium-doped fiber ring laser with single longitudinal-mode output at 1064nm for LISA and other space applications. Single longitudinal-mode selection was achieved by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP). The FFP also serves as a frequency-reference within our ring laser. Our laser exhibits comparable low frequency and intensity noise to Non-Planar Ring Oscillator (NPRO). By using a fiber-coupled phase modulator as a frequency actuator, the laser frequency can be electro-optically tuned at a rate of 100kHz. It appears that our fiber ring laser is promising for space applications where robustness of fiber optics is desirable.

  8. System for testing optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

    1980-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

  9. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Processing (IT) Lignin-Based Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors * Structural Materials for Vehicles (VT) * Graphite Electrodes for Arc Furnaces (IT) * Nanoporous CF for...

  10. Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    production and conversion parameters must be optimized. Lower cost fiber enable CF composite applications. Approach: 1. Complete previous effort by scaling to the CF production...

  11. Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in 2011 to accelerate the development and deployment of new, lower cost carbon fiber composite materials. The Consortium draws on the broad experience that the Oak Ridge National...

  12. Carbon Fiber Cluster Strategy | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Fiber Cluster Strategy ORNL has a 40-year history in R&D on fiber-reinforced composite materials, and has been leading DOE's low-cost carbon fiber initiative for more than...

  13. Carbon Fiber Composite Cellular A Dissertation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Carbon Fiber Composite Cellular Structures ____________________________________ A Dissertation and honeycombs. However, for weight sensitive, ambient temperature applications, carbon fiber composites have emerged as a promising material due to its high specific strength and low density. Carbon fiber reinforced

  14. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Paul, E-mail: p.joseph@ulster.ac.uk [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  15. A cell is not a pan of water: Problems with using [delta]D composition in wood cellulose to interpret climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, V.J.; Deniro, M.J. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (United States) Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States))

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If the isotopic composition of hydrogen in tree ring cellulose is related to that of water at the site of cellulose synthesis, then it records climatic information. Relationships between [delta]D tree ring cellulose and climate have been found, yet the mechanisms of hydrogen fractionation in the synthesis of wood cellulose were not examined. We grew avocadoes in water of controlled isotopic composition at different humidities until their stems became woody. Ambient humidity was consistently related to the isotopic composition of leaf water and leaf cellulose but not to wood cellulose. Both leaf and wood cellulose [delta]D values were higher than those of environmental water indicating that some of the hydrogen had been reallocated from stored post photosynthetic compounds. Effects of stored compounds on the isotopic composition of wood cellulose could significantly confound paleoclimatic reconstructions from this method.

  16. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  17. Dark Fiber Testbed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi SitePARTOfficeOctoberDaniel Wood Dark Fiber Testbed

  18. CFTF | Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BTRIC CNMS CSMB CFTF Working with CFTF HFIR MDF NTRC OLCF SNS Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Home | User Facilities | CFTF CFTF | Carbon Fiber Technology Facility SHARE Oak...

  19. Cationic quaternization of cellulose with methacryloyloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride via ATRP method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Supeno [Cenderawasih University, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia and School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Daik, Rusli, E-mail: rusli@ukm.edu.my [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); El-Sheikh, Said M. [Nano-Structured Materials Division, Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of a cationic cellulose copolymer from cellulose macro-initiator (MCC-BiB) and quaternary compound monomer (METMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied. By using dimethylformamide (DMF), the optimum condition for successful synthesis was at the mole ratio of MCC-BIB:Catalyst:METMA = 1:1:26. The highest copolymer recovery was 93.2 % for 6 h and at 40°C. The copolymer was insoluble in weak polar solvents such as THF and DMF but soluble in methanol and water. The chemistry of cellulose copolymer was confirmed by the FTIR and TGA in which the METMA monomer was used as a reference. The absence of CC bond in the CiB-g-METMA spectrum indicated that graft copolymerization occurred.

  20. Electrospun and oxidized cellulose materials for environmental remediation of heavy metals in groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Dong [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Halada, Gary P. [Stony Brook University (SUNY); Spalding, Brian Patrick [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter focuses on the use of modified cellulosic materials in the field of environmental remediation. Two different chemical methods were involved in fabricating oxidized cellulose (OC), which has shown promise as a metal ion chelator in environmental applications. Electrospinning was utilized to introduce a more porous structure into an oxidized cellulose matrix. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were used to study both the formation of OC and its surface complexation with metal ions. IR and Raman spectroscopic data demonstrate the formation of characteristic carboxylic groups in the structure of the final products and the successful formation of OC-metal complexes. Subsequent field tests at the Field Research Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory confirmed the value of OC for sorption of both U and Th ions.

  1. Fiber Laser Based Nonlinear Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adany, Peter

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 31. Varied output spectrum of NL-PM-750 (spectrograms) .................................72 Figure 32. Comparison of four dispersion profiles. ..........................................................75 Figure 33. Simulations of four dispersion... characteristics of three photonic crystal fibers. 82 Figure 39. Simulation of NL-PM-750............................................................................... 83 Figure 40. Varying the input wavelength in NL-PM-750 fiber...

  2. Buried fiber optic intrusion sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, Eric William

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    to the buried sensor induces a phase shift in light propagating along the fiber which allows for the detection and localization of intrusions. Through the use of an ultra-stable erbium-doped fiber laser and phase sensitive optical time domain reflectometry...

  3. Fiber Grating Environmental Sensing System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Whitten L. (Fairview, OR); Udd, Eric (Fairview, OR)

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiber grating environmental measurement systems are comprised of sensors that are configured to respond to changes in moisture or chemical content of the surrounding medium through the action of coatings and plates inducing strain that is measured. These sensors can also be used to monitor the interior of bonds for degradation due to aging, cracking, or chemical attack. Means to multiplex these sensors at high speed and with high sensitivity can be accomplished by using spectral filters placed to correspond to each fiber grating environmental sensor. By forming networks of spectral elements and using wavelength division multiplexing arrays of fiber grating sensors may be processed in a single fiber line allowing distributed high sensitivity, high bandwidth fiber optic grating environmental sensor systems to be realized.

  4. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellesia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

  5. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  6. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  7. Chapter 18: Understanding the Developing Cellulosic Biofuels Industry through Dynamic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newes, E.; Inman, D.; Bush, B.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss a system dynamics model called the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), which is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the burgeoning cellulosic biofuels industry in the United States. The model has also recently been expanded to include advanced conversion technologies and biofuels (i.e., conversion pathways that yield biomass-based gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and butanol), but we focus on cellulosic ethanol conversion pathways here. The BSM uses a system dynamics modeling approach (Bush et al., 2008) built on the STELLA software platform.

  8. Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

  9. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

  10. Improvement of cellulose catabolism in Clostridium cellulolyticum by sporulation abolishment and carbon alleviation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL] [ORNL; Xu, Tao [University of Oklahoma, Norman] [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL] [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL] [ORNL; He, Zhili [University of Oklahoma, Norman] [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman] [University of Oklahoma, Norman

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background Clostridium cellulolyticum can degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and ferment the soluble sugars to produce valuable chemicals such as lactate, acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. However, the cellulose utilization efficiency of C. cellulolyticum still remains very low, impeding its application in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels production. In this study, two metabolic engineering strategies were exploited to improve cellulose utilization efficiency, including sporulation abolishment and carbon overload alleviation. Results The spo0A gene at locus Ccel_1894, which encodes a master sporulation regulator was inactivated. The spo0A mutant abolished the sporulation ability. In a high concentration of cellulose (50 g/l), the performance of the spo0A mutant increased dramatically in terms of maximum growth, final concentrations of three major metabolic products, and cellulose catabolism. The microarray and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses showed that the valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis pathways were up-regulated in the spo0A mutant. Based on this information, a partial isobutanol producing pathway modified from valine biosynthesis was introduced into C. cellulolyticum strains to further increase cellulose consumption by alleviating excessive carbon load. The introduction of this synthetic pathway to the wild-type strain improved cellulose consumption from 17.6 g/l to 28.7 g/l with a production of 0.42 g/l isobutanol in the 50 g/l cellulose medium. However, the spo0A mutant strain did not appreciably benefit from introduction of this synthetic pathway and the cellulose utilization efficiency did not further increase. A technical highlight in this study was that an in vivo promoter strength evaluation protocol was developed using anaerobic fluorescent protein and flow cytometry for C. cellulolyticum. Conclusions In this study, we inactivated the spo0A gene and introduced a heterologous synthetic pathway to manipulate the stress response to heavy carbon load and accumulation of metabolic products. These findings provide new perspectives to enhance the ability of cellulolytic bacteria to produce biofuels and biocommodities with high efficiency and at low cost directly from lignocellulosic biomass.

  11. Apparatus and method for combining light from two or more fibers into a single fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klingsporn, Paul Edward

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for combining light signals carried on a plurality of input fibers onto a single receiving fiber with a high degree of efficiency. The apparatus broadly comprises the receiving fiber and a plurality of input fiber-lens assemblies, with each fiber lens assembly including an input fiber; a collimating lens interposed between the input fiber and the receiving fiber and adapted to collimate the light signal; and a focusing lens interposed between the collimating lens and the receiving fiber and adapted to focus the collimated light signal onto the face of the receiving fiber. The components of each fiber-lens assembly are oriented along an optic axis that is inclined relative to the receiving fiber, with the inclination angle depending at least in part on the input fiber's numerical aperture and the focal lengths and diameters of the collimating and focusing lenses.

  12. Apparatus and method for combining light from two or more fibers into a single fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klingsporn, Paul Edward

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for combining light signals carried on a plurality of input fibers onto a single receiving fiber with a high degree of efficiency. The apparatus broadly comprises the receiving fiber and a plurality of input fiber-lens assemblies, with each fiber lens assembly including an input fiber; a collimating lens interposed between the input fiber and the receiving fiber and adapted to collimate the light signal; and a focusing lens interposed between the collimating lens and the receiving fiber and adapted to focus the collimated light signal onto the face of the receiving fiber. The components of each fiber-lens assembly are oriented along an optic axis that is inclined relative to the receiving fiber, with the inclination angle depending at least in part on the input fiber's numerical aperture and the focal lengths and diameters of the collimating and focusing lenses.

  13. High performance fibers. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Economy, J.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two and a half year ONR/ARPA funded program to develop a low cost process for manufacture of a high strength/high modulus sigma/E boron nitride (BN) fiber was initiated on 7/1/90 and ended on 12/31/92. The preparation of high sigma/E BN fibers had been demonstrated in the late 1960's by the PI using a batch nitriding of B2O3 fiber with NH3 followed by stress graphitization at approx. 2000 deg C. Such fibers displayed values comparable to PAN based carbon fibers but the mechanicals were variable most likely because of redeposition of volatiles at 2000 deg C. In addition, the cost of the fibers was very high due to the need for many hours of nitriding necessary to convert the B2O3 fibers. The use of batch nitriding negated two possible cost advantages of this concept, namely, the ease of drawing very fine, multi-filament yarn of B2O3 and more importantly the very low cost of the starting materials.

  14. Evaluation of the precision and accuracy of the direct transfer method for the analysis of asbestos fibers with comparison to the NIOSH method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, T.W.S.; Dicker, W.L.; Nazar, M.A.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of asbestos on polycarbonate membrane filters prepared using the direct transfer (DT) method is used as a reference for determining the precision and accuracy of phase contrast microscopy (PCM) of the same filters and for determining the correlation between DT-PCM and the NIOSH method of asbestos analysis. Replicate aliquots of an aqueous suspension of chrysotile were filtered through either polycarbonate or cellulosic membrane filters. The polycarbonate filters were prepared using the DT method and analyzed using TEM and PCM; the cellulosic filters were treated and analyzed using the NIOSH method. Compared to the results of the TEM examination of the polycarbonate filters, about 50% of the fibers longer than 5 ..mu..m were detected using DT-PCM, which was more than 3 times the result obtained using the NIOSH method. The improvement in accuracy using DT-PCM is attributed to the increased visibility of thin fibers (diameters less than 0.1 ..mu..m). The largest variation in results was found to be due to the fiber distribution on the filters. This factor may be eliminated from interlaboratory comparisons, etc. by the use of pre-designated and well-defined fields-of-view.

  15. Infrared Fiber Optics James A. Harrington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Infrared Fiber Optics James A. Harrington Ceramic & Materials Engineering Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 1. Introduction Infrared (IR) optical fibers may be defined as fiber optics IR fiber optics may logically be divided into three broad categories: glass, crystalline, and hollow

  16. Optical fiber reliability models M. John Matthewson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    3 Optical fiber reliability models M. John Matthewson Fiber Optic Materials Research Program Systems containing optical fiber have design lives on the order of decades so that models for assessing and promising areas for future work are proposed. 1. INTRODUCTION Mechanical failure of optical fiber must

  17. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  18. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, F., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de; Schneider, A., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT (Germany); Elsner, P., E-mail: peter.elsner@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT, Germany and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO{sub 2} balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

  19. Separable fluorous ionic liquids for the dissolution and saccharification of cellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Cellulose (medium cotton linters, C6288) was from Sigma Chemical (St. Louis, MO). Other commercial chemicals silica gel was from Aldrich Chemical (Milwaukee, WI). The term "concentrated under reduced pressure unless indicated otherwise. Mass spectrometry was performed with a Micromass LCT (electrospray ionization

  20. NMR investigations of water retention mechanism by cellulose ethers in cement-based materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 NMR investigations of water retention mechanism by cellulose ethers in cement-based materials J of freshly-mixed white cement pastes. NMRD is useful to determine the surface diffusion coefficient of water, the specific surface area and the hydration kinetics of the cement-based material. In spite of modifications

  1. Relationship between wood elastic strain under bending and cellulose crystal strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Montero1* , Bruno Clair1 , Tancrède Alméras1 , Arie van der Lee2 , Joseph Gril1 1 Laboratoire de Mécanique-wall. In each layer, cellulose * Corresponding author: cedric.montero@univ-montp2.fr hal-00646489,version1-30Nov

  2. Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation and electrohydrogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    primarily of: acetic, lactic, succinic, and formic acids and ethanol. An additional 800 Æ 290 mL H2/gHydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation Electrolysis cell Fermentation Lignocellulose a b s t r a c t A two-stage dark-fermentation

  3. Recovery and reuse of cellulase catalyst in an enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodward, J.

    1987-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for recovering cellulase from the hydrolysis of cellulose, and reusing it in subsequent hydrolyois procedures. The process utilizes a commercial adsorbent that efficiently removes cellulase from reaction products which can be easily removed by simple decantation. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol by the Simultaneous to ethanol, a promising alternative fuel, can be carried out efficiently and economically using are presented in light of the impact of enzymatic hydrolysis on fuel ethanol production. Key words: enzymatic

  5. Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations Wun 20 March 2013 Available online 9 April 2013 Keywords: Layered silicates AMH-3 Composite membrane Exfoliation Interface CO2 separation a b s t r a c t Nanoporous layered silicate/polymer composite membranes

  6. A Probabilistic Inventory Analysis of Biomass for the State of Texas for Cellulosic Ethanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleinser, Matthew A.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    to simulate the range of biomass available by county and district. The probability that a district could support a 25, 50, 75, or 100 million gallon cellulosic ethanol plant is estimated from the Monte Carlo simulation results. Biomass in Texas is concentrated...

  7. Application of cellulase and hemicellulase to pure xylan, pure cellulose, and switchgrass solids from leading pretreatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    -glucosidase, Multifect xylanase, and beta-xylosidase were evaluated for hydrolysis of pure cellulose, pure xylan for transportation fuels are needed to replace depleting petroleum-based options and address global cli- mate change of technical and economical feasibilities (Wyman, 1994). A wide range of lignocellulosic biomass materials have

  8. Fiber felts as low density structural materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milewski, J.V.; Newfield, S.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Short fiber felts structures can be made which provide improvements in properties over foams. In applications where resistance to compression set or stress relaxation are important, bonded fiber felts excel due to the flexing of individual fibers within their elastic limit. Felts of stainless steel and polyester fibers were prepared by deposition from liquid slurries. Compressive properties were determined as a function of felt parent material, extent of bonding, felt density, and length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio of starting fibers.

  9. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCollum, T.; Spector, G.B.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected is described. 11 figures.

  10. Mobile fiber optic emission spectrograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, W.A.; Coleman, C.J.; McCarty, J.E.; Beck, R.S.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical Assistance Request HLW/DWPF-TAR-970064 asked SRTC to evaluate the use of a fiber optic coupled emission spectrometer. The spectrometer would provide additional ICP analyses in the DWPF laboratory.

  11. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentationname CARBON FIBER OVERVIEW Materials LM002 Task FY 2010 Budget Industry Cost Share FY 2011 Budget Industry Cost Share...

  12. LongviewCowlitzFiberCX

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    new ground disturbance. To accommodate the additional weight of the fiber cable on the transmission line, BPA would need to rebuild eight towers to a higher pole class: 110, 2...

  13. Buried fiber optic intrusion sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, Eric William

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor capable of detecting intruders from the pressure of their weight on the earth's surface was investigated in the laboratory and in field tests. The presence of an intruder above or in proximity...

  14. High repetition rate fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

  15. Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors P.I. Name: Dave Warren Presenter: Dr. Amit K. Naskar Oak Ridge National Laboratory 05162012 Project ID LM004 This presentation does not...

  16. Optical fiber sensor having a sol-gel fiber core and a method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Shiquan; Jindal, Rajeev; Winstead, Christopher; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, economic wet chemical procedure is described for making sol-gel fibers. The sol-gel fibers made from this process are transparent to ultraviolet, visible and near infrared light. Light can be guided in these fibers by using an organic polymer as a fiber cladding. Alternatively, air can be used as a low refractive index medium. The sol-gel fibers have a micro pore structure which allows molecules to diffuse into the fiber core from the surrounding environment. Chemical and biochemical reagents can be doped into the fiber core. The sol-gel fiber can be used as a transducer for constructing an optical fiber sensor. The optical fiber sensor having an active sol-gel fiber core is more sensitive than conventional evanescent wave absorption based optical fiber sensors.

  17. anchored carbon fiber: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    material. It is important that a carbon fiber manufacturing cost model 4 Carbon Fiber Composite Cellular A Dissertation Materials Science Websites Summary: Carbon Fiber Composite...

  18. Optical fiber inspection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, F.W.

    1985-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

  19. Ceramic composites: Roles of fiber and interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J.P.; Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented that elucidate (a) the effects of fiber coating on retained fiber strength and mechanical properties of Nicalon-fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites, and (b) the role of residual stresses in the interfacial bond strength of SiC-fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix composites. For Nicalon-fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites that were fractured in a flexural mode, retained in-situ fiber strength, ultimate strength, and work-of-fracture (WOF) of the composites increased with increasing thickness of the fiber coating and reached maximum values at a coating thickness of {approx} 0.3 {micro}m. A direct correlation between the variation of in-situ fiber strength and the variation of ultimate strength and WOF of the composites clearly indicates the critical role of the retained in-situ strength of reinforcing fibers in composites. Fiber pushout tests performed on SiC-fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix composites indicate that both debonding and frictional shear stresses decreased with increasing fiber content. These variations are consistent with the variation of residual radial stress on fibers, as measured by neutron diffraction, i.e., residual stresses decreased with increasing fiber content. Because fracture behavior is strongly controlled by interfacial bond strength, which is proportional to the residual radial stress, appropriate control of residual stress is critical in the design of composites with desired fracture properties.

  20. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  1. Evaluation of Microbial Communities from Extreme Environments as Inocula in a Carboxylate Platform for Biofuel Production from Cellulosic Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cope, Julia Lee

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The carboxylate biofuels platform (CBP) involves the conversion of cellulosic biomass into carboxylate salts by a mixed microbial community. Chemical engineering approaches to convert these salts to a variety of fuels (diesel, gasoline, jet fuel...

  2. EA-1694: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for the Cellulosic Ethanol Facility in Highlands County, Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to issue a Federal loan guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for a cellulosic ethanol facility in Highlands County, Florida. This EA is on hold.

  3. Graphitized-carbon fiber/carbon char fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovery of intact graphitic fibers from fiber/polymer composites is described. The method comprises first pyrolyzing the graphite fiber/polymer composite mixture and then separating the graphite fibers by molten salt electrochemical oxidation.

  4. advanced sic fiber: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Photonic Crystal Fibers Advances in Fiber Optics Physics Websites Summary: Photonic Crystal Fibers Advances in Fiber Optics Elliott L....

  5. Cellulose and psyllium supplementation in 10 females: the effect on food intake and in vitro fermentation variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haynes, Susan Renee

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CELLULOSE AND PSYLLIUM SUPPLEMENTATION IN 10 FEMALES: THE EFFECT ON FOOD INTAKE AND IN VITRO FERMENTATION VARIABLES A Thesis by SUSAN RENEE HAYNES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER QF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Nutrition CELLULOSE AND PSYLLIUM SUPPLEMENTATION IN 10 FEMAI ES: THE EFFECT ON FOOD INTAKE AND IN VITRO FERMENTATION VARIABLES A Thesis by SUSAN RENEE HAYNES Approved...

  6. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Wagner

    2002-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work to develop CFCC's for various applications in the Industries of the Future (IOF) and power generation areas. Performance requirements range from relatively modest for hot gas filters to severe for turbine combustor liners and infrared burners. The McDermott Technology Inc. (MTI) CFCC program focused on oxide/oxide composite systems because they are known to be stable in the application environments of interest. The work is broadly focused on dense and porous composite systems depending on the specific application. Dense composites were targeted at corrosion resistant components, molten aluminum handling components and gas turbine combustor liners. The development work on dense composites led to significant advances in fiber coatings for oxide fibers and matrix densification. Additionally, a one-step fabrication process was developed to produce low cost composite components. The program also supported key developments in advanced oxide fibers that resulted in an improved version of Nextel 610 fiber (commercially available as Nextel 650) and significant progress in the development of a YAG/alumina fiber. Porous composite development focused on the vacuum winding process used to produce hot gas filters and infrared burner components.

  7. Inheritance of cotton fiber length and distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braden, Chris Alan

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiber quality data from five upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes, which were grown at College Station, TX during 2001 and 2002, were subjected to diallel and generation means analyses to determine the potential for improvement of fiber...

  8. Breakthrough: Better Fiber for Better Products

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Griffith, George; Garnier, John;

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have developed a cost-effective method for the continuous production of alpha silicon carbide fiber. The exceptionally strong, lightweight fiber could enable significant performance improvements in many everyday products.

  9. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantaged Jet Fuel Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-Desert SouthwestofDepartmentCellulosic Biomass

  10. Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization- maintaining photonic crystal other engineering applications. Compared with conventional torsion sensors, the fiber optic torsion sensors have the distinct advantages of all-fiber-optical sensing. The fiber optic torsion sensors based

  11. Interferometric fiber-optic bending/nano-displacement sensor using plastic dual-core fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    Interferometric fiber-optic bending/nano-displacement sensor using plastic dual-core fiber H. Qu,1); published August 13, 2014 We demonstrate an interferometric fiber-optic bending/nano-displacement sensor for sensing the displacement. © 2014 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2370) Fiber optics sensors

  12. Integration of Feedstock Assembly System and Cellulosic Ethanol Conversion Models to Analyze Bioenergy System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared M. Abodeely; Douglas S. McCorkle; Kenneth M. Bryden; David J. Muth; Daniel Wendt; Kevin Kenney

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research barriers continue to exist in all phases of the emerging cellulosic ethanol biorefining industry. These barriers include the identification and development of a sustainable and abundant biomass feedstock, the assembly of viable assembly systems formatting the feedstock and moving it from the field (e.g., the forest) to the biorefinery, and improving conversion technologies. Each of these phases of cellulosic ethanol production are fundamentally connected, but computational tools used to support and inform analysis within each phase remain largely disparate. This paper discusses the integration of a feedstock assembly system modeling toolkit and an Aspen Plus® conversion process model. Many important biomass feedstock characteristics, such as composition, moisture, particle size and distribution, ash content, etc. are impacted and most effectively managed within the assembly system, but generally come at an economic cost. This integration of the assembly system and the conversion process modeling tools will facilitate a seamless investigation of the assembly system conversion process interface. Through the integrated framework, the user can design the assembly system for a particular biorefinery by specifying location, feedstock, equipment, and unit operation specifications. The assembly system modeling toolkit then provides economic valuation, and detailed biomass feedstock composition and formatting information. This data is seamlessly and dynamically used to run the Aspen Plus® conversion process model. The model can then be used to investigate the design of systems for cellulosic ethanol production from field to final product.

  13. Applications of fiber optics in physical protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckle, T.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this NUREG is to provide technical information useful for the development of fiber-optic communications and intrusion detection subsystems relevant to physical protection. There are major sections on fiber-optic technology and applications. Other topics include fiber-optic system components and systems engineering. This document also contains a glossary, a list of standards and specifications, and a list of fiber-optic equipment vendors.

  14. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  15. Fiber-optic displacement sensor system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cava, Norayda Nora

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Light pulses from a light emitting diode (LED) were coupled into a multimode fiber. The displacement of a mirror positioned near the end of the fiber was measured by monitoring the amplitude of the reflected pulses. A reference reflection from a... emitting diode (LED) were coupled into a multimode fiber. The displacement of a mirror positioned near the end of the fiber was measured by monitoring the amplitude...

  16. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  17. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  18. Assessing Deterioration of ADSS Fiber Optic Cables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing Deterioration of ADSS Fiber Optic Cables Due to Corona Discharge Final Project Report of ADSS Fiber Optic Cables Due to Corona Discharge Final Project Report George G. Karady, Project Leader-Supporting) fiber optic cables installed on high voltage lines. The high electric field on those lines generates

  19. Officials launch Carbon Fiber Technology Facility, announce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    to reduce carbon fiber's high cost, Danielson noted: "Many of these new clean energy technologies are withinSCIENCE Officials launch Carbon Fiber Technology Facility, announce new manufacturing initiative and a large crowd of local business and civic leaders came to the Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF

  20. Development of 500-kV AC cable employing laminar insulation of other than conventional cellulosic paper. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahder, G.; Eager, G.S. Jr.; Walker, J.J.; Dima, A.F.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of an investigation to develop a 500 kV ac laminar dielectric power cable and joint having insulation with lower losses than conventional cellulosic paper insulation are presented. Background information is presented on proposed low-loss synthetic and composite synthetic/cellulosic paper insulations. From these studies, fibrous polypropylene paper tape and cellulosic paper-polypropylene film-cellulosic paper composite paper (PPP) were chosen. Extensive testing of hand-wrapped cable models fabricated with each type of tape served to eliminate the fibrous polypropylene paper tape from further consideration. Cable model tests indicate that the PPP tape is satisfactory for insulation in 500 kV ac cable, and that oil impregnants now used in conventional cellulosic paper insulated cables are unsuitable, but that silicone oil with an additive is satisfactory for PPP tapes. Laboratory data indicate that it may be necessary with the PPP tapes to use a significantly lower viscosity impregnating oil which has a greater tendency to drain from pipe-type cables than conventional oil. This may require a modification of the moisture seal. Four final pipe-type cables having a conventional moisture seal were manufactured for possible future field testing. The dielectric loss of the final cables is one-fifth that of conventional cellulosic paper insulated cables. The estimated installed cost per MVA-mile of the PPP insulated cable, neglecting losses, is higher than cellulosic insulated cables impregnated with conventional mineral oil. However, the capacitance of the cable insulated with PPP tape is 25% lower than conventional cable, and therefore, the reactance necessary to compensate for the cable charging current is significantly reduced.

  1. Fiber-type dosimeter with improved illuminator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.J.

    1985-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-piece, molded plastic, Cassigrainian-type condenser arrangement is incorporated in a tubular-shaped personal pocket dosimeter of the type which combines an ionization chamber with an optically-read fiber electrometer to provide improved illumination of the electrometer fiber. The condenser routes incoming light from one end of the dosimeter tubular housing around a central axis charging pin assembly and focuses the light at low angles to the axis so that it falls within the acceptance angle of the electrometer fiber objective lens viewed through an eyepiece lens disposed in the opposite end of the dosimeter. This results in improved fiber illumination and fiber image contrast.

  2. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  3. Optical fiber sensors for harsh environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Juncheng; Wang, Anbo

    2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A diaphragm optic sensor comprises a ferrule including a bore having an optical fiber disposed therein and a diaphragm attached to the ferrule, the diaphragm being spaced apart from the ferrule to form a Fabry-Perot cavity. The cavity is formed by creating a pit in the ferrule or in the diaphragm. The components of the sensor are preferably welded together, preferably by laser welding. In some embodiments, the entire ferrule is bonded to the fiber along the entire length of the fiber within the ferrule; in other embodiments, only a portion of the ferrule is welded to the fiber. A partial vacuum is preferably formed in the pit. A small piece of optical fiber with a coefficient of thermal expansion chosen to compensate for mismatches between the main fiber and ferrule may be spliced to the end of the fiber.

  4. A pilot plant scale reactor/separator for ethanol from cellulosics. ERIP/DOE quarterly report no. 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, M.C.; Moelhman, M.; Butters, R.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a continuous, low energy process for the conversion of cellulosics to ethanol. This process involves a pretreatment step followed by enzymatic release of sugars and the consecutive simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) of cellulose (glucans) followed by hemi-cellulose (pentosans) in a multi-stage continuous stirred reactor separator (CSRS). During quarters 3 and 4, we have completed a literature survey on cellulase production, activated one strain of Trichoderma reesei. We continued developing our proprietary Steep Delignification (SD) process for biomass pretreatment. Some problems with fermentations were traces to bad cellulase enzyme. Using commercial cellulase enzymes from Solvay & Genecor, SSF experiments with wheat straw showed 41 g/L ethanol and free xylose of 20 g/L after completion of the fermentation. From corn stover, we noted 36 g/L ethanol production from the cellulose fraction of the biomass, and 4 g/L free xylose at the completion of the SSF. We also began some work with paper mill sludge as a cellulose source, and in some preliminary experiments obtained 23 g/L ethanol during SSF of the sludge. During year 2, a 130 L process scale unit will be operated to demonstrate the process using straw or cornstalks. Co-sponsors of this project include the Indiana Biomass Grants Program, Bio-Process Innovation.

  5. Breaking the Biological barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A robust fusion of the agricultural, industrial biotechnology, and energy industries can create a new strategic national capability for energy independence and climate protection. In his State of the Union Address (Bush 2006), President George W. Bush outlined the Advanced Energy Initiative, which seeks to reduce our national dependence on imported oil by accelerating the development of domestic, renewable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels. The president has set a national goal of developing cleaner, cheaper, and more reliable alternative energy sources to substantially replace oil imports in the coming years. Fuels derived from cellulosic biomass - the fibrous, woody, and generally inedible portions of plant matter - offer one such alternative to conventional energy sources that can dramatically impact national economic growth, national energy security, and environmental goals. Cellulosic biomass is an attractive energy feedstock because it is an abundant, domestic, renewable source that can be converted to liquid transportation fuels. These fuels can be used readily by current-generation vehicles and distributed through the existing transportation-fuel infrastructure. The Biomass to Biofuels Workshop, held December 7-9, 2005, was convened by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science; and the Office of the Biomass Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The purpose was to define barriers and challenges to a rapid expansion of cellulosic-ethanol production and determine ways to speed solutions through concerted application of modern biology tools as part of a joint research agenda. Although the focus was ethanol, the science applies to additional fuels that include biodiesel and other bioproducts or coproducts having critical roles in any deployment scheme. The core barrier is cellulosic-biomass recalcitrance to processing to ethanol. Biomass is composed of nature's most ready energy source, sugars, but they are locked in a complex polymer composite exquisitely created to resist biological and chemical degradation. Key to energizing a new biofuel industry based on conversion of cellulose (and hemicelluloses) to ethanol is to understand plant cell-wall chemical and physical structures - how they are synthesized and can be deconstructed. With this knowledge, innovative energy crops - plants specifically designed for industrial processing to biofuel - can be developed concurrently with new biology-based treatment and conversion methods. Recent advances in science and technological capabilities, especially those from the nascent discipline of systems biology, promise to accelerate and enhance this development. Resulting technologies will create a fundamentally new process and biorefinery paradigm that will enable an efficient and economic industry for converting plant biomass to liquid fuels. These key barriers and suggested research strategies to address them are described in this report. As technologies mature for accomplishing this task, the technical strategy proceeds through three phases: In the research phase, within 5 years, an understanding of existing feedstocks must be gained to devise sustainable, effective, and economical methods for their harvest, deconstruction, and conversion to ethanol. Research is centered on enzymatic breakdown of cellulosic biomass to component 5- and 6-carbon sugars and lignin, using a combination of thermochemical and biological processes, followed by cofermentation of sugars to specified endproducts such as ethanol. Processes will be integrated and consolidated to reduce costs, improve efficacy, reduce generation of and sensitivity to inhibitors, and improve overall yields and viability in biorefinery environments. The technology deployment phase, within 10 years, will include creation of a new generation of energy crops with enhanced sustainability, yield, and composition, coupled with processes for simultaneous breakdown of biomass to sugars and cofermentation of sugars via new biological system

  6. Biotemplated Synthesis of Gold NanoparticleBacteria Cellulose Nanofiber Nanocomposites and Their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Limin

    produced by acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter xylinum using D-glucose as the carbon source, which usually of sisal fibers by in situ fermentation and obtained a new class of completely renewable and biodegradable

  7. A Model for Fiber Length Attrition in Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TuckerIII, Charles L. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Phelps, Jay H [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; El-Rahman, Ahmed Abd [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-fiber thermoplastic (LFT) composites consist of an engineering thermoplastic matrix with glass or carbon reinforcing fibers that are initially 10 to 13 mm long. When an LFT is injection molded, flow during mold filling orients the fibers and degrades the fiber length. Fiber orientation models for injection molding are well developed, and special orientation models for LFTs have been developed. Here we present a detailed quantitative model for fiber length attrition in a flowing fiber suspension. The model tracks a discrete fiber length distribution (FLD) at each spatial node. Key equations are a conservation equation for total fiber length, and a breakage rate equation. The breakage rate is based on buckling of fibers due to hydrodynamic forces, when the fibers are in unfavorable orientations. The FLD model is combined with a mold filling simulation to predict spatial and temporal variations in fiber length distribution in a mold cavity during filling. The predictions compare well to experiments on a glassfiber/ PP LFT molding. Fiber length distributions predicted by the model are easily incorporated into micromechanics models to predict the stress-strain behavior of molded LFT materials. Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; electronic mail: ctucker@illinois.edu 1

  8. Compositions for enhancing hydroysis of cellulosic material by cellulolytic enzyme compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and an organic compound comprising a carboxylic acid moiety, a lactone moiety, a phenolic moiety, a flavonoid moiety, or a combination thereof, wherein the combination of the GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and the organic compound enhances hydrolysis of a cellulosic material by a cellulolytic enzyme compared to the GH61 polypeptide alone or the organic compound alone. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  9. Experimental study of the effect of sodium carbonate on the conversion of cellulose to oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Siu-Hung

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    monoxide , vater, methanol, phenols, carboxylic acids and a bitumen vere for~ed. The bitumen was further hydrogenated to form a syncrude which when fractionated yields qasoline, middle oils and heavier oils . Berl and Schmidt (8, 9) reported...EXPEBIEFNTAL STUDY OF IHZ ZFFZCT OF SODIUH CARHONATZ ON THE CONVERSION OF CELLULOSE 1G OIL A Thesis SIU-HUNG CHU Submitted to the Graduate Colleqe of Texas A 6 N University in partial fuifi llment of the requirement for the deqree of BASTZH...

  10. Less is more: Novel cellulose structure requires fewer enzymes to process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest Newsbiomass to fuel Cellulose requires fewer

  11. Less is more: Novel cellulose structure requires fewer enzymes to process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest Newsbiomass to fuel Cellulose requires

  12. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, J.

    1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.

  13. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, John (M.I.T. P.O. Box 397301, Cambridge, MA 02139)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  14. ON THE GAGE FACTOR FOR OPTICAL FIBER GRATING STRAIN GAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong-Lae

    ON THE GAGE FACTOR FOR OPTICAL FIBER GRATING STRAIN GAGES Richard J. Black1 , David Zare1 , Levy Oblea1 , Yong-Lae Park1 , Behzad Moslehi1 , and Craig Neslen2 1 Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems of grating and fiber types. KEY WORDS: Fiber-Optic Gratings, Fiber-Optic Sensors, Strain Gage Factor 1

  15. Impact of cellulose ethers on the cement paste microstructure J. Pourchez*, P. Grosseau*, E. Rouche-Pourchez*, J. Debayle*, J.C. Pinoli*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Impact of cellulose ethers on the cement paste microstructure J. Pourchez*, P. Grosseau*, E to examine the effects of cellulose ethers on the cement paste microstructure. The obtained results show, the content of air volume and the stabilisation of the porosity from the fresh cement paste to the hardened

  16. Rugged fiber optic probe for raman measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Toole, Jr., William R. (Aiken, SC); Nave, Stanley E. (Evans, GA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical probe for conducting light scattering analysis is disclosed. The probe comprises a hollow housing and a probe tip. A fiber assembly made up of a transmitting fiber and a receiving bundle is inserted in the tip. A filter assembly is inserted in the housing and connected to the fiber assembly. A signal line from the light source and to the spectrometer also is connected to the filter assembly and communicates with the fiber assembly. By using a spring-loaded assembly to hold the fiber connectors together with the in-line filters, complex and sensitive alignment procedures are avoided. The close proximity of the filter assembly to the probe tip eliminates or minimizes self-scattering generated by the optical fiber. Also, because the probe can contact the sample directly, sensitive optics can be eliminated.

  17. ROOM TEMPERATURE STRENGTH DEGRADATION OF OPTICAL FIBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    temperatures. 6 :4 Aging Time (s) Fig. 2. Residual strength of fiber B after aging in deionized water. Aging Time (s) Fig. 4. Data of Griffioen3 for residual strength (strain to failure) of fiber aged in water. 1) Fig. 1 . Residual strength of fiber A after aging in distilled water. io 10 i0 106 io 108 1.0 0.9 0 (0

  18. Programmable optic-fiber delay line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Shin-Puu

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Motion of coupled pendula . 4. Circuit schematic of temperature control 5. Basic configuration of electric arc fusion splicer . . . 6. The arrangement of heater 7. The output optical power from one port versus the temperature of the heater 8... ( stripping tool ) and chemical stripping ( acetone or methylene chloride ) technique can be used to remove the protective polymer fiber coating. A commercial Fujikura ct-40 fiber cleaver used skillfully can produce an end surface suitable for fiber fusion...

  19. Fiber-optic displacement sensor system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cava, Norayda Nora

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 54 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The implementation of fiber optics in sensor systems is not a new idea; its popularity has steadily increased through the years. Although technological advances have much to do with this, certain characteristic.... The microbending scheme for displacement measurements [10], [11] takes advantage of the fact that when optical fibers are bent at sharp angles, energy will escape through the bent fiber walls. Maximum sensitivity for this scheme is achieved by minimizing...

  20. Fiber optic temperature sensor using a grating on an angled fiber tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadarajan, Harini

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHAPTER Page 2. Spinning the Photo Resist. 20 3. Laser Exposure 21 4. Photo Resist Developing. . . . 25 5. Etching the Fiber. 26 B. Testing 29 1. Test Setup. 2. Test Results 29 30 V CONCLUSIONS. . 40 VI RECOMMENDED FUTURE RESEARCH . . 41.... Reusable Polishing Puck. . 14 . 17 11. Fibers in the Polishing Puck. 12. Polish Pad Surfaces. 13. Profile of Polished Fibers. 14. Photograph of Polished Fibers on Metal Puck 18 19 . 19 . 20 15. Argon Laser Setup. 22 16. Laser Setup Details. 23...

  1. The Influences of Fiber Feature and Polymer Melt Index on Mechanical Properties of Sugarcane Fiber/Polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Influences of Fiber Feature and Polymer Melt Index on Mechanical Properties of Sugarcane Fiber/Polymer.interscience.wiley.com). ABSTRACT: The fiber characteristics (i.e., the fiber type, morphology, and dimension) and polymer melt flow sugarcane fiber/polymer composites, the HDPE resins with a low MFI value presented high tensile and impact

  2. Natural Fiber Composites: Retting, Preform Manufacture & Molding...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. lm12smith.pdf More Documents & Publications Natural Fiber Composites: Retting, Preform...

  3. Compound droplet manipulations on fiber arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weyer, Floriane; Dreesen, Laurent; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent works demonstrated that fiber arrays may constitue the basis of an open digital microfluidics. Various processes, such as droplet motion, fragmentation, trapping, release, mixing and encapsulation, may be achieved on fiber arrays. However, handling a large number of tiny droplets resulting from the mixing of several liquid components is still a challenge for developing microreactors, smart sensors or microemulsifying drugs. Here, we show that the manipulation of tiny droplets onto fiber networks allows for creating compound droplets with a high complexity level. Moreover, this cost-effective and flexible method may also be implemented with optical fibers in order to develop fluorescence-based biosensor.

  4. Natural Fiber Composites: Retting, Preform Manufacture & Molding...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08smith3.pdf More Documents & Publications Natural Fiber Composites: Retting, Preform...

  5. Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Presentationname Questions for Today Materials How can the cost of carbon fiber suitable for higher performance applications (H 2 Storage) be developed? H 2...

  6. Efficiency of pump absorption in double-clad fiber amplifiers. I. Fiber with circular symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouznetsov, Dmitrii

    Efficiency of pump absorption in double-clad fiber amplifiers. I. Fiber with circular symmetry with an absorbing core is treated as a model for pump absorption in a double-clad optical fiber amplifier. Mode the pump absorption and is analyzed in the speckle-mode approximation for the example of a Kerr

  7. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, Dan

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  8. Vertical Integration of Biomass Saccharification of Enzymes for Sustainable Cellulosic Biofuel Production in a Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  9. Integrated cellulosic enzymes hydrolysis and fermentative advanced yeast bioconversion solution ready for biomass biorefineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  10. Low-coherent WDM reflectometry for accurate fiber length monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui, Rongqing; Thomas, J.; Allen, Christopher Thomas; Fu, B.; Gao, S.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber-optic low-coherent reflectometer was developed to accurately monitor fiber length variation. A large length-coverage range was obtained by using a fiber Bragg grating array in a wavelength-division-multiplexing ...

  11. auxiliary optical fiber: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Fiber receptacle Collection optics Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Fiber receptacle ...

  12. acontinuous fiber optic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Fiber receptacle Collection optics Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Fiber receptacle ...

  13. absolute fiber optic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M 2014-01-01 2 Fiber receptacle Collection optics Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Fiber receptacle ...

  14. advanced fiber composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    next (more) Chen, Zheyi 2008-01-01 6 Multilayer composite photonic bandgap fibers ; Composite photonic bandgap fiber materials and fabrication . Open Access Theses and...

  15. alcohol fiber reinforced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AND SHM OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER PART I : IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS-performance composite materials based on carbon fiber are increasingly used in critical security areas...

  16. Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing - RFI Part 2...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1056 More Documents & Publications Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing Workshop Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing - RFI DE-FOA-0000980: Summary of...

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Low-Cost Carbon Fiber | Proposal Guidelines Proposal Guidelines Proposals should be no more than 5 single spaced...

  18. Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report This report outlines the final...

  19. Fiber optic probe having fibers with endfaces formed for improved coupling efficiency and method using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O`Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.

    1995-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic probe is disclosed for detecting scattered light, with transmitting and receiving fibers having slanted ends and bundled together to form a bevel within the tip of the probe. The probe comprises a housing with a transparent window across its tip for protecting the transmitting and receiving fibers held therein. The endfaces of the fibers are slanted, by cutting, polishing and the like, so that they lie in a plane that is not perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the respective fiber. The fibers are held in the tip of the probe using an epoxy and oriented so that lines normal to the slanted endfaces are divergent with respect to one another. The epoxy, which is positioned substantially between the transmitting and receiving fibers, is tapered so that the transmitting fiber, the epoxy and the receiving fiber form a bevel of not more than 20 degrees. The angled fiber endfaces cause directing of the light cones toward each other, resulting in improved light coupling efficiency. A light absorber, such as carbon black, is contained in the epoxy to reduce crosstalk between the transmitting and receiving fibers. 3 figures.

  20. Fuel Etanol from Cellulosic Biomass LEE R. LYND, JANET H. CusHmAN, ROBERTA J. NICHOLS, CHARLES E. WYMAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    in the United States, petroleum supplies the largest share of total energy used and has the highest fraction, global climate change, bal- ance oftrade, and energy security. Energy balance, feed- stock supply corn and other starch- rich grains in the United States, ethanol also can be made from cellulosic

  1. How biomass is born: understanding cellulose synthesis for second generation Nadav Sorek, Energy Biosciences Institute, UC Berkeley, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamir, Ron

    How biomass is born: understanding cellulose synthesis for second generation biofuels Nadav Sorek, Energy Biosciences Institute, UC Berkeley, USA Lignocellulosic biofuels, also known as second generation understand this process. In the second part I will cover the basic process of second generation biofuel

  2. Fiber-optic voltage sensor with cladded fiber and evanescent wave variation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, C.B.

    1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic voltage sensor is described which includes a source of light, a reference fiber for receiving a known percentage of the light and an electrostrictive element having terminals across which is applied, a voltage to be measured. The electrostrictive element is responsive to the applied voltage to assume an altered physical state. A measuring fiber also receives a known percentage of light from the light source and is secured about the electrostrictive element. The measuring fiber is provided with a cladding and exhibits an evanescent wave in the cladding. The measuring fiber has a known length which is altered when the electrostrictive element assumes its altered physical state. A differential sensor is provided which senses the intensity of light in both the reference fiber and the measuring fiber and provides an output indicative of the difference between the intensities. 3 figs.

  3. Fiber-optic voltage sensor with cladded fiber and evanescent wave variation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Charles B. (Lakewood, CO)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic voltage sensor is described which includes a source of light, a reference fiber for receiving a known percentage of the light and an electrostrictive element having terminals across which is applied, a voltage to be measured. The electrostrictive element is responsive to the applied voltage to assume an altered physical state. A measuring fiber also receives a known percentage of light from the light source and is secured about the electrostrictive element. The measuring fiber is provided with a cladding and exhibits an evanescent wave in the cladding. The measuring fiber has a known length which is altered when the electrostrictive element assumes its altered physical state. A differential sensor is provided which senses the intensity of light in both the reference fiber and the measuring fiber and provides an output indicative of the difference between the intensities.

  4. Microbend fiber-optic temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature sensor is made of optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. In particular, the present invention includes a graded-index optical fiber directing steady light through a section of the optical fiber containing a plurality of permanent microbends. The microbend section of the optical fiber is contained in a thermally expansive sheath, attached to a thermally expansive structure, or attached to a bimetallic element undergoing temperature changes and being monitored. The microbend section is secured to the thermally expansive sheath which allows the amplitude of the microbends to decrease with temperature. The resultant increase in the optical fiber`s transmission thus allows temperature to be measured. The plural microbend section of the optical fiber is secured to the thermally expansive structure only at its ends and the microbends themselves are completely unconstrained laterally by any bonding agent to obtain maximum longitudinal temperature sensitivity. Although the permanent microbends reduce the transmission capabilities of fiber optics, the present invention utilizes this phenomenon as a transduction mechanism which is optimized to measure temperature. 5 figs.

  5. Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings J. L. Armstrong, M. J. Matthewson and C. R for measuring the diffusion coefficients of water vapor through optical fiber polymer coatings has been. Kurkjian #12;732 International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1998 Moisture Penetration Through Optical

  6. TRS-Fiber Optic Classifier Sensor Installation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    TRS-Fiber Optic Classifier Sensor Installation The sensor that the Traffic Recording System (TRS) uses is the Flexsense Portable Fiberoptic Sensor System by Optical Sensor Systems. This includes two is undetected by the TRS. The user must make sure that the sensors do not get bent or twisted or the fiber optic

  7. The transport properties of activated carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    di Vittorio, S.L. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Dresselhaus, M.S. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Endo, M. (Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Issi, J-P.; Piraux, L.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport properties of activated isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers with surface area 1000 m{sup 2}/g have been investigated. We report preliminary results on the electrical conductivity, the magnetoresistance, the thermal conductivity and the thermopower of these fibers as a function of temperature. Comparisons are made to transport properties of other disordered carbons. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN); Yarborough, Kenneth D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

  9. Solar light transmission of polymer optical fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tekelioglu, Murat [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Wood, Byard D. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Light transfer (10 m) has been shown in recent experiments that used large-core optical fibers. Theoretical models are not extensive, however, and a further correlation between the theory and experiments has not been given. In this paper, straight and bent fiber subsystem models are introduced with skew and meridional rays to predict the light transmission of POFs (plastic optical fibers). Such fibers have been realized, for example, in HSL (hybrid solar lighting) systems. The purpose of this paper is to combine the straight and bent fiber subsystems to estimate the light transmission of HSL systems. It is shown that meridional rays, for which the optical-loss parameters were estimated, better represent the experimental results compared to skew rays ({+-}5.3% vs {+-}24.7% of %-difference). Model predictions were compared with the results of a commercial software. Sensitivity analysis on the subsystems indicated the most-to-least significant parameters in light transmission. (author)

  10. Remotely readable fiber optic compass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Garrett, Steven L. (Pebble Beach, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remotely readable fiber optic compass. A sheet polarizer is affixed to a magnet rotatably mounted in a compass body, such that the polarizer rotates with the magnet. The optical axis of the sheet polarizer is preferably aligned with the north-south axis of the magnet. A single excitation light beam is divided into four identical beams, two of which are passed through the sheet polarizer and through two fixed polarizing sheets which have their optical axes at right angles to one another. The angle of the compass magnet with respect to a fixed axis of the compass body can be determined by measuring the ratio of the intensities of the two light beams. The remaining ambiguity as to which of the four possible quadrants the magnet is pointing to is resolved by the second pair of light beams, which are passed through the sheet polarizer at positions which are transected by two semicircular opaque strips formed on the sheet polarizer. The incoming excitation beam and the four return beams are communicated by means of optical fibers, giving a remotely readable compass which has no electrical parts.

  11. Remotely readable fiber optic compass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.; Garrett, S.L.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A remotely readable fiber optic compass. A sheet polarizer is affixed to a magnet rotatably mounted in a compass body, such that the polarizer rotates with the magnet. The optical axis of the sheet polarizer is preferably aligned with the north-south axis of the magnet. A single excitation light beam is divided into four identical beams, two of which are passed through the sheet polarizer and through two fixed polarizing sheets which have their optical axes at right angles to one another. The angle of the compass magnet with respect to a fixed axis of the compass body can be determined by measuring the ratio of the intensities of the two light beams. The remaining ambiguity as to which of the four possible quadrants the magnet is pointing to is resolved by the second pair of light beams, which are passed through the sheet polarizer at positions which are transected by two semicircular opaque strips formed on the sheet polarizer. The incoming excitation beam and the four return beams are communicated by means of optical fibers, giving a remotely readable compass which has no electrical parts.

  12. Method for preparing polyaniline fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline. In order to process high quality fibers and other articles possessing good mechanical properties, it is known that solution concentrations of the chosen polymer should be in the range from 15-30% (w/w). Moreover, it is desirable to use the highest molecular weight consistent with the solubility properties of the polymer. However, such solutions are inherently unstable, forming gels before processing can be achieved. The present invention describes the addition gel inhibitors (GIs) to the polymer solution, thereby permitting high concentrations (>15% (w/w)) of high molecular weight ((M.sub.w)>120,000, and (M.sub.n)>30,000) emeraldine base (EB) polyaniline to be dissolved. Secondary amines have been used for this purpose in concentrations which are small compared to those which might otherwise be used in a cosolvent role therefor. The resulting solutions are useful for generating excellent fibers, films, coatings and other objects, since the solutions are stable for significant time periods, and the GIs are present in too small concentrations to cause polymer deterioration. It is demonstrated that the GIs found to be useful do not act as cosolvents, and that gelation times of the solutions are directly proportional to the concentration of GI. In particular, there is a preferred concentration of GI, which if exceeded causes structural and electrical conductivity degradation of resulting articles. Heating of the solutions significantly improves solubility.

  13. Potential of nanocrystalline cellulose-fibrin nanocomposites for artificial vascular graft applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Elvie; Hu, Dehong; Abu-Lail, Nehal; Zhang, Xiao

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocrystalline cellulose, a new bio-nanomaterial is utilized as a reinforcing material for biocompatible fibrin matrix to form into a nanocomposite for small-diameter replacement vascular graft application (SDRVG). The periodate oxidation of NCC, which provided it with a reactive carbonyl group, allowed molecular interaction between NCC and fibrin. Such interaction resulted into an effective mechanical reinforcement indicated by the improvement of max. force, elongation at break and modulus when oxidized NCC (ONCC) was incorporated into fibrin. The nanocomposite’s mechanical properties can be manipulated to conform to the native blood vessel by varying the ONCC to fibrin ratio and/or by controlling the degree of oxidation of NCC. Using atomic force microscopy had provided fundamental information on the effects of molecular interactions to the nanolevel mechanical properties of NCC/fibrin nanocomposites. This fundamental information established the positive feasibility and commenced continuing investigation for the practical SDRVG application of NCC/fibrin nanocomposite.

  14. Microbend fiber-optic temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature sensor is made of optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. In particular, the present invention includes a graded-index optical fiber directing steady light through a section of the optical fiber containing a plurality of permanent microbends. The microbend section of the optical fiber is contained in a thermally expansive sheath, attached to a thermally expansive structure, or attached to a bimetallic element undergoing temperature changes and being monitored. The microbend section is secured to the thermally expansive sheath which allows the amplitude of the microbends to decrease with temperature. The resultant increase in the optical fiber's transmission thus allows temperature to be measured. The plural microbend section of the optical fiber is secured to the thermally expansive structure only at its ends and the microbends themselves are completely unconstrained laterally by any bonding agent to obtain maximum longitudinal temperature sensitivity. Although the permanent microbends reduce the transmission capabilities of fiber optics, the present invention utilizes this phenomenon as a transduction mechanism which is optimized to measure temperature.

  15. 2 micron femtosecond fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jian; Wan, Peng; Yang, Lihmei

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for generating femtosecond fiber laser pulses are disclose, including generating a signal laser pulse from a seed laser oscillator; using a first amplifier stage comprising an input and an output, wherein the signal laser pulse is coupled into the input of the first stage amplifier and the output of the first amplifier stage emits an amplified and stretched signal laser pulse; using an amplifier chain comprising an input and an output, wherein the amplified and stretched signal laser pulse from the output of the first amplifier stage is coupled into the input of the amplifier chain and the output of the amplifier chain emits a further amplified, stretched signal laser pulse. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  16. Fiber optic D dimer biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, R.S.; Grant, S.A.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic sensor for D dimer (a fibrinolytic product) can be used in vivo (e.g., in catheter-based procedures) for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. It has been estimated that strokes and stroke-related disorders cost Americans between $15-30 billion annually. Relatively recently, new medical procedures have been developed for the treatment of stroke. These endovascular procedures rely upon the use of microcatheters. These procedures could be facilitated with this sensor for D dimer integrated with a microcatheter for the diagnosis of clot type, and as an indicator of the effectiveness, or end-point of thrombolytic therapy. 4 figs.

  17. Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT).

  18. Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system for monitoring long perimeters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juarez, Juan C.

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Perturbation ........................ 17 G. Frequency Drift Measurement................................................................... 19 III ERBIUM DOPED FIBER LASER CHARACTERIZATION........................ 22 A. Er:Fiber Laser... .................................................................................................... 22 12. Experimental setup for fiber laser used in the intrusion sensor system ............. 24 13. Spectral linewidth scan of Erbium doped fiber laser ......................................... 24 14. Delayed self-heterodyne test setup...

  19. Compact, stable 1 ghz femtosecond er-doped fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byun, Hyunil

    We demonstrate a high-repetition-rate soliton fiber laser that is based on highly-doped anomalously-dispersive erbium-doped fiber. By splicing an 11-mm single mode fiber to the erbium-doped fiber, thermal damage of the ...

  20. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  1. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  2. Microbend fiber-optic chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microbend fiber-optic chemical sensor for detecting chemicals in a sample, and a method for its use, is disclosed. The sensor comprises at least one optical fiber having a microbend section (a section of small undulations in its axis), for transmitting and receiving light. In transmission, light guided through the microbend section scatters out of the fiber core and interacts, either directly or indirectly, with the chemical in the sample, inducing fluorescence radiation. Fluorescence radiation is scattered back into the microbend section and returned to an optical detector for determining characteristics of the fluorescence radiation quantifying the presence of a specific chemical.

  3. Characterization of Fiber Optic CMM Probe System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.W.Swallow

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a study completed on the fiber optic probe system that is a part of the Werth optical CMM. This study was necessary due to a lack of documentation from the vendor for the proper use and calibration of the fiber probe, and was performed in support of the Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) development program at the FM&T. As a result of this study, a better understanding of the fiber optic probe has been developed, including guidelines for its proper use and calibration.

  4. Dynamics of flexible fibers in shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnieszka M. Slowicka; Eligiusz Wajnryb; Maria L. Ekiel-Jezewska

    2015-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamics of flexible non-Brownian fibers in shear flow at low-Reynolds-number are analyzed numerically for a wide range of the ratios A of the fiber bending force to the viscous drag force. Initially, the fibers are aligned with the flow, and later they move in the plane perpendicular to the flow vorticity. A surprisingly rich spectrum of different modes is observed when the value of A is systematically changed, with sharp transitions between coiled and straightening out modes, period-doubling bifurcations from periodic to migrating solutions, irregular dynamics and chaos.

  5. Oxidation induced stress-rupture of fiber bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Curzio, E.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of oxidation on the stress-rupture behavior of fiber bundles was modeled. It is shown that oxidation-induced fiber strength degradation results in the delayed failure of the associated fiber bundle and that the fiber bundle strength decreases with time as t{sup {minus}1/4}. It is also shown that the temperature dependence of the bundle loss of strength reflects the thermal dependence of the mechanism controlling the oxidation of the fibers. The effect of gauge length on the fiber bundle strength was also analyzed. Numerical examples are presented for the special case of Nicalon{trademark} fibers.

  6. Introduction The Fiber-Lite MI-150 is a 150 Watt quartz halogen fiber optic illuminator designed for general microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    Introduction ® The Fiber-Lite MI-150 is a 150 Watt quartz halogen fiber optic illuminator designed for general microscopy use. When used with specialty fiber optic cables the MI-150 illuminator can also Illuminator from the carton and retain the manual and any additional documents. ! Remove the fiber optic cable

  7. The effects of fiber waviness on the compressive response of fiber reinforced composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, John Jerome

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equation (5) yields an expression for the fiber strain energy: Uf =EftfL [Z + ? Z( ? ) (A + 2AA ) t L + ? ( ? ) (A+4AA+4AA )]+ ( ? ) A (21) Matrix Dlsplacements The matrix displacements are determined in terms of the fiber displacements. The bending... on the lower sur- face of the fiber and uf?corresponds to the displacement on the upper surface of the fiber. These are also shown in Figure 5. The mathematical expressions for these quantities are given by: XX ufu = u (x, tr) = ? tf A ? cos (24) uti = u...

  8. Optical fiber pressure and acceleration sensor fabricated on a fiber endface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yizheng; Wang, Xingwei; Xu, Juncheng; Wang, Anbo

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic sensor has a hollow tube bonded to the endface of an optical fiber, and a diaphragm bonded to the hollow tube. The fiber endface and diaphragm comprise an etalon cavity. The length of the etalon cavity changes when applied pressure or acceleration flexes the diaphragm. The entire structure can be made of fused silica. The fiber, tube, and diaphragm can be bonded with a fusion splice. The present sensor is particularly well suited for measuring pressure or acceleration in high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environments (e.g., oil well downholes and jet engines). The present sensors are also suitable for use in biological and medical applications.

  9. The influence of various levels of cellulose and lipid and lipid sources on apparent digestibility and apparent protein digestibility in penaeid shrimp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrer, Shellie Earle

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    College Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Addison Lawrence Dr. William Ellis Digestibility values of feeds are important for diet formulations. Apparent dry-matter digestibility (ADMD) and apparent protein digestibility (APD) of purified diets were... examined utilizing three Penaeid species (Penaeus aztecus, P. setiferus and P. vannamei). Diets varying in cellulose levels (0, 6 and 12X), level of lipids (0, 6 and 12X) and lipid source (coconut, corn, menhaden and lard), were evaluated. Cellulose...

  10. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, March 1-August 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, D. I.C.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in this coordinated research program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomass by anaerobic microorganisms possessing cellulolytic enzymes. Three main areas of research are discussed: increasing enzyme levels through genetics, mutations, and genetic manipulation; the direct conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel (ethanol); and the production of chemical feedstocks from biomass (acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid). (DMC)

  11. Inheritance of Cotton Fiber Length and Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joy, Kolbyn Seth

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    hybrids. General combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were estimated according to Griffing’s diallel Model I, Method 4 for lint percent, high volume instrument (HVI) upper half mean length (UHML), fiber bundle strength (Str...

  12. Multi-Scale Reinforced Carbon Fiber Nanocomposites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanRooyen, Ainsley

    2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon fiber polymer composites are utilized in many industries including in commercial and military aircraft and space vehicles because of their lighter weight and superior strength compared to aluminum and steel. Due to the insulating nature...

  13. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO)

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  14. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yalin, Azer (Fort Collins, CO); Willson, Bryan (Fort Collins, CO); Defoort, Morgan (Fort Collins, CO); Joshi, Sachin (Fort Collins, CO); Reynolds, Adam (Fort Collins, CO)

    2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: composite fibers typically aligned...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    composite fibers typically aligned in a 45 pattern with respect to the blade axis New Material Tests Show Biaxial Laminate Creep Is Important for Large Wind-Turbine Blades On...

  16. Fiber-Optic Sources of Quantum Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Kumar; X. Li; M. Fiorentino; P. L. Voss; J. E. Sharping; G. A. Barbosa

    2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a fiber-based source of polarization-entangled photon pairs that is well suited for quantum communication applications in the 1.5$\\mu$m band of standard telecommunication fiber. Quantum-correlated signal and idler photon pairs are produced when a nonlinear-fiber Sagnac interferometer is pumped in the anomalous-dispersion region of the fiber. Recently, we have demonstrated nonclassical properties of such photon pairs by using Geiger-mode InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes. Polarization entanglement in the photon pairs can be created by pumping the Sagnac interferometer with two orthogonally polarized pulses. In this case the parametrically scattered signal-idler photons yield biphoton interference with $>$90% visibility in coincidence detection, while no interference is observed in direct detection of either the signal or the idler photons.

  17. Structural retrofitting using fiber reinforced polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumas, Pierre, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past decades, fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) have been widely used in the aeronautical and naval industries. Being more costly than conventional Civil Engineering materials such as steel or concrete, they have ...

  18. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Higgins, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Robichaud, Roger E. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  19. Nitrogen and Sulfur Requirements for Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii on Cellulosic Substrates in Minimal Nutrient Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kridelbaugh, Donna M [ORNL; Nelson, Josh C [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth media for cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii bacteria usually contain excess nutrients that would increase costs for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production and create a waste stream with nitrogen, sulfur and phosphate. C. thermocellum was grown on crystalline cellulose with varying concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds, and growth rate and alcohol production response curves were determined. Both bacteria assimilated sulfate in the presence of ascorbate reductant, increasing the ratio of oxidized to reduced fermentation products. From these results, a low ionic strength, defined minimal nutrient medium with decreased nitrogen, sulfur, phosphate and vitamin supplements was developed for the fermentation of cellobiose, cellulose and acid-pretreated Populus. Carbon and electron balance calculations indicate the unidentified residual fermentation products must include highly reduced molecules. Both bacterial populations were maintained in co-cultures with substrates containing xylan or hemicellulose in defined medium with sulfate and basal vitamin supplements.

  20. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulose and xylose to ethanol by Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cellulase, [beta]-glucosidase, and xylose isomerase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lastick, S.M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ATCC No. 2476, having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35 C to about 40 C until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol. 2 figures.

  1. Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, Stanley E. (Evans, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman-scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

  2. Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, S.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is comprised of a fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman- scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

  3. The effect of irregular fiber distribution and error in assumed transverse fiber CTE on thermally induced fiber/matrix interfacial stresses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zu, Seung-Don

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally induced interfacial stress states between fiber and matrix at cryogenic temperature were studied using three-dimensional finite element based micromechanics. Mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between fiber and matrix...

  4. Addressing the Recalcitrance of Cellulose Degradation through Cellulase Discovery, Nano-scale Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms, and Kinetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Larry P., Bergstrom, Gary; Corgie, Stephane; Craighead, Harold; Gibson, Donna; Wilson, David

    2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project was designed to play a vital role in the development of low cost sugars from cellulosic biomass and contributing to the national effort to displace fossil fuel usage in the USA transportation sector. The goal was to expand the portfolio of cell wall degrading enzymes through innovative research at the nano-scale level, prospecting for novel cellulases and building a kinetic framework for the development of more effective enzymatic conversion processes. More precisely, the goal was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for some cellulases that are very familiar to members of our research team and to investigate what we hope are novel cellulases or new enzyme combinations from the world of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Hydrolytic activities of various cellulases and cellulase cocktails were monitored at the nanoscale of cellulose fibrils and the microscale of pretreated cellulose particles, and we integrated this insight into a heterogeneous reaction framework. The over-riding approach for this research program was the application of innovative and cutting edge optical and high-throughput screening and analysis techniques for observing how cellulases hydrolyze real substrates.

  5. SURFACE-INITIATED ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION AS A TOOL FOR COATING OF VARIOUS SURFACES WITH FLUOROPOLYMERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    microcrystalline cellulose, filter paper, cotton, jute and hemp fibers. Hydroxyl groups on the specific surfaces

  6. Effect of Fiber Orientation and Ply Mix on Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Confined Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    concrete by testing under uniaxial compression a designed array of plain concrete cylinders wrappedEffect of Fiber Orientation and Ply Mix on Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Confined Concrete Ching Au, A concrete lateral strain while the kink stress was found to upshift with increasing jacket stiffness

  7. FIBER OPTIC SENSING OF A CARBON FIBER PRESfRESSED CONCRETE HIGHWAY BRIDGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    composite material replacementsfor steel. These carbon fiber reinforced polymers are practically immune of the civil infrastructure [Dunker and Rabbat 1993]. Carbon fiber based composite materials are practically to corrosion. Since composite materials are unproven in their substitution for steel in concrete structures

  8. All-fiber Passively Q-switched Laser Based on Tm3+-doped Tellurite Fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuan, Pei-Wen; Li, Kefeng; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Xiaokang; Hasan, Tawfique; Wang, Fengqiu; Hu, Lili

    2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    ]. The composite has been prepared from the CNT aqueous dispersions according to the procedure described in Ref. [21]. The total length of the fiber laser cavity is ~2.8 m. The tellurite fiber output end, which has a ~11.9% Fresnel reflection, is used...

  9. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Frederick S.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  10. Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

  11. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Frederick S

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  12. Microstructural characterization of low-density foams. [Silica, resorcinol/formaldehyde, cellulose/acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, C.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-density foams (of the order 0.1 g/cm/sup 3/) synthesized from silica aerogel, resorcinol/formaldehyde, and cellulose acetate have fine, delicate microstructures that are extremely difficult to characterize. Improved low-voltage resolution of an SEM equipped with a field-emission gun (FESEM) does permit these materials to be examined directly without coating and at sufficient magnification to reveal the microstructures. Light coatings applied by ion-beam deposition can stabilize the specimens to some extent and reduce electron charging without seriously altering the microstructure, but coatings applied by conventional techniques usually obliterate these microstructures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is required to provide unambiguous microstructural interpretations. However, TEM examinations of these materials can be severely restricted by specimen preparation difficulties and electron-beam damage, and considerable care must be taken to ensure that reasonably accurate TEM results have been obtained. This work demonstrates that low-voltage FESEM analyses can be used to characterize microstructures in these foams, but TEM analyses are required to confirm the FESEM analyses and perform quantitative measurements. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazi, F. K.; Fortman, J.; Anex, R.; Kothandaraman, G.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Dutta, A.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A techno-economic analysis on the production of cellulosic ethanol by fermentation was conducted to understand the viability of liquid biofuel production processes within the next 5-8 years. Initially, 35 technologies were reviewed, then a two-step down selection was performed to choose scenarios to be evaluated in a more detailed economic analysis. The lignocellulosic ethanol process was selected because it is well studied and portions of the process have been tested at pilot scales. Seven process variations were selected and examined in detail. Process designs were constrained to public data published in 2007 or earlier, without projecting for future process improvements. Economic analysis was performed for an 'nth plant' (mature technology) to obtain total investment and product value (PV). Sensitivity analysis was performed on PV to assess the impact of variations in process and economic parameters. Results show that the modeled dilute acid pretreatment process without any downstream process variation had the lowest PV of $3.40/gal of ethanol ($5.15/gallon of gasoline equivalent) in 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis shows that PV is most sensitive to feedstock and enzyme costs.

  14. advanced fiber-optic monitoring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Photonic Crystal Fibers Advances in Fiber Optics Physics Websites Summary: Photonic Crystal Fibers Advances in Fiber Optics Elliott L....

  15. MICROSTRUCTURED OPTICAL FIBER BRAGG GRATING SENSORS FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MICROSTRUCTURED OPTICAL FIBER BRAGG GRATING SENSORS FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING APPLICATIONS optical fiber Bragg grating (MOFBG) sensors for structural health monitoring applications. We then focus, optical fiber sensor, fiber Bragg grating, structural health monitoring INTRODUCTION Microstructured

  16. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  17. The effect of neutron irradiation on silicon carbide fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsome, G.A. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nine types of SiC fiber have been exposed to neutron radiation in the Advanced Test Reactor at 250 C for various lengths of time ranging from 83 to 128 days. The effects of these exposures have been initially determined using scanning electron microscopy. The fibers tested were Nicalon{trademark} CG, Tyranno, Hi-Nicalon{trademark}, Dow Corning SiC, Carborundum SiC, Textron SCS-6, polymethysilane (PMS) derived SiC from the University of Michigan, and two types of MER SiC fiber. This covers a range of fibers from widely used commercial fibers to developmental fibers. Consistent with previous radiation experiments, Nicalon fiber was severely degraded by the neutron irradiation. Similarly, Tyranno suffered severe degradation. The more advanced fibers which approach the composition and properties of SiC performed well under irradiation. Of these, the Carborundum SiC fiber appeared to perform the best. The Hi-Nicalon and Dow Corning Fibers exhibited good general stability, but also appear to have some surface roughening. The MER fibers and the Textron SCS-6 fibers both had carbon cores which adversely influenced the overall stability of the fibers.

  18. The effect of processing on strength of Nicalon fibers in Nicalon fiber-SiC matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, D.; Singh, J.P.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Degradation of strength of Nicalon (silicon carbide) fibers during processing of Nicalon fiber-SiC matrix composites was studied. Strength distribution of as-fabricated Nicalon fibers was obtained via bundle tests. Whereas, strengths of fractured fibers in Nicalon fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composite specimens were estimated by measuring fracture mirror radii. Comparison of fracture probability plots indicate significant differences in the behavior of the as-fabricated fibers and those in the composite. Possible causes leading to these differences are discussed.

  19. Communication Uniaxial compression in carbon fiber-reinforced cement, sensed by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    -based and unsized, as obtained from Ashland Petroleum (Ashland, KY). The fiber diameter was 15 mm. The nominal fiber

  20. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groves, S.E.; Deteresa, S.J.

    1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An interlayer toughening mechanism is described to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0{degree} to 90{degree} to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles. 2 figs.

  1. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA); Deteresa, Steven J. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An interlayer toughening mechanism to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0.degree. to 90.degree. to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles.

  2. Imaging techniques utilizing optical fibers and tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilke, M.; King, N.S.P.; Gray, N.; Johnson, D.; Esquibel, D.; Nedrow, P.; Ishiwata, S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional, time-dependent images generated by neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays incident on fast scintillators are relayed to streak and video cameras over optical fibers. Three dimensions, two spatial and one temporal, have been reduced to two, one in space and time utilizing sampling methods permitting reconstruction of a time-dependent, two-dimensional image subsequent to data recording. The manner in which the sampling is done optimized the ability to reconstruct the image via a maximization of entropy algorithm. This method uses four linear fiber optic arrays typically 30 meters long and up to 35 elements each. A further refinement of this technique collapses the linear array information into four single fibers by wavelength multiplexing. This permits economical transmission of the data over kilometer distances to the recording equipment.

  3. Carbon Fiber Damage in Particle Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dehning, B; Kroyer, T; Meyer, M; Sapinski, M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in beam wire scanners. The heating of the fiber due to energy loss of the particles travelling through is simulated with Geant4. The heating induced by the beam electromagnetic field is estimated with ANSYS. The heat transfer and sublimation processes are modelled. Due to the model nonlinearity, a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used to solve it for particular beams. Radiation damage to the fiber is estimated with SRIM. The model is tested with available SPS and LEP data and a dedicated damage test on the SPS beam is performed followed by a post-mortem analysis of the wire remnants. Predictions for the LHC beams are made.

  4. THROUGH THICKNESS LASER JOINING OF CONTINUOUS GLASS FIBER FABRIC REINFORCEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    THROUGH THICKNESS LASER JOINING OF CONTINUOUS GLASS FIBER FABRIC REINFORCEMENT Paper Number 405 Huade Tan, Gen Satoh, Y. Lawrence Yao Manufacturing Research Laboratory Department of Mechanical and propagation is a major failure mode in structural composite applications. Manufacturing induced fiber

  5. Characterization by mercury porosimetry of nonwoven fiber media with deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Gregory C.

    The porosity and pore diameter distribution are important characteristics of nonwoven fiber media. With the advent of electrospinning, the production of mats of nonwoven fibrous materials with fiber diameters in the 0.1-10 ...

  6. Frequency-dissymmetric parametric sideband generation in a microstructured fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    to all-fiber quantum communication devices useful in the field of quantum communication net- works [7]. The development of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) [8] led to a leap forward in the field of nonlinear optics

  7. Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber Fleece Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber Fleece Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  8. alloy fiber reinforced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of FRPs Conditioned FRP-RC Beams Using FiberOptic Sensors, Slenderness Efle 3 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) as Reinforcement for Concrete Beam CiteSeer Summary:...

  9. Optical fiber smart structures applied to secure containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sliva, P.; Gordon, N.R.; Stahl, K.A.; Simmon, K.L.; Anheier, N.C.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype secure container was prepared that uses continually monitored optical fiber as the smart structure. A small ({approx}7.6 cm {times} 10.2 cm {times} 12.7 cm), matchbox-shaped container consisting of an inner drawer within an outer shell was fabricated from polymer resin. The optical fiber was sandwiched between additional non-optical, strength-promoting fibers and embedded into the polymer. The additional non-optical fiber provides strength to the container, protects the optical fiber from damage, hides the fiber and acts as a decoy. The optical fiber was wound with a winding density such that a high probability of fiber damage would be expected if the container was penetrated.

  10. Intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors and their multiplexing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Anbo (Blacksburg, VA)

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical sensor includes a thin film sandwiched between two fiber ends. When light is launched into the fiber, two reflections are generated at the two fiber/thin film interfaces due to a difference in refractive indices between the fibers and the film, giving rise to the sensor output. In another embodiment, a portion of the cladding of a fiber is removed, creating two parallel surfaces. Part of the evanescent fields of light propagating in the fiber is reflected at each of the surfaces, giving rise to the sensor output. In a third embodiment, the refractive index of a small portion of a fiber is changed through exposure to a laser beam or other radiation. Interference between reflections at the ends of the small portion give rise to the sensor output. Multiple sensors along a single fiber are multiplexed using an optical time domain reflectometry method.

  11. Fiber Supercapacitors DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006062

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Fiber Supercapacitors DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006062 Fiber Supercapacitors Made of Nanowire storage devices such as batteries and supercapacitors need to be explored, but future develop- ment. In recent years, electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted much attention as novel energy

  12. Fatigue Enhancement of a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Nanocomposite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkerson, Justin W.

    2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the present investigation is to study the fatigue characteristics of a woven carbon fiber reinforced polymer which has been modified with either amine or fluorine functionalized carbon nanotubes on the fiber-matrix interface...

  13. Natural fiber reinforced aerated concrete : an experimental investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbis, Leonidia Maria

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to compare existing research with aerated concrete and fiber reinforcement to original experiments completed investigating the benefits of adding natural fiber tensile reinforcement to aerated ...

  14. Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system for monitoring long perimeters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juarez, Juan C.

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A distributed sensor using an optical fiber for detecting and locating intruders over long perimeters (>10 km) is described. Phase changes resulting from either the pressure of the intruder on the ground immediately above the buried fiber or from...

  15. SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's First 3D-Printed Vehicle at IMTS 2014 SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's...

  16. Hybrid carbon fiber composite lattice truss structures T. George a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    carbon fiber face sheets and infused with an epoxy resin using a vacuum assisted resin transfer molding that was stitched to CFRP faces using Kevlar fiber to form a resin infused sandwich panel. The nodes of the braided

  17. advanced dti fiber: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    L, Baley C. Influence of the sampling area of the stem on the mechanical properties of hemp fibers Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 27 Fiber Optic Sensor Interrogation Advancements...

  18. Effects of fiber direction on heat conduction in unidirectionally aligned fiber composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Havis, Clark Reagan

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composites, " Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 46, pp. 563-567. 44 APPENDIX A NOMENCI ATURE 2G A A d If k k?k, Iy kf km k?k, k? k?, y, k? kgs~ k~v~ kss i, m) B qs 9cai~ q~s S T W s&p~s /f 'y lF V Vf im r fiber spacing... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF FIBER DIRECTION ON HEAT CONDUCTION IN UNIDIRECTIONALLY ALIGNED FIBER COMPOSITES A Thesis CLARK REAGAN HAVIS Approved as to style and content by: G. P. Peterson...

  19. Effects of fiber direction on heat conduction in unidirectionally aligned fiber composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Havis, Clark Reagan

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APPENDIX D: EXPERIMENTAL DATA. . . . . . . . . . 52 VITA . 128 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Composite fiber types . 2. Aligned fiber coxnposites 3. Fiber alignment 4. Principal conductivities 5. Fundamental element used in the analogy between... difference form of the governing equation k ? (T'+'+ T' ' ? 2T') +e2 +, 2~6, y + ? s(2 ~t+T' rD ? 22 ) =0 ks which. when solved for Ti' becomes '=-'(':. ". ') +- 4 (as/A ) y A?(ar/as) 1 (Tj~t+T&', ) 2 (1+(Asa, )-r J (23) where A?wss the aspect...

  20. Manufacture of thermoelectric generator structures by fiber drawing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Timothy J; Simpson, John T; West, David L

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of manufacturing a thermoelectric generator via fiber drawing and corresponding or associated thermoelectric generator devices are provided.

  1. Fiber-optical analogue of the event horizon: Appendices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas G. Philbin; Chris Kuklewicz; Scott Robertson; Stephen Hill; Friedrich Konig; Ulf Leonhardt

    2007-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We explain the theory behind our fiber-optical analogue of the event horizon and present the experiment in detail.

  2. Fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, M.A.

    1992-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission systems described wherein optical data may be transmitted over an optical data fiber from a remote source which includes a data transmitter and a power supply at the remote source. The transmitter may be remotely calibrated and stabilized via an optical control fiber, and the power source may be remotely cycled between duty and standby modes via an optical control fiber. 3 figs.

  3. Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-4 Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory Chaoyi Tan Jianlong Liu Fennan Tang Yang Liu Hunan University of Technology... fiber ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-4 2. REFRIGERATION SYSTEM SUPERIOR DESIGN PROPOSAL IN MUCILAGE GLUE FIBER FACTORY 2.1 Refrigeration system superior design proposal in mucilage glue fiber factory...

  4. Designing the properties of dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    crystal fibers," Electron. Lett. 35, 63-64 (1999). 4. P. J. Bennet, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson

  5. Photon pair generation in birefringent optical fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian J. Smith; P. Mahou; Offir Cohen; J. S. Lundeen; I. A. Walmsley

    2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the generation of photon pairs by spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in standard birefringent optical fibers. The ability to produce a range of two-photon spectral states, from highly correlated (entangled) to completely factorable, by means of cross-polarized birefringent phase matching, is explored. A simple model is developed to predict the spectral state of the photon pair which shows how this can be adjusted by choosing the appropriate pump bandwidth, fiber length and birefringence. Spontaneous Raman scattering is modeled to determine the tradeoff between SFWM and background Raman noise, and the predicted results are shown to agree with experimental data.

  6. Cluster state quantum computing in optical fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasaman Soudagar; Felix Bussieres; Guido Berlin; Suzanne Lacroix; Jose M. Fernandez; Nicolas Godbout

    2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A scheme for the implementation of the cluster state model of quantum computing in optical fibers, which enables the feedforward feature, is proposed. This scheme uses the time-bin encoding of qubits. Following previously suggested methods of applying arbitrary one-qubit gates in optical fibers, two different ways for the realization of fusion gate types I and II for cluster production are proposed: a fully time-bin based encoding scheme and a combination of time-bin and polarization based encoding scheme. Also the methods of measurement in any desired bases for the purpose of the processing of cluster state computing for both these encodings are explained.

  7. Fiber optic mounted laser driven flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paisley, Dennis L. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser driven flyer plate where the flyer plate is deposited directly onto the squared end of an optical fiber. The plasma generated by a laser pulse drives the flyer plate toward a target. In another embodiment, a first metal layer is deposited onto the squared end of an optical fiber, followed by a layer of a dielectric material and a second metal layer. The laser pulse generates a plasma in the first metal layer, but the plasma is kept away from the second metal layer by the dielectric layer until the pressure reaches the point where shearing occurs.

  8. Optical transmittance degradation in tapered fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masazumi Fujiwara; Kiyota Toubaru; Shigeki Takeuchi

    2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the cause of optical transmittance degradation in tapered fibers. Degradation commences immediately after fabrication and it eventually reduces the transmittance to almost zero. It is a major problem that limits applications of tapered fibers. We systematically investigated the effect of the dust-particle density and the humidity on the degradation dynamics. The results clearly show that the degradation is mostly due to dust particles and that it is not related to the humidity. In a dust free environment it is possible to preserve the transmittance with a degradation of less than the noise (+/- ?0.02) over 1 week.

  9. Novel oxide-oxide fiber reinforced hot gas filter development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, R.A.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program is to fabricate and test oxide fiber reinforced composite hot gas filter elements for advanced power generation systems. The level of mechanical durability exhibited by the currently available filters in field tests indicates that more rugged filters are required to meet the demands of large power generation systems. Furthermore, long term corrosion resistance of currently available filters has yet to be demonstrated in PFBC systems. The essential requirements of a composite material designed to meet the program objective for a toughened hot gas filter include the following: Stable continuous fiber; rigid porous matrix; engineered fiber-matrix interface; and cost effectiveness. Based on properties, availability, and cost, Mitsui`s ALMAX alumina fiber and 3M`s NEXTEL 610 alumina fiber were selected as the oxide reinforcement fibers. In order to meet the economic goals of the program it is essential that the cost and amount of continuous fiber be minimized. A four axis filament winder will be used to fabricate filter Preforms in a variety of fiber architectures. Carbon was used as the initial fiber coating because it was known to be resistant to the Processing chemicals. The coating was produced by pyrolysis of the resin based sizings on the continuous fibers. The matrix of the composite filter is comprised of chopped ceramic fiber. Saffil fiber was used for all compositions in this program.

  10. Fiber-based combined optical coherence and multiphoton endomicroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    Fiber-based combined optical coherence and multiphoton endomicroscopy Gangjun Liu Zhongping Chen #12;Journal of Biomedical Optics 16(3), 036010 (March 2011) Fiber-based combined optical coherence. The efficiency can be further increased by fusing more multimode fibers with the DCF. Simultaneous optical

  11. Spectral background and transmission characteristics of fiber optic imaging bundles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gmitro, Arthur F.

    Spectral background and transmission characteristics of fiber optic imaging bundles Joshua Anthony August 2008 The emission and transmission properties of three commercially produced coherent fiber optic optical fibers are used in many imaging applications to allow the flexible relay of image planes over

  12. Fiber optic synchronisation architecture for high precision GPS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santerre, Rock

    Fiber optic synchronisation architecture for high precision GPS applications Daniel Macias and the receiver is monitored at the millimetre level [2]. These issues can be solved using optical fiber links), Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada sophie.larochelle@gel.ulaval.ca Abstract: We propose a GPS-over-fiber

  13. OSE 4470L Fiber-Optic Communications Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    OSE 4470L Fiber-Optic Communications Laboratory Instructor: Guifang Li, CREOL 278, Phone 823 in classroom to what you can see in the lab of a variety topics related to fiber-optic communications. 2. Take course on the same topic (OSE 4470). The experiments are cover three topics: 1. The optical fiber

  14. COURSE SYLLABUS OSE 4470 FALL 2014 `FIBER-OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    COURSE SYLLABUS OSE 4470 FALL 2014 `FIBER-OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS' INSTRUCTOR: SASAN FATHPOUR CLASS of optical fiber communication systems including the optoelectronic devices used in transmitters and receivers. COURSE DESCRIPTION This course is an introduction to the principles of optical fiber

  15. STABILITY PROPERTIES OF LIGHT PROPAGATING IN FIBER OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    STABILITY PROPERTIES OF LIGHT PROPAGATING IN FIBER OPTICS ST´EPHANE LAFORTUNE Summary The study is crucial in applications such as lasers and optical fibers. In this proposal I will focus on a model of fiber optics: the Manakov system. This system consists of two differential equations, that is two

  16. High-index-core Bragg fibers: dispersion Juan A. Monsoriu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    . P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1196-1201 (1978). 4. Y. Xu, G.X. Ouyang, R.K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Asymptotic Matrix Theory of Bragg Fibers," J. LightwaveHigh-index-core Bragg fibers: dispersion properties Juan A. Monsoriu Departamento de Física

  17. Fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays using low reflectance internal mirrors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong-Seo

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new design of fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays phics. using low reflectance internal mirrors in optical fibers is investigated. The mirrors are produced by fusion arc splicing of two fibers, one of which has a thin film of TiO2 on the end. A...

  18. Effects of g Radiation on Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    Effects of g Radiation on Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Concrete Gonzalo Marti´nez-Barrera,1,2 Luis F% of nylon fibers. The fiber-containing polymer concretes (PCs) were subjected to 5, 10, 50, and 100 k Engineers INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE It is well known that polymer concrete (PC) is three to five times stronger

  19. The FGM Concept in the Development of Fiber Cement Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dias, C. M. R.; John, V. M. [Department of Construction Engineering, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Savastano, H. Jr. [Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, P.O. Box 23, 13635-900 Pirassununga, SP (Brazil)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The FGM concept appears promising in improving the mechanical performance and reducing production costs of fiber cement building components. However, it has not yet been broadly applied to fiber cement technology. In this study we analyze the functionally graded fiber cement concept and its potential for industrial application in Hatschek machines. The conventional Hatschek process is summarized as well as the proposed modifications to allow FGM fiber cement production. The feasibility of producing functionally graded fiber cement by grading PVA fiber content was experimentally evaluated. Thermogravimetric (TG) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate fiber distribution profiles. Four-point bending tests were applied to evaluate the mechanical performance of both conventional and functionally graded composites. The results shows that grading PVA fiber content is an effective way to produce functionally graded fiber cement, allowing the reduction of the total fiber volume without significant reduction on composite MOR. TG tests were found adequate to assess fiber content at different positions in functionally graded fiber cements.

  20. Constitutive Modeling of Fiber Composites with a Soft Hyperelastic Matrix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellegrino, Sergio

    of unidirectional carbon fiber composites with a silicone matrix, loaded transversally to the fibers study uses a plane-strain finite element continuum model of the composite material in which the fiber (Campbell et al., 2005; Barrett et al., 2006). These composite materials are often described as memory

  1. NONNEGATIVE UNMIXING METHODOLOGY APPLIED ON BRILLOUIN OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NONNEGATIVE UNMIXING METHODOLOGY APPLIED ON BRILLOUIN OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR Edouard Buchoud1 As a complement to conventional sensors, Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors (DOFS) have gradually played. In complementary to traditional sensors, distributed fiber optic sensors (DOFS) are an attractive tool for SHM [1

  2. Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence Ruby N. Ghosh,a) Gregory L on a reflection-mode fiber-optic oxygen sensor based on the 3 O2 quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear, and medical applications. In these en- vironments the advantages of fiber-optic chemical sensors are that they

  3. ADHESIVE DISBOND MONITORING WITH MICROSTRUCTURED OPTICAL FIBER BRAGG GRATING SENSORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ADHESIVE DISBOND MONITORING WITH MICROSTRUCTURED OPTICAL FIBER BRAGG GRATING SENSORS Sanne a sensing system that is based on a combination of 3 optical fiber sensors which are non optical fiber and feature an enhanced response to shear stress. The change in response of the sensors

  4. Voltage sensor with fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wann, Been-Huey

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INTRODUCTION. Page II RESEARCH DESCRIPTION. . . A. Optical Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometer. . . . . B. Piezoelectricity. . C. Modulating Point in 60 Hz Voltage Measurement. . . . . . D. Temperature Control Circuit . . . . 18 . . . 26 III EXPERIMENTAL... PROCEDURES AND RESULTS. . . . . . A. Fabrication of the Optical Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometer B. Selection of Piezoelectric Materials. C. Implementation of Temperature Control Circuit. . . . D. Experiments of Optical Fiber Voltage Sensor...

  5. EFFECTS OF FIBER WAVINESS ON COMPOSITES FOR WIND TURBINE BLADES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTS OF FIBER WAVINESS ON COMPOSITES FOR WIND TURBINE BLADES J.F. Mandell D.D. Samborsky and L Composite materials of interest for wind turbine blades use relatively low cost fibers, resins and processes WORDS: Composite Materials, Fiber Waviness, Compressive Strength #12;1. INTRODUCTION Wind turbine blades

  6. An Integrated Modeling and Data Management Strategy for Cellulosic Biomass Production Decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth Jr.; K. Mark Bryden; Joshua B. Koch

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emerging cellulosic bioenergy markets can provide land managers with additional options for crop production decisions. Integrating dedicated bioenergy crops such as perennial grasses and short rotation woody species within the agricultural landscape can have positive impacts on several environmental processes including increased soil organic matter in degraded soils, reduced sediment loading in watersheds, lower green house gas (GHG) fluxes, and reduced nutrient loading in watersheds. Implementing this type of diverse bioenergy production system in a way that maximizes potential environmental benefits requires a dynamic integrated modeling and data management strategy. This paper presents a strategy for designing diverse bioenergy cropping systems within the existing row crop production landscape in the midwestern United States. The integrated model developed quantifies a wide range environmental processes including soil erosion from wind and water, soil organic matter changes, and soil GHG fluxes within a geospatial data management framework. This framework assembles and formats information from multiple spatial and temporal scales. The data assembled includes yield and productivity data from harvesting equipment at the 1m scale, surface topography data from LiDAR mapping at the less than 1m scale, soil data from US soil survey databases at the 10m to 100m scale, and climate data at the county scale. These models and data tools are assembled into an integrated computational environment that is used to determine sustainable removal rates for agricultural residues for bioenergy production at the sub-field scale under a wide range of land management practices. Using this integrated model, innovative management practices including cover cropping are then introduced and evaluated for their impact on bioenergy production and important environmental processes. The impacts of introducing dedicated energy crops onto high-risk landscape positions currently being manage in row crop production are also investigated.

  7. REVISED GUIDELINES FOR USING CELLULOSE DEGRADATION PRODUCT-IMPACTED KD VALUES FOR PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AND COMPOSITE ANALYSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.

    2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic materials include wood, paper, rags, and cardboard products. These materials are co-disposed with radiological waste at the Savannah River Site's (SRS) E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF). Cellulosic materials readily degrade in the environment to form cellulose degradation products (CDP) that will partition to the sediment or remain mobile in the groundwater. Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) has conducted studies to estimate the impact of CDP on radionuclide sorption to SRS sediments (Kd values). It was found that CDP impact on radionuclide sorption varies with radionuclide and CDP concentration. Furthermore, it was found that the amount of carbon (C) in the system could increase or decrease Kd values with respect to the base case of when no CDP was added. Throughout the expected pH range of the ELLWF, a low concentration of CDP in the system would increase Kd values (because C would sorb to the sediment and provide more exchange sites for radionuclides to sorb), whereas greater concentrations of CDP ({ge}20 mg/L C) would decrease Kd values (because C would remain in solution and complex the radionuclide and not permit the radionuclide to sorb to the sediment). A review of >230 dissolved organic carbon (DOC) groundwater concentrations in the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) at the SRS indicated that the average DOC concentration, a gross measure of CDP, was 5 mg/L C. At approximately this DOC concentration, the laboratory studies demonstrated that no anions (Tc, I, or Se) or cations (Ni, Sr, Ce, Eu, Zr, or Th) have decreased sorption in the presence of carbon (an analogue for CDP).

  8. Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate Surface Area and Enzymatic Digestibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, Xiaohui; Grego, Courtnee; Zhang, Xiao

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To clarify the specific effect of biomass substrate surface area on its enzymatic digestibility, factors of fiber size reduction and swelling changes were investigated by using poplar substrates with controlled morphological and chemical properties after modified chemical pulping. Results showed that fiber size changes had insignificant influence on enzymatic hydrolysis, although the external surface area increased up to 41% with the reduction of fiber size. Swelling changes caused by increased biomass fiber porosities after PFI refining showed a significant influence on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. It is also found that chemical properties such as xylan and lignin content can influence the swelling effect. Xylan is confirmed to facilitate substrate hydrolysability by swelling, while lignin restricts swelling effect and thus minimizes the enzyme accessibility to substrates.

  9. Long glass fiber orientation in thermoplastic composites using a model that accounts for the flexibility of the fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wapperom, Peter

    Long glass fiber orientation in thermoplastic composites using a model that accounts Mechanical properties of long glass fiber composites, used in various industrial applications, are dependant are explored to predict the orientation of long glass fibers in the concentrated regime that take the flexible

  10. Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and dynamic fatigue characteristics of silica fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and dynamic, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA c Laboratory of Optical Fiber Technology, UMCS, Lublin, 20031, Poland, ABSTRACT Specialty optical fibers operating in harsh aerospace environments

  11. Degradation of the molecular weight and nitrate ester content of cellulose nitrate on thermal aging. [PBX-9404

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leider, H R

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in molecular weight and nitrate ester content for cellulose nitrate (NC), either pure or as a constituent of PBX-9404, were determined as a function of time and temperature. Changes in the number-averaged molecular weight, M/sub n/, are described by the simple theory of random chain scission, and M/sub n/ is found to correlate well with nitrate ester loss. Significant differences are seen between NC aged in the isolated condition and aged as the binder in PBX-9404.

  12. On band gaps in photonic crystal fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shane Cooper; Ilia Kamotski; Valery Smyshlyaev

    2014-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the Maxwell's system for a periodic array of dielectric `fibers' embedded into a `matrix', with respective electric permittivities $\\epsilon_0$ and $\\epsilon_1$, which serves as a model for cladding in photonic crystal fibers (PCF). The interest is in describing admissible and forbidden (gap) pairs $(\\omega,k)$ of frequencies $\\omega$ and propagation constants $k$ along the fibers, for a Bloch wave solution on the cross-section. We show that, for "pre-critical" values of $k(\\omega)$ i.e. those just below $\\omega (\\min\\{\\epsilon_0,\\epsilon_1\\}\\mu)^{1/2}$ (where $\\mu$ is the magnetic permeability assumed constant for simplicity), the coupling specific to the Maxwell's systems leads to a particular partially degenerating PDE system for the axial components of the electromagnetic field. Its asymptotic analysis allows to derive the limit spectral problem where the fields are constrained in one of the phases by Cauchy-Riemann type relations. We prove related spectral convergence. We finally give some examples, in particular of small size "arrow" fibers ($\\epsilon_0>\\epsilon_1$) where the existence of the gaps near appropriate "micro-resonances" is demonstrated by a further asymptotic analysis.

  13. Single-fiber multi-color pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Small, IV, Ward; Celliers, Peter

    2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a fiber-based multi-color pyrometry set-up for real-time non-contact temperature and emissivity measurement. The system includes a single optical fiber to collect radiation emitted by a target, a reflective rotating chopper to split the collected radiation into two or more paths while modulating the radiation for lock-in amplification (i.e., phase-sensitive detection), at least two detectors possibly of different spectral bandwidths with or without filters to limit the wavelength regions detected and optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the sensitive areas of the detectors. A computer algorithm is used to calculate the true temperature and emissivity of a target based on blackbody calibrations. The system components are enclosed in a light-tight housing, with provision for the fiber to extend outside to collect the radiation. Radiation emitted by the target is transmitted through the fiber to the reflective chopper, which either allows the radiation to pass straight through or reflects the radiation into one or more separate paths. Each path includes a detector with or without filters and corresponding optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the active area of the detector. The signals are recovered using lock-in amplification. Calibration formulas for the signals obtained using a blackbody of known temperature are used to compute the true temperature and emissivity of the target. The temperature range of the pyrometer system is determined by the spectral characteristics of the optical components.

  14. Single-fiber multi-color pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Small, IV, Ward (Livermore, CA); Celliers, Peter (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a fiber-based multi-color pyrometry set-up for real-time non-contact temperature and emissivity measurement. The system includes a single optical fiber to collect radiation emitted by a target, a reflective rotating chopper to split the collected radiation into two or more paths while modulating the radiation for lock-in amplification (i.e., phase-sensitive detection), at least two detectors possibly of different spectral bandwidths with or without filters to limit the wavelength regions detected and optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the sensitive areas of the detectors. A computer algorithm is used to calculate the true temperature and emissivity of a target based on blackbody calibrations. The system components are enclosed in a light-tight housing, with provision for the fiber to extend outside to collect the radiation. Radiation emitted by the target is transmitted through the fiber to the reflective chopper, which either allows the radiation to pass straight through or reflects the radiation into one or more separate paths. Each path includes a detector with or without filters and corresponding optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the active area of the detector. The signals are recovered using lock-in amplification. Calibration formulas for the signals obtained using a blackbody of known temperature are used to compute the true temperature and emissivity of the target. The temperature range of the pyrometer system is determined by the spectral characteristics of the optical components.

  15. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weeks, Jr., Joseph K. (Salt Lake City, UT); Gensse, Chantal (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials.

  16. Photon production by charged particles in narrow optical fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Artru; C. Ray

    2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle passing through or by an optical fiber induces emission of light guided by the fiber. The formula giving the spontaneous emission amplitude are given in the general case when the particle trajectory is not parallel to the fiber axis. At small angle, the photon yield grows like the inverse power of the angle and in the parallel limiting case the fiber Cherenkov effect studied by Bogdankevich and Bolotovskii is recovered. Possible application to beam diagnostics are discussed, as well as resonance effects when the particle trajectory or the fiber is bent periodically.

  17. Special purpose modes in photonic band gap fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spencer, James; Noble, Robert; Campbell, Sara

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic band gap fibers are described having one or more defects suitable for the acceleration of electrons or other charged particles. Methods and devices are described for exciting special purpose modes in the defects including laser coupling schemes as well as various fiber designs and components for facilitating excitation of desired modes. Results are also presented showing effects on modes due to modes in other defects within the fiber and due to the proximity of defects to the fiber edge. Techniques and devices are described for controlling electrons within the defect(s). Various applications for electrons or other energetic charged particles produced by such photonic band gap fibers are also described.

  18. Recovery of uranium from seawater using amidoxime hollow fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, K.; Uezu, K.; Hori, T.; Furusaki, S.; Sugo, T.; Okamoto, J.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel amidoxime-group-containing adsorbent of hollow-fiber form (AO-H fiber) was prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto a polyethylene hollow fiber, followed by chemical conversion of the produced cyano group to an amidoxime group. Distribution of the amidoxime group was uniform throughout hollow-fiber membrane. The fixed-bed adsorption column, 30 cm in length and charged with the bundle of AO-H fibers, was found to adsorb uranium from natural seawater at a sufficiently high rate: 0.66 mg uranium per g of adsorbent in 25 days.

  19. Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deteresa, Steven J. (Livermore, CA); Lyon, Richard E. (Absecon, NJ); Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  20. The effect of clay catalyst on the chemical composition of bio-oil obtained by co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solak, Agnieszka; Rutkowski, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.rutkowski@pwr.wroc.pl

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Non-catalytic and catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene blend was carried out in a laboratory scale reactor. • Optimization of process temperature was done. • Optimization of clay catalyst type and amount for co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene was done. • The product yields and the chemical composition of bio-oil was investigated. - Abstract: Cellulose/polyethylene (CPE) mixture 3:1, w/w with and without three clay catalysts (K10 – montmorillonite K10, KSF – montmorillonite KSF, B – Bentonite) addition were subjected to pyrolysis at temperatures 400, 450 and 500 °C with heating rate of 100 °C/s to produce bio-oil with high yield. The pyrolytic oil yield was in the range of 41.3–79.5 wt% depending on the temperature, the type and the amount of catalyst. The non-catalytic fast pyrolysis at 500 °C gives the highest yield of bio-oil (79.5 wt%). The higher temperature of catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene mixture the higher yield of bio-oil is. Contrarily, increasing amount of montmorillonite results in significant, almost linear decrease in bio-oil yield followed by a significant increase of gas yield. The addition of clay catalysts to CPE mixture has a various influence on the distribution of bio-oil components. The addition of montmorillonite K10 to cellulose/polyethylene mixture promotes the deepest conversion of polyethylene and cellulose. Additionally, more saturated than unsaturated hydrocarbons are present in resultant bio-oils. The proportion of liquid hydrocarbons is the highest when a montmorillonite K10 is acting as a catalyst.

  1. Single-mode fiber, velocity interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauter, K. G.; Jacobson, G. F.; Patterson, J. R.; Nguyen, J. H.; Ambrose, W. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore California 94551 (United States)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we describe a velocity interferometer system based entirely on single-mode fiber optics. This paper includes a description of principles used in developing the single-mode velocity interferometry system (SMV). The SMV design is based on polarization-insensitive components. Polarization adjusters are included to eliminate the effects of residual birefringence and polarization dependent losses in the interferometers. Characterization measurements and calibration methods needed for data analysis and a method of data analysis are described. Calibration is performed directly using tunable lasers. During development, we demonstrated its operation using exploding-foil bridge-wire fliers up to 200 m/s. In a final test, we demonstrated the SMV in a gas gun experiment up to 1.2 km/sec. As a basis for comparison in the gas gun experiment, we used another velocimetry technique that is also based on single-mode fiber optics: photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV). For the gas gun experiment, we split the light returned from a single target spot and performed a direct comparison of the homodyne (SMV) and heterodyne (PDV) techniques concurrently. The two techniques had a negligible mean difference and a 1.5% standard deviation in the one-dimensional shock zone. Within one interferometer delay time after a sudden Doppler shift, a SMV unencumbered by multimode-fiber dispersion exhibits two color beats. These beats have the same period as PDV beats--this interference occurs between the ''recently'' shifted and ''formerly unshifted'' paths within the interferometer. We believe that recognizing this identity between homodyne and heterodyne beats is novel in the shock-physics field. SMV includes the conveniences of optical fiber, while removing the time resolution limitations associated with the multimode delivery fiber.

  2. Mechanical property evaluation of natural fiber coir composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harish, S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University (United States); Michael, D. Peter [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Guindy (India); Bensely, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Guindy (India)], E-mail: benzlee5@yahoo.com; Lal, D. Mohan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Guindy (India); Rajadurai, A. [Department of Production Engineering, Madras Institute of Technology (India)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fiber which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural. Past studies show that only artificial fibers such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fiber-reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fiber-reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of coir, a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheap. In the present work, coir composites are developed and their mechanical properties are evaluated. Scanning electron micrographs obtained from fractured surfaces were used for a qualitative evaluation of the interfacial properties of coir/epoxy and compared with glass fiber/epoxy. These results indicate that coir can be used as a potential reinforcing material for making low load bearing thermoplastic composites.

  3. Development of silicon nitride composites with continuous fiber reinforcement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, T.L.; Mohr, D.L.; Lackey, W.J.; Hanigofsky, J.A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Georgia Technology Research Inst.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The composites were fabricated using ultrafine Si powders prepared by attritor milling; the powders exhibits full conversion to Si nitride in < 3 h at {le} 1200 C (these conditions reduce degradation of the fibers compared to conventional). Effects of processing conditions on fiber properties and the use of fiber coatings to improve stability during processing as well as change the fiber-matrix interfacial properties were investigated. A duplex carbon-silicon carbide coating, deposited by CVD, reduced fiber degradation in processing, and it modified the fiber-matrix adhesion. Si nitride matrix composites were fabricated using reaction sintering, forming laminates, filament-wound plates, and tubes. In each case, an attritor milled Si powder slurry is infiltrated into ceramic fiber preforms or tows, which are then assembled to form a 3-D structure for reaction sintering. The resulting composites have properties comparable to chemical vapor infiltration densified composites, with reasonable strengths and graceful composite fracture behavior.

  4. Method for optical and mechanically coupling optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for splicing optical fibers. A fluorescing solder glass frit having a melting point lower than the melting point of first and second optical fibers is prepared. The solder glass frit is then attached to the end of the first optical fiber and/or the end of the second optical fiber. The ends of the optical fibers are aligned and placed in close proximity to each other. The solder glass frit is then heated to a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the first and second optical fibers, but which is high enough to melt the solder glass frit. A force is applied to the first and second optical fibers pushing the ends of the fibers towards each other. As the solder glass flit becomes molten, the layer of molten solder glass is compressed into a thin layer between the first and second optical fibers. The thin compressed layer of molten solder glass is allowed to cool such that the first and second optical fibers are bonded to each other by the hardened layer of solder glass.

  5. Photonic bandgap narrowing in conical hollow core Bragg fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Yildirim, Adem; Kanik, Mehmet [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Bayindir, Mehmet, E-mail: bayindir@nano.org.tr [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the photonic bandgap engineering of Bragg fibers by controlling the thickness profile of the fiber during the thermal drawing. Conical hollow core Bragg fibers were produced by thermal drawing under a rapidly alternating load, which was applied by introducing steep changes to the fiber drawing speed. In conventional cylindrical Bragg fibers, light is guided by omnidirectional reflections from interior dielectric mirrors with a single quarter wave stack period. In conical fibers, the diameter reduction introduced a gradient of the quarter wave stack period along the length of the fiber. Therefore, the light guided within the fiber encountered slightly smaller dielectric layer thicknesses at each reflection, resulting in a progressive blueshift of the reflectance spectrum. As the reflectance spectrum shifts, longer wavelengths of the initial bandgap cease to be omnidirectionally reflected and exit through the cladding, which narrows the photonic bandgap. A narrow transmission bandwidth is particularly desirable in hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensing schemes, where broadband light is coupled to the fiber and the analyte vapor is introduced into the hollow core to measure infrared absorption. We carried out sensing simulations using the absorption spectrum of isopropyl alcohol vapor to demonstrate the importance of narrow bandgap fibers in chemical sensing applications.

  6. Growing Crystaline Sapphire Fibers By Laser Heated Pedestal Techiques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phomsakha, Vongvilay (St. Petersburg, FL); Chang, Robert S. F. (Tampa, FL); Djeu, Nicholas I. (Tampa, FL)

    1997-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved system and process for growing crystal fibers comprising a means for creating a laser beam having a substantially constant intensity profile through its cross sectional area, means for directing the laser beam at a portion of solid feed material located within a fiber growth chamber to form molten feed material, means to support a seed fiber above the molten feed material, means to translate the seed fiber towards and away from the molten feed material so that the seed fiber can make contact with the molten feed material, fuse to the molten feed material and then be withdrawn away from the molten feed material whereby the molten feed material is drawn off in the form of a crystal fiber. The means for creating a laser beam having a substantially constant intensity profile through its cross sectional area includes transforming a previously generated laser beam having a conventional gaussian intensity profile through its cross sectional area into a laser beam having a substantially constant intensity profile through its cross sectional area by passing the previously generated laser beam through a graded reflectivity mirror. The means for directing the laser beam at a portion of solid feed material is configured to direct the laser beam at a target zone which contains the molten feed material and a portion of crystal fiber drawn off the molten feed material by the seed fiber. The means to support the seed fiber above the molten feed material is positioned at a predetermined height above the molten feed material. This predetermined height provides the seed fiber with sufficient length and sufficient resiliency so that surface tension in the molten feed material can move the seed fiber to the center of the molten feed material irrespective of where the seed fiber makes contact with the molten feed material. The internal atmosphere of the fiber growth chamber is composed substantially of Helium gas.

  7. Desorption of uranium from amidoxime fiber adsorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, Akira; Morooka, Shigeharu; Fukamachi, Masakazu; Kusakabe, Katsuki (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)); Kago, Tokihiro (Towa Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An amidoxime fibrous adsorbent is contacted with uranium-enriched seawater (10 ppm); about 10 mg uranium is loaded per 1 g dry fiber. Then the rate and yield of uranium desorption from the fiber are determined with various eluents. Acid solutions are superior to alkali carbonate solutions as eluents. With a 0.1 mol[center dot]L[sup [minus]1] HCl solution, desorption is completed in 2 hours regardless of the presence of uranium in the leaching solution up to 15 ppm ([approx]6 [times] 10[sup [minus]5]mol[center dot]L[sup [minus]1]). Serial operation of the adsorption-desorption cycle four times does not affect desorption efficiency, but the addition of heavy metal ions to the eluent at a level of 1.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]3]mol[center dot]L[sup [minus]1] significantly decreases desorption efficiency. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Temperature and electrical memory of polymer fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Jinkai; Zakri, Cécile; Grillard, Fabienne; Neri, Wilfrid; Poulin, Philippe [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal - CNRS, University of Bordeaux, Avenue Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report in this work studies of the shape memory behavior of polymer fibers loaded with carbon nanotubes or graphene flakes. These materials exhibit enhanced shape memory properties with the generation of a giant stress upon shape recovery. In addition, they exhibit a surprising temperature memory with a peak of generated stress at a temperature nearly equal to the temperature of programming. This temperature memory is ascribed to the presence of dynamical heterogeneities and to the intrinsic broadness of the glass transition. We present recent experiments related to observables other than mechanical properties. In particular nanocomposite fibers exhibit variations of electrical conductivity with an accurate memory. Indeed, the rate of conductivity variations during temperature changes reaches a well defined maximum at a temperature equal to the temperature of programming. Such materials are promising for future actuators that couple dimensional changes with sensing electronic functionalities.

  9. Fiber coatings and the fracture behavior of a continuous fiber ceramic composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.H.; Lowden, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites (CFCC) are being recognized as necessary for high-temperature structural applications. For instance, the applications of SiC/SiC composites in elevated-temperature structures, such as first wall, and high heat flux surfaces in fusion reactors, as well as in combustors and boiler components in power generation systems, have drawn considerable attention. In the present study, Nicalon{sup {reg_sign}} plane-weave fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites have been fabricated by forced chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) methods. The influence of fiber/matrix interface coating thickness on the fracture behavior of the continuous fiber reinforced SiC composites has been investigated. Experimental results indicate that fiber coating thickness significantly alters the fracture behavior of SiC composites. The fracture strength exhibits a maximum as the coating thickness increases. A mechanistic understanding of the fracture behavior is provided. Furthermore, a theoretical model is formulated to provide a better understanding of the effects of coating thickness on fracture behavior. The predicted fracture behavior was found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Ternary liquid scintillator for optical fiber applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multicomponent liquid scintillator solution for use as a radiation-to-light converter in conjunction with a fiber optic transmission system. The scintillator includes a quantity of 5-amino-9-diethylaminobenz (a) phenoxazonium nitrate (Nile Blue Nitrate) as a solute in a fluor solvent such as benzyl alcohol. The use of PPD as an additional solute is also disclosed. The system is controllable by addition of a suitable quenching agent, such as phenol.

  11. Tests of Complete Positivity in Fiber Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Benatti; R. Floreanini

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the propagation of polarized photons in optical fibers under the action of randomly generated noise. In such situation, the change in time of the photon polarization can be described by a quantum dynamical semigroup. We show that the hierarchy among the decay constants of the polarization density matrix elements as prescribed by complete positivity can be experimentally probed using standard laboratory set-ups.

  12. Indigestible fiber components as possible internal markers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Bernard Frederick

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fermentation procedures indicated that essentially maximum digestibility of both forage and feces was achieved after six days fermentation. The in oivo recovery of neutral detergent fiber indigestible after 6 days in vitro ranged from 78. 1 to 101. 6... (when available) samples and . 5 gram fecal samples were fermented in triplicate, eithe in nitro or in situ. Fermentation Procedures The in nitro technique used was a modification of the Van Soest and Wine (1967) procedure- in that 35 x 250 mm...

  13. Ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) treatment of grass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok, Ganesh

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution), high-temperature treatment, and freezing in water suspensions at -75 C (Millett, Baker, and Satter, 1975), Chemical pretreatments include alkali and ammonia swelling, dilute acid extraction, NO with alkali, explosive steam decompression, wet... for ruminants. Ammonia explosion pulping has been investigated as an approach to fiber separation in wood chips (O' Connor, 1971). Recent work on pretreatment techniques includes: pretreatment of cedar with peracetic acid and steam explosion to improve...

  14. Full Scale Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. Reported here are the results of tests of the full-scale 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT) and Saint Gobain, and is a follow-up report to an earlier one on a smaller prototype system.

  15. Processing of cellulosic material by a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from cellulase-producing bacteria, ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate, have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase degrading bacterium ATCC 55702, which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic materials.

  16. Single-crystal YAG fiber optics for the transmission of high energy laser energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Single-crystal YAG fiber optics for the transmission of high energy laser energy X.S. Zhua , James. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that YAG fibers will have high laser damage thresholds. The optical of YAG fiber grown has been about 60 cm. Keywords: Infrared fiber optics, single-crystal fibers, oxide

  17. CaRbON FibeR Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    for manufacturing carbon fiber and carbon-fiber-reinforced composite structures tend to be slow and energy intensive the development and growth of existing and new US carbon fiber and composites · Job Growth Seed regionalCaRbON FibeR TeChNOLOGy FaCiLiTy Demonstrating Innovative Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Energy

  18. Fractographic investigation of flaws in sintered SiC fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, G.V.; Venkateswaran, V. [Carborundum Company, Niagara Falls, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carborundum Company has developed a continuous process to produce multifilament, polycrystalline SiC fiber tow. The process uses a melt spinning approach to make the green fibers wherein the submicron SiC powder is mixed with polymers and the resulting compound is melt spun and extruded through a spinnerette. After extraction, the green fibers are sintered in a continuous sintering line. The properties of this fiber are given. This paper will describe the use of fractography in directing the fiber developmental efforts, specifically on characterization of strength-limiting defects and their origination. Fractographic analysis is also extended to determining strength of fibers at any gauge length and in identifying artifacts associated with the tensile strength testing technique.

  19. Progress in the development of scintillating optical fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borenstein, S.R.; Strand, R.C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting with 1 inch diameter PVT scintillator as a preform, the authors have drawn fibers of several diameters ranging from 1 to 4 mm. These fibers have been coated in line with the draw to form optical fibers. Several cladding materials whose index of refraction ranges from 1.35 to 1.55 have been used. The most successful fiber has been obtained with an extra thick (200 micron) cladding of silicone in combination with a linear draw, as opposed to a spool draw. This fiber is acceptable, but it is extremely fragile and its quality is difficult to control. The authors are currently constructing a 12 channel hodoscope with 1 mm spatial resolution using 4 mm diameter fibers. An account is also given of the progress made in using the Avalanche Photo Diode (APD) operated in the Geiger mode as the photo detector.

  20. Epoxy Nanocomposites - Curing Rheokinetics, Wetting and Adhesion to Fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilyin, S. O.; Kotomin, S. V.; Kulichikhin, V. G. [A.V.Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, 29, Leninskii Prospect, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Epoxy nanocomposites considered as challenging polymeric matrix for advanced reinforced plastics. Nanofillers change rheokinetics of epoxy resin curing, affect wetting and adhesion to aramid and carbon fibers. In all cases extreme dependence of adhesive strength vs filler content in the binder was observed. New experimental techniques were developed to study wettability and fiber-matrix adhesion interaction, using yarn penetration path length, aramid fiber knot pull-up test and electrical admittance of the fracture surface of CFRP.

  1. Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation for Slagging Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anbo Wang; Kristie Cooper

    2008-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal gasifier is one of the most promising solutions for clean fossil energy. Refractory thickness monitoring and online real-time temperature measurement is needed for improved reliability and advanced process control for current and future generation power plants. The objective of this program is to design and implement an optical fiber based sensing system that could potentially be used to monitor refractory wall thickness and temperature inside a coal gasifier. For the thickness monitoring, the system should be able to operate at temperatures up to 1000 C. For this temperature range, silica fiber can still work so it is chosen for the sensor design. The measurement is based on a photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. A narrow light pulse is launched into a silica fiber which could be embedded into the gasifier refractory wall, and is partially reflected by the far end of the fiber. The time of flight of the light pulse in the fiber then gives an indication of the position of the fiber end, which is a function of the wall thickness when the fiber is embedded. Results obtained show a measurement accuracy of {+-}2cm in environment of 1000 C with a saw cut fiber end. When the fiber end is corroded by sodium carbide at 900 C, the accuracy is {+-}3cm. For the temperature measurement, a single crystal sapphire fiber sensor is designed. The sapphire fiber guides the broadband light from a light emitting diode to a sapphire wafer functioning as a Fabry-Perot interferometer and the wafer optical thickness is a function of temperature. The returned optical signal is then demodulated by multimode fiber based whitelight interferometry. The system was tested up to 1500 C with a measurement accuracy of {+-}10 C for the entire measurement range.

  2. Characterization of carbon fibers: coefficient of thermal expansion and microstructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Raghav Shrikant

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    both the longitudinal and transverse CTE. The orthotropy in the CTE is tested by rotating the fibers through 45? about their axis. The method is validated by testing standard tungsten filaments of known CTE. Additionally, the microstructure... strain vs. temperature for tungsten................................... 40 Figure 3.3 Strain vs. temperature for P55 fiber.................................................... 42 Figure 3.4 Cross sectional images of IM7 fibers failed in bending...

  3. Faceted ceramic fibers, tapes or ribbons and epitaxial devices therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A crystalline article includes a single-crystal ceramic fiber, tape or ribbon. The fiber, tape or ribbon has at least one crystallographic facet along its length, which is generally at least one meter long. In the case of sapphire, the facets are R-plane, M-plane, C-plane or A-plane facets. Epitaxial articles, including superconducting articles, can be formed on the fiber, tape or ribbon.

  4. Faceted ceramic fibers, tapes or ribbons and epitaxial devices therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A crystalline article includes a single-crystal ceramic fiber, tape or ribbon. The fiber, tape or ribbon has at least one crystallographic facet along its length, which is generally at least one meter long. In the case of sapphire, the facets are R-plane, M-plane, C-plane or A-plane facets. Epitaxial articles, including superconducting articles, can be formed on the fiber, tape or ribbon.

  5. Fiber optics interface for a dye laser oscillator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dye laser oscillator in which one light beam is used to pump a continuous tream of dye within a cooperating dye chamber for producing a second, different beam is generally disclosed herein along with a specific arrangement including an optical fiber and a fiber optics interface for directing the pumping beam into the dye chamber. The specific fiber optics interface illustrated includes three cooperating lenses which together image one particular dimension of the pumping beam into the dye chamber from the output end of the optical fiber in order to insure that the dye chamber is properly illuminated by the pumping beam.

  6. Sandia Energy - Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency Home Renewable Energy Energy Partnership Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaic Research & Capabilities Solar...

  7. Characterization of commercial fiber optic connectors - Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Larry A.; Williams, Randy J.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several types of commercial fiber optic connectors were characterized for potential use in a Sandia designed Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) system. The characterization included optical performance while the connectors were subjected to the more dynamic environmental conditions experienced in weapons applications. The environmental testing included temperature cycling, random vibration, and mechanical shock. This report presents a performance assessment of the fiber optic connectors and fiber included in the characterization. The desirable design features are described for a fiber optic connector that must survive the dynamic environment of weapon systems. The more detailed performance of each connector type will be included as resources permit.

  8. Microsoft Word - CX -Marion to Santiam Fiber.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in Marion County, Oregon to BPA's Santiam Substation in Linn County, Oregon. The fiber optics along this route would provide additional support of BPA's internal operational needs...

  9. Resolving optical illumination distributions along an axially symmetric photodetecting fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorin, Fabien

    Photodetecting fibers of arbitrary length with internal metal, semiconductor and insulator domains have recently been demonstrated. These semiconductor devices exhibit a continuous translational symmetry which presents ...

  10. Resolving optical illumination distributions along an axially symmetric photodetecting fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lestoquoy, Guillaume

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photodetecting fibers of arbitrary length with internal metal, semiconductor and insulator domains have recently been demonstrated. These semiconductor devices display a continuous translational symmetry which presents ...

  11. A microcomputer control system for a fiber optic spectrophotometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spar, Steven Matthew

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SENSOR LICH'I SOURCE OPTICAL F I BER ~SAMPLE PHOTODE'IECTOR o r D o o n o 0 ~ o r Figure lb. Block Diagram of a Fiber Optic Spectrophotometer Fiber optic spectrophotometry uses the light conducting properties of tiny optical fibers... to carry the light to and from a remote sensor, as shown in Figure lb, page 2. At the tip of the fibers, a small chamber contains either the sample itself or an indicator for the sample, whose spectrophotometric properties change with the concentration...

  12. Analysis and Stability of Bent–Core Liquid Crystal Fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 21, 2011 ... We show that the relative size of the energy's elasticity con- ... energy to balance the tendency of surface tension to constrict the fiber and.

  13. Observation of images in graded-index multimode fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Begum, Sultana

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by dipping one end of the fiber in methanol. This is done so that when this end is fused to the pay-out single-mode fiber by applying an arc, the blue dye does not get inside the fiber when the cladding melts. A laser trimming system is used to mark... vary with time due to thenrial drifts in the wavelength of the laser 27 source, or to thermal or mechanical phase shifts in the fiber. If an aperture such as misaligned splice or mode-selective loss such as micro-or macro-bending is present...

  14. ash fiber fundamental: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT - DSpace Summary: We demonstrate significant shifting of the fundamental bandgap of a hollow-core Bragg fiber by systematically filling the core with liquids of various...

  15. GENERIC FIBER RINGS OF MIXED POWER SERIES/POLYNOMIAL ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fibers encode important information about the structure of R. For example, the. local ring R is ... National Security Agency for its support. Typeset by AMS-TEX. 1

  16. Validation of Material Models for Automotive Carbon Fiber Composite...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Validation of Material Models for Automotive Carbon Fiber Composite Structures (VMM) Libby Berger (General Motors), Omar Faruque (Ford) Co-Principal Investigators US Automotive...

  17. aramid fiber reinforced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Micromechanics analysis of Kevlar-29 aramid fiber and epoxy resin microdroplet composite by Micro-Raman spectroscopy Engineering Websites Summary: Micromechanics analysis of...

  18. Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Pursuing the Promise

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    over many structural materials, excellent corrosion resistance, and other desirable Carbon-fiber composite hood (inner panel) manufactured by Plasan Carbon Composites for the...

  19. NASA's Composite Portfolio: Department of Energy Workshop Fiber...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NASA 's Composites Portfolio Department of Energy Workshop Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Manufacturing Presented by: John Vickers January 13, 2014 www.nasa.gov...

  20. Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing - RFI DE-FOA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RFI DE-FOA-0000980: Summary of Responses Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing - RFI DE-FOA-0000980: Summary of Responses Summary of Responses to Request for Information...

  1. Multiparameter Fiber Optic Sensing System for Monitoring Enhanced...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sensing (DTSS), distributed pressure fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and coherent Rayleigh optical time domain reflectometry (COTDR) for distributed vibration sensing will be...

  2. Wavelength Assignment in Multi-Fiber WDM Networks by ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In this paper, we study wavelength assignment problems in multi-fiber WDM net- ... A comparison with linear programming lower bounds reveals that the bounds ...

  3. Optimization Online - Wavelength Assignment in Multi-Fiber WDM ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arie M.C.A. Koster

    2005-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 17, 2005 ... By this relation, we show that for a network with an even number of fibers ... proceedings of the International Network Optimization Conference, ...

  4. Fiber optics interface for a dye laser oscillator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, S.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1984-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A dye laser oscillator in which one light beam is used to pump a continuous stream of dye within a cooperating dye chamber for producing a second, different beam is generally disclosed herein along with a specific arrangement including an optical fiber and a fiber optics interface for directing the pumping beam into the dye chamber. The specific fiber optics interface illustrated includes three cooperating lenses which together image one particular dimension of the pumping beam into the dye chamber from the output end of the optical fiber in order to insure that the dye chamber is properly illuminated by the pumping beam.

  5. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the ALM Materials Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Fiber Research in the ALM Materials Program 27 February 2008 C. David (Dave) Warren Field Technical Manager Transportation Composite Materials Research Oak Ridge National...

  6. Biochar Produced from Anaerobically Digested Fiber Reduces Phosphorus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lagoons. Abstract: This study evaluated the use of biochar produced from anaerobic digester dairy fiber (ADF) to sequester phosphorus (P) from dairy lagoons. The ADF was...

  7. Fiber optic quality assurance at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manning, J.; Baumgart, S.; Malone, R.; Thayer, D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large number of fiber optic cables were used in support of a neutron imaging experiment at the Nevada Test Site. This paper describes the quality control testing of fiber components used on this experiment. The principal reason for quality control testing was to ensure reliable, high transmission fibers; a secondary reason was to gain data on a large sample of fiber cables in the field. Also described is the instrumentation developed for carrying out these field measurements. The design of the quality control instrumentation was a compromise between accuracy and simplicity of use.

  8. acid detergent fiber: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent work on pretreatment techniques includes: pretreatment of cedar with peracetic acid and steam explosion to improve... AMMONIA FIBER EXPLOSION (AFEX) TREATMENT OF GRASS A...

  9. High-power, hybrid Er:fiber/Tm:fiber frequency comb source in the 2 {\\mu}m wavelength region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Florian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a 2-\\mum frequency comb based on a reliable mode-locked Er:fiber laser with 100 MHz repetition rate. After shifting the spectrum of the amplified Er:fiber comb to longer wavelengths, a single-clad Tm/Ho:fiber is used as a self-pumped pre-amplifier to generate a coherent and broadband spectrum centered at 1.93 \\mum. Subsequently, a cladding-pumped Tm:fiber amplifier boosts the system to a maximum output power of 4.8 W at 1.96 \\mum. After compression in a compact grating compressor, our amplified Er:fiber/Tm:fiber hybrid system delivers as much as 2.9 W with a pulse duration of 141 fs. The system's comb properties are examined via heterodyne measurement.

  10. Preparation and dielectric properties of SiC nanowires self-sacrificially templated by carbonated bacterial cellulose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Lixia; Ma, Yongjun; Dai, Bo [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)] [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhou, Yong [Eco-materials and Renewable Energy Research Center (ERERC), School of Physics, National Lab of Solid State Microstructure, ERERC, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)] [Eco-materials and Renewable Energy Research Center (ERERC), School of Physics, National Lab of Solid State Microstructure, ERERC, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Jinsong [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)] [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Pei, Chonghua, E-mail: peichonghua@swust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)] [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? A new material – CBC is introduced as a template to prepare SiC nanowires. ? SiC nanowires are synthesized by the infiltration process of reactive vapor Si. ? The highest ?? of ?-SiC nanowires is obtained at 1400 °C. -- Abstract: SiC nanowires were synthesized by the infiltration process of reactive vapor Si in Ar atmosphere at 1350–1450 °C, using carbonated bacterial cellulose (CBC) as carbon template and a reactant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and vector network analyzer were employed to characterize the samples. The diameter of the resulting ?-SiC nanowires changes with calcination temperatures, specifically, 35–60 nm for 1350 °C, 40–80 nm for 1400 °C, and 30–60 nm for 1450 °C. The ?-SiC nanowires obtained at 1400 °C possess the highest ?? of complex permittivity.

  11. Tests of concrete beams with externally-bonded glass-fiber fabric web reinforcement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabholkar, Niranjan Shamsunder

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with vertical glass fibers as tools for shear strengthening and carbon fiber fabrics for flexural strengthening of concrete beams. The experimental study involved testing of two unreinforced control beams and seven other beams with different composite fiber...

  12. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Liao, James C [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

  13. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 12, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2003 907 Digitally Tunable Microfluidic Optical Fiber Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Microfluidic Optical Fiber Devices Francesco Cattaneo, Kirk Baldwin, Shu Yang, Tom Krupenkine, Siddharth microfluidic optical fiber devices. In these systems, mul- tiple, independently controlled microfluidic plugs, optical de- vice fabrication, optical fiber applications, optical fiber devices. I. INTRODUCTION TUNABLE

  14. Method for the continuous processing of hermetic fiber optic components and the resultant fiber optic-to-metal components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, D.P.

    1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components and method for making hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components by assembling and fixturing elements comprising a metal shell, a glass preform, and a metal-coated fiber optic into desired relative positions and then sealing said fixtured elements preferably using a continuous heating process is disclosed. The resultant hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components exhibit high hermeticity and durability despite the large differences in thermal coefficients of expansion among the various elements. 3 figs.

  15. COMPRESSION STRENGTH OF CARBON FIBER LAMINATES CONTAINING FLAWS WITH FIBER WAVINESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    compression strengths and failure strains which are borderline for wind turbine blade designs, depending upon the subject of recent studies of blade materials [1-5] and earlier studies of aerospace prepreg laminates [5 by RTM. Recent interest in blade materials has shown a significant shift toward carbon fiber and hybrids

  16. Collective Langevin Dynamics of Flexible Cytoskeletal Fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francois Nedelec; Dietrich Foethke

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a numerical method to simulate mechanical objects in a viscous medium at a scale where inertia is negligible. Fibers, spheres and other voluminous objects are represented with points. Different types of connections are used to link the points together and in this way create composite mechanical structures. The motion of such structures in a Brownian environment is described by a first-order multivariate Langevin equation. We propose a computationally efficient method to integrate the equation, and illustrate the applicability of the method to cytoskeletal modeling with several examples.

  17. Kinetics of digestion f forage fiber components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Hellen, Russell William

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Herzudagrass Katurity Cuttings . . 69 INTHODUCTIOii Fiber is cell wall material composed chiefly of structural carbohydrates wnich are digested by the rumin- ant at one site, the reticulo-rumen, via microbial degra. ? dation and fermen ation to metabolitee... was thought to be involved when whole plant structure was digested in vitro or in situ in contrast to finely ground samples as used in foregoing experiments The forage entering the reticulo-rumen does so in a coarser physical form than that of a sample...

  18. Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy Chinaof EnergyImpactOnSTATEMENT OF DAVIDTheJune 6, 2012.DepartmentDE-FOA-0001056:Fiber

  19. Low-Cost Carbon-Fiber Integration / Users Facility and Commercializati...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low-Cost Carbon-Fiber Integration Users Facility and Commercialization of Textile Precursors Low-Cost Carbon-Fiber Integration Users Facility and Commercialization of Textile...

  20. ON THE SIMULATION OF KINK BANDS IN FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ON THE SIMULATION OF KINK BANDS IN FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES Kim D. Sørensen , Lars P. Mikkelsen reinforced composites are carried out using the commercial finite element program ABAQUS. A smeared in fiber reinforced composites has been the subject of a number of recent investigations. It has been found