National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rock migration pathway

  1. Chemical migration by contact metamorphism between pegmatite and country rocks: natural analogs for radionuclide migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Walker, R.J.; Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Simon, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Comparison of trace element signatures of country rocks as a function of distance from the contact with two pegmatites, Tin Mountain and Etta, in the Black Hills of South Dakota, suggests that some elements such as K, Li, Rb, Cs, As, Sb, Zn and Pb, have migrated to distances of 4 to 40 meters during contact metamorphism. The relative degree of migration varies depending on the element. On the other hand, there is virtually no migration of rare earth elements (REE), Al, Sc, Cr, Hf, U, and Th. Biotite and muscovite are effective trace element traps for Li, Rb, and Cs. Biotite has a greater affinity for Rb, Cs and Li than muscovite. 9 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  2. Chemical migration by contact metamorphism between pegmatite/country rocks: natural analogs for radionuclides migration. [Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Walker, R.J.; Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Simon, S.B.

    1983-10-01

    Comparison of trace element signatures of country rocks as a function of distance from the contact with two pegmatites, Tin Mountain and Etta, in the Black Hills of South Dakota, suggests that some elements such as K, Li, Rb, Cs, As, Sb, Zn and Pb, have migrated to distances of 4 to 40 meters during contact metamorphism. The relative degree of migration varies depending on the element. On the other hand, there is virtually no migration of rare earth elements (REE), Al, Sc, Cr, Hf, U, and Th. Biotite and muscovite are effective trace element traps for Li, Rb and Cs. Biotite has a greater affinity for Rb, Cs and Li than muscovite.

  3. Rocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rocks Rocks Rocks have been used by mankind throughout history. In geology, rock is a naturally occurring composite of one or more minerals or mineraloids. One of our most popular...

  4. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samarzija, Ivana; Beard, Peter

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  5. A 4D Synchrotron X-Ray-Tomography Study of the Formation of Hydrocarbon- Migration Pathways in Heated Organic-Rich Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamed Panahi; Paul Meakin; Francois Renard; Maya Kobchenko; Julien Scheibert; Adriano Mazzini; Bjorn Jamtveit; Anders Malthe-Sorenssen; Dag Kristian Dysthe

    2013-04-01

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interest in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low-permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydrocarbon formation in source rocks, expulsion timing, and how the resulting hydrocarbons escape from or are retained in the source rocks motivates further investigation. In particular, many mechanisms have been proposed for the transport of hydrocarbons from the rocks in which they are generated into adjacent rocks with higher permeabilities and smaller capillary entry pressures, and a better understanding of this complex process (primary migration) is needed. To characterize these processes, it is imperative to use the latest technological advances. In this study, it is shown how insights into hydrocarbon migration in source rocks can be obtained by using sequential high-resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. Three-dimensional images of several immature "shale" samples were constructed at resolutions close to 5 um. This is sufficient to resolve the source-rock structure down to the grain level, but very-fine-grained silt particles, clay particles, and colloids cannot be resolved. Samples used in this investigation came from the R-8 unit in the upper part of the Green River shale, which is organic rich, varved, lacustrine marl formed in Eocene Lake Uinta, USA. One Green River shale sample was heated in situ up to 400 degrees C as X-ray-tomography images were recorded. The other samples were scanned before and after heating at 400 degrees C. During the heating phase, the organic matter was decomposed, and gas was released. Gas expulsion from the low-permeability shales was coupled with formation of microcracks. The main technical difficulty was numerical extraction of microcracks that have apertures in the 5- to 30-um range (with 5 um being the resolution limit) from a large 3D volume of X-ray attenuation data. The main goal of the work presented here is to develop a methodology to process these 3D data and image the cracks. This methodology is based on several levels of spatial filtering and automatic recognition of connected domains. Supportive petrographic and thermogravimetric data were an important complement to this study. An investigation of the strain field using 2D image correlation analyses was also performed. As one application of the 4D (space + time) microtomography and the developed workflow, we show that fluid generation was accompanied by crack formation. Under different conditions, in the subsurface, this might provide paths for primary migration.

  6. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Roger N.; Boulanger, Albert; Bagdonas, Edward P.; Xu, Liqing; He, Wei

    1996-01-01

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells.

  7. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.N.; Boulanger, A.; Bagdonas, E.P.; Xu, L.; He, W.

    1996-12-17

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells. 22 figs.

  8. Assessment of thermal evolution stages and oil-gas migration of carbonate source rocks of early tertiary in eastern Sichuan, China, by organic inclusion analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Jixi; Li Benchao; Fu Jiamo

    1989-03-01

    The Jialinjiang Formation of early Tertiary in Sichuan, China, is a series of limestone and dolomite sediments deposited in a platform shoal environment. The diagenetic sequence and organic inclusions trapped in minerals of 95 samples from 20 drillings have been studied. At the late diagenetic stage, pale yellow organic inclusions consisted of liquid hydrocarbons disseminated in pore-infiltrating dolomite, and the homogeneous temperature of contemporaneous saline liquid inclusions possessing a low gas-liquid ratio was 86/degree/C. This indicates the evolution of the organic matter had gone over the oil generating threshold and oil formation had initiated. In the limestone formed at the late diagenetic stage, more brown-yellow organic inclusions were scattered and/or developed along with fissures, comprising 60-70% liquid hydrocarbons and 30-40% gaseous hydrocarbons. Contemporaneous saline liquid inclusions with gas-liquid ratios of 5-10% had homogeneous temperatures of 90/degree/-130/degree/C. These findings show that the organic material had entered a high evolution stage and oil migration had taken place on a large scale.

  9. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase suppresses U-2 OS cell invasion and migration via downregulating the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Tao Fang; Wang, Heng; Peng, Ai Fen; Luo, Qing Feng; Liu, Zhi Li; Zhou, Rong Ping; Gao, Song; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Wen Zhao

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We investigate the relationship between FASN and HER2 or p-HER2 by IHC in OS tissues. •We construct FASN-specific RNAi plasmid. •Inhibiting FASN down-regulates HER2/PI3K/AKT cell signaling in U-2 OS. •Inhibiting FASN blocks U-2 OS cell invasion and migration. -- Abstract: FASN plays an important role in the malignant phenotype of various tumors. Our previous studies show that inhibition FASN could induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in human osteosarcoma (OS) cell in vivo and vitro. The aim in this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition FASN on the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT axis and invasion and migration of OS cell. The expression of FASN, HER2 and p-HER2(Y1248) proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry in OS tissues from 24 patients with pulmonary metastatic disease, and the relationship between FASN and p-HER2 as well as HER2 was investigated. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between FASN and HER2 as well as p-HER2 protein expression. The U-2 OS cells were transfected with either the FASN specific RNAi plasmid or the negative control RNAi plasmid. FASN mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. Western blot assays was performed to examine the protein expression of FASN, HER2, p-HER2(Y1248), PI3K, Akt and p-Akt (Ser473). Migration and invasion of cells were investigated by wound healing and transwell invasion assays. The results showed that the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was suppressed by inhibiting FASN. Meanwhile, the U-2OS cells migration and invasion were also impaired by inhibiting the activity of FASN/HER2/PI3K/AKT. Our results indicated that inhibition of FASN suppresses OS cell invasion and migration via down-regulation of the “HER2/PI3K/AKT” axis in vitro. FASN blocker may be a new therapeutic strategy in OS management.

  10. Characterization of calculation of in-situ retardation factors of contaminant transport using naturally-radionuclides and rock/water interaction occurring U-Series disequilibria timescales. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roback, R.; Murrel, M.; Goldstein, S.; Ku, T.L.; Luo, S.

    1997-01-01

    'The research is directed toward a quantitative assessment of contaminant transport rates in fracture-rock systems using uranium-series radionuclides. Naturally occurring uranium-and thorium-series radioactive disequilibria will provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of radioactive contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting. This study will also provide an improved characterization of preferential flow and contaminant transport at the Idaho Environmental and Engineering Lab. (INEEL) site. To a lesser extent, the study will include rocks in the unsaturated zone. The authors will produce a realistic model of radionuclide migration under unsaturated and saturated field conditions at the INEEL site, taking into account the retardation processes involved in the rock/water interaction. The major tasks are to (1) determine the natural distribution of U, Th, Pa and Ra isotopes in rock minerals. sorbed phases on the rocks, and in fluids from both saturated and unsaturated zones at the site, and (2) study rock/water interaction processes using U/Th series disequilibrium and a statistical analysis-based model for the Geologic heterogeneity plays an important role in transporting contaminants in fractured rocks. Preferential flow paths in the fractured rocks act as a major pathway for transport of radioactive contaminants in groundwaters. The weathering/dissolution of rock by groundwater also influences contaminant mobility. Thus, it is important to understand the hydrogeologic features of the site and their impact on the migration of radioactive contaminants. In this regard, quantification of the rock weathering/dissolution rate and fluid residence time from the observed decay-series disequilibria will be valuable. By mapping the spatial distribution of the residence time of groundwater in fractured rocks, the subsurface preferential flow paths (with high rock permeability and short fluid residence time) can be determined.'

  11. Failure of cap-rock seals as determined from mechanical stratigraphy, stress history, and tensile-failure analysis of exhumed analogs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Petrie, E. S.; Evans, J. P.; Bauer, S. J.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the sedimentologic and tectonic histories of clastic cap rocks and their inherent mechanical properties control the nature of permeable fractures within them. The migration of fluid through mm- to cm-scale fracture networks can result in focused fluid flow allowing hydrocarbon production from unconventional reservoirs or compromising the seal integrity of fluid traps. To understand the nature and distribution of subsurface fluid-flow pathways through fracture networks in cap-rock seals we examine four exhumed Paleozoic and Mesozoic seal analogs in Utah. We combine these outcrop analyses with subsidence analysis, paleoloading histories, and rock-strength testing data in modified Mohr–Coulomb–Griffith analysesmore » to evaluate the effects of differential stress and rock type on fracture mode.« less

  12. Failure of cap-rock seals as determined from mechanical stratigraphy, stress history, and tensile-failure analysis of exhumed analogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrie, E. S.; Evans, J. P.; Bauer, S. J.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the sedimentologic and tectonic histories of clastic cap rocks and their inherent mechanical properties control the nature of permeable fractures within them. The migration of fluid through mm- to cm-scale fracture networks can result in focused fluid flow allowing hydrocarbon production from unconventional reservoirs or compromising the seal integrity of fluid traps. To understand the nature and distribution of subsurface fluid-flow pathways through fracture networks in cap-rock seals we examine four exhumed Paleozoic and Mesozoic seal analogs in Utah. We combine these outcrop analyses with subsidence analysis, paleoloading histories, and rock-strength testing data in modified Mohr–Coulomb–Griffith analyses to evaluate the effects of differential stress and rock type on fracture mode.

  13. The oil and gas potential of southern Bolivia: Contributions from a dual source rock system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartshorn, K.G.

    1996-08-01

    The southern Sub-Andean and Chaco basins of Bolivia produce oil, gas and condensate from reservoirs ranging from Devonian to Tertiary in age. Geochemical evidence points to contributions from two Paleozoic source rocks: the Devonian Los Monos Formation and the Silurian Kirusillas Formation. Rock-Eval pyrolysis, biomarker data, microscopic kerogen analysis, and burial history modeling are used to assess the quality, distribution, and maturity of both source rock systems. The geochemical results are then integrated with the structural model for the area in order to determine the most likely pathways for migration of oil and gas in the thrust belt and its foreland. Geochemical analysis and modeling show that the primary source rock, shales of the Devonian Los Monos Formation, entered the oil window during the initial phase of thrusting in the sub-Andean belt. This provides ideal timing for oil accumulation in younger reservoirs of the thrust belt. The secondary source rock, although richer, consumed most of its oil generating capacity prior to the development of the thrust related structures. Depending on burial depth and location, however, the Silurian source still contributes gas, and some oil, to traps in the region.

  14. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XV : Evaluation of the 2007 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Salmon and Steelhead Smolts to Rock Island, Lower Granite, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams using Program RealTime.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griswold, Jim; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-12-01

    Program RealTime provided monitoring and forecasting of the 2007 inseason outmigrations via the internet for 26 PIT-tagged stocks of wild ESU Chinook salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams, one PIT-tagged hatchery-reared ESU of sockeye salmon to Lower Granite Dam, one PIT-tagged wild stock of sockeye salmon to McNary Dam, and 20 passage-indexed runs-at-large, five each to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville dams. Nineteen stocks are of wild yearling Chinook salmon which were captured, PIT-tagged, and released at sites above Lower Granite Dam in 2007 and have at least one year's historical migration data previous to the 2007 migration. These stocks originate in 19 tributaries of the Salmon, Grande Ronde and Clearwater Rivers, all tributaries to the Snake River, and are subsequently detected through tag identification and monitored at Lower Granite Dam. Seven wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large of Snake or Upper Columbia River ESU salmon and steelhead were monitored at McNary Dam. Three wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large were monitored at Lower Granite Dam, consisting of the yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and the steelhead runs. The hatchery-reared PIT-tagged sockeye salmon stock from Redfish Lake was monitored outmigrating through Lower Granite Dam. Passage-indexed stocks (stocks monitored by FPC passage indices) included combined wild and hatchery runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead forecasted to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville dams.

  15. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIV; Evaluation of 2006 Prediction of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Salmon and Steelhead at Rock Island, Lower Granite, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams using Program Real Time, Technical Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griswold, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Program RealTime provided monitoring and forecasting of the 2006 inseason outmigrations via the internet for 32 PIT-tagged stocks of wild ESU chinook salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams, one PIT-tagged hatchery-reared ESU of sockeye salmon to Lower Granite Dam, and 20 passage-indexed runs-at-large, five each to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams. Twenty-four stocks are of wild yearling chinook salmon which were captured, PIT-tagged, and released at sites above Lower Granite Dam in 2006, and have at least one year's historical migration data previous to the 2006 migration. These stocks originate in drainages of the Salmon, Grande Ronde and Clearwater Rivers, all tributaries to the Snake River, and are subsequently detected through the tag identification and monitored at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, seven wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large of Snake or Upper Columbia River ESU salmon and steelhead were monitored at McNary Dam. Three wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large were monitored at Lower Granite Dam, consisting of the yearling and subyearling chinook salmon and the steelhead trout runs. The hatchery-reared PIT-tagged sockeye salmon stock from Redfish Lake was monitored outmigrating through Lower Granite Dam. Passage-indexed stocks (stocks monitored by FPC passage indices) included combined wild and hatchery runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout forecasted to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams.

  16. A Multidisciplinary Approach To Detect Active Pathways For Magma...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Multidisciplinary Approach To Detect Active Pathways For Magma Migration And Eruption At Mt Etna (Sicily, Italy) Before The 2001 And 2002-2003 Eruptions Jump to: navigation, search...

  17. Modeling of Carbon Migration During JET Injection Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, J. D.; Likonen, J.; Coad, P.; Rubel, M.; Widdowson, A.; Airila, M.; Andrew, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Corrigan, G.; Esser, H. G.; Jachmich, S.; Kallenbach, A.; Kirschner, A.; Kreter, A.; Matthews, G. F.; Philipps, V.; Pitts, R. A.; Spence, J.; Stamp, M.; Wiesen, S.

    2008-10-15

    JET has performed two dedicated carbon migration experiments on the final run day of separate campaigns (2001 and 2004) using {sup 13}CH{sub 4} methane injected into repeated discharges. The EDGE2D/NIMBUS code modelled the carbon migration in both experiments. This paper describes this modelling and identifies a number of important migration pathways: (1) deposition and erosion near the injection location, (2) migration through the main chamber SOL, (3) migration through the private flux region aided by E x B drifts, and (4) neutral migration originating near the strike points. In H-Mode, type I ELMs are calculated to influence the migration by enhancing erosion during the ELM peak and increasing the long-range migration immediately following the ELM. The erosion/re-deposition cycle along the outer target leads to a multistep migration of {sup 13}C towards the separatrix which is called 'walking'. This walking created carbon neutrals at the outer strike point and led to {sup 13}C deposition in the private flux region. Although several migration pathways have been identified, quantitative analyses are hindered by experimental uncertainty in divertor leakage, and the lack of measurements at locations such as gaps and shadowed regions.

  18. Rock Island Dam Smolt Monitoring; 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truscott, Keith B.; Fielder, Paul C.

    1995-10-01

    Downstream migrating salmon and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) smolts were monitored at the Rock Island Dam bypass trap from April 1 - August 31, 1954. This was the tenth consecutive year that the bypass trap was monitored. Data collected included: (1) number of fish caught by species, (2) number of adipose clipped and/or Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tagged fish caught by species, (3) daily average riverflow, (4) daily average powerhouse No. 1 and No. 2 flows and daily average spill. These data were transmitted to the Fish Passage Center, which manages the Smolt Monitoring Program throughout the Columbia River Basin. The Smolt Monitoring Program is used to manage the {open_quotes}water budget{close_quotes}, releasing upstream reservoir water storage allocated to supplement river flows to enhance survival of downstream migrating juvenile salmonids. The Rock Island Dam trapping facility collected 37,795 downstream migrating salmonids in 1994. Collected fish included 4 yearling and 4 sub-yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) that had been previously PIT tagged to help determine migration rates. Additionally, 1,132 sub-yearling chinook, 4,185 yearling chinook, 6,627 steelhead, (O. mykiss) and 422 sockeye (O. nerka) with clipped adipose fins were collected. The middle 80% of the 1994 spring migration (excluding sub-yearling chinooks) passed Rock Island Dam during a 34 day period, April 25 - May 28. Passage rates of chinook and steelhead smolts released from hatcheries and the downstream migration timing of all salmonids are presented. The spring migration timing of juvenile salmonids is strongly influenced by hatchery releases above Rock Island Dam.

  19. Graphene Layer Growth: Collision of Migrating Five-MemberRings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitesides, Russell; Kollias, Alexander C.; Domin, Dominik; Lester Jr., William A.; Frenklach, Michael

    2005-12-02

    A reaction pathway is explored in which two cyclopenta groups combine on the zigzag edge of a graphene layer. The process is initiated by H addition to a five-membered ring, followed by opening of that ring and the formation of a six-membered ring adjacent to another five-membered ring. The elementary steps of the migration pathway are analyzed using density functional theory to examine the region of the potential energy surface associated with the pathway. The calculations are performed on a substrate modeled by the zigzag edge of tetracene. Based on the obtained energetics, the dynamics of the system are analyzed by solving the energy transfer master equations. The results indicate energetic and reaction-rate similarity between the cyclopenta combination and migration reactions. Also examined in the present study are desorption rates of migrating cyclopenta rings which are found to be comparable to cyclopenta ring migration.

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Slick Rock

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Slick Rock Slick Rock Sites slick_map Slick Rock Disposal Site Slick Rock Processing Site Last Updated: 12/14

  1. Detached rock evaluation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A rock detachment evaluation device (10) having an energy transducer unit 1) for sensing vibrations imparted to a subject rock (172) for converting the sensed vibrations into electrical signals, a low band pass filter unit (12) for receiving the electrical signal and transmitting only a low frequency segment thereof, a high band pass filter unit (13) for receiving the electrical signals and for transmitting only a high frequency segment thereof, a comparison unit (14) for receiving the low frequency and high frequency signals and for determining the difference in power between the signals, and a display unit (16) for displaying indicia of the difference, which provides a quantitative measure of rock detachment.

  2. Rock slope stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kliche, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    Whether you're involved in surface mine design, surface mine production, construction, education, or regulation, this is an important new book for your library. It describes the basic rock slope failure modes and methods of analysis--both kinematic and kinetic techniques. Chapters include geotechnical and geomechanical analysis techniques, hydrology, rock slope stabilization techniques, and geotechnical instrumentation and monitoring. Numerous examples, drawings and photos enhance the text.

  3. Source rock screening studies of Ordovician Maquoketa shale in western Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Autrey, A.; Crockett, J.E.; Dickerson, D.R.; Oltz, D.F.; Seyler, B.J.; Warren, R.

    1987-09-01

    Rock-Eval (pyrolysis) studies of Ordovician Maquoketa Shale samples (cuttings and cores) from the shallow subsurface (500-800 ft deep) in western Illinois indicate that facies within the Maquoketa have potential as hydrocarbon source rocks. Dark, presumably organic-rich zones within the Maquoketa Shale were selected and analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), Rock-Eval (pyrolysis), and bulk and clay mineralogy using x-ray diffraction. Preliminary results from six samples from Schuyler, McDonough, and Fulton Counties show TOC values ranging from 4.70% to as high as 12.90%. Rock-Eval parameters, measured by heating organic matter in an inert atmosphere, indicate source rock maturity and petroleum-generative potential. Screening studies, using the Rock-Eval process, describe very good source rock potential in facies of the Maquoketa Shale. Further studies at the Illinois State Geological Survey will expand on these preliminary results. This study complements a proposed exploration model in western Illinois and further suggests the possibility of source rocks on the flanks of the Illinois basin. Long-distance migration from more deeply buried effective source rocks in southern Illinois has been the traditional mechanism proposed for petroleum in basin-flank reservoirs. Localized source rocks can be an alternative to long-distance migration, and can expand the possibilities of basin-flank reservoirs, encouraging further exploration in these areas.

  4. TOWARD CHEMICAL CONSTRAINTS ON HOT JUPITER MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Amin, Mustafa A.; Kennedy, Grant M., E-mail: nmadhu@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-10

    The origin of hot Jupitersgas giant exoplanets orbiting very close to their host starsis a long-standing puzzle. Planet formation theories suggest that such planets are unlikely to have formed in situ but instead may have formed at large orbital separations beyond the snow line and migrated inward to their present orbits. Two competing hypotheses suggest that the planets migrated either through interaction with the protoplanetary disk during their formation, or by disk-free mechanisms such as gravitational interactions with a third body. Observations of eccentricities and spin-orbit misalignments of hot Jupiter systems have been unable to differentiate between the two hypotheses. In the present work, we suggest that chemical depletions in hot Jupiter atmospheres might be able to constrain their migration mechanisms. We find that sub-solar carbon and oxygen abundances in Jovian-mass hot Jupiters around Sun-like stars are hard to explain by disk migration. Instead, such abundances are more readily explained by giant planets forming at large orbital separations, either by core accretion or gravitational instability, and migrating to close-in orbits via disk-free mechanisms involving dynamical encounters. Such planets also contain solar or super-solar C/O ratios. On the contrary, hot Jupiters with super-solar O and C abundances can be explained by a variety of formation-migration pathways which, however, lead to solar or sub-solar C/O ratios. Current estimates of low oxygen abundances in hot Jupiter atmospheres may be indicative of disk-free migration mechanisms. We discuss open questions in this area which future studies will need to investigate.

  5. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one location varies. Fracturing started in the southwest deep in the stratigraphic section during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, moving northeastward and upsection as the Colville basin filled from the west. Active fracturing is occurring today in the northeastern parts of the Colville basin, north of the northeastern Brooks thrust front. Across northern Alaska, the early deep basin fractures were probably synchronous with hydrocarbon generation. Initially, these early fractures would have been good migration pathways, but would have been destroyed where subsequently overridden by the advancing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. However, at these locations younger fracture sets related to folding and thrusting could have enhanced reservoir permeability and/or served as vertical migration pathways to overlying structural traps.

  6. Modeling Leaking Gas Plume Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, Dmitriy; Patzek, Tad; Benson, Sally M.

    2007-08-20

    In this study, we obtain simple estimates of 1-D plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. Application of the Buckley-Leverett model to describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases leads to a transparent theory predicting the evolution of the plume. We obtain that the plume does not migrate upward like a gas bubble in bulk water. Rather, it stretches upward until it reaches a seal or until the fluids become immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration that does not lend itself to a simple analytical solution (Silin et al., 2006). The range of applicability of the simplified solution is assessed and provided. This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. One of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is leakage of CO{sub 2} from the underground storage reservoir into sources of drinking water. Ideally, the injected green-house gases will stay in the injection zone for a geologically long time and eventually will dissolve in the formation brine and remain trapped by mineralization. However, naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leak from primary storage. Even in supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the indigenous formation brine. Therefore, buoyancy will tend to drive the CO{sub 2} upward unless it is trapped beneath a low permeability seal. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution, are critical for developing technology, monitoring policy, and regulations for carbon dioxide geologic sequestration protecting the sources of potable water.

  7. Beware of migrating animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beware of Migrating Animals Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:May 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Beware of migrating animals Keep an eye out for wildlife on roadways and in recreational areas, and take extra caution while driving or hiking. November 1, 2012 dummy image Read our archives Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email Those who encounter injured and or aggressive

  8. Molecular pathways of angiogenesis inhibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabruyn, Sebastien P.; Griffioen, Arjan W. . E-mail: aw.griffioen@path.unimaas.nl

    2007-03-30

    A large body of evidence now demonstrates that angiostatic therapy represents a promising way to fight cancer. This research recently resulted in the approval of First angiostatic agent for clinical treatment of cancer. Progress has been achieved in decrypting the cellular signaling in endothelial cells induced by angiostatic agents. These agents predominantly interfere with the molecular pathways involved in migration, proliferation and endothelial cell survival. In the current review, these pathways are discussed. A thorough understanding of the mechanism of action of angiostatic agents is required to develop efficient anti-tumor therapies.

  9. Hunting space rocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hunting space rocks Hunting space rocks Nina Lanza is studying the solar system by spending six weeks on an ice sheet in Antarctica. The 36-year-old staff scientist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico is on a treasure hunt of sorts. January 15, 2016 Nina Lanza Nina Lanza is part of a team driving across the Trans-Antarctica Mountains on snowmobiles in search of meteorites. (Courtesy of Nina Lanza) "One of the most interesting things from meteorites is every rocky body has a

  10. Engineering rock mass classifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1989-01-01

    This book is a reference on rock mass classification, consolidating into one handy source information widely scattered through the literature. Includes new, unpublished material and case histories. Presents the fundamental concepts of classification schemes and critically appraises their practical application in industrial projects such as tunneling and mining.

  11. Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

    1995-01-26

    Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

  12. Strontium Isotopic Composition of Paleozoic Carbonate Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Vicinity, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada and Inyo County, California.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James B. Paces; Zell E. Peterman; Kiyoto Futa; Thomas A. Oliver; and Brian D. Marshall.

    2007-08-07

    Ground water moving through permeable Paleozoic carbonate rocks represents the most likely pathway for migration of radioactive contaminants from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The strontium isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of ground water offers a useful means of testing hydrochemical models of regional flow involving advection and reaction. However, reaction models require knowledge of 87Sr/86Sr data for carbonate rock in the Nevada Test Site vicinity, which is scarce. To fill this data gap, samples of core or cuttings were selected from 22 boreholes at depth intervals from which water samples had been obtained previously around the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa, and Mercury Valley. Dilute acid leachates of these samples were analyzed for a suite of major- and trace-element concentrations (MgO, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MnO, Rb, Sr, Th, and U) as well as for 87Sr/86Sr. Also presented are unpublished analyses of 114 Paleozoic carbonate samples from outcrops, road cuts, or underground sites in the Funeral Mountains, Bare Mountain, Striped Hills, Specter Range, Spring Mountains, and ranges east of the Nevada Test Site measured in the early 1990's. These data originally were collected to evaluate the potential for economic mineral deposition at the potential high-level radioactive waste repository site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas (Peterman and others, 1994). Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, La, and Ce) in bulk-rock powders, and 87Sr/86Sr in partial digestions of carbonate rock using dilute acid or total digestions of silicate-rich rocks. Pre-Tertiary core samples from two boreholes in the central or western part of the Nevada Test Site also were analyzed. Data are presented in tables and summarized in graphs; however, no attempt is made to interpret results with respect to ground-water flow paths in this report. Present-day 87Sr/86Sr values are compared to values for Paleozoic seawater present at the time of deposition. Many of the samples have 87Sr/86Sr compositions that remain relatively unmodified from expected seawater values. However, rocks underlying the northern Nevada Test Site as well as rocks exposed at Bare Mountain commonly have elevated 87Sr/86Sr values derived from post-depositional addition of radiogenic Sr most likely from fluids circulating through rubidium-rich Paleozoic strata or Precambrian basement rocks.

  13. Category:Rock Density | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock Density Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Rock Density page? For detailed information on Rock Density as...

  14. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  15. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  16. Method of migrating seismic records

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ober, Curtis C.; Romero, Louis A.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of migrating seismic records that retains the information in the seismic records and allows migration with significant reductions in computing cost. The present invention comprises phase encoding seismic records and combining the encoded seismic records before migration. Phase encoding can minimize the effect of unwanted cross terms while still allowing significant reductions in the cost to migrate a number of seismic records.

  17. Rock Density | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Density Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Rock Density Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique...

  18. Rock Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    resource at depth. These hand samples can be collected using a rock hammer or sledge. Data Access and Acquisition Under a detailed investigation, a systematic sampling procedure...

  19. WIPP Concludes Zone Recovery Activities for Panel 7 Disposal Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    24, 2015 WIPP Concludes Zone Recovery Activities for Panel 7 Disposal Pathway After months of catch-up rock bolting and contamination mitigation, zone recovery activities along the pathway to Panel 7 have been completed. Panel 7, which consists of seven disposal rooms (see map below), will be the active disposal area when waste emplacement activities resume. Initial closure of Panel 7 Room 7 was completed in May 2015. Although the pathway has been established, a significant number of activities,

  20. A modeling of buoyant gas plume migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Patzek, T.; Benson, S.M.

    2008-12-01

    This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. Ideally, the injected greenhouse gas stays in the injection zone for a geologic time, eventually dissolves in the formation brine and remains trapped by mineralization. However, one of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is that naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leakage from primary storage. Even in a supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the formation brine. Buoyancy tends to drive the leaked CO{sub 2} plume upward. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution and migration, are critical for developing technology, monitoring policy, and regulations for safe carbon dioxide geologic sequestration. In this study, we obtain simple estimates of vertical plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. We describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases by a Buckley-Leverett type model. The model predicts that a plume of supercritical carbon dioxide in a homogeneous water-saturated porous medium does not migrate upward like a bubble in bulk water. Rather, it spreads upward until it reaches a seal or until it becomes immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration (Silin et al., 2007). In a layered reservoir, the simplified solution predicts a slower plume front propagation relative to a homogeneous formation with the same harmonic mean permeability. In contrast, the model yields much higher plume propagation estimates in a high-permeability conduit like a vertical fracture.

  1. Workshop on hydrology of crystalline basement rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.N.

    1981-08-01

    This workshop covered the following subjects: measurements in relatively shallow boreholes; measurement and interpretation of data from deep boreholes; hydrologic properties of crystalline rocks as interpreted by geophysics and field geology; rock mechanics related to hydrology of crystalline rocks; the possible contributions of modeling to the understanding of the hydrology of crystalline rocks; and geochemical interpretations of the hydrology of crystalline rocks. (MHR)

  2. Shotgun cartridge rock breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruzzi, Peter L.; Morrell, Roger J.

    1995-01-01

    A rock breaker uses shotgun cartridges or other firearm ammunition as the explosive charge at the bottom of a drilled borehole. The breaker includes a heavy steel rod or bar, a gun with a firing chamber for the ammunition which screws onto the rod, a long firing pin running through a central passage in the rod, and a firing trigger mechanism at the external end of the bar which strikes the firing pin to fire the cartridge within the borehole. A tubular sleeve surround the main body of the rod and includes slits the end to allow it to expand. The rod has a conical taper at the internal end against which the end of the sleeve expands when the sleeve is forced along the rod toward the taper by a nut threaded onto the external end of the rod. As the sleeve end expands, it pushes against the borehole and holds the explosive gasses within, and also prevents the breaker from flying out of the borehole. The trigger mechanism includes a hammer with a slot and a hole for accepting a drawbar or drawpin which, when pulled by a long cord, allows the cartridge to be fired from a remote location.

  3. Rock of Ages | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Ages Jump to: navigation, search Name Rock of Ages Facility Rock of Ages Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Rock of Ages Energy...

  4. Rim Rock Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rim Rock Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Rim Rock Wind Farm Facility Rim Rock Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service...

  5. Black Rock Point Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Features: Relict Geothermal Features: Volcanic Age: Host Rock Age: Host Rock Lithology: Cap Rock Age: Cap Rock Lithology: Click "Edit With Form" above to add content Geofluid...

  6. MicroRNA-340 suppresses osteosarcoma tumor growth and metastasis by directly targeting ROCK1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xin; Wei, Min; Wang, Wei

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •miR-340 is downregulated in OS cell lines and tissues. •miR-340 suppresses OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion. •miR-340 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of OS cells in nude mice. •ROCK1 is a target gene of miR-340. •ROCK1 is involved in miR-340-induced suppression of OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in cancer development and progression. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-340 in the progression and metastasis of osteosarcoma (OS). Our results showed that miR-340 was frequently downregulated in OS tumors and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-340 in OS cell lines significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro, and tumor growth and metastasis in a xenograft mouse model. ROCK1 was identified as a target of miR-340, and ectopic expression of miR-340 downregulated ROCK1 by direct binding to its 3′ untranslated region. siRNA-mediated silencing of ROCK1 phenocopied the effects of miR-340 overexpression, whereas restoration of ROCK1 in miR-340-overexpressing OS cells reversed the suppressive effects of miR-340. Together, these findings indicate that miR-340 acts as a tumor suppressor and its downregulation in tumor tissues may contribute to the progression and metastasis of OS through a mechanism involving ROCK1, suggesting miR-340 as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target for the treatment of OS.

  7. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock...

  8. Hydrothermally Deposited Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Paleochori, Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermally deposited rock includes rocks and minerals that have precipitated from...

  9. RELATIVE PERMEABILITY OF FRACTURED ROCK

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... This hinders the creation of connected fracture networks even if the rock is subjected to ... Bergosh, J.L., Lord, G.D., 1987: "New Developments in the Analysis of Cores From Naturally ...

  10. Rock physics at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Rock physics refers to the study of static and dynamic chemical and physical properties of rocks and to phenomenological investigations of rocks reacting to man-made forces such as stress waves and fluid injection. A bibliography of rock physics references written by LASL staff members is given. Listing is by surname of first author. (RWR)

  11. The effects of heat conduction on the vaporization of liquid invading superheated permeable rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, Andrew, W.; Fitzgerald, Shaun D.

    1996-01-24

    We examine the role of conductive and convective heat transfer in the vaporization of liquid as it slowly invades a superheated permeable rock. For very slow migration, virtually all of the liquid vaporizes. As the liquid supply rate increases beyond the rate of heat transfer by thermal conduction, a decreasing fraction of the liquid can vaporize. Indeed, for sufficiently high flow rates, the fraction vaporizing depends solely on the superheat of the rock, and any heat transfer from the superheated region is negligible. These results complement earlier studies of vaporization under very high injection rates, in which case the dynamic vapour pressure reduces the mass fraction vaporizing to very small values.

  12. What are pathways?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    body. For the inhalation or airborne pathway, a material is inhaled directly into the lungs and then moves into the bloodstream. For the ingestion pathway, there are several...

  13. Engineering test plan for field radionuclide migration experiments in climax granite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Stone, R.; Lord, D.; Rector, N.; Failor, R.

    1982-05-01

    This Engineering Test Plan (ETP) describes field studies of radionuclide migration in fractured rock designed for the Climax grainite at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of the ETP is to provide a detailed written document of the method of accomplishing these studies. The ETP contains the experimental test plans, an instrumentation plan, system schematics, a description of the test facility, and a brief outline of the laboratory support studies needed to understand the chemistry of the rock/water/radionuclide interactions. Results of our initial hydrologic investigations are presented along with pretest predictions based on the hydrologic test results.

  14. ArchRock Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arch Rock is a systems and software company that builds products and technology for wireless sensor networks. References: ArchRock Corporation1 This article is a stub. You can...

  15. Rock Energy Cooperative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wisconsin Phone Number: (608) 752-4550 or (866) 752-4550 Website: www.rock.coop Outage Hotline: (866) 752-4550 Outage Map: www.rock.coopcontentcurrent- References: EIA...

  16. RockPort Capital Partners (California) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RockPort Capital Partners (California) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: RockPort Capital Partners (California) Name: RockPort Capital Partners (California) Address: 3000 Sand Hill...

  17. Mars Rover finds changing rocks, surprising scientists

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mars Rover finds changing rocks, surprising scientists Mars Rover finds changing rocks, surprising scientists As NASA's Curiosity rover treks up a three-mile-high mountain on Mars, the rocks are changing. Back on Earth, scientists analyzing the data realized this was something different: It turned out to be the first of the high-silica rocks. December 24, 2015 Mars landscape This color-adjusted composite of images taken by NASA's Curiosity rover in September shows the lower portion of Mount

  18. New Tracers of Gas Migration in the Continental Crust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurz, Mark D.

    2015-11-01

    Noble gases are exceptional tracers in continental settings due to the remarkable isotopic variability between the mantle, crust, and atmosphere, and because they are inert. Due to systematic variability in physical properties, such as diffusion, solubility, and production rates, the combination of helium, neon, and argon provides unique but under-utilized indices of gas migration. Existing noble gas data sets are dominated by measurements of gas and fluid phases from gas wells, ground waters and hot springs. There are very few noble gas measurements from the solid continental crust itself, which means that this important reservoir is poorly characterized. The central goal of this project was to enhance understanding of gas distribution and migration in the continental crust using new measurements of noble gases in whole rocks and minerals from existing continental drill cores, with an emphasis on helium, neon, argon. We carried out whole-rock and mineral-separate noble gas measurements on Precambrian basement samples from the Texas Panhandle. The Texas Panhandle gas field is the southern limb of the giant Hugoton-Panhandle oil and gas field; it has high helium contents (up to ~ 2 %) and 3He/4He of 0.21 (± 0.03) Ra. Because the total amount of helium in the Panhandle gas field is relatively well known, crustal isotopic data and mass balance calculations can be used to constrain the ultimate source rocks, and hence the helium migration paths. The new 3He/4He data range from 0.03 to 0.11 Ra (total), all of which are lower than the gas field values. There is internal isotopic heterogeneity in helium, neon, and argon, within all the samples; crushing extractions yield less radiogenic values than melting, demonstrating that fluid inclusions preserve less radiogenic gases. The new data suggest that the Precambrian basement has lost significant amounts of helium, and shows the importance of measuring helium with neon and argon. The 4He/40Ar values are particularly useful in demonstrating helium loss because all the data falls well below the production ratio.

  19. Overexpression of Rac1 in leukemia patients and its role in leukemia cell migration and growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jiying; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wei, Hui; Xing, Haiyan; Liu, Hang; Wang, Yanzhong; Tang, Kejing; Peng, Leiwen; Tian, Zheng; Wang, Jianxiang

    2009-09-04

    Rac1 belongs to the Rho family that act as critical mediators of signaling pathways controlling cell migration and proliferation and contributes to the interactions of hematopoietic stem cells with their microenvironment. Alteration of Rac1 might result in unbalanced interactions and ultimately lead to leukemogenesis. In this study, we analyze the expression of Rac1 protein in leukemia patients and determine its role in the abnormal behaviours of leukemic cells. Rac1 protein is overexpressed in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells as compared to normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1 in leukemia cell lines induced inhibition of cell migration, proliferation, and colony formation. Additionally, blocking Rac1 activity by an inhibitor of Rac1-GTPase, NSC23766, suppressed cell migration and growth. We conclude that overexpression of Rac1 contributes to the accelerated migration and high proliferation potential of leukemia cells, which could be implicated in leukemia development and progression.

  20. EA-225 Split Rock Energy LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Split Rock Energy LLC EA-225 Split Rock Energy LLC Order authorizing Split Rock Energy LLC to export electric energy to Canada. PDF icon EA-225 Split Rock Energy LLC

  1. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  2. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  3. Subsurface cross section of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macke, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Powder River basin is one of the most actively explored Rocky Mountain basins for hydrocarbons, yet the lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) rocks of this interval remain little studied. As a part of a program studying the evolution of sedimentary basins, approximately 3200 km of cross section, based on more than 50 combined geophysical and lithologic logs, have been constructed covering an area of about 200,000 km/sup 2/. The present-day basin is a Cenozoic structural feature located between the stable interior of the North American craton and the Cordilleran orogenic belt. At various times during the early Paleozoic, the basin area was not distinguishable from either the stable craton, the Williston basin, the Central Montana trough, or the Cordilleran miogeocline. Both deposition and preservation in the basin have been greatly influenced by the relative uplift of the Transcontinental arch. Shows of oil and dead oil in well cuttings confirm that hydrocarbons have migrated through at least parts of the basin's lower Paleozoic carbonate section. These rocks may have been conduits for long-distance migration of hydrocarbons as early as Late Cretaceous, based on (1) the probable timing of thermal maturation of hydrocarbon-source rocks within the basin area and to the west, (2) the timing of Laramide structural events, (3) the discontinuous nature of the reservoirs in the overlying, highly productive Pennsylvanian-Permian Minnelusa Formation, and (4) the under-pressuring observed in some Minnelusa oil fields. Vertical migration into the overlying reservoirs could have been through deep fractures within the basin, represented by major lineament systems. Moreover, the lower Paleozoic rocks themselves may also be hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  4. Area 2: Inexpensive Monitoring and Uncertainty Assessment of CO2 Plume Migration using Injection Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2014-09-30

    In-depth understanding of the long-term fate of CO₂ in the subsurface requires study and analysis of the reservoir formation, the overlaying caprock formation, and adjacent faults. Because there is significant uncertainty in predicting the location and extent of geologic heterogeneity that can impact the future migration of CO₂ in the subsurface, there is a need to develop algorithms that can reliably quantify this uncertainty in plume migration. This project is focused on the development of a model selection algorithm that refines an initial suite of subsurface models representing the prior uncertainty to create a posterior set of subsurface models that reflect injection performance consistent with that observed. Such posterior models can be used to represent uncertainty in the future migration of the CO₂ plume. Because only injection data is required, the method provides a very inexpensive method to map the migration of the plume and the associated uncertainty in migration paths. The model selection method developed as part of this project mainly consists of assessing the connectivity/dynamic characteristics of a large prior ensemble of models, grouping the models on the basis of their expected dynamic response, selecting the subgroup of models that most closely yield dynamic response closest to the observed dynamic data, and finally quantifying the uncertainty in plume migration using the selected subset of models. The main accomplishment of the project is the development of a software module within the SGEMS earth modeling software package that implements the model selection methodology. This software module was subsequently applied to analyze CO₂ plume migration in two field projects – the In Salah CO₂ Injection project in Algeria and CO₂ injection into the Utsira formation in Norway. These applications of the software revealed that the proxies developed in this project for quickly assessing the dynamic characteristics of the reservoir were highly efficient and yielded accurate grouping of reservoir models. The plume migration paths probabilistically assessed by the method were confirmed by field observations and auxiliary data. The report also documents the application of the software to answer practical questions such as the optimum location of monitoring wells to reliably assess the migration of CO₂ plume, the effect of CO₂-rock interactions on plume migration and the ability to detect the plume under those conditions and the effect of a slow, unresolved leak on the predictions of plume migration.

  5. Winner: Hot Rocks | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Winner: Hot Rocks Winner: Hot Rocks December 31, 2008 - 2:07pm Addthis Four kilometers down below the orange earth of Australia's Cooper Basin lies some of the hottest nonvolcanic rock in the world-rock that the geothermal industry had never seriously considered using to make electricity. But next month Geodynamics, an eight-year-old company based in Milton, Queensland, will prove otherwise when it turns on its 1-megawatt pilot plant here. The company has done more to harness this unconventional

  6. Rock Lab Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    interaction. Can determine detailed information about rock composition and morphology. Density of different lithologic units. Rapid and unambiguous identification of unknown...

  7. Hydrothermally Altered Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paleochori cliffs Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermal alteration refers to rocks that have been altered from their original...

  8. Seismic Imaging Processing and Migration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-06-26

    Salvo is a 3D, finite difference, prestack, depth migration code for parallel computers. It is also capable of processing 2D and poststack data. The code requires as input a seismic dataset, a velocity model and a file of parameters that allows the user to select various options. The code uses this information to produce a seismic image. Some of the options available to the user include the application of various filters and imaging conditions. Themore » code also incorporates phase encoding (patent applied for) to process multiple shots simultaneously.« less

  9. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-10-02

    This map displays interpreted structural and stratigraphic relations among the Paleozoic and older rocks of the Nevada Test Site region beneath the Miocene volcanic rocks and younger alluvium in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat basins. These interpretations are based on a comprehensive examination and review of data for more than 77 drillholes that penetrated part of the pre-Tertiary basement beneath these post-middle Miocene structural basins. Biostratigraphic data from conodont fossils were newly obtained for 31 of these holes, and a thorough review of all prior microfossil paleontologic data is incorporated in the analysis. Subsurface relationships are interpreted in light of a revised regional geologic framework synthesized from detailed geologic mapping in the ranges surrounding Yucca Flat, from comprehensive stratigraphic studies in the region, and from additional detailed field studies on and around the Nevada Test Site. All available data indicate the subsurface geology of Yucca Flat is considerably more complicated than previous interpretations have suggested. The western part of the basin, in particular, is underlain by relics of the eastward-vergent Belted Range thrust system that are folded back toward the west and thrust by local, west-vergent contractional structures of the CP thrust system. Field evidence from the ranges surrounding the north end of Yucca Flat indicate that two significant strike-slip faults track southward beneath the post-middle Miocene basin fill, but their subsurface traces cannot be closely defined from the available evidence. In contrast, the eastern part of the Yucca Flat basin is interpreted to be underlain by a fairly simple north-trending, broad syncline in the pre-Tertiary units. Far fewer data are available for the northern Frenchman Flat basin, but regional analysis indicates the pre-Tertiary structure there should also be relatively simple and not affected by thrusting. This new interpretation has implications for ground water flow through pre-Tertiary rocks beneath the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, and has consequences for ground water modeling and model validation. Our data indicate that the Mississippian Chainman Shale is not laterally extensive confining unit in the western part of the basin because it is folded back onto itself by the convergent structures of the Belted Range and CP thrust systems. Early and Middle Paleozoic limestone and dolomite are present beneath most of both basins and, regardless of structural complications, are interpreted to form a laterally continuous and extensive carbonate aquifer. Structural culmination that marks the French Peak accommodation zone along the topographic divide between the two basins provides a lateral pathway through highly fractured rock between the volcanic aquifers of Yucca Flat and the regional carbonate aquifer. This pathway may accelerate the migration of ground-water contaminants introduced by underground nuclear testing toward discharge areas beyond the Nevada Test Site boundaries. Predictive three-dimensional models of hydrostratigraphic units and ground-water flow in the pre-Tertiary rocks of subsurface Yucca Flat are likely to be unrealistic due to the extreme structural complexities. The interpretation of hydrologic and geochemical data obtained from monitoring wells will be difficult to extrapolate through the flow system until more is known about the continuity of hydrostratigraphic units. 1 plate

  10. Assessing Pathways in Aruba

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    environmental, and economic resilience of Aruba through an efficient use of natural resources and an implementation of ... research report, Smart Growth Pathways: Building a Green ...

  11. Technology Pathway Selection Effort

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cost, profit for biorefinery - Excludes: taxes, distribution costs, tax credits or other ... Rationale for Selecting Pathway * HTL both extraction and conversion process (50-70% of ...

  12. Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  13. Manufactured caverns in carbonate rock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruce, David A.; Falta, Ronald W.; Castle, James W.; Murdoch, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-02

    Disclosed is a process for manufacturing underground caverns suitable in one embodiment for storage of large volumes of gaseous or liquid materials. The method is an acid dissolution process that can be utilized to form caverns in carbonate rock formations. The caverns can be used to store large quantities of materials near transportation facilities or destination markets. The caverns can be used for storage of materials including fossil fuels, such as natural gas, refined products formed from fossil fuels, or waste materials, such as hazardous waste materials. The caverns can also be utilized for applications involving human access such as recreation or research. The method can also be utilized to form calcium chloride as a by-product of the cavern formation process.

  14. Standing Rock Sioux Tribe- 2012 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe (SRST) will perform a feasibility study and associated tasks over the course of two years on sites within the exterior boundaries of the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation to support the future development ranging from 50 to 150 megawatts (MW) of wind power.

  15. Multi Layer Contaminant Migration Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-07-28

    This computer software augments and enhances certain calculation included in the previously copyrighted Vadose Zone Contaminant Migration Model. The computational method used in this model recognizes the heterogenous nature of the soils and attempts to account for the variability by using four separate layers to simulate the flow of water through the vadose zone. Therefore, the pore-water velocity calculated by the code will be different than the previous model because it accounts for a widermore » variety of soil properties encountered in the vadose zone. This model also performs an additional screening step than in the previous model. In this model the higher value of two different types of Soil Screening Levels are compared to soil concentrations of contaminants. If the contaminant concentration exceeds the highest of two SSLs, then that contaminant is listed. This is consistent with USEPA's Soil Screening Guidance.« less

  16. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks.

  17. Petroleum potential of lower and middle Paleozoic rocks in Nebraska portion of Mid-Continent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, M.P. )

    1989-08-01

    Central North America during the Paleozoic was characterized by northern (Williston) and southern (Anadarko) depositional regimes separated by a stable Transcontinental arch. Nebraska lies on the southern flank of this arch and contains the northern zero edges of the lower and middle Paleozoic rocks of the southern regime. Most of these rocks are secondary dolomites with zones of excellent intercrystalline porosity. The Reagan-LaMotte Sandstones and the overlying Arbuckle dolomites are overlapped by Middle Ordovician rocks toward the Transcontinental arch. Rocks equivalent to the Simpson consist of a basal sand (St. Peter) and overlying interbedded gray-green shales and dolomitic limestones. An uppermost shale facies is present in the Upper Ordovician (Viola-Maquoketa) eastward and southward across Nebraska. The dolomite facies extends northward into the Williston basin. The Silurian dolomites, originally more widely deposited, are overlapped by Devonian dolomites in southeastern Nebraska. Upper Devonian rocks exhibit a regional facies change from carbonate to green-gray shale to black shale southeastward across the Mid-Continent. Mississippian carbonates overlap the Devonian westward and northward across the Transcontinental arch. Pennsylvanian uplift and erosion were widespread, producing numerous stratigraphic traps. Sands related to the basal Pennsylvanian unconformity produce along the Cambridge arch. Arbuckle, Simpson, Viola, and Hunton production is present in the Forest City basin and along the Central Kansas uplift. Although source rocks are scarce and the maturation is marginal, current theories of long-distance oil migration encourage exploration in the extensive lower and middle Paleozoic reservoirs in this portion of the Mid-Continent.

  18. Category:Rock Lab Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock O Over Core Stress P Paleomagnetic Measurements Petrography Analysis R Rock Density Rock Lab Analysis X X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Retrieved from...

  19. Diamond formation due to a pH drop during fluid–rock interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-03

    Diamond formation has typically been attributed to redox reactions during precipitation from fluids or magmas. Either the oxidation of methane or the reduction of carbon dioxide has been suggested, based on simplistic models of deep fluids consisting of mixtures of dissolved neutral gas molecules without consideration of aqueous ions. The role of pH changes associated with water–silicate rock interactions during diamond formation is unknown. Here we show that diamonds could form due to a drop in pH during water–rock interactions. We use a recent theoretical model of deep fluids that includes ions, to show that fluid can react irreversibly with eclogite at 900 °C and 5.0 GPa, generating diamond and secondary minerals due to a decrease in pH at almost constant oxygen fugacity. Overall, our results constitute a new quantitative theory of diamond formation as a consequence of the reaction of deep fluids with the rock types that they encounter during migration. Diamond can form in the deep Earth during water–rock interactions without changes in oxidation state.

  20. Diamond formation due to a pH drop during fluid–rock interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-03

    Diamond formation has typically been attributed to redox reactions during precipitation from fluids or magmas. Either the oxidation of methane or the reduction of carbon dioxide has been suggested, based on simplistic models of deep fluids consisting of mixtures of dissolved neutral gas molecules without consideration of aqueous ions. The role of pH changes associated with water–silicate rock interactions during diamond formation is unknown. Here we show that diamonds could form due to a drop in pH during water–rock interactions. We use a recent theoretical model of deep fluids that includes ions, to show that fluid can react irreversibly withmore » eclogite at 900 °C and 5.0 GPa, generating diamond and secondary minerals due to a decrease in pH at almost constant oxygen fugacity. Overall, our results constitute a new quantitative theory of diamond formation as a consequence of the reaction of deep fluids with the rock types that they encounter during migration. Diamond can form in the deep Earth during water–rock interactions without changes in oxidation state.« less

  1. Solar Market Pathways

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Market Pathways website distributes key insights from 15 SunShot Initiative projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These projects take a variety of...

  2. Stress-dependent permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stress-dependent permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical study We ...

  3. Coupled hydro-mechanical processes in crytalline rock and inindurateda...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    rock and ininduratedand plastic clays: A comparative discussion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coupled hydro-mechanical processes in crytalline rock and ...

  4. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage Dvorkin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage Dvorkin, Jack; Mavko, Gary 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES This report covers the results of developing the rock...

  5. RockPort Capital Partners (Massachusetts) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RockPort Capital Partners (Massachusetts) Name: RockPort Capital Partners (Massachusetts) Address: 160 Federal Street, 18th Floor Place: Boston, Massachusetts Zip: 02110 Region:...

  6. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab Case study ...

  7. Rock Sampling At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey, 2004)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock Sampling At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Sampling At Yellowstone Region...

  8. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    full-scale laboratory investigations Michael S. Bruno 58 GEOSCIENCES; 02 PETROLEUM; 03 NATURAL GAS; ROCK DRILLING; PRESSURE DEPENDENCE; ROCK MECHANICS; ROTARY DRILLING; WELL...

  9. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage This report ...

  10. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage This report covers the ...

  11. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage You are accessing a ...

  12. EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water saturated with Supercritical CO2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: EGS rock reactions ...

  13. Rock Sampling At Jemez Mountain Area (Eichelberger & Koch, 1979...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock Sampling At Jemez Mountain Area (Eichelberger & Koch, 1979) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Sampling At Jemez Mountain...

  14. Rock County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Rock County, Wisconsin CDH Energy EcoEnergy Places in Rock County, Wisconsin Avon, Wisconsin Beloit, Wisconsin Bradford, Wisconsin Brodhead, Wisconsin Center, Wisconsin...

  15. Standing Rock Sioux Tribe- 2011 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe's (SRST) cultural identity demands that tribal development occur in a sustainable manner and in a manner protective of the tribe's natural resources to preserve them for following generations.

  16. Standing Rock Sioux Tribe- 1995 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The primary objective of this study is to provide the Standing Rock Sioux Nation with a strategic overview of the electric energy issues and opportunities they will be facing beginning in the year 2001.

  17. Rock mechanics design in mining and tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1984-01-01

    This book introduces the design process as applied to rock mechanics aspects of underground mining and tunneling. Topics covered include a historical perspective, the design process in engineering, empirical methods of design, observational methods of design, and guided design.

  18. First Rocks from Outside the Solar System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, Andrew

    2014-10-17

    Andrew Westphal presents his findings in examining the first rocks from outside the solar system at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  19. NETL Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible Oil and Natural Gas Development NETL Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible Oil and Natural Gas ...

  20. User:Nlangle/Migration Example | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Migration Example < User:Nlangle Jump to: navigation, search Example code for using a categorization technique to migrate pages when Special:ReplaceText exceeds maximum (1000...

  1. Solar Market Pathways

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Market Pathways website distributes key insights from 15 SunShot Initiative projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These projects take a variety of approaches to develop actionable strategic plans to expand solar electricity use for residential, community, and commercial properties.

  2. Solar Market Pathways Website

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Market Pathways website distributes key insights from 15 SunShot Initiative projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These projects take a variety of approaches to develop actionable strategic plans to expand solar electricity use for residential, community, and commercial properties.

  3. Colorado Potential Geothermal Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado PRS Cool Fairways Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the weakened basement rocks. Isostatic gravity was utilized to identify structural basin areas, characterized by gravity low values reflecting weakened basement rocks. Together interpreted regional fault zones and basin outlines define geothermal "exploration fairways", where the potential exists for deep, superheated fluid flow in the absence of Pliocene or younger volcanic units Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4544698.569273 m Left: 144918.141004 m Right: 763728.391299 m Bottom: 4094070.397932 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  4. Rock-brine chemical interactions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The results of experimental interaction of powdered volcanic rock with aqueous solutions are presented at temperatures from 200 to 400/sup 0/C, 500 to 1000 bars fluid pressure, with reaction durations of approximately 30 days under controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of this research is to develop data on the kinetics and equilibria of rock solution interactions that will provide insight into the complex geochemical processes attending geothermal reservoir development, stimulation, and reinjection. The research was done in the Stanford Hydrothermal Lab using gold cell equipment of the Dickson design. This equipment inverts the solution rock mixture several times a minute to ensure thorough mixing. Solution samples were periodically withdrawn without interruption of the experimental conditions. The data from these experiments suggests a path dependent series of reactions by which geothermal fluids might evolve from meteoric or magmatic sources.

  5. Major marine source rocks and stratigraphic cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duval, B.C.

    1995-11-01

    The identification of continental encroachment cycles and subcycles by using sequence stratigraphy can assist explorationists in locating source rocks. The continental encroachment cycles are associated with the breakup of the supercontinents and fit a smooth long-term eustatic curve. They are first order, with a duration greater than 50 m.y., and are composed of transgressive and regressive phases inducing major changes in shoreline. The limit between the transgressive and regressive phases corresponds to a major downlap surface, and major marine source rocks are often found in association with this surface, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Potential {open_quotes}secondary{close_quotes} source rock intervals can also be sought by sequence stratigraphy because each continental encroachment cycle is composed of several subcycles, and the same configuration of a regressive forestepping phase overlying a transgressive backstepping phase also creates a downlap surface that may correspond with organic-rich intervals. The stratigraphic distribution of source rocks and related reserves fits reasonably well with continental encroachment cycles and subcycles. For instance, source rocks of Silurian, Upper Jurassic, and Middle-Upper Cretaceous are associated with eustatic highs and bear witness to this relationship. The recognition and mapping of such downlap surfaces is therefore a useful step to help map source rocks. The interpretation of sequence stratigraphy from regional seismic lines, properly calibrated with geochernical data whenever possible, can be of considerable help in the process. Several examples from around the world illustrate the power of the method: off-shore of eastern Venezuela, coastal basin of Angola, western Africa, the North Sea, south Algeria, and the North Caucasian trough.

  6. Rock melting tool with annealer section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bussod, Gilles Y.; Dick, Aaron J.; Cort, George E.

    1998-01-01

    A rock melting penetrator is provided with an afterbody that rapidly cools a molten geological structure formed around the melting tip of the penetrator to the glass transition temperature for the surrounding molten glass-like material. An annealing afterbody then cools the glass slowly from the glass transition temperature through the annealing temperature range to form a solid self-supporting glass casing. This allows thermally induced strains to relax by viscous deformations as the molten glass cools and prevents fracturing of the resulting glass liner. The quality of the glass lining is improved, along with its ability to provide a rigid impermeable casing in unstable rock formations.

  7. Potential increases in natural radon emissions due to heating of the Yucca Mountain rock mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1992-02-01

    Heating of the rock mass by the spent fuel in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will cause extra amounts of natural radon to diffuse into the fracture system and to migrate faster to the accessible environment. Indeed, free-convection currents due to heating will act to shorten the radon travel times and will cause larger releases than would be possible under undistributed conditions. To estimate the amount of additional radon released due to heating of the Yucca Mountain rock mass, we obtain an expression for the release enhancement factor, E. This factor is defined as the ratio between the total flux of radon at the surface of the mountain before and after closure of the repository assuming the only cause of disturbance to be the heating of the rock mass. With appropriate approximations and using a heat load representative of that expected at Yucca Mountain, the present calculations indicate that the average enhancement factor over the first 10,000 years will be 4.5 as a minimum. These calculations are based on the assumption that barometric pumping does not significantly influence radon release. The latter assumption will need to be substantiated.

  8. Protocatechuic aldehyde inhibits migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and intravascular thrombosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Chang Yoon; Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul ; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Cho, Yoon Hee; Lee, Eun Jig

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA) inhibits ROS production in VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA inhibits proliferation and migration in PDGF-induced VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA has anti-platelet effects in ex vivo rat whole blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the potential therapeutic role of PCA in atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and formation of intravascular thrombosis play crucial roles in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effects of protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA), a compound isolated from the aqueous extract of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of vascular diseases, on the migration and proliferation of VSMCs and platelets due to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). DNA 5-bromo-2 Prime -deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation and wound-healing assays indicated that PCA significantly attenuated PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs at a pharmacologically relevant concentration (100 {mu}M). On a molecular level, we observed down-regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, both of which regulate key enzymes associated with migration and proliferation. We also found that PCA induced S-phase arrest of the VSMC cell cycle and suppressed cyclin D2 expression. In addition, PCA inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in VSMCs, indicating that PCA's antioxidant properties may contribute to its suppression of PDGF-induced migration and proliferation in VSMCs. Finally, PCA exhibited an anti-thrombotic effect related to its inhibition of platelet aggregation, confirmed with an aggregometer. Together, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic role of PCA in the treatment of atherosclerosis and angioplasty-induced vascular restenosis.

  9. Pathway and Resource Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M. F.

    2009-11-16

    This presentation provides information about hydrogen pathway analysis, which is analysis of the total levelized cost (including return on investment). Well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use, and WTW emissions for hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  10. Transient Non Lin Deformation in Fractured Rock

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-10-14

    MATLOC is a nonlinear, transient, two-dimensional (planer and axisymmetric), thermal stress, finite-element code designed to determine the deformation within a fractured rock mass. The mass is modeled as a nonlinear anistropic elastic material which can exhibit stress-dependent bi-linear locking behavior.

  11. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G.

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  12. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  13. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W.

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  14. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- News & Views Camp Desert Rock

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Camp Desert Rock Photo - Camp Desert Rock Camp Desert Rock, also known as Desert Atom Camp, Nevada, was home to the U.S. Army's Atomic Maneuver Battalion in the 1950s. More than 2,300 soldiers were trained here in 1955. The 100 semi-permanent buildings and more than 500 tents often were filled to the 6,000 personnel capacity. Desert Rock Airport, with its 7,500 foot runway, was built on the former Camp Desert Rock. At peak operation Camp Desert Rock comprised of 100 semi-permanent buildings,

  15. Career Pathways | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Career Pathways Career Pathways The Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Career Pathways Program is an innovative employment program targeting students and recent college graduates. If you are seeking an entry-level federal job or a federal internship, then check out our various opportunities! Intern Program The Pathways intern program allows students taking at least a half-time course load in an accredited high school, home schooling program, technical school, vocational

  16. Preliminary results of wildcat drilling in Absaroka volcanic rocks, Hot Springs County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, M.H.; Sundell, K.A.

    1986-08-01

    Recent drilling of three remote, high-elevation wildcat wells has proven that excellent Paleozoic reservoirs are present at shallow depths beneath Eocene volcaniclastic rocks. The Tensleep and Madison Formations are fluid filled above an elevation of 8000 ft, and all Paleozoic formations exhibit shows of oil and gas. These prolific reservoir rocks have produced billions of barrels of oil from the adjacent Bighorn and Wind river basins, and they pinch out with angular unconformity against the base of the volcanics, providing enormous potential for stratigraphic oil accumulations. Vibroseis and portable seismic data have confirmed and further delineate large anticlines of Paleozoic rocks, which were originally discovered by detailed surface geologic mapping. These structures can be projected along anticlinal trends from the western Owl Creek Mountains to beneath the volcanics as well. The overlying volcanics are generally soft, reworked sediments. However, large, hard boulders and blocks of andesite-dacite, which were previously mapped as intrusives, are present and are the result of catastrophic landslide/debris flow. The volcanics locally contain highly porous and permeable sandstones and abundant bentonite stringers. Oil and gas shows were observed throughout a 2400-ft thick interval of the Eocene Tepee Trail and Aycross Formations. Shows were recorded 9100 ft above sea level in the volcanic rocks. A minimum of 10 million bbl of oil (asphaltum) and an undetermined amount of gases and lighter oils have accumulated within the basal volcanic sequence, based on the evaluation of data from two drill sites. Significant amounts of hydrocarbons have migrated since the volcanics were deposited 50 Ma. Large Laramide anticlines were partially eroded and breached into the Paleozoic formations and resealed by overlying volcanics with subsequent development of a massive tar seal.

  17. Landslides and other mass movements near TA-33, northern White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dethier, D.P.

    1993-09-01

    Massive slump complexes and at least two rock avalanches flank the eastern rim of the Pajarito Plateau along northern White Rock Canyon, north of TA-33. Landslides failed along mechanically weak rocks in the Santa Fe Group, within the Puye Formation, or in Pliocene alluvial and lacustrine units. The landslides are mainly of early or middle Pleistocene age. The toe area of at least,one slump complex has been active in the late Pleistocene, damming White Rock Canyon near the mouth of Water Canyon. Lacustrine sediment that filled this lake, or series of lakes, to an elevation of at least 1710 m is preserved at a number of upstream sites, including a deposit near the Buckman townsite that exposes 30 m of lacustrine sediment. Charcoal collected at several sites has been submitted for {sup 14}C dating. Landslides, however, probably do not represent a significant short-term threat to the material disposal areas at TA-33. Bedrock that lies beneath the TA-33 mesa is relatively stable, the mesa shows no signs of incipient failure, and past periods of slide activity were responses to rapid downcutting of the Rio Grande and climate change, probably over periods of several decades, at least. Rockfall and headward erosion of gullies do not represent significant decadal hazards on canyon rims near TA-33. Gully migration near MDA-K is a potential threat, but the gullies were not examined in detail. A system of north-trending faults, at least one of which displays Pleistocene activity, bisects the TA-33 mesa. If these faults are capable of producing significant seismic shaking, generalizations about landslide and rockfall hazards must be reevaluated.

  18. Improving carbon fixation pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducat, DC; Silver, PA

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

  19. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions Presentation on hydrogen pathway cost distributions presented January 25, 2006. PDF icon wkshpstorageuihlein.pdf...

  20. Solar Market Pathways | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Market Pathways Solar Market Pathways The Solar Market Pathways program supports 15 SunShot projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These...

  1. DOE - Fossil Energy: Squeezing Oil Out of Rock

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2-Squeezing Out Oil An Energy Lesson Looking Down an Oil Well Looking Down an Oil Well Squeezing Oil out of Rocks Imagine trying to force oil through a rock. Can't be done, you ...

  2. Project Reports for Standing Rock Sioux Tribe- 2012 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe (SRST) will perform a feasibility study and associated tasks over the course of two years on sites within the exterior boundaries of the Standing Rock Sioux...

  3. Summary of Test Results for Daya Bay Rock Samples (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Summary of Test Results for Daya Bay Rock Samples Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summary of Test Results for Daya Bay Rock Samples You are accessing a document from ...

  4. Summary of Test Results for Daya Bay Rock Samples (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Summary of Test Results for Daya Bay Rock Samples Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summary of Test Results for Daya Bay Rock Samples A series of ...

  5. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy- Important Lessons From Fenton...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy- Important Lessons From Fenton Hill Abstract The concept of Hot Dry Rock...

  6. Category:Little Rock, AR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    71 KB SVMediumOffice Little Rock AR Entergy Arkansas Inc.png SVMediumOffice Little ... 68 KB SVMidriseApartment Little Rock AR Entergy Arkansas Inc.png SVMidriseApartment Lit......

  7. EIS-0471: Areva Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility in Bonneville...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1: Areva Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility in Bonneville County, ID EIS-0471: Areva Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility in Bonneville County, ID May 20, 2011 delete me old download page ...

  8. Simulation of CO2 Sequestration at Rock Spring Uplift, Wyoming: Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Storage Capacity, Injectivity and Leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Hailin; Dai, Zhenxue; Jiao, Zunsheng; Stauffer, Philip H.; Surdam, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Many geological, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological factors control CO{sub 2} storage in subsurface. Among them heterogeneity in saline aquifer can seriously influence design of injection wells, CO{sub 2} injection rate, CO{sub 2} plume migration, storage capacity, and potential leakage and risk assessment. This study applies indicator geostatistics, transition probability and Markov chain model at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming generating facies-based heterogeneous fields for porosity and permeability in target saline aquifer (Pennsylvanian Weber sandstone) and surrounding rocks (Phosphoria, Madison and cap-rock Chugwater). A multiphase flow simulator FEHM is then used to model injection of CO{sub 2} into the target saline aquifer involving field-scale heterogeneity. The results reveal that (1) CO{sub 2} injection rates in different injection wells significantly change with local permeability distributions; (2) brine production rates in different pumping wells are also significantly impacted by the spatial heterogeneity in permeability; (3) liquid pressure evolution during and after CO{sub 2} injection in saline aquifer varies greatly for different realizations of random permeability fields, and this has potential important effects on hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock, reactivation of pre-existing faults and the integrity of the cap-rock; (4) CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimate for Rock Springs Uplift is 6614 {+-} 256 Mt at 95% confidence interval, which is about 36% of previous estimate based on homogeneous and isotropic storage formation; (5) density profiles show that the density of injected CO{sub 2} below 3 km is close to that of the ambient brine with given geothermal gradient and brine concentration, which indicates CO{sub 2} plume can sink to the deep before reaching thermal equilibrium with brine. Finally, we present uncertainty analysis of CO{sub 2} leakage into overlying formations due to heterogeneity in both the target saline aquifer and surrounding formations. This uncertainty in leakage will be used to feed into risk assessment modeling.

  9. Silencing of OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) modifies the macrophage transcriptome, nucleoporin p62 distribution, and migration capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaslas, Olivier; Vihervaara, Terhi; Li, Jiwei; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit, FI-00290 Helsinki ; Yan, Daoguang; Olkkonen, Vesa M.

    2012-09-10

    ORP8 is an oxysterol/cholesterol binding protein anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope, and is abundantly expressed in the macrophage. We created and characterized mouse RAW264.7 macrophages with ORP8 stably silenced using shRNA lentiviruses. A microarray transcriptome and gene ontology pathway analysis revealed significant alterations in several nuclear pathways and ones associated with centrosome and microtubule organization. ORP8 knockdown resulted in increased expression and altered subcellular distribution of an interaction partner of ORP8, nucleoporin NUP62, with an intranuclear localization aspect and association with cytoplasmic vesicular structures and lamellipodial edges of the cells. Moreover, ORP8 silenced cells displayed enhanced migration, and a more pronounced microtubule cytoskeleton than controls expressing a non-targeting shRNA. ORP8 was shown to compete with Exo70 for interaction with NUP62, and NUP62 knockdown abolished the migration enhancement of ORP8-silenced cells, suggesting that the endogenous ORP8 suppresses migration via binding to NUP62. As a conclusion, the present study reveals new, unexpected aspects of ORP8 function in macrophages not directly involving lipid metabolism, but rather associated with nuclear functions, microtubule organization, and migration capacity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phenotype of Raw264.7 macrophage with ORP8 silenced is characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP8 silencing alters mRNA levels of nuclear and microtubule/centrosome pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP8 silencing results in increased expression and altered distribution of NUP62. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP8 silenced macrophages show enhanced migration and altered microtubule cytoskeleton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP8 competes in vitro with Exo70 for binding to NUP62.

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- WNI Split Rock Site - 043

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Rock Site (043) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials...

  11. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Coso Geothermal Area (1984) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Coso Geothermal Area (1984) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique...

  12. R & D Supercritiacl CO2/ Rock Chemicals Interactions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    R & D Supercritiacl CO2/ Rock Chemicals Interactions presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  13. Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites and Disposal Sites Fact Sheet

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites and Disposal Sites This fact sheet provides information about the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 Title I processing sites and disposal site at Slick Rock, Colorado. These sites are managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. Locations of the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing and Disposal Sites Site Descriptions and History The Slick Rock processing sites consist of two former uranium- and vanadium-ore processing

  14. CRC handbook of physical properties of rocks. Volume III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents topics on: Density of rocks and minerals, includes histograms of density ranges; elastic constants of minerals, elastic moduli, thermal properties; inelastic properties, strength and rheology for rocks and minerals, rock mechanics and friction, and stress-strain relations; radioactivity, decay constants and heat production of isotope systems in geology; seismic attenuation, in rocks, minerals, and the earth, with application to oil exploration and terrestrial studies; and index.

  15. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).

  16. XCR1 promotes cell growth and migration and is correlated with bone metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ting; Han, Shuai; Wu, Zhipeng; Han, Zhitao; Yan, Wangjun; Liu, Tielong; Wei, Haifeng; Song, Dianwen; Zhou, Wang Yang, Xinghai Xiao, Jianru

    2015-08-21

    Bone metastasis occurs in approximately 30–40% patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the mechanism underlying this bone metastasis remains poorly understood. The chemokine super family is believed to play an important role in tumor metastasis in lung cancer. The chemokine receptor XCR1 has been identified to promote cell proliferation and migration in oral cancer and ovarian carcinoma, but the role of XCR1 in lung cancer has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that XCR1 was overexpressed in lung cancer bone metastasis as compared with that in patients with primary lung cancer. In addition, the XCR1 ligand XCL1 promoted the proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells markedly, and knockdown of XCR1 by siRNA abolished the effect of XCL1 in cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, we identified JAK2/STAT3 as a novel downstream pathway of XCR1, while XCL1/XCR1 increased the mRNA level of the downstream of JAK2/STAT3 including PIM1, JunB, TTP, MMP2 and MMP9. These results indicate that XCR1 is a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer bone metastasis. - Highlights: • XCR1 is overexpressed in bone metastasis compared with primary NSCLC. • XCR1 activation by XCL1 promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. • JAK2/STAT3 is a novel potential downstream pathway of XCR1.

  17. THE WELL-ALIGNED ORBIT OF WASP-84b: EVIDENCE FOR DISK MIGRATION OF A HOT JUPITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D. R.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Brown, D. J. A.; Clark, B. J. M.; Smalley, B.; Cameron, A. Collier; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Lovis, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Smith, A. M. S.

    2015-02-10

    We report the sky-projected orbital obliquity (spin–orbit angle) of WASP-84 b, a 0.69M{sub Jup} planet in an 8.52 day orbit around a G9V/K0V star, to be λ = −0.3 ± 1.7°. We obtain a true obliquity of ψ = 17.3 ± 7.7° from a measurement of the inclination of the stellar spin axis with respect to the sky plane. Due to the young age and the weak tidal forcing of the system, we suggest that the orbit of WASP-84b is unlikely to have both realigned and circularized from the misaligned and/or eccentric orbit likely to have arisen from high-eccentricity migration. Therefore we conclude that the planet probably migrated via interaction with the protoplanetary disk. This would make it the first “hot Jupiter” (P<10 d) to have been shown to have migrated via this pathway. Further, we argue that the distribution of obliquities for planets orbiting cool stars (T{sub eff} < 6250 K) suggests that high-eccentricity migration is an important pathway for the formation of short-orbit, giant planets.

  18. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  19. motion-of-large-riprap-rocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development of a Computational Approach to Detect Instability and Incipient Motion of Large Riprap Rocks" Presentation at the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting Washington DC, January 14, 2014 Paper number 14-3035 Cezary Bojanowski Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC), Energy Systems Division Argonne National Laboratory Steven Lottes Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC), Energy Systems Division Argonne National Laboratory Abstract

  20. Scientific Visit on Crystalline Rock Repository Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visit on Crystalline Rock Repository Development - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  1. CRITICAL RADIONUCLIDE AND PATHWAY ANALYSIS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, T.

    2011-08-30

    This report is an update to the analysis, Assessment of SRS Radiological Liquid and Airborne Contaminants and Pathways, that was performed in 1997. An electronic version of this large original report is included in the attached CD to this report. During the operational history (1954 to the present) of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the various production facilities. However, as will be shown by this updated radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to offsite people. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface waters, the principal media that carry contaminants offsite. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. The groundwater monitoring performed at the site shows that an estimated 5 to 10% of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, no evidence exists from the extensive monitoring performed that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated off the site (SRS 2011). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people. In addition, in response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Order 435.1, several Performance Assessments (WSRC 2008; LWO 2009; SRR 2010; SRR 2011) and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis (SRNO 2010) have recently been completed at SRS. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in these extensive reports are discussed and, where applicable, included in this analysis.

  2. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, David J.; McNamee, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer, a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  3. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, D.J.; McNamee, M.J.

    1985-07-18

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  4. Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and SNL for the Used Fuel Disposition Program Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and SNL ...

  5. Final Report: Migration Mechanisms for Large-scale Parallel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Nieh

    2009-10-30

    Process migration is the ability to transfer a process from one machine to another. It is a useful facility in distributed computing environments, especially as computing devices become more pervasive and Internet access becomes more ubiquitous. The potential benefits of process migration, among others, are fault resilience by migrating processes off of faulty hosts, data access locality by migrating processes closer to the data, better system response time by migrating processes closer to users, dynamic load balancing by migrating processes to less loaded hosts, and improved service availability and administration by migrating processes before host maintenance so that applications can continue to run with minimal downtime. Although process migration provides substantial potential benefits and many approaches have been considered, achieving transparent process migration functionality has been difficult in practice. To address this problem, our work has designed, implemented, and evaluated new and powerful transparent process checkpoint-restart and migration mechanisms for desktop, server, and parallel applications that operate across heterogeneous cluster and mobile computing environments. A key aspect of this work has been to introduce lightweight operating system virtualization to provide processes with private, virtual namespaces that decouple and isolate processes from dependencies on the host operating system instance. This decoupling enables processes to be transparently checkpointed and migrated without modifying, recompiling, or relinking applications or the operating system. Building on this lightweight operating system virtualization approach, we have developed novel technologies that enable (1) coordinated, consistent checkpoint-restart and migration of multiple processes, (2) fast checkpointing of process and file system state to enable restart of multiple parallel execution environments and time travel, (3) process migration across heterogeneous software environments, (4) network checkpoint-restart and migration of distributed and parallel applications, (5) a utility computing infrastructure for mobile desktop cloud computing based on process checkpoint-restart and migration functionality, (6) a process migration security architecture for protecting applications and infrastructure from denial-of-service attacks, and (7) a checkpoint-restart mobile computing system using portable storage devices.

  6. Migration by the Kirchhoff, slant stack, and Gaussian beam methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    METHODS; SEISMIC WAVES; IMAGE PROCESSING; ALGORITHMS; EXTRAPOLATION; GAUSS FUNCTION; MIGRATION; PHASE SHIFT; WAVE PROPAGATION; DETECTION; FUNCTIONS; MATHEMATICAL LOGIC; ...

  7. Leakage pathway layer for solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Andy; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter; Sun, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Leakage pathway layers for solar cells and methods of forming leakage pathway layers for solar cells are described.

  8. (Relative mobilities and transport mechanisms of trace elements during contact metamorphism of carbonate rocks). Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the relative mobilities and transport mechanisms of major, minor, and trace elements during the contact metamorphism of carbonate rocks. The large contrasts in chemical potentials of SiO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and CaO across a granitic pluton-limestone contact may induce metasomatism. In addition, rare earth and transition metal elements may act as tracers, and their redistribution during metamorphism may record convective cooling processes. The results of this study may have an application toward the problem of radioactive waste disposal and the degree to which radioactive nuclides may be expected to migrate during geologically significant periods of time.

  9. Technology Pathways | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis » Technology Pathways Technology Pathways The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) pursues a pathway approach for advancing research and development (R&D) of converting biomass into renewable fuels and products. Following the BETO's successful demonstration of cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol production technologies-R&D efforts now focus on the conversion of biomass into hydrocarbon fuels and intermediates that lead to "drop-in" replacements for gasoline, diesel,

  10. A Pyrolysis and Primary Migration Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-08-11

    PMOD-Version 1.6 is a copyrighted computer program for simulating oil generation, cracking, and other chemical reactions occurring during the pyrolysis of petroleum source rocks over a specified history of temperature and either depth or hydrostatic pressure. The chemical reaction mechanism is defined by the user and, within limits, can be as simple or complex as desired. The model also simulates compaction of the source rock and expulsion of a liquid water phase and a liquidmore » hydrocarbon phase. The expulsion is done by either a simple, constant-fluid-density model or by a more rigorous model using a modified Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state. The latter model also calculates overpressuring. An auxiliary program, PLOTPMOD, permits graphical display and hardcopy of the results, as well as preparation of ASCII-file subsets of the results for use with a spreadsheet or other graphics program.« less

  11. Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team to the DOE Systems Analysis Workshop held in Washington, D.C. July 28-29, 2004.

  12. Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment Final Campaign Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 The Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment Final Campaign Report PM Stepanian KG Horton March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would

  13. The effect of radial migration on galactic disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos; D'Onghia, Elena; Navarro, Julio; Abadi, Mario

    2014-10-20

    We study the radial migration of stars driven by recurring multi-arm spiral features in an exponential disk embedded in a dark matter halo. The spiral perturbations redistribute angular momentum within the disk and lead to substantial radial displacements of individual stars, in a manner that largely preserves the circularity of their orbits and that results, after 5 Gyr (?40 full rotations at the disk scale length), in little radial heating and no appreciable changes to the vertical or radial structure of the disk. Our results clarify a number of issues related to the spatial distribution and kinematics of migrators. In particular, we find that migrators are a heavily biased subset of stars with preferentially low vertical velocity dispersions. This 'provenance bias' for migrators is not surprising in hindsight, for stars with small vertical excursions spend more time near the disk plane, and thus respond more readily to non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also find that the vertical velocity dispersion of outward migrators always decreases, whereas the opposite holds for inward migrators. To first order, newly arrived migrators simply replace stars that have migrated off to other radii, thus inheriting the vertical bias of the latter. Extreme migrators might therefore be recognized, if present, by the unexpectedly small amplitude of their vertical excursions. Our results show that migration, understood as changes in angular momentum that preserve circularity, can strongly affect the thin disk, but cast doubts on models that envision the Galactic thick disk as a relic of radial migration.

  14. Explosive shaped charge penetration into tuff rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, M.G.

    1988-10-01

    Analysis and data for the use of Explosive Shaped Charges (ESC) to generate holes in tuff rock formation is presented. The ESCs evaluated include Conical Shaped Charges (CSC) and Explosive Formed Projectiles (EFP). The CSCs vary in size from 0.158 to 9.1 inches inside cone diameter. The EFPs were 5.0 inches in diameter. Data for projectile impact angles of 30 and 90 degrees are presented. Analytically predicted depth of penetration data generally compared favorably with experimental data. Predicted depth of penetration versus ESC standoff data and hole profile dimensions in tuff are also presented. 24 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  16. Flow induced migration in polymer melts – Theory and simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorgan, John Robert Rorrer, Nicholas Andrew

    2015-04-28

    Flow induced migration, whereby polymer melts are fractionated by molecular weight across a flow field, represents a significant complication in the processing of polymer melts. Despite its long history, such phenomena remain relatively poorly understood. Here a simple analytical theory is presented which predicts the phenomena based on well-established principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is unambiguously shown that for purely viscous materials, a gradient in shear rate is needed to drive migration; for purely viscometric flows no migration is expected. Molecular scale simulations of flow migration effects in dense polymer melts are also presented. In shear flow the melts exhibit similar behavior as the quiescent case; a constant shear rate across the gap does not induce chain length based migration. In comparison, parabolic flow causes profound migration for both unentangled and entangled melts. These findings are consistent with the analytical theory. The picture that emerges is consistent with flow induced migration mechanisms predominating over competing chain degradation mechanisms.

  17. Analysis of the hydraulic data from the MI fracture zone at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davey, A.; Karasaki, K.; Long, J.C.S.; Landsfeld, M.; Mensch, A.; Martel, S.J.

    1989-10-01

    One of the major problems in analyzing flow and transport in fractured rock is that the flow may be largely confined to a poorly connected network of fractures. In order to overcome some of this problem, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has been developing a new type of fracture hydrology model called an equivalent discontinuum model. In this model the authors represent the discontinuous nature of the problem through flow on a partially filled lattice. A key component in constructing an equivalent discontinuum model from this lattice is removing some of the conductive elements such that the system is partially connected in the same manner as the fracture network. This is done through a statistical inverse technique called simulated annealing. The fracture network model is annealed by continually modifying a base model, or template such that the modified systems behave more and more like the observed system. In order to see how the simulated annealing algorithm works, the authors have developed a series of synthetic real cases. In these cases, the real system is completely known so that the results of annealing to steady state data can be evaluated absolutely. The effect of the starting configuration has been studied by varying the percent of conducting elements in the initial configuration. Results have shown that the final configurations converge to about the same percentage of conducting elements. An example using Nagra field data from the Migration Experiment (MI) at Grimsel Rock Laboratory in Switzerland is also analyzed. 24 refs., 33 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. WNT5A inhibits human dental papilla cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, L.; State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan ; Ye, L.; Dong, G.; Ren, L.B.; Wang, C.L.; Xu, P.; Zhou, X.D.

    2009-12-18

    WNT proteins are a large family of cysteine-rich secreted molecules that are linked to both canonical and non-canonical signal pathways, and have been implicated in oncogenesis and tissue development. Canonical WNT proteins have been proven to play critical roles in tooth development, while little is known about the role of non-canonical WNT proteins such as WNT5A. In this study, WNT5A was localized to human dental papilla tissue and human dental papilla cells (HDPCs) cultured in vitro, using immunochemistry and RT-PCR. Recombinant adenovirus encoding full-length Wnt5a cDNA was constructed to investigate the biological role of WNT5A on HDPCs. The BrdU incorporation assay, the MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis showed that over-expression of Wnt5a strongly inhibited the proliferation of HDPCs in vitro. Wound healing and transwell migration assays indicated that over-expression of WNT5A reduced migration of HDPCs. In conclusion, our results showed that WNT5A negatively regulates both proliferation and migration of HDPCs, suggesting its important role in odontogenesis via controlling the HDPCs.

  19. Kruppel-like factor 2 inhibit the angiogenesis of cultured human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Li, Na; Pan, Du-Yi; Miao, Qing; Ma, Gui-Fen; Liu, Yi-Mei; Tseng, Yu-Jen; Li, Feng; Xu, Li-Li; Chen, Shi-Yao

    2015-09-04

    Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) is a crucial anti-angiogenic factor. However, its precise role in hepatic angiogenesis induced by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) remain unclear. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of KLF2 on angiogenesis of LSECs and to explore the corresponding mechanism. Cultured human LSECs were infected with different lentiviruses to overexpress or suppress KLF2 expression. The CCK-8 assay, transwell migration assay and tube formation test, were used to investigate the roles of KLF2 in the proliferation, migration and vessel tube formation of LSECs, respectively. The expression and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were detected by western blot. We discovered that the up-regulation of KLF2 expression dramatically inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation in treated LSECs. Correspondingly, down-regulation of KLF2 expression significantly promoted proliferation, migration and tube formation in treated LSECs. Additionally, KLF2 inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 pathway, followed by the function of KLF2 in the angiogenesis of LSECs disrupted. In conclusion, KLF2 suppressed the angiogenesis of LSECs through inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and vessel tube formation. These functions of KLF2 may be mediated through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Overexpression of KLF2 inhibits the proliferation and migration of LSECs. • Overexpression of KLF2 inhibits the angiogenesis of LSECs. • ERK1/2 signaling pathway involved in the anti-angiogenic process of KLF2 on LSECs.

  20. Protein design for pathway engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eriksen, DT; Lian, JZ; Zhao, HM

    2014-02-01

    Design and construction of biochemical pathways has increased the complexity of biosynthetically-produced compounds when compared to single enzyme biocatalysis. However, the coordination of multiple enzymes can introduce a complicated set of obstacles to overcome in order to achieve a high titer and yield of the desired compound. Metabolic engineering has made great strides in developing tools to optimize the flux through a target pathway, but the inherent characteristics of a particular enzyme within the pathway can still limit the productivity. Thus, judicious protein design is critical for metabolic and pathway engineering. This review will describe various strategies and examples of applying protein design to pathway engineering to optimize the flux through the pathway. The proteins can be engineered for altered substrate specificity/selectivity, increased catalytic activity, reduced mass transfer limitations through specific protein localization, and reduced substrate/product inhibition. Protein engineering can also be expanded to design biosensors to enable high through-put screening and to customize cell signaling networks. These strategies have successfully engineered pathways for significantly increased productivity of the desired product or in the production of novel compounds. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental Program for Used Fuel Disposition in Crystalline Rocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SAND2015-2980C Nuclear Energy Experimental Program for Used Fuel Disposition in Crystalline Rocks Yifeng Wang Sandia National Laboratories Nuclear Energy Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Packages ■ Objectives * Advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks; * Develop experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media. ■ Focus on two key components of deep geologic repository in crystalline rocks * Better

  2. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock.

  3. Picture of the Week: Bismuth and tin on the rocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Bismuth and tin on the rocks Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are using state-of-the-art experimental techniques to see and understand how microstructures evolve during materials processing. February 15, 2016 Bismuth and tin on the rocks Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are using state-of-the-art experimental techniques to see and understand how microstructures evolve during materials processing. Bismuth and tin on the rocks Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory

  4. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Lab | Department of Energy Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate

  5. Laboratory studies of radionuclide migration in tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1989-10-01

    The movement of selected radionuclides has been observed in crushed tuff, intact tuff, and fractured tuff columns. Retardation factors and dispersivities were determined from the elution profiles. Retardation factors have been compared with those predicted on the basis of batch sorption studies. This comparison forms a basis for either validating distribution coefficients or providing evidence of speciation, including colloid formation. Dispersivities measured as a function of velocity provide a means of determining the effect of sorption kinetics or mass transfer on radionuclide migration. Dispersion is also being studied in the context of scaling symmetry to develop a basis for extrapolating from the laboratory scale to the field. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Evaluation Of Used Fuel Disposition In Clay-Bearing Rock

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Radioactive waste disposal in shale/argillite rock formations has been widely considered given its desirable isolation properties, e.g., low permeability, potential geochemically reduced conditions...

  7. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title...

  8. Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical-mechanical couplings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fractured...

  9. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phillips, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area...

  10. Rock Island County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Illinois Hillsdale, Illinois Milan, Illinois Moline, Illinois Oak Grove, Illinois Port Byron, Illinois Rapids City, Illinois Reynolds, Illinois Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois...

  11. City of Rock Hill, South Carolina (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hill, South Carolina (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of Rock Hill Place: South Carolina Phone Number: 803-325-2500 Website: www.cityofrockhill.comdepartm...

  12. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References...

  13. Rock Sampling At San Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Sampling At San Francisco Volcanic...

  14. Rock Density At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Density At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Alum Geothermal Area...

  15. Doug Hollett, Director Geothermal Technologies Office Hot Rocks...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Rocks and Hard Places Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting - September 30, 2013 Courtesy GRC Courtesy CPikeACEP Courtesy RAM Power 2 Identify New Geothermal ...

  16. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WoldeGabriel & Goff, 1992) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal...

  17. Rock Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Goff, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1991) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Sampling At Long Valley Caldera...

  18. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations Citation Details In-Document...

  19. Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks Gutierrez, Marte 54 ENVIRONMENTAL...

  20. Rock Sampling At Socorro Mountain Area (Armstrong, Et Al., 1995...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SEM studies, and John Repetski (USGS, Reston, Virgina) conodont stratigraphy and color and textural alteration as guides to the carbonate rocks' thermal history. The...

  1. Glen Rock, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    congressional district.12 Registered Energy Companies in Glen Rock, New Jersey BGA Engineering LLC References US Census Bureau Incorporated place and minor civil...

  2. Fish behavior, migration and environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, R.H.

    1988-02-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwst Laboratory have evaluated fish behavior and migration in response to thermal discharge, gas supersaturated water, water-soluble fractions of coal liquids, and other environmental stresses. Major findings including thermal discharges did not block upstream migration of sonic-tagged adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) and a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in the Columbia River. Juvenile chinook slamon avoided thermal discharges in the laboratory when ..delta..ts exceeded 9 to 11)degree)C above ambient. However juvenile salmon were more susceptible to predation at 10 to 20% of the thermal dose causing loss of equilibrium. Radio-tagged adult chinook salmon swam deeper in supersaturated water than in normally saturated water in the Snake River and, thereby, avoided the upper, critical zone. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and black bullhead (Ictalurus melas) did not always avoid lethal gas levels in the laboratory and some fish died in the test apparatus. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) avoided the water soluble fraction (WSF) of a coal liquid at concentrations causing acute effects but not at those causing chronic effects. Rainbow trout did not avoid coal liquid WSFs although they reportedly avid the major constituent, phenol, tested a as pure compound. Susceptibility to predation of juvenile rainbow trout did not increase until phenol concentrations reached the acute LC/sub 50/. 67 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-10-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  4. National Dialogue on Career Pathways

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Tuesday, September 23, 2014, the U.S. Departments of Labor, Education and Health and Human Services will host a National Dialogue on Career Pathways.  Federal agency leaders from each Department...

  5. Elemental composition of two cumulate rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naeem, A.; Almohandis, A.A.

    1983-04-01

    Two cumulate rock samples K-185, K-250 from the Kapalagulu intrusion, W. Tanzania, were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), wet chemical and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques. Major element oxides were determined by XRF and wet chemical methods, while the concentration of trace elements were measured by NAA, using high resolution Ge(Li) detector, minicomputer-based data acquisition system and off-line computer. The percentage of major oxides and sixteen trace elements have been reported. It has been found that Cr, Ni, and Co are highly concentrated in K-250 while Sc, and most of the major elements are more concentrated in K-185. The variation of major and trace elements in these two samples have been discussed.

  6. Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehman, S K

    2011-07-06

    How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and seismic migration in which wide band time series are shifted but not to form images per se. Section 3 presents a mostly graphically-based motivation and summary of delay, scale, and sum beamforming. The model for incident field propagation in free space is derived in Section 4 under specific assumptions. General object scattering is derived in Section 5 and simplified under the Born approximation in Section 6. The model of this section serves as the basis in the derivation of time-domain migration. The Foldy-Lax, full point scatterer scattering, method is derived in Section 7. With the previous forward models in hand, delay, scale, and sum beamforming is derived in Section 8. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments are present in Section 9.

  7. Session on computation in biological pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karp, P.D.; Riley, M.

    1996-12-31

    The papers in this session focus on the development of pathway databases and computational tools for pathway analysis. The discussion involves existing databases of sequenced genomes, as well as techniques for studying regulatory pathways.

  8. Global Pathways Analysis Tool (GPAT)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Pathways Analysis Tool (GPAT) (Sandia National Laboratories) Objectives Calculate least-cost pathways for hydrogen supply for eight participating countries: France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Japan, and the United States (U.S. further divided into eight regions to allow for additional regional analysis; additional countries could be added as data becomes available). The objective is to match country level demands for hydrogen with lowest cost supply options for each country.

  9. Catalog of Waters Important for the Spawning, Rearing or Migration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spawning, Rearing or Migration of Anadromous Fishes Organization Alaska Department of Fish and Game Published Divisions of Sport Fish and Habitat, 2012 Report Number 12-05 DOI...

  10. Migration Mechanisms of Oxygen Interstitial Clusters in UO2 ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Understanding the migration kinetics of radiation-induced point defects and defect clusters is a key to predicting the microstructural evolution and mass transport in nuclear ...

  11. Orai1 and STIM1 are critical for cell migration and proliferation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Lkhagvadorj, Sayamaa; Lee, Mi-Ra; Hwang, Kyu-Hee; Chung, Hyun Chul; Jung, Jae Hung; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Eom, Minseob

    2014-05-23

    Highlights: Orai1 channel is highly expressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues. Orai1 and STIM1 constitute a native store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry in ccRCC cells. Orai1 and STIM1 promote cell migration and proliferation of ccRCC cells. - Abstract: The intracellular Ca{sup 2+} regulation has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Notably, store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) is a major Ca{sup 2+} entry mechanism in non-excitable cells, being involved in cell proliferation and migration in several types of cancer. However, the expression and biological role of SOCE have not been investigated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Here, we demonstrate that Orai1 and STIM1, not Orai3, are crucial components of SOCE in the progression of ccRCC. The expression levels of Orai1 in tumor tissues were significantly higher than those in the adjacent normal parenchymal tissues. In addition, native SOCE was blunted by inhibiting SOCE or by silencing Orai1 and STIM1. Pharmacological blockade or knockdown of Orai1 or STIM1 also significantly inhibited RCC cell migration and proliferative capability. Taken together, Orai1 is highly expressed in ccRCC tissues illuminating that Orai1-mediated SOCE may play an important role in ccRCC development. Indeed, Orai1 and STIM1 constitute a native SOCE pathway in ccRCC by promoting cell proliferation and migration.

  12. China 2050 Pathways Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2050 Pathways Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: China 2050 Pathways Calculator AgencyCompany Organization: China's Energy Research Institute...

  13. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This ...

  14. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  15. Determining inert content in coal dust/rock dust mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapko, Michael J.; Ward, Jr., Jack A.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the inert content of a coal dust and rock dust mixture uses a transparent window pressed against the mixture. An infrared light beam is directed through the window such that a portion of the infrared light beam is reflected from the mixture. The concentration of the reflected light is detected and a signal indicative of the reflected light is generated. A normalized value for the generated signal is determined according to the relationship .phi.=(log i.sub.c `log i.sub.co) / (log i.sub.c100 -log i.sub.co) where i.sub.co =measured signal at 0% rock dust i.sub.c100 =measured signal at 100% rock dust i.sub.c =measured signal of the mixture. This normalized value is then correlated to a predetermined relationship of .phi. to rock dust percentage to determine the rock dust content of the mixture. The rock dust content is displayed where the percentage is between 30 and 100%, and an indication of out-of-range is displayed where the rock dust percent is less than 30%. Preferably, the rock dust percentage (RD%) is calculated from the predetermined relationship RD%=100+30 log .phi.. where the dust mixture initially includes moisture, the dust mixture is dried before measuring by use of 8 to 12 mesh molecular-sieves which are shaken with the dust mixture and subsequently screened from the dust mixture.

  16. Experience with in situ measurement of rock deformability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1981-07-01

    Although in situ tests have the advantage of involving a large volume or rock tested under the same environmental conditions as are prevailing in the rock mass, such tests are expensive and time consuming. In addition, there are a number of controversial questions pertinent to in situ tests.

  17. Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-04-15

    Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

  18. Photo of the Week: Laser Beats Rock | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laser Beats Rock Photo of the Week: Laser Beats Rock April 8, 2013 - 5:28pm Addthis On August 5, 2012, the Curiosity rover touched down on the surface of Mars. The ChemCam instrument package, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is a device mounted on the Mars Curiosity rover that uses two remote sensing instruments: the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). The LIBS fires a powerful laser that determines chemical compositions of rock and soil

  19. America's Atomic Army: The Historical Archaeology of Camp Desert Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan R. Edwards

    2007-11-02

    Established in 1951, Camp Desert Rock served as the training ground for America's 'Atomic Army'. For the next six years, U.S. ground troops traveled to the Nevada desert to participate in military maneuvers during atmospheric atomic weapons testing. Nearly 60,000 soldiers received physical and psychological training in atomic warfare. Abandoned when atmospheric testing ended, Camp Desert Rock was dismantled and its buildings moved to other locations. Today, the camp appears as a sterile expanse of desert marked by rock-lined tent platforms, concrete foundations, and trash scatters. Although visually unimposing, the site is rich with the history of America's nuclear testing program.

  20. Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding Excavation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding Excavations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding ...

  1. Used Fuel Disposal in Crystalline Rocks: Status and FY14 Progress...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Used Fuel Disposal in Crystalline Rocks: Status and FY14 Progress. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Used Fuel Disposal in Crystalline Rocks: Status and ...

  2. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  3. Type I planet migration in nearly laminar disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Lubow, S H; Lin, D

    2008-01-01

    We describe two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the migration of low-mass planets ({<=}30 M{sub {circle_plus}}) in nearly laminar disks (viscosity parameter {alpha} < 10{sup -3}) over timescales of several thousand orbit periods. We consider disk masses of 1, 2, and 5 times the minimum mass solar nebula, disk thickness parameters of H/r = 0.035 and 0.05, and a variety of {alpha} values and planet masses. Disk self-gravity is fully included. Previous analytic work has suggested that Type I planet migration can be halted in disks of sufficiently low turbulent viscosity, for {alpha} {approx} 10{sup -4}. The halting is due to a feedback effect of breaking density waves that results in a slight mass redistribution and consequently an increased outward torque contribution. The simulations confirm the existence of a critical mass (M{sub {alpha}} {approx} 10M{sub {circle_plus}}) beyond which migration halts in nearly laminar disks. For {alpha} {approx}> 10{sup -3}, density feedback effects are washed out and Type I migration persists. The critical masses are in good agreement with the analytic model of Rafikov. In addition, for {alpha} {approx}> 10{sup -4} steep density gradients produce a vortex instability, resulting in a small time-varying eccentricity in the planet's orbit and a slight outward migration. Migration in nearly laminar disks may be sufficiently slow to reconcile the timescales of migration theory with those of giant planet formation in the core accretion model.

  4. Big Rock, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Big Rock is a village in Kane County, Illinois.1 References US Census Bureau...

  5. Project Reports for Standing Rock Sioux Tribe- 2011 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe's (SRST) cultural identity demands that tribal development occur in a sustainable manner and in a manner protective of the tribe's natural resources to preserve them for following generations.

  6. Y-12s Moon Rocks and Jim Williams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moon Rocks and Jim Williams Often I am stopped and given suggestions about what would be good information to include in the history of Y-12 being published weekly in The Oak...

  7. Apparent Welding Textures In Altered Pumice-Rich Rocks | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apparent Welding Textures In Altered Pumice-Rich Rocks Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Apparent Welding Textures In Altered...

  8. POSSIBLE ALTERATION OF ROCKS OBSERVED BY CHEMCAM ALONG THE TRAVERSE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TO GLENELG IN GALE CRATER ON MARS. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POSSIBLE ALTERATION OF ROCKS OBSERVED BY CHEMCAM ALONG THE TRAVERSE TO GLENELG IN GALE CRATER ON ...

  9. Zeolitization Of Intracaldera Sediments And Rhyolitic Rocks In...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In The 1.25 Ma Lake Of Valles Caldera, New Mexico, USA Abstract Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of about 80 rhyolite and associated lacustrine rocks has characterized...

  10. Zeolitization Of Intracaldera Sediments And Rhyolitic Rocks In...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In The 1.25 Ma Lake Of Valles Caldera, New Mexico, Usa Abstract Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of about 80 rhyolite and associated lacustrine rocks has characterized...

  11. Disposal in Crystalline Rocks: FY’15 Progress Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and...

  12. Electrical Conductivity of Soils and Rocks | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Electrical Conductivity of Soils and Rocks Author J.D. McNeill Organization Geonics Limited Published Geonics Limited, 1980 Report Number...

  13. Rock Sampling At Coso Geothermal Area (1995) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and analytical analyses of reservoir rock and vein material. References Lutz, S.J.; Moore, J.N. ; Copp, J.F. (1 June 1995) Lithology and alteration mineralogy of...

  14. Lithology and alteration mineralogy of reservoir rocks at Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using petrographic and analytical analyses of reservoir rock and vein material. The nature of the low-angle outflow zone and the overlying cap that prevents a surface expression...

  15. Lithology and Alteration Mineralogy of Reservoir Rocks at Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using petrographic and analytical analyses of reservoir rock and vein material. The nature of the low-angle outflow zone and the overlying cap that prevents a surface expression...

  16. Drilling Complete on Australian Hot Dry Rock Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first commercial attempt to create a commercial geothermal power plant using hot dry rock technology reached a crucial milestone on January 22, when a production well successfully reached its target depth.

  17. EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water saturated with Supercritical CO2 EGS using CO2 as a working fluid will likely involve hydro-shearing ...

  18. Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)...

  19. Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System, Fenton Hill, New Mexico- Tracer Test Results Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference...

  20. Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

  1. Regional Geology: GIS Database for Alternative Host Rocks and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The objective of this work is to develop a spatial database that integrates both geologic data for alternative host-rock formations and information that has been historically used ...

  2. Verification of runaway migration in a massive disk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shengtai

    2009-01-01

    Runaway migration of a proto-planet was first proposed and observed by Masset and Papaloizou (2003). The semi-major axis of the proto-planet varies by 50% over just a few tens of orbits when runaway migration happens. More recent work by D'Angelo et al. (2005) solved the same problem with locally refined grid and found that the migration rate is sharply reduced and no runaway occurs when the grid cells surrounding the planet are refined enough. To verify these two seemly contradictory results, we independently perform high-resolution simulations, solving the same problem as Masset and Papaloizou (2003), with and without self-gravity. We find that the migration rate is highly dependent on the softening used in the gravitational force between thd disk and planet. When a small softening is used in a 2D massive disk, the mass of the circumplanetary disk (CPD) increases with time with enough resolution in the CPD region. It acts as the mass is continually accreted to the CPD, which cannot be settled down until after thousands of orbits. If the planet is held on a fixed orbit long enough, the mass of CPD will become so large that the condition for the runaway migration derived in Masset (2008) will not be satisfied, and hence the runaway migration will not be triggered. However, when a large softening is used, the mass of the CPD will begin to decrease after the initial increase stage. Our numerical results with and without disk-gravity confirm that the runaway migration indeed exists when the mass deficit is larger than the total mass of the planet and CPD. Our simulations results also show that the torque from the co-orbital region, in particular the planet's Hill sphere, is the main contributor to the runaway migration, and the CPD which is lagged behind by the planet becomes so asymmetric that it accelerates the migration.

  3. Experimental Program for Used Fuel Disposition in Crystalline Rocks.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Experimental Program for Used Fuel Disposition in Crystalline Rocks. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental Program for Used Fuel Disposition in Crystalline Rocks. Abstract not provided. Authors: Wang, Yifeng Publication Date: 2014-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1242086 Report Number(s): SAND2014-19251C 540815 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Proposed for presentation at the DOE Fuel Cycle

  4. Experimental Program for Used Fuel Disposition in Crystalline Rocks.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Experimental Program for Used Fuel Disposition in Crystalline Rocks. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental Program for Used Fuel Disposition in Crystalline Rocks. Abstract not provided. Authors: Wang, Yifeng Publication Date: 2015-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1248848 Report Number(s): SAND2015-2980C 583331 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Proposed for presentation at the USA-ROK Joint Fuel

  5. Assessing the relative permeability of heterogeneous reservoir rock

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Assessing the relative permeability of heterogeneous reservoir rock Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessing the relative permeability of heterogeneous reservoir rock Reservoir engineers are often faced with heterogeneous core material, for which conventional methods of estimating relative permeability are susceptible to error and may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding displacement efficiency, wettability and reservoir performance.

  6. Migration mechanisms of oxygen interstitial cluste (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Migration mechanisms of oxygen interstitial cluste Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Migration mechanisms of oxygen interstitial cluste Understanding the migration kinetics of radiation- Authors: Xian-Ming Bai ; Anter El-Azab ; Jianguo Yu ; Todd R. Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1083247 Report Number(s): INL/JOU-13-29349 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC07-05ID14517 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Physics: Condensed

  7. Geochemistry of oil from Santa Cruz basin, Bolivia: case study of migration-fractionation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illich, H.A.; Haney, F.R.; Mendoza, M.

    1981-11-01

    Geochemical studies provide important data relevant to the origin of the oils in the Santa Cruz basin, Bolivia. Production from this basin occurs from rocks of Devonian, Carboniferous, Cretaceous, and Tertiary ages. The productive structures are usually undisturbed by major faulting. The Devonian sediments are composed of sandstones and dark marine shales. The post-Devonian rocks are generally oxidized and probably nonmarine. The Tertiary and Cretaceous reservoirs usually contain the highest API/sup 0/ gravity oils. Comparison of geochemical data (N/sub 5/-N/sub 10/ molecular weight range) shows that the oils are very similar; however, systematic compositional trends occur as a function of API/sup 0/ gravity. These trends are interpreted from gross structural group data. Isoparaffins and cycloparaffins increase in relative abundance, while normal paraffins and aromatics decrease with increasing API/sup 0/ gravity. A model is proposed that rationalizes these compositional trends by a mechanism of accommodation in water. The model requires enrichment of hydrocarbons of intermediate solubility, partial exclusion of hydrocarbons of low solubility, and retention in solution of the more soluble hydrocarbons. Processes such as thermal fractionation and biodegradation fail to account satisfactorily for the observed compositional trends. The compositional interrelationships of the oils coupled with the geologic framework suggest that these oils have a common source, most probably the Devonian. Differences between the oils are attributed to fractionation occurring during migration. Exploration risk for areas such as the Santa Cruz basin can be substantially reduced by use of the knowledge derived from petroleum geochemistry.

  8. Project test plan for runoff and erosion on fine-soil barrier surfaces and rock-covered side slopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1990-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company are working together to develop protective barriers to isolate near-surface radioactive waste. The purpose of the barriers is to protect defense wastes at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site from infiltration of precipitation, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years without the need for long-term monitoring, maintenance, or institutional control. The barriers will be constructed of layered earth and rock material designed to direct surface and groundwater pathways away from the buried waste. To address soil erosion as it applies to barrier design and long-term stability, a task designed to study this problem has been included in the Protective Barriers Program at PNL. The barrier soil-erosion task will investigate the ability of the soil cover and side slopes to resist the erosional and destabilizing processes from externally applied water. The study will include identification and field testing of the dominant processes contributing to erosion and barrier failure. The effects of rock mulches, vegetation cover on the top fine-grained soil surface, as well as the stability of rock armoring on the side slopes, will be evaluated. Some of the testing will include the effects of animal intrusion on barrier erosion, and these will be coordinated with other animal intrusion studies. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Smolt Monitoring Program, Part II, Volume I, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Seelhead Trout, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish Passage Center

    1986-02-01

    The annual Smolt Monitoring Program is the result of implementation of Section 304(d)(2) of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. This is the second year of the annual systemwide program conducted by the Fish Passage Center (formerly Water Budget Center). Index reaches have been established. Travel time indices are calculated for year to year comparison. Marked groups of steelhead, spring chinook, fall chinook, and summer chinook are monitored at sampling points throughout the system. Because this program is intended to be representative of the juvenile migration, marked groups represent major hatchery production stocks. Arrival time and duration of marked groups are reported. Annual travel time indices are reported from Rock Island Dam to McNary Dam, and from Lower Granite Dam to McNary Dam. Hatchery and brand release information is reported.

  10. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-09-14

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane ceriummore » gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.« less

  11. He bubble coarsening by migration and coalescence in annealed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: He bubble coarsening by migration and coalescence in annealed Pu-Ga alloys Authors: Jeffries, J R ; Wall, M A ; Moore, K T ; Schwartz, A J Publication Date: 2010-09-29 OSTI ...

  12. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-09-14

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane cerium gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.

  13. The Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment Final Campaign Report (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect The Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment Final Campaign Report Remote sensing techniques are playing a greater role in ornithology, and radar has proven a valuable tool for high resolution, long-term observations of airborne animals. The major disadvantage in radar remote sensing is the current inability to gain taxonomic information from these measurements. One

  14. Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tantalum Oxide Memristors Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning Tantalum Oxide Memristors Direct Observation of Localized Radial Oxygen Migration in Functioning Tantalum Oxide Memristors Print Monday, 11 April 2016 14:29 As information bits of 0s and 1s are stored in crosspoint tantalum oxide memristors, or resistive random access memory (RRAM) cells, nanoscale-resolution in operando x-ray transmission spectromicroscopy is used to directly observe oxygen

  15. Cooperative Cluster Metalation and Ligand Migration in Zirconium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Cluster Metalation and Ligand Migration in Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Ying-Pin; Qin, Junsheng; Lu, Weigang; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang; Bosch, Mathieu; Liu, Tian-Fu; Lian, Xizhen; and Zhou, Hong-Cai. Cooperative Cluster Metalation and Ligand Migration in Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 54, 14696-14700 (2015). DOI:

  16. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the slick rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 12 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 61 8,300 cubic yards. In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. All solid contaminated materials would be buried under 5 feet (ft) of rock and soil materials. The proposed disposal site area is currently used by ranchers for cattle grazing over a 7-month period. The closest residence to the proposed disposal site is 2 air mi. An estimated 44 ac of land would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future use.

  17. Fractured rock aquifer tests in the Western Siberian Basin, Ozyorsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.L.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1997-10-01

    A series of multi-zone pumping tests was conducted in a contaminated fractured rock aquifer in the Western Siberian Basin, Ozyorsk, Russia. The tests were conducted adjacent to the Mishelyak River floodplain in fractured Paleozoic porphyrites, tufts, tuff breccia, and lava typical of the Ural mountain complex. Geophysical logs, borehole photography, core samples, and results from previous borehole contamination studies were used to identify the zones to be tested. A network of three uncased wells was tested using a system of inflatable packers, pressure transducers and data loggers. Seven zones were isolated and monitored in two of the uncased wells. A straddle packer assembly was used to isolate individual zones within the pumping well. Eight constant rate pumping tests were conducted. Results of the testing indicate that shallow groundwater migrates primarily in two intervals that are separated by an interval with low lateral conductivity. The water bearing intervals have moderate to high specific capacities (1.3 and 30 L/min/m). Several processes are responsible for fracturing present in the lower interval. The network of compound fractures produced a complex array of fracture intersections yielding a fractured media with hydraulic behavior similar to porous media. Models used for the analysis of pumping tests in porous media provide a good estimation of the hydraulic response of the lower interval to pumping. Future work will include more complex analysis of the data to determine hydraulic conductivity ellipses.

  18. Oils and source rocks from the Anadarko Basin: Final report, March 1, 1985-March 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philp, R. P. [School of Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The research project investigated various geochemical aspects of oils, suspected source rocks, and tar sands collected from the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. The information has been used, in general, to investigate possible sources for the oils in the basin, to study mechanisms of oil generation and migration, and characterization of depositional environments. The major thrust of the recent work involved characterization of potential source formations in the Basin in addition to the Woodford shale. The formations evaluated included the Morrow, Springer, Viola, Arbuckle, Oil Creek, and Sylvan shales. A good distribution of these samples was obtained from throughout the basin and were evaluated in terms of source potential and thermal maturity based on geochemical characteristics. The data were incorporated into a basin modelling program aimed at predicting the quantities of oil that could, potentially, have been generated from each formation. The study of crude oils was extended from our earlier work to cover a much wider area of the basin to determine the distribution of genetically-related oils, and whether or not they were derived from single or multiple sources, as well as attempting to correlate them with their suspected source formations. Recent studies in our laboratory also demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight components(C{sub 4}-C{sub 80}) in oils and waxes from drill pipes of various wells in the region. Results from such a study will have possible ramifications for enhanced oil recovery and reservoir engineering studies.

  19. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In; Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min; Son, Kwang-Jae; Bang, Young-bong; Choy, Young Bin E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr; Ye, Sung-Joon E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  20. Proceedings of the scientific visit on crystalline rock repository development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariner, Paul E.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Miksova, Jitka

    2013-02-01

    A scientific visit on Crystalline Rock Repository Development was held in the Czech Republic on September 24-27, 2012. The visit was hosted by the Czech Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA), co-hosted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of the visit was to promote technical information exchange between participants from countries engaged in the investigation and exploration of crystalline rock for the eventual construction of nuclear waste repositories. The visit was designed especially for participants of countries that have recently commenced (or recommenced) national repository programmes in crystalline host rock formations. Discussion topics included repository programme development, site screening and selection, site characterization, disposal concepts in crystalline host rock, regulatory frameworks, and safety assessment methodology. Interest was surveyed in establishing a %E2%80%9Cclub,%E2%80%9D the mission of which would be to identify and address the various technical challenges that confront the disposal of radioactive waste in crystalline rock environments. The idea of a second scientific visit to be held one year later in another host country received popular support. The visit concluded with a trip to the countryside south of Prague where participants were treated to a tour of the laboratory and underground facilities of the Josef Regional Underground Research Centre.

  1. Expression of WNT genes in cervical cancer-derived cells: Implication of WNT7A in cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Meza-Canales, Ivan D.; Torres-Reyes, Luis A.; Alvarez-Zavala, Monserrat; and others

    2015-07-01

    According to the multifactorial model of cervical cancer (CC) causation, it is now recognized that other modifications, in addition to Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, are necessary for the development of this neoplasia. Among these, it has been proposed that a dysregulation of the WNT pathway might favor malignant progression of HPV-immortalized keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to identify components of the WNT pathway differentially expressed in CC vs. non-tumorigenic, but immortalized human keratinocytes. Interestingly, WNT7A expression was found strongly downregulated in cell lines and biopsies derived from CC. Restoration of WNT7A in CC-derived cell lines using a lentiviral gene delivery system or after adding a recombinant human protein decreases cell proliferation. Likewise, WNT7A silencing in non-tumorigenic cells markedly accelerates proliferation. Decreased WNT7A expression was due to hypermethylation at particular CpG sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting reduced WNT7A levels in CC-derived cells and that ectopic WNT7A restoration negatively affects cell proliferation and migration. - Highlights: • WNT7A is expressed in normal keratinocytes or cervical cells without lesion. • WNT7A is significantly reduced in cervical cancer-derived cells. • Restoration of WNT7A expression in HeLa decreases proliferation and cell migration. • Silencing of WNT7A in HaCaT induces an increased proliferation and migration rate. • Decreased WNT7A expression in this model is due to hypermethylation.

  2. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Algal Lipid Upgrading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathways for Algal Biofuels Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae Hydrothermal ...

  3. Superhard nanophase cutter materials for rock drilling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voronov, O.; Tompa, G.; Sadangi, R.; Kear, B.; Wilson, C.; Yan, P.

    2000-06-23

    The Low Pressure-High Temperature (LPHT) System has been developed for sintering of nanophase cutter and anvil materials. Microstructured and nanostructured cutters were sintered and studied for rock drilling applications. The WC/Co anvils were sintered and used for development of High Pressure-High Temperature (HPHT) Systems. Binderless diamond and superhard nanophase cutter materials were manufactured with help of HPHT Systems. The diamond materials were studied for rock machining and drilling applications. Binderless Polycrystalline Diamonds (BPCD) have high thermal stability and can be used in geothermal drilling of hard rock formations. Nanophase Polycrystalline Diamonds (NPCD) are under study in precision machining of optical lenses. Triphasic Diamond/Carbide/Metal Composites (TDCC) will be commercialized in drilling and machining applications.

  4. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  5. Viscuous Mech Behavior of Rock Mass Under Therm Stress

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-10-14

    VISCOT is a nonlinear, transient , thermal-stress, finite-element program designed to determine the viscoelastic, viscoplastic, or elastoplastic deformation of a rock mass due to mechanical and thermal loading. A major application of VISCOT in conjunction with a SCEPTER heat transfer code, e.g. DOT-BPMD, is the thermomechanical analysis of a rock mass such as salt in which significant time-dependent, nonlinear deformations are expected to occur. Such problems include room and canister scale studies during the excavation,more » operation, and long term, post closure stages in a salt repository.« less

  6. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2003-10-01

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have (1) Studied relationships between velocity and permeability. (2) Used independent experimental methods to measure the elastic moduli of clay minerals as functions of pressure and saturation. (3) Applied different statistical methods for characterizing heterogeneity and textures from scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) images of shale microstructures. (4) Analyzed the directional dependence of velocity and attenuation in different reservoir rocks (5) Compared Vp measured under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stress conditions in sands. (6) Studied stratification as a source of intrinsic anisotropy in sediments using Vp and statistical methods for characterizing textures in sands.

  7. Dioscin inhibits colon tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis through regulating VEGFR2 and AKT/MAPK signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, Qingyi; Qing, Yong; Wu, Yang; Hu, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Lei; Wu, Xiaohua

    2014-12-01

    Dioscin has shown cytotoxicity against cancer cells, but its in vivo effects and the mechanisms have not elucidated yet. The purpose of the current study was to assess the antitumor effects and the molecular mechanisms of dioscin. We showed that dioscin could inhibit tumor growth in vivo and has no toxicity at the test condition. The growth suppression was accompanied by obvious blood vessel decrease within solid tumors. We also found dioscin treatment inhibited the proliferation of cancer and endothelial cell lines, and most sensitive to primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). What's more, analysis of HUVECs migration, invasion, and tube formation exhibited that dioscin has significantly inhibitive effects to these actions. Further analysis of blood vessel formation in the matrigel plugs indicated that dioscin could inhibit VEGF-induced blood vessel formation in vivo. We also identified that dioscin could suppress the downstream protein kinases of VEGFR2, including Src, FAK, AKT and Erk1/2, accompanied by the increase of phosphorylated P38MAPK. The results potently suggest that dioscin may be a potential anticancer drug, which efficiently inhibits angiogenesis induced by VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathways. - Highlights: • Dioscin inhibits tumor growth in vivo and does not exhibit any toxicity. • Dioscin inhibits angiogenesis within solid tumors. • Dioscin inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation of HUVECs. • Dioscin inhibits VEGF–induced blood vessel formation in vivo. • Dioscin inhibits VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathway.

  8. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the processing sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the ground water from further degradation. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the processing sites on land administered by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project.

  9. Tracking a defined route for O[subscript 2] migration in a dioxygen-activating diiron enzyme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Woon Ju; Gucinski, Grant; Sazinsky, Matthew H.; Lippard, Stephen J. (MIT); (Pomona)

    2011-09-08

    For numerous enzymes reactive toward small gaseous compounds, growing evidence indicates that these substrates diffuse into active site pockets through defined pathways in the protein matrix. Toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase is a dioxygen-activating enzyme. Structural analysis suggests two possible pathways for dioxygen access through the {alpha}-subunit to the diiron center: a channel or a series of hydrophobic cavities. To distinguish which is utilized as the O{sub 2} migration pathway, the dimensions of the cavities and the channel were independently varied by site-directed mutagenesis and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The rate constants for dioxygen access to the diiron center were derived from the formation rates of a peroxodiiron(III) intermediate, generated upon treatment of the diiron(II) enzyme with O2. This reaction depends on the concentration of dioxygen to the first order. Altering the dimensions of the cavities, but not the channel, changed the rate of dioxygen reactivity with the enzyme. These results strongly suggest that voids comprising the cavities in toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase are not artifacts of protein packing/folding, but rather programmed routes for dioxygen migration through the protein matrix. Because the cavities are not fully connected into the diiron active center in the enzyme resting state, conformational changes will be required to facilitate dioxygen access to the diiron center. We propose that such temporary opening and closing of the cavities may occur in all bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases to control O{sub 2} consumption for efficient catalysis. Our findings suggest that other gas-utilizing enzymes may employ similar structural features to effect substrate passage through a protein matrix.

  10. Employee Agreement for Pathways Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agreement for Pathways Program Employee Agreement for Pathways Program PDF icon Employee Agreement for Pathways Program More Documents & Publications Career Pathways Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) DOE Mentoring Guidance and Program Plan Book1

  11. Fuel Dependence of Benzene Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H; Eddings, E; Sarofim, A; Westbrook, C

    2008-07-14

    The relative importance of formation pathways for benzene, an important precursor to soot formation, was determined from the simulation of 22 premixed flames for a wide range of equivalence ratios (1.0 to 3.06), fuels (C{sub 1}-C{sub 12}), and pressures (20 to 760 torr). The maximum benzene concentrations in 15 out of these flames were well reproduced within 30% of the experimental data. Fuel structural properties were found to be critical for benzene production. Cyclohexanes and C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} fuels were found to be among the most productive in benzene formation; and long-chain normal paraffins produce the least amount of benzene. Other properties, such as equivalence ratio and combustion temperatures, were also found to be important in determining the amount of benzene produced in flames. Reaction pathways for benzene formation were examined critically in four premixed flames of structurally different fuels of acetylene, n-decane, butadiene, and cyclohexane. Reactions involving precursors, such as C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, were examined. Combination reactions of C{sub 3} species were identified to be the major benzene formation routes with the exception of the cyclohexane flame, in which benzene is formed exclusively from cascading fuel dehydrogenation via cyclohexene and cyclohexadiene intermediates. Acetylene addition makes a minor contribution to benzene formation, except in the butadiene flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced directly from the fuel, and in the n-decane flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced from large alkyl radical decomposition and H atom abstraction from the resulting large olefins.

  12. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  13. Process of breaking and rendering permeable a subterranean rock mass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lekas, Mitchell A.

    1980-01-01

    The process of the present invention involves the following steps: producing, as by hydrofracing, a substantially horizontal fracture in the subterranean rock mass to be processed; emplacing an explosive charge in the mass in spaced juxtaposed position to the fracture; enlarging the fracture to create a void space thereat, an initial lifting of the overburden, and to provide a free face juxtaposed to and arranged to cooperate with the emplaced explosive charge; and exploding the charge against the free face for fragmenting the rock and to distribute the space, thus providing fractured, pervious, rubble-ized rock in an enclosed subterranean chamber. Firing of the charge provides a further lifting of the overburden, an enlargement of the chamber and a larger void space to distribute throughout the rubble-ized rock within the chamber. In some forms of the invention an explosive charge is used to produce a transitory enlargement of the fracture, and the juxtaposed emplaced charge is fired during the critical period of enlargement of the fracture.

  14. Rock mass response to the decline in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holub, K.

    2006-01-15

    Geomechanical problems of mining in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Basin were studied on the basis of longterm experience gained from seismological observations. They could serve as reasonable models of rock-mass response to temporary reduction and gradual decline in mining activities and mine closure.

  15. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-08-01

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have continued our work on analyzing well logs and microstructural constraints on seismic signatures. We report results of three studies in this report. The first one deals with fractures and faults that provide the primary control on the underground fluid flow through low permeability massive carbonate rocks. Fault cores often represent lower transmissibility whereas the surrounding damaged rocks and main slip surfaces are high transmissibility elements. We determined the physical properties of fault rocks collected in and around the fault cores of large normal faults in central Italy. After studying the P- and S-wave velocity variation during cycles of confining pressure, we conclude that a rigid pore frame characterizes the fault gouge whereas the fractured limestone comprises pores with a larger aspect ratio. The second study was to characterize the seismic properties of brine as its temperature decreases from 25 C to -21 C. The purpose was to understand how the transmitted wave changes with the onset of freezing. The main practical reason for this experiment was to use partially frozen brine as an analogue for a mixture of methane hydrate and water present in the pore space of a gas hydrate reservoir. In the third study we analyzed variations in dynamic moduli in various carbonate reservoirs. The investigations include log and laboratory data from velocity, porosity, permeability, and attenuation measurements.

  16. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2003-06-30

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have studied (1) Methods for detection of stress-induced velocity anisotropy in sands. (2) We have initiated efforts for velocity upscaling to quantify long-wavelength and short-wavelength velocity behavior and the scale-dependent dispersion caused by sediment variability in different depositional environments.

  17. Petrology of Eocene rocks, southeastern Georgia coastal plain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, P.A.; Miller, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    Study of cores from a US Geological Survey test well in Wayne County indicates that Eocene strata represent an overall shallowing-upward, clastic-carbonate sequence. The 1397-ft (426-m) Eocene section is divided into three units: unnamed lower Eocene rocks, middle Eocene (Claibornian) Lisbon and Avon Park Formations, and upper Eocene (Jacksonian) Ocala Limestone.

  18. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunz, H.R.; Guthrie, R.J.; Katz, M.

    1987-03-17

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate. 5 figs.

  19. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunz, H. Russell; Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray

    1988-08-02

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate.

  20. Hydrogen Production Pathways | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathways Hydrogen Production Pathways Hydrogen Production Pathways DOE is focused on developing technologies that can produce hydrogen at a target of less than $4/kg (delivered and dispensed). To reach these goals, the program looks at a wide portfolio of processes over a range of time frames and production scales. Currently, most hydrogen in the United States is produced by large-scale natural gas reforming. This established technology has been shown to be able to reach the cost targets in the

  1. Solar Market Pathways | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Pathways Solar Market Pathways The Solar Market Pathways program supports 15 SunShot projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These projects take a variety of approaches to develop actionable strategic plans to expand solar electricity use for residential, community, and commercial properties. Awardees use a wide range of tools, including special financing mechanisms like commercial property assessed clean energy, and the integration of solar energy

  2. 2008 Rock Deformation GRC - Conference August 3-8, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James G. Hirth

    2009-09-21

    The GRC on Rock Deformation highlights the latest research in brittle and ductile rock mechanics from experimental, field and theoretical perspectives. The conference promotes a multi-disciplinary forum for assessing our understanding of rock strength and related physical properties in the Earth. The theme for the 2008 conference is 'Real-time Rheology'. Using ever-improving geophysical techniques, our ability to constrain the rheological behavior during earthquakes and post-seismic creep has improved significantly. Such data are used to investigate the frictional behavior of faults, processes responsible for strain localization, the viscosity of the lower crust, and viscous coupling between the crust and mantle. Seismological data also provide information on the rheology of the lower crust and mantle through analysis of seismic attenuation and anisotropy. Geologists are improving our understanding of rheology by combining novel analyses of microstructures in naturally deformed rocks with petrologic data. This conference will bring together experts and students in these research areas with experimentalists and theoreticians studying the same processes. We will discuss and assess where agreement exists on rheological constraints derived at different length/time scales using different techniques - and where new insight is required. To encompass the elements of these topics, speakers and discussion leaders with backgrounds in geodesy, experimental rock deformation, structural geology, earthquake seismology, geodynamics, glaciology, materials science, and mineral physics will be invited to the conference. Thematic sessions will be organized on the dynamics of earthquake rupture, the rheology of the lower crust and coupling with the upper mantle, the measurement and interpretation of seismic attenuation and anisotropy, the dynamics of ice sheets and the coupling of reactive porous flow and brittle deformation for understanding geothermal and chemical properties of the shallow crust that are important for developing ideas in CO2 sequestration, geothermal and petrochemical research and the mechanics of shallow faults.

  3. Layered rocks beneath the Phanerozoic platform of the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-03-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks lies hidden beneath the Phanerozoic cover of the central US over large regions. A thick sequence of Precambrian layered rocks in imaged on the COCORP transect across southern Illinois and Indiana. The thickness of this layered sequence varies from 1-3 times the thickness of the overlying Phanerozoic section of the Illinois basin. The layered sequence is observed for close to 200 km in an east-west direction. Similar layered reflections are seen on the COCORP data from Hardeman Co., TX, and neighboring southwest Oklahoma. Both of these known occurrences lie within the region of the middle Proterozoic Granite/Rhyolite province of the US midcontinent, an area within which scattered wells to basement commonly encounter 1.3-1.5 Ga undeformed granite and/or compositionally similar rhyolite. Therefore, these layered assemblages may comprise a thick sequence of silicic volcanic and sedimentary rocks (perhaps also injected by mafic sills) between scattered volcanic-intrusive centers, such as exposed in the St. Francois Mountains of southeast Missouri. However, in places such as Illinois and Indiana, the near absence of deep wells leaves the possibility that the upper portion of these layered rocks may locally be of late Proterozoic or earliest Paleozoic age. The reprocessing of available industry data, analyzed in conjunction with the existing COCORP data, includes extended vibroseis correlation. These industry data are invaluable in the author's effort to expand the known distribution of these layered rocks (e.g., into north-central Illinois) and to map their structures.

  4. The inflammatory mediator leukotriene D{sub 4} induces subcellular ?-catenin translocation and migration of colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salim, Tavga; Sand-Dejmek, Janna; Sjlander, Anita

    2014-02-15

    The abnormal activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway frequently occurs in colorectal cancer. The nuclear translocation of ?-catenin activates the transcription of target genes that promote cell proliferation, survival, and invasion. The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene D{sub 4} (LTD{sub 4}) exerts its effects through the CysLT{sub 1} receptor. We previously reported an upregulation of CysLT{sub 1}R in patients with colon cancer, suggesting the importance of leukotrienes in colon cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of LTD{sub 4} on Wnt/?-catenin signaling and its effects on proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells. LTD{sub 4} stimulation led to an increase in ?-catenin expression, ?-catenin nuclear translocation and the subsequent transcription of MYC and CCND1. Furthermore, LTD{sub 4} significantly reduced the expression of E-cadherin and ?-catenin at the plasma membrane and increased the migration and proliferation of HCT116 colon cancer cells. The effects of LTD{sub 4} can be blocked by the inhibition of CysLT{sub 1}R. Furthermore, LTD{sub 4} induced the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK)-3? activity, indicating a crosstalk between the G-protein-coupled receptor CysLT{sub 1} and the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. In conclusion, LTD{sub 4}, which can be secreted from macrophages and leukocytes in the tumor microenvironment, induces ?-catenin translocation and the activation of ?-catenin target genes, resulting in the increased proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells. - Highlights: Leukotriene D{sub 4} (LTD{sub 4}) lowers membrane ?-catenin but increases nuclear ?-catenin levels in colon cancer cells. In agreement, LTD{sub 4} triggers inactivation of GSK-3?, activation of TCF/LEF and increased expression of Cyclin D1 and c-Myc. LTD{sub 4} also caused a significant reduction in the expression of E-cadherin and an increased migration of colon cancer cells.

  5. Ad Lucem: Modeling Market Transformation Pathways Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This white paper summarizes the information discussed during the Ad Lucem: Modeling Market Transformation Pathways Workshop, Feb. 17, 2012, in Berkeley, California.

  6. Pathways Toward Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathways Toward Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Mississippi River Watershed March 24, 2015 Analysis and Sustainability Review Jason Hill University of Minnesota ...

  7. Titanium ? - ? phase transformation pathway and a predicted...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Titanium - phase transformation pathway and a predicted metastable structure Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January 14,...

  8. Pathway and Resource Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Resource Overview Pathway and Resource Overview Presented at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA PDF icon renewablehydrogenworkshopnov16ruth...

  9. Understanding Contaminant Transport Pathways at Rocky Flats - A Basis for the Remediation Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paton, Ian

    2008-01-15

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a Department of Energy facility located approximately 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado. Processing and fabrication of nuclear weapons components occurred at Rocky Flats from 1952 through 1989. Operations at the Site included the use of several radionuclides, including plutonium-239/240 (Pu), americium-241 (Am), and various uranium (U) isotopes, as well as several types of chlorinated solvents. The historic operations resulted in legacy contamination, including contaminated facilities, process waste lines, buried wastes and surface soil contamination. Decontamination and removal of buildings at the site was completed in late 2005, culminating more than ten years of active environmental remediation work. The Corrective Action Decision/Record of Decision was subsequently approved in 2006, signifying regulatory approval and closure of the site. The use of RFETS as a National Wildlife Refuge is scheduled to be in full operation by 2012. To develop a plan for remediating different types of radionuclide contaminants present in the RFETS environment required understanding the different environmental transport pathways for the various actinides. Developing this understanding was the primary objective of the Actinide Migration Evaluation (AME) project. Findings from the AME studies were used in the development of RFETS remediation strategies. The AME project focused on issues of actinide behavior and mobility in surface water, groundwater, air, soil and biota at RFETS. For the purposes of the AME studies, actinide elements addressed included Pu, Am, and U. The AME program, funded by DOE, brought together personnel with a broad range of relevant expertise in technical investigations. The AME advisory panel identified research investigations and approaches that could be used to solve issues related to actinide migration at the Site. An initial step of the AME was to develop a conceptual model to provide a qualitative description of the relationships among potential actinide sources and transport pathways at RFETS. One conceptual model was developed specifically for plutonium and americium, because of their similar geochemical and transport properties. A separate model was developed for uranium because of its different properties and mobility in the environment. These conceptual models were guidelines for quantitative analyses described in the RFETS Pathway Analysis Report, which used existing data from the literature as well as site-specific analyses, including field, laboratory and modeling studies to provide quantitative estimates of actinide migration in the RFETS environment. For pathways where more than one method was used to estimate offsite loads for a specific pathway, the method yielding the highest estimated off-site was used for comparison purposes. For all actinides studied, for pre-remediation conditions, air and surface water were identified to be the dominant transport mechanisms. The estimated annual airborne plutonium-239/240 load transported off site exceeded the surface water load by roughly a factor of 40. However, despite being the largest transport pathway, airborne radionuclide concentrations at the monitoring location with the highest measurements during the period studied were less than two percent of the allowable 10 milli-rem standard governing DOE facilities. Estimated actinide loads for other pathways were much less. Shallow groundwater was approximately two orders of magnitude lower, or 1/100 of the load conveyed in surface water. The estimated biological pathway load for plutonium was approximately five orders of magnitude less, or 1/100,000, of the load estimated for surface-water. The pathway analysis results were taken into consideration during subsequent remediation activities that occurred at the site. For example, when the 903 Pad area was remediated to address elevated concentrations of Pu and Am in the surface soil, portable tent structures were constructed to prevent wind and water erosion from occurring while remediation activitie

  10. Issue Backgrounder : Downstream Fish Migration : Improving the Odds of Survival.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-05-01

    Background information is given on the problems caused to anadromous fish migrations, especially salmon and steelhead trout, by the development of hydroelectric power dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Programs arising out of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and conservation Act of 1980 to remedy these problems and restore fish and wildlife populations are described. (ACR)

  11. Point defects and ion migration in PbFCl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, M.S. )

    1990-04-01

    Atomistic simulation techniques have been applied to PbFCl in order to calculate the energetics of defect formation and ion transport mechanisms in the undoped material. Schottky-like disorder is computed to be the dominant ionic defect. The activation energies for a variety of anion vacancy migration mechanisms are calculated and found to be in good agreement with experiment.

  12. Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear explosions. ... Title: Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear ...

  13. Economics of a Conceptual 75 MW Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Electric...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Economics of a Conceptual 75 MW Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Electric Power-Station Abstract Man-made, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy reservoirs have been investigated for over...

  14. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

  15. EIS-0471: Areva Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility in Bonneville County, ID |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy 1: Areva Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility in Bonneville County, ID EIS-0471: Areva Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility in Bonneville County, ID May 20, 2011 delete me old download page duplicate

  16. Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems I. Fluid...

  17. Inertial migration of deformable droplets in a microchannel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Xue, Chundong; Hu, Guoqing E-mail: sunjs@nanoctr.cn; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Xingyu; Sun, Jiashu E-mail: sunjs@nanoctr.cn

    2014-11-15

    The microfluidic inertial effect is an effective way of focusing and sorting droplets suspended in a carrier fluid in microchannels. To understand the flow dynamics of microscale droplet migration, we conduct numerical simulations on the droplet motion and deformation in a straight microchannel. The results are compared with preliminary experiments and theoretical analysis. In contrast to most existing literature, the present simulations are three-dimensional and full length in the streamwise direction and consider the confinement effects for a rectangular cross section. To thoroughly examine the effect of the velocity distribution, the release positions of single droplets are varied in a quarter of the channel cross section based on the geometrical symmetries. The migration dynamics and equilibrium positions of the droplets are obtained for different fluid velocities and droplet sizes. Droplets with diameters larger than half of the channel height migrate to the centerline in the height direction and two equilibrium positions are observed between the centerline and the wall in the width direction. In addition to the well-known Segré-Silberberg equilibrium positions, new equilibrium positions closer to the centerline are observed. This finding is validated by preliminary experiments that are designed to introduce droplets at different initial lateral positions. Small droplets also migrate to two equilibrium positions in the quarter of the channel cross section, but the coordinates in the width direction are between the centerline and the wall. The equilibrium positions move toward the centerlines with increasing Reynolds number due to increasing deformations of the droplets. The distributions of the lift forces, angular velocities, and the deformation parameters of droplets along the two confinement direction are investigated in detail. Comparisons are made with theoretical predictions to determine the fundamentals of droplet migration in microchannels. In addition, existence of the inner equilibrium position is linked to the quartic velocity distribution in the width direction through a simple model for the slip angular velocities of droplets.

  18. Fuel Pathway Integration Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Pathway Integration Technical Team (FPITT) supports the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (the Partnership) in the identification and evaluation of implementation scenarios for fuel cell technology pathways, including hydrogen and fuel cell electric vehicles in the transportation sector, both during a transition period and in the long term.

  19. Used Fuel Disposal in Crystalline Rocks. FY15 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yifeng

    2015-08-20

    The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media. Chapter headings are as follows: Fuel matrix degradation model and its integration with performance assessments, Investigation of thermal effects on the chemical behavior of clays, Investigation of uranium diffusion and retardation in bentonite, Long-term diffusion of U(VI) in bentonite: dependence on density, Sorption and desorption of plutonium by bentonite, Dissolution of plutonium intrinsic colloids in the presence of clay and as a function of temperature, Laboratory investigation of colloid-facilitated transport of cesium by bentonite colloids in a crystalline rock system, Development and demonstration of discrete fracture network model, Fracture continuum model and its comparison with discrete fracture network model.

  20. Panel discussion on rock mechanics issues in repository design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.; Kim, K.S.; Nataraja, M.

    1996-04-01

    The panel discussion was introduced by Mr. Z.T.(Richard) Bieniawski and then continued with five additional speakers. The topics covered in the discussion included rock mechanics pertaining to the design of underground facilities for the disposal of radioactive wastes and the safety of such facilities. The speakers included: Mr. Kun-Soo Kim who is a specialist in the area of rock mechanics testing during the Basalt Waste Isolation Project; Dr. Mysore Nataraja who is the senior project manager with the NRC; Dr. Michael Voegele who is the project manager for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on the Yucca Mountain Project; Dr. Edward Cording who is a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; and Dr. Hemendra Kalia who is employed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and coordinates various activities of testing programs at the Yucca Mountain Site.

  1. Finite element model for heat conduction in jointed rock masses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gartling, D.K.; Thomas, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    A computatonal procedure for simulating heat conduction in a fractured rock mass is proposed and illustrated in the present paper. The method makes use of a simple local model for conduction in the vicinity of a single open fracture. The distributions of fractures and fracture properties within the finite element model are based on a statistical representation of geologic field data. Fracture behavior is included in the finite element computation by locating local, discrete fractures at the element integration points.

  2. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  3. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  4. Chemical hydrofracturing of the Hot Dry Rock reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlev, Leonid

    1996-01-24

    The experimental study of the water-rock interaction shows that the secondary mineral assemblage depends on the water composition. For example, granite-pure water interaction produces zeolites (relatively low-dense, Mg-poor minerals), whereas seawater yields chlorites (high-dense, Mg-rich minerals). The reactions have volumetric effects from several % to 20 % in magnitude. Volume deformations in the heterogeneous matrix cause uneven mechanical strains. Reactions with the effect of about 0,1 vol.% may cause strains of the order of 100-1000 bars being enough for destruction of rocks. Signs and magnitudes of local volume changes depend on the mineral composition of the secondary assemblage. Hence, one can provide either healing or cracking of primary fractures, as desired, by changing the composition of water in the water-felsic rock system where some elements (Mg, Fe) are in lack. The techniques of "chemical hydrofracturing" looks promising as applied to a granite HDR massif. One can regulate the permeability of fractured flow paths by changing in concord the composition and pressure of the injected water. This approach should promote efficient extraction of the petrothermal energy.

  5. Fluid-rock interaction: A reactive transport approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steefel, C.; Maher, K.

    2009-04-01

    Fluid-rock interaction (or water-rock interaction, as it was more commonly known) is a subject that has evolved considerably in its scope over the years. Initially its focus was primarily on interactions between subsurface fluids of various temperatures and mostly crystalline rocks, but the scope has broadened now to include fluid interaction with all forms of subsurface materials, whether they are unconsolidated or crystalline ('fluid-solid interaction' is perhaps less euphonious). Disciplines that previously carried their own distinct names, for example, basin diagenesis, early diagenesis, metamorphic petrology, reactive contaminant transport, chemical weathering, are now considered to fall under the broader rubric of fluid-rock interaction, although certainly some of the key research questions differ depending on the environment considered. Beyond the broadening of the environments considered in the study of fluid-rock interaction, the discipline has evolved in perhaps an even more important way. The study of water-rock interaction began by focusing on geochemical interactions in the absence of transport processes, although a few notable exceptions exist (Thompson 1959; Weare et al. 1976). Moreover, these analyses began by adopting a primarily thermodynamic approach, with the implicit or explicit assumption of equilibrium between the fluid and rock. As a result, these early models were fundamentally static rather than dynamic in nature. This all changed with the seminal papers by Helgeson and his co-workers (Helgeson 1968; Helgeson et al. 1969) wherein the concept of an irreversible reaction path was formally introduced into the geochemical literature. In addition to treating the reaction network as a dynamically evolving system, the Helgeson studies introduced an approach that allowed for the consideration of a multicomponent geochemical system, with multiple minerals and species appearing as both reactants and products, at least one of which could be irreversible. Helgeson's pioneering approach was given a more formal kinetic basis (including the introduction of real time rather than reaction progress as the independent variable) in subsequent studies (Lasaga 1981; Aagaard and Helgeson 1982; Lasaga 1984). The reaction path approach can be used to describe chemical processes in a batch or closed system (e.g., a laboratory beaker), but such systems are of limited interest in the Earth sciences where the driving force for most reactions is transport. Lichtner (1988) clarified the application of the reaction path models to water-rock interaction involving transport by demonstrating that they could be used to describe pure advective transport through porous media. By adopting a reference frame which followed the fluid packet as it moved through the medium, the reaction progress variable could be thought of as travel time instead. Multi-component reactive transport models that could treat any combination of transport and biogeochemical processes date back to the early 1980s. Berner and his students applied continuum reactive transport models to describe processes taking place during the early diagenesis of marine sediments (Berner 1980). Lichtner (1985) outlined much of the basic theory for a continuum model for multicomponent reactive transport. Yeh and Tripathi (1989) also presented the theoretical and numerical basis for the treatment of reactive contaminant transport. Steefel and Lasaga (1994) presented a reactive flow and transport model for nonisothermal, kinetically-controlled water-rock interaction and fracture sealing in hydrothermal systems based on simultaneous numerical solution of both reaction and transport This chapter begins with a review of the important transport processes that affect or even control fluid-rock interaction. This is followed by a general introduction to the governing equations for reactive transport, which are broadly applicable to both qualitative and quantitative interpretations of fluid-rock interactions. This framework is expanded through a discussion of specific topics that are the focus of current research, or are either incompletely understood or not fully appreciated. At this point, the focus shifts to a brief discussion of the three major approaches to modeling multi-scale porous media (1) continuum models, (2) pore scale and pore network models, and (3) hybrid or multi-continuum models. From here, the chapter proceeds to investigate some case studies which illuminate the power of modern numerical reactive transport modeling in deciphering fluid-rock interaction.

  6. Protected Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bits For Hard Rock Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Lee Cardenas

    2000-10-31

    Two bits were designed. One bit was fabricated and tested at Terra-Tek's Drilling Research Laboratory. Fabrication of the second bit was not completed due to complications in fabrication and meeting scheduled test dates at the test facility. A conical bit was tested in a Carthage Marble (compressive strength 14,500 psi) and Sierra White Granite (compressive strength 28,200 psi). During the testing, Hydraulic Horsepower, Bit Weight, Rotation Rate, were varied for the Conical Bit, a Varel Tricone Bit and Varel PDC bit. The Conical Bi did cut rock at a reasonable rate in both rocks. Beneficial effects from the near and through cutter water nozzles were not evident in the marble due to test conditions and were not conclusive in the granite due to test conditions. At atmospheric drilling, the Conical Bit's penetration rate was as good as the standard PDC bit and better than the Tricone Bit. Torque requirements for the Conical Bit were higher than that required for the Standard Bits. Spudding the conical bit into the rock required some care to avoid overloading the nose cutters. The nose design should be evaluated to improve the bit's spudding characteristics.

  7. Fluorescent growth bands in irradiated-bitumen nodules: Evidence of episodic hydrocarbon migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, B.

    1997-01-01

    Minute rims of solid bitumen ({approximately}40-50 {mu}m thick) surround detrital radioactive grains in the Permian-Triassic sandstones and Arranoo Member of the Kockatea Shale from the northern Perth basin, Australia. The bitumen formed as Th- and U-bearing minerals (monazite, xenotime, zircon, thorite) irradiated and immobilized fluid hydrocarbons coming within range of alpha-particle emissions. using transmitted light and scanning electron microscopy and rims appear compositionally homogeneous, but under blue/violet epifluorescent illumination the bitumen displays complex concentric and contorted banding. These fluorescent textures indicate that multiple influxes of hydrocarbons passed through the reservoir sandstones. Following radiation-induced immobilization of hydrocarbons from the first oil influx, the bitumen nodules grew through a process of swelling and expansion outward form the mineral core during subsequent oil influxes, producing graded fluorescent growth bands. Oil droplets and lamellae also were adsorbed onto the outer portion of the nodules. Such bitumen nodules are a new and potentially important source of data for understanding the movement of hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins, specifically for identifying hydrocarbon pathways, the number of discrete hydrocarbon pulses, and the relative timing of oil migration.

  8. Chemical migration by contact metamorphism between granite and silt/carbonate system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Papike, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of trace element signatures between the metamorphosed and unmetamorphosed samples from granite-silt/carbonate system suggests that some elements do migrate during contact metamorphism. The relative degree of migration varies depending on the element. The evidence of chemical migration in silt and carbonate is convincing on a several-meter scale.

  9. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  10. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  11. Reversible and irreversible ion migration processes in lead halide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    perovskites for photovoltaics | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Reversible and irreversible ion migration processes in lead halide perovskites for photovoltaics March 9, 2016 at 4:30 PM/36-462 Eric Hoke Stanford University, Draper Laboratory hoke-eric Lead hybrid perovskites are a promising family of photovoltaic absorber materials that have achieved power conversion efficiencies of over 20%. Lead halide perovskites are ionic materials with a low lattice energy which are unusual properties

  12. A Migrated Aortic Stent Graft Causing Erosive Spondylopathy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gestrich, Christopher Probst, Chris; Wilhelm, Kai; Schiller, Wolfgang

    2013-12-15

    We report about a patient presenting with back pain 4 months after an uneventful endovascular implantation of an aortic stent graft. Computed tomography scan revealed a migration of the stent with consecutive endoleakage, kink formation, and movement of the stent toward the spine, which caused destruction of the aortic wall as well as vertebral necrosis. Explantation of the stent and replacement of the native aorta relieved the patient of his symptoms.

  13. ACOUSTICAL IMAGING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOFT ROCK AND MARINE SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurman E. Scott, Jr., Ph.D.; Younane Abousleiman, Ph.D.; Musharraf Zaman, Ph.D., P.E.

    2002-04-30

    Three major goals were accomplished during this phase. First, a study was completed of the effects of stress-induced changes in anisotropic elastic moduli in sandstone. Second, a new method for measuring the anisotropic poroelastic moduli from acoustic data was developed. Third, a series of triaxial experiments were conducted on unconsolidated sands to identify pressure/stress conditions where liquefaction occurs under high confining pressures. Stress-induced changes in anisotropic Young's moduli and shear moduli were observed during deformational pathway experiments. A new method was made for the acquisition of compressional and shear wave velocities along a series of 3-dimensional raypaths through a core sample as it is subjected to deformation. Three different deformational pathway experiments were conducted. During the hydrostatic deformation experiment, little or no anisotropy was observed in either the Young's moduli or shear moduli. Significant deformational anisotropies were observed in both moduli during the uniaxial strain test and the triaxial compression experiment but each had a different nature. During the triaxial experiment the axial and lateral Young's moduli and shear moduli continued to diverge as load was applied. During the uniaxial strain experiment the anisotropy was ''locked in'' early in the loading phase but then remained steady as both the confining pressure and axial stress were applied. A new method for measuring anisotropic Biot's effective stress parameters has also been developed. The method involves measuring the compressional and shear wave velocities in the aforementioned acoustic velocity experiments while varying stress paths. For a stress-induced transversely isotropic medium the acoustic velocity data are utilized to calculate the five independent elastic stiffness components. Once the elastic stiffness components are determined these can be used to calculate the anisotropic Biot's effective stress parameters, {alpha}{sub v} and {alpha}{sub h}, using the equations of Abousleiman et al. (1996). A series of experiments have been conducted, on an initially inherently isotropic Berea sandstone rock sample, to dynamically determine these anisotropic Biot's parameters during deformational pathway experiments. Data acquired during hydrostatic, triaxial, and uniaxial strain pathway experiments indicates that Biot's effective stress parameter changes significantly if the applied stresses are not hydrostatic. Variations, as large as 20% between the axial (vertical) and lateral (horizontal) Biot's effective stress parameters, were observed in some experiments. A series of triaxial compression experiments have been conducted on unconsolidated sand (Oil Creek sand) to determine the pressure/stress conditions which would be favorable for liquefaction. Liquefaction of geopressured sands is thought to be one of the major causative mechanisms of damaging shallow water flows. The experiments were developed to determine if: (1) liquefaction could be made to occur in this particular sand at high confining pressures, and (2) the state of liquefication had the same nature at high pressure conditions typical of shallow water flows as it does in low confining pressure soil mechanics tests. A series of undrained triaxial experiments were successfully used to document that the Oil Creek sand could undergo liquefaction. The nature (i.e., the shape of the deformational pathway in mean pressure/shear stress space) was very similar to those observed in soil mechanics experiments. The undrained triaxial experiments also indicated that this sand would strain soften at relatively high confining pressures--a necessary precursor to liquefaction. These experiments serve as a starting point for a series of acoustic experiments to determine the signature of compressional and shear wave properties as the sand packs approach the state of liquefaction (and shallow water flows).

  14. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2015-03-17

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility – acto-myosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignment of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility.

  15. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2015-03-17

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility – acto-myosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignmentmore » of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility.« less

  16. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Thursday, 21 January 2016 12:40 Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind

  17. Hydrologic characterization of fractured rocks: An interdisciplinary methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, J.C.S.; Majer, E.L.; Martel, S.J.; Karasaki, K.; Peterson, J.E. Jr.; Davey, A.; Hestir, K. )

    1990-11-01

    The characterization of fractured rock is a critical problem in the development of nuclear waste repositories in geologic media. A good methodology for characterizing these systems should be focused on the large important features first and concentrate on building numerical models which can reproduce the observed hydrologic behavior of the fracture system. In many rocks, fracture zones dominate the behavior. These can be described using the tools of geology and geomechanics in order to understand what kind of features might be important hydrologically and to qualitatively describe the way flow might occur in the rock. Geophysics can then be employed to locate these features between boreholes. Then well testing can be used to see if the identified features are in fact important. Given this information, a conceptual model of the system can be developed which honors the geologic description, the tomographic data and the evidence of high permeability. Such a model can then be modified through an inverse process, such as simulated annealing, until it reproduces the cross-hole well test behavior which has been observed insitu. Other possible inversion techniques might take advantage of self similar structure. Once a model is constructed, we need to see how well the model makes predictions. We can use a cross-validation technique which sequentially puts aside parts of the data and uses the model to predict that part in order to calculate the prediction error. This approach combines many types of information in a methodology which can be modified to fit a particular field site. 114 refs., 81 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Simulation of water transport in heated rock salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlich, M.; Jockwer, N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes computer simulation studies on water transport in German rock salt. Based on JOCKWERS experimental investigations on water content and water liberation, the object of these studies was to select a water transport model, that matches the water inflow which was measured in some heater experiments in the Asse Salt Mine. The main result is, that an evaporation front model, with Knudsen-type vapor transport combined with fluid transport by thermal expansion of the adsorbed water layers in the non evaporated zone, showed the best agreement with experimental evidence.

  19. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2002-05-01

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have studied (1) How to quantify elastic properties of clay minerals using Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy. We show how bulk modulus of clay can be measured using atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) (2) We have successfully measured elastic properties of unconsolidated sediments in an effort to quantify attributes for detection of overpressures from seismic (3) We have initiated efforts for velocity upscaling to quantify long-wavelength and short-wavelength velocity behavior and the scale-dependent dispersion caused by sediment variability in different depositional environments.

  20. 2012 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2012 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported ...

  1. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion...

  2. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway...

  3. Neutron reactions in accreting neutron stars: a new pathway to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a new pathway to efficient crust heating Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron reactions in accreting neutron stars: a new pathway to efficient crust heating You ...

  4. Techno-Economic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Techno-Economic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production (2009) Techno-Economic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production (2009) ...

  5. 2009 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program 2009 Pathways to Commercial Success: ...

  6. CBEI: Career Pathways for the Energy Retrofit Workforce - 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Career Pathways for the Energy Retrofit Workforce - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Career Pathways for the Energy Retrofit Workforce - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Lisa Shulock, PSU View ...

  7. New Cyanobacteria Metabolic Pathway Critical to Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-12-01

    A little-known metabolic pathway in photosynthetic organisms is actually a major pathway for converting carbon dioxide to biofuels and bioproducts.

  8. Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production Report documenting the ...

  9. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to...

  10. 2013 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2013 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by ...

  11. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Pathways to Clean Cities: A Stakeholder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Pathways to Clean Cities: A Stakeholder - Government Engagement Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Pathways to Clean Cities: A Stakeholder - Government Engagement May ...

  12. Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure Using Amino Acid Sequences Title: Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure Using ...

  13. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This ...

  14. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway ...

  15. 2015 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2015 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported ...

  16. 2014 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2014 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported ...

  17. 2010 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    0 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2010 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported ...

  18. 2011 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2011 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported ...

  19. Source rocks of the Sub-Andean basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raedeke, L.D. )

    1993-02-01

    Seven source rock systems were mapped using a consistent methodology to allow basin comparison from Trinidad to southern Chile. Silurian and Devonian systems, deposited in passive margin and intracratonic settings, have fair-good original oil/gas potential from central and northern Bolivia to southern Peru. Kerogens range from mature in the foreland to overmature in the thrust belt. Permian to Carboniferous deposition in local restricted basins formed organic-rich shales and carbonates with very good original oil/gas potential, principally in northern Bolivia and southern Peru. Late Triassic to early Jurassic marine shales and limestones, deposited in deep, narrow, basins from Ecuador to north-central maturity. Locally, in the Cuyo rift basin of northern Argentina, a Triassic lacustrine unit is a very good, mature oil source. Early Cretaceous to Jurassic marine incursions into the back-arc basins of Chile-Argentina deposited shales and limestones. Although time transgressive (younging to the south), this system is the principal source in southern back-arc basins, with best potential in Neuquen, where three intervals are stacked A late Cretaceous marine transgressive shale is the most important source in northern South America. The unit includes the La Luna and equivalents extending from Trinidad through Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and into northern Peru. Elsewhere in South America upper Cretaceous marine-lacustrine rocks are a possible source in the Altiplano and Northwest basins of Bolivia and Argentina. Middle Miocene to Oligocene source system includes shallow marine, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments from Trinidad to northern Peru.

  20. Micromachined low frequency rocking accelerometer with capacitive pickoff

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P.; Simon, Jonathon N.; McConaghy, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    A micro electro mechanical sensor that uses capacitive readout electronics. The sensor involves a micromachined low frequency rocking accelerometer with capacitive pickoff fabricated by deep reactive ion etching. The accelerometer includes a central silicon proof mass, is suspended by a thin polysilicon tether, and has a moving electrode (capacitor plate or interdigitated fingers) located at each end the proof mass. During movement (acceleration), the tethered mass moves relative to the surrounding packaging, for example, and this defection is measured capacitively by a plate capacitor or interdigitated finger capacitor, having the cooperating fixed electrode (capacitor plate or interdigitated fingers) positioned on the packaging, for example. The micromachined rocking accelerometer has a low frequency (<500 Hz), high sensitivity (.mu.G), with minimal power usage. The capacitors are connected to a power supply (battery) and to sensor interface electronics, which may include an analog to digital (A/D) converter, logic, RF communication link, antenna, etc. The sensor (accelerometer) may be, for example, packaged along with the interface electronics and a communication system in a 2".times.2".times.2" cube. The proof mass may be asymmetric or symmetric. Additional actuating capacitive plates may be used for feedback control which gives a greater dynamic range.

  1. ChemCam Rock Laser for the Mars Science Laboratory

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LANL

    2009-09-01

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instr... Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components are concurrently being assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France, and will be delivered to JPL in July. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2009. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  2. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore, K.

    2001-07-13

    The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between Professor George J. Hirasaki at Rice University and Professor Kishore Mohanty at University of Houston. In addition to the DOE, this project is supported by a consortium of oil companies and service companies. The fluid properties characterization has emphasized the departure of live oils from correlations based on dead oils. Also, asphaltic components can result in a difference between the T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions as well as reduce the hydrogen index. The fluid rock characterizations that are reported here are the effects of wettability and internal magnetic field gradients. A pore reconstruction method ha s been developed to recreate three-dimensional porous media from two-dimensional images that reproduce some of their key statistical properties. A Monte Carlo simulation technique has been developed to calculate the magnetization decay in fluid saturated porous media given their pore structure.

  3. Design methodology for rock excavations at the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alber, M.; Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1993-12-31

    The problems involved in the design of the proposed underground repository for high-level nuclear waste call for novel design approaches. Guidelines for the design are given by the Mission Plan Amendment in which licensing and regulatory aspects have to be satisfied. Moreover, systems engineering was proposed, advocating a top-down approach leading to the identification of discrete, implementable system elements. These objectives for the design process can be integrated in an engineering design methodology. While design methodologies for some engineering disciplines are available, they were of limited use for rock engineering because of the inherent uncertainties about the geologic media. Based on the axiomatic design approach of Suh, Bieniawski developed a methodology for design in rock. Design principles and design stages are clearly stated to assist in effective decision making. For overall performance goals, the domain of objectives is defined through components (DCs) - representing a design solution - satisfy the FRs, resulting in discrete, independent functional relations. Implementation is satisfied by evaluation and optimization of the design with respect to the constructibility of the design components.

  4. ChemCam rock laser for Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity"

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wiens, Roger

    2014-08-12

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. The Flight Model was shipped in August, 2010 for installation on the rover at JPL. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components were concurrently assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2011. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  5. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  6. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    P. (Stephen P. Yanoviak) - Department of Biology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock Yeager, Kevin M. (Kevin M. Yeager) - Department of Marine Science, University of ...

  7. Method and apparatus for determining two-phase flow in rock fracture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Persoff, Peter; Pruess, Karsten; Myer, Larry

    1994-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus as disclosed for measuring the permeability of multiple phases through a rock fracture. The improvement in the method comprises delivering the respective phases through manifolds to uniformly deliver and collect the respective phases to and from opposite edges of the rock fracture in a distributed manner across the edge of the fracture. The improved apparatus comprises first and second manifolds comprising bores extending within porous blocks parallel to the rock fracture for distributing and collecting the wetting phase to and from surfaces of the porous blocks, which respectively face the opposite edges of the rock fracture. The improved apparatus further comprises other manifolds in the form of plenums located adjacent the respective porous blocks for uniform delivery of the non-wetting phase to parallel grooves disposed on the respective surfaces of the porous blocks facing the opposite edges of the rock fracture and generally perpendicular to the rock fracture.

  8. Migration of defect clusters and xenon-vacancy clusters in uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dong; Gao, Fei; Deng, Huiqiu; Hu, Wangyu; Sun, Xin

    2014-07-01

    The possible transition states, minimum energy paths and migration mechanisms of defect clusters and xenon-vacancy defect clusters in uranium dioxide have been investigated using the dimer and the nudged elastic-band methods. The nearby O atom can easily hop into the oxygen vacancy position by overcoming a small energy barrier, which is much lower than that for the migration of a uranium vacancy. A simulation for a vacancy cluster consisting of two oxygen vacancies reveals that the energy barrier of the divacancy migration tends to decrease with increasing the separation distance of divacancy. For an oxygen interstitial, the migration barrier for the hopping mechanism is almost three times larger than that for the exchange mechanism. Xe moving between two interstitial sites is unlikely a dominant migration mechanism considering the higher energy barrier. A net migration process of a Xe-vacancy pair containing an oxygen vacancy and a xenon interstitial is identified by the NEB method. We expect the oxygen vacancy-assisted migration mechanism to possibly lead to a long distance migration of the Xe interstitials in UO2. The migration of defect clusters involving Xe substitution indicates that Xe atom migrating away from the uranium vacancy site is difficult.

  9. Delineation of landfill migration boundaries using chemical surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thielen, D.R.; Foreman, P.S.; Davis, A.; Wyeth, R.

    1987-02-01

    A purge/trap procedures for the determination of monochlorobenzene and monochlorotoluene at the 10 ng/g level in soil is described. The advantages of a heated and stirred vessel for sample preparation are demonstrated. This method was applied to samples from the Hyde Park landfill site in Niagara Falls, NY, and the results were used to define chemical migration is illustrated with both two- and three-dimensional plotting techniques. This study is a first phase in the development of a remedial plan for the Hyde Park landfill.

  10. Standing Rock Sioux Tribe - Lakota/Dakota Nation: Establishment of Renewable Energy & Energy Development Office

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    8540 fwasinzi@standingrock.org Establishment of Renewable Energy & Energy Development Office Standing Rock Sioux Tribe - Lakota/Dakota Nation OVERVIEW: BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON STANDING ROCK RESERVATION SITTING BULL COLLEGE WIND TURBINE EECBG ENERGY EFFICIENCY & WIND TURBINE INSTALLATION AT SITTING BULL COLLEGE WIND ASSESSMENT STUDY ESTABLISHMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY & ENERGY DEVELOPMENT OFFICE (REEDO) STANDING ROCK ONE OF SEVEN RESERVATIONS OF THE GREAT SIOUX NATION LOCATED IN

  11. AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration | Department of Energy AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration January 22, 2013 - 3:41pm Addthis SEATTLE -- AltaRock Energy today announced that it has created multiple stimulated zones from a single wellbore at the

  12. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rock the Watt was a direct applica- tion of the Framework for Organiza- tional Change that included building sustainability champions, integration of a sustainability checklist, and sup- port for employees to come up with their own energy saving actions. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab Pacifc Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), one of the seventeen Department of Energy laboratories, implemented the 3-month Rock the Watt campaign in FY2015 to

  13. EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    saturated with Supercritical CO2 (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water saturated with Supercritical CO2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water saturated with Supercritical CO2 EGS using CO2 as a working fluid will likely involve hydro-shearing low-permeability hot rock reservoirs with a water solution. After that process, the fractures

  14. Numerical studies of fluid-rock interactions in EnhancedGeothermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    rates of heat extraction, and can offer geologic storage of carbon as an ancillary benefit. Fluid-rock interactions ... reservoir zone with anhydrous supercritical COsub 2. ...

  15. The US Hot Dry Rock Program-20 Years of Experience in Reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The US Hot Dry Rock Program-20 Years of Experience in Reservoir Testing Author Donald Brown Conference World Geothermal Congress; Florence, Italy; 19950101 Published...

  16. Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock Geothermal Systems II. Modeling Geochemical Behavior Abstract A transient mass balance model is developed to account for the dynamic behavior of an artificially stimulated...

  17. Rock Sampling At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (U.S. Geological...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    collected included: geographic coordinates, rock type, magnetic susceptibility, and density. References US Geological Survey (2012) Geophysical Studies in the Vicinity of Blue...

  18. Rock Density At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Density At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak Area...

  19. A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrotherm...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    through the isotopically lighter volcanic rocks of the caldera fill. Authors Fraser Goff, Harold A. Wollenberg, D. C. Brookins and Ronald W. Kistler Published Journal Journal...

  20. Scientists to Meet in Carlsbad, NM for Hard Rock Lab Task Force

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the movement of radionuclides in crystalline rock. The data, along with additional geotechnical information, will be used to support the licensing of a permanent nuclear waste...

  1. Rock Sampling At Seven Mile Hole Area (Larson, Et Al., 2009)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seven Mile Hole Area (Larson, Et Al., 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Sampling At Seven Mile Hole Area (Larson, Et...

  2. Rock Sampling At San Juan Volcanic Field Area (Larson & Jr, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Juan Volcanic Field Area (Larson & Jr, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Sampling At San Juan Volcanic Field Area...

  3. Rock Sampling At Mt Ranier Area (Frank, 1995) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity Details Location Mt Ranier Area Exploration Technique Rock Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes This paper relies...

  4. 2010 DOE National Science Bowl® Photos - Little Rock Central...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Little Rock Central High School National Science Bowl (NSB) NSB Home About National Science Bowl Contacts Regional Science Bowl Coordinators National Science Bowl FAQ's Alumni ...

  5. Bibliography of the geological and geophysical aspects of hot dry rock geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.; Sayer, S.

    1980-02-01

    This is the first issue of an annual compilation of references that are useful to the exploration, understanding and development of the hot dry rock geothermal resource.

  6. Coincident P and Sh reflections from basement rocks at Coso geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is being done to improve the statics, velocities, signal character, and migrated signal positions. The main targets of the profiles were (1) exploring the reflection...

  7. Career Pathways Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Career Pathways Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Career Pathways Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) The following frequently asked questions were developed by OPM's Student Programs Office. They will clarify the use of the authority and assist managers, supervisors, and human resources professionals in effectively administering the Career Pathways Program. PDF icon Career Pathways FAQs Responsible Contacts Kimberly Chappell SUPERVISORY HUMAN RESOURCES SPECIALIST E-mail

  8. Ethanol Pathways in the 2050 North American Transportation Futures Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    A paper discussing the various ethanol pathways in the 2050 North American Transportation Futures Study

  9. Controllable positive exchange bias via redox-driven oxygen migration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Olamit, Justin; Dumas, Randy K.; Kirby, B. J.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2016-03-21

    We report that ionic transport in metal/oxide heterostructures offers a highly effective means to tailor material properties via modification of the interfacial characteristics. However, direct observation of ionic motion under buried interfaces and demonstration of its correlation with physical properties has been challenging. Using the strong oxygen affinity of gadolinium, we design a model system of GdxFe1-x/NiCoO bilayer films, where the oxygen migration is observed and manifested in a controlled positive exchange bias over a relatively small cooling field range. The exchange bias characteristics are shown to be the result of an interfacial layer of elemental nickel and cobalt, amore » few nanometres in thickness, whose moments are larger than expected from uncompensated NiCoO moments. This interface layer is attributed to a redox-driven oxygen migration from NiCoO to the gadolinium, during growth or soon after. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective path to tailoring the interfacial characteristics and interlayer exchange coupling in metal/oxide heterostructures.« less

  10. Anandamide inhibits adhesion and migration of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimaldi, Claudia; Pisanti, Simona; Laezza, Chiara; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Santoro, Antonietta; Vitale, Mario; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Notarnicola, Maria; Iacuzzo, Irma; Portella, Giuseppe; Di Marzo, Vincenzo . E-mail: vdimarzo@icmib.na.cnr.it; Bifulco, Maurizio . E-mail: maubiful@unina.it

    2006-02-15

    The endocannabinoid system regulates cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells. We reasoned that stimulation of cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors could induce a non-invasive phenotype in breast mtastatic cells. In a model of metastatic spreading in vivo, the metabolically stable anandamide analogue, 2-methyl-2'-F-anandamide (Met-F-AEA), significantly reduced the number and dimension of metastatic nodes, this effect being antagonized by the selective CB{sub 1} antagonist SR141716A. In MDA-MB-231 cells, a highly invasive human breast cancer cell line, and in TSA-E1 cells, a murine breast cancer cell line, Met-F-AEA inhibited adhesion and migration on type IV collagen in vitro without modifying integrin expression: both these effects were antagonized by SR141716A. In order to understand the molecular mechanism involved in these processes, we analyzed the phosphorylation of FAK and Src, two tyrosine kinases involved in migration and adhesion. In Met-F-AEA-treated cells, we observed a decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of both FAK and Src, this effect being attenuated by SR141716A. We propose that CB{sub 1} receptor agonists inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis by modulating FAK phosphorylation, and that CB{sub 1} receptor activation might represent a novel therapeutic strategy to slow down the growth of breast carcinoma and to inhibit its metastatic diffusion in vivo.

  11. Method and apparatus for water jet drilling of rock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, David A.; Mazurkiewicz, Marian; Bushnell, Dwight J.; Blaine, James

    1978-01-01

    Rock drilling method and apparatus utilizing high pressure water jets for drilling holes of relatively small diameter at speeds significantly greater than that attainable with existing drilling tools. Greatly increased drilling rates are attained due to jet nozzle geometry and speed of rotation. The jet nozzle design has two orifices, one pointing axially ahead in the direction of travel and the second inclined at an angle of approximately 30.degree. from the axis. The two orifices have diameters in the ratio of approximately 1:2. Liquid jet velocities in excess of 1,000 ft/sec are used, and the nozzle is rotated at speeds up to 1,000 rpm and higher.

  12. Saturated Zone Plumes in Volcanic Rock: Implications for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Kelkar; R. Roback; B. Robinson; G. Srinivasan; C. Jones; P. Reimus

    2006-02-14

    This paper presents a literature survey of the occurrences of radionuclide plumes in saturated, fractured rocks. Three sites, Idaho National laboratory, Hanford, and Oak Ridge are discussed in detail. Results of a modeling study are also presented showing that the length to width ratio of a plume starting within the repository footprint at the Yucca Mountain Project site, decreases from about 20:1 for the base case to about 4:1 for a higher value of transverse dispersivity, indicating enhanced lateral spreading of the plume. Due to the definition of regulatory requirements, this lateral spreading does not directly impact breakthrough curves at the 18 km compliance boundary, however it increases the potential that a plume will encounter reducing conditions, thus significantly retarding the transport of sorbing radionuclides.

  13. Hydrologic test system for fracture flow studies in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raber, E; Lord, D.; Burklund, P.

    1982-05-05

    A hydrologic test system has been designed to measure the intrinsic permeabilities of individual fractures in crystalline rock. This system is used to conduct constant pressure-declining flow rate and pressure pulse hydraulic tests. The system is composed of four distinct units: (1) the Packer System, (2) Injection system, (3) Collection System, and (4) Electronic Data Acquisition System. The apparatus is built in modules so it can be easily transported and re-assembled. It is also designed to operate over a wide range of pressures (0 to 300 psig) and flow rates (0.2 to 1.0 gal/min). This system has proved extremely effective and versatile in its use at the Climax Facility, Nevada Test Site.

  14. Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SNL for the Used Fuel Disposition Program | Department of Energy Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and SNL for the Used Fuel Disposition Program Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and SNL for the Used Fuel Disposition Program The report summarizes laboratory and field observations and numerical modeling related to coupled processes involving brine and vapor migration in geologic salt, focusing on recent developments and studies

  15. Uranium and thorium decay series disequilibria in young volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the central questions in igneous geochemistry that study of radioactive disequilibria can help to answer are: what are the rates of magma genesis; and what are the timescales of magma separation and transport. In addition to the temporal information that may be extracted from disequilibria data, the {sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th of a young rock may be used as a tracer of the Th/U ratio of its source region. Measurements were made by isotope dilution alpha-spectrometry of {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 232}Th in 20 subduction related, 3 oceanic intraplate, and 10 continental intraplate volcanics. {sup 210}Pb was measured in all, {sup 226}Ra was measured in about half, and {sup 228}Th was measured in 10 of the most recent samples. Disequilibrium between {sup 228}Th and {sup 232}Th was found only in the Nacarbonatite samples from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania, which is attributable to {sup 228}Ra/{sup 232}Th {approximately} 27 at the time of eruption. These rocks also have {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th > 60. Three Ra-enrichment models are developed which constrain carbonatite magma formation at less than 20 years before eruption. The effects of different partial melting processes on the {sup 238}U decay series are investigated. If mid-ocean ridge basalts are formed by a dynamic melting process, the {sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th of the basalts provides a minimum estimate of the Th/U ratio of the source region. The {sup 238}U enrichment in arc volcanics is probably the results of metasomatism of the source by fluids derived from the subducting slab, and the {sup 230}Th enrichment observed for other volcanics is probably due to the partial melting process in the absence of U-bearing fluids.

  16. Spatial statistics for predicting flow through a rock fracture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coakley, K.J.

    1989-03-01

    Fluid flow through a single rock fracture depends on the shape of the space between the upper and lower pieces of rock which define the fracture. In this thesis, the normalized flow through a fracture, i.e. the equivalent permeability of a fracture, is predicted in terms of spatial statistics computed from the arrangement of voids, i.e. open spaces, and contact areas within the fracture. Patterns of voids and contact areas, with complexity typical of experimental data, are simulated by clipping a correlated Gaussian process defined on a N by N pixel square region. The voids have constant aperture; the distance between the upper and lower surfaces which define the fracture is either zero or a constant. Local flow is assumed to be proportional to local aperture cubed times local pressure gradient. The flow through a pattern of voids and contact areas is solved using a finite-difference method. After solving for the flow through simulated 10 by 10 by 30 pixel patterns of voids and contact areas, a model to predict equivalent permeability is developed. The first model is for patterns with 80% voids where all voids have the same aperture. The equivalent permeability of a pattern is predicted in terms of spatial statistics computed from the arrangement of voids and contact areas within the pattern. Four spatial statistics are examined. The change point statistic measures how often adjacent pixel alternate from void to contact area (or vice versa ) in the rows of the patterns which are parallel to the overall flow direction. 37 refs., 66 figs., 41 tabs.

  17. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  18. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  19. Nondestructive and automated testing for soil and rock properties. ASTM special technical publication 1350

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, W.A.; Fairhurst, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to highlight recent developments in nondestructive and automated testing for soil and rock properties. Speakers present results of recent research in these areas that have practical application for the rapid and economical testing of soil and rock. Authors were encouraged to identify which testing equipment and methods have sufficient practical application to warrant standards development.

  20. Final Report: Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Normann, Randy A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  1. Final Report. Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Normann, Randy A

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  2. Numerical simulation of fracture rocks and wave propagation by means of fractal theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valle G., R. del

    1994-12-31

    A numerical approach was developed for the dynamic simulation of fracture rocks and wave propagation. Based on some ideas of percolation theory and fractal growth, a network of particles and strings represent the rock model. To simulate an inhomogeneous medium, the particles and springs have random distributed elastic parameters and are implemented in the dynamic Navier equation. Some of the springs snap with criteria based on the confined stress applied, therefore creating a fractured rock consistent with the physical environment. The basic purpose of this research was to provide a method to construct a fractured rock with confined stress conditions as well as the wave propagation imposed in the model. Such models provide a better understanding of the behavior of wave propagation in fractured media. The synthetic seismic data obtained henceforth, can be used as a tool to develop methods for characterizing fractured rocks by means of geophysical inference.

  3. Colloid and ionic tracer migration within SRS sediments: Final summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strom, R.N.; Seaman, J.C.; Bertsch, P.M.; Miller, W.P.

    1996-04-09

    The generation of a stable colloidal suspension in geologic materials has a number of environmental implications. Mobile colloids may act as vectors for the transport of adsorbed contaminants through soils and within aquifers and can cause serious problems related to well monitoring and formation permeability in an injections well system. Colloid-facilitated transport has been implicated in the migration of contaminants from seepage basins on the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) at a rate greater than was predicted in two- phase transport models. From 1955 to 1988, seepage basins overlying the water-table aquifer received acidic wastes containing high levels of Na+ and nitric acid, as well as trace radionuclides and metals from the nuclear materials processing facilities. Numerical simulations predicted that metal contaminants would not reach the water table, but measurable quantities of these contaminants have been detected in monitoring wells down gradient from the basins. Lack of agreement between predicted and observed contaminant migration in this and other studies has been attributed to both local non equilibrium situation, preferential flow paths within the geologic material, and to transport of the contaminant in association with a mobile solid phase, i.e. dispersed colloids. Additionally, the association of contaminants with a mobile colloidal phase has important ramifications for groundwater sampling on SRS intended to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of a given contaminant. As part of the F- and H-Area reclamation project, the Department of Energy has proposed the capture and treatment of the contaminant plume followed by reinjection of the treated water into the water table and upper confined aquifers. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. The role of drebrin in glioma migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terakawa, Yuzo; Agnihotri, Sameer; Golbourn, Brian; Nadi, Mustafa; Sabha, Nesrin; Smith, Christian A.; Croul, Sidney E.; Rutka, James T.

    2013-02-15

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current advances in therapy consisting of surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation, the overall survival rate still remains poor. Therapeutic failures are partly attributable to the highly infiltrative nature of tumor adjacent to normal brain parenchyma. Recently, evidence is mounting to suggest that actin cytoskeleton dynamics are critical components of the cell invasion process. Drebrin is an actin-binding protein involved in the regulation of actin filament organization, and plays a significant role in cell motility; however, the role of drebrin in glioma cell invasiveness has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study was aimed to clarify the role of drebrin in glioma cell morphology and cell motility. Here we show that drebrin is expressed in glioma cell lines and in operative specimens of GBM. We demonstrate that stable overexpression of drebrin in U87 cells leads to alterations in cell morphology, and induces increased invasiveness in vitro while knockdown of drebrin in U87 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases invasion and migration. In addition, we show that depletion of drebrin by siRNA alters glioma cell morphology in A172 GBM cell line. Our results suggest that drebrin contributes to the maintenance of cell shape, and may play an important role in glioma cell motility. - Highlights: ? Drebrin is an actin-binding protein aberrantly expressed in several cancers. ? Role of drebrin in glioma cell morphology and motility is previously unknown. ? We demonstrate that drebrin is expressed in 40% of glioblastoma specimens. ? Drebrin plays a significant role in modulating glioma cell migration and invasion.

  5. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF PROTOPLANETS IN A MARGINALLY GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2013-02-20

    Core accretion and disk instability require giant protoplanets to form in the presence of disk gas. Protoplanet migration models generally assume disk masses low enough that the disk's self-gravity can be neglected. However, disk instability requires a disk massive enough to be marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU). Even for core accretion, an FU Orionis outburst may require a brief MGU disk phase. We present a new set of three-dimensional, gravitational radiation hydrodynamics models of MGU disks with multiple protoplanets, which interact gravitationally with the disk and with each other, including disk gas mass accretion. Initial protoplanet masses are 0.01 to 10 M {sub Circled-Plus} for core accretion models, and 0.1 to 3 M {sub Jup} for Nice scenario models, starting on circular orbits with radii of 6, 8, 10, or 12 AU, inside a 0.091 M {sub Sun} disk extending from 4 to 20 AU around a 1 M {sub Sun} protostar. Evolutions are followed for up to {approx}4000 yr and involve phases of relative stability (e {approx} 0.1) interspersed with chaotic phases (e {approx} 0.4) of orbital interchanges. The 0.01 to 10 M {sub Circled-Plus} cores can orbit stably for {approx}1000 yr: monotonic inward or outward orbital migration of the type seen in low mass disks does not occur. A system with giant planet masses similar to our solar system (1.0, 0.33, 0.1, 0.1 M {sub Jup}) was stable for over 1000 yr, and a Jupiter-Saturn-like system was stable for over 3800 yr, implying that our giant planets might well survive an MGU disk phase.

  6. Evaluation of Used Fuel Disposition in Clay-Bearing Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jové Colón, Carlos F.; Weck, Philippe F.; Sassani, David H.; Zheng, Liange; Rutqvist, Jonny; Steefel, Carl I.; Kim, Kunhwi; Nakagawa, Seiji; Houseworth, James; Birkholzer, Jens; Caporuscio, Florie A.; Cheshire, Michael; Rearick, Michael S.; McCarney, Mary K.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Benedicto, Ana; Kersting, Annie B.; Sutton, Mark; Jerden, James; Frey, Kurt E.; Copple, Jacqueline M.; Ebert, William

    2014-08-29

    Radioactive waste disposal in shale/argillite rock formations has been widely considered given its desirable isolation properties (low permeability), geochemically reduced conditions, anomalous groundwater pressures, and widespread geologic occurrence. Clay/shale rock formations are characterized by their high content of clay minerals such as smectites and illites where diffusive transport and chemisorption phenomena predominate. These, in addition to low permeability, are key attributes of shale to impede radionuclide mobility. Shale host-media has been comprehensively studied in international nuclear waste repository programs as part of underground research laboratories (URLs) programs in Switzerland, France, Belgium, and Japan. These investigations, in some cases a decade or more long, have produced a large but fundamental body of information spanning from site characterization data (geological, hydrogeological, geochemical, geomechanical) to controlled experiments on the engineered barrier system (EBS) (barrier clay and seals materials). Evaluation of nuclear waste disposal in shale formations in the USA was conducted in the late 70’s and mid 80’s. Most of these studies evaluated the potential for shale to host a nuclear waste repository but not at the programmatic level of URLs in international repository programs. This report covers various R&D work and capabilities relevant to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in shale/argillite media. Integration and cross-fertilization of these capabilities will be utilized in the development and implementation of the shale/argillite reference case planned for FY15. Disposal R&D activities under the UFDC in the past few years have produced state-of-the-art modeling capabilities for coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC), used fuel degradation (source term), and thermodynamic modeling and database development to evaluate generic disposal concepts. The THMC models have been developed for shale repository leveraging in large part on the information garnered in URLs and laboratory data to test and demonstrate model prediction capability and to accurately represent behavior of the EBS and the natural (barrier) system (NS). In addition, experimental work to improve our understanding of clay barrier interactions and TM couplings at high temperatures are key to evaluate thermal effects as a result of relatively high heat loads from waste and the extent of sacrificial zones in the EBS. To assess the latter, experiments and modeling approaches have provided important information on the stability and fate of barrier materials under high heat loads. This information is central to the assessment of thermal limits and the implementation of the reference case when constraining EBS properties and the repository layout (e.g., waste package and drift spacing). This report is comprised of various parts, each one describing various R&D activities applicable to shale/argillite media. For example, progress made on modeling and experimental approaches to analyze physical and chemical interactions affecting clay in the EBS, NS, and used nuclear fuel (source term) in support of R&D objectives. It also describes the development of a reference case for shale/argillite media. The accomplishments of these activities are summarized as follows: Development of a reference case for shale/argillite; Investigation of Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in EBS: FY14; Update on Experimental Activities on Buffer/Backfill Interactions at elevated Pressure and Temperature; and Thermodynamic Database Development: Evaluation Strategy, Modeling Tools, First-Principles Modeling of Clay, and Sorption Database Assessment;ANL Mixed Potential Model For Used Fuel Degradation: Application to Argillite and Crystalline Rock Environments.

  7. Hot dry rock geothermal energy. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This second EPRI workshop on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy, held in May 1994, focused on the status of worldwide HDR research and development and used that status review as the starting point for discussions of what could and should be done next: by U.S. federal government, by U.S. industry, by U.S. state governments, and by international organizations or through international agreements. The papers presented and the discussion that took place indicate that there is a community of researchers and industrial partners that could join forces, with government support, to begin a new effort on hot dry rock geothermal development. This new heat mining effort would start with site selection and confirmatory studies, done concurrently. The confirmatory studies would test past evaluations against the most current results (from the U.S. site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, and from the two sites in Japan, the one in Russia, and the two in western Europe) and the best models of relevant physical and economic aspects. Site selection would be done in the light of the confirmatory studies and would be influenced by the need to find a site where success is probable and which is representative enough of other sites so that its success would imply good prospects for success at numerous other sites. The test of success would be circulation between a pair of wells, or more wells, in a way that confirmed, with the help of flow modeling, that a multi-well system would yield temperatures, flows and lifetimes that support economically feasible power generation. The flow modeling would have to have previously achieved its own confirmation from relevant data taken from both heat mining and conventional hydrothermal geothermal experience. There may be very relevant experience from the enhancement of ''hot wet rock'' sites, i.e., sites where hydrothermal reservoirs lack, or have come to lack, enough natural water or steam and are helped by water injected cold and produced hot. The new site would have to be selected in parallel with the confirmatory studies because it would have to be modeled as part of the studies and because its similarity to other candidate sites must be known well enough to assure that results at the selected site are relevant to many others. Also, the industry partners in the joint effort at the new site must be part of the confirmatory studies, because they must be convinced of the economic feasibility. This meeting may have brought together the core of people who can make such a joint effort take place. EPRI sponsored the organization of this meeting in order to provide utilities with an update on the prospects for power generation via heat mining. Although the emerging rules for electric utilities competing in power generation make it very unlikely that the rate-payers of any one utility (or small group of utilities) can pay the differential to support this new heat mining research and development effort, the community represented at this meeting may be able to make the case for national or international support of a new heat mining effort, based on the potential size and economics of this resource as a benefit for the nation as a whole and as a contribution to reduced emissions of fossil CO{sub 2} worldwide.

  8. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  9. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind and transport actinides into cells, a major advance in understanding

  10. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind and transport actinides into cells, a major advance in understanding

  11. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind and transport actinides into cells, a major advance in understanding

  12. A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Pathway for Radionuclide Uptake Print Synthetic radionuclides, such as the transuranic actinides plutonium, americium, and curium, present severe health threats as contaminants, and understanding the scope of the biochemical interactions involved in actinide uptake into cells is instrumental in managing human contamination. Recently, scientists have reported that an iron-binding protein called siderocalin can also bind and transport actinides into cells, a major advance in understanding

  13. Controlling degradation pathways in organic electrochemistry via

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    redox-mediated Li+ coordination - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 4, 2016, Research Highlights Controlling degradation pathways in organic electrochemistry via redox-mediated Li+ coordination Scientific Achievement Exhaustive DFT experiments are well-matched to in-situ spectroscopic data showing Li+ coordination to basic methoxy groups. Li+ coordination promotes improved redox reversibility within Li+ electrolytes. Significance and Impact Redox-mediated Li+ interactions are shown in

  14. Pathways, Networks and Systems Medicine Conferences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadeau, Joseph H.

    2013-11-25

    The 6th Pathways, Networks and Systems Medicine Conference was held at the Minoa Palace Conference Center, Chania, Crete, Greece (16-21 June 2008). The Organizing Committee was composed of Joe Nadeau (CWRU, Cleveland), Rudi Balling (German Research Centre, Brauschweig), David Galas (Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle), Lee Hood (Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle), Diane Isonaka (Seattle), Fotis Kafatos (Imperial College, London), John Lambris (Univ. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia),Harris Lewin (Univ. of Indiana, Urbana-Champaign), Edison Liu (Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore), and Shankar Subramaniam (Univ. California, San Diego). A total of 101 individuals from 21 countries participated in the conference: USA (48), Canada (5), France (5), Austria (4), Germany (3), Italy (3), UK (3), Greece (2), New Zealand (2), Singapore (2), Argentina (1), Australia (1), Cuba (1), Denmark (1), Japan (1), Mexico (1), Netherlands (1), Spain (1), Sweden (1), Switzerland (1). With respect to speakers, 29 were established faculty members and 13 were graduate students or postdoctoral fellows. With respect to gender representation, among speakers, 13 were female and 28 were male, and among all participants 43 were female and 58 were male. Program these included the following topics: Cancer Pathways and Networks (Day 1), Metabolic Disease Networks (Day 2), Day 3 ? Organs, Pathways and Stem Cells (Day 3), and Day 4 ? Inflammation, Immunity, Microbes and the Environment (Day 4). Proceedings of the Conference were not published.

  15. Rural migration in Nevada: Lincoln County. Phase 1, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soden, D.L.; Carns, D.E.; Mosser, D.; Conary, J.S.; Ansell, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    The principal objective of this project was to develop insight into the scope of migration of working age Nevadans out of their county of birth; including the collection of data on their skill levels, desire to out or in-migrate, interactions between families of migratory persons, and the impact that the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca mountain might have on their individual, and collective, decisions to migrate and return. The initial phase of this project reported here was conducted in 1992 and 1993 in Lincoln County, Nevada, one of the counties designated as ``affected`` by the proposed repository program. The findings suggest that a serious out-migration problem exists in Lincoln County, and that the Yucca mountain project will likely affect decisions relating to migration patterns in the future.

  16. Rock drilling bit and a method of producing the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, R.F.; Portugal, J.J.; Kuzniar, P.S.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a method for forming a drill bit of the type used for drilling rock and including a drill bit body defining a cutting face having a plurality of hard material cutting inserts mounted in openings formed in the cutting face. The method comprising the steps of: providing a drill bit body formed from a steel capable of being carburized, the body having a cutting face surface; identifying on the cutting face surface those locations wherein insert mounting openings are needed; covering each location with a material capable of preventing penetration of carbon into the bit body in the area of the location during carburizing, the area covered at each such location being at least slightly greater that the size of the insert mounting opening needed; with the insert mounting locations covered, carburizing and heat treating the bit body to case harden the cutting face to a hardness above 50 on the Rockwell C scale; and thereafter, drilling an insert receiving opening at each location and press-fitting hard material cutting inserts into each such opening.

  17. Assessment of industrial minerals and rocks in the controlled area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castor, S.B.; Lock, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, is a potential site for a permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste in Miocene ash flow tuff. The Yucca Mountain controlled area occupies approximately 98 km{sup 2} that includes the potential repository site. The Yucca Mountain controlled area is located within the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, a large area of Miocene volcanism that includes at least four major calderas or cauldrons. It is sited on a remnant of a Neogene volcanic plateau that was centered around the Timber Mountain caldera complex. The Yucca Mountain region contains many occurrences of valuable or potentially valuable industrial minerals, including deposits with past or current production of construction aggregate, borate minerals, clay, building stone, fluorspar, silicate, and zeolites. The existence of these deposits in the region and the occurrence of certain mineral materials at Yucca Mountain, indicate that the controlled area may have potential for industrial mineral and rock deposits. Consideration of the industrial mineral potential within the Yucca Mountain controlled area is mainly based on petrographic and lithologic studies of samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain. Clay minerals, zeolites, fluorite, and barite, as minerals that are produced economically in Nevada, have been identified in samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain.

  18. Hot-dry-rock energy: review of environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Banion, K.

    1981-10-13

    The potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the production of energy contained in hot dry rock (HDR) is surveyed here. In general, careful siting and timing and routine control measures should be adequate to prevent significant environmental harm; sites of particular ecological or visual and recreational value, however, may require more extensive (and more expensive) precautions such as using multiwell pads to reduce land disturbance and dry or wet and dry cooling towers to reduce or eliminate the consumptive use of water. The most important uncertainty among the environmental concerns is the seismic response of HDR formations to short-duration fluid injections at pressures above fracture thresholds; continued monitoring at HDR development sites is necessary. The direct socioeconomic impacts of HDR development should be relatively minor, owing to its capital-intensive nature. Of greater potential importance are the indirect jobs resulting from such development, which could cause significant demographic (and thus fiscal and social) impacts in sparsely populated regions. However, such indirect growth is not expected to begin until a large, stable HDR industry is established in a region, and thus its impacts are expected to be permanent rather than transient.

  19. Appendix A: Office Technology Pathway Structure, Bioenergy Technologie...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A-1 Last updated: November 2014 Appendix A: Technology Pathway Structure High-level block flow diagrams for each biorefinery pathway are presented in Figures A-1 through A-5....

  20. EIS-0465: Mid-Atlantic Power Pathway Transmission Line Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Mid-Atlantic Power Pathway Transmission Line Project in Maryland and Delaware EIS-0465: Mid-Atlantic Power Pathway Transmission Line Project in Maryland and Delaware March 4, ...

  1. Feedstock Pathways for Bio-oil and Syngas Conversi (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Feedstock Pathways for Bio-oil and Syngas Conversi Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Feedstock Pathways for Bio-oil and Syngas Conversi The goal of this technical ...

  2. Feedstock Pathways for Bio-oil and Syngas Conversi (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Feedstock Pathways for Bio-oil and Syngas Conversi Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Feedstock Pathways for Bio-oil and Syngas Conversi You are accessing a document ...

  3. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Algal Lipid Upgrading

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algal lipid upgrading is one of eight priority pathways chosen to convert biomass into hydrocarbon fuels by the Bioenergy Technologies Office. These pathways were down-selected from an initial list of 18.

  4. Improved microstructure of cement-based composites through the addition of rock wool particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Cheng, An; Huang, Ran; Zou, Si-Yu

    2013-10-15

    Rock wool is an inorganic fibrous substance produced by steam blasting and cooling molten glass. As with other industrial by-products, rock wool particles can be used as cementitious materials or ultra fine fillers in cement-based composites. This study investigated the microstructure of mortar specimens produced with cement-based composites that include various forms of rock wool particles. It conducted compressive strength testing, rapid chloride penetration tests, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and scanning electronic microscopy to evaluate the macro- and micro-properties of the cement-based composites. Test results indicate that inclusion of rock wool particles in composites improved compressive strength and reduced chloride ion penetration at the age of 91 days due to the reduction of calcium hydroxide content. Microscopic analysis confirms that the use of rock wool particles contributed to the formation of a denser, more compact microstructure within the hardened paste. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis shows few changes in formation of pozzolanic reaction products and no new hydrations are formed with incorporating rock wool particles. - Highlights: We report the microstructural characterization of cement-based composites. Different mixes produced with various rock wool particles have been tested. The influence of different mixes on macro and micro properties has been discussed. The macro properties are included compressive strength and permeability. XRD and SEM observations confirm the pozzolanic reaction in the resulting pastes.

  5. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary?) beneath the midcontinent region of the US. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan?) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  6. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary ) beneath the midcontinent region of the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  7. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway

  8. Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California The magnitude of future climate change depends substantially on the greenhouse gas emission pathways we choose. Here we explore the implications of the highest and lowest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions pathways for climate change and associated impacts in

  9. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have

  10. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have

  11. Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document details the agenda for the DOE Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop on Feb. 17, 2012.

  12. PROJECT PROFILE: Dominion Virginia Power (Solar Market Pathways) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Dominion Virginia Power (Solar Market Pathways) PROJECT PROFILE: Dominion Virginia Power (Solar Market Pathways) Title: Virginia Solar Pathways Project Dominion logo.png Funding Opportunity: Solar Market Pathways SunShot Subprogram: Soft Costs Location: Richmond, VA Amount Awarded: $2,430,682 Awardee Cost Share: $610,721 Virginia Electric and Power Company is leading a broad-based team that includes representatives from state government, research institutions,

  13. PROJECT PROFILE: Ecolibrium3 (Solar Market Pathways) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ecolibrium3 (Solar Market Pathways) PROJECT PROFILE: Ecolibrium3 (Solar Market Pathways) Title: Local Energy Matters: Solar Market Development in Duluth, MN Ecolibrium3.png Funding Opportunity: Solar Market Pathways SunShot Subprogram: Soft Costs Location: Duluth, MN Amount Awarded: $209,005 Awardee Cost Share: $52,266 Ecolibrium3's "Local Energy Matters" Solar Market Pathways project is working with state and local stakeholders to further develop residential rooftop, community, and

  14. Radionuclide Migration through Sediment and Concrete: 16 Years of Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Snyder, Michelle MV; Powers, Laura; Whyatt, Greg A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-11-06

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Part of these services includes safe disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, performance assessment analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires continuing data collection to increase confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied on to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the order. Cement-based solidification and stabilization is considered for hazardous waste disposal because it is easily done and cost-efficient. One critical assumption is that concrete will be used as a waste form or container material at the Hanford Site to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The radionuclides iodine-129, selenium-75, technetium-99, and uranium-238 have been identified as long-term dose contributors (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, these constituents of potential concern may be released from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and migrate into the surrounding subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989; 1992; 1993a, b; 1995). Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. Each of the test methods performed throughout the lifetime of the project has focused on different aspects of the concrete waste form weathering process. Diffusion of different analytes [technetium-99 (Tc-99), iodine-125 (I-125), stable iodine (I), uranium (U), and rhenium (Re)] has been quantified from experiments under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The water-saturated conditions provide a conservative estimate of the concrete’s performance in situ, and the unsaturated conditions provide a more accurate estimate of the diffusion of contaminants from the concrete.

  15. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Energy Pathways Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minneapolis, Minnesota: Energy Pathways Project Minneapolis, Minnesota: Energy Pathways Project This presentation features Brian Ross, a consultant for the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota with CR Planning. Ross provides an overview of how Minneapolis created a local energy vision for its Energy Pathways Project. View the presentation above or read the transcript

  16. Apparatus for the measurement of radionuclide transport rates in rock cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weed, H.C.; Koszykowski, R.F.; Dibley, L.L.; Murray, I.

    1981-09-01

    An apparatus and procedure for the study of radionuclide transport in intact rock cores are presented in this report. This equipment more closely simulates natural conditions of radionuclide transport than do crushed rock columns. The apparatus and the procedure from rock core preparation through data analysis are described. The retardation factors measured are the ratio of the transport rate of a non-retarded radionuclide, such as /sup 3/H, to the transport rate of a retarded radionuclide. Sample results from a study of the transport of /sup 95m/Tc and /sup 85/Sr in brine through a sandstone core are included.

  17. Used Fuel Disposal in Crystalline Rocks: Status and FY14 Progress |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Disposal in Crystalline Rocks: Status and FY14 Progress Used Fuel Disposal in Crystalline Rocks: Status and FY14 Progress The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D work is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media. The major accomplishments during the year include: 1) R&D plan was developed for

  18. Strontium-85 and plutonium-239 sorption in rock samples from the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, C.F.V.; Lu, N.; Marusak, N.L.; Scheber, B.; Chipera, S.; Daukeyev, D.; Khromushin, I.

    1999-03-01

    The adsorption and desorption of strontium and plutonium were studied as a function of rock type and simulated ground waters from the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS). Seven different rock types were obtained from the Balapan Region of the STS and were subjected to x-ray diffraction analyses. Two different ground waters were simulated using data supplied by the National Nuclear Center. The results indicate the sorption of strontium is strongly dependent on the minerals present in the rock species and on the total ionic strength of the ground water whereas, in all cases, plutonium was strongly irreversibly sorbed.

  19. Two-phase flow in fractured rock (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Two-phase flow in fractured rock Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two-phase flow in fractured rock This report gives the results of a three-day workshop on two-phase flow in fractured rock. The workshop focused on two-phase flow processes that are important in geologic disposal of nuclear waste as experienced in a variety of repository settings. The goals and objectives of the workshop were threefold: exchange information; describe the current state of understanding; and identify

  20. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miquel County. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 63 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 15 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The sites are within 1 mile of each other and are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,300 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}). In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designing site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

  1. Understanding Long-Term Solute Transport in Sedimentary Basins: Simulating Brine Migration in the Alberta Basin. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alicia M. Wilson

    2009-11-30

    Mass transport in deep sedimentary basins places important controls on ore formation, petroleum migration, CO2 sequestration, and geochemical reactions that affect petroleum reservoir quality, but large-scale transport in this type of setting remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is highlighted in the resource-rich Alberta Basin, where geochemical and hydrogeologic studies have suggested residence times ranging from hundreds of millions of years to less than 5 My, respectively. Here we developed new hydrogeologic models that were constrained by geochemical observations to reconcile these two very different estimates. The models account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, sediment deposition and erosion, sediment compressibility, and dissolution of salt deposits, including Cl/Br systematics. Prior interpretations of Cl/Br ratios in the Alberta Basin concluded that the brines were derived from evaporatively-concentrated brines that were subsequently diluted by seawater and freshwater; models presented here show that halite dissolution must have contributed strongly as well, which implies significantly greater rates of mass transport. This result confirms that Cl/Br ratios are subject to significant non-uniqueness and thus do not provide good independent indicators of the origin of brines. Salinity and Cl/Br ratios provided valuable new constraints for basin-scale models, however. Sensitivity studies revealed that permeabilities obtained from core- and field-scale tests were appropriate for basin-scale models, despite the differences in scale between the tests and the models. Simulations of groundwater age show that the residence time of porefluids in much of the basin is less than 100 My. Groundwater age increases with depth and approaches 200 My in the deepest part of the basin, but brines are significantly younger than their host rocks throughout the basin.

  2. Transforming growth factor-beta1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cell subpopulations in esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Dongli; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jieyao; Chen, Xinfeng; Ping, Yu; Liu, Shasha; Shi, Xiaojuan; Li, Lifeng; Wang, Liping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Bin; and others

    2015-08-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most lethal solid malignancies. Mounting evidence demonstrates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are able to cause tumor initiation, metastasis and responsible for chemotherapy and radiotherapy failures. As CSCs are thought to be the main reason of therapeutic failure, these cells must be effectively targeted to elicit long-lasting therapeutic responses. We aimed to enrich and identify the esophageal cancer cell subpopulation with stem-like properties and help to develop new target therapy strategies for CSCs. Here, we found esophageal cancer cells KYSE70 and TE1 could form spheres in ultra low attachment surface culture and be serially passaged. Sphere-forming cells could redifferentiate and acquire morphology comparable to parental cells, when return to adherent culture. The sphere-forming cells possessed the key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, overexpression of stemness genes (SOX2, ALDH1A1 and KLF4), reduced expression of differentiation marker CK4, chemoresistance, strong invasion and enhanced tumorigenic potential. SB525334, transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) inhibitor, significantly inhibited migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells and had no effect on sphere-forming ability. In conclusion, esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells from KYSE70 and TE1 cultured in ultra low attachment surface possess cancer stem cell properties, providing a model for CSCs targeted therapy. TGF-β1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells, which may guide future studies on therapeutic strategies targeting these cells. - Highlights: • Esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells possess cancer stem cell properties. • Sphere-forming cells enhance TGF-β1 pathway activity. • TGF-β 1 inhibitor suppresses the migration and invasion of sphere-forming cells.

  3. Cyclodextrin supramolecular assemblies: Energy migration prompted by molecular recognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikramenou, Z.; Nocera, D.G.

    1993-12-31

    New photoactive supramolecular assemblies featuring a cyclodextrin modified with a Eu{sup 3+}{contained_in}aza crown ether have been synthesized. The inclusion of a light harvesting guest (LHG) in the cyclodextrin is heralded by light emission for the Eu{sup 3+} center. The authors attribute the enhancement of the europium emission to an absorption-energy transfer-emission process from the aromatic donors in the cavity of cyclodextrin to the Eu{sup 3+} ion residing in the appended aza macrocycle. Different conformations of the aza attached to the cyclodextrin have been designed. The efficiency of the migration process from the LHG to the Eu{sup 3+} ions is intimately related to the structure of the supramolecular assembly as well as to the nature of the LHG. Hydrophobic recognition of the guest by the CD is cooperative with its interaction to the metal ion. This paper will show that specificity in binding coupled with shorter distances for energy transfer results in much brighter luminescence from the cyclodextrin supramolecule.

  4. Curation and Computational Design of Bioenergy-Related Metabolic Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karp, Peter D.

    2014-09-12

    Pathway Tools is a systems-biology software package written by SRI International (SRI) that produces Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs) for organisms with a sequenced genome. Pathway Tools also provides a wide range of capabilities for analyzing predicted metabolic networks and user-generated omics data. More than 5,000 academic, industrial, and government groups have licensed Pathway Tools. This user community includes researchers at all three DOE bioenergy centers, as well as academic and industrial metabolic engineering (ME) groups. An integral part of the Pathway Tools software is MetaCyc, a large, multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes that SRI and its academic collaborators manually curate. This project included two main goals: I. Enhance the MetaCyc content of bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. II. Develop computational tools for engineering metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, in particular for bioenergy-related pathways. In part I, SRI proposed to significantly expand the coverage of bioenergy-related metabolic information in MetaCyc, followed by the generation of organism-specific PGDBs for all energy-relevant organisms sequenced at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Part I objectives included: 1: Expand the content of MetaCyc to include bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. 2: Enhance the Pathway Tools software to enable display of complex polymer degradation processes. 3: Create new PGDBs for the energy-related organisms sequenced by JGI, update existing PGDBs with new MetaCyc content, and make these data available to JBEI via the BioCyc website. In part II, SRI proposed to develop an efficient computational tool for the engineering of metabolic pathways. Part II objectives included: 4: Develop computational tools for generating metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, enabling users to specify parameters such as starting and ending compounds, and preferred or disallowed intermediate compounds. The pathways were to be generated using metabolic reactions from a reference database (DB). 5: Develop computational tools for ranking the pathways generated in objective (4) according to their optimality. The ranking criteria include stoichiometric yield, the number and cost of additional inputs and the cofactor compounds required by the pathway, pathway length, and pathway energetics. 6: Develop tools for visualizing generated pathways to facilitate the evaluation of a large space of generated pathways.

  5. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Solar Market Pathways

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Market Pathways funding opportunity announcement (FOA) seeks to support regional, state, tribal, and locally-driven efforts to develop multi-year solar deployment plans that will help provide business certainty and establish a clear path for the next five to ten years of solar deployment. Specifically, this FOA is intended to enable replicable multi-year strategies that spur significant solar deployment, drive down solar soft costs, support local economic development efforts, and address the potential challenges arising from increased solar penetration on the electrical grid.

  6. Regional Geology: GIS Database for Alternative Host Rocks and Potential Siting Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this work is to develop a spatial database that integrates both geologic data for alternative host-rock formations and information that has been historically used for siting...

  7. Properties of CO2-Rich Pore Fluids and Their Effect on Porosity Evolution in EGS Rocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Quantify key parameters critically needed for developing and validating numerical modeling of chemical interactions between EGS reservoir rocks and supercritical CO2and CO2-rich aqueous fluids.

  8. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy In The Jemez Volcanic Field, New...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy In The Jemez Volcanic Field, New Mexico Abstract Large, young calderas...

  9. Multiporosity flow in fractured low-permeability rocks: Extension to shale hydrocarbon reservoirs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-02-05

    We presented a multiporosity extension of classical double and triple-porosity fractured rock flow models for slightly compressible fluids. The multiporosity model is an adaptation of the multirate solute transport model of Haggerty and Gorelick (1995) to viscous flow in fractured rock reservoirs. It is a generalization of both pseudo steady state and transient interporosity flow double-porosity models. The model includes a fracture continuum and an overlapping distribution of multiple rock matrix continua, whose fracture-matrix exchange coefficients are specified through a discrete probability mass function. Semianalytical cylindrically symmetric solutions to the multiporosity mathematical model are developed using the Laplace transform tomore » illustrate its behavior. Furthermore, the multiporosity model presented here is conceptually simple, yet flexible enough to simulate common conceptualizations of double and triple-porosity flow. This combination of generality and simplicity makes the multiporosity model a good choice for flow modelling in low-permeability fractured rocks.« less

  10. Multiporosity flow in fractured low-permeability rocks: Extension to shale hydrocarbon reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-02-05

    We presented a multiporosity extension of classical double and triple-porosity fractured rock flow models for slightly compressible fluids. The multiporosity model is an adaptation of the multirate solute transport model of Haggerty and Gorelick (1995) to viscous flow in fractured rock reservoirs. It is a generalization of both pseudo steady state and transient interporosity flow double-porosity models. The model includes a fracture continuum and an overlapping distribution of multiple rock matrix continua, whose fracture-matrix exchange coefficients are specified through a discrete probability mass function. Semianalytical cylindrically symmetric solutions to the multiporosity mathematical model are developed using the Laplace transform to illustrate its behavior. Furthermore, the multiporosity model presented here is conceptually simple, yet flexible enough to simulate common conceptualizations of double and triple-porosity flow. This combination of generality and simplicity makes the multiporosity model a good choice for flow modelling in low-permeability fractured rocks.

  11. EA-1987: Parker-Headgate Rock and Parker-Bouse Rebuild Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a proposal to rebuild the existing Parker Dam-Headgate Rock and Parker Dam-Bouse 161-kilovolt transmission lines along the Colorado River in western Arizona and eastern California. ...

  12. Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Super-critical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Interfaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project obectives: Utilize synchrotron X-ray measurements, to monitor all aspects of atomic to nanoscale structural changes resulting from chemical interactions of scCO2-H2O binary fluids with rocks under environments directly relevant to EGS.

  13. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany.

  14. Surface relief produced by diffusion induced boundary migration in Cu-Zn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Y.S.; Meyrick, G.; Shewmon, P.G.

    1984-03-01

    Experimental observations are presented that demonstrate that diffusion induced grain boundary migration in copper foils exposed to zinc vapor, from a Cu-15 pct Zn alloy, can be studied directl after treatment without etching. The general characteristics of migration are in accord with previous investigations, but novel changes in the surface topography are described. Pits were formed on the surface of areas swept by boundary migration; also, the surface was often converted into a series of corrugations. The formation of pits suggests that the grain boundary diffusivity of zinc exceeds that of copper. The corrugations are believed to indicate that boundaries sometimes move in an intermittent manner.

  15. Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding Excavations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding Excavations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding Excavations Authors: Kelkar, Sharad M. [1] ; Stauffer, Philip H. [1] ; Robinson, Bruce Alan [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2015-01-09 OSTI Identifier: 1167232 Report Number(s): LA-UR-14-27717 DOE Contract Number:

  16. Precise orientation of single crystals by a simple x-ray diffraction rocking curve method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doucette, L.D.; Pereira da Cunha, M.; Lad, R.J.

    2005-03-01

    A simple method has been developed for accurately measuring the crystallographic orientation of a single crystal boule, employing a conventional four-circle x-ray diffraction arrangement in the rocking curve mode which relaxes the need for precise instrument and/or reference alignment. By acquiring a total of eight rocking curve measurements at specific orientations about the specimen azimuth, the absolute miscut angle between a crystal surface and the desired crystallographic plane can be resolved to within {+-}0.01 deg.

  17. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faybishenko, B.

    1999-02-01

    This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the International Symposium ''Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances'' held at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on February 10-12, 1999. This Symposium is organized in Honor of the 80th Birthday of Paul A. Witherspoon, who initiated some of the early investigations on flow and transport in fractured rocks at the University of California, Berkeley, and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He is a key figure in the development of basic concepts, modeling, and field measurements of fluid flow and contaminant transport in fractured rock systems. The technical problems of assessing fluid flow, radionuclide transport, site characterization, modeling, and performance assessment in fractured rocks remain the most challenging aspects of subsurface flow and transport investigations. An understanding of these important aspects of hydrogeology is needed to assess disposal of nu clear wastes, development of geothermal resources, production of oil and gas resources, and remediation of contaminated sites. These Proceedings of more than 100 papers from 12 countries discuss recent scientific and practical developments and the status of our understanding of fluid flow and radionuclide transport in fractured rocks. The main topics of the papers are: Theoretical studies of fluid flow in fractured rocks; Multi-phase flow and reactive chemical transport in fractured rocks; Fracture/matrix interactions; Hydrogeological and transport testing; Fracture flow models; Vadose zone studies; Isotopic studies of flow in fractured systems; Fractures in geothermal systems; Remediation and colloid transport in fractured systems; and Nuclear waste disposal in fractured rocks.

  18. Proceedings of the international symposium on engineering in complex rock formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book contains over 100 papers. Some of the titles are: Rheology of rock-salt and its application for radioactive waste disposal purposes; A scale model study on the deformation around the drift in Korean inclined coal seam; Stabilization of a landslide in fractured marls and limestone; Dead Sea underground hydroelectric power station; and Rock mechanics in design of underground power house of lubuge hydropower project.

  19. ACOUSTICAL IMAGING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOFT ROCK AND MARINE SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurman E. Scott, Jr.; Younane Abousleiman

    2004-04-01

    The research during this project has concentrated on developing a correlation between rock deformation mechanisms and their acoustic velocity signature. This has included investigating: (1) the acoustic signature of drained and undrained unconsolidated sands, (2) the acoustic emission signature of deforming high porosity rocks (in comparison to their low porosity high strength counterparts), (3) the effects of deformation on anisotropic elastic and poroelastic moduli, and (4) the acoustic tomographic imaging of damage development in rocks. Each of these four areas involve triaxial experimental testing of weak porous rocks or unconsolidated sand and involves measuring acoustic properties. The research is directed at determining the seismic velocity signature of damaged rocks so that 3-D or 4-D seismic imaging can be utilized to image rock damage. These four areas of study are described in the report: (1) Triaxial compression experiments have been conducted on unconsolidated Oil Creek sand at high confining pressures. (2) Initial experiments on measuring the acoustic emission activity from deforming high porosity Danian chalk were accomplished and these indicate that the AE activity was of a very low amplitude. (3) A series of triaxial compression experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of induced stress on the anisotropy developed in dynamic elastic and poroelastic parameters in rocks. (4) Tomographic acoustic imaging was utilized to image the internal damage in a deforming porous limestone sample. Results indicate that the deformation damage in rocks induced during laboratory experimentation can be imaged tomographically in the laboratory. By extension the results also indicate that 4-D seismic imaging of a reservoir may become a powerful tool for imaging reservoir deformation (including imaging compaction and subsidence) and for imaging zones where drilling operation may encounter hazardous shallow water flows.

  20. ACOUSTICAL IMAGING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOFT ROCK AND MARINE SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurman E. Scott, Jr., Ph.D.; Younane Abousleiman, Ph.D.; Musharraf Zaman, Ph.D., P.E.

    2001-01-31

    During this phase of the project the research team concentrated on acquisition of acoustic emission data from the high porosity rock samples. The initial experiments indicated that the acoustic emission activity from high porosity Danian chalk were of a very low amplitude. Even though the sample underwent yielding and significant plastic deformation the sample did not generate significant AE activity. This was somewhat surprising. These initial results call into question the validity of attempting to locate AE activity in this weak rock type. As a result the testing program was slightly altered to include measuring the acoustic emission activity from many of the rock types listed in the research program. The preliminary experimental results indicate that AE activity in the sandstones is much higher than in the carbonate rocks (i.e., the chalks and limestones). This observation may be particularly important for planning microseismic imaging of reservoir rocks in the field environment. The preliminary results suggest that microseismic imaging of reservoir rock from acoustic emission activity generated from matrix deformation (during compaction and subsidence) would be extremely difficult to accomplish.

  1. Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, H.C.; Rohatgi, A.; Jokerst, N.M.; Thomas, E.W.; Kamra, S.

    1996-07-01

    CdTe solar cells were fabricated by depositing a Au/Cu contact with Cu thickness in the range of 50 to 150A on polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2} glass structures. The increase in Cu thickness improves ohmic contact and reduces series resistance (R{sub s}), but the excess Cu tends to diffuse into CdTe and lower shunt resistance (R{sub sh}) and cell performance. Light I-V and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements were performed to understand the correlations between the Cu contact thickness, the extent of Cu incorporation in the CdTe cells, and its impact on the cell performance. The CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2} glass, CdTe/CdS/GaAs, and CdTe/GaAs structures were prepared in an attempt to achieve CdTe films with different degrees of crystallinity and grain size. A large grain polycrystalline CdTe thin film solar cell was obtained for the first time by selective etching the GaAs substrate coupled with the film transfer onto a glass substrate. SIMS measurement showed that poor crystallinity and smaller grain size of the CdTe film promotes Cu diffusion and decreases the cell performance. Therefore, grain boundaries are the main conduits for Cu migration and larger CdTe grain size or alternate method of contact formation can mitigate the adverse effect of Cu and improve the cell performance. 15 refs., 1 fig.,6 tabs.

  2. Reminder of eTag 1.8.2 Migration - March 13, 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    eTag-1.8.2-Migration---March-13,-2015 Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Doing Business Expand Doing Business Customer Involvement Expand Customer...

  3. The origin and fate of the sediments composing a migrating dune field, Amagansett, NY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maher, T. (Suffolk Community Coll., Selden, NY (United States). Environmental Science Dept.); Kandelin, J. (Suffolk Community Coll., Selden, NY (United States). Dept. of Earth and Space Science); Black, J.A. (Geosciences Inc., Patchogue, NY (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The migrating dune system, located in Amagansett, NY, consists of a series of three parabolic dunes ranging in heights from 10 to 30 meters. The dunes are migrating under the influence of the prevailing winds, in a southeasterly direction. The migration continues until the dunes encounter the countervailing prevailing winds, off the Atlantic Ocean. A series of flow charts have been prepared to indicate the possible sources of sediment for this system. These charts, in conjunction with geomorphic analysis, stratigraphic data and various sediment characteristics indicate that the sediments are transported by coastal currents. Once deposited they form a linear dune system. Eolian transport from this dune then supplies the sediment to the migrating dune system.

  4. Cell migration or cytokinesis and proliferation? Revisiting the go or grow hypothesis in cancer cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garay, Tams; Juhsz, va; Molnr, Eszter; Eisenbauer, Maria; Czirk, Andrs; Dekan, Barbara; Lszl, Viktria; Hoda, Mir Alireza; Dme, Balzs; Tmr, Jzsef; Klepetko, Walter; Berger, Walter; Heged?s, Balzs

    2013-12-10

    The mortality of patients with solid tumors is mostly due to metastasis that relies on the interplay between migration and proliferation. The go or grow hypothesis postulates that migration and proliferation spatiotemporally excludes each other. We evaluated this hypothesis on 35 cell lines (12 mesothelioma, 13 melanoma and 10 lung cancer) on both the individual cell and population levels. Following three-day-long videomicroscopy, migration, proliferation and cytokinesis-length were quantified. We found a significantly higher migration in mesothelioma cells compared to melanoma and lung cancer while tumor types did not differ in mean proliferation or duration of cytokinesis. Strikingly, we found in melanoma and lung cancer a significant positive correlation between mean proliferation and migration. Furthermore, non-dividing melanoma and lung cancer cells displayed slower migration. In contrast, in mesothelioma there were no such correlations. Interestingly, negative correlation was found between cytokinesis-length and migration in melanoma. FAK activation was higher in melanoma cells with high motility. We demonstrate that the cancer cells studied do not defer proliferation for migration. Of note, tumor cells from various organ systems may differently regulate migration and proliferation. Furthermore, our data is in line with the observation of pathologists that highly proliferative tumors are often highly invasive. - Highlights: We investigated the go or grow hypothesis in human cancer cells in vitro. Proliferation and migration positively correlate in melanoma and lung cancer cells. Duration of cytokinesis and migration shows inverse correlation. Increased FAK activation is present in highly motile melanoma cells.

  5. "OUT OF AFRICA: GENETICS AND HUMAN MIGRATIONS", Prof. Gyan Bhanot,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Physics, Rutgers University | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 7, 2012, 9:30am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium "OUT OF AFRICA: GENETICS AND HUMAN MIGRATIONS", Prof. Gyan Bhanot, Department of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Physics, Rutgers University OUT OF AFRICA: GENETICS AND HUMAN MIGRATIONS PPPL Entrance Procedures Visitor Information, Directions, Security at PPPL As a federal facility, the Princeton Plasma Physics

  6. Mapping Subsurface CO2 Migration | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 » Mapping Subsurface CO2 Migration Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 01.01.13 Mapping Subsurface CO2 Migration New computational

  7. THE MIGRATION OF GAP-OPENING PLANETS IS NOT LOCKED TO VISCOUS DISK EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffell, Paul C.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; Farris, Brian D.; Haiman, Zoltan; D'Orazio, Daniel J.

    2014-09-01

    Most standard descriptions of TypeII migration state that massive, gap-opening planets must migrate at the viscous drift rate. This is based on the idea that the disk is separated into an inner and outer region and gas is considered unable to cross the gap. In fact, gas easily crosses the gap on horseshoe orbits, nullifying this necessary premise which would set the migration rate. In this work, it is demonstrated using highly accurate numerical calculations that the actual migration rate is dependent on disk and planet parameters, and can be significantly larger or smaller than the viscous drift rate. In the limiting case of a disk much more massive than the secondary, the migration rate saturates to a constant that is sensitive to disk parameters and is not necessarily of the order of the viscous rate. In the opposite limit of a low-mass disk, the migration rate decreases linearly with disk mass. Steady-state solutions in the low disk mass limit show no pile-up outside the secondary's orbit, and no corresponding drainage of the inner disk.

  8. Multistage reaction pathways in detonating high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Vashishta, Priya

    2014-11-17

    Atomistic mechanisms underlying the reaction time and intermediate reaction products of detonating high explosives far from equilibrium have been elusive. This is because detonation is one of the hardest multiscale physics problems, in which diverse length and time scales play important roles. Here, large spatiotemporal-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a two-stage reaction mechanism during the detonation of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine crystal. Rapid production of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O within ?10 ps is followed by delayed production of CO molecules beyond ns. We found that further decomposition towards the final products is inhibited by the formation of large metastable carbon- and oxygen-rich clusters with fractal geometry. In addition, we found distinct unimolecular and intermolecular reaction pathways, respectively, for the rapid N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O productions.

  9. Inversion of multicomponent seismic data and rock-physics intepretation for evaluating lithology, fracture and fluid distribution in heterogeneous anisotropic reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilya Tsvankin; Kenneth L. Larner

    2004-11-17

    Within the framework of this collaborative project with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Stanford University, the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) group developed and implemented a new efficient approach to the inversion and processing of multicomponent, multiazimuth seismic data in anisotropic media. To avoid serious difficulties in the processing of mode-converted (PS) waves, we devised a methodology for transforming recorded PP- and PS-wavefields into the corresponding SS-wave reflection data that can be processed by velocity-analysis algorithms designed for pure (unconverted) modes. It should be emphasized that this procedure does not require knowledge of the velocity model and can be applied to data from arbitrarily anisotropic, heterogeneous media. The azimuthally varying reflection moveouts of the PP-waves and constructed SS-waves are then combined in anisotropic stacking-velocity tomography to estimate the velocity field in the depth domain. As illustrated by the case studies discussed in the report, migration of the multicomponent data with the obtained anisotropic velocity model yields a crisp image of the reservoir that is vastly superior to that produced by conventional methods. The scope of this research essentially amounts to building the foundation of 3D multicomponent, anisotropic seismology. We have also worked with the LLNL and Stanford groups on relating the anisotropic parameters obtained from seismic data to stress, lithology, and fluid distribution using a generalized theoretical treatment of fractured, poroelastic rocks.

  10. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1996-04-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.

  11. Using the Gene Ontology to Enrich Biological Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Baddeley, Robert L.; Beagley, Nathaniel; McDermott, Jason E.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Gopalan, Banu

    2009-12-10

    Most current approaches to automatic pathway generation are based on a reverse engineering approach in which pathway plausibility is solely derived from microarray gene expression data. These approaches tend to lack in generality and offer no independent validation as they are too reliant on the pathway observables that guide pathway generation. By contrast, alternative approaches that use prior biological knowledge to validate pathways inferred from gene expression data may err in the opposite direction as the prior knowledge is usually not sufficiently tuned to the pathology of focus. In this paper, we present a novel pathway generation approach that combines insights from the reverse engineering and knowledge-based approaches to increase the biological plausibility of automatically generated regulatory networks and describe an application of this approach to transcriptional data from a mouse model of neuroprotection during stroke.

  12. Unexpected methyl migrations of ethanol dimer under synchrotron VUV radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Weizhan; Hu, Yongjun E-mail: lssheng@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Weixing; Guan, Jiwen; Liu, Fuyi; Shan, Xiaobin; Sheng, Liusi E-mail: lssheng@ustc.edu.cn

    2015-01-14

    While methyl transfer is well known to occur in the enzyme- and metal-catalyzed reactions, the methyl transfer in the metal-free organic molecules induced by the photon ionization has been less concerned. Herein, vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization and dissociation of ethanol dimer are investigated with synchrotron radiation photoionization mass spectroscopy and theoretical methods. Besides the protonated clusters cation (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) ⋅ H{sup +} (m/z = 47) and the β-carbon-carbon bond cleavage fragment CH{sub 2}O ⋅ (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH)H{sup +} (m/z = 77), the measured mass spectra revealed that a new fragment (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) ⋅ (CH{sub 3}){sup +} (m/z = 61) appeared at the photon energy of 12.1 and 15.0 eV, where the neutral dimer could be vertically ionized to higher ionic state. Thereafter, the generated carbonium ions are followed by a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement and then dissociate to produce this new fragment, which is considered to generate after surmounting a few barriers including intra- and inter-molecular methyl migrations by the aid of theoretical calculations. The appearance energy of this new fragment is measured as 11.55 ± 0.05 eV by scanning photoionization efficiency curve. While the signal intensity of fragment m/z = 61 starts to increase, the fragments m/z = 47 and 77 tend to slowly incline around 11.55 eV photon energy. This suggests that the additional fragment channels other than (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) ⋅ H{sup +} and CH{sub 2}O ⋅ (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH)H{sup +} have also been opened, which consume some dimer cations. The present report provides a clear description of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the ethanol dimer in the range of the photon energy 12-15 eV.

  13. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading

  14. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Liquefaction Technology Pathway Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. PDF icon Whole Algae Hydrothermal

  15. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading

  16. PROJECT PROFILE: City University of New York (Solar Market Pathways) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy University of New York (Solar Market Pathways) PROJECT PROFILE: City University of New York (Solar Market Pathways) Title: NYSolar Smart DG Hub - Resilient Solar Project CUNY logo.png Funding Opportunity: Solar Market Pathways SunShot Subprogram: Soft Costs Location: New York, New York Amount Awarded: $859,720 Awardee Cost Share: $314,669 The NYSolar Smart Distributed Generation (DG) Hub - Resilient Solar Project was created by the City University of New York (CUNY), in

  17. PROJECT PROFILE: Extensible Energy (Solar Market Pathways) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Extensible Energy (Solar Market Pathways) PROJECT PROFILE: Extensible Energy (Solar Market Pathways) Title: High-Value Integrated Community Solar Project Extensible Energy logo.jpg Funding Opportunity: Solar Market Pathways SunShot Subprogram: Soft Costs Location: Lafayette, CA Amount Awarded: $800,000 Awardee Cost Share: $200,000 Under the High-Value Integrated Community Solar Project, Extensible Energy, LLC, is working with the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), the

  18. PROJECT PROFILE: Pace Energy and Climate Center (Solar Market Pathways) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pace Energy and Climate Center (Solar Market Pathways) PROJECT PROFILE: Pace Energy and Climate Center (Solar Market Pathways) Title: Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC) Pace Logo.png Funding Opportunity: Solar Market Pathways SunShot Subprogram: Soft Costs Location: White Plains, NY Amount Awarded: $599,908 Awardee Cost Share: $150,000 The Pace Energy and Climate Center, in concert with a regional coalition of northeast solar photovoltaic business

  19. PROJECT PROFILE: Salt Lake City Corporation (Solar Market Pathways) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Salt Lake City Corporation (Solar Market Pathways) PROJECT PROFILE: Salt Lake City Corporation (Solar Market Pathways) Title: Wasatch Solar Project WASATCH solar logo.png Funding Opportunity: Solar Market Pathways SunShot Subprogram: Soft Costs Location: Salt Lake City, UT Amount Awarded: $600,000 Awardee Cost Share: $164,645 Salt Lake City and its partners are developing a comprehensive long-term solar deployment strategy, which includes an analysis of the value of

  20. Fusing the Audacity of Imagination with Pathways to Excellence | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Fusing the Audacity of Imagination with Pathways to Excellence Fusing the Audacity of Imagination with Pathways to Excellence April 6, 2016 - 1:39pm Addthis Awardees and distinguished guests at PNNL’s Pathway to Excellence Celebration are (left to right) Jud Virden, Associate Laboratory Director, Energy and Environment, Malin Young, Deputy Director for Science and Technology, Jetta Wong, Director for the Office of Technology Transitions, Shari Li, Distinguished Inventor of

  1. PROJECT PROFILE: The Solar Foundation (Solar Market Pathways) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy The Solar Foundation (Solar Market Pathways) PROJECT PROFILE: The Solar Foundation (Solar Market Pathways) Title: Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy for Tax- Exempt and Public Entities (CivicPACE) TSF logo.png Funding Opportunity: Solar Market Pathways SunShot Subprogram: Soft Costs Location: Washington, DC Amount Awarded: $900,034 Awardee Cost Share: $315,260 The Solar Foundation, in partnership with Urban Ingenuity and Clean Energy Solutions, Inc., is working with state

  2. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research

  3. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs

  4. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of

  5. The Representative Concentration Pathways: An Overview (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect The Representative Concentration Pathways: An Overview Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Representative Concentration Pathways: An Overview This paper summarizes the development process and main characteristics of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), a set of four new scenarios developed for the climate modeling community as a basis for long-term and near-term modeling experiments. The four RCPs together span the range of year 2100 radiative forcing

  6. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-,

  7. Low-Temperature Combustion Chemistry of Biofuels: Pathways in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Low-Temperature Combustion Chemistry of Biofuels: Pathways in the Initial Low-Temperature (550 K - 750 K) Oxidation Chemistry of Isopentanol. Citation Details ...

  8. Prioritizing Acquisition Pathways in the State Level Concept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    activities and the State evaluation process to draw safeguards conclusions ... proliferation pathways based on an assessment of a State's capabilities and assumed ...

  9. Lubricants - Pathway to Improving Fuel Efficiency of Legacy Fleet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricants - Pathway to Improving Fuel Efficiency of Legacy Fleet Vehicles Reviews recent studies on potential for low-viscosity lubricants and low-friction surfaces and additives ...

  10. Identification of Low Emissions Agricultural Pathways and Priorities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pathways and Priorities for Mitigation in Agricultural Landscapes using Integrated Assessment Modeling and Scenarios Jump to: navigation, search Name Identification of Low...

  11. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and (2) proving that the proposed device architecture can be fabricated cost effectively. ... Related Publications PDF icon 2016 BTO Peer Review Presentation-RVCC Technology: A Pathway ...

  12. Biosensor-based engineering of biosynthetic pathways (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Biosensor-based engineering of biosynthetic pathways Citation Details ... GrantContract Number: DEFG02-02ER63445 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Current ...

  13. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 ...

  14. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 ...

  15. Pathways to Hydrocarbon Biofuels: Update on the Office's Techno...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway TEA - Sustainability Coordination Design Report Environmental Sustainability Metrics GHG emissions kg CO2eGJ Conversion Plant Fossil Energy Consumption MJMJ ...

  16. Deduction and Analysis of the Interacting Stress Response Pathways...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deduction and Analysis of the Interacting Stress Response Pathways of MetalRadionuclide-reducing Bacteria Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deduction and Analysis of the ...

  17. Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Whole algae hydrothermal liquefaction is one of ...

  18. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and ...

  19. A General Strategy for the Discovery of Metabolic Pathways: d...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A General Strategy for the Discovery of Metabolic Pathways: d-Threitol, l-Threitol, and Erythritol Utilization in Mycobacterium smegmatis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  20. Molecular details of a starch utilization pathway in the human...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular details of a starch utilization pathway in the human gut symbiont Eubacterium rectale Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular details of a starch utilization ...

  1. Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microalgal biomass grown via autotrophic pathways is dewatered to 20% solids concentration. * The slurry of whole algae reacts in a pressure vessel (2000-3000 pounds per square ...

  2. Porosity and surface area evolution during weathering of two igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Cole, David; Rother, Gernot; Jin, Lixin; Buss, Heather; Brantley, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    During weathering, rocks release nutrients and storewater vital for growth ofmicrobial and plant life. Thus, the growth of porosity as weathering advances into bedrock is a life-sustaining process for terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we use small-angle and ultra small-angle neutron scattering to show how porosity develops during initial weathering under tropical conditions of two igneous rock compositions, basaltic andesite and quartz diorite. The quartz diorite weathers spheroidally while the basaltic andesite does not. The weathering advance rates of the two systems also differ, perhaps due to this difference in mechanism, from 0.24 to 100 mm kyr1, respectively. The scattering data document how surfaces inside the feldspar-dominated rocks change as weathering advances into the protolith. In the unaltered rocks, neutrons scatter fromtwo types of featureswhose dimensions vary from6 nmto 40 lm: pores and bumps on pore grain surfaces. These features result in scattering data for both unaltered rocks that document multi-fractal behavior: scattering is best described by amass fractal dimension (Dm) and a surface fractal dimension (Ds) for features of length scales greater than and less than 1 lm, respectively. In the basaltic andesite, Dm is approximately 2.9 and Ds is approximately 2.7. The mechanism of solute transport during weathering of this rock is diffusion. Porosity and surface area increase from 1.5%to 8.5%and 3 to 23 m2 g1 respectively in a relatively consistent trend across themm-thick plagioclase reaction front. Across this front, both fractal dimensions decrease, consistentwith development of amoremonodisperse pore networkwith smoother pore surfaces. Both changes are consistent largely with increasing connectivity of pores without significant surface roughening, as expected for transport-limited weathering. In contrast, porosity and surface area increase from 1.3% to 9.5% and 1.5 to 13 m2 g1 respectively across a many cm-thick reaction front in the spheroidally weathering quartz diorite. In that rock, Dm is approximately 2.8 andDs is approximately 2.5 prior to weathering. These two fractals transform during weathering to multiple surface fractals as micro-cracking reduces the size of diffusion-limited subzones of thematrix.Across the reaction front of plagioclase in the quartz diorite, the specific surface area and porosity change very little until the pointwhere the rock disaggregates into saprolite. The different patterns in porosity development of the two rocks are attributed to advective infiltration plus diffusion in the rock that spheroidally fractures versus diffusion-only in the rock that does not. Fracturing apparently diminishes the size of the diffusion-limited parts of the spheroidally weathering rock system to promote infiltration of meteoric fluids, thereforeexplaining the faster weathering advance rate into that rock.

  3. Integrated system for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre -Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-08-18

    A system for investigating non-linear properties of a rock formation around a borehole is provided. The system includes a first sub-system configured to perform data acquisition, control and recording of data; a second subsystem in communication with the first sub-system and configured to perform non-linearity and velocity preliminary imaging; a third subsystem in communication with the first subsystem and configured to emit controlled acoustic broadcasts and receive acoustic energy; a fourth subsystem in communication with the first subsystem and the third subsystem and configured to generate a source signal directed towards the rock formation; and a fifth subsystem in communication with the third subsystem and the fourth subsystem and configured to perform detection of signals representative of the non-linear properties of the rock formation.

  4. Organic geochemistry and correlation of Paleozoic source rocks and Trenton crude oils, Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrie, J. )

    1989-08-01

    Shale samples from four cores of the New Albany and Antrim Shales (Devonian) and from six cores of the Maquoketa Group (Ordovician), representing a broad geographic area of Indiana, have been analyzed for total organic carbon, total sulfur, pyrolysis yield (Rock-Eval), bitumen content, and illite crystallinity data. These data indicate that the New Albany, Antrim, and Maquoketa shales contain a sufficient quantity and quality of organic matter to be good petroleum source rocks. Bitumen ratios, Rock-Eval yields, gas chromatography of saturated hydrocarbons, and illite crystallinity data show that the Maquoketa shales have reached a higher level of thermal maturity than the New Albany and Antrim shales. The level of thermal maturity of the Maquoketa shales suggested a maximum burial depth considerably greater than the present depth.

  5. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation.

  6. Paint Rock and southwest Paint Rock fields, Concho County, Texas: Strawn analogs of modern island carbonate facies of Ambergris Cay, Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, A.M.; Mazzullo, S.J.

    1987-02-01

    Lower Strawn (Desmoinesian Goen Limestone) reservoirs at Paint Rock and Southwest Paint Rock fields are a complex of carbonate and associated facies interpreted as having been deposited in various environments on and around large, emergent islands on shallow carbonate shelves. The origin and geometries of the component lithofacies in these fields, and their reservoir diagenetic histories, are similar to those presently accumulating on Ambergris Cay, a linear island complex on the northern shelf of Belize. Paint Rock field originated as a narrow, elongate Chaetetes reef trend that formed the foundation on which the overlying island facies were deposited. As on Ambergris Cay, these reef limestones developed extensive porosity during postdepositional subaerial exposure due to meteoric leaching. In contrast, Southwest Paint Rock field is cored by older island deposits rather than reef limestones. With ensuing stillstand or subsequent sea level rise, beach grainstones were deposited along the windward and leeward margins of the foundation highs in these fields. Tight lagoonal micrites and coals (peat-swamp facies) comprise the inner island facies, and are locally associated with porous supratidal dolomites. These island complexes are transected locally by tidal channels that are filled with nonporous micrites. Repeated sea level fluctuations during the history of these fields resulted in a characteristic cyclic stratigraphy of stacked island facies and reservoirs. The reservoirs in the field are developed in the bedrock or older island cores, as well as in the overlying beach facies and supratidal dolomites. These fields are mappable as linear stratigraphic traps with low-relief closure, and are readily identified by subsurface geologic and facies analyses. Similar shelf island-type fields analogous to these strawn and Holocene Belizean examples are found throughout the Midland basin and Eastern shelf.

  7. MULTI-ATTRIBUTE SEISMIC/ROCK PHYSICS APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2000-10-01

    This project consists of three key interrelated Phases, each focusing on the central issue of imaging and quantifying fractured reservoirs, through improved integration of the principles of rock physics, geology, and seismic wave propagation. This report summarizes the results of Phase I of the project. The key to successful development of low permeability reservoirs lies in reliably characterizing fractures. Fractures play a crucial role in controlling almost all of the fluid transport in tight reservoirs. Current seismic methods to characterize fractures depend on various anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. We are pursuing an integrated study that relates to high-resolution seismic images of natural fractures to the rock parameters that control the storage and mobility of fluids. Our goal is to go beyond the current state-of-the art to develop and demonstrate next generation methodologies for detecting and quantitatively characterizing fracture zones using seismic measurements. Our study incorporates 3 key elements: (1) Theoretical rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, including up scaling analysis and rock-fluid interactions to define the factors relating fractures in the lab and in the field. (2) Modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of travel time, amplitude, impedance and spectral signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. We will quantify the information content of combinations of seismic attributes, and the impact of multi-attribute analyses in reducing uncertainty in fracture interpretations. (3) Integration and interpretation of seismic, well log, and laboratory data, incorporating field geologic fracture characterization and the theoretical results of items 1 and 2 above. The focal point for this project is the demonstration of these methodologies in the Marathon Oil Company Yates Field in West Texas.

  8. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  9. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  10. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  11. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  12. US DRIVE Fuel Pathway Integration Technical Team Roadmap

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Pathway Integration Technical Team (FPITT) supports the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (the Partnership) in the identification and evaluation of implementation scenarios for fuel cell technology pathways, including hydrogen and fuel cell electric vehicles in the transportation sector, both during a transition period and in the long term.

  13. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  14. Redundant control of migration and adhesion by ERM proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baeyens, Nicolas; Latrache, Iman; Yerna, Xavier; Noppe, Gauthier; Horman, Sandrine; Morel, Nicole

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: The three ERM proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell. ERM depletion inhibited PDGF-evoked migration redundantly. ERM depletion increased cell adhesion redundantly. ERM depletion did not affect PDGF-evoked Ca signal, Rac1 activation, proliferation. ERM proteins control PDGF-induced migration by regulating adhesion. -- Abstract: Ezrin, radixin, and moesin possess a very similar structure with a C-terminal actin-binding domain and a N-terminal FERM interacting domain. They are known to be involved in cytoskeleton organization in several cell types but their function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ERM proteins in cell migration induced by PDGF, a growth factor involved in pathophysiological processes like angiogenesis or atherosclerosis. We used primary cultured VSMC obtained from rat aorta, which express the three ERM proteins. Simultaneous depletion of the three ERM proteins with specific siRNAs abolished the effects of PDGF on cell architecture and migration and markedly increased cell adhesion and focal adhesion size, while these parameters were only slightly affected by depletion of ezrin, radixin or moesin alone. Rac1 activation, cell proliferation, and Ca{sup 2+} signal in response to PDGF were unaffected by ERM depletion. These results indicate that ERM proteins exert a redundant control on PDGF-induced VSMC migration by regulating focal adhesion turn-over and cell adhesion to substrate.

  15. Investigation of Tc Migration Mechanism During Bulk Vitrification Process Using Re Surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Fluegel, Alex; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Martinez, Baudelio; Matyas, Josef; Meyer, Perry A.; Paulsen, Dan; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Stewart, Charles W.; Swoboda, Robert G.; Yeager, John D.

    2006-12-04

    As a part of Bulk vitrification (BV) performance enhancement tasks, Laboratory scoping tests were performed in FY 2004-2005 to explore possible ways to reduce the amount of soluble Tc in the BV waste package. Theses scoping tests helped identify which mechanisms play an important role in the migration of Tc in the BV process (Hrma et al. 2005 and Kim et al. 2005). Based on the results from these scoping tests, additional tests were identified that will improve the understanding of Tc migration and to clearly identify the dominant mechanisms. The additional activities identified from previous studies were evaluated and prioritized for planning for Tasks 29 and 30 conducted in FY2006. Task 29 focused on the improved understanding of Tc migration mechanisms, and Task 30 focused on identifying the potential process changes that might reduce Tc/Re migration into the castable refractory block (CRB). This report summarizes the results from the laboratory- and crucible-scale tests in the lab for improved Tc migration mechanism understanding utilizing Re as a surrogate performed in Task 29.

  16. Testing thermal gradient driving force for grain boundary migration using molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Yongfeng; Tonks, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Strong thermal gradients in low-thermal-conductivity ceramics may drive extended defects, such as grain boundaries and voids, to migrate in preferential directions. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study thermal gradient driven grain boundary migration and to verify a previously proposed thermal gradient driving force equation, using uranium dioxide as a model system. It is found that a thermal gradient drives grain boundaries to migrate up the gradient and the migration velocity increases under a constant gradient owing to the increase in mobility with temperature. Different grain boundaries migrate at very different rates due to their different intrinsic mobilities. The extracted mobilities from the thermal gradient driven simulations are compared with those calculated from two other well-established methods and good agreement between the three different methods is found, demonstrating that the theoretical equation of the thermal gradient driving force is valid, although a correction of one input parameter should be made. The discrepancy in the grain boundary mobilities between modeling and experiments is also discussed.

  17. Sources of biogenic methane to form marine gas hydrates: In situ production or upward migration?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W. III; Borowski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    Potential sources of biogenic methane in the Carolina Continental Rise -- Blake Ridge sediments have been examined. Two models were used to estimate the potential for biogenic methane production: (1) construction of sedimentary organic carbon budgets, and (2) depth extrapolation of modern microbial production rates. While closed-system estimates predict some gas hydrate formation, it is unlikely that >3% of the sediment volume could be filled by hydrate from methane produced in situ. Formation of greater amounts requires migration of methane from the underlying continental rise sediment prism. Methane may be recycled from below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone by gas hydrate decomposition, upward migration of the methane gas, and recrystallization of gas hydrate within the overlying stability zone. Methane bubbles may also form in the sediment column below the depth of gas hydrate stability because the methane saturation concentration of the pore fluids decreases with increasing depth. Upward migration of methane bubbles from these deeper sediments can add methane to the hydrate stability zone. From these models it appears that recycling and upward migration of methane is essential in forming significant gas hydrate concentrations. In addition, the depth distribution profiles of methane hydrate will differ if the majority of the methane has migrated upward rather than having been produced in situ.

  18. Terrestrial planet formation in the presence of migrating super-Earths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izidoro, Andr; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N. E-mail: morbidelli@oca.eu

    2014-10-10

    Super-Earths with orbital periods less than 100 days are extremely abundant around Sun-like stars. It is unlikely that these planets formed at their current locations. Rather, they likely formed at large distances from the star and subsequently migrated inward. Here we use N-body simulations to study the effect of super-Earths on the accretion of rocky planets. In our simulations, one or more super-Earths migrate inward through a disk of planetary embryos and planetesimals embedded in a gaseous disk. We tested a wide range of migration speeds and configurations. Fast-migrating super-Earths (?{sub mig} ? 0.01-0.1 Myr) only have a modest effect on the protoplanetary embryos and planetesimals. Sufficient material survives to form rocky, Earth-like planets on orbits exterior to the super-Earths'. In contrast, slowly migrating super-Earths shepherd rocky material interior to their orbits and strongly deplete the terrestrial planet-forming zone. In this situation any Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone are extremely volatile-rich and are therefore probably not Earth-like.

  19. POSSIBLE ALTERATION OF ROCKS OBSERVED BY CHEMCAM ALONG THE TRAVERSE TO

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GLENELG IN GALE CRATER ON MARS. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: POSSIBLE ALTERATION OF ROCKS OBSERVED BY CHEMCAM ALONG THE TRAVERSE TO GLENELG IN GALE CRATER ON MARS. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POSSIBLE ALTERATION OF ROCKS OBSERVED BY CHEMCAM ALONG THE TRAVERSE TO GLENELG IN GALE CRATER ON MARS. Authors: Berger, B. [1] ; Blaney, D. [2] ; Bridges, J. [3] ; Cousin, A. [1] ; Forni, O. [1] ; Gasnault, O. [1] ; Lasue, J. [1] ; Mangold, N. [4] ; Maurice, S.

  20. The Effect of Scale on the Mechanical Properties of Jointed Rock Masses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuze, F E

    2004-05-24

    These notes were prepared for presentation at the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA) Hard Target Research and Analysis Center (HTRAC), at the occasion of a short course held on June 14-15, 2004. The material is intended for analysts who must evaluate the geo-mechanical characteristics of sites of interest, in order to provide appropriate input to calculations of ground shock effects on underground facilities in rock masses. These analysts are associated with the Interagency Geotechnical Assessment Team (IGAT). Because geological discontinuities introduce scale effects on the mechanical properties of rock formations, these large-scale properties cannot be estimated on the basis of tests on small cores.

  1. Investigation of Coupled Processes and Impact of High Temperature Limits in Argillite Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Liange; Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Kunhwi; Houseworth, Jim

    2015-07-01

    The focus of research within the UFD Campaign is on repository-induced interactions that may affect the key safety characteristics of an argillaceous rock. These include thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) process interactions that occur as a result of repository construction and waste emplacement. Some of the key questions addressed in this report include the development of fracturing in the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) and THMC effects on the near-field argillaceous rock and buffer minerals and petrophysical characteristics, particularly the impacts of induced temperature rise caused by waste heat.

  2. Two-phase flow in fractured rock (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Two-phase flow in fractured rock Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two-phase flow in fractured rock × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National

  3. Microsoft Word - Comments received at White Rock Scoping Mtg.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    CMRR-NF Supplemental EIS Scoping Meeting October 19, 2010 / White Rock Town Hall, White Rock, NM Written Comments (transcribed) 061 Joni Arends The meeting format does not work. One of the purposes of the scoping meeting is for the public to hear the concerns of other community members. The people of N. NM have a strong oral tradition where people learn by listening to others. We request a "classroom" type format, such as that used during the draft document hearing process. A format

  4. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Biology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Colorado School of Mines, Department of Geophysics, Center for Rock Abuse Colorado School of Mines. Department of Geophysics, ...

  5. Patterns of gravity induced aggregate migration during casting of fluid concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spangenberg, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) (Denmark)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) (Denmark); Roussel, N., E-mail: Nicolas.roussel@lcpc.fr [Universite Paris Est, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees (LCPC) (France); Hattel, J.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) (Denmark)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) (Denmark); Sarmiento, E.V.; Zirgulis, G. [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (Norway)] [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (Norway); Geiker, M.R. [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (Norway) [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (Norway); Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, aggregate migration patterns during fluid concrete castings are studied through experiments, dimensionless approach and numerical modeling. The experimental results obtained on two beams show that gravity induced migration is primarily affecting the coarsest aggregates resulting in a decrease of coarse aggregates volume fraction with the horizontal distance from the pouring point and in a puzzling vertical multi-layer structure. The origin of this multi layer structure is discussed and analyzed with the help of numerical simulations of free surface flow. Our results suggest that it finds its origin in the non Newtonian nature of fresh concrete and that increasing casting rate shall decrease the magnitude of gravity induced particle migration.

  6. Session: Avian migration and implications for wind power development in the Eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mabey, Sarah; Cooper, Brian

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The session was arranged to convey what is known about avian migration, particularly in the eastern US. The first presentation ''Migration Ecology: Issues of Scale and Behavior'' by Sarah Mabey frames the issue of migratory bird interactions with wind energy facilities from an ecological perspective: when, where, and why are migrant bird species vulnerable to wind turbine collision. The second presentation ''Radar Studies of Nocturnal Migration at Wind Sites in the Eastern US'' by Brian Cooper reported on radar studies conducted at wind sites in the eastern US, including Mount Storm, Clipper Wind, and others.

  7. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco-Martin, Laura; Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  8. Parameter estimation from flowing fluid temperature logging data in unsaturated fractured rock using multiphase inverse modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Tsang, Y.; Finsterle, S.

    2009-01-15

    A simple conceptual model has been recently developed for analyzing pressure and temperature data from flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) in unsaturated fractured rock. Using this conceptual model, we developed an analytical solution for FFTL pressure response, and a semianalytical solution for FFTL temperature response. We also proposed a method for estimating fracture permeability from FFTL temperature data. The conceptual model was based on some simplifying assumptions, particularly that a single-phase airflow model was used. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive numerical model of multiphase flow and heat transfer associated with FFTL. Using this numerical model, we perform a number of forward simulations to determine the parameters that have the strongest influence on the pressure and temperature response from FFTL. We then use the iTOUGH2 optimization code to estimate these most sensitive parameters through inverse modeling and to quantify the uncertainties associated with these estimated parameters. We conclude that FFTL can be utilized to determine permeability, porosity, and thermal conductivity of the fracture rock. Two other parameters, which are not properties of the fractured rock, have strong influence on FFTL response. These are pressure and temperature in the borehole that were at equilibrium with the fractured rock formation at the beginning of FFTL. We illustrate how these parameters can also be estimated from FFTL data.

  9. Sorptivity of rocks and soils of the van Genuchten-Mualem type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1991-06-01

    One hydrological process that will have great relevance to the performance of the proposed underground radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is that of the absorption of water from a water-filled fracture into the adjacent unsaturated rock formation. The rate at which water is imbibed by a rock depends on the hydrological properties of the rock and on the initial saturation (or initial capillary suction) of the formation. The hydrological properties that affect imbibition are the relative permeability function and the capillary pressure function. These functions are often collectively referred to as the `characteristic functions` of the porous medium. For one-dimensional absorption, it can be shown that, regardless of the details of the characteristic functions, the total amount of water imbibed by the formation, per unit surface area, will be proportional to the square root of the elapsed time. Hence the ability of a rock or soil to imbibe water can be quantified by a parameter known as the sorptivity S, which is defined such that the cumulative volumetric liquid influx per unit area is given by Q = S{radical}t. The paper discusses the simplification of these characteristic functions of porous medium.

  10. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Status and prospects for hot dry rock (HDR) in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.; Duchane, D.

    1992-01-01

    The vast majority of accessible geothermal energy exists in the form of heat stored in dry rock at depth. For nearly the last two decades, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been engaged in a program to develop the technology to mine the thermal energy in this hot dry rock (HDR). The world's first heat mine was developed and operated at Fenton Hill, N.M. in the 1970's by using drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to create an artificial reservoir in hot rock and subsequently circulating water through this reservoir to mine the heat from the rock. Over the last ten years, a much larger, deeper, and hotter heat mine has been constructed at Fenton Hill and a permanent energy extraction plant has been built on the surface. A long-term testing program has recently begun to evaluate the potential for sustained energy extraction from the large Fenton Hill heat mine. This paper summarizes the history of HDR research and development at Los Alamos, reports the initial results of the long-term testing program at Fenton Hill, and discusses the possible future course of HDR technology.

  12. Status and prospects for hot dry rock (HDR) in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.; Duchane, D.

    1992-08-01

    The vast majority of accessible geothermal energy exists in the form of heat stored in dry rock at depth. For nearly the last two decades, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been engaged in a program to develop the technology to mine the thermal energy in this hot dry rock (HDR). The world`s first heat mine was developed and operated at Fenton Hill, N.M. in the 1970`s by using drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to create an artificial reservoir in hot rock and subsequently circulating water through this reservoir to mine the heat from the rock. Over the last ten years, a much larger, deeper, and hotter heat mine has been constructed at Fenton Hill and a permanent energy extraction plant has been built on the surface. A long-term testing program has recently begun to evaluate the potential for sustained energy extraction from the large Fenton Hill heat mine. This paper summarizes the history of HDR research and development at Los Alamos, reports the initial results of the long-term testing program at Fenton Hill, and discusses the possible future course of HDR technology.

  13. A pore-scale model of two-phase flow in water-wet rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, Dmitriy; Patzek, Tad

    2009-02-01

    A finite-difference discretization of Stokes equations is used to simulate flow in the pore space of natural rocks. Numerical solutions are obtained using the method of artificial compressibility. In conjunction with Maximal Inscribed Spheres method, these computations produce relative permeability curves. The results of computations are in agreement with laboratory measurements.

  14. EA-1987: Parker-Headgate Rock and Parker-Bouse Rebuild Project, Arizona and California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to rebuild the existing Parker Dam-Headgate Rock and Parker Dam-Bouse 161-kilovolt transmission lines along the Colorado River in western Arizona and eastern California.

  15. Alleghanian development of the Goat Rock fault zone, southernmost Appalachians: Temporal compatibility with the master decollement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steltenpohl, M.G. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Goldberg, S.A. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Hanley, T.B. (Columbus College, GA (United States)); Kunk, M.J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    The Goat Rock and associated Bartletts Ferry fault zones, which mark the eastern margin of the Pine Mountain Grenville basement massif, are controversial due to the suggestion that they are rare exposed segments of the late Paleozoic southern Appalachian master decollement. The controversy in part stems from reported middle Paleozoic (Acadian) radiometric dates postulated as the time of movement along these fault zones. Ultramylonite samples from the type area at Goat Rock Dam yield a 287 [plus minus] 15 Ma Rb-Sr isochron interpreted as the time of Sr isotopic rehomgenization during mylonitization. This date is corroborated by Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar mineral ages on hornblende (297-288 Ma) and muscovite (285-278 Ma) from neomineralized and dynamically recrystallized rocks within and straddling the fault zone. These Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian dates indicate the time of right-slip movement (Alleghenian) along the Goat Rock fault zone, which is compatible with the timing suggested by COCORP for thrusting along the southern Appalachian master decollement.

  16. Capabilities for measuring physical and chemical properties of rocks at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Geophysics Group of the Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has experimental equipment that measures a variety of physical properties and phase equilibria and kinetics on rocks and minerals at extreme pressures (to 500 GPa) and temperatures (from 10 to 2800 K). These experimental capabilities are described in this report in terms of published results, photographs, and schematic diagrams.

  17. Stratigraphic controls on the source rock distribution, Llanos Orientales Basin, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramon, J.C.; Fajardo, A.; Rubiano, J.; Reyes, A. )

    1996-01-01

    All available rock and oil geochemistry analyses were tied to a high-resolution stratigraphic framework for more than 50 wells in the Central Llanos Orientates Basin. New Tertiary generation input is proposed. The best source rock intervals are at the base and top of the Gacheta Formation (Upper Cretaceous) and in the middle of the Barco-Cuervos (Paleocene) and Mirador (Eocene) formations. These organic-rich zones contain type II and III kerogen. TOC contents range from about 1% up to 15%. The four source rock intervals occur within marine shales near condensed sections, at the position maximum accommodation/sediment-supply (A/S) ratios. The development of conditions that allow accumulation and preservation of anomalously high fractions of organic matter might be explained by two mechanisms. Increased A/S ratio results in retention of more sediment in the coastal plain, thus reducing the tendency for siliciclastic sediment to dilute the organic matter accumulating on the shelf. Also, deeper water might restrict circulation, enhancing bottom anoxic conditions. In the more transitional and continental sequences, increased A/S ratio is associated with higher phreatic water level. A high ground water table enhances preservation of coaly intervals. The sea-level rise brings marine water into valleys and low-gradient coastal plains. The resulting embayments, marsh and swampy areas are organic-prone, contributing to the source rock potential of strata associated with high conditions and base-level rise-to-fall turnaround positions.

  18. Stratigraphic controls on the source rock distribution, Llanos Orientales Basin, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramon, J.C.; Fajardo, A.; Rubiano, J.; Reyes, A.

    1996-12-31

    All available rock and oil geochemistry analyses were tied to a high-resolution stratigraphic framework for more than 50 wells in the Central Llanos Orientates Basin. New Tertiary generation input is proposed. The best source rock intervals are at the base and top of the Gacheta Formation (Upper Cretaceous) and in the middle of the Barco-Cuervos (Paleocene) and Mirador (Eocene) formations. These organic-rich zones contain type II and III kerogen. TOC contents range from about 1% up to 15%. The four source rock intervals occur within marine shales near condensed sections, at the position maximum accommodation/sediment-supply (A/S) ratios. The development of conditions that allow accumulation and preservation of anomalously high fractions of organic matter might be explained by two mechanisms. Increased A/S ratio results in retention of more sediment in the coastal plain, thus reducing the tendency for siliciclastic sediment to dilute the organic matter accumulating on the shelf. Also, deeper water might restrict circulation, enhancing bottom anoxic conditions. In the more transitional and continental sequences, increased A/S ratio is associated with higher phreatic water level. A high ground water table enhances preservation of coaly intervals. The sea-level rise brings marine water into valleys and low-gradient coastal plains. The resulting embayments, marsh and swampy areas are organic-prone, contributing to the source rock potential of strata associated with high conditions and base-level rise-to-fall turnaround positions.

  19. Fluid-evaporation records preserved in salt assemblages in Meridiani rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, M.N.; Nyquist, L.E.; Sutton, S.R.; Dreibus, G.; Garrison, D.H.; Herrin, J.

    2009-09-25

    We studied the inter-relationships between the major anions (SO{sub 3}, Cl, and Br) and cations (FeO, CaO and MgO) using elemental abundances determined by APXS in salt assemblages of RATted (abraded) rocks at Meridiani to characterize the behavior of fluids that infiltrated into this region on Mars. A plot of SO{sub 3} versus Cl for the abraded rocks yielded an unusual pattern, whereas the SO{sub 3}/Cl ratios versus Cl for the same rocks showed a monotonically decreasing trend represented by a hyperbola. The systematic behavior of the SO{sub 3} and Cl data in the documented rocks at Meridiani suggests that these anions behaved conservatively during fluid-rock interactions. These results further indicate that two kinds of fluids, referred to as SOL-I and SOL-II, infiltrated into Endurance/Eagle/Fram craters, where they underwent progressive evaporative concentration. SOL-I is a low pH fluid consisting of high SO{sub 3} and low Cl and high Br, (this fluid infiltrated all the way to the crater-top region), whereas SOL-II fluid of high pH with low SO{sub 3} and high Cl and low Br reached only an intermediary level known as the Whatanga contact at Endurance. Based on the FeO/MgO as well as CaO/MgO versus SO{sub 3}/Cl diagram for rocks above the Whatanga contact, the cation and anion relationships in this system suggest that the Fe{sup 2+}/SO{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}/SO{sub 4} ratios in SOL-I fluids at Meridiani were > 1 before the onset of evaporation based on the 'chemical divide' considerations. Below the Whatanga contact, relatively dilute SOL-II fluids seem to have infiltrated and dissolved/flushed away the easily soluble Mg-sulfate/chloride phases (along with Br) without significantly altering the SO{sub 3}/Cl ratios in the residual salt assemblages. Further, Cl/Br versus Br in rocks above the Whatanga contact show a hyperbolic trend suggesting that Cl and Br behaved conservatively similar to SO{sub 3} and Cl in the SOL-1 fluids at Meridiani. Our results are consistent with a scenario involving two episodes (SOL-I and SOL-II) of groundwater recharge at Meridiani Planum.

  20. ACOUSTICAL IMAGING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOFT ROCK AND MARINE SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurman E. Scott, Jr., Ph.D.; Younane Abousleiman, Ph.D.; Musharraf Zaman, Ph.D., P.E.

    2002-11-18

    During the sixth quarter of this research project the research team developed a method and the experimental procedures for acquiring the data needed for ultrasonic tomography of rock core samples under triaxial stress conditions as outlined in Task 10. Traditional triaxial compression experiments, where compressional and shear wave velocities are measured, provide little or no information about the internal spatial distribution of mechanical damage within the sample. The velocities measured between platen-to-platen or sensor-to-sensor reflects an averaging of all the velocities occurring along that particular raypath across the boundaries of the rock. The research team is attempting to develop and refine a laboratory equivalent of seismic tomography for use on rock samples deformed under triaxial stress conditions. Seismic tomography, utilized for example in crosswell tomography, allows an imaging of the velocities within a discrete zone within the rock. Ultrasonic or acoustic tomography is essentially the extension of that field technology applied to rock samples deforming in the laboratory at high pressures. This report outlines the technical steps and procedures for developing this technology for use on weak, soft chalk samples. Laboratory tests indicate that the chalk samples exhibit major changes in compressional and shear wave velocities during compaction. Since chalk is the rock type responsible for the severe subsidence and compaction in the North Sea it was selected for the first efforts at tomographic imaging of soft rocks. Field evidence from the North Sea suggests that compaction, which has resulted in over 30 feet of subsidence to date, is heterogeneously distributed within the reservoir. The research team will attempt to image this very process in chalk samples. The initial tomographic studies (Scott et al., 1994a,b; 1998) were accomplished on well cemented, competent rocks such as Berea sandstone. The extension of the technology to weaker samples is more difficult but potentially much more rewarding. The chalk, since it is a weak material, also attenuates wave propagation more than other rock types. Three different types of sensors were considered (and tested) for the tomographic imaging project: 600 KHz PZT, 1 MHz PZT, and PVDF film sensors. 600 KHz PZT crystals were selected because they generated a sufficiently high amplitude pulse to propagate across the damaged chalk. A number of different configurations were considered for placement of the acoustic arrays. It was decided after preliminary testing that the most optimum arrangement of the acoustic sensors was to place three arrays of sensors, with each array containing twenty sensors, around the sample. There would be two horizontal arrays to tomographically image two circular cross-sectional planes through the rock core sample. A third array would be vertically oriented to provide a vertical cross-sectional view of the sample. A total of 260 acoustic raypaths would be shot and acquired in the horizontal acoustic array to create each horizontal tomographic image. The sensors can be used as both acoustic sources or as acoustic each of the 10 pulsers to the 10 receivers.