Sample records for road oil distillate

  1. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  2. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,591 135,428 135,820

  3. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) Geographic Area Month Kerosene No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  4. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1998 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  5. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1999 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  6. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1996 401 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  7. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1997 401 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  8. CHEM333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taber, Douglass

    CHEM­333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils; Experiments A, C, D and below. Reading: For this experiment read Chapter 10. This week you will get to use steam distillation to isolate may wait until you come to lab to find out which spice you get. Steam distillation is not a common

  9. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  10. Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOil andMarket Module This

  11. Hydroconversion of heavy oils. [Residue of tar sand bitumen distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, D.

    1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for hydroconversion of feedstocks consisting essentially of at least one heavy hydrocarbon oil selected from the group consisting of residue of petroleum oil distillation and the residue of tar sand bitumen distillation to enhance the recovery of 350/sup 0/-650/sup 0/F boiling product fraction. The method comprises treating such feed stock with hydrogen at superatmospheric pressure and in the presence of finely divided active hydrogenation catalyst in consecutive reaction stages. An initial reaction stage is carried out at a temperature in the range of 780/sup 0/-825/sup 0/F, and a subsequent reaction stage is directly carried out after the initial reaction stage at a higher temperature in the range of 800/sup 0/F-860/sup 0/F, the temperature of the subsequent reaction stage being at least 20/sup 0/F higher than that of the initial reaction stage.

  12. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  13. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 337 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  14. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  15. Effects of petroleum distillate on viscosity, density and surface tension of intermediate and heavy crude oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullayev, Azer

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    : San Francisco oil from Columbia with specific gravity of 28o-29o API, Duri oil with gravity of 19o-21o API, Jobo oil with gravity of 8o-9o API and San Ardo oil gravity of 11o-13o API. The additive used in all of the experiments is petroleum distillate...

  16. Re-refining of Waste Oil Solvent Is Used in Treatment/Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. A combination solvent treatment/distillation process has been designed for re-refining industrial waste oil (such as equipment lubricants, metal-working oil, and process oil) and used automotive lubricants (engine oil, hydraulic oil, and gear oil) for reuse. WASTE ENERGY RECOVERY. Recycling of waste oil in the United States has the potential to save the energy equivalent of 7-12 million bbl of crude oil annually.1 WASTE OIL RECOVERY. Prior to 1960, a significant portion of the demand for automotive lubricating oil was met by re-relined used oil. At the time, 150 re-refineries produced 300 million gal of motor oil annually. Since 1960, however, the production of re-refined oil has steadily declined. In 1981, for example, out of about 1.2 billion gal of automobile lubricating oil and 1.6 billion gal of industrial lubricating oils purchased, 25 U.S. rerefineries

  17. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    132.9 1,418.3 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  18. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  19. Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, Scott J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Fairbridge, Craig [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

  20. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  1. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  2. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil ElectricityUsingStephenSpring

  3. Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushiba, K. K.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

  4. ,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlantGrossDistillate Fuel Oil by End

  5. Upgrading of middle distillate fractions of syncrudes from athabasca oil sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, M.F.; Kriz, J.F.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Middle distillate fractions of syncrudes from Athabasca Oil Sands were evaluated for suitability as feedstocks in the catalytic conversion to diesel fuel meeting cetane number specifications. Hydrogenation of aromatic components to napthenes under severe conditions (380 to 400/sup 0/C, 2500 psig) using sulfided CoO/MoO/sub 3/ and NiO/WO/sub 3/ over ..cap alpha.. . Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in a previously described catalyst testing system. Reaction products were analyzed for aromatic carbon content using C/sup 13/ NMR spectroscopy and pseudo first order rate constants and activation energies (15.0 and 14.2 kcal 1 g-mole, respectively) were determined by regression analysis. At optimum conditions 97% aromatic conversion was obtained with the Ni-W catalyst. Product diesel fuel cetane number (42) was within specifications. Co-Mo catalyst was significantly less active.

  6. Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (<260 C boiling point). Carboxylic acid content of all of the high oxygen content fractions was likely too high for these materials to be considered as fuel blendstocks although potential for blending with crude oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

  7. A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galvin, David

    : a distillation tower, which takes in crude oil, up to a maximum of 650,000 barrels per day (bbl/day) and produces that maximizes profit. Note: Taha's Example 2.3-7 has distillation tower capacity 1,500,000 bbl/day, and is otherwise the same. 1 #12;Solution Let x1 be daily input to distillation tower Constraint: 0 x1 650000

  8. A Fork in the Road We stand at a fork in the road. Conventional oil and gas supplies are limited. We can move

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    A Fork in the Road We stand at a fork in the road. Conventional oil and gas supplies are limited the dirtiest tar sands and tar shales, hydrofracking for gas, continued mountain-top removal and mechanized to society. We must collect a gradually rising fee from fossil fuel companies at the source, the domestic

  9. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlantGrossDistillateReserves+

  10. Catalytic Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic Distillation' refers to a chemical process which performs both a catalyzed reaction and primary fractionation of the reaction components simultaneously. A structured catalyst which also is an effective distillation component has been...

  11. Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Waste oils offer a tremendous recycling potential. An important, dwindling natural resource of great economic and industrial value, oil products are a cornerstone of our modern industrial society. Petroleum is processed into a wide variety of products: gasoline, fuel oil, diesel oil, synthetic rubber, solvents, pesticides, synthetic fibres, lubricating oil, drugs and many more ' (see Figure 1 1. The boilers of Amercian industries presently consume about 40 % of the used lubricating oils collected. In Ontario, the percentage varies from 20 to 30%. Road oiling is the other major use of collected waste oils. Five to seven million gallons (50-70 % of the waste oil col1ected)is spread on dusty Ontario roads each summer. The practice is both a wasteful use of a dwindling resource and an environmental hazard. The waste oil, with its load of heavy metals, particularly lead, additives including dangerous polynuclear aromatics and PCBs, is carried into the natural environment by runoff and dust to contaminate soils and water courses.2 The largest portion of used oils is never collected, but disappears into sewers, landfill sites and backyards. In Ontario alone, approximately 22 million gallons of potentially recyclable lube oil simply vanish each year. While oil recycling has ad-114 Oil

  12. Distill, Distill_roll Distill for CASP10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollastri, Gianluca

    Distill, Distill_roll Distill for CASP10 C. Mirabello1, G. Tradigo1,2 , P.Veltri2, and G. Pollastri1 1 ­ UCD Dublin, Ireland, 2 ­ Università di Cosenza, Italy gianluca.pollastri@ucd.ie Distill has to the distance maps of templates rather than to predicted contact maps. The difference between Distill

  13. Distillation 29 Chem 355 Jasperse DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasperse, Craig P.

    Distillation 29 Chem 355 Jasperse DISTILLATION Background Distillation is a widely used technique for purifying liquids. The basic distillation process involves heating a liquid such that liquid molecules that is condensed and collected must be more pure than the original liquid mix. Distillation can be used to remove

  14. CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taber, Douglass

    CHEM­333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography: Prelab-Assignment: read Chapters 5 and 6. Distillation is one of the most powerful techniques for purifying volatile organic compounds. Distillation is used to isolate many of life's essentials such as gasoline from oil or brandy from wine

  15. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of oil. An overview of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) reports the narrow range of applications of membrane distillation in the industry, such as desalination and water purification (Burgoyne and Vahdati, 2000; Cath et al., 2004). Gryta... crystalliser and air gap membrane distillation as a solution to geothermal water desalination. Desalination 152 (1-3), 237-244. Burgoyne, A, Vahdati, M.M. 2000. Direct contact membrane distillation.Separation Science and Technology 35 (8), 1257...

  16. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  17. Imports of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14 Dec-14Has Hydrocarbon,2014147 128

  18. An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs., 12 tabs.

  19. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  20. DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Distillation Theory.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Distillation Theory. by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd, Norway #12;2 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Material Balance on a Distillation Stage

  1. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  2. INNOVATION EDUCATION EXCELLENCE DISTILLATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Hue Sun

    INNOVATION · EDUCATION · EXCELLENCE DISTILLATIONS University of Toronto CHEMISTRY ALUMNI MAGAZINE.utoronto.ca / distillations 2012 MessagefromtheChair Our Department of Chemistry has one of the finest collection of peo- ple to a better, more sustain- able future. This issue of Distillations highlights the accomplishments last year

  3. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1999 441 Table A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  4. Forpeerreview Synthesis of Complex Thermally Coupled Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    consumption of 91 GW, or 54 million tons of crude oil. The distillation research is motivated by its major US energy consumption, which is equivalent to 2.87x10 18 J (2.87 million TJ) per year, or to a power

  5. Canonical Distillation of Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamoghna Das; Asutosh Kumar; Amit Kumar Pal; Namrata Shukla; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

    2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Distilling highly entangled quantum states from weaker ones is a process that is crucial for efficient and long-distance quantum communication, and has implications for several other quantum information protocols. We introduce the notion of distillation under limited resources, and specifically focus on the energy constraint. The corresponding protocol, which we call the canonical distillation of entanglement, naturally leads to the set of canonically distillable states. We show that for non-interacting Hamiltonians, almost no states are canonically distillable, while the situation can be drastically different for interacting ones. Several paradigmatic Hamiltonians are considered for bipartite as well as multipartite canonical distillability. The results have potential applications for practical quantum communication devices.

  6. Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, D.

    DISTILLATION: THE EFFICIENT WORKHORSE Dan Steinmeyer Monsanto Company St. Louis, Missouri Distillation is inherently highly efficient: phase separation is clean it is relatively easy to build a mUltistage countercurrent device equilibrium... is closely approached on each stage Given the right perspective; the right application; and the right design - distillation is difficult to beat from an efficiency standpoint. ? The right perspective is that efficiency is the ratio of the work...

  7. Generalized entanglement distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Bo Sheng; Lan Zhou

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a way for the entanglement distillation of genuine mixed state. Different from the conventional mixed state in entanglement purification protocol, each components of the mixed state in our protocol is a less-entangled state, while it is always a maximally entangled state. With the help of the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity, this entanglement distillation protocol does not require the sophisticated single-photon detectors. Moreover, the distilled high quality entangled state can be retained to perform the further distillation. These properties make it more convenient in practical applications.

  8. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION ­ EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1 The experimental verification of the operation of a multivessel batch distillation column, operated under total vessels, provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. We propose a simple

  9. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  10. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  11. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation study has shown oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand this phenomenon, distillation experiments were performed using San Ardo crude oil (12oAPI). For comparison...

  12. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

  13. Random multiparty entanglement distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Fortescue; Hoi-Kwong Lo

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe various results related to the random distillation of multiparty entangled states - that is, conversion of such states into entangled states shared between fewer parties, where those parties are not predetermined. In previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 260501 (2007)] we showed that certain output states (namely Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs) could be reliably acquired from a prescribed initial multipartite state (namely the W state) via random distillation that could not be reliably created between predetermined parties. Here we provide a more rigorous definition of what constitutes ``advantageous'' random distillation. We show that random distillation is always advantageous for W-class three-qubit states (but only sometimes for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-class states). We show that the general class of multiparty states known as symmetric Dicke states can be readily converted to many other states in the class via random distillation. Finally we show that random distillation is provably not advantageous in the limit of multiple copies of pure states.

  14. An experimental and mathematical investigation of hydrocarbon steam distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langhoff, John Allan

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Holland and Welch method was very good. The agreement between experimental and predicted separation data indicated the Holland and Welch method could be extended to calculate crude oil-water -vapor separations. A practical procedure using the Holland... and Welch method and simulated distillation data was developed to predict crude oil-water-vapor separations. The method was compared to experimental crude oil-water-vapor separation data obtained at saturated steam conditions of 378 F and 456 F...

  15. Energy efficient distillation apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melton, J.D.

    1982-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy efficient distillation method is provided which is particularly adapted for use on a dairy farm, and which comprises a distilland evaporating receptacle, a distillate condensing receptacle, and a conduit interconnecting the evaporating receptacle and the condensing receptacle. A vacuum pump is provided for drawing a partial vacuum within the evaporating receptacle, and a vapor compression refrigeration system is provided which includes condenser coils disposed to heat and vaporize the distilland while it is within the evaporating receptacle, and evaporator coils for cooling and condensing the vaporized distilland in the condensing receptacle. A cooling distribution system is also provided whereby a variable portion of the cooling potential of the refrigeration system may be selectively directed to each of the condensing receptacle, a distillate receiver tank, or to a bulk milk container as utilized on a dairy farm or the like.

  16. Qutrit Magic State Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays a central role in fault tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of a MSD protocol, generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. Magic state distillation was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the 5-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distills non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states, that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state injected implementation ...

  17. Compositional changes in heavy oil steamflood simulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lolley, Christopher Scott

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    including distillation, vapor pressure, steam distillation and viscosity measurements, along with a commercial PVT simulator are used to tune equation-of-state (EOS) and viscosity parameters to properly model the PVT properties of the oil. The Peng...

  18. Topological Quantum Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

    2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a class of topological quantum codes to perform quantum entanglement distillation. These codes implement the whole Clifford group of unitary operations in a fully topological manner and without selective addressing of qubits. This allows us to extend their application also to quantum teleportation, dense coding and computation with magic states.

  19. Low Energy Distillation Schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.

    of reducing energy consumption. We look at how the better integrated distillation schemes can be quickly identified. It is found that the design of integrated schemes is quicker than that of non-integrated schemes. We then look at how the use of heat pumps...

  20. Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation Feasibility and Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation Feasibility and Operation by Efstathios Skouras and distillation is the dominating unit operation for such separations. However, the presence of azeotropes and non distillation as the best suited process. Among, various techniques to enhance distillation, heterogeneous

  1. Renormalising entanglement distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephan Waeldchen; Janina Gertis; Earl T. Campbell; Jens Eisert

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realise quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are i.i.d. distributed and uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics - that of renormalisation and of matrix-product states and operators - with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalisation flow.

  2. Reflux for multifeed distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, S.M.; Yaws, C.L.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior investigations have shown ways to determine minimum reflux for multicomponent distillation. This work extends earlier concepts in order to handle multifeeds. Reflux calculations for each feed, as though it were the only feed, are factored with the reflux effects of the other feeds to give an overall minimum reflux. Each factor has a finite value depending on the composition and thermal quality of the feed it represents.

  3. Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    INTERMEDIATE VAPOR EXPANSION DISTILLATION AND NESTED ENRICHMENT CASCADE DISTILLATION D.. C. Erickson Energy Concepts Company Annapolis, Maryland ABSTRACT Although it is known that incorporating an intermediate reboiler or reflux... condenser in a distillation ~olumn will improve column efficiency by 15 to 100%, there has been little use of this technique to date." Intermediate vapor compression heat pumping was recently introduced as one practical means of achieving this benefit...

  4. Product Supplied for Distillate Fuel Oil

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubic Feet) Yeara 436 Energy Information3,879

  5. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Commercial Use

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear21CompanySFoot)YearD e2,850,895

  6. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Farm Use

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear21CompanySFoot)YearD

  7. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Industrial Use

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear21CompanySFoot)YearD593,750

  8. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Military Use

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear21CompanySFoot)YearD593,750270,975

  9. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Railroad Use

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127 1,710,513 1,751,162

  10. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127 1,710,513 1,751,1625,568,066

  11. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)July

  12. Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr

  13. Distillate Fuel Oil Days of Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06) 2Yonthly Energy : b ra&le.com 1U.S.

  14. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06) 2Yonthly Energy : b ra&le.comEnd

  15. Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAt NREL,TheDust

  16. Product Supplied for Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0 167,905.6 173,210.44,115

  17. TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION BERND WITTGENS, RAJAB LITTO, EVA SØRENSEN in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. A simple feedback been built and the experiments verify the simulations. INTRODUCTION Although batch distillation

  18. Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements Hilde K. Engelien and Sigurd distillation arrangements for separating a ternary mixture have been considered. The focus is on a heat-integrated complex distillation configuration, called a multieffect prefractionator arrangement. The comparison

  19. Multivessel Batch Distillation Potential Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Multivessel Batch Distillation ­ Potential Energy Savings Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT ­ A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  20. Multivessel Batch Distillation -Potential Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Multivessel Batch Distillation - Potential Energy Savings Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT - A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  1. Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Raymond P. (Overland Park, KS); Schmalzer, David K. (Englewood, CO); Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1982-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships.

  2. Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.P.; Schmalzer, D.K.; Wright, C.H.

    1982-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships. 3 figs.

  3. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  4. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Gus T. (Paducah, KY); Holshouser, Stephen K. (Boaz, KY); Coleman, Richard M. (Paducah, KY); Harless, Charles E. (Smithland, KY); Whinnery, III, Walter N. (Paducah, KY)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  5. Distributed road assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  6. Optimal Control of Distillation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

  7. EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS Tshepo Sehole David Modise A thesis or in combination, such as distillation, extraction, crystallization, ect. Among these, distillation is by far profiles for the preliminary design of distillation columns. Residue curves and column profile are not only

  8. Momentive Performance Materials Distillation Intercharger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucher, N.; Baisley, T.; Beers, C.; Cameron, R.; Holman, K.; Kotkoskie, T.; Norris, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Care? Energy Efficiency Program Momentive Performance Materials Distillation Interchanger ESL-IE-13-05-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 Copyright 2013 Momentive Performance... Materials Inc. All rights reserved. CONFIDENTIAL IETC Energy Efficiency Award Winner Distillation Interchanger ? Waterford, NY Agenda ? Momentive Overview ? Waterford, NY Site Overview ? Project Overview ? Project Timeline ? NYSERDA ? Project Team...

  9. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  10. Quantum universality by state distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben W. Reichardt

    2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum universality can be achieved using classically controlled stabilizer operations and repeated preparation of certain ancilla states. Which ancilla states suffice for universality? This "magic states distillation" question is closely related to quantum fault tolerance. Lower bounds on the noise tolerable on the ancilla help give lower bounds on the tolerable noise rate threshold for fault-tolerant computation. Upper bounds show the limits of threshold upper-bound arguments based on the Gottesman-Knill theorem. We extend the range of single-qubit mixed states that are known to give universality, by using a simple parity-checking operation. For applications to proving threshold lower bounds, certain practical stability characteristics are often required, and we also show a stable distillation procedure. No distillation upper bounds are known beyond those given by the Gottesman-Knill theorem. One might ask whether distillation upper bounds reduce to upper bounds for single-qubit ancilla states. For multi-qubit pure states and previously considered two-qubit ancilla states, the answer is yes. However, we exhibit two-qubit mixed states that are not mixtures of stabilizer states, but for which every postselected stabilizer reduction from two qubits to one outputs a mixture of stabilizer states. Distilling such states would require true multi-qubit state distillation methods.

  11. Marathon Oil Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Marine oil shale from the Shenglihe oil shale section in the Qiangtang basin, northern Tibet, China, was dated by the Re-Os technique using Carius Tube digestion, Os distillation, Re extraction by acetone and ICP-MS measure-ment. An isochron was obtained giving an age of 101±24 Ma with an initial

  12. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  13. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been...

  14. Countries Distillate Heating Oil (No. 2 Heating Oil and Gasoil...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, excluding taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 42715 2.40 2.30 2.43 2.41 2.41 2.11 2.56 42015 2.26 2.21 2.35 2.32 2.31...

  15. Countries Distillate Heating Oil (No. 2 Heating Oil and Gasoil...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    excluding taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 42715 2.15 2.32 2.11 2.61 1.49 2.11 NA 42015 2.07 2.26 2.09 2.50 1.46 2.05 NA 41315 1.96 2.15 1.97 2.36...

  16. Countries Distillate Heating Oil (No. 2 Heating Oil and Gasoil...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 42715 2.69 3.17 2.81 5.21 4.24 2.88 NA 42015 2.59 3.08 2.79 5.05 4.18 2.81 NA 41315 2.46 2.95 2.64 4.85...

  17. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Oil Company Use

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127 1,710,513 1,751,162 1984-2013

  18. Entanglement distillation using particle statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. L. Huang; L. H. Cheng; X. X. Yi

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the idea of entanglement concentration for pure states(Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 88}, 187903) to the case of mixed states. The scheme works only with particle statistics and local operations, without the need of any other interactions. We show that the maximally entangled state can be distilled out when the initial state is pure, otherwise the entanglement of the final state is less than one. The distillation efficiency is a product of the diagonal elements of the initial state, it takes the maximum 50%, the same as the case for pure states.

  19. Distilling entanglement from arbitrary resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Buscemi; Nilanjana Datta

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain the general formula for the optimal rate at which singlets can be distilled from any given noisy and arbitrarily correlated entanglement resource, by means of local operations and classical communication (LOCC). Our formula, obtained by employing the quantum information spectrum method, reduces to that derived by Devetak and Winter, in the special case of an i.i.d. resource. The proofs rely on a one-shot version of the so-called "hashing bound," which in turn provides bounds on the one-shot distillable entanglement under general LOCC.

  20. Oil & Chemical Pollution 6 (19'X)} 81-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    distribution offuel distillates is evident with only a small contribution from lubricating and heavier oilOil & Chemical Pollution 6 (19'X)} 81- pollution as all oils contain aromatic hydrocarbons while few, if any, biogenic aromatic hydrocarbons

  1. Entanglement distillation by extendible maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukasz Pankowski; Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Michal Horodecki; Graeme Smith

    2013-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that from entangled states that have positive partial transpose it is not possible to distill maximally entangled states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A long-standing open question is whether maximally entangled states can be distilled from every state with a non-positive partial transpose. In this paper we study a possible approach to the question consisting of enlarging the class of operations allowed. Namely, instead of LOCC operations we consider k-extendible operations, defined as maps whose Choi-Jamiolkowski state is k-extendible. We find that this class is unexpectedly powerful - e.g. it is capable of distilling EPR pairs even from product states. We also perform numerical studies of distillation of Werner states by those maps, which show that if we raise the extension index k simultaneously with the number of copies of the state, then the class of k-extendible operations is not that powerful anymore and provide a better approximation to the set of LOCC operations.

  2. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  3. The Products of the Destructive Distillation of Keratin in the Form of Leather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Reed Phillips

    1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ure to the air. After this came a white crystal­ line solid, fourth a reddish fciquid, fifth a red­ dish crystalline compound and sixth the black oil spoken of abovd. A volume of the distillate, equaling about a liter was collected and the two... the material the temperature rose to 200° C. and then reduction started and the temperature fell rapidly. The tar or oil constitutes from 3 to 4 per cent of the weight of the leather used. The aqueous portion of the distillate was subjected to a fractional...

  4. Process Svstems Enaineerina Instability of Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Process Svstems Enaineerina , Instability of Distillation Columns Elling W. Jacobsen and Sigurd recognized, distillation columns, operating with reflux and boilup as independent inputs, may have The dynamic behavior of distillation columns has been stud- ied quite extensively over the past decades

  5. POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT ­ A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  6. POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT - A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  7. Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamon, Peter

    Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen Ørsted Laboratory, University of a distillation column may be improved by permitting heat exchange on every tray rather than only in the reboiler (temperature, pressure, etc.) define successive states in a sequence of equilibria. Fractional distillation [2

  8. Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation S. Skouras and S. Skogestad Dept.interscience.wiley.com). The separation of close-boiling and azeotropic mixtures by heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is addressed. The results show that heteroazeotropic batch distillation exhibits substantial flexibility. The column profile

  9. Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states RUIFANG DONG1 , MIKAEL, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less entangled states, can be used4­14 . Here we report on the distillation of deterministically

  10. TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION BERND WITTGENS, RAJAB LITTO, EVA S RENSEN a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for total re verify the simulations. INTRODUCTION Although batch distillation generally is less energy e cient than

  11. ASHLAND ROAD COLLEGE AVENUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Jerry

    ASHLAND ROAD N COLLEGE AVENUE RESIDENCE HALLS ROLLINS GROUP RESIDENCE HALLS DOBBS GROUP RESIDENCE ASHLAND ROAD OUTERROAD COLLEGE AVENUE RESIDENCE HALLS ROLLINS GROUP RESIDENCE HALLS DOBBS GROUP RESIDENCE

  12. History of Heating Oil Reserve Releases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), a one million barrel supply of ultra low sulfur distillate (diesel), was created to build a buffer to allow commercial companies to compensate for...

  13. Distillation of Bell states in open systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Isasi; D. Mundarain

    2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we review the entire classification of 2x2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

  14. Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.

    Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns G.T.Polley Pinchtechnology.com In this paper we look at the challenges that improvements in energy efficiency of distillation systems presents the heat exchanger designer. We examine... condensate sub-cooling. So, if this condensate subsequently requires re-heating both energy and capital have been wasted. If the condensate forms a feed to another distillation column it results in increased energy consumption if that separation...

  15. Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

    , .. ~ REDUCING ENERGY USAGE IN,EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION A. C. Saxena V. A. Bhandari Polysar Limited Sarnia, Ontario, Canada Abstract Butadiene 1:3 is separated from other C. hydrocarbons by extractive distillation in a sieve plate tower.... To improve the energy efficiency, butadiene recovery and productivity of the extractive distillation process, many process changes have been made. Their rationale, the methodology used to implement the various changes, and how they affected the process...

  16. Entanglement distillation from quasifree Fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zoltan Kadar; Michael Keyl; Dirk Schlingemann

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a scheme to distill entanglement from bipartite Fermionic systems in an arbitrary quasifree state. It can be applied if either one system containing infinite one-copy entanglement is available or if an arbitrary amount of equally prepared systems can be used. We show that the efficiency of the proposed scheme is in general very good and in some cases even optimal. Furthermore we apply it to Fermions hopping on an infinite lattice and demonstrate in this context that an efficient numerical analysis is possible for more then 10^6 lattice sites.

  17. CLOSED OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 CLOSED OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION - EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Submitted to AICheÆcient operation, multicomponent distillation, batch distillation, total re ux operation ABSTRACT. The multivessel batch distillation column, as well as conven- tional batch distillation, may be operated in a closed

  18. NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret purchases crude oil at a price of £11 per barrel. Each day to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

  19. Sulfur distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    by the thermal cracking process of the El-Lujjan oil shale showed that the yield of oil was around 12 wt of the boiling point for different distillate fractions. Sulfur in Jordanian oil shale was found to be mainly the dominant phases in these fractions. q 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction Oil shale

  20. Locally Accessible Information and Distillation of Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibasish Ghosh; Pramod Joag; Guruprasad Kar; Samir Kunkri; Anirban Roy

    2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  1. Rigorous Synthesis and Simulation of Complex Distillation Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    Rigorous Synthesis and Simulation of Complex Distillation Networks Gerardo J. Ruiz, Seon B. Kim energy-efficient distillation net- works. Complex column networks have substantial potential for energy column, networks, temperature collocation, inverse design, Aspen validation Introduction Distillation

  2. Shell middle distillate hydrogenation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucien, J.P. [Companie Rhenane de Raffinage Reichstett, Reichstett Vendenheim (France); Berg, J.P. van den; Hooijdonk, H.M.J.H. van; Thielemans, G.L.B. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij., The Hague (Netherlands); Germaine, G. [Shell Recherche SA, Grand-Couronne (France); Gjers, M. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The strive towards cleaner environment has lead to low sulfur specifications for middle distillate fuels. In addition compositional specifications are presently debated. Thus, to meet future emissions standards regarding, specifically, particulates emissions, the motor industry calls for improved automotive gasoil quality. Although automotive gasoil quality affects emissions from diesel engines it is considered less influential than engine design and maintenance. Sulfur, density and cetane number are the fuel properties having the greatest influence on diesel engine emissions although also aromatics and endpoint specifications have been defined in environmentally adopted government initiatives. This paper reviews the options which are available to tackle these new requirements. The high severity single stage concept (using conventional mixed sulfides catalysts) will be discussed in its potential to meet more severe product requirements as well as in terms of its limitations, especially at the point of aromatics saturation and cetaine upgrading. Furthermore, it is shown that the option of severe hydrotreating followed by hydrogenation with conventional noble metal catalysts is preferred if deep aromatics saturation is aimed at. However, this conventional two stage concept has limitations with respect to heaviness and sulfur and nitrogen content of feedstocks. The new Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation (SMDH) technology, applying a (semi) two stage approach based on the Shell developed hydrogenation catalyst is presented. The SMDH process will be discussed in its potential to break the limitations of the conventional options. The new catalyst is crucial in this process and allows a highly integrated mode of operation. A number of applications of this novel process will be discussed.

  3. atmospheric crude distillation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 September 1999 Distillation Theory. by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd, Norway 12;2 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . ....

  4. acrobat distiller job: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 September 1999 Distillation Theory. by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd, Norway 12;2 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . ....

  5. advanced distillation curve: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 September 1999 Distillation Theory. by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd, Norway 12;2 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . ....

  6. A Road Accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G.yu lha

    tracks (include description/relationship if appropriate) NA Title of track A Road Accident Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Shel ko shares his experience of a serious road accident in which the truck he...

  7. Distillation: Still towering over other options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunesh, J.G. [Fractionation Research, Inc., Stillwater, OK (United States); Kister, H.Z. [Brown and Root, Inc., Alhambra (Canada); Lockett, M.J. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Fair, J.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation dominates separations in the chemical process industries (CPI), at least for mixtures that normally are processed as liquids. The authors fully expect that distillation will continue to be the method of choice for many separations, and the method against which other options must be compared. So, in this article, they will put into some perspective just why distillation continues to reign as the king of separations, and what steps are being taken to improve its applicability and performance, as well as basic understanding of the technique.

  8. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  9. Nonlocality Distillation for High-Dimensional System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Guo-Zhu; Chen, Zheng-Gen; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intriguing and powerful capability of nonlocality in communication field ignites the research of the nonlocality distillation. The first protocol presented in Ref[Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401] shows that the nonlocality of bipartite binary-input and binary-output nonsignaling correlated boxes could be amplified by 'wiring' two copies of weaker-nonlocality boxes. Several optimized distillation protocols were presented later for bipartite binary-input and binary-output nonsignaling correlated boxes. In this paper, we focus on the bipartite binary-input and multi-nary-output nonsignaling correlated boxes---high-dimensional boxes, and design comparators-based protocols to achieve the distillation of high-dimensional nonlocality. The results show that the high-dimensional nonlocality can be distilled in different ways, and we find that the efficiencies of the protocols are influenced not only by the wirings but also by the classes the initial nonlocality boxes belongs to. Here, the initial nonlcalities may hav...

  10. Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santhanam, Srinivasan

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    problem. Multivariable design techniques are used to control the column. Some of the different multivariable techniques which have been used in the distillation column control include decoupling control, optimal control and internal model control [5...

  11. Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woinsky, S. G.

    EPRI has provided proposal preparation assistance and offered cost share funding assistance for two projects proposed in 2000. EPRI is highly interested, since this technology is applicable in all distillation systems, and since it will increase...

  12. An improved model for multiple effect distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mistry, Karan H.

    Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple ...

  13. Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summers, Edward K

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

  14. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux...

  15. Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach Thomas J. Bruno, Lisa S. Ott for measuring distillation curves reveals the physicochemical properties of complex fluids such as fuels distillation curves of complex fluids. The distillation curve provides the only practical avenue to assess

  16. On the Communication Complexity of Correlation and Entanglement Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the Communication Complexity of Correlation and Entanglement Distillation Ke Yang May 4th, 2004 distillation, entanglement distillation, communication complexity, EPR pairs, quantum key distribution #12) information, and then engage in a protocol to \\distill" the correlation/entanglement via communication. We

  17. Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio blog distillation by adding a link analysis phase to the standard retrieval-by-topicality phase, where in blog distillation. 1 Introduction Blog distillation is a subtask of blog search. It is defined

  18. Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O-9 Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3 Albert D. Neumann,2 Julius Müller,1 of separation, particularly distillation. The 40,000 commercial distillation columns in use in the U. S. consume or product purity. Distillation is the critical energy-consuming step accounting for 70-85% of the energy

  19. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SØRENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for the total reflux operation of a multivessel column distillation generally is less energy efficient than continuous distillation, it has received increased

  20. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for the total re ux operation of a multivessel column distillation generally is less energy e cient than continuous distillation, it has received increased attention

  1. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remigiusz Augusiak; Pawel Horodecki

    2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted GHZ structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  2. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  3. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSORPTIVE RECYCLE OF DISTILLATION WASTE HEAT Donald C. Erickson and Edward J. Lutz Jr. Energy Concepts Company Annapolis, Maryland ABSTRACT When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature... which conserve 60 to 70%. Also, there are ver sions which incorporate separate low tem perature waste heat streams and thereby conserve over 90% of the required dis tillation energy. The main limitations of the R/AHP are the need for sufficient...

  4. Co-processing of carbonaceous solids and petroleum oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Avinash (Bloomfield, NJ); Greene, Marvin I. (Oradell, NJ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for producing distillates from coal by a first stage thermal liquefaction followed by a catalytic hydrogenation, liquefaction solvent is added at points spaced over the length of the thermal liquefaction heater. Coal may be co-processed with petroleum oil by adding pre-hydrogenated oil to the first stage or unhydrogenated oil to the second stage.

  5. Recycled rubber roads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

  6. Forest Road Building Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has regulations for building a forest road, if development requires one. Regulations include zoning ordinances and permits for stream crossing, grading...

  7. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for All Other Uses

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear21CompanySFoot)YearD e

  8. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Off-Highway Use

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at

  9. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Vessel Bunkering Use

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127 1,710,513

  10. East Coast (PADD 1) Distillate Fuel Oil Imports

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877SouthwestWisconsinStatement 1 June 7, 2013Nov-14

  11. Gross Input to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity UseFoot) YearNetper

  12. Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1995-1996

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06) 2Yonthly Energy : b ra&le.com 1U.S.

  13. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil 15 ppm Sulfur and Under

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights ï‚·2008DeutscheState470,603

  14. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil Greater Than 500 ppm Sulfur

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights ï‚·2008DeutscheState470,6036,190

  15. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0 Weekly7a.7.Nov-145,083 5,011

  16. Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hari Krovi; Igor Devetak

    2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the one-way distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classical-quantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.

  17. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  18. Kinetics of hydrogenation of aromatics determined by carbon-13 NMR for Athabasca bitumen-derived middle distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yui, S.M.; Sanford, E.C. (Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High aromatics content in middle distillates is detrimental to fuel quality, as shown in such properties as smoke point of jet fuel and cetane number of diesel fuel. In the petroleum and petrochemical industries the yields from fluid catalytic cracking or steam cracking units are adversely affected by high aromatics content in the feedstock. Distillates obtained from oil sand bitumen, heavy oils, or coal liquefaction products are particularly high in aromatics. Reducing the concentration of this class of compounds is important. Aromatics hydrogenation (AHYD) is one option to achieve this result. In the current Syncrude operation a primary objective of hydrotreating is to reduce product sulfur and nitrogen contents; reducing aromatics content is an incidental result. However, the expansion plan currently under study by Syncrude includes further AHYD to improve cetane number. Predicting the product aromatics content is an important issue for this study. In the present study, hydrotreating of five Athabasca-bitumen-derived gas oils was conducted in pilot scale trickle-bed reactors using alumina-based commercial NiMo catalysts. Feedstocks originated from the distillation of virgin bitumen, and from distillates derived from treating bitumen in a fluid coker and hydrocracking pilot plant. Aromatics content was determined by the {sup 13}C NMR method. The previously developed rate equation for AHYD was modified by including power terms for space velocity and hydrogen partial pressure. The data were analyzed using the modified equation.

  19. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, J.H.

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger...

  20. Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubis, Mirna R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K (331oF) and 722 kPa (105 psia) for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water...

  1. Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -pressure steam as a heat source. The steam has, very likely, been sent through one or more users (turbi ne dri ves) before reaching the distillation reboiler. It seems almost characteristic of large chemical and refining complexes that there is a chronic...

  2. Complex Distillation Arrangements : Extending the Petlyuk Ideas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    to distillation columns ac- count for roughly 3 of the total energy consumption in the U.S. (Ognisty 1995 to reduce energy consumption at least two alternative approaches have been proposed both in the literature is also known as the Petlyuk column, due to a theoretical study of Pet- lyuk et al. (1965), or as a fully

  3. Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I ENERGY CONSERVATION OPTIONS IN DISTILLATION PROCESSES G.E. Harris, W.R. Hearn, G.M. Blythe, and J.M. Stuart, Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas I This paper summarizes the results of a survey of energy conservation options applicable...

  4. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH-PRL, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  5. Distilling one-qubit magic states into Toffoli states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Eastin

    2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For certain quantum architectures and algorithms, most of the required resources are consumed during the distillation of one-qubit magic states for use in performing Toffoli gates. I show that the overhead for magic-state distillation can be reduced by merging distillation with the implementation of Toffoli gates. The resulting routine distills 8 one-qubit magic states directly to a Toffoli state, which can be used without further magic to perform a Toffoli gate.

  6. Integrated C3 Feedstock and Aggregated Distillation Model for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Polypropylene Propane return Reactor effluent Distillation Polymerization FeedTank Propylene (91%) Goal: Select rates Constraints on composition of Propane Return, Distillation Overhead & Reactor Feed Limits Distillation Model Relates overhead composition of propane with flowrate of propane feed to the splitter

  7. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol Erik Hostens,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to infinity. We call such protocols asymp- totic and the fraction of distilled Bell states per initial copy#12;#12;Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol Erik Hostens, Jeroen: July 13, 2006) We present a new asymptotic bipartite entanglement distillation protocol

  8. Optimal Control of a Continuous Distillation Process under Probabilistic Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henrion, René

    Optimal Control of a Continuous Distillation Process under Probabilistic Constraints René Henrion1 Universität Berlin, Germany Abstract A continuous distillation process with random inflow rate is considered model including the dynamics of the distillation process and proba- bilistic constraints under different

  9. Bloggers as Experts Feed Distillation using Expert Retrieval Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Rijke, Maarten

    Bloggers as Experts Feed Distillation using Expert Retrieval Models Krisztian Balog kbalog Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam ABSTRACT We address the task of (blog) feed distillation: to find blogs- ness as feed distillation strategies. The two models capture the idea that a human will often search

  10. DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS A CRITICAL SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS ­ A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad \\Lambda Chemical, Identification and Control, 18, 177­217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed these, the feasibility of using the distillate­bottom structure for control (which was believed

  11. DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS -A CRITICAL SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS - A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad Chemical cation and Control, 18, 177-217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed, the feasibility of using the distillate-bottomstructure for control which was believed to be impossible

  12. Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dundee, University of

    Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Roger Fletcher \\Lambda with the optimisation of distillation column models by non­ linear programming are considered. The paper presents of the distillation column model. A certain limiting case of the column model is examined, that of infinite reflux

  13. Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b a SINTEF ICT, Applied Keywords: Distillation Minimum energy Energy saving Dividing wall column Petlyuk arrangement Vmin-diagram a b s t r a c t Distillation is responsible for a significant amount of the energy consumption

  14. Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation John Watrous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watrous, John

    Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation John Watrous Department of Computer state shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only |+ = (|00 + |11 )/ 2. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable

  15. Active constraint regions for optimal operation of distillation columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active constraint regions for optimal operation of distillation columns Magnus G. Jacobsen the control structure of distillation columns, with optimal operation in mind, it is important to know how for distillation columns change with variations in energy cost and feed flow rate. The production of the most

  16. Multiple copy distillation and purification of phase diffused squeezed states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Marek; Jaromir Fiurasek; Boris Hage; Alexander Franzen; James DiGugliemo; Roman Schnabel

    2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple copy purification and distillation protocols for phase diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semi-analytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

  17. Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio report a new approach to blog distillation, defined as the task in which, given a user query, the system of the TREC Blog Track. 1 Introduction Blog distillation is a subtask of the blog search task. It is defined

  18. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes, including the inverted column and the middle vessel column. The total re ux operation of the multivessel batch distillation column was presented recently, and the main contribution of this paper

  19. Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures using Elementary) diagrams like distillation lines and isotherms maps may be used in analysis of the closed (total reflux) multivessel batch distillation column. An indirect level control strategy is implemented that eliminates

  20. Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction Taylor Emanuelle Sweet 2013 Prism/PCCM #12;Overview -Intro- What is Microfluidics? What is Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation microns in size and use Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation to shrink droplets to 5-10 microns

  1. Model Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Model Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column Martin Kvernland Ivar Halvorsen Sigurd (e-mail: skoge@ntnu.no) Abstract: This is a simulation study on controlling a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared

  2. Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation Elling W. Jacobsen and Sigurd Skogestad Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Trondheim-NTH, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway Simple distillation and compositions in the column. Introduction Multiple steady states (multiplicity) in distillation columns have

  3. Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S, Norway SCOPE OF THE PROJECT ·How can we separate ternary mixtures in closed batch distillation-up period is required, followed by a heteroazeotropic distillation step (Figure 3) Modified: The separation

  4. Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance Muhammad A. Al and rectifying sec- tions of a reacti®e distillation column can degrade performance. This effect, if true®e distillation columns cannot use conser®ati®e estimates of tray numbers, that is, we cannot simply add excess

  5. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SØRENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes, including the inverted column and the middle vessel column. The total reflux operation of the multivessel batch distillation column was presented recently, and the main contribution of this paper

  6. RIS0-M-2319 RISK ANALYSIS OF A DISTILLATION UNIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RIS0-M-2319 RISK ANALYSIS OF A DISTILLATION UNIT J. R. Taylor**, 0. Hansen*, C. Jensen*, 0. F. A risk analysis of a batch distillation unit is de- scribed. The analysis has been carried out at several.2. Objectives and organisation 5 1.2.2. Philosophy and approach 6 1.3.1. The distillation unit 8 1

  7. Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies G. Burgess and K Canberra ACT 0200 AUSTRALIA E-mail: greg.burgess@anu.edu.au Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) is generally assisted) desalination has been conducted. Solar thermal driven Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) has been

  8. Human versus Machine in the Topic Distillation Task Mingfang Wu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingfang

    Human versus Machine in the Topic Distillation Task Mingfang Wu 1 , Gheorghe Muresan2 , Alistair Mc. The focus is on comparing humans and machine algorithms in terms of performance in a topic distillation task demonstrated that machines can perform nearly as well as people on the topic distillation task. Given a system

  9. Economically Optimal Control of Kaibel Distillation Column: Fixed boilup rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    : In this study, a control structure is designed for a 4-product dividing wall (Kaibel) distillation column, basedEconomically Optimal Control of Kaibel Distillation Column: Fixed boilup rate Maryam Ghadrdan distillation column; Vapour split manipulation; Self-optimizing control. 1. INTRODUCTION Thermally coupled

  10. Optimal Synthesis of Complex Distillation ColumnsUsing Rigorous Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    a review of recent work for the optimal design of distillation of individual columns using tray review of the area of optimal design and synthesis of distillation columns, emphasizing recentOptimal Synthesis of Complex Distillation ColumnsUsing Rigorous Models Ignacio E. Grossmann1 , Pío

  11. THE DOS AND DONTS OF DISTILLATION COLUMN CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DOS AND DON·TS OF DISTILLATION COLUMN CONTROL S. Skogestadà Department of Chemical Engineering distillation column control within the general framework of plant- wide control. In addition, it aims at providing simple recommendations to assist the engineer in designing control systems for distillation

  12. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  13. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  14. OxfordRoadOxfordRoadOxfordRoad UpperBrookStreetUpperBrookStreet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lane Platt Lane UpperLloydStreet HartLane Claremont Road Mauldeth RoadMauldeth Road West Albert Road Coupland Chapel 43. Roby URC 44. Quadria Jilamia Islamic Centre 45. Platt Lane Methodist Church 46. Holy Trinity, Platt Church of England 47. Platt Fields Park, open space with a lake. 48. Allen Hall 49. The Islah

  15. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joonwoo Bae

    2010-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  16. Qutrit Magic State Distillation Tight in Some Directions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillary Dawkins; Mark Howard

    2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Magic state distillation is a crucial component in the leading approaches to implementing universal fault tolerant quantum computation, with existing protocols for both qubit and higher dimensional systems. Early work focused on determining the region of distillable states for qubit protocols, yet comparatively little is known about which states can be distilled and with what distillable region for d>2. Here we focus on d=3 and present new four-qutrit distillation schemes that improve upon the known distillable region, and achieve distillation tight to the boundary of undistillable states for some classes of state. As a consequence of recent results, this implies that there is a family of quantum states that enable universality if and only if they exhibit contextuality with respect to stabilizer measurements. We also identify a new routine whose fixed point is a magic state with maximal sum-negativity i.e., it is maximally non-stabilizer in a specific sense.

  17. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  18. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  19. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  20. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  1. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  2. The attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Péter Lévay; Szilárd Szalay

    2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent paper it has been shown that for double extremal static spherically symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of GHZ-type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a GHZ state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

  3. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from Algeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    were isolated by steam distillation, analysed by gas chromatography coupled with the mass spectrometry toxicity of global oil recovered after one hour of extraction and its fraction F1 recovered after 2 distillation is a very rapid process and the duration of extraction could be limited to15 minutes, since more

  4. OIL AND GREASE: A PROPOSED ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    because a slight oil residue may carryover into the oil fraction. Blend about 100 parts of Celite (vol) PE, filter and apply suction until reasonably dry. Air dry and store in a jar. Filter paper dispersion: Blend 20 7-cm filter paper disks (Whatman 1 or 40) with distilled water in a blender for 5 - 10

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  6. The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It appears to us that hydrogen is a highly promising option06—16 The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen Daniel Sperling Joan OgdenThe Bumpy Road to Hydrogen 1 Daniel Sperling and Joan Ogden

  7. Design, start up, and three years operating experience of an ammonia scrubbing, distillation, and destruction plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambert, G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    When the rebuilt Coke Plant started operations in November of 1992, it featured a completely new closed circuit secondary cooler, ammonia scrubbing, ammonia distillation, and ammonia destruction plants. This is the second plant of this type to be built in North America. To remove the ammonia from the gas, it is scrubbed with three liquids: Approximately 185 gallons/minute of cooled stripped liquor from the ammonia stills; Light oil plant condensate; and Optionally, excess flushing liquor. These scrubbers typically reduce ammonia content in the gas from 270 Grains/100 standard cubic feet to 0.2 Grains/100 standard cubic feet.

  8. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Austin G. Fowler; Simon J. Devitt; Cody Jones

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states |A>=(|0>+e^{i\\pi/4}|1>)/\\sqrt{2} produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k+8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

  9. Iterative Entanglement Distillation: Approaching full Elimination of Decoherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris Hage; Aiko Samblowski; James DiGuglielmo; Jaromír Fiurášek; Roman Schnabel

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution and processing of quantum entanglement form the basis of quantum communication and quantum computing. The realization of the two is difficult because quantum information inherently has a high susceptibility to decoherence, i.e. to uncontrollable information loss to the environment. For entanglement distribution, a proposed solution to this problem is capable of fully eliminating decoherence; namely iterative entanglement distillation. This approach builds on a large number of distillation steps each of which extracts a number of weakly decohered entangled states from a larger number of strongly decohered states. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate iterative distillation of entanglement. Already distilled entangled states were further improved in a second distillation step and also made available for subsequent steps.Our experiment displays the realization of the building blocks required for an entanglement distillation scheme that can fully eliminate decoherence.

  10. Peak Oil, Peak Energy Mother Nature Bats Last

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sereno, Martin

    Peak Oil, Peak Energy Mother Nature Bats Last Martin Sereno 1 Feb 2011 (orig. talk: Nov 2004) #12;Oil is the Lifeblood of Industrial Civilization · 80 million barrels/day, 1000 barrels/sec, 1 cubicPods to the roads themselves) · we're not "addicted to oil" -- that's like saying a person has an "addiction

  11. ANNOUNCES CLOSURE ALERT ON SEARSVILLE ROAD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Take Campus Drive West and turn onto Stock Farm Road. Follow Stock Farm to Oak Road and make a left (North & South): Take Sand Hill Road exit, east. Turn right onto Stock Farm Road. Right turn onto Oak (North & South): Take the Embarcadero Road exit, west. Continue on Embarcadero Road to El Camino Real

  12. W-like bound entangled states and secure key distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remigiusz Augusiak; Pawel Horodecki

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct multipartite entangled states with underlying W-type structure satisfying positive partial transpose (PPT) condition under any (N-1)|1 partition. Then we show how to distill N-partite secure key form the states using two different methods: direct application of local filtering and novel random key distillation scheme in which we adopt the idea form recent results on entanglement distillation. Open problems and possible implications are also discussed.

  13. Quantum states representing perfectly secure bits are always distillable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawel Horodecki; Remigiusz Augusiak

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    It is proven that recently introduced states with perfectly secure bits of cryptographic key (private states representing secure bit) [K. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160502 (2005)] as well as its multipartite and higher dimension generalizations always represent distillable entanglement. The corresponding lower bounds on distillable entanglement are provided. We also present a simple alternative proof that for any bipartite quantum state entanglement cost is an upper bound on distillable cryptographic key in bipartite scenario.

  14. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994.

  15. Hydrogenation of aromatics in synthetic crude distillates catalyzed by platinum supported in molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbara, N.; Charland, J.P. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Wilson, M.F. [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada)] [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic hydrogenation of synthetic crude distillates from Canadian oil sands was carried out over platinum metal supported in pillared interlayered clay (PILC) and Y-zeolite. The molecular sieve supports were employed to modify the properties of dispersed platinum particles and improve their resistance to poisoning by sulfur. The objective was to reduce the distillate aromatic content to meet diesel emission control standards and cetane number requirements. Catalysts were prepared in a series of steps, and metal precursor was loaded using ion-exchange procedures. Characterization was done using X-ray diffraction, hydrogen chemisorption, and proton-induced X-ray emission elemental analysis. Catalytic hydrogenation reactions were carried out by processing distillate feedstocks both high (>100 ppm) and low (<10 ppm) in sulfur using a continuous-flow automated microreactor system. Experimental runs were performed to determine the reaction kinetics and Arrhenius parameters as a means of evaluating and comparing catalyst performance. Significant differences in catalyst activity were found. The Pt/Y-zeolite-alumina catalyst showed a much superior hydrogenation performance under conditions of high sulfur content. The extent of cracking and ring opening was also evaluated and was shown to be minimal under the operating conditions employed.

  16. Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~itroo.? ':!OD.e~tell.,..ot!.k1 .'k..,.-.ottNltlu'..,. II ""'I'JI ..... ~I_ """-.4008l1"OO I ~.z.,. 1 ,1'1 (-frl-.'....u_~ R.da at AC~Ofllftl\\,J'ftlit...." ? I 5 "'-tlnc&! Tt.,.. ? 21.' \\lip Gilil.In31 j TnyE.'tIc>Mcy .11.1'llo I ~~TI""'.'2.at... I There are many options available to the engi*eer seeking to reduce the energy requirements of a distil lation process. The technology for most of these I, options has been available for many years, but it has only recently become economically...

  17. Use of computers for multicomponent distillation calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Samuel Lane

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrected values for the b 's are best cal- i culated by multiplying (b. /d ) by (d. ) The compositions for each component in the vapor and liquid streams leaving plate j are calculated by use of the following equations. ('i/ i)ca ( i)co y. ji c Z (v... . . /b. ) (b. ) ji i ca i co i=1 , f a j x N+1 C (47-b) A temperature profile may be calculated by making either bubble or dew point calculations based on the compositions obtained by use of Equations (46) and (47). The specified distillate rate must...

  18. New Construction Road Closures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Construction Remodel Utility Road Closures 11 Keiss 12 Keiss 13 Stoddard 14 Stoddard Scott? Martha Coleman: 491-0101 Colorado State University - Fall 2013 Major Construction BRT Mason Corridor Facilitites Management Haberecht Haberecht Construction Work Zones 13 12 14 21 23 22 32 Æa #12;

  19. Road Design Susan Handy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    conditions for non-motorized street users." - ITE Subcommittee on Traffic Calming #12;Speed Control Measures design · Traffic control (if we have time) #12;Level Agencies Primary concern Roles Federal FHWA FTA;Innovations/Trends · Traffic Calming · Skinny Streets · Road Diets · Complete Streets · Green Streets

  20. Road Design Susan Handy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    conditions for non-motorized street users." - ITE Subcommittee on Traffic Calming #12;Speed Control Measures;Innovations/Trends · Traffic Calming · Skinny Streets · Road Diets · Complete Streets · Green Streets physical measures that reduce the negative effects of motor vehicle use, alter driver behavior and improve

  1. Road Design Susan Handy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    ;Innovations/Trends · Traffic Calming · Skinny Streets · Road Diets · Complete Streets · Green Streets effects of motor vehicle use, alter driver behavior and improve conditions for non-motorized street users." - ITE Subcommittee on Traffic Calming #12;Speed Control Measures Vertical Deflection Horizontal

  2. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CX-100137 Categorical Exclusion Determination ITP Chemicals: Hybripd SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction ITP Energy...

  3. Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

    . The paper outlines how bringing together the column thermal and hydraulics analysis provides significant additional insights to help screen the options for distillation column revamps....

  4. Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ShengLi Zhang; Peter van Loock

    2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations, both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We derive the optimal enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries, which can be obtained even in the most natural scenario when Gaussian mixed entangled states are shared after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

  5. advanced distillation control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Morari California.Eng., Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH), N-7034 Trondheim, Norway Paper presented at Symposium Distillation Skogestad, Sigurd 14 CONTROL AND ENERGY...

  6. azeotropic distillation columns: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S, Norway SCOPE OF THE PROJECT How can we separate ternary mixtures in closed batch...

  7. INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopelain, D.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the price of home heating oil may also be obtained byincluding kerosene, home heating oil, range oil, stove oil,to most marketers of home heating oil. Consequently, during

  8. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  9. NONLINEAR MPC BASED ON MULTI-MODEL FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    NONLINEAR MPC BASED ON MULTI-MODEL FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS Bjarne A. Foss1 , Song-Bo Cong established for a petroleum distillation column through first principle analysis, and its parameters have been-estimation and prediction in a MPC scheme. The controller has been applied to quality control of a FCCU fractionator

  10. Optimum Requirements for the Synthesis of Biodiesel Using Fatty Acid Distillates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akunna E. Ejele

    The optimum requirements of temperature, retention time, mole ratio of reactants and catalyst for the direct synthesis of biodiesel from fatty acid distillates of palm kernel oil using tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid as catalyst was studied. The following parameters were used for the efficient and economic production of biodiesel: eight (8) moles of methanol per mole of fatty acid, 0.06 mole of tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid per mole of fatty acid, a retention time of sixty (60) minutes and reaction temperature of 65 OC. And this gave a maximum percentage yield of 98.4. Other parameters obtained include: an acid value of 0.1683 mg KOH/g, iodine value of 15.3549, flash point of 209 OC, viscosity of 3.7957 mm2s-1, density of 0.8776 g cm-3, water content of 400.05 mg kg-1, soap content of 2.30 mg/kg, and ester content of 98.804 %. From the obtained parameters, the biodiesel produced from fatty acid distillates of palm kernel oil reaches prescribed international standards for biodiesel production.

  11. A Decision Mechanism for the Selective Combination of Evidence in Topic Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose, Joemon M.

    A Decision Mechanism for the Selective Combination of Evidence in Topic Distillation Vassilis combination of evidence for Web Information Retrieval and particularly for topic distillation. We introduce. Keywords Web information retrieval, Topic distillation, decision mechanism, selective combination

  12. Temperature Collocation Algorithm for Fast and Robust Distillation Libin Zhang and Andreas A. Linninger*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    Temperature Collocation Algorithm for Fast and Robust Distillation Design Libin Zhang and Andreas A mixtures that exhibit suitable volatility differences.1 Hence, continuous distillation columns, along commodity manufacturing. The common practice for distillation design often involves numerous trial

  13. Non-Gaussian entanglement distillation for continuous variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroki Takahashi; Jonas S. Neergaard-Nielsen; Makoto Takeuchi; Masahiro Takeoka; Kazuhiro Hayasaka; Akira Furusawa; Masahide Sasaki

    2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Entanglement distillation is an essential ingredient for long distance quantum communications. In the continuous variable setting, Gaussian states play major roles in quantum teleportation, quantum cloning and quantum cryptography. However, entanglement distillation from Gaussian states has not yet been demonstrated. It is made difficult by the no-go theorem stating that no Gaussian operation can distill Gaussian states. Here we demonstrate the entanglement distillation from Gaussian states by using measurement-induced non-Gaussian operations, circumventing the fundamental restriction of the no-go theorem. We observed a gain of entanglement as a result of conditional local subtraction of a single photon or two photons from a two-mode Gaussian state. Furthermore we confirmed that two-photon subtraction also improves Gaussian-like entanglement as specified by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation. This distilled entanglement can be further employed to downstream applications such as high fidelity quantum teleportation and a loophole-free Bell test.

  14. ADEC II Universal SCR Retrofit System for On-road and Off-road...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ADEC II Universal SCR Retrofit System for On-road and Off-road Diesel Engines ADEC II Universal SCR Retrofit System for On-road and Off-road Diesel Engines Presentation given at...

  15. Experimental and analytical modeling studies of steam injection with hydrocarbon additives to enhance recovery of San Ardo heavy oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simangunsong, Roly

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to better understand production mechanisms of heavy oil under steam injection with propane and petroleum distillate as steam additives. The studies have been conducted ...

  16. PELICAN ISLAND Graded dirt road

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

    Walking path Dike/Berm Mudflat/Estuary/Pond Parking spotP Seawolf Park F A guide to shorebirding Graded dirt road Walking path Dike/Berm Mudflat/Estuary/Pond Parking spotP G 1.0 1.2 1.7 3.5 0.65 0.0 0 #12;Bryan Beach Old Brazos River 1 mile N Paved road Graded dirt road Walking path Dike/Berm Mudflat

  17. Road to Net Zero (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, B.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PowerPoint presentation on NREL's Research Support Facility (RSF) and the road to achieving net zero energy for new construction.

  18. Better haul roads speed operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern trucks and scrapers are manufactured to standards of increasingly larger size and degree of sophistication, and to get the greatest return in productivity it is necessary to have good haul roads. Good haul roads can reduce fuel consumption, increase vehicle speed, reduce wear and tear on machinery, and improve safety. The paper describes aspects of haul road maintenance, including levelling and repairing of the surface, reducing rolling resistance, super-elevating curves, eliminating reverse curves and controlling dust. The design of haul roads is also covered.

  19. Two-stage hydrotreating of a bitumen-derived middle distillate to produce diesel and jet fuels, and kinetics of aromatics hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yui, S.M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The middle distillate from a synthetic crude oil derived from Athabasca bitumen was further hydrotreated in a downflow pilot unit over a typical NiMo catalyst at 330 to 400 C, 7 to 11 MPa and 0.63 to 1.39 h{sup {minus}1} LHSV. Feed and liquid products were characterized for aromatics, cetane index (CI) and other diesel specification items. Aromatics were determined by a supercritical fluid chromatography method, while CI was determined using the correlation developed at Syncrude Canada Ltd. Also feed and selected products were distilled into a jet fuel cut (150/260 C) by spinning band distillation for the determination of smoke point and other jet fuel specification items. A good relationship between aromatics content and CI was obtained. Kinetics of aromatics hydrogenation were investigated, employing a simple-first order reversible reaction model.

  20. Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cody Jones

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call "multilevel distillation." When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity $\\epsilon \\rightarrow 0$ for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity $O(\\epsilon^{2^r})$ approaches $2^r+1$, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in [Phys. Rev. A 86, 052329]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{in}} = 0.01$ to $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{out}}$ in the range $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-40}$ is about $14\\log_{10}(1/\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{out}}) - 40$; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below $10^{-7}$. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing, and they provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.

  1. Roads to Development: Experimental Evidence from Urban Road Pavement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    Roads to Development: Experimental Evidence from Urban Road Pavement Marco Gonzalez-Navarro UC peripheries in many developing country cities lack basic local public goods like pavement, water, sewerage pavement provision in Mexico. Our findings show that homes in streets that were paved increased their value

  2. Distillation and Dehydro Reactors Advanced Process Conrol Freeport Texas PLant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisele, D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation and Dehydro Reactors Advanced Process Control Freeport Texas Plant ESL-IE-14-05-16 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 G-KTI, Polyamide and Intermediates Distillation...-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 G-KTI, Polyamide and Intermediates Distillation APC – Control Matrix 6/2/2014 INTERNAL; CONFIDENTIAL 3 ESL-IE-14-05-16 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology...

  3. Construction and operation of a flash distillation apparatus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knezevich, Milan

    1940-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VII HElPEL D1STILLATIONS OF FLASH DISTILLATES OF OKLAHOMA CITY CRUDE Flash Temperature of Distillate XII DoE. F, 260 308 342 392 Volume Distilled per oent Telsp e deE. F. Temp e deE ~ Fs Toslp e doge Fo Tolllp Tolsp e deg. F, doE ~ F..., and they lose much of their kinetio energy to the high boiling molocules ~ Therefore, the solution does not start to vaporise at tho normal boiling point of the low boiling components At low percentages vaporissd flash vaporisation requires a higher vapor...

  4. Road Weather and Transportation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Road Weather and Transportation Systems Rhonda Young, P.E., PhD Associate Professor Dept. of Civil & Arch. Engineering Portland State University April 18, 2014 #12;Engineering Perspective of Road Weather · How does weather impact transportation systems? · As engineers, is there anything we can do

  5. HCEI Road Map 2011 Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HCEI Road Map 2011 Edition #12;2 www.hawaiicleanenergyinitiative.org The Hawaii Clean Energy of the recommendations laid out in this Road Map will be undertaken by one or many of the stakeholders already at work on the electrical grid, along with increasing end use efficiency will mean that demand patterns and corresponding

  6. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  7. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  8. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation is obviously very...

  9. Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Adam M; Knill, Emanuel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

  10. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  11. Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam M. Meier; Bryan Eastin; Emanuel Knill

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

  12. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semipermeable membrane through the use of thermal energy to bring about...

  13. Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

  14. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  15. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation ...

  16. Road Rash: Ecological and Social Impacts of Road Networks on First Nations Kneeshaw, D.D., Larouche, M., Asselin, H., Adam, M.-C.,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asselin, Hugo

    extraction and other land use practices on natural ecosystems. Timber harvesting, oil and gas exploration communities (Aboriginal or not). The effects of road networks linked to resources extraction continue regions for the exploitation of natural resources (primarily wood, minerals and fossil fuels). However

  17. Reducing WWW Latency and Bandwidth Requirements by RealTime Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Reducing WWW Latency and Bandwidth Requirements by Real­Time Distillation Armando Fox and Eric A Distillation and Refinement Can Help 1. The Concept of Datatype­Specific Distillation 2. Refinement 3. Trading. Optimizing for Rendering on Impoverished Devices 3. An Implemented HTTP Proxy Based on Real­Time Distillation

  18. Control strategies for reactive batch distillation Eva Swensen and Sigurd Skogestad"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control strategies for reactive batch distillation Eva Swensen and Sigurd Skogestad" Department be combined directly with a distillation column by distilling off the light component product in order a maximum value in order to avoid break-through of an intermediate component in the distillate. This maximum

  19. Dividing wall columns for heterogeneous azeotropic distillation Quang-Khoa Le1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Dividing wall columns for heterogeneous azeotropic distillation Quang-Khoa Le1 , Ivar J. Halvorsen2 of this work is to implement heterogeneous azeotropic distillation schemes in a dividing wall column (DWC distillation, Petlyuk arrangement, energy saving. 1. Introduction Distillation is one of the most energy

  20. Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. -S. B. Lee; H. -S. Sim

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved, by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

  1. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed... for lowering energy consumption in the distillation process through various heat recovery techniques. (3-8) One such technique utilizes mechanical vapor recompression. (9-12) The principle of this ap proach involves the use of a compressor to recycle...

  2. Single-step distillation protocol with generalized beam splitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Navascues, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, (Spain)

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a distillation protocol for multilevel qubits (qudits) using generalized beam splitters like in the proposal of Pan et al. for ordinary qubits. We find an acceleration with respect to the scheme of Bennet et al. when extended to qudits. It is also possible to distill entangled pairs of photons carrying orbital angular momenta states that conserve the total angular momenta as those produced in recent experiments.

  3. A short and simple explanation of how oil is converted into gasoline and then brought to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    it is not usable. It must first be sent to a refinery where it is converted into many dif- ferent products that we or thicker the oil, the more work the refinery must do to distill it into a useful form. The second, the most economical way to transport crude oil from the well to the refinery is through pipelines. While

  4. Key Distillation and the Secret-Bit Fraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick S. Jones; Lluis Masanes

    2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider distillation of secret bits from partially secret noisy correlations P_ABE, shared between two honest parties and an eavesdropper. The most studied distillation scenario consists of joint operations on a large number of copies of the distribution (P_ABE)^N, assisted with public communication. Here we consider distillation with only one copy of the distribution, and instead of rates, the 'quality' of the distilled secret bits is optimized, where the 'quality' is quantified by the secret-bit fraction of the result. The secret-bit fraction of a binary distribution is the proportion which constitutes a secret bit between Alice and Bob. With local operations and public communication the maximal extractable secret-bit fraction from a distribution P_ABE is found, and is denoted by Lambda[P_ABE]. This quantity is shown to be nonincreasing under local operations and public communication, and nondecreasing under eavesdropper's local operations: it is a secrecy monotone. It is shown that if Lambda[P_ABE]>1/2 then P_ABE is distillable, thus providing a sufficient condition for distillability. A simple expression for Lambda[P_ABE] is found when the eavesdropper is decoupled, and when the honest parties' information is binary and the local operations are reversible. Intriguingly, for general distributions the (optimal) operation requires local degradation of the data.

  5. Hydroprocessing Bio-oil and Products Separation for Coke Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass can be used to produce a raw bio-oil product, which can be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon liquid products. In this study the upgraded products were distilled to recover light naphtha and oils and to produce a distillation resid with useful properties for coker processing and production of renewable, low-sulfur electrode carbon. For this hydroprocessing work, phase separation of the bio-oil was applied as a preparatory step to concentrate the heavier, more phenolic components thus generating a more amenable feedstock for resid production. Low residual oxygen content products were produced by continuous-flow, catalytic hydroprocessing of the phase separated bio-oil.

  6. East Avenue Truck Inspection Patterson Pass Road Vasco Road

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office to be badged Sandia National Laboratories 7011 East Avenue Livermore, CA 94551 Tesla Road Interstate 580 - From OaklandSan Francisco Map Not to Scale Map Not to Scale To...

  7. The Role of the Flexicoking Process in Heavy Oil Processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, R. I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a clean product slate composed of low Btu gas, high Btu gas, LPG, naphtha, distillate and gas oil. The low Btu gas falls within the definition of an "Alternate Fuel" under current legislation (PL 95-620). Originally developed for refinery bottoms...

  8. Crude Distillation Unit Heat Recovery Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, P.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to 426?F. There is no preheat of tower bottoms. All heat beyond the prefractionator comes from fired furnaces. But there is steam generation at 25 pounds pressure from hot oil and an approved project to generate ISO-pound steam from flue gas. Pipe Still... Sinks Sources Difference Disposition Sinks 110 (110) (213) Furnace Duty 400/690 430/720 255 152 (103) l50-Pound Steam Production 365/400 395/430 25 44 19 50-Pound Steam Production 300/365 330/395 47 80 33 29 25-Pound Steam...

  9. This Week In Petroleum Distillate Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9.The

  10. INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopelain, D.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Retail Fuel Oil Market Hi9hly Competitive • . . . • .Describe the heating oil market. Investigate coverage andprices in the heating oil market. on El1el5asis of----rnis-

  11. INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopelain, D.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dislocation-of crude oil and products could jeopardize theoil, residual fuel oil and petroleum products and resultantof users of such oil or product." 34 The EPCA also provided

  12. INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopelain, D.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1977-1978 HEATING OIL PRICES II-1 II-3 II-3 Wholesale PricesMonthly U.S. Heating Oil Prices, 1970 - 1978 . . A-16 .H-3 .continuous No. 2 heating oil price information from 1970 to

  13. Murdoch University Dixon Road, Rockingham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murdoch University Dixon Road, Rockingham Western Australia 6168 Email: info in Desalination Australia holds a diverse portfolio of 43 research projects, spanning five, and on microbial populations in seawater. Forward osmosis as a low energy and high efficiency pre

  14. Non-Locality Distillation is Impossible for Isotropic Quantum Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dejan D. Dukaric

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-locality is a powerful resource for various communication and information theoretic tasks, e.g., to establish a secret key between two parties, or to reduce the communication complexity of distributed computing. Typically, the more non-local a system is, the more useful it is as a resource for such tasks. We address the issue of non-locality distillation, i.e., whether it is possible to create a strongly non-local system by local operations on several weakly non-local ones. More specifically, we consider a setting where non-local systems can be realized via measurements on underlying shared quantum states. The hardest instances for non-locality distillation are the isotropic quantum systems: if a certain isotropic system can be distilled, then all systems of the same non-locality can be distilled as well. The main result of this paper is that non-locality cannot be distilled from such isotropic quantum systems. Our results are based on the theory of cross norms defined over the tensor product of certain Banach spaces. In particular, we introduce a single-parameter family of cross norms, which is used to construct a hierarchy of convex sets that are closed under local operations. This hierarchy interpolates between the set of local systems and an approximation to the set of quantum systems.

  15. Kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrotreating synthetic middle distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I.P. (Petro-Canada R and D Dept., Sheridan Park, Ontario (Canada)); Wilson, M.F. (CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Middle distillates from the Tar Sands deposits in Alberta are an important component of diesel and jet fuels in the Canadian market. Commercial catalysts based on sulfided Ni-Mo and Ni-W are currently used to hydrogenate synthetic distillates to improve the cetane number and smoke point. In previous work {sup 13}C NMR was used to study the kinetics of overall hydrogenation of aromatics over sulfided Co-Mo, Ni-Mo and Ni-W catalysts. Arrhenius parameters were obtained for hydrogenation over sulfided Ni-W catalyst for a similar distillate feedstock. In the latter study, mass spectrometry was used to quantitate the three major aromatic hydrocarbon group types in the feed and products. In this study, liquid products from hydrotreating experiments with a hydrotreated distillate from delayed coking of Athabasca bitumen and sulfided Co-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. This completes a preliminary comparison of the kinetics of hydrogenation of alkylbenzenes, benzocycloparaffins and benzodicycloparaffins, the three major aromatic hydrocarbon types in these distillates.

  16. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    growth. For data on world oil consumption and long- term oilOil Production Domestic Oil Consumption a variety of

  17. A New Protocol of Continuous-Variable Entanglement Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi Jin; Xian-Min Jin; Joshua Nunn; Animesh Datta; Ian Walmsley

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new protocol in continuous variable entanglement distillation that requires only linear temporal and constant physical or spatial resources.Compared with the existing protocols, our protocol uses atom-photon entanglement to substitute for atom-atom entanglement in existing protol, which will not only save the number of quantum memories, but also has the advantages in operation efficiency and temporal saving. The distillation can be realized by a fixed model of iterations, in which only three quantum memories and photon detectors are required.

  18. Lubricating-oil basestock data and analysis: based on the ASTM-NBS basestock consistency study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.A.; Hsu, S.M.; Weeks, S.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this 13-month study, four virgin oil and six re-refined oil companies submitted monthly production samples to National Bureau of Standards (NBS). There, the samples were subdivided, coded, and sent to 14 participating laboratories for analysis of the physical and chemical properties as well as for evaluation in various bench tests. An eleventh control sample was sent monthly for reference. Various re-refining processes included in the study are: acid/clay; clay treatment; short path distillation; pretreat/vacuum distillation/clay finish; pretreat/hydrogenation. The processes for the virgin base oils are mainly solvent extraction/distillation with and without the hydro-finishing step. In this report the data are grouped into six main categories: (1) theology; (2) physical properties; (3) chemical properties; (4) hydrocarbon type analysis; (5) general performance tests; and (6) oxidation and wear bench tests. Within each category, test results are arranged according to the similarity of the tests or test properties.

  19. "Distillation, Absorption and Extraction" April 5-6, 2001 in Bamberg,, Halvorsen NTNU Department of Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    "Distillation, Absorption and Extraction" April 5-6, 2001 in Bamberg,, Halvorsen NTNU Department Distillation Arrangements by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Department of Chemical Engineering Working Party on "Distillation, Absorption

  20. HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    321 HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT I.A. Alekseev, E for manufacturing of ultra pure protium from hydrogen [2]. A principle of hydrogen cryogenic distillation was used

  1. December 13, 2012 The steady state model of a reactive distillation column for ethylene glycol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    December 13, 2012 The steady state model of a reactive distillation column for ethylene glycol in an ethylene glycol reactive distillation column. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 33:2738­2748, 1994. 3 #12;

  2. Application of a Plantwide Control Design Procedure to a Distillation Column with Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    (Larsson & Skogestad 2001) to a distillation column heat-integrated by using a heatpump. Top-down analysis) and apply it to a distillation column with heatpump. Plantwide control design should start by formulating

  3. The road to sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarrao, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crabtree, George [ANL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainability is the hottest topic in energy research today, but what does it actually mean? George Crabtree and John Sarrao describe what makes a technology sustainable, and outline the materials-science challenges standing between us and clean, long-lasting energy. Although most people agree that more-sustainable energy technologies are desirable, they often find it harder to agree on exactly how sustainable these technologies need to be, and even precisely what is meant by sustainability. To clarify the debate, we suggest three criteria for sustainability, each of which captures a different feature of the problem. While we do not have the lUxury of achieving full sustainability for all of our next-generation energy technologies, we can use these definitions to select our strategic sustainability targets and track our progress toward achieving them. As will become clear, the most sustainable energy technologies require the most challenging fundamental science breakthroughs. The first criterion for sustainability is 'lasts a long time'. This quality has been a feature of many energy sources we have used historically, including wood in ancient times and oil throughout most of the 20th century. The definition of 'long time' is, of course, relative: the world's demand for energy long ago outpaced the ability of wood to supply it, and the production of oil is likely to peak sometime within the next few decades. Substantial reductions in the rate of oil consumption through higher-efficiency processes can significantly impact on how long non-renewable resources last. In applying the 'long time' criterion, we need to distinguish between energy sources that are effectively limitless and those that are finite but, for the moment, adequate. The second criterion for sustainability is 'does no harm'. Burning fossil fuels releases pollutants such as sulphur and mercury that endanger human health, as well as greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide that threaten climate stability. Some alternatives to fossil fuels have their own degrees of potential harm, including the underground migration and leakage of sequestered carbon dioxide and the hazards of storing spent nuclear fuel. The third and most strict criterion for sustainability is 'leaves no change'. When the material outputs of energy generation and use are recycled to replace the inputs, the chemical cycle is said to be closed and the chemical state of the world is unchanged. The process of converting renewable energy sources like sunlight and wind to carriers like hydrogen or electricity comes closest to fulfilling this restrictive definition. Fossil energy systems, in contrast, usually operate as once-through processes, irreversibly converting hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water. Some such systems could, however, be retrofitted to collect and recycle the combustion products to make new hydrocarbon fuel. If this process used the Sun as its energy source, fossil fuels, too, could meet this criterion.

  4. Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S to obtain a light and a heavy fraction simultaneously from the top and the bottom of the column, while an intermediate fraction may also be recovered in the middle vessel. Two modifications of the multivessel

  5. Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Yildiz

    2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of the asymmetric three qubit $W$ states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding and quantum information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric $W$ states from a single copy of any three qubit $W$ class pure state.

  6. The application of continuation methods in solving steady-state distillation problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Mark Francis

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    80 101 105 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Distillation is the most common separ ation process in the chemical and petroleum industr ies. A ma]or tool in the design of distillation columns is steady-state distillation simulation. Also, steady-stat. e...'s Equation 98 B BIFURCATION AND TURNING POINTS ON CONTINUATION PATHS 100 C FORMULATION OF MATHEMATICAI MODELS USED IN EXAMPLE PROBLEMS 104 Problem 1 ? A Conventional Distillation Column Separating an Ideal Solution Problem 2 ? A Conventional...

  7. Integrated Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen1 and Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department at the Topical conference on Separations Technology, Session 23 - Distillation Modeling and Processes II. 2001 Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation Ivar J

  8. Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj Department structures for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) reactive distillation columns are studied. Two process The use of reactive distillation has grown in recent years because it results in less expensive and more

  9. Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation Kaushalya COCs) Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) Volatility Fate and transport Hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity a b s t r a c t In this study, we examined the feasibility of membrane distillation (MD) for removing

  10. The dos and don'ts of distillation column control Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    The dos and don'ts of distillation column control Sigurd Skogestad* Department of Chemical discusses distillation column control within the general framework of plantwide control. In addition for distillation columns. The standard LV-configuration combined with a fast temperature loop is recommended

  11. Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column distillation columns have been explored in many papers, very few papers have dealt with closed-loop control. Most of these control papers consider reactive distillation columns in which there is only one product

  12. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 2 and RAJAB LITTO column presented in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The economic potential of the multivessel batch distillation under total re ux is demon- strated

  13. Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements-integrated multi-effect and three non-integrated distillation arrangements for separating a ternary mixture have been considered. The focus of the paper is on a heat-integrated complex distillation configuration

  14. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Start-Up Operation of a Multivessel Batch Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Start-Up Operation of a Multivessel Batch DistillationVersity of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Multivessel batch distillation is a promising alternative to conventional batch distillation. Earlier studies proved the feasibility of temperature control in a closed

  15. On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal Binary Columns distillation processes. By considering the e ect of small changes in the operating parameters, e.g., initial-mail: jacobsen@elixir.e.kth.se 1 #12;1 Introduction Batch distillation has become of increasing importance

  16. Optimization of a Diabatic Distillation Column with Sequential Heat Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter Salamon*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamon, Peter

    Optimization of a Diabatic Distillation Column with Sequential Heat Exchangers Edward Steven of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is transferred is enormous because distillation is the single largest energy degrading unit operation worldwide. Introduction

  17. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad ÝDepartment of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process QH column

  18. THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES --WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES --WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS John Morud that a subsystem is influenced only by its nabor subsystems. An example of such a process is a distillation column in high purity distillation columns; in fact, the magnitude of these time constants may increase

  19. Topic Distillation with Query-Dependent Link Connections and Page Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingfang

    6 Topic Distillation with Query-Dependent Link Connections and Page Characteristics MINGFANG WU about a topic. Finding such results is called topic distillation. Previous research has shown statistics. This article presents a new approach to improve topic distillation by exploring the use

  20. Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations Rebecca H. Masel, Pennsylvania 18015, United States ABSTRACT: Maximum temperature limitations are encountered in distillation of the bottoms product fixes the column base pressure and, hence, the condenser pressure. The distillate

  1. On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal Binary Columns sensitivity in batch distillation processes. By considering the effect of small changes in the operating #12; 1 Introduction Batch distillation has become of increasing importance in industry during the last

  2. Know-Center at TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task: A Notebook Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammerton, James

    Know-Center at TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task: A Notebook Paper Elisabeth Lex, Michael Granitzer,mgrani,ajuffinger}@know-center.at Abstract. This paper outlines our experiments carried out at TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task. Our system, specifically the blog distillation task, exactly this problem is addressed. The goal of the track is to rank

  3. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad1 The experimental veri cation of the operation of a multivessel batch distillation column, operated under total re vessels, provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. We propose a simple

  4. Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamon, Peter

    Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column Edward Abstract Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is transferred on the trays inside savings is through diabatic distillation. Instead of just one heat source (the reboiler) and one heat sink

  5. Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum-boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent and a control structure for the batch extractive middle vessel distillation is proposed. In extractive

  6. Optimization of Distillation Processes. Jos A. Caballero* and Ignacio E. Grossmann**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Optimization of Distillation Processes. José A. Caballero* and Ignacio E. Grossmann** *Dept and a single condenser in the entire sequence. We also review the rigorous design of distillation columns, or column sequences. In all the cases we focus on mathematical programming approaches. Keywords Distillation

  7. Enhanced Topic Distillation using Text, Markup Tags, and Hyperlinks Soumen Chakrabarti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarti, Soumen

    Enhanced Topic Distillation using Text, Markup Tags, and Hyperlinks Soumen Chakrabarti Mukul Joshi Vivek Tawde IIT Bombay ABSTRACT Topic distillation is the analysis of hyperlink graph structure to authorities). Topic distillation is becoming common in Web search engines, but the best-known algorithms model

  8. Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process system for TAME reactive distillation process using extraction column with water as a solvent. The design distillation column which was optimized to recover methanol and recycle water to the extraction column. Other

  9. DISTILLATION DES LIQUIDES SOUS L'INFLUENCE DE L'LECTRICIT STATIQUE; PAR M. D. GERNEZ.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    36I DISTILLATION DES LIQUIDES SOUS L'INFLUENCE DE L'ÉLECTRICITÉ STATIQUE; PAR M. D. GERNEZ. La décharge, la distillation se produit aussitôt en sens in- verse (2). Ce phénomène est extrêmemen t n e sens suivant lequel se produit cette distillation est contraire à celui que sem- bleraient indiquer les

  10. Non-interactive correlation distillation, inhomogeneous Markov chains, and the reverse Bonami-Beckner inequality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Ryan

    Non-interactive correlation distillation, inhomogeneous Markov chains, and the reverse Bonami In this paper we study non-interactive correlation distillation (NICD), a generalization of noise sen- sitivity distillation (NICD), previously considered in [5, 31, 39]. In its most general form the problem involves k

  11. Retrieval and Feedback Models for Blog Distillation Jonathan Elsas, Jaime Arguello, Jamie Callan, Jaime Carbonell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbonell, Jaime

    Retrieval and Feedback Models for Blog Distillation Jonathan Elsas, Jaime Arguello, Jamie Callan and results for the Feed Distillation task in the Blog track at TREC 2007. Our experiments focus on two Wikipedia. 1 Introduction Blog distillation (or "feed search") is the task of finding blog feeds

  12. Assured Information Distillation in Social Sensing University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garibaldi, Skip

    Colloquium Assured Information Distillation in Social Sensing Dong Wang University of Illinois. This opens up unprecedented challenges and opportunities in social sensing, where the goal is to distill, social and physical networks. The talk will also introduce a new information distillation system we built

  13. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SRENSEN 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SØRENSEN 2 and RAJAB LITTO column presented in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The economic potential of the multivessel batch distillation under total reflux is demon­ strated

  14. Non-interactive correlation distillation, inhomogeneous Markov chains, and the reverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regev, Oded

    Non-interactive correlation distillation, inhomogeneous Markov chains, and the reverse Bonami In this paper we study non-interactive correlation distillation (NICD), a generalization of noise sensitivity in this paper is the problem of non-interactive correlation distil- lation (NICD), previously considered in [5

  15. Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating Vidar Trondheim, Norway Keywords: Distillation, Petlyuk, Divided-wall, Minimum energy Abstract This paper shows the unexpected result that over-fractionating one of the product streams in a Petlyuk distillation column may

  16. Sustainable operation of membrane distillation for enhancement of mineral recovery from hypersaline solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sustainable operation of membrane distillation for enhancement of mineral recovery from hypersaline December 2013 Available online 25 December 2013 Keywords: Membrane distillation Desalination Hypersaline brine Scaling Membrane cleaning Evaporation pond a b s t r a c t Membrane distillation (MD

  17. Noisy Processing and the Distillation of Private States Joseph M. Renes1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noisy Processing and the Distillation of Private States Joseph M. Renes1 and Graeme Smith2 1 general private state is distilled. Besides a more general target state, the usual entanglement distillation tools are employed (in par- ticular, Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS)-like codes), with the crucial

  18. THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS John Morud that a subsystem is in uenced only by its nabor subsystems. An example of such a process is a distillation column in high purity distillation columns; in fact, the magnitude of these time constants may increase

  19. A globally convergent method for finding all steady-state solutions of distillation columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    A globally convergent method for finding all steady-state solutions of distillation columns Ali distillation column with 7 steady-states show the robustness of the method. No published software known to the steady-state model of distillation columns as it returns the original system as a single large block

  20. Distillation Codes and Applications to DoS Resistant Multicast Authentication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrig, Adrian

    Distillation Codes and Applications to DoS Resistant Multicast Authentication Chris Karlof UC We introduce distillation codes, a method for streaming and storing data. Like erasure codes, distillation codes allow information to be decoded from a sufficiently large quorum of symbols. In contrast

  1. Synthesizing Representative I/O Workloads Using Iterative Distillation Zachary Kurmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurmas, Zachary

    Synthesizing Representative I/O Workloads Using Iterative Distillation Zachary Kurmas College proper- ties are "key" for a given workload and storage system. We have developed a tool, the Distiller, that automati- cally identifies the key properties ("attribute-values") of the workload. The Distiller then uses

  2. Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum­boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent and a control structure for the batch extractive middle vessel distillation is proposed. In extractive

  3. Integrating the Document Object Model with Hyperlinks for Enhanced Topic Distillation and Information Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarti, Soumen

    Integrating the Document Object Model with Hyperlinks for Enhanced Topic Distillation://www.cse.iitb.ernet.in/~soumen ABSTRACT Topic distillation is the process of finding authoritative Web pages and comprehensive "hubs distillation has been traditionally applied to a macroscopic Web model where documents are nodes in a directed

  4. SEPARATION OF TERNARY HETEROAZEOTROPIC MIXTURES IN A CLOSED MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION-DECANTER HYBRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    SEPARATION OF TERNARY HETEROAZEOTROPIC MIXTURES IN A CLOSED MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION, Trondheim, Norway The feasibility of a novel multivessel batch distillation-decanter hybrid for simultaneous enables us to make direct use of the distillation line (or residue curve) map. Simple rules for predicting

  5. Endorsements and rebuttals in blog distillation q Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio Sebastiani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Endorsements and rebuttals in blog distillation q Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio in revised form 10 May 2013 Accepted 30 May 2013 Available online 14 June 2013 Keywords: Blog distillation to blog distillation, defined as the task in which, given a user query, the system ranks the blogs

  6. Complex Distillation Arrangements 23.May 2001 by I.Halvorsen NTNU Department of Chemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Complex Distillation Arrangements 23.May 2001 by I.Halvorsen NTNU Department of Chemical Engineering 1 Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements A thesis submitted for the degree of dr. ing. 23. May 2001 by Ivar J. Halvorsen #12;Complex Distillation Arrangements 23.May 2001

  7. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad y Department of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process Q H column

  8. Manifold-based starting point generation and its application to distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    Manifold-based starting point generation and its application to distillation Ali Baharev*, Ferenc-states in homogeneous azeotropic distillation . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2 Multiple steady-states in ideal two-product distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6 Conclusion 13 A Ordering sparse matrices 14 A.1 Ordering to block

  9. Distillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Grak (Editors)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    structure design. Keywords: Kaibel column, thermally coupled distillation columns, optimal operation 1J.Halvorsen@sintef.no Abstract The objective of this paper is to study the Kaibel distillation column from operability point. Introduction The thermally-coupled Petlyuk 1 distillation column separates the feed into three products

  10. Distillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Grak (Editors)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    is a viable option in present case. Keywords: Distillation, Energy saving, Dividing wall column, Thermal challenge is to design distillation systems that at the same time are sustainable and economically feasibleDistillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Górak (Editors) All rights reserved

  11. Optimal Synthesis of Thermally Coupled Distillation Sequences Using a Novel MILP Approach.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    . Pittsburgh, PA. USA. Abstract This paper introduces a novel MILP approach for the design of distillation Column; Superstructure optimization; GDP. Introduction Distillation is the most widely used method distillation (TCD), in which heat is directly transferred between columns through two streams (liquid a vapor

  12. Active Constraint Regions for Optimal Operation of Distillation Magnus G. Jacobsen and Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    , NTNU, N-7491, Trondheim, Norway ABSTRACT: When designing the control structure of distillation columnsActive Constraint Regions for Optimal Operation of Distillation Columns Magnus G. Jacobsen presented in an earlier paper, to find how the active constraints for distillation columns change

  13. Model predictive control of a pilot-scale distillation column using a programmable automation controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Model predictive control of a pilot-scale distillation column using a programmable automation). The controller is tested on a pilot-scale binary distillation column to track reference temperatures. A majorRIO) to control a pilot-scale binary distillation col- umn. Both the PI-controllers and the supervising online MPC

  14. INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopelain, D.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    engaged in the production of crude oil and to ensure thatgas plant production by integrated firms that have crude oilcrude oil and nonproduct costs are allocated to different types of regulated products in the following way: Production

  15. Crude oil and shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrotra, A.K. [Univ. of Calgary (Canada)

    1995-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This year`s review on crude oil and shale oil has been prepared by classifying the references into the following main headings: Hydrocarbon Identification and Characterization, Trace Element Determination, Physical and Thermodynamic Properties, Viscosity, and Miscellaneous Topics. In the two-year review period, the references on shale oils were considerably less in number than those dealing with crude oils. Several new analytical methodologies and applications were reported for hydrocarbon characterization and trace element determination of crude oils and shale oils. Also included in this review are nine U.S., Canadian British and European patents. 12 refs.

  16. Definition of heavy oil and natural bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, R.F.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Definition and categorization of heavy oils and natural bitumens are generally based on physical or chemical attributes or on methods of extraction. Ultimately, the hydrocarbon's chemical composition will govern both its physical state and the extraction technique applicable. These oils and bitumens closely resemble the residuum from wholecrude distillation to about 1,000/degree/F; if the residuum constitutes at least 15% of the crude, it is considered to be heavy. In this material is concentrated most of the trace elements, such as sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen, and metals, such as nickel and vanadium. A widely used definition separates heavy oil from natural bitumen by viscosity, crude oil being less, and bitumen more viscous than 10,000 cp. Heavy crude then falls in the range 10/degree/-20/degree/ API inclusive and extra-heavy oil less than 10/degree/ API. Most natural bitumen is natural asphalt (tar sands, oil sands) and has been defined as rock containing hydrocarbons more viscous than 10,000 cp or else hydrocarbons that may be extracted from mined or quarried rock. Other natural bitumens are solids, such as gilsonite, grahamite, and ozokerite, which are distinguished by streak, fusibility, and solubility. The upper limit for heavy oil may also be set at 18/degree/ API, the approximate limit for recovery by waterflood.

  17. Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaromir Fiurasek

    2010-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by [Browne et al., Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy de-Gaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

  18. Distillation of entanglement by projection on permutationally invariant subspaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czechlewski, Miko?aj; Horodecki, Micha?; Mozrzymas, Marek; Studzi?ski, Micha?

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider distillation of entanglement from two qubit states which are mixtures of three mutually orthogonal states: two pure entangled states and one pure product state. We distill entanglement from such states by projecting n copies of the state on permutationally invariant subspace and then applying one-way hashing protocol. We find analytical expressions for the rate of the protocol. We also generalize this method to higher dimensional systems. To get analytical expression for two qubit case, we faced a mathematical problem of diagonalizing a family of matrices enjoying some symmetries w.r.t. to symmetric group. We have solved this problem in two ways: (i) directly, by use of Schur-Weyl decomposition and Young symmetrizers (ii) showing that the problem is equivalent to a problem of diagonalizing adjacency matrices in a particular instance of a so called algebraic association scheme.

  19. Reducing the quantum computing overhead with complex gate distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Duclos-Cianci; David Poulin

    2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In leading fault-tolerant quantum computing schemes, accurate transformation are obtained by a two-stage process. In a first stage, a discrete, universal set of fault-tolerant operations is obtained by error-correcting noisy transformations and distilling resource states. In a second stage, arbitrary transformations are synthesized to desired accuracy by combining elements of this set into a circuit. Here, we present a scheme which merges these two stages into a single one, directly distilling complex transformations. We find that our scheme can reduce the total overhead to realize certain gates by up to a few orders of magnitude. In contrast to other schemes, this efficient gate synthesis does not require computationally intensive compilation algorithms, and a straightforward generalization of our scheme circumvents compilation and synthesis altogether.

  20. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill'; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

    2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is an indicator of the distillator performances, is obtained as 37.2$\\pm$0.6. This value is in reasonable agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by doping an optimal amount of ortho-H$_2$ to the purified HD gas.

  1. Enhanced Separation Efficiency in Olefin/Paraffin Distillation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is to develop technologies to enhance separation efficiencies by replacing the conventional packing materials with hollow fiber membranes, which have a high specific area and separated channels for both liquid and vapor phases. The use of hollow fibers in distillation columns can help refineries decrease operating costs, reduce greenhouse gas emissions through reduced heating costs, and help expand U.S. refining capacity through improvements to existing sites, without large scale capital investment.

  2. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  3. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

  4. Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sufi, A.H.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil- water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in 2 parts. The first was to investigate changes in residual oil saturation with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in residual oil saturation was observed with temperature. A study on viscous instabilities also was performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It also was observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

  5. On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; Donald Lyons; Chris Atkinson; Wenwei Xie; Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

    1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state No.2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without. The CBD cycle was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 33,050 lb. For those buses with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, NO x was reduced by 8% and PM was reduced by 31% on average, while for those buses without, NO x was reduced by 5% and PM was reduced by 20% on average. It is concluded that advanced compression ignition fuels from non-petroleum sources can offer environmental advantages in typical line haul and city transit applications.

  6. INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopelain, D.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IV. v. Retail Marketers . . Wholesale Marketers Explanationof Supportive Data Wholesale and Retail Fuel Oil MarketPRICES II-1 II-3 II-3 Wholesale Prices to Wholesalers and

  7. INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopelain, D.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow directly from the refinery to wholesaler, to retailer,of No. 2 heating oil for the refinery, wholesale and retailfirst system monitored refinery, wholesale and retail price

  8. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  9. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  10. Biochemical processing of heavy oils and residuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, T.; Yablon, J.H.; Zhou, Wei-Min

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past several decades, the petroleum industry has adjusted gradually to accommodate the changes in market product demands, government regulations, and the quality and cost of feedstock crude oils. For example, the trends show that the demand for distillate fuels, such as diesel, as compared to gasoline are increasing. Air-quality standards have put additional demand on the processing of heavier and higher sulfur feed stocks. Thus, the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments require the industry to produce greater quantities of oxygenated gasoline, and lower sulfur diesel and reformulated gasoline. Biochemical technology may play an important role in responding to these demands on the petroleum industry.

  11. Bound States for Magic State Distillation in Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earl T. Campbell; Dan E. Browne

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magic state distillation is an important primitive in fault-tolerant quantum computation. The magic states are pure non-stabilizer states which can be distilled from certain mixed non-stabilizer states via Clifford group operations alone. Because of the Gottesman-Knill theorem, mixtures of Pauli eigenstates are not expected to be magic state distillable, but it has been an open question whether all mixed states outside this set may be distilled. In this Letter we show that, when resources are finitely limited, non-distillable states exist outside the stabilizer octahedron. In analogy with the bound entangled states, which arise in entanglement theory, we call such states bound states for magic state distillation.

  12. Virginia Natural Gas's Hampton Roads Pipeline Crossing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—covers Virginia Natural Gas's (VNG's) pipeline project at Hampton Roads Crossing (HRX).

  13. Decommissioning abandoned roads to protect fish

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Decommissioning-abandoned-roads-to-protect-fish Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects...

  14. Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

  15. An Itegrated Approach to Water Treatment in Oil and Gas Industry via Thermal Membrane Distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsayed, Nesreen Ahmed Abdelmoez Mohamed

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    an increasing level of interest in the area of high-purity separation especially in water treatment. It is driven primarily by heat which creates a vapor-pressure difference across a porous hydrophobic membrane. Hot produced water and excess low-level heat from...

  16. Improved Swing-Cut Modeling for Planning and Scheduling of Oil-Refinery Distillation Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    processes can be found in commercial simulators such as Aspen-Plus and Hysys (Aspen Techology), Petro

  17. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubic Feet) Yeara Oxygenated17,583.7 5,086.5

  18. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubic Feet) Yeara Oxygenated17,583.7

  19. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet) DecadeV49 1553,177.25.6 366.2

  20. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet) DecadeV49 1553,177.25.6 366.23,186.1

  1. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet) DecadeV49 1553,177.25.6

  2. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet) DecadeV49 1553,177.25.6872.2 68,866.5

  3. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet) DecadeV49 1553,177.25.6872.2

  4. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet)4. U.S. Vehicle Fuel Consumption.9.

  5. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet)4. U.S. Vehicle Fuel Consumption.9.048.9

  6. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet)4. U.S. Vehicle Fuel

  7. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils,

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet)4. U.S. Vehicle FuelFoot,Effective PADA3.

  8. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils,

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet)4. U.S. Vehicle FuelFoot,Effective PADA3.

  9. U.S. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Zandofpoint motional%^ U N C L A SDistillate

  10. U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Zandofpoint motional%^ U N C L A

  11. U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Zandofpoint motional%^602SWPA

  12. An Itegrated Approach to Water Treatment in Oil and Gas Industry via Thermal Membrane Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsayed, Nesreen Ahmed Abdelmoez Mohamed

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and discharge to conserve water resources and reduce the negative environmental impact associated with discharging wastewater into the environment. Wastewater treatment enables providing water with specifications suitable for either recycle in the same... process or reuse in other ways within the process or outside the process. Therefore, water treatment and recycle/reuse contribute to addressing both of the aforementioned water problems: fresh water sacristy and environmental impact of wastewater...

  13. ,"U.S. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlantGross

  14. U.S. Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial and InstitutionalArea: U.S. East Coast502Propane,Area:

  15. Distillate Fuel Oil Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06) 2Yonthly Energy : b ra&le.com

  16. Table 10.24 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly AnnualConnecticut"Montana"Oregon"UnitedWyoming" "megawatthours"4 Reasons

  17. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil Greater Than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights ï‚·2008DeutscheState470,6036,190 5,932

  18. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil 15 ppm Sulfur and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0 Weekly7a.7.Nov-145,083

  19. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil > 15 pmm to 500

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0 Weekly7a.7.Nov-145,083ppm

  20. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil > 500 ppm Sulfur

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0 Weekly7a.7.Nov-145,083ppm

  1. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average

  2. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table

  3. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table9 Relative

  4. ,,,,"Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard Errors for3 Relative4

  5. U.S. Product Supplied of Distillate Fuel Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion Cubic Feet)Year Jan Feb MarRevision2009 2010 2011Product

  6. An approach for solvent selection in extractive distillation systems including safety considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of bioethanol, for which solvents that offer the best cost-safety compromise are identified. Keywords. Extractive distillation; Multiobjective optimization; Process safety; Solvents; Bioethanol 1. Introduction

  7. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  8. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and

  9. Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: CAR29

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: CAR29 1: Road Map Team Name, such as solar energy and fuel cell technologies, energy storage methods and improved

  10. Road to Fuel Savings: Clean Diesel Trucks Gain Momentum with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Road to Fuel Savings: Clean Diesel Trucks Gain Momentum with Nissan and Cummins Collaboration Road to Fuel Savings: Clean Diesel Trucks Gain Momentum with Nissan and Cummins...

  11. Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for road transport, flexible power systems and wind power (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and...

  12. asphalt concrete road: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polishing. Using available databases a detailed analysis of the different types of road surfaces has been performed to evaluate the relationship between the type of road surface...

  13. Particle Measurement Methodology: Comparison of On-road and Lab...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement Methodology: Comparison of On-road and Lab Diesel Particle Size Distributions Particle Measurement Methodology: Comparison of On-road and Lab Diesel Particle Size...

  14. Microsoft Word - CX-Ross-Lexington_access_road_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Darin Bowman Project Manager - TELF-TPP-3 Proposed Action: Access road repair including reconstructing, grading, and shaping of roads, placing and compacting of rock surfacing,...

  15. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of work includes optimizing processing conditions and demonstrating catalyst lifetime for catalyst formulations that are readily scaleable to commercial operations. We use a bench-scale, continuous-flow, packed-bed, catalytic, tubular reactor, which can be operated in the range of 100-400 mL/hr., from 50-400 C and up to 20MPa (see Figure 1). With this unit we produce upgraded bio-oil from whole bio-oil or useful bio-oil fractions, specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been used in further testing in petroleum refining technology at UOP and fractionation for product recovery in our own lab. Further scale-up of the technology is envisioned and we will carry out or support process design efforts with industrial partners, such as UOP.

  16. INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopelain, D.G.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the New England home heating market. He found ". • the NewPor residential Sales of No. 2 heating market levels. · costDescribe the heating oil market. Investigate coverage and

  17. Effects of Ruminally Degradable Nitrogen in Diets Containing Wet Distiller’s Grains with Solubles and Steam-flaked Corn on Feedlot Cattle Performance and Carcass Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, Christian

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    plants, certain deviations of methods due to technologies employed at specific plants might explain some of the variation in nutritive value of the co-products. Holt and Pritchard (2004) determined nutrient variations of wet distiller?s grains... disappearance was 3.9%/h, and 47% of the CP present was ruminal escape protein. Crude protein values of up to 37.6% have been determined on samples collected directly from 4 plants (Holt and Pritchard, 2004). One nutritional limitation of WDGS...

  18. Extraction of tocopherols from deodorizer distillates: laboratory-scale evaluations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiaoyan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -tocopherol conversion over time. . . 46 14 Total tocopherols conversion over time. . . 15 Effects of applied pressure on permeate flux of hexane and petroleum ether through AP01 membrane at room temperature. . . . . 56 16 Effects of applied pressure... on permeate flux of hexane and petroleum ether through DS-7 membrane at room temperature 57 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page Tocopherols Contents of Refined Vegetable Oils. . . Changes in Content and Composition of Vegetable Oils Minor Components during...

  19. Optimal operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Optimal operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionation · The Petlyuk distillation column, see Figure 1(a), with a pre-fractionator (C1) and a main column (C21 and C22) N-7465 Trondheim, Norway Abstract This work shows the unexpected result that over-fractionating one

  20. Study of the Distillability of Werner States Using Entanglement Witnesses and Robust Semidefinite Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinaldo O. Vianna; Andrew C. Doherty

    2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We use Robust Semidefinite Programs and Entanglement Witnesses to study the distillability of Werner states. We perform exact numerical calculations which show 2-undistillability in a region of the state space which was previously conjectured to be undistillable. We also introduce bases which yield interesting expressions for the {\\em distillability witnesses} and for a tensor product of Werner states with arbitrary number of copies.

  1. Use of Short-cut Methods to Analyse Optimal Operation of Petlyuk Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Use of Short-cut Methods to Analyse Optimal Operation of Petlyuk Distillation Columns Ivar J: Petlyuk distillation column, dividing wall column, optimizing control, minimum energy 1. INTRODUCTION- ments for the level of automatic control and to the design of number of stages in each column section. 2

  2. Use of Shortcut Methods to Analyse Optimal Operation of Petlyuk Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Use of Short­cut Methods to Analyse Optimal Operation of Petlyuk Distillation Columns Ivar J: Petlyuk distillation column, dividing wall column, optimizing control, minimum energy 1. INTRODUCTION­ ments for the level of automatic control and to the design of number of stages in each column section. 2

  3. Quantum distillation: Dynamical generation of low-entropy states of strongly correlated fermions in an optical lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Quantum distillation: Dynamical generation of low-entropy states of strongly correlated fermions of double occupancies. We promote the notion of quantum distillation: during the expansion and in the case

  4. Low capital implementation of distributed distillation in ethylene recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon feed stream, where the apparatus is a single distillation column pressure shell encasing an upper region and a lower region. The upper region houses an ethylene distributor rectifying section and the lower region houses a C2 distributor section and an ethylene distributor stripping section. Vapor passes from the lower region into the upper region, and liquid passes from the upper region to the lower region. The process for recovering the ethylene is also disclosed. The hydrocarbon feed stream is introduced into the C2 distributor section, and after a series of stripping and refluxing steps, distinct hydrocarbon products are recovered from the C2 distributor section, the ethylene distributor stripping section, and the ethylene distributor rectifying section, respectively.

  5. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

  6. Effects of system densities on distillation column performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasesan, S.O.; Sanni, S.A.; Taiwo, E.A. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation experiments were carried out on three binary systems (ethanol-butanol, ethanol-propan-2-ol, and propan-2-ol-butanol) in a 0.1-m internal diameter glass column packed with 8 mm diameter Raschig rings. The experiments were performed under total reflux conditions and at atmospheric pressure. The data collected on column performance showed that performance declined with increasing average bulk liquid density. The results also lend credence to earlier reports on the behavior of column performance with respect to component concentration in the feed mixtures. The system densities of the three binary systems were measured at four different temperatures, 30, 40, 50, and 60 C. The data were compared with the predicted data of Yen-Woods and Multifluid models. The accuracy of the predictions of the Yen-Woods model was rather poor while that of the Multifluid model was very encouraging.

  7. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

    1994-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this research is to gain information on the role that host petroleum-derived oils (1000{degrees} F+), as well as that of catalytically treated host oils, play when used as liquefaction solvents in coprocessing with coal. The host oil will be extensively characterized and then pretreated in a number of ways which involve catalytic reactions such as hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and isomerization. The pretreated oils will then be characterized by elemental analysis, catalytic dehydrogenation, distillation, GC-MS, and NMR. The effect of the host oil on coprocessing with coal will be compared to that obtained using catalytically modified host oils. When appropriate, model compounds will be used to study specific reactions brought about by the pretreatments.

  8. Investigation and development of alternative methods for shale oil processing and analysis. Final technical report, October 1979--April 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R.A.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale, a carbonaceous rock which occurs abundantly in the earth`s crust, has been investigated for many years as an alternate source of fuel oil. The insoluble organic matter contained in such shales is termed {open_quotes}Kerogen{close_quotes} from the Greek meaning oil or oil forming. The kerogen in oil shale breaks down into oil-like products when subjected to conditions simulating destructive distillation. These products have been the subject of extensive investigations by several researchers and many of the constituents of shale oil have been identified. (1) Forsman (2) estimates that the kerogen content of the earth is roughly 3 {times} 10{sup 15} tons as compared to total coal reserves of about 5 {times} 10{sup 12}. Although the current cost per barrel estimate for commercial production of shale oil is higher than that of fossil oil, as our oil reserves continue to dwindle, shale oil technology will become more and more important. When oil shale is heated, kerogen is said to undergo chemical transformation to usable oil in two steps (3): Kerogen (in oil shale) 300-500{degrees}C bitumen. Crude shale oil and other products. The crude shale oil so obtained differs from fossil oil in that: (1) kerogen is thought to have been produced from the aging of plant matter over many years; (2) shale oil has a higher nitrogen content than fossil oil; (3) non-hydrocarbons are present to a much greater extent in shale oil; and (4) the hydrocarbons in shale oil are much more unsaturated than those in fossil oil (petroleum).

  9. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996,34, 4395-4405 4396 Multiple Steady States and Instability in Distillation. Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996,34, 4395-4405 4396 Multiple Steady States and Instability in Distillation-7034 Trondheim, Norway The fact that distillation columns, even in the ideal binary case, may display addresses some implications of these phenomena for the operation and control of distillation columns. Under

  10. Design of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Membrane Separation Systems. Jose A. Caballero*; Ignacio E. Grossmann **; Majid Keyvani+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Design of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Membrane Separation Systems. Jose A. Caballero*; Ignacio E (ethane, propane) on a commercial scale is performed almost exclusively by cryogenic distillation to optimize and retrofit a hybrid separation system consisting of a distillation column and a parallel

  11. LA DISTILLATION a t introduite en Occident avec l'alchimie au cours du XIIe sicle. Par convention, on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LA DISTILLATION a été introduite en Occident avec l'alchimie au cours du XIIe siècle. Par Pseudo-Geber, distingue plusieurs façons de distiller et propose même une classi- fication de ces distillat (per descensum). La distillation par élévation des vapeurs, ou per ascensum, nécessite l

  12. MODELING, IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL, 2000, VOL. 21, NO. 2, 83103 Evaluation of Dynamic Models of Distillation Columns with Emphasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    of Distillation Columns with Emphasis on the Initial Response BERND WITTGENS and SIGURD SKOGESTAD* Keywords: Distillation dynamics, tray hydraulics, experimental response The flow dynamics (tray hydraulics) are of key importance for the initial dynamic response of distillation columns. The most important parameters

  13. JMLR: Workshop and Conference Proceedings 29:116, 2014 ACML 2014 Sample Distillation for Object Detection and Image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleuret, François

    JMLR: Workshop and Conference Proceedings 29:1­16, 2014 ACML 2014 Sample Distillation for Object different computer vision problems. First, we show that distillation can be used to improve the traditional bootstrap- ping approach to object detection. Second, we apply distillation to a classification problem

  14. Can the Operating Leaves of a Distillation Column Really Be Tshepo S. Modise, Michaela Tapp, Diane Hildebrandt,* and David Glasser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Can the Operating Leaves of a Distillation Column Really Be Expanded? Tshepo S. Modise, Michaela to determine the operation leaves and hence the feasible region for distillation columns operating at a specific distillate and bottoms composition for all possible constant reflux and reboil ratios

  15. Measurement Reconciliation and Interpretation in Packed Distillation Column Operation Teck C. Lee and Colin S. Howat, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Colin S. "Chip"

    . To overcome this limitation, a pilot plant scale, packed distillation column was designed, built, and tested plant scale, packed distillation column was designed, built, and tested. This column can be operatedMeasurement Reconciliation and Interpretation in Packed Distillation Column Operation Teck C. Lee

  16. HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

  17. HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

  18. An Adaptive Entanglement Distillation Scheme Using Quantum Low Density Parity Check Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. H. Ho; H. F. Chau

    2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum low density parity check (QLDPC) codes are useful primitives for quantum information processing because they can be encoded and decoded efficiently. Besides, the error correcting capability of a few QLDPC codes exceeds the quantum Gilbert-Varshamov bound. Here, we report a numerical performance analysis of an adaptive entanglement distillation scheme using QLDPC codes. In particular, we find that the expected yield of our adaptive distillation scheme to combat depolarization errors exceed that of Leung and Shor whenever the error probability is less than about 0.07 or greater than about 0.28. This finding illustrates the effectiveness of using QLDPC codes in entanglement distillation.

  19. Lower Bound of Concurrence and Distillation for Arbitrary Dimensional Bipartite Quantum States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Ming-Jing; Fei, Shao-Ming; Li-Jost, Xianqing; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.062322

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a lower bound of concurrence for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum states. This lower bound may be used to improve all the known lower bounds of concurrence. Moreover, the lower bound gives rise to an operational sufficient criterion of distillability of quantum entanglement. The significance of our result is illustrated by quantitative evaluation of entanglement for entangled states that fail to be identified by the usual concurrence estimation method, and by showing the distillability of mixed states that can not be recognized by other distillability criteria.

  20. On the distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Hage; A. Franzen; J. DiGuglielmo; P. Marek; J. Fiurášek; R. Schnabel

    2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently it was discovered that non-Gaussian decoherence processes, such as phase-diffusion, can be counteracted by purification and distillation protocols that are solely built on Gaussian operations. Here, we make use of this experimentally highly accessible regime, and provide a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of several strategies for purification/distillation protocols on phase-diffused squeezed states. Our results provide valuable information for the optimization of such protocols with respect to the choice of the trigger quadrature, the trigger threshold value and the probability of generating a distilled state.

  1. Lower Bound of Concurrence and Distillation for Arbitrary Dimensional Bipartite Quantum States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ming-Jing Zhao; Xue-Na Zhu; Shao-Ming Fei; Xianqing Li-Jost

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a lower bound of concurrence for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum states. This lower bound may be used to improve all the known lower bounds of concurrence. Moreover, the lower bound gives rise to an operational sufficient criterion of distillability of quantum entanglement. The significance of our result is illustrated by quantitative evaluation of entanglement for entangled states that fail to be identified by the usual concurrence estimation method, and by showing the distillability of mixed states that can not be recognized by other distillability criteria.

  2. Quantum repeaters and quantum key distribution: the impact of entanglement distillation on the secret key rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvia Bratzik; Silvestre Abruzzo; Hermann Kampermann; Dagmar Bruß

    2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate quantum repeaters in the context of quantum key distribution. We optimize the secret key rate per memory per second with respect to different distillation protocols and distillation strategies. For this purpose, we also derive an analytical expression for the average number of entangled pairs created by the quantum repeater, including classical communication times for entanglement swapping and entanglement distillation. We investigate the impact of this classical communication time on the secret key rate. We finally study the effect of the detector efficiency on the secret key rate.

  3. QUAD RESIDENCE POND ROAD/SENTINEL ROAD LOT CONSTRUCTION August 21, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    entry/exit for the combined lot, the existing Pond Road lot entrance is being expanded to provide an additional entry/exit laneway and to further remove vehicle queuing from Pond Road. All spaces within the Parking Services office at 4167365335. 2) Entrance/Exit Construction and Changes Work to expand

  4. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

    2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  5. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. ATV identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal PI composition controllers. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state RGA values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity), were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  6. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed dynamic simulations of two industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter and a xylene/toluene column) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state relative gain array (RGA) values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity) were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  7. Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mears, Kevin S

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

  8. Multipartite continuous-variable entanglement distillation using local squeezing and only one photon-subtraction operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song Yang; XuBo Zou; ShengLi Zhang; Bao-Sen Shi; Peter van Loock; GuangCan Guo

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study entanglement distillation of multipartite continuous-variable Gaussian entangled states. Following Opatrn\\'{y} \\emph{et al.}'s photon subtraction (PS) scheme, the probability of successful distillation decreases exponentially with the number of parties $N$. However, here, we shall propose an entanglement distillation scheme whose success probability scales as a constant with $N$. Our protocol employs several local squeezers, but it requires only a single PS operation. Using the logarithmic negativity as a measure of entanglement, we find that both the success probability and the distilled entanglement can be improved at the same time. Moreover, an $N$-mode transfer theorem (transferring states from phase space to Hilbert space) is presented.

  9. Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Ethanol, but sorghum grain is commonly either blended with corn before use or used as the sole grain for ethanol

  10. DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROL OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION FOR HYDROGENATION OF BENZENE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluko, Obanifemi

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents a modeling and control study of a reactive distillation column used for hydrogenation of benzene. A steady state and a dynamic model have been developed to investigate control structures for the column. The most important aspects...

  11. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  12. Distillation: Energy Savings and Other Benefits From the Use of High Efficiency Packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bravo, J. L.; Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    DISTILLATION: ENERGY SAVINGS AND OTHER BENEFITS. FROM THE USE OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY PACKINGS -. Jose L. Bravo, James R. Fair, and Jimmy L. Humpnrey The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas ABSTRACT A great deal of attention has been... focused lately on the use of high-efficiency packings for distillation applications. This paper discusses benefits that can be derived from the use of these devices. In parti~ular, the reduction in energy requirements for a given separation...

  13. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDIES OF HYDROCARBON YIELDS UNDER DRY-, STEAM-, AND STEAM-WITH- PROPANE DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...-WITH- PROPANE-DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved...

  14. Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

    "UTILIZATION OF STRUCTURED PACKING FOR ENERGY SAVINGS IN DISTILLATION AND ABSORPTION COLUMNS" O. Jeffrey Berven and Wendell E. Howard Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Wi chita, Kansas As the need to reduce production costs causes... manufacturers to re-evaluate process ing schemes, hi gh efficiency structured packings are increasingly recognized as an effective alternative for reducing energy consumption in heat and mass transfer operations. In distillation, the high efficiency and low...

  15. The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

    The Scaleup of Structured Packing From Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application O. Jeffrey'Berven and Michael A. Ulowetz Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Wichita, Kansas Structured packing is being utilized more and more... in the process industry for increased efficiency, greater capacity, and energy savings in distillation columns. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable, but years of experience in pilot...

  16. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  17. Comparison between continuous stirred tank reactor extractor and soxhlet extractor for extraction of El-Lajjun oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anabtawi, M.Z. [Univ. of Bahrain, Isa Town (Bahrain)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extraction on El-Lajjun oil shale in a continuous stirred tank reactor extractor (CSTRE) and a Soxhlet extractor was carried out using toluene and chloroform as solvents. Solvents were recovered using two distillation stages, a simple distillation followed by a fractional distillation. Gas chromotography was used to test for the existence of trapped solvent in the yield. It was found that extraction using a CSTRE gave a 12% increase in yield on average compared with the Soxhlet extractor, and an optimum shale size of 1.0mm offered a better yield and solvent recovery for both techniques. It was also found that an optimum ratio of solvent to oil shale of 2:1 gave the best oil yield. The Soxhlet extractor was found to offer an extraction rate of 1 hour to complete extraction compared with 4 hours in a CSTRE. The yield in a CSTRE was found to increase on increase of stirring. When extraction was carried out at the boiling point of the solvents in a CSTRE, the yield was found to increase by 30% on average compared to that of extraction when the solvent was at room temperature. When toluene was used for extraction, the average amount of bitumen extracted was 0.032 g/g of oil shale and 76.4% of the solvent recovered, compared with 0.037 g/g of oil shale and 84.1% of the solvent recovered using a Soxhlet extractor.

  18. Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. James B. Riggs

    2000-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

  19. Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: RR7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Road Map Team Proposal Form Proposal: RR7 1: Road Map Team Name: Rankings and Reputation 1b: Team Theme Name: Create Increase Brand Visibility of our team's proposal to increase the consistency and visibility

  20. Make Your Next Road Trip Fuel Efficient | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficient June 29, 2015 - 3:02pm Addthis Enjoy the open road while keeping your fuel costs low | Photo courtesy of istockphoto.comlisegagne Enjoy the open road while keeping...

  1. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREof Energy Investigates Port ReadinessProcesses |

  2. West Coast (PADD 5) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalTheE. Great Basin Oil andBOE ReserveDistillate Fuel

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Mark C.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance roads. Our objective was to determine if and when Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo intermedia . Rio Grande wild turkey. Roads . Texas Communicated by H. Kierdorf D. R. Erxleben :M

  4. Optimal Economic Selection of Road Design Standards for Timber Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greulich, Francis E.

    with uniform conditions of road construction is to be accessed by truck road for timber harvest. A discrete when constructed to a given standard and used for timber haul depends fundamentally on the volume the entire length of the road even as haul volumes change are developed. Examples are given. FOR. SCI. 43

  5. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    over time even if the oil market were perfectly competitive.a big role in world oil markets, that era is long past.and re?ning oil and delivering it to the market. We could

  6. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appeared in the world oil market in the last fifteen years.have on the world oil markets and international relationsthe stability of the oil markets. 11 This literature,

  7. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China made an Iranian oil investment valued at $70 billion.across Iran, China’s oil investment may exceed $100 billionthese involving investment in oil and gas, really undermine

  8. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),the faster its growth in oil demand over the last half ofthe income elasticity of oil demand to fall signi?cantly.

  9. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    current pace of growth in oil demand as staying consistentthis point, China’s demand Oil Demand vs. Domestic Supply inand predictions of oil supply and demand affected foreign

  10. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

  11. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crudein predicting quarterly real oil price change. variable real

  12. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq KuwaitEIA Table 1.2, “OPEC Crude Oil Production (Excluding Lease2008, from EIA, “Crude Oil Production. ” Figure 16. U.S.

  13. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unfettered access to oil resources including the possibleChina’s search for oil resources around the world. However,a survey of China’s oil resources, while others focus

  14. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

  15. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline,” NBER Working Paper.2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),

  16. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

  17. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in U.S. real GDP and oil consumption, 1949-2006. slope =Historical Chinese oil consumption and projection of trend.1991-2006: Chinese oil consumption in millions of barrels

  18. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait,day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.and the peak in U.S. oil production account for the broad

  19. Finance forum.........................2 LTAP Roads Scholars.............3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    · Finance forum.........................2 · LTAP Roads Scholars.............3 · CTS Executive on page 3 Value capture continued on page 2 Current funding and finance mechanisms for transportation face completed research project led by CTS. "The project provides new financing meth- ods that are not currently

  20. White Paper Series Road Diet Conversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    potential road diet should be vetted on a case by case basis. Case study and modeling results suggest of the literature identified no controlled safety evaluation studies conducted prior to the year 2002. A systematic search of literature dating from 2002 was conducted. Six studies in total were initially identified

  1. Road Map for Renewables Rangan Banerjee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Rangan

    for Storage, Additional Cost #12;Renewable Energy Options Wind Solar Small Hydro Biomass Tidal Energy Wave Energy Ocean Thermal Energy Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Geothermal* #12;World Primary EnergyRoad Map for Renewables Rangan Banerjee Energy Systems Engineering IIT Bombay Talk delivered

  2. Campus Security 1951 East-West Road

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campus Security 1951 East-West Road Honolulu, Hawai`i 96822 Telephone: (808) 956-9293 Fax: (808 First Female Campus Security Captain Alberta J.K. Pukahi Brings Unique Perspectives to the Position (HONOLULU, HI, December 10, 2012) University of Hawai`i at Mnoa's Campus Security and Emergency Management

  3. WP1 Climate services for road

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    WP1 Climate services for road authorities Janette Bessembinder et al. #12;2 A1: review, analysis and assessment of existing climate change projections regarding TEN-T needs A2: Development of a common methodology for the production of regional climate projections to provide consistent input data for risk

  4. ASSESSING CAUSAL FACTORS IN INDIVIDUAL ROAD ACCIDENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ASSESSING CAUSAL FACTORS IN INDIVIDUAL ROAD ACCIDENTS: COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY IN FREEWAY REAR accident report: Happened on I-94 in downtown Minneapolis Happened during the afternoon peak period Vehicle" is a "condition or event" such that "had the condition or event been prevented...the accident would not occur

  5. Estimating Vehicle Miles Traveled on Local Roads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Jiayu

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This research presents a new method to estimate the local road vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with the concept of betweenness centrality. Betweenness centrality is a measure of a node’s or link’s centrality on a network that has been applied popularly...

  6. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China’s domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robertpeak will come around 2020, 24 and that by this point, China’s demand Oil

  7. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    historical data for claiming to be able to predict oil pricehistorical data. The second is to look at the predictions of economic theory as to how oil prices

  8. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007”. comparison, Mexico used 6.6— Chinese oil consumption17. Oil production from the North Sea, Mexico’s Cantarell,

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site has a mission to dissolve fissile materials and disposition them. The primary fissile material is plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}). To support dissolution of these materials, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and demonstrated a vacuum salt distillation (VSD) apparatus using both representative radioactive samples and non-radioactive simulant materials. Vacuum salt distillation, through the removal of chloride salts, increases the quantity of materials suitable for processing in the site's HB-Line Facility. Small-scale non-radioactive experiments at 900-950 C show that >99.8 wt % of the initial charge of chloride salt distilled from the sample boat with recovery of >99.8 wt % of the ceric oxide (CeO{sub 2}) - the surrogate for PuO{sub 2} - as a non-chloride bearing 'product'. Small-scale radioactive testing in a glovebox demonstrated the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from 13 PuO{sub 2} samples. Chloride concentrations were distilled from a starting concentration of 1.8-10.8 wt % to a final concentration <500 mg/kg chloride. Initial testing of a non-radioactive, full-scale production prototype is complete. A designed experiment evaluated the impact of distillation temperature, time at temperature, vacuum, product depth, and presence of a boat cover. Significant effort has been devoted to mechanical considerations to facilitate simplified operation in a glovebox.

  10. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

  11. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  12. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  13. Oil shale mining studies and analyses of some potential unconventional uses for oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, H.E.; Clayson, R.L.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineering studies and literature review performed under this contract have resulted in improved understanding of oil shale mining costs, spent shale disposal costs, and potential unconventional uses for oil shale. Topics discussed include: costs of conventional mining of oil shale; a mining scenario in which a minimal-scale mine, consistent with a niche market industry, was incorporated into a mine design; a discussion on the benefits of mine opening on an accelerated schedule and quantified through discounted cash flow return on investment (DCFROI) modelling; an estimate of the costs of disposal of spent shale underground and on the surface; tabulation of potential increases in resource recovery in conjunction with underground spent shale disposal; the potential uses of oil shale as a sulfur absorbent in electric power generation; the possible use of spent shale as a soil stabilizer for road bases, quantified and evaluated for potential economic impact upon representative oil shale projects; and the feasibility of co-production of electricity and the effect of project-owned and utility-owned power generation facilities were evaluated. 24 refs., 5 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. First Commissioning of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for Low Radioactivity Underground Argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Back, Henning O; Alton, Andrew; Condon, Christopher; de Haas, Ernst; Galbiati, Cristiano; Goretti, Augusto; Hohmann, Tristan; Ianni, Andrea; Kendziora, Cary; Loer, Ben; Montanari, David; Mosteiro, Pablo; Pordes, Stephen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The distillation column is designed to accept a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen and return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. In the first commissioning, we were able to run the distillation column in a continuous mode and produce argon that is 99.9% pure. After running in a batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The efficiency of collecting the argon from the gas mixture was between 70% and 81%, at an argon production rate of 0.84-0.98 kg/day.

  15. First Commissioning of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for Low Radioactivity Underground Argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. O. Back; T. Alexander; A. Alton; C. Condon; E. de Haas; C. Galbiati; A. Goretti; T. Hohmann; An. Ianni; C. Kendziora; B. Loer; D. Montanari; P. Mosteiro; S. Pordes

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The distillation column is designed to accept a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen and return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. In the first commissioning, we were able to run the distillation column in a continuous mode and produce argon that is 99.9% pure. After running in a batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The efficiency of collecting the argon from the gas mixture was between 70% and 81%, at an argon production rate of 0.84-0.98 kg/day.

  16. Magic state distillation in all prime dimensions using quantum Reed-Muller codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Earl T; Browne, Dan E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose families of protocols for magic state distillation -- important components of fault tolerance schemes --- for systems of odd prime dimension. Our protocols utilize quantum Reed-Muller codes with transversal non-Clifford gates. We find that in higher dimensions smaller codes can be used than one might expect based on qubit codes. All our protocols produce magic states at a resource cost that increases only polynomially with the inverse of the final ouput error probability. We give specific details for 3-dimensional systems, where we find that certain magic states can be distilled provided an initial error probability of less than 20.02% or a depolarizing noise rate of less than 31.7%. This is the largest error probability threshold of all known protocols with polynomial resource cost. For a depolarizing noise model we also give distillation thresholds for odd prime dimensions up-to 19.

  17. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  18. Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

  19. Z-States Algebra for a Tunable Multi-Party Entanglement-Distillation Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exman, Iaakov

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W-States have achieved the status of the standard fully symmetric entangled states, for many entanglement application purposes. Z-States are a generalization of W-States that display an elegant algebra, enabling short paths to desired results. This paper describes Z-States algebra starting from neat definitions and laying down explicitly some fundamental theorems on composition and distillation, needed for applications. These theorems are synthesized into a generic tunable Entanglement-Distillation Protocol. Applications are readily developed based upon the tunable protocol. A few examples are provided to illustrate the approach generality. A concomitant graphical representation allows fast comprehension of the protocol inputs, operations and outcomes.

  20. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  1. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption would be reduced and incentives for production increased whenever the price of crude oil

  2. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  3. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  4. Metropolitan Road Traffic Simulation on FPGAs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripp J. L. (Justin L.); Mortveit, H. S. (Henning S.); Hansson, A. A. (Anders A.); Gokhale, M. (Maya)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work demonstrates that road traffic simulation of entire metropolitan areas is possible with reconfigurable supercomputing that combines 64-bit microprocessors and FPGAs in a high bandwidth, low latency interconnect. Previously, traffic simulation on FPGAs was limited to very short road segments or required a very large number of FPGAs. Our data streaming approach overcomes scaling issues associated with direct implementations and still allows for high-level parallelism by dividing the data sets between hardware and software across the reconfigurable supercomputer. Using one FPGA on the Cray XD1 supercomputer, we are able to achieve a 34.4 x speed up over the AMD microprocessor. System integration issues must be optimized to exploit this speedup in the overall simulation.

  5. A road map for implementing systems engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Weapons Systems Engineering Center; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

  6. Entanglement Distillation; A Discourse on Bound Entanglement in Quantum Information Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieven Clarisse

    2006-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    PhD thesis (University of York). The thesis covers in a unified way the material presented in quant-ph/0403073, quant-ph/0502040, quant-ph/0504160, quant-ph/0510035, quant-ph/0512012 and quant-ph/0603283. It includes two large review chapters on entanglement and distillation.

  7. Hybrid magic state distillation for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenqiang Zheng; Yafei Yu; Jian Pan; Jingfu Zhang; Jun Li; Zhaokai Li; Dieter Suter; Xianyi Zhou; Xinhua Peng; Jiangfeng Du

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of stabilizer operations augmented by some special initial states known as 'magic states', gives the possibility of universal fault-tolerant quantum computation. However, magic state preparation inevitably involves nonideal operations that introduce noise. The most common method to eliminate the noise is magic state distillation (MSD) by stabilizer operations. Here we propose a hybrid MSD protocol by connecting a four-qubit H-type MSD with a five-qubit T-type MSD, in order to overcome some disadvantages of the previous MSD protocols. The hybrid MSD protocol further integrates distillable ranges of different existing MSD protocols and extends the T-type distillable range to the stabilizer octahedron edges. And it provides considerable improvement in qubit cost for almost all of the distillable range. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate the four-qubit H-type MSD protocol using nuclear magnetic resonance technology, together with the previous five-qubit MSD experiment, to show the feasibility of the hybrid MSD protocol.

  8. Distillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Grak (Editors)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia, Angelo

    .al. The focus of this study is the stripping column. Table 1 gives some typical design results for the strippingDistillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Górak (Editors) All rights reserved by authors as per DA2010 copyright notice ENERGY EFFICIENT SYNTHESIS AND DESIGN FOR CARBON CAPTURE Angelo

  9. Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products and Generalized Petlyuk Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products products (where normally M e N). We derive the expressions for a generalized extended Pet- lyuk arrangement for the generalized Pet- lyuk column with more than three products. The Vmin diagram was presented in part 1

  10. Black-Box Identification for PLC based MPC of a Binary Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black-Box Identification for PLC based MPC of a Binary Distillation Column B. Huyck ,, F. Logist J is to upgrade the control system with a linear MPC running on a PLC. However, before a model based controller can be used on a PLC, an accurate (but simple) process model has to be constructed. Hence, the aim

  11. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Venezuelan Oil Industry Total Wells Drilled and InvestmentWells Drilled and Investment in the Venezuelan Oil Industryopenness of the oil sector to foreign investment contributes

  12. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is described below. Data Crude oil production data is fromproductivity measure is crude oil production per worker, andwhich is measured as crude oil production per worker, is

  13. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and sources. Crude oil recovery includes improved oil recovery processes such as water flooding, infill drilling, and horizontal drilling, as well as enhanced oil recovery...

  14. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and sources. Crude oil recovery includes improved oil recovery processes such as water flooding, infill drilling, and horizontal continuity, as well as enhanced oil recovery...

  15. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . .2.6: Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico 350 Productivity

  16. Submitted to special issue ChERD. This version revised 22 Nov. 2006 The dos and don'ts of distillation column control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    'ts of distillation column control Sigurd Skogestad* Department of Chemical Engineering Norwegian University of Science and Technology N-7491 Trondheim, Norway Abstract The paper discusses distillation column control recommendations to assist the engineer in designing control systems for distillation columns. The standard LV

  17. Start | Grid View | Browse by Day OR Group/Topical | Author Index | Keyword Index | Personal Scheduler Active Constraint Regions for Economically Optimal Operation of Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Scheduler Active Constraint Regions for Economically Optimal Operation of Distillation Columns Tuesday and operation of distillation columns has been widely studied, as illustrated by for example Skogestad (1993 operation of distillation columns has been studied relatively little. The issue of active constraints

  18. Distillation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential The characteristic feature of Bose-Einstein condensation is the accumulation of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distillation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential The characteristic feature by preparing a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical dipole trap and distilling it into a second empty dipole trap adjacent to the first one [2]. The distillation was driven by thermal atoms spilling over

  19. Wang Feng (2006). Comparison of languages in contact: The distillation method and the case of Bai. Language and linguistics monograph series B, Frontiers in linguistics III.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wang Feng (2006). Comparison of languages in contact: The distillation method and the case of Bai; Zhengzhang 2003). Wang Feng's Comparison of languages in contact: The distillation method and the case of Bai 2001). In Comparison of languages in contact: The distillation method and the case of Bai, Wang

  20. Start | Grid View | Browse by Day OR Group/Topical | Author Index | Keyword Index | Personal Scheduler Optimal Design of Energy-Efficient Integrated Distillation Processes for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Scheduler Optimal Design of Energy-Efficient Integrated Distillation Processes for Multicomponent Ideal Optimal design of energy-efficient integrated distillation processes for multicomponent ideal and non, The Netherlands The dividing wall distillation columns (DWC) find increased use in industrial practice