Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Osmosis is a phenomenon which regulates many biological ... in explaining the biological functions which depend on osmosis, but also in creating conditions for reversing it known as ‘reverse osmosis’. Reverse osmosis

Sudhakar M Rao

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Osmosis is a phenomenon which regulates many biological ... in explaining the biological functions which depend on osmosis, but also in creating conditions for reversing it known as ‘reverse osmosis’. Reverse osmosis

Sudhakar M. Rao

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

REVERSE OSMOSIS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

REVERSE OSMOSIS ... Concentration of Apple Juice by Reverse Osmosis at Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Scales ... Concentration of Apple Juice by Reverse Osmosis at Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Scales ...

S. Sourirajan; J. P. Agrawal

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter provides a survey of reverse osmosis science and technology. It begins with a ... concludes with an account of the principal current reverse osmosis applications.

H. K. Lonsdale

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Reverse Osmosis Optimization  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Report assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. It provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption.

6

Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The removal of an endocrine disrupting compound, bisphenol A (BPA), from model solutions by selected nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. The commercially available membranes NF 90, NF 270, XLE BWRO, BW 30 (Dow FilmTech), CE BWRO and AD SWRO (GE Osmonics) were used to compare their performances for BPA removal. The water permeability coefficients, rejection of BPA and permeate flux values were calculated for all membranes used. No significant changes in their BPA removal were observed for all tight polyamide based NF and RO membranes tested except for loose NF 270 membrane. The polyamide based membranes exhibited much better performance than cellulose acetate membrane for BPA removal. Almost a complete rejection (?98%) for BPA was obtained with three polyamide based RO membranes (BW 30, XLE BWRO and AD SWRO). But cellulose acetate based CE BWRO membrane offered a low and variable (10–40%) rejection for BPA.

Suna Yüksel; Nalan Kabay; Mithat Yüksel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Reverse Osmosis for the Separation of Organics from Aqueous Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis (RO) has proved reliable and economically ... such effluents often contain organics as solvents. Reverse osmosis is very suitable for the treatment of... Its mod...

R. Rautenbach; I. Janisch

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Reverse Osmosis Optimization  

SciTech Connect

This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

9

Characterization and biotoxicity assessment of dissolved organic matter in RO concentrate from a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) system containing organic compounds may associate with toxic risk, and its discharge might pose an environmental risk. To identify a basis for the selection of feasible technology in treating RO concentrates, the characteristics and biotoxicity of different fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in RO concentrates from an mWRRO system were investigated. The results indicated that the hydrophilic neutrals (HIN), hydrophobic acids (HOA) and hydrophobic bases (HOB) accounted for 96% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the total DOM in the RO concentrate. According to the SEC chromatograph detected at 254 nm wavelength of UV, the DOM with molecular weight (MW) 1–3 kDa accounted for the majority of the basic and neutral fractions. The fluorescence spectra of the excitation emission matrix (EEM) indicated that most aromatic proteins, humic/fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like substances existed in the fractions HOA and hydrophobic neutrals (HON). The genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate were 1795.6 ± 57.2 ?g 4-NQO L?1 and 2.19 ± 0.05 mg TAM L?1, respectively. The HIN, HOA, and HOB contributed to the genotoxicity of the RO concentrate, and the HIN was with the highest genotoxic level of 1007.9 ± 94.8 ?g 4-NQO L?1. The HOA, HON, and HIN lead to the total anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate, and HOA occupied approximately 60% of the total, which was 1.3 ± 0.17 mg TAM L?1.

Ying-Xue Sun; Yue Gao; Hong-Ying Hu; Fang Tang; Zhe Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Properly apply reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technique used to reduce the loading of dissolved solids in solution. The popularity of RO for treating boiler feedwater is growing because of the rising cost of ion-exchange-based demineralization as well as safety concerns associated with handling acid and caustic. A properly designed and operated RO-based boiler-feedwater-treatment system can reduce the load to, and costs associated with, ion exchange demineralization. This article discusses RO feedwater quality recommendations, pretreatment techniques, and system monitoring necessary to achieve optimum RO system performance in the most cost-effective manner. Regardless of the application--whether it is the treatment of boiler feedwater, industrial wastewater, or process water--the approach to pretreatment and the other design and operating guidance offered here remains the same.

Kucera, J.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Flow Relationships in Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flow Relationships in Reverse Osmosis ... Effects of Hydrolysis on Cellulose Acetate Reverse-Osmosis Transport Coefficients ... Effects of Hydrolysis on Cellulose Acetate Reverse-Osmosis Transport Coefficients ...

Ulrich Merten

1963-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Reverse Osmosis and Ultrafiltration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Economic comparisons indicate reverse osmosis to be more cost effective than distillation ... membranes, leading to a wider scope of reverse osmosis applications, including the purification of used water ... tran...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 7, Performance evaluation of the 600-gph reverse osmosis water purification unit (ROWPU): Reverse osmosis (RO) components  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this work is to ascertain whether the performance of the current 600-gph reverse osmosis water-purification unit (ROWPU) is adequate to meet the water-quality standards recommended in Volume 4 of this study. A secondary objective is to review the design of the treatment units used in the ROWPU, as well as the prescribed mode of operation, and to make constructive recommendations. Reverse osmosis (hyperfiltration) is a complicated water-treatment process that is not described easily with a few process parameters. Furthermore, published literature on the type of membrane currently used in the ROWPU was scarce. Therefore, we required a mathematical model that could be used to extrapolate existing information to different operating conditions. It was successful for seawater and single-salt solutions, but it proved to be unsuccessful for just any mix of salts that might be encountered in nature. 99 refs., 69 figs., 60 tabs.

Marinas, B.J.; Ungun, Z.; Selleck, R.E.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Reverse Osmosis Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An empirical modeling method has been suggested for the reverse osmosis process. Least-square fitting of data to a third-order’ polynomial has resulted in the accurate modeling of Du Pont’s hollow fiber B-10 m...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bibliography of citations from the U.S. National Technical Information Service data base with 183 abstracts on membranes for reverse osmosis desalination, electro-dialysis desalination and other osmotic desa...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Colloidal fouling of reverse osmosis membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the rate of fouling of reverse osmosis membranes treating32, 127-135. fouling of reverse osmosis membranes." Buros,Colloidal fouling of reverse osmosis membranes." J. Colloid

Elimelech, Menachem

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Molecular dynamics simulations of osmosis and reverse osmosis in solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computer simulation studies using the method of molecular dynamics have been carried out to investigate osmosis and reverse osmosis in solutions separated by semi-permeable membranes....

S. Murad

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Sandia National Laboratories: reverse osmosis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reverse osmosis ECIS-UNM: Biomimetic Membranes for Water Purification On February 20, 2013, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Energy Efficiency, Facilities, Global Climate &...

19

Observations on Buoyant Convection in Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations on Buoyant Convection in Reverse Osmosis ... Buoyancy Effects in Dead-End Reverse Osmosis:? Visualization by Holographic Interferometry ... Buoyancy Effects in Dead-End Reverse Osmosis:? Visualization by Holographic Interferometry ...

Terry J. Hendricks; Jean F. Macquin; Forman A. Williams

1972-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Hollow-Fiber Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hollow-fiber membranes for reverse osmosis desalination are typically of the dense wall ... compact modules and further improve the economics of reverse osmosis desalination.

Mark E. Cohen; Michael A. Grable; Billy M. Riggleman

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Microporous glasses for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The preparation, heat-treatment and leaching of phase separable borosilicate glasses which are of interest as possible semipermeable membranes for reverse osmosis applications are described. It is shown that ... ...

P. W. McMillan; C. E. Matthews

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Modelling Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After a brief presentation of the principal kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the theory of reverse osmosis, the present review examines various physicochemical mechanisms of the selectivity of membranes with respect to electrolyte solutions: the electrochemical mechanism, related to the charge of the pore surface; the dielectric exclusion of ions, due to image forces; and the structural mechanism, due to the change in the properties of water in fine hydrophilic pores. Methods for calculating the changes in the standard chemical potentials of ions on entering the membrane phase, and the effects of the Donnan exclusion of ions with allowance for the different charge of the membrane have been described. It has been concluded that it is appropriate to use charged membranes to separate electrolyte solutions at low concentrations. The problem of the transport of solutions through the fine pores of membranes has been formulated, taking account of the equilibrium distribution coefficients of the ions, their mobility, the charge of the membrane, and the phenomenon of concentration polarisation. Routes to the further development of the theory as applied to membranes of different types, different compositions, and solution concentrations have been discussed. The bibliography contains 84 references.

S S Dukhin; Nikolai V Churaev; V N Shilov; Viktor M Starov

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg/l. silica, and 170 mg/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies with the stringent California drinking water standard. The paper describes water reclamation, the San Ardo process, stability, reverse osmosis membrane fouling, membranes at high pH, water quality, and costs.

Tao, F.T.; Curtice, S.; Hobbs, R.D.; Sides, J.L.; Wieser, J.D. (Texaco Inc., Bellaire, TX (United States)); Dyke, C.A.; Tuohey, D. (Texaco Inc., Beacon, NY (United States)); Pilger, P.F. (Texaco E and P Inc., Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

24

Concentrating Fruit Juices by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The difference between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration lies principally in the retention ... able to retain protein-sized molecules, whereas reverse osmosis membranes retain lower molecular weight solutes suc...

R. L. Merson; G. Paredes; D. B. Hosaka

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Molecular Characterization of the Bacterial Communities in the Different Compartments of a Full-Scale Reverse-Osmosis Water Purification Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Full-Scale Reverse-Osmosis Water Purification Plant Published ahead of print...reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane water purification plant were analyzed by molecular...full-scale membrane-based water purification processes was examined using...

L. A. Bereschenko; G. H. J. Heilig; M. M. Nederlof; M. C. M. van Loosdrecht; A. J. M. Stams; G. J. W. Euverink

2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

26

Removal of organic and inorganic compounds from landfill leachate using reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objective of this work was to evaluate an effectiveness of removing organic and inorganic pollutants from landfill leachate in a long-term reverse osmosis (RO) study. Investigations were carried out...4 ...

I. A. Talalaj

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

A comparison of ROChem reverse osmosis and spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules  

SciTech Connect

Testing of the ROChem Disc Tube[reg sign] reverse osmosis (RO) module's performance on biologically active feed waters has been completed. Both the ROChem module (using Filmtec standard-rejection seawater membranes) and the Filmtec spiral-wound membrane module (using Filmtec high-rejection seawater membranes) were tested with stimulant solutions containing typical bacteria and metal hydroxide levels found in the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) influent. Results indicate that the ROChem module gave superior performance over the spiral-wound module. Water flux losses were reduced by over 30% for water recoveries above 40%.

Siler, J.L.

1992-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

A comparison of ROChem reverse osmosis and spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules  

SciTech Connect

Testing of the ROChem Disc Tube{reg_sign} reverse osmosis (RO) module`s performance on biologically active feed waters has been completed. Both the ROChem module (using Filmtec standard-rejection seawater membranes) and the Filmtec spiral-wound membrane module (using Filmtec high-rejection seawater membranes) were tested with stimulant solutions containing typical bacteria and metal hydroxide levels found in the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) influent. Results indicate that the ROChem module gave superior performance over the spiral-wound module. Water flux losses were reduced by over 30% for water recoveries above 40%.

Siler, J.L.

1992-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Boundary-Layer Effects in Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Boundary-Layer Effects in Reverse Osmosis ... In FO, water is extracted from a feed solution using the high osmotic pressure of a hypertonic solution that flows on ... ...

Ulrich Merten; H. K. Lonsdale; R. L. Riley

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Characterization of the fouling phenomenon in reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation explores the application of a bench scale reverse osmosis test cell apparatus as a research tool. This versatile system was used to explore the response of a reverse osmosis membrane to various types of feedwaters. As a result of this research, an easy, accurate experimental method for predicting the rejection in any reverse osmosis system has been developed and demonstrated. The dissertation illustrates a simple procedure to identify if a precipitating feedwater solution will foul a reverse osmosis membrane. The research also presents evidence that suggests that the common practice of increasing feed flow rates to clean a membrane may not always be an acceptable method to revive a system. In addition to this information about the RO systems, the dissertation provides insight into the environment around the membrane surface. Statistically significant information about the nature and behavior of the membrane permeation coefficient is presented. Evidence is provided to demonstrate the negative effects on membrane performance of small amounts of grease contamination from the process equipment. Insight into the resistive nature of membranes, boundary layers, and fouling deposits is also presented. Throughout the course of this research, the relationship between concentration polarization and the permeate flux is illustrated. This is done first in the traditional terms of wall concentration, and later in terms of flow resistance. This dissertation also provides an experimental demonstration of both the detachment of a boundary layer from a membrane and the resistive nature of a precipitated fouling layer in a reverse osmosis system.

Barger, M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Reverse osmosis desalination: Modeling and experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytic model for the performance of reverse osmosis desalination systems is derived. Predictions are shown to agree well with extensive measurements conducted on a commercial multistage reverse osmosis desalination unit over a broad range of operating conditions. The model allows a transparent understanding of the dependence of system performance on key design and operating variables. Identifying the characteristic flow rate and length scale of reverse osmosis systems allows a universal description of the variation of the permeate flow rate and recovery factor with the salinity flow rate and pressure of the feedwater.

Naum Fraidenraich; Olga C. Vilela; Gilmário A. Lima; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Landfill Leachate Treatment by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Leachate from landfill sites represents a highly polluted waste water. It containes biodegradable compounds but also inorganic salts and trace recalcitrant pollutants. The reverse osmosis process with or without ...

B. Weber; F. Holz

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Control of residual aluminum from conventional treatment to improve reverse osmosis performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deposit Control for Reverse Osmosis Systems , Technicalon Colloidal Fouling in Reverse Osmosis and NanofiltrationSiO 2 ) Scaling for Reverse Osmosis , ASTM Designation D

Gabelich, C J; Ishida, K P; Gerringer, F W; Evangelista, R; Kalyan, M; Suffet, I H

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

On the potential of forward osmosis to energetically outperform reverse osmosis desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We provide a comparison of the theoretical and actual energy requirements of forward osmosis and reverse osmosis seawater desalination. We argue that reverse osmosis is significantly more energy efficient and that forward osmosis research efforts would best be fully oriented towards alternate applications. The underlying reason for the inefficiency of forward osmosis is the draw-dilution step, which increases the theoretical and actual energy requirements for draw regeneration. As a consequence, for a forward osmosis technology to compete with reverse osmosis, the regeneration process must be significantly more efficient than reverse osmosis. However, even considering the optimisation of the draw solution and the benefits of reduced fouling during regeneration, the efficiency of an optimal draw regeneration process and of reverse osmosis are unlikely to differ significantly, meaning the energy efficiency of direct desalination with reverse osmosis is likely to be superior.

Ronan K. McGovern; John H. Lienhard V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Forward osmosis dialysate production using spiral-wound reverse-osmosis membrane elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Presented here is an analysis of a method by which a spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) membrane element may be used in forward osmosis (FO) mode to produce dialysate fluid for medical treatment. In this method, dialysate is produced from the draw-side of an FO process by carefully controlling the output concentration, managing the accumulation of salt in the closed, feed-side membrane envelope and using osmotic backwashing to recover the membrane. The analysis shows that a high-quality, spiral-wound, polyamide 4040 RO membrane element may be used to produce un-buffered dialysate when supplied with brackish groundwater and dialysate concentrate. Production is possible for a short period before the membrane needs to be osmotically backwashed to remove accumulated salt. By alternating between production and backwashing cycles, a pair of high-quality 4040 elements may produce dialysate at a rate high enough to enable continuous haemodialysis treatment. The low-cost, compact nature of standard RO elements makes them suitable for water and energy-efficient FO applications. The method proposed here exploits the features of standard RO elements to enable their application in Australian desert regions, where water supplies are slightly brackish and where rates of kidney failure and dialysis treatment are relatively high.

M.C. Smith; K.J. Reynolds

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Thermodynamic analysis of a stand-alone reverse osmosis desalination system powered by pressure retarded osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, a methodology is developed to assess the feasibility of a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system powered by a stand-alone salinity driven pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) technology. First, the proposed hybrid RO–PRO system is analysed as a thermodynamic cycle and its feasibility is mathematically interpreted using a feasible condition (FC) number, several dimensionless operational variables and a number of constraints to represent the objective of zero brine discharge. Then, a study of the stand-alone feasibility of a hybrid seawater RO–PRO system is carried out. The results show that lower RO water recovery and higher dimensionless flow rate improve the stand-alone feasibility of the system. A subsystem, a look inside the PRO, is developed to study the applied pressure and the required membrane area to achieve the operations with optimum FC numbers. It is found that the optimum applied hydraulic pressure is inversely proportional to the dimensionless flow rate in the feasible range of stand-alone operations and more area of membrane is required by a larger FC number. Finally, a case study of a selected operation is presented based on its energy performance, and two influencing factors, the inefficiency of the components and the salinity concentration of the feed water.

Wei He; Yang Wang; Adel Sharif; Mohammad Hasan Shaheed

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Reverse osmosis reverses conventional wisdom with Superfund cleanup success  

SciTech Connect

Although widely recognized as the most efficient means of water purification, reverse osmosis has not been considered effective for remediating hazardous wastewater. Scaling and fouling, which can cause overruns and downtime, and require membrane replacement, have inhibited success in high-volume wastewater applications. Despite this background, a reverse osmosis technology developed in Europe recently was used successfully to treat large volumes of contaminated water at a major Superfund site in Texas. The technology's success there may increase the chances for reverse osmosis to find wider use in future cleanups and other waste treatment applications.

Collins, M. (French Ltd. Task Group, Crosby, TX (United States)); Miller, K. (Rochem Environmental Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Concentration of ultrafiltered benzylpenicillin broths by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Concentration of benzylpenicillin filtered broths purified by ultrafiltration and fermented broths clarified by ultrafiltration was carried out by reverse osmosis. This study was done using a reverse osmosis l...

A. M. A. Nabais; J. P. Cardoso

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Optimal design of reverse osmosis module networks  

SciTech Connect

The structure of individual reverse osmosis modules, the configuration of the module network, and the operating conditions were optimized for seawater and brackish water desalination. The system model included simple mathematical equations to predict the performance of the reverse osmosis modules. The optimization problem was formulated as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization. The objective function was the annual profit for the system, consisting of the profit obtained from the permeate, capital cost for the process units, and operating costs associated with energy consumption and maintenance. Optimization of several dual-stage reverse osmosis systems were investigated and compared. It was found that optimal network designs are the ones that produce the most permeate. It may be possible to achieve economic improvements by refining current membrane module designs and their operating pressures.

Maskan, F.; Wiley, D.E.; Johnston, L.P.M.; Clements, D.J.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

A comparison of reverse osmosis membrane cleaning methods  

SciTech Connect

Testing was conducted at TNX to evaluate the reverse osmosis (RO) cleaning methods in use at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The present ETF membrane cleaning protocol involves a low-pressure-no-permeation method using NAOH. This work has examined the effectiveness of the present ETF method, due to the lack of improvement following the cleanings sometimes observed. This study has evaluated both low pressure (15--20 psi with no permeation) and high pressure (200 psi with permeation) cleaning methods with sequential cleanings using NAOH and Filmtec Alkaline Cleaner. The importance of the cleaning sequence with these two chemicals was also examined.

Siler, J.L.

1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Reverse osmosis desalination with osmotic polyelectrolyte intermediate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

degree of, '8'~STER O"' SCIENCE '!ay ISS7 Nejo? Subje". t: IiI EQICAE ENO& NEERINC REVERSE OSMOSIS DESALINATION WITH OSMOTIC POLYELECTROLYTE INTERMEDIATE A Thesis By THOMAS THEODORE McCONNELL Approved as to style and content by: airman o... , . . . . . . . . . . 91 Calculated Permeability Coefficients of Mem- branes Using Equation (42) Calculated Desalination Ratio from Equation (34) and Weight Per Cent Rejection from Equa- tion (45) for a 3. 5 Weight Per Cent Sodium Chloride Bulk Solution 92 94 Table...

McConnell, Thomas Theodore

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

42

Ethanol separation from molasses based fermentation broth by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Irradiated styrene-grafted cellulose acetate membrane was used for the separation of ethanol by reverse osmosis. Ethanol separation from molasses based fermentation broth...

J. P. Choudhury; P. Ghosh; B. K. Guha

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Structures of cellulose acetate membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies under the scanning electron microscope have shown that the cellulose acetate membranes used for reverse osmosis are high-molecular-weight condensation structures of...

I. N. Vlodavets; G. Z. Nefedova…

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Purication of reghting water containing a uorinated surfactant by reverse osmosis coupled to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Purication of reghting water containing a uorinated surfactant by reverse osmosis coupled. Reverse osmosis of pretreated pilot reghting water and concentrated model solutions of pretreated reghting. The concentrate from reverse osmosis could be recycled in electrocoagulation-ltration. Experimental results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Energy-efficient reverse osmosis desalination process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel energy-efficient reverse osmosis (EERO) process is proposed for which the retentate from single-stage reverse osmosis (SSRO) serves as the feed to a countercurrent membrane cascade with recycle (CMCR). The 3-stage EERO process employs two, whereas the 4-stage EERO process employs three stages in the CMCR. The EERO process is advantageous because of four features: (i) coupling SSRO with a CMCR; (ii) countercurrent retentate and permeate flow; (iii) permeate recycling; and (iv) retentate self-recycling owing to the use of one or more nanofiltration stages. The EERO process was compared to conventional SSRO for both processes operating at the thermodynamic limit and employing an energy-recovery device. For the same overall recovery the osmotic pressure differential is reduced by 33% and 50% relative to SSRO for the 3- and 4-stage ERRO processes, respectively. There is a critical recovery above which the EERO process also can reduce the specific energy consumption (SEC) relative to SSRO for the same recovery. For a typical seawater feed of 35 g/L the 3-stage EERO process can achieve a 75% recovery at a net SEC of 2.746 kWh/m3, an 11.0% reduction in the SEC relative to SSRO for the same recovery. The 4-stage EERO process can achieve a 75% recovery at the same net SEC as SSRO (3.086 kWh/m3). Accounting for the additional membrane area required for the EERO process increases its cost relative to that for SSRO by at most 8%. An additional benefit of the EERO process relative to SSRO is the highly concentrated retentate that reduces the brine disposal volume or can be used to greatly increase the draw potential to harvest its osmotic potential energy via the pressure-retarded osmosis process.

Tzyy Haur Chong; Siew-Leng Loo; William B. Krantz

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment.

Polidoroff, C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Development of Robust Organosilica Membranes for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development of Robust Organosilica Membranes for Reverse Osmosis ... polyamide was also reversible, in other words, the N-chlorinated intermediate could be regenerated to initial amide with the alk. ...

Rong Xu; Jinhui Wang; Masakoto Kanezashi; Tomohisa Yoshioka; Toshinori Tsuru

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

Removal of radionuclides in drinking water by membrane treatment using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis reversal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A pilot plant had been built to test the behaviour of ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis reversal (EDR) in order to improve the quality of the water supplied to Barcelona metropolitan area from the Llobregat River. This paper presents results from two studies to reduce natural radioactivity. The results from the pilot plant with four different scenarios were used to design the full-scale treatment plant built (SJD WTP). The samples taken at different steps of the treatment were analysed to determine gross alpha, gross beta and uranium activity. The results obtained revealed a significant improvement in the radiological water quality provided by both membrane techniques (RO and EDR showed removal rates higher than 60%). However, UF did not show any significant removal capacity for gross alpha, gross beta or uranium activities. RO was better at reducing the radiological parameters studied and this treatment was selected and applied at the full scale treatment plant. The RO treatment used at the SJD WTP reduced the concentration of both gross alpha and gross beta activities and also produced water of high quality with an average removal of 95% for gross alpha activity and almost 93% for gross beta activity at the treatment plant.

M. Montaña; A. Camacho; I. Serrano; R. Devesa; L. Matia; I. Vallés

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Reverse osmosis performance with solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted to determine whether the reverse osmosis (RO) units at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River could be made to process solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). It was desired to test whether operation at a feed pH other than neutral would improve performance. Test results are discussed in this report and indicate that little improvement in the water flux can be expected at other pH values.

Siler, J.L.

1991-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

50

Development of mobile, on-site engine coolant recycling utilizing reverse-osmosis technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the history of the development of self-contained, mobile, high-volume, engine coolant recycling by reverse osmosis (R/O). It explains the motivations, created by government regulatory agencies, to minimize the liability of waste generators who produce waste engine coolant by providing an engine coolant recycling service at the customer`s location. Recycling the used engine coolant at the point of origin minimizes the generators` exposure to documentation requirements, liability, and financial burdens by greatly reducing the volume of used coolant that must be hauled from the generator`s property. It describes the inherent difficulties of recycling such a highly contaminated, inconsistent input stream, such as used engine coolant, by reverse osmosis. The paper reports how the difficulties were addressed, and documents the state of the art in mobile R/O technology. Reverse osmosis provides a purified intermediate fluid that is reinhibited for use in automotive cooling systems. The paper offers a review of experiences in various automotive applications, including light-duty, medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles operating on many types of fuel. The authors conclude that mobile embodiments of R/O coolant recycling technology provide finished coolants that perform equivalently to new coolants as demonstrated by their ability to protect vehicles from freezing, corrosion damage, and other cooling system related problems.

Kughn, W. [Toxguard Fluid Technologies, Irvine, CA (United States). CEO; Eaton, E.R. [Penray Companies, Inc., Elk Grove Village, IL (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Reclamation of Cleaning Water Using Ultrafiltration and Double Pass Reverse Osmosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Because of the commitment to minimize process generated wastes, an integrated ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) system was installed to reclaim the cleaning water at the PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) Cleveland, Ohio plant. The recovered water... 590 590 590 600 595 600 590 INLET TORO PSIG 550 590 590 590 600 595 600 590 PSIG 540 580 580 580 595 590 590 585 INTO RO-CIP INTO UF-CIP Temperature Conductivity GPM GPM 2.0 8.5 2.0 6.0 2.0 6.0 1.0 6.0 1.8 5.5 1.9 5...

Neuman, T.; Long, G.; Tinter, M.

52

Cost and Energy Savings Using an Optimal Design of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Pretreatment for Dilute Bioethanol Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost and Energy Savings Using an Optimal Design of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Pretreatment for Dilute Bioethanol Purification ... All equipment costs and sizing are modeled using the correlations from Seider et al.(52) while the RO membrane cost is from Baker and Lokhandwala. ...

Pakkapol Kanchanalai; Ryan P. Lively; Matthew J. Realff; Yoshiaki Kawajiri

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

53

Biphase turbine for reverse osmosis desalination. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new hydraulic reaction turbine was designed to recover the power available in the high-pressure waste-brine stream of reverse osmosis desalination systems. A reaction turbine sized for reverse-osmosis systems producing 600 gph was built and tested. The turbine performed well driving either a variable-speed pump or an electrical generator. Measured turbine efficiency (shaft power divided by available power) was 63%, compared with a prediction of 67%. The turbine can be built with larger capacity to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of reverse osmosis desalination systems. Efficiency of larger units is predicted to lie in the range of 65 to 70%.

Limburg, P.L.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part II: system performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work evaluates the seawater feed Reverse Osmosis (RO) preheating system process. In this respect, the basic transport equations, which describe the system elements, are used for determining the performance of the process operating parameters and for assessing the feed preheating process. A seawater membrane, FTSW30HR-380, was used to perform this study. In Part I of the work, the leading element, which governs the whole system, was studied. Also, the limitations of the leading element operating parameters were determined. In the recent work, a computer program is developed using the RO-governing process equations to obtain the system design and projection for the seawater feed preheating assessment, which enabled the determination of the whole system by solving the system elements, one by one. Also, an evaluation of the power needed for freshwater production. The RO system feed preheating is studied for feed temperatures ranging from 15°C to 45°C. The study shows that the permeate salt concentration increases as the feed temperature increases and the system salt rejection decreases. The present study concluded that the permeate productivity decreases with the increase in the feed temperature. Results also show that the product's specific power consumption is dependent on the number of elements used, and energy recovery. In the case of the maximum available number of elements, it is found that the feed temperature increases as the specific power consumption increases, with or without brine pressure energy recovery. However, in the case of a constant number of elements, seven elements, the specific power consumption decreases as the feed temperature increases.

Aly Karameldin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Reverse osmosis treatment to remove inorganic contaminants from drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research project was to determine the removal of inorganic contaminants from drinking water using several state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membrane elements. A small 5-KGPD reverse osmosis system was utilized and five different membrane elements were studied individually with the specific inorganic contaminants added to several natural Florida ground waters. Removal data were also collected on naturally occurring substances.

Huxstep, M.R.; Sorg, T.J.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The benefits of hybridising electrodialysis with reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A cost analysis reveals that hybridisation of electrodialysis with reverse osmosis is only justified if the cost of water from the reverse osmosis unit is less than 40% of that from a stand-alone electrodialysis system. In such cases the additional reverse osmosis costs justify the electrodialysis cost savings brought about by shifting salt removal to higher salinity, where current densities are higher and equipment costs lower. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that a simple hybrid configuration is more cost effective than a recirculated hybrid, a simple hybrid being one where the reverse osmosis concentrate is fed to the electrodialysis stack and the products from both units are blended, and a recirculated being one hybrid involving recirculation of the electrodialysis product back to the reverse osmosis unit. The underlying rationale is that simple hybridisation shifts salt removal away from the lowest salinity zone of operation, where salt removal is most expensive. Further shifts in the salinity at which salt is removed, brought about by recirculation, do not justify the associated increased costs of reverse osmosis.

Ronan K. McGovern; Syed M. Zubair; John H. Lienhard V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants contained in firefighting water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants osmosis efficiently treated the water from fire extinguishment. In this work we focused on the reverse surfactants [1]. Experimental results indicated that electrocoagulation and filtration followed by reverse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

Optimization algorithm for reverse osmosis desalination economics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work an optimization algorithm for the calculation of water unit cost from various RO candidate schemes was developed. Such an algorithm may be used for evaluation purposes when many RO candidate schemes are taken into account. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on an example in which six RO candidate schemes are examined.

Andreas Poullikkas

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Extension of the evaluation of reverse osmosis for SRC-I wastewater. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis (R.O.) is an integral part of the zero discharge option for the proposed SRC-I Demonstration Plant. The original laboratory treatability testing program for reverse osmosis failed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this process, due to problems with membrane fouling and deterioration. In that study (1), a high pressure (800 psi) polyether urea membrane for sea water and a low pressure (400 psi) cellulose diacetate membrane for brackish water failed to maintain reasonable TDS rejection rates during flat cell tests. The problem was particularly severe for the high pressure membrane. At the end of the original study, testing was continued on two additional low pressure membranes. One of these was a cellulose diacetate triacetate blend. The other was a new polyaramid membrane, which had only recently become commercially available. This report documents the results of all of the reverse osmosis laboratory tests. The wastewaters used in this study were effluents from bench scale, two-stage bioreactors, followed by tertiary treatment consisting of coagulation, softening, filtration, and granular activated carbon. The investigative program consisted of both immersion and flat cell tests. The results show tht the SRC-I wastewaters are difficult to treat by reverse osmosis with polyether urea or cellulose acetate membranes, and membrane failure was common. However, the new polyaramid membrane was found to be satisfactory when tested with a dephenolated feed stream. After over 1500 hours of continuous flat cell testing, it exhibited a TDS rejection rate of 95%. Based on these preliminary results, reverse osmosis does appear to be a technically feasible approach to achieve zero discharge, assuming the feed stream is dephenolated.

Not Available

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

The pretreatment with enhanced coagulation and a UF membrane for seawater desalination with reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The application of reverse osmosis (RO) for desalination process has increased rapidly with the construction of large RO plants. Although there have been considerable improvements in membrane materials and operation experience, the fouling of membranes is a significant problem up to the present. There have been many instances of fouling of RO membranes caused by the presence of iron and silica. Biomineralization is usually believed to be caused by microorganisms metabolizing at iron and silica present. Its formation process was studied and described first in the present work, then the enhanced coagulation with Fe(VI) and UF membrane treatment process for pretreatment of reverse osmosis for desalination has been investigated in a laboratory for 3–4 months. The main aim is to reduce the feed water pollution, such as turbidity, iron, silica and aglae, microbial contamination in order to control biofouling and mineralization on the membrane surface. The results showed that the biomineralization formation process is the adsorption of organism and the biosorption of inorganics onto the organic matrix. The pretreatment results show that turbidity is less than 0.5 NTU, iron concentration never exceeds 0.2 mg/l, silicon concentration must not exceed 0.1 mg/l; and the removal rate of aglae and microbial is more than 98%.

Wei Ma; Yaqian Zhao; Lu Wang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The Use of Reverse Osmosis for the Purification of Coal Gasification Liquors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory trials have been conducted at the Westfield Development Centre to assess the potential of reverse osmosis as a stage in the treatment of ... effluent suitable for sewer or estuary discharge. Reverse osmosis

A. R. Williams

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

The use of reverse osmosis water for the production of parenterals in the hospital pharmacy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Only theUnited States Pharmacopeia has included reverse osmosis as an approved process for producing ‘Water...

Drs. Ph. Jacobs

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Author's personal copy Unexpected new phase detected in FT30 type reverse osmosis membranes using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author's personal copy Unexpected new phase detected in FT30 type reverse osmosis membranes using Available online 13 July 2011 Keywords: Reverse osmosis membranes X-ray microscopy Poly phenylene diamine a b s t r a c t FT30 type thin film composite membranes used for reverse osmosis water purification

Hitchcock, Adam P.

64

Concentration of synfuel process condensates by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors will discuss the use of a novel, fouling-resistant, inside-skinned hollow-fiber membrane configuration as an energy-efficient and cost-effective alternative to conventional treatment of synfuel process condensate waters. Reverse osmosis has been used in the past only to polish condensate waters that were first treated by conventional means. In the work described in this paper, a reverse-osmosis system actually replaces traditional biotreatment of condensate waters or replaces the solvent-extraction process in the treatment train. The membranes used in this reverse-osmosis system are capable of rejecting at least 90% of the phenols as well as high percentages of other organics contained in actual process condensate waters. Furthermore, these membranes have operated for several months on synfuel condensate waters and showed no significant decrease in performance. Energy and cost estimates of a reverse-osmosis system based on such membranes will be discussed in detail, including a comparison of operating costs of this system with the operating costs of conventional treatment systems.

McCray, S.B.; Ray, R.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant with energy recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the performance of a RO (reverse osmosis) desalination plant at different seawater salinity values. An energy recovery Pelton turbine is integrated with the desalination plant. Thermodynamic analysis, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, as well as a thermo-based economic analysis is performed for the proposed system. The effects of the system components irreversibilities on the economics and cost of product water are parametrically studied through the thermoeconomic analysis. The exergy analysis shows that large irreversibilities occur in the high pressure pump and in the RO module. Both thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of the overall system are investigated under different operating parameters. For the base case; the system achieves an exergy efficiency of 5.82%. The product cost is estimated to be 2.451 $/m3 and 54.2 $/MJ when source water with salinity of 35,000 ppm is fed to the system.

Rami Salah El-Emam; Ibrahim Dincer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Reverse osmosis performance of modified polyvinyl alcohol thin-film composite membranes  

SciTech Connect

Membrane separation characteristics in the nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) regions of the filtration spectrum are governed by a complex combination of both steric hindrance and surface force interactions. NF and RO membranes having surface charges show unusual selectivity behavior not predicted on the basis of physical pore size alone. Hence, practical characterizations should employ techniques to gain insight on membrane function. In this work, the separation characteristics of an anionically charged modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin-film composite membrane under different operating pressures were investigated. A qualitative measurement of the surface force interactions between solutes and membrane polymer was conducted using liquid chromatography technique. An attempt was also made to study the chlorine resistance of the composite membrane.

Lang, K.; Chowdhury, G.; Matsuura, T.; Sourirajan, S. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

The effects of variable operation on RO plant performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimizations of reverse osmosis (RO) plants typically consider steady state operation of the plant. RO plants are subject to transient factors that may make it beneficial to produce more water at one time than at another. ...

Williams, Christopher Michael, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Technical evaluation of a small-scale reverse osmosis desalination unit for domestic water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tunisian standards for drinking water tolerate a maximum Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) of 1.5 g/L. The domestic water presents usually a salinity greater than 0.5 g/L. In the last few years, several small capacity reverse osmosis desalination prototypes have been marketed. They are used to desalinate brackish water with TDS lower than 1.5 g/L. The performances of such type of RO units with respect to the Tunisia tap waters are needed. A technico-economical evaluation of small-scale (100 L/day) reverse osmosis desalination unit has been studied. Water pre-treatment is composed of three filtration operations. Water is pumped through the RO membrane with maximum pressure of 6 bars. Before use, the desalinated water is treated with UV light. The salinity and the temperature of the tested domestic water are located respectively between 0.5 and 1.3 g/L and between 12 and 29°C. The pre-treatment allows eliminating all the suspension matters, as the turbidity and the Solid Density Index are reduced to zero FTU and surrounding one unit respectively. No chemicals are used in the pre-treatment, so membrane scaling can not be avoided if reject water presents a high scaling power. The supersaturation relative to calcium carbonate and gypsum were estimated for reject water. Their values indicate that the tested waters have no risk to scale the RO membrane. The recovery rate of the RO unit was evaluated vs. different operating conditions such as applied pressure, raw water TDS and water temperature. The small capacity unit was able to deliver a treated water of a 100 mg/L TDS with a conversion rate ranging between 25 and 37%. The water treatment cost was evaluated at 0.01 €/L which is roughly the tenth of that of bottled table water.

H. Elfil; A. Hamed; A. Hannachi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Removal of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Removal of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes Yu and brackish water reverse osmosis BWRO membranes was evaluated using a bench-scale cross-flow filtration; Osmosis. Introduction The occurrence of nitrosamines in drinking water and their sources Fleming et al

Huang, Ching-Hua

70

Studies on the reverse osmosis treatment of uranyl nitrate solution  

SciTech Connect

The aqueous effluent generated in uranium processing, particularly in the nuclear fuel fabrication step, contains mainly uranium nitrate. This requires treatment before discharge into the environment to meet stringent standards. This paper presents the performance of cellulose acetate membranes with regard to rejection of uranium under reverse osmotic conditions for feed concentrations up to 200 mg/l of uranium, which corresponds to the levels normally prevalent in the effluents. The use of additives like the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium sulfate for the improvement of reverse osmosis performance of the above membranes was also investigated. In the light of the experimental results, the suitability of reverse osmosis for the decontamination of uranium effluents is discussed.

Prabhakar, S.; Panicker, S.T.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, P.S. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Recycling of oleochemical wastewater for boiler feed water using reverse osmosis membranes — A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently, awareness of water conservation has increased worldwide due to water scarcity. Wastewater recycling appears to be attractive for water conservation. This paper addresses a case study of oleochemical wastewater treatment using an advanced process that comprises ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Prior to the membrane process, the oleochemical effluent was first treated using a biological treatment system that was installed by the factory owner. The quantity and quality of the permeate stream of the membrane system were then periodically monitored over 43 days. The results showed that the system functioned effectively in reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD), hardness content and the amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). However, the system started to deteriorate after 15 days of operation. Membrane biofouling was suspected to have occurred in the RO membrane. Nevertheless, the fouling problem could be resolved by chemically cleaning the RO membrane using a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution every 3–5 days. Despite of the fact that data set for a longer period is needed to provide a more comprehensive study on the biofouling mechanism of membrane, this study somehow reflects a real-life problem of the application of RO membrane in the water recycling industry in Malaysia.

Chai Hoon Koo; Abdul Wahab Mohammad; Fatihah Suja'

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Treatment of produced waters by electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Two oil field produced waters and one coal bed methane produced water from Wyoming were treated with electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis. All three produced waters would require treatment to meet the new Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requirements for effluent discharge into a class III or IV stream. The removal of radium 226 and oil and grease was the primary focus of the study. Radium 226 and oil and grease were removed from the produced waters with electrocoagulation. The best removal of radium 226 (>84%) was achieved with use of a non-sacrificial anode (titanium). The best removal of oil and grease (>93%) was achieved using a sacrificial anode (aluminum). By comparison, reverse osmosis removed up to 87% of the total dissolved solids and up to 95% of the radium 226.

Tuggle, K.; Humenick, M.; Barker, F.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

High solute rejecting membranes for reverse osmosis: Polyetheramide hydrazide  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of benzhydrazide polymers and determination of reverse osmosis properties of their membranes were reported earlier. Their performance was not adequate for seawater desalination or for high radioactive decontamination factors (DF). The same hydrazide polymers modified by incorporation of additional monomers with ether linkages were synthesized by low temperature polycondensation of freshly prepared m-amino benzhydrazide, p-amino benzhydrazide, and 4,4{prime}-diamino diphenyl ether, with isophthaloyl chloride and terephthaloyl chloride in dimethyl acetamide solvent. A series of film-forming polymers prepared by altering the molar ratios of the reacting monomers were characterized in terms of percent moisture regain, inherent viscosity, solubility parameters, and interfacial sorption characteristics. Asymmetric membranes prepared from these polymer samples were characterized in terms of the pure water permeability constant and the solute transport parameter, and were tested for their reverse osmosis performance. An optimum mole ratio of reaching monomers has been identified for the synthesis of polymer and the resulting membrane offered the best performance for reverse osmosis (salt rejection as high as 99.4% for 3.5% sodium chloride solution). The incorporation of aromatic ether linkages in the polyamide benzhydrazide polymeric chains appears to alter the polar and nonpolar character of the bulk polymer, and also the membrane solution interface characteristics, resulting in enhanced solute separation. These membranes appear to be potential candidates for single-stage seawater desalination and also for a variety of industrial effluent treatment applications for significantly high DF radioactive effluent treatment.

Bindal, R.C.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, M.P.S. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Natural Convection in a Horizontal Non-Flow-Through Reverse-Osmosis Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Features of the mass transfer in a horizontal non-flow-through reverse-osmosis cell are considered. It is concluded that...

N. B. Kirichenko

75

Removal of Emerging Contaminants in Water Treatment by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The general rules established in abundant studies on removal of conventional pollutants from waters by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration were reconsidered in this contribution...

Branko Kunst; Krešimir Košuti?

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Reverse osmosis concentrate treatment by a PAC countercurrent four-stage adsorption/MF hybrid process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, in order to reduce the impact of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) on the receiving body of water and/or improve the recovery rate of reverse osmosis (RO) system by reusing the treated ROC as a feeding, a powdered activated carbon (PAC) countercurrent four-stage adsorption/MF hybrid process was developed for organic removal from ROC. The process could achieve good organic removal at lower PAC consumption. For dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal efficiency of 70.0%, the PAC dose was 21.6% less than that in countercurrent two-stage adsorption and 50.9% less than that in single-stage adsorption. The calculation method for correlating removal efficiency and PAC dose was deduced and validated. The validation result showed that the relative error between the average experimental DOC removal efficiency and the calculated one was less than 5% throughout the experiment, exhibiting good accuracy for the calculation method. Compared with countercurrent two-stage adsorption, the membrane fouling in the new process could be mitigated to a certain extent. The total number of sub-cycles in a cycle (n) influenced the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the total volume of the reactors. Results showed that the HRT increased as n increased.

Xiaozhu Wei; Ping Gu; Guanghui Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Isotope and Ion Selectivity in Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Geochemical Tracers for Man-made Freshwater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A systematic measurement of ions and 2H/1H, 7Li/6Li, 11B/10B, 18O/16O, and 87Sr/86Sr isotopes in feed-waters, permeates, and brines from commercial reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants in Israel (Ashkelon, Eilat, and Nitzana) and Cyprus (Larnaca) reveals distinctive geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of fresh water generated from desalination of seawater (SWRO) and brackish water (BWRO). ... The specific geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of SWRO provide a unique tool for tracing “man-made” fresh water as an emerging recharge component of natural water resources. ... O and H isotopes were determined by dual inlet and continuous flow mass spectrometry following gas–water equilibration (analytical uncertainties ±0.8‰ for ?2H and ±0.1‰ for ?18O). ...

Wolfram Kloppmann; Avner Vengosh; Catherine Guerrot; Romain Millot; Irena Pankratov

2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

78

Fast reverse osmosis using boron nitride and carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate reverse osmosis through commonly used polymeric and advanced inorganic nanotube based semipermeable membranes by performing nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations indicate that there is a significantly higher water flux through boron-nitride nanotube (BNNT) and carbon nanotube(CNT) compared to a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) pore and a slightly higher water flux through BNNT as compared to CNT. The calculated permeation coefficient is in reasonable agreement with the theoretical single-file “hopping” model. Potential of mean force analysis indicates that the irregular nature of PMMA pore surface can cause significant localized energy barriers inside the pore thereby reducing the water flux.

M. E. Suk; A. V. Raghunathan; N. R. Aluru

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

The design of a controllable energy recovery device for solar powered reverse osmosis desalination with experimental validation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this thesis is to design and validate a controllable energy recovery device with application to photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis (PVRO). The energy consumption of a reverse osmosis plant depends significantly ...

Reed, Elizabeth Anne, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Some Results Bearing on the Value of Improvements of Membranes for Reverse Osmosis  

SciTech Connect

This analysis evaluates the potential economic benefits that could result from the improvements in the permeability of membranes for reverse osmosis. The discussion provides a simple model of the operation of a reverse osmosis plant. It examines the change in the operation that might result from improvements in the membrane and computes the cost of water as a function of the membrane permeability.

Lamont, A

2006-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Reverse osmosis for removing synthetic organics from drinking water: a cost and performance evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis for removing organic compounds from drinking water has considerable promise. Bench and pilot plant studies on actual waters have shown that several organics proposed for regulation can be removed by reverse osmosis. As membrane technology improves, rejection of more difficult to remove compounds is expected to improve. Also, smaller volumes of concentrate are expected to be produced that can be handled more cost-effectively. One major concern with the use of reverse osmosis is concentrate disposal, which may increase the overall cost of treatment and disposal. The cost of reverse osmosis is very sensitive to such factors as recovery, economies of scale, systems configuration, membrane type, and electric power cost. In certain situations, reverse osmosis is a viable treatment option that is not cost-prohibitive.

Lykins, B.W.; Clark, R.M.; Fronk, C.A.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Adsorption of small organic solutes from beet distillery condensates on reverse-osmosis membranes: consequences on the process performances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Adsorption of small organic solutes from beet distillery condensates on reverse-osmosis membranes 93 50 95. Fax: +33 (0)1 69 93 50 44. E-mail: claire.fargues@agroparistech.fr Abstract Reverse osmosis of Membrane Science 446 (2013) 132-144" DOI : 10.1016/j.memsci.2013.05.051 #12;2 Keywords: reverse osmosis

Boyer, Edmond

83

Biofouling of reverse-osmosis membranes under different shear rates during tertiary wastewater desalination: Microbial community composition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We investigated the influence of feed-water shear rate during reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination on biofouling with respect to microbial community composition developed on the membrane surface. The RO membrane biofilm's microbial community profile was elucidated during desalination of tertiary wastewater effluent in a flat-sheet lab-scale system operated under high (555.6 s?1), medium (370.4 s?1), or low (185.2 s?1) shear rates, corresponding to average velocities of 27.8, 18.5, and 9.3 cm s?1, respectively. Bacterial diversity was highest when medium shear was applied (Shannon–Weaver diversity index H' = 4.30 ± 0.04) compared to RO-membrane biofilm developed under lower and higher shear rates (H? = 3.80 ± 0.26 and H? = 3.42 ± 0.38, respectively). At the medium shear rate, RO-membrane biofilms were dominated by Betaproteobacteria, whereas under lower and higher shear rates, the biofilms were dominated by Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria, and the latter biofilms also contained Deltaproteobacteria. Bacterial abundance on the RO membrane was higher at low and medium shear rates compared to the high shear rate: 8.97 × 108 ± 1.03 × 103, 4.70 × 108 ± 1.70 × 103 and 5.72 × 106 ± 2.09 × 103 copy number per cm2, respectively. Interestingly, at the high shear rate, the RO-membrane biofilm's bacterial community consisted mainly of populations known to excrete high amounts of extracellular polymeric substances. Our results suggest that the RO-membrane biofilm's community composition, structure and abundance differ in accordance with applied shear rate. These results shed new light on the biofouling phenomenon and are important for further development of antibiofouling strategies for RO membranes.

Ashraf Al Ashhab; Osnat Gillor; Moshe Herzberg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Reverse osmosis removal of organic compounds II. Opportunity poisons and nerve agent hydrolysates. Technical report, June 1990-December 1994  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis (RO) rejection of acetic acid, fluoro-, chloro- and bromoacetic acids and hydrazine was investigated in a pilot scale (3 gpm) test unit; RO rejection of methylphosphonic acid and ethyl, isopropyl and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acids (nerve agent hydrolysates) was investigated in a bench scale (6 L/hr) test unit. Rejection of acetic acid derivatives was found to be pH and pKa dependent; molecular weight was not a factor for total acids, but rejection was inversely related to molecular weight for free (undissociated) acids. Rejection of all methylphosphonates exceeded 99 percent at pH 3 to 10 and was not pH dependent. Rejection of hydrazine sulfate (a surrogate for UDMH) was no better than 90 percent at pH 7.

Burrows, W.D.; Sincero, A.P.; Schmidt, M.O.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters  

SciTech Connect

Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Reverse osmosis separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents  

SciTech Connect

A reverse osmosis process has been found to be effective for the separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents in a uranium metal plant. Pilot-plant-scale experiments were conducted using cellulosic membranes in a plate module system and actual plant effluents containing more than about 40,000 ppm of ammonium and nitrate species and having radiocontaminants corresponding to specific activities of about 10[sup [minus]3] Ci/m[sup 3] beta/gamma emitters. The results indicated that more than 95% by volume of the treated effluents were within disposal limits, while the remaining contained the concentrate, which can be treated for possible containment. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Prabhakar, S.; Misra, B.M.; Roy, S.B.; Meghal, A.M.; Mukherjee, T.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Molecular dynamics study of a polymeric reverse osmosis membrane.  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the properties of an atomic model of an aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membrane. The monomers forming the polymeric membrane are cross-linked progressively on the basis of a heuristic distance criterion during MD simulations until the system interconnectivity reaches completion. Equilibrium MD simulations of the hydrated membrane are then used to determine the density and diffusivity of water within the membrane. Given a 3 MPa pressure differential and a 0.125 {micro}m width membrane, the simulated water flux is calculated to be 1.4 x 10{sup -6} m/s, which is in fair agreement with an experimental flux measurement of 7.7 x 10{sup -6} m/s.

Harder, E.; Walters, D. E.; Bodnar, Y. D.; Faibish, R. S.; Roux, B. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (Univ. of Chicago); (Rosalind Franklin Univ. of Medicine and Science)

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

A reverse osmosis treatment process for produced water: optimization, process control, and renewable energy application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resources (wind and solar) are analyzed as potential power sources for the process, and an overview of reverse osmosis membrane fouling is presented. A computer model of the process was created using a dynamic simulator, Aspen Dynamics, to determine energy...

Mareth, Brett

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

89

Water purification of nitrates by low-pressure reverse osmosis method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper has investigated possibilities and basic regularities of water purification of nitrates by low pressure reverse osmosis. The negative influence of chlorides and sulfates ... made on expediency of using ...

V. V. Goncharuk; V. O. Osipenko…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Case Study of Reverse Osmosis Applied to the Concentration of Yeast Effluent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 1986 PCI Membrane Systems installed a reverse osmosis plant to concentrate an effluent arising from...2 of membrane area. The membrane was a thin film composite membrane designated AFC99.

Alan Merry

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

A reverse osmosis laboratory plant for experimenting with fault-tolerant control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A test bed for research and teaching in fault-tolerant control (FTC) systems is presented. The laboratory plant is based on an industrial reverse osmosis desalination plant equipped with standardized components, which introduces more realism and robustness ...

A. Gambier; T. Miksch; E. Badreddin

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

The heat resistance of bacterial spores due to their partial dehydration by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability of bacterial spores to withstand heat is known to be associated with a lowering of their water content. This partial dehydration is considered to be produced by reverse osmosis, with the pressure bein...

John E. Algie

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Reverse-Osmosis Filtration Based Water Treatment and Special Water Purification for Nuclear Power Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the development and operation of specialized water treatment and water purification systems, based on the principle of reverse-osmosis filtration of water, for the operation of ... P. Ale...

V. N. Epimakhov; M. S. Oleinik; L. N. Moskvin

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation efficiency of the bentonite membrane for each of the dilutions. We found that membrane efficiency decreased with increasing solute concentration and with increasing TDS. The rejection of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was greater than Cl{sup -}. This may be because the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration was much lower than the Cl{sup -} concentration in the waters tested. The cation rejection sequence varied with solute concentration and TDS. The solute rejection sequence for multi-component solutions is difficult to predict for synthetic membranes; it may not be simple for clay membranes either. The permeate flows in our experiments were 4.1 to 5.4% of the total flow. This suggests that very thin clay membranes may be useful for some separations. Work on development of a spiral-wound clay membrane module found that it is difficult to maintain compaction of the membrane if the membrane is rolled and then inserted in the outer tube. A different design was tried using a cylindrical clay membrane and this also proved difficult to assemble with adequate membrane compaction. The next step is to form the membrane in place using hydraulic pressure on a thin slurry of clay in either water or a nonpolar organic solvent such as ethanol. Technology transfer efforts included four manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals, two abstracts, and chairing a session on clays as membranes at the Clay Minerals Society annual meeting.

T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

2002-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Separation of organic pollutants by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes: Mathematical models and experimental verification  

SciTech Connect

Predictive reverse osmosis (RO) models have been well-developed for many systems. However, the applications to dilute organic-water systems require the modification of transport models and the understanding of solute-polymer interactions. Studies with various substituted, nonionized phenolic compounds showed that these could cause substantial membrane water flux drop, even in dilute solutions with negligible osmotic pressure. Further, the organics could significantly adsorb on the cross-linked aromatic polyamide active layer. In some cases, even concentrations as low as 0.2 mM, 2,4-dinitrophenol (solution in particle-free, double-distilled water) can cause as much as a 70% flux drop with an aromatic polyamide membrane. Two models are presented in this paper: a modified steady-state solution diffusion model and an unsteady-state diffusion adsorption model which are able to predict flux and permeate concentrations from a single RO experiment. Further, the development of these models allows for the understanding of the mechanisms of organic-membrane interactions. For instance, it has been proposed that increased adsorption inherently leads to an increase in flux drop. However, the authors have found, on one hand, that due to specific interactions with membrane water transport groups, chloro-, and nitro-substituted phenols cause significant flux drops. On the other hand, benzene had a high physical adsorption but caused negligible flux drop. The results were further extended to nanofiltration experiments with an aromatic pollutant containing two types of charge groups. The adsorption and separation results are explained according to an ionization model.

Williams, M.E.; Hestekin, J.A.; Smothers, C.N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Operational analysis of an innovative wind powered reverse osmosis system installed in the Canary Islands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an operational analysis of the prototype of an innovative fully autonomous wind powered desalination system. The system consists of a wind farm, made up of two wind turbines and a flywheel, which operates in isolation from the conventional power grids and which supplies the energy needs of a group of eight reverse osmosis (RO) modules throughout the complete desalination process (from the pumping of sea water to the storage of the product water), as well as the energy requirements of the control subsystems. The analysis of the electrical and hydraulic results obtained from this prototype, installed on the island of Gran Canaria in the Canarian Archipelago, shows the technical feasibility of the system design and the automatic operational strategy programmed for it. Amongst other tasks, the automatic operational strategy controls the number of RO plants that have to be connected or disconnected at any given moment in order to match the variable wind energy supply. The results obtained thus far have not revealed any significant variation in the level of quality or average volume of the product water, nor any physical deterioration to the main components of the system as a result of the start-ups and shut-downs required as a result of the variations in the wind energy supply or oscillations of the electrical parameters of voltage and frequency. In conclusion, the system under analysis can be applied to sea water desalination, both on a small and large scale, in coastal regions with a scarcity of water for domestic and/or agricultural use but with wind energy resources.

J.A. Carta; J. González; V. Subiela

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Vacancy profile in reverse osmosis membranes studied by positron annihilation lifetime measurements and molecular dynamics simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The positron annihilation technique using a slow positron beam can be used for the study of the vacancy profiles in typical reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. In this study, the vacancy profile in the polyamide membrane that exhibits a high permselectivity between ions and water was studied using the positron annihilation technique and molecular dynamics simulations. Ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetimes in the surface region of the membranes were evaluated by using a slow positron beam. The diffusion behavior of Na+ and water in the polyamides was simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) methods using the TSUBAME2 supercomputer at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and discussed with the vacancy profile probed by the o-Ps. The results suggested that the large hydration size of Na+ compared to the vacancy size in the polyamides contributes to the increased diffusivity selectivity of water/Na+ that is related to the NaCl desalination performance of the membrane. Both the hydration size of the ions and the vacancy size appeared to be significant parameters to discuss the diffusivity selectivity of water/ions in typical polyamide membranes.

A Shimazu; H Goto; T Shintani; M Hirose; R Suzuki; Y Kobayashi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Treatment of low-level radioactive waste liquid by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

The processing of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) liquids that result from operation of nuclear power plants with reverse osmosis systems is not common practice. A demonstration facility is operating at Chalk River Laboratories (of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited), processing much of the LLRW liquids generated at the site from a multitude of radioactive facilities, ranging from isotope production through decontamination operations and including chemical laboratory drains. The reverse osmosis system comprises two treatment steps--spiral wound reverse osmosis followed by tubular reverse osmosis--to achieve an average volume reduction factor of 30:1 and a removal efficiency in excess of 99% for most radioactive and chemical species. The separation allows the clean effluent to be discharged without further treatment. The concentrated waste stream of 3 wt% total solids is further processed to generate a solid product. The typical lifetimes of the membranes have been nearly 4000 hours, and replacement was required based on increased pressure drops and irreversible loss of permeate flux. Four years of operating experience with the reverse osmosis system, to demonstrate its practicality and to observe and record its efficiency, maintenance requirements and effectiveness, have proven it to be viable for volume reduction and concentration of LLRW liquids generated from nuclear-power-plant operations.

Buckley, L.P.; Sen Gupta, S.K.; Slade, J.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Chalk River Labs.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Fouling effects of tri-n-butylphosphate on reverse osmosis performance and techniques for performance recovery  

SciTech Connect

The F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) must be on-line by November 1988 to treat the low level activity wastes presently being discharged to the F- and H- areas' seepage basins. The three main processes of the F/H ETF are filtration, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange. Any dissolved organics present in the F/H ETF's feed have the potential to affect operation of the reverse osmosis system. Earlier studies with F/H ETF feed simulant and 70 volume percent kerosene and 30 volume percent tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) additions showed that the kerosene/TBP mixture results in partial fouling of reverse osmosis membranes. A more detailed analysis of the seepage basin feed has shown that TBP is the major dissolved organic compound. Since it is dissolved (soluble to about 400 ppM at 25{degree}C), TBP will be present in the reverse osmosis feed unless removed by a means other than filtration. Thus the fouling effect of TBP (without kerosene) on reverse osmosis performance was investigated. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Poy, F.L.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

100

Concentration polarization in cross-flow reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

A dimensionless governing equation was formulated for a cross-flow RO process in which the local variation of concentration polarization was rigorously considered. It was shown in this formulation that the cross-flow RO process could be fully characterized with a single dimensionless parameter. The coupling between permeate flux and concentration polarization was properly solved and a closed-form analytical solution was obtained. This analytical solution enabled the authors to conveniently investigate concentration polarization in the RO process. The significance of local variation of concentration polarization was demonstrated, and the operations of RO under various conditions were simulated and investigated with the newly developed model.

Song, L.; Yu, S. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong). School of Engineering] [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong). School of Engineering

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Assessment of an ultrafiltration pre-treatment system for a seawater reverse osmosis plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The seawater reverse osmosis system requires extensive pre-treatment in order to ensure reliable performance. The conventional pre-treatment system involves dosing of chemicals, which requires frequent monitoring of raw water quality, and also involves adjusting the dosage. Besides being cumbersome, there is a lot of time lag involved in carrying out these measures. This calls for pre-treatment systems based on physicochemical mechanisms. During the last few years, Ultrafiltration (UF) has emerged as a leading unit operation in order to render raw seawater compatible with reverse osmosis operations. In this context, the Desalination Division of BARC has already installed an operational UF pre-treatment system. In this paper, we examine the role of UF in the overall operations of the seawater reverse osmosis system.

S.A. Tiwari; D. Goswami; S. Prabhakar; P.K. Tewari

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

103

A Remote Absorption Process for Disposal of Evaporate and Reverse Osmosis Concentrates  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial nuclear plants and DOE facilities generate secondary waste streams consisting of evaporator bottoms and reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. Since liquids are not permitted in disposal facilities, these waste streams must be converted to dry solids, either by evaporation to dried solids or by solidification to liquid-free solids. Evaporation of the liquid wastes reduces their volume, but requires costly energy and capital equipment. In some cases, concentration of the contaminants during drying can cause the waste to exceed Class A waste for nuclear utilities or exceed DOE transuranic limits. This means that disposal costs will be increased, or that, when the Barnwell, SC disposal site closes to waste outside of the Atlantic Compact in July 2008, the waste will be precluded from disposal for the foreseeable future). Solidification with cement agents requires less energy and equipment than drying, but results in a volume increase of 50-100%. The doubling or tripling of waste weight, along with the increased volume, sharply increases shipping and disposal costs. Confronted with these unattractive alternatives, Diversified Technologies Services (DTS), in conjunction with selected nuclear utilities and D and D operations at Rocky Flats, undertook an exploratory effort to convert this liquid wastewater to a solid without using cement. This would avoid the bulking effect of cement, and permit the waste to be disposed of the Energy Solutions facility in Utah as well as some DOE facilities. To address the need for an attractive alternative to drying and cement solidification, a test program was developed using a polymer absorbent media to convert the concentrate streams to a liquid-free waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of the pertinent burial sites. Two approaches for mixing the polymer with the liquid were tested: mechanical mixing and in-situ incorporation. As part of this test program, a process control program (PCP) was developed that is 100% scalable from a concentrate test sample as small as 50 grams to full-scale processing of 100 cubic foot containers or larger. In summary: The absorption process offers utilities a viable and less costly alternative to on-site drying or solidification of concentrates. The absorption process can be completed by site personnel or by a vendor as a turnkey service. The process is suitable for multiple types of waste, including RO and evaporator concentrates, sludges, and other difficult to process waters and wet solids. (author)

Brunsell, D.A. [Diversified Technologies Services, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Integration of reverse osmosis and membrane crystallization for sodium sulphate recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Reverse osmosis and membrane crystallization are evaluated in this work as stand-alone and integrated technologies for the recovery of Na2SO4 from aqueous solutions. When SO2 is removed from flue gases by absorption in an aqueous solution and reacts with NaOH, a reusable product (i.e., Na2SO4) of industrial interest can be obtained. For stand-alone reverse osmosis, the effect of the concentration of the feed solution and pressure is studied. For membrane crystallization, the influence of the concentration and flow rate of the feed and osmotic solutions on the process performance has been determined. The characterization of the obtained crystals shows that Na2SO4·10H2O is obtained. From the experimental results, the potential for integration of reverse osmosis and membrane crystallization is simulated. It was concluded that using a reverse osmosis unit prior to the membrane crystallization unit minimizes the total membrane area in comparison with the stand-alone processes.

Wenqi Li; Bart Van der Bruggen; Patricia Luis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Poly(vinyl alcohol) gel sublayers for reverse osmosis membranes. I. Insolubilization by acid-catalyzed dehydration  

SciTech Connect

Both flat-sheet and tubular composite reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were prepared by depositing aqueous solutions of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and a dehydration catalyst on asymmetric poly(arylether sulfone) (PES) substrate membranes. The PVA coatings were insolubilized by heat treatment to create stable hydrophilic gel-layer membranes. The influence of variables such as PVA concentration, catalyst concentration, curing time, and curing temperature was investigated. It was shown that a simple manipulation of one or two variables could lead to membranes with widely differing salt retention and water permeability characteristics. The insolubilized PVA coatings were intended to serve as hydrophilic gel sublayers on which ultra thin salt-retention barriers could ultimately be formed by interfacial polycondensation. For this purpose, high-flux gel layers were required, whereas salt-retention capabilities were not regarded as important. However, the promising salt retentions obtained as 2 MPa (up to 85% NaCl retention and 92% MgSO[sub 4] retention) showed that some of these PES-PVA composite membranes could function as medium-retention, medium-flux RO membranes, even in the absence of an interfacially formed salt-retention barrier.

Immelman, E.; Sanderson, R.D.; Jacobs, E.P.; Van Reenan, A.J. (Univ. of Stellenbosch, (South Africa). Inst. of Polymer Science)

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

106

Characterization of Rio Blanco retort 1 water following treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory research was initiated to evaluate the chemical, physical, and toxicological characteristics of treated and untreated Rio Blanco oil shale retort water. Wet chemical analyses, metals analyses, MICROTOX assays and particle-size analysis were performed on the wastewater before and after treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The reverse osmosis system successfully removed dissolved solids and organics from the wastewater. Based on MICROTOX tests, the water was much less toxic after treatment by reverse osmosis. 8 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Kocornik, D.J.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Modeling and optimization of hybrid wind–solar-powered reverse osmosis water desalination system in Saudi Arabia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A hybrid wind/solar powered reverse osmosis desalination system has been modeled and simulated. The results of the simulation have been used to optimize the system for the minimum cost per cubic meter of the desalinated water. The performance of the hybrid wind/solar powered RO system has been analyzed under Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, weather data for a typical year. The performance has been evaluated under a constant RO load of 1 kW for 12 h/day and 24 h/day. The simulation results revealed that the optimum system that powers a 1-kW RO system for 12 h/day that yields a minimum levelized cost of energy comprises 2 wind turbines, 40 \\{PVs\\} modules and 6 batteries and the levelized cost of energy of such system is found to be 0.624 $/kW h. On the other hand, for a load of 1-kW for 24 h/day, the optimum system consists of 6 wind turbines, 66 \\{PVs\\} modules and 16 batteries with a minimum levelized cost of energy 0.672 $/kW h. Depending on the salinity of the raw water, the energy consumption for desalination ranges between 8 and 20 kW h/m3. This means that the cost of using the proposed optimum hybrid wind/solar system for water desalination will range between $3.693/m3 and $3. 812/m3 which is less than the range reported in the literature.

Esmail M.A. Mokheimer; Ahmet Z. Sahin; Abdullah Al-Sharafi; Ahmad I. Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Recycling nickel electroplating rinse waters by low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis systems were each evaluated (on a pilot scale) on their respective ability to process rinse water collected from a nickel electroplating operation. Each system offered advantages under specific operating conditions. The low temperature evaporation system was best suited to processing solutions with relatively high (greater than 4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentrations. The reverse osmosis system was best adapted to conditions where the feed solution had a relatively low (less than4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentration. In electroplating operations where relatively dilute rinse water solutions must be concentrated to levels acceptable for replacement in the plating bath, a combination of the two technologies might provide the best process alternative.

Lindsey, T.C.; Randall, P.M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the U. S. Patent data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 135 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Cross flow filtration for radwaste applications reverse osmosis demonstration case studies  

SciTech Connect

Today`s radwaste economic and regulatory scenarios signify the importance in the improvement of operational practices to reduce generator liabilities. This action is largely due to the rising cost dealing with burial sites and the imposed waste volume restriction. To control the economical burdens associated with waste burial and to comply with stricter environmental regulations, NPP`s are attempting to modify their radwaste system(s) design and operating philosophy by placing a major emphasis on waste volume reduction and processing techniques. The utilization of reverse osmosis technology as a means for treatment of process and wastewater streams in the nuclear power industry has been investigated for many years. This paper will outline reverse osmosis theory and highlight performance data for process and waste stream purification applications. Case studies performed at 5 nuclear plants have been outlined. The demonstrations were performed on a widely variety of process stream for both a PWR and BWR application. The data provided by the pilot systems, the equipment design, and the economical impact a reverse osmosis unit will have on producing treated (high purity) are as follows.

Malkmus, D. [VECTRA Technologies, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Testing of a benchscale Reverse Osmosis/Coupled Transport system for treating contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The Reverse Osmosis/Coupled Transport process is a innovative means of removing radionuclides from contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site. Specifically, groundwater in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site has been contaminated with uranium, technetium, and nitrate. Investigations are proceeding to determine the most cost effective method to remove these contaminants. The process described in this paper combines three different membrane technologies (reverse osmosis, coupled transport, and nanofiltration to purify the groundwater while extracting and concentrating uranium, technetium, and nitrate into separate solutions. This separation allows for the future use of the radionuclides, if needed, and reduces the amount of waste that will need to be disposed of. This process has the potential to concentrate the contaminants into solutions with volumes in a ratio of 1/10,000 of the feed volume. This compares to traditional volume reductions of 10 to 100 for ion exchange and stand-alone reverse osmosis. The successful demonstration of this technology could result in significant savings in the overall cost of decontaminating the groundwater.

Hodgson, K.M.; Lunsford, T.R.; Panjabi, G.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Using microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse Maha Mehanna,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the middle chamber, the MDC also has characteristics of a reverse electrodialysis (RED) processUsing microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse osmosis Maha Mehanna the energy efficiency of a downstream reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system. We investigated here the use

113

Performance of a 5 kWe Solar-only Organic Rankine Unit Coupled to a Reverse Osmosis Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems are one of the most promising energy conversion technologies available for remote areas and low temperature energy sources. An ORC system works like a conventional Rankine cycle but it uses an organic compound as working fluid, instead of water. A small ORC unit coupled with a solar thermal energy system could be used to convert solar thermal energy into electricity in remote areas, offering an alternative to Photovoltaic (PV) systems to provide the energy required by desalination applications like reverse osmosis (RO). In this work an analysis of the performance of a specific solar desalination ORC system at part load operation is presented, in order to understand its behavior from a thermodynamic perspective and be able to predict the total water production with changing operation conditions. The results showed that water production is around 1.2 m3/h, and it is stable during day and night thanks to the thermal storage and only under bad irradiance circumstances the production would stop.

M. Ibarra; A. Rovira; D.C. Alarcón-Padilla; G. Zaragoza; J. Blanco

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

A 13.3 MGD seawater RO desalination plant for Yanbu Industrial City  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the major design criteria and features for the 13.3 million gallons per day (MGD) seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant that is currently under construction in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah, Yanbu Industrial City, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The seawater RO plant is made up of six trains of about 2.2 MGD capacity each. The plant consists of five major systems: seawater supply, seawater pretreatment, high pressure pumping, RO modules, and permeate posttreatment. The paper also discusses technical issues and parameters associated with the plant design, and advances made in the seawater reverse osmosis desalination technology.

Akili D. Khawaji; Ibrahim K. Kutubkhanah; Jong-Mihn Wie

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Watts nickel and rinse water recovery via an advanced reverse osmosis system  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes the results of an eight month test program conducted at the Hewlett Packard Printed Circuit Board Production Plant, Sunnyvale, CA (H.P.) to assess the effectiveness of an advanced reverse osmosis system (AROS). The AROS unit, manufactured by Water Technologies, Inc. (WTI) of Minneapolis, MN, incorporates membrane materials and system components designed to treat metal plating rinse water and produce two product streams; (1) a concentrated metal solution suitable for the plating bath, and (2) rinse water suitable for reuse as final rinse. Waste water discharge can be virtually eliminated and significant reductions realized in the need for new plating bath solution and rinse water.

Schmidt, C.; White, I.E.; Ludwig, R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Modeling of reverse osmosis in the presence of strong solute-membrane affinity  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of reverse osmosis in the presence of strong solute-membrane affinity has always been a challenge due to the complexity of the solute-solvent-membrane interactions and the resultant effect on membrane performance. Most transport models, including all models treating membranes as nonporous and those based on irreversible thermodynamics, are unable to describe or to predict all of the phenomena associated with this case. Recently, the modified surface force-pore flow model has been derived and used to describe the performance of reverse osmosis membranes for solutes which are rejected from the membrane. In the present work, this model is extended to a more general form which can describe the solute-membrane affinity case. For illustration, the extended model, with five adjustable parameters, is used to describe the performance for cellulose acetate membranes and dilute aqueous solutions of toluene, cumene, and p-chlorophenol (data from literature). The model is reasonably consistent with the data. Simulation results of the extended model are also shown.

Mehdizadeh, H.; Dickson, J.M. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Treatment of effluents arising from a material characterization laboratory, using chemical precipitation and reverse osmosis processes  

SciTech Connect

Owing to the restrictions imposed by the Regulations, mainly in the field of effluent release into a water body, it`s necessary to use a set of technologies that will help meeting the standards established by these regulations. Taking into account what was exposed above, a process for treating the effluents arising from a Material Characterization Laboratory, that will characterize nuclear materials is proposed in this paper. The process proposed uses chemical precipitation for removing chemicals which can be removed by this means (Chromium, Calcium and Sulfate for instance), and reverse osmosis process to purify the filtrate from precipitation process. The reverse osmosis process is used to remove dissolved chemicals (Nitrates and Chlorides). A synthetic solution with a COD of 8000 mg/l was used to simulate the treatment process. After treatment was finished, a purified stream, which represents 90 % of the intake stream have presented a COD of less then 10 mg/l, showing that this process can be utilized to minimize the impact caused to the environment. The characterization of all streams involved in the treatment process as well as the process description is presented in this paper.

Bello, S.M.G.; Mierzwa, J.C. [Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains a minimum of 245 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Thin film composite polyamide membrane parameters estimation for phenol-water system by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

A commercial thin film composite polyamide reverse osmosis membrane is used to separate an aqueous phenol-water binary system. The separation data are analyzed using a combined film theory-solution-diffusion (CFSD) model and a combined film theory-Spiegler-Kedem (CFSK) model. In the present investigation a new phenomenon is observed: there exists a maximum in the rejection when it is plotted against the product flux through the membrane. This behavior is explained for both models. An equation for J{sub v,min}, which is the value of the product flux J{sub v} at which the rejection reaches a maximum, is derived from both models. Although the parameters for both models are consistent over the range of operating conditions, the CFSK model is more accurate for the phenol-water system.

Murthy, Z.V.P.; Gupta, S.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

An Ultrasonic Meter to Characterize Degree of Fouling and Cleaning in Reverse Osmosis Filters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of prognostic capabilities that predict the condition and remaining service life for key industrial systems has the potential to significantly impact performance and the economics of operation for both current and next generation plants. This paper describes an on?line real?time ultrasonic meter that can be used to monitor both fouling and cleaning in reverse osmosis filters. It provides a measure for the degree of fouling. A suit of ultrasonic transducers is mounted to operate through the filter?housing wall on a pilot?scale service water system. A “Degree of Fouling” index is given during both fouling and cleaning for the filters during operation for processing of saline solutions (simulated sea and brackish waters) and solids contamination. The fouling index is transmitted to a central computer where it is integrated in a system level prognostic algorithm.

M. Morra; L. J. Bond; G. R. Golcar

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The corrosion performance of nickel-based alloys in a reverse osmosis plant utilizing seawater  

SciTech Connect

Four nickel-based alloys, UNS N06625, UNS N08825, UNS N10276, and UNS N05500, were evaluated in terms of their corrosion performance in a seawater reverse osmosis plant using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP) and linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements. Slight changes in the EIS spectra were observed for UNS N06625, UNSN10276 and UNS N05500 at low frequencies. However, UNS N08825 EIS spectra exhibited more changes than the other alloys at low frequencies. The OCP of UNS N10276 was more noble than the other alloys under the same conditions. The LPR measurements indicated that UNS N10276 and UNS N05500 exhibited lower corrosion rates than UNS NO6625 and UNS N08825.

Al-Hashem, A.; Carew, J.; Al-Odwani, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Materials Application Dept.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

123

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 146 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Effect of silica on the properties of cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, a series of cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol-600 membranes, with varying ratios were prepared by 2-stage phase inversion protocol. The permeation properties were studied by subjecting membranes in indigenously fabricated reverse osmosis plant. After optimization of different CA/PEG ratios, the membrane with highest salt rejection capacity was selected and modified with varying amount of silica. The Modified membranes were characterized for their permeation properties, hydrophilicity, compositional analysis, thermal stability, mechanical strength and morphological studies. Silica significantly influenced the permeation performance of composite membrane. The flux enhanced from 0.35 to 2.46 L/h m2 along with an 11.41% relative increase in salt rejection. The hydrophilicity was significantly enhanced by the addition of silica. In FTIR spectra, the broadening of the peak around 3500 cm? 1 and emergence of peak at 950 cm? 1 specified the incorporation of silica particles. The thermal analysis indicated the relative increase in degradation temperature (Tmax) and glass transition temperature (Tg) for CPS-5 membrane. The mechanical stability of the modified membranes, increased initially, but declined with further addition of silica. The results indicated that the incorporation of SiO2 content in the casting solution improved the fouling resistance of the membranes.

Adnan Ahmad; Sidra Waheed; Shahzad Maqsood Khan; Sabad e-Gul; Muhammad Shafiq; Muhammad Farooq; Khairuddin Sanaullah; Tahir Jamil

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part I: leading element performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the seawater reverse osmosis preheating process, and presents a parametric study of the process. The basic transport equations describing the leading element are exhibited and appraised. The leading element, which governs the whole system performance, is studied and analysed. The incorporated and investigated operating parameters are the feed pressure and the temperature for different feed salt concentrations. In addition, different feed flow rates, effects on permeate flux and permeator salt rejection, together with the permeator recovery, are studied. A seawater membrane of a well-known data, for instance FT30SW380HR, is used to perform the study. The membrane water permeability coefficient Kw is determined and correlated. Furthermore, the membrane salt permeability coefficient Ks from the manufacturer system analysis program (ROSA) is given and discussed. The transport governing equations are programmed in a way that facilitates the achievement of a realistic parametric study. The results showed that the permeate flux increases significantly as the feed pressure increases. Also, it increases significantly as the feed salt concentration decreases, and also as the feed temperature and pressure increase. Meanwhile, the permeator salt rejection increases significantly as the feed pressure increases, and decreases significantly as the feed temperature increases. The study of the leading element of the array showed that there are constraints that must be considered, such as maximum membrane flux, maximum applied feed pressure, maximum feed flow rate and maximum feed temperature. Therefore, to attain the maximum membrane flux, the applied feed pressure must be lowered when the feed temperature is increased. In the case where the feed temperature is increased from 18°C to 45°C, a pressure saving of between 7% and 26% is achieved, according to the feed salt concentration and feed flow rate.

Aly Karameldin; Mahmoud S. Saadawy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Fouling of ceramic filters and thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes by inorganic and bacteriological constituents  

SciTech Connect

Two significant problems have been identified during the first three years of operating the Savannah River Site Effluent Treatment Facility. These problems encompass two of the facility`s major processing areas: the microfiltration and reverse osmosis steps. The microfilters (crossflow ceramic filters {minus}0.2{mu} nominal pore size) have been prone to pluggage problems. The presence of bacteria and bacteria byproducts in the microfilter feed, along with small quantities of colloidal iron, silica, and aluminum, results in a filter foulant that rapidly deteriorates filter performance and is difficult to remove by chemical cleaning. Processing rates through the filters have dropped from the design flow rate of 300 gpm after cleaning to 60 gpm within minutes. The combination of bacteria (from internal sources) and low concentrations of inorganic species resulted in substantial reductions in the reverse osmosis system performance. The salt rejection has been found to decrease from 99+% to 97%, along with a 50% loss in throughput, within a few hours of cleaning. Experimental work has led to implementation of several changes to plant operation and to planned upgrades of existing equipment. It has been shown that biological control in the influent is necessary to achieve design flowrates. Experiments have also shown that the filter performance can be optimized by the use of efficient filter backpulsing and the addition of aluminum nitrate (15 to 30 mg/L Al{sup 3+}) to the filter feed. The aluminum nitrate assists by controlling adsorption of colloidal inorganic precipitates and biological contaminants. In addition, improved cleaning procedures have been identified for the reverse osmosis units. This paper provides a summary of the plant problems and the experimental work that has been completed to understand and correct these problems.

Siler, J.L.; Poirier, M.R.; McCabe, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

Fouling of ceramic filters and thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes by inorganic and bacteriological constituents  

SciTech Connect

Two significant problems have been identified during the first three years of operating the Savannah River Site Effluent Treatment Facility. These problems encompass two of the facility's major processing areas: the microfiltration and reverse osmosis steps. The microfilters (crossflow ceramic filters {minus}0.2{mu} nominal pore size) have been prone to pluggage problems. The presence of bacteria and bacteria byproducts in the microfilter feed, along with small quantities of colloidal iron, silica, and aluminum, results in a filter foulant that rapidly deteriorates filter performance and is difficult to remove by chemical cleaning. Processing rates through the filters have dropped from the design flow rate of 300 gpm after cleaning to 60 gpm within minutes. The combination of bacteria (from internal sources) and low concentrations of inorganic species resulted in substantial reductions in the reverse osmosis system performance. The salt rejection has been found to decrease from 99+% to 97%, along with a 50% loss in throughput, within a few hours of cleaning. Experimental work has led to implementation of several changes to plant operation and to planned upgrades of existing equipment. It has been shown that biological control in the influent is necessary to achieve design flowrates. Experiments have also shown that the filter performance can be optimized by the use of efficient filter backpulsing and the addition of aluminum nitrate (15 to 30 mg/L Al{sup 3+}) to the filter feed. The aluminum nitrate assists by controlling adsorption of colloidal inorganic precipitates and biological contaminants. In addition, improved cleaning procedures have been identified for the reverse osmosis units. This paper provides a summary of the plant problems and the experimental work that has been completed to understand and correct these problems.

Siler, J.L.; Poirier, M.R.; McCabe, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Combining reverse osmosis and ion-exchange allows beet distillery condensates to be recycled as fermentable dilution water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Combinations of physical purification processes, i.e. anion-exchange, adsorption, and reverse osmosis were evaluated and compared with single ones for their ability to remove target inhibitory compounds from distillery condensates with the purpose of reusing condensates as fermentation water. Performances of the treatments were evaluated through analyses of residual target compounds and batch and continuous fermentation experiments. Reverse osmosis on BW30 membrane (Dow Chemical) at 25 bar transmembrane pressure and volume reduction ratio (VRR) = 8 followed by anion-exchange (weak Amberlite FPA 51 resin, Dow) was the most efficient process to decrease all inhibitory target compounds (formic, acetic, propanoic, butanoic acids and 2-phenethyl alcohol) present in a distillery condensate below their detection or quantification limit. Water recovery was 87.5%. Such treated condensate proved convenient for reuse as fermentation water. Fermentation tests run in a multistage device exhibited yeast viability and ethanol production performances (concentration and global productivity) equivalent to the blank for a final ethanol concentration of 80 g L? 1 close to practical value encountered in distilleries.

Marie-Laure Lameloise; Marjorie Gavach; Marielle Bouix; Claire Fargues

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 7087 Forward osmosis: Principles, applications, and recent developments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for reverse osmosis applications, the interests in engineered applications of osmosis has been spurred; Direct osmosis; Desalination; Reverse osmosis; Pressure-retarded osmosis Contents 1. IntroductionJournal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 70­87 Review Forward osmosis: Principles, applications

136

Rules of the game change for comparing IX to RO  

SciTech Connect

This article examines how modern packed-bed demineralization with reverse-flow regeneration counters the notion that reverse osmosis is superior to ion exchange, the classical method for treating powerplant makeup water. Recently published articles argue that demineralization for industrial water treatment is steadily becoming the domain of membrane processes based on reverse osmosis (RO). For some experts, the economic crossover pint at which RO outperforms ion exchange (IX) for makeup-water demineralization occurs at a total dissolved solids (TDS) level of 75 ppm. However, three developments during the past five years have completely changed the basis for the IX-vs-RO debate, even at TDS levels as high as 400 to 500 ppm. These are: (1) An improved understanding of the operating characteristics of RO. (2) The application of jetted-resin technology for producing uniform-particle-size (UPS) resin. (3) Refinement of the packed-bed, reverse-flow (RF) demineralization technique, greatly reducing operating and capital costs.

Stoebenau, H.P.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes. January 1980-January 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Jan 92  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes and reverse osmosis to treat wastes. Ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Wastewater treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (Contains 63 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Treatment of model inland brackish groundwater reverse osmosis concentrate with electrodialysis — Part II: Sensitivity to voltage application and membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of electrodialysis performance to variations in voltage application and membranes when treating brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate waste. Synthetic BWRO concentrates from Arizona and Texas of 7890–14,800 mg/L total dissolved solids were prepared with poly-phosphonate antiscalants. Experimentation was performed using a laboratory-scale electrodialyzer with two sets of membranes (AMV-CMV and PCSA-PCSK) with a nominal transfer area of 64 cm2 per membrane. Flow, pressure, conductivity, temperature, and pH were measured continuously, and periodic samples were analyzed for specific anion and cation concentrations. The BWRO concentrates were successfully treated with stack voltage applications of 0.5–1.5 V/cell-pair for salinity removal ratios up to 99% with current density less than 500 A/m2. This paper highlights that (1) the specific energy consumption was proportional to the applied voltage and equivalent concentration separated (i.e., approximately 0.03 kW h/m3 per Volt/cell-pair applied per meq/L separated); (2) lower voltage applications decreased the relative separation rate of sulfate compared to chloride; and (3) water transport by electro-osmosis was independent of voltage application or resulting current densities, while it is affected by the ion exchange membranes.

W. Shane Walker; Younggy Kim; Desmond F. Lawler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Design of a photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plant in off-grid operation for desalination of brackish water  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plants in off-grid operation constitute a promising system technology for meeting a part of the water requirements in regions without dependable water supply and electric grid system power supply. This paper presents a new procedure for optimum system design configuration. The goal is to provide the cheapest possible water supply while fulfilling all regional and technical boundary conditions. The starting point of the procedure is a rough design based on a load duration curve. Subsequent time sequence simulations which image the system behavior completely, permit checking of various plant variants for compliance with the boundary conditions. Objective mutual comparisons of the plant variants are possible, also taking the system costs into consideration. The possibilities of the developed procedure are demonstrated taking a village supply in Northeast Brazil as example.

Broeker, C.; Carvalho, P.C.M.; Menne, K.; Ortjohann, E.; Temme, L.; Voss, J. [Univ. Paderborn (Germany). Elektrische Energieversorgung

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

The San Diego Foundation Regional Focus 2050 Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regional Growth Forecast Reverse Osmosis Reactive organicenergy demand.   Reverse osmosis (RO) systems do not 

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the membrane systems, reverse osmosis (RO) garners the mostof vapor compression, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Design and economics of RO seawater desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Large-scale seawater desalination is an attractive and viable alternative for the production of potable water in the absence of natural fresh water resources. Over the past two decades, the reverse osmosis (RO) process has allowed a tremendous reduction in the cost of potable water from seawater desalination. Indeed, cost studies conducted by various researchers have indicated that it is possible to obtain product water cost of about US$ 0.80/ m3. This paper introduces a comprehensive, but tractable, means of modelling large-scale seawater RO desalination plants that can accommodate various flow configurations. The two most important considerations in RO plant modelling are the permeator performance characteristics and the permeator replacement scheme. In particular, the flux degradation of the permeator with operational age has to be accounted for. The RO model introduced here was used for extensive plant cost analysis. The cost studies indicate that the permeator cost makes up a large percentage (?37%) of the total plant capital cost. This means that large-sized permeators, which offer smaller cost per unit membrane area, should be utilized in order to appreciate economies of scale. In terms of operating cost, the annual permeator replacement cost also forms the major portion. Interestingly, with the use of hydraulic energy recovery systems, the product water cost is relatively insensitive to energy price fluctuations. Also, cost comparisons conducted for a brine-stage RO plant configuration indicated that it is more costly than single-stage plants, especially for high concentration seawater.

A. Malek; M.N.A. Hawlader; J.C. Ho

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The need for a novel method for achieving zero effluent-discharge status for ethanol distilleries: spentwash colour removal by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sustained industrial scale production of ethanol in India is dependent on the earliest possible implementation of zero effluent discharge. High pollution parameters of effluent made it commercially impossible. An urgent need for developing a method to attain a zero discharge status for distilleries was essential. The presently tried and tested methods had limitations for conclusive disposal of spentwash effluent. Application of Reverse Osmosis was tried. However, only Rochem's DT Reverse Osmosis configuration was effective. It reduced the effluent volume. The reduced volume effluent could be conclusively composted. It also enabled recovery of reuse-quality colorless water to the extent of 50% of original volume of effluent. This technique succeeded in achieving commercially viable means for zero-discharge.

Harshvardhan Madhusudan Modak; Prayas Kamlesh Goel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. November 1976-October 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for November 1976-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 294 citations, 13 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: industrial. January 1976-June 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1976-June 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 281 citations, 35 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: industrial. January 1976-June 1988 (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for January 1976-June 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Wastewater treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 246 citations, 26 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. November 1970-October 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1970-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse-osmosis technology. Patents include systems and devices for sea water, waste water, and drinking water purification. Topics include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related published bibliography. (Contains 103 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Design, economic analysis and environmental considerations of mini-grid hybrid power system with reverse osmosis desalination plant for remote areas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the design process of a mini-grid hybrid power system with reverse osmosis desalination plant for remote areas, together with an economic analysis and environmental considerations for the project life cycle. It presents a design scenario for supplying electricity and fulfilling demand for clean water in remote areas by utilising renewable energy sources and a diesel generator with a reverse osmosis desalination plant as a deferrable load. The economic issues analysed are the initial capital cost needed, the fuel consumption and annual cost, the total net present cost (NPC), the cost of electricity (COE) generated by the system per kWh and the simple payback time (SPBT) for the project. The environmental considerations discussed are the amount of gas emissions, such as CO2 and NOx, as well as particulate matter released into the atmosphere. Simulations based on an actual set of conditions in a remote area in the Maldives were performed using HOMER for two conditions: before and after the Tsunami of 26th December 2004. Experimental results on the prototype 5 kVA mini-grid inverter and reverse osmosis desalination plant, rated at 5.5 kWh/day, are also presented here to verify the idea of providing power and water supplies to remote areas.

Ahmad Agus Setiawan; Yu Zhao; Chem. V. Nayar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Treatment of model inland brackish groundwater reverse osmosis concentrate with electrodialysis — Part III: Sensitivity to composition and hydraulic recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of electrodialysis performance to variations in voltage application and membrane type when treating brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) concentrate waste, which typically exceeds multiple salt solubility limits. Synthetic BWRO concentrates from Arizona, Texas, and Florida of 7890–18,600 mg/L total dissolved solids were prepared with 6–10 mg/L of poly-phosphonate antiscalants. Experimentation was performed using a laboratory-scale electrodialyzer a nominal transfer area of 64 cm2 per membrane. Flow, pressure, conductivity, temperature, and pH were measured continuously, and periodic process samples were analyzed for anion and cation concentrations. The three BWRO concentrates were successfully treated with stack voltage applications of 1.0–1.5 V/cell-pair with initial current densities of 200–600 A/m2 and final salinity removal ratios up to 98%. This paper shows consistent specific energy consumption (approximately 0.03 kWh/m3 per Volt/cell-pair applied per meq/L separated) for electrodialysis treatment for several concentrates across a range of salinity and composition. Successive electrodialysis treatment recovered more than 78% of BWRO concentrate without precipitation, corresponding to calcite and dolomite saturation ratios of 15. These results demonstrate that electrodialysis processes can effectively minimize concentrate waste from BWRO processes, with simulated system recoveries up to 95%.

W. Shane Walker; Younggy Kim; Desmond F. Lawler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Treatment of model inland brackish groundwater reverse osmosis concentrate with electrodialysis—Part I: sensitivity to superficial velocity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of electrodialysis performance to variations in hydraulic flow when treating brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) concentrate waste. A synthetic BWRO concentrate from Arizona of 7890 mg/L total dissolved solids was prepared with poly-phosphonate antiscalants, and desalinated with a laboratory-scale electrodialyzer with 10 cell-pairs and a transfer area of 64 cm2 per membrane. Flow, pressure, conductivity, temperature, and pH were measured continuously, and periodic process samples were analyzed by ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry for anion and cation concentrations, respectively. The BWRO concentrate was successfully treated with a stack voltage application of 1.0 V/cell-pair and current densities less than 280 A/m2 for salinity removal ratios up to 99% (without precipitation). The superficial velocities were controlled in a range of 1.2 to 4.8 cm/s, which corresponded to Reynolds numbers of 10 to 40. This paper shows the polarization parameter (ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 A/m2 per meq/L) as a function of Reynolds number and removal ratio, and, at maximum sensitivity, the polarization parameter was proportional to Reynolds number raised to the 0.132 power.

W. Shane Walker; Younggy Kim; Desmond F. Lawler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Percent yield of reverse osmosis (RO) treatment Percent ROfacilities, such as reverse osmosis reject water from UPWsystems may employ reverse osmosis or reverse osmosis and

Zhang, Teresa Weirui

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Dynamics of reverse osmosis in a standalone cogenerative nuclear reactor (Part II: load changes)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coupling of desalination units with nuclear power plants has been studied in the present work â?? in this respect, the dynamic behaviour of the pressurised water reactor safety features, represented by the integrity of the fuel cladding, under some transient cases caused by secondary circuit load changes. A cosine-shaped heating through the reactor fuel is taken with its corresponding coolant lumps, to simulate realistic cases encountered in nuclear reactors. As an example, the mathematical model for the Westinghouse 3411 MWth pressurised water reactor, a familiar design with widely published design data was developed. The model consists of two parts; the first one is concerned with the dynamics of the primary side of the reactor; and the second, with the secondary side of the plant. To study the dynamics of the reactor, a 17-lumped parameters model was used. This is a first-order differential equation deduced from the first principles considering six groups of delayed neutrons. A computer program was developed using the Runge-Kutta method to solve these equations and to predict the behaviour of the state variables with time. Two case studies were considered as examples for normal transients. The developed model, which describes the dynamic response of the reactor, primary circuit and secondary circuit, has been analysed and verified with the relevant models. The first case, represented in Part 1 of this study, is concerned with the effect of changes of primary side transient reactivity, including the movement of the reactor control rods. The second one, represented in Part 2 of this study, considers the effect of the secondary side transient reactivity, as the load changes, on the system behaviour. As an example for the secondary side transient, load perturbations, such as load variations in standalone RO desalination units, are selected to study the effect of changing the secondary side conditions on the plant behaviour. The results showed that the reactor components and the fuel matrix should not be affected, and the fuel-cladding integrity is maintained within the safe limits, in all scram cases of RO desalination units coupled with nuclear power plants in the case of either a planned shutdown or an accidental shutdown.

Aly Karameldin; M.M. Shamloul; M.R. Shaalan; M.H. Esawy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Aged black carbon in marine sediments and sinking particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combining reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for more com-using coupled reverse osmosis–electrodialysis, Geochim.and POC. Reverse osmosis coupled to electrodialysis (RO/ED)

Coppola, Alysha I; Ziolkowski, Lori A; Masiello, Caroline A; Druffel, Ellen R. M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

On-Site Pilot Study - Removal of Uranium, Radium-226 and Arsenic from Impacted Leachate by Reverse Osmosis - 13155  

SciTech Connect

Conestoga-Rovers and Associates (CRA-LTD) performed an on-site pilot study at the Welcome Waste Management Facility in Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the effectiveness of a unique leachate treatment process for the removal of radioactive contaminants from leachate impacted by low-level radioactive waste. Results from the study also provided the parameters needed for the design of the CRA-LTD full scale leachate treatment process design. The final effluent water quality discharged from the process to meet the local surface water discharge criteria. A statistical software package was utilized to obtain the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the results from design of experiment applied to determine the effect of the evaluated factors on the measured responses. The factors considered in the study were: percent of reverse osmosis permeate water recovery, influent coagulant dosage, and influent total dissolved solids (TDS) dosage. The measured responses evaluated were: operating time, average specific flux, and rejection of radioactive contaminants along with other elements. The ANOVA for the design of experiment results revealed that the operating time is affected by the percent water recovery to be achieved and the flocculant dosage over the range studied. The average specific flux and rejection for the radioactive contaminants were not affected by the factors evaluated over the range studied. The 3 month long on-site pilot testing on the impacted leachate revealed that the CRA-LTD leachate treatment process was robust and produced an effluent water quality that met the surface water discharge criteria mandated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and the local municipality. (authors)

McMurray, Allan; Everest, Chris; Rilling, Ken [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Dr, Waterloo, ON (Canada)] [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Dr, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Vandergaast, Gary [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON (Canada); LaMonica, David [RoChem Membrane Systems Inc., 430 30th Street, Hermosa Beach, CA (United States)] [RoChem Membrane Systems Inc., 430 30th Street, Hermosa Beach, CA (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Osmosis with active solutes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite much current interest in active matter, little is known about osmosis in active systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how active solutes perturb osmotic steady states. We find that solute activity increases the osmotic pressure, and can also expel solvent from the solution - i.e. cause reverse osmosis. The latter effect cannot be described by an effective temperature, but can be reproduced by mapping the active solution onto a passive one with the same degree of local structuring as the passive solvent component. Our results provide a basic framework for understanding active osmosis, and suggest that activity-induced structuring of the passive component may play a key role in the physics of active-passive mixtures.

Thomas W. Lion; Rosalind J. Allen

2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

157

Osmosis with active solutes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite much current interest in active matter, little is known about osmosis in active systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how active solutes perturb osmotic steady states. We find that solute activity increases the osmotic pressure, and can also expel solvent from the solution - i.e. cause reverse osmosis. The latter effect cannot be described by an effective temperature, but can be reproduced by mapping the active solution onto a passive one with the same degree of local structuring as the passive solvent component. Our results provide a basic framework for understanding active osmosis, and suggest that activity-induced structuring of the passive component may play a key role in the physics of active-passive mixtures.

Lion, Thomas W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Sustainable reverse osmosis desalination.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The need for fresh water is growing rapidly with the growth in population and increase in industrial demands. The natural resources are no longer able… (more)

Moridpour, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

SWITCHABLE POLARITY SOLVENTS AS DRAW SOLUTES FOR FORWARD OSMOSIS  

SciTech Connect

Switchable polarity solvents (SPS), mixtures of carbon dioxide, water, and tertiary amines, are presented as viable forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes allowing a novel SPS FO process. In this study substantial osmotic strengths of SPS are measured with freezing point osmometry and were demonstrated to induce competitive ?uxes at high salt concentrations on a laboratory-scale FO unit utilizing a ?at sheet cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane. Under the experimental conditions the SPS degrades the CTA membrane; however experiments with polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes display stability towards SPS. Once the draw is diluted the major fraction of the switchable polarity solvent can be mechanically separated from the puri?ed water after polar to nonpolar phase shift induced by introduction of 1 atm carbon dioxide to 1 atm of air or nitrogen with mild heating. Trace amounts of SPS can be removed from the separated water with RO in a process that avoids solution concentration polarization. The separated nonpolar phase can be regenerated to a full strength draw and recycled with the re-addition of 1 atm of carbon dioxide.

Frederick F. Stewart; Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Cathy Rae

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Low Molecular Weight Organic Contaminants in Advanced Treatment: Occurrence, Treatment and Implications to Desalination and Water Reuse Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cutoff of 200 Da for reverse osmosis membranes [Bellona etthe efficacy of reverse osmosis technology to remove odordecreased the cost of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and

Agus, Eva

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Oceanographic Considerations for Desalination Plants in Southern California Coastal Waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

construct and operate a reverse osmosis (R.O. ) desalinationand filtered through reverse osmosis membranes to produceseawater produced by the reverse osmosis process (brine)

Jenkins, Scott A; Wasyl, Joseph

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Ultrafiltration/Reverse Osmosis System at AutomotiveUltrafiltration/reverse osmosis for wastewater cleaningUltrafiltration/reverse osmosis (UF/RO) for wastewater

Galitsky, Christina

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Biomimicry using Nano-Engineered Enhanced Condensing Surfaces for Sustainable Fresh Water Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flash distillation (MSF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The 2009flash distillation and reverse osmosis are shown in TableStage Flash Distillation Reverse Osmosis Typical unit size [

Al-Beaini, Sara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

use of membranes. In reverse osmosis (RO) the pre-filteredsemi-permeable membrane. Reverse osmosis and other membranecleaned by means of reverse osmosis. In collaboration with a

Neelis, Maarten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2001. Installation of Reverse Osmosis Unit Reduces Refineryuse of membranes. In reverse osmosis (RO), the pre-filteredsemi- permeable membrane. Reverse osmosis and other membrane

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Development of a new feed channel spacer for reverse osmosis elements. Phase 2 final report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

During Phase 1, computer modeling techniques were used as the prime instrument of evaluation of designs for a new feed channel spacer to replace the 30 mil thick standard mesh (Vexar) spacer currently used in ROWPU [Reverse Osmosis Water Processing Unit] spiral-wound elements. A hemispherical peg model, based on a Bed of Nails concept developed in Phase 1, was selected for prototype production of spiral-wound elements for field testing. Evaluation in the See-Thru test cell to observe pressure drops through the spacer, feed mixing patterns and ease of cleaning fouled membrane samples showed considerable benefit over Vexar. This design would be suitable for production by roll embossing (or rotary punching) methods instead of expensive injection molding techniques. A 10{1/2} inch die set was fabricated to prove this concept using a 12 ton press brake. Due to a number of factors, however, the equipment did not work as anticipated and numerous modifications are currently in progress. This work will continue at no cost to the government until completed. A seawater test system has been constructed for field testing of various commercially available feed channel spacers for comparison with the Vexar spacer.

Milstead, C.E.; Riley, R.L.

1998-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

167

Treatment of RO concentrate by means of a combination of a willow field and electrodialysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The increasing demand for recycled water has led to the use of reverse osmosis (RO) in numerous applications. This purification process produces a concentrate with a high salinity, containing nutrients and organic compounds. This RO concentrate is generally considered as a waste stream, causing a major impact on the ecosystem when discharged. This paper explores the potential of treatment of this concentrate by a biological pretreatment using a willow field followed by electrodialysis (ED). Due to the high salinity of the RO concentrate various willow species were initially examined in a salt tolerance test. A dense willow plantation of 28.33 m2, composed of the most suitable species, was developed and used to reduce the nutrient and organic load of the RO concentrate. The removal rate of COD, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the willow test field was 20%, 32% and 32%, respectively. Subsequently, an ED pilot scale plant was used for the production of an adequate effluent with a satisfying salt concentration, which can be re-inserted into the biological unit of the WWTP. This results in the indirect increase of the overall water recovery and minimization of the waste fraction. It was concluded that the coupling of a willow field and electrodialysis is a sustainable and environmentally friendly solution for treating saline wastewaters such as RO concentrates.

Karel Ghyselbrecht; Emmanuel Van Houtte; Luc Pinoy; Johan Verbauwhede; Bart Van der Bruggen; Boudewijn Meesschaert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Model-Based Diagnosis and Prognosis of a Water Recycling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by 60%. The WRS is mainly comprised of a forward osmosis (FO) system and a reverse osmosis (RO) system

Roychoudhury, Indranil

169

Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients ... Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to produce renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. ... Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and reverse electrodialysis (RED) are emerging membrane-based technologies that can convert chemical energy in salinity gradients to useful work. ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Alberto Tiraferri; William A. Phillip; Jessica D. Schiffman; Laura A. Hoover; Yu Chang Kim; Menachem Elimelech

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

170

How solute size and charge influence osmosis James Cannon,, Daejoong Kim, Shigeo Maruyama, and Junichiro Shiomi,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This is particularly the case for applications such as desalination, where membrane-based reverse-osmosis methods haveHow solute size and charge influence osmosis James Cannon,, Daejoong Kim, Shigeo Maruyama@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; shiomi@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract Osmosis is fundamental to many processes, such as in the function

Maruyama, Shigeo

171

A Comprehensive Bench-and Pilot-Scale Investigation of Trace Or-ganic Compound Rejection by Forward Osmosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sea- water desalination, multi-barrier protection of drinking water, reduction in reverse osmosis seawater on the way to a seawater reverse osmosis pro- cess. The rejection of wastewater constituents by Forward Osmosis SUPPORTING INFORMATION Nathan T. Hancock1 , Pei Xu1 , Dean M. Heil1 , Christopher Bellona2

172

Treatment of municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate using UVC-LED/H2O2 with and without coagulation pre-treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The potential of a prototype batch reactor using ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UVC-LEDs) which emit at 255 nm in conjunction with H2O2 for the treatment of a highly saline (electrical conductivity ?22 mS/cm; DOC 32–37.5 mg/L) municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate was investigated. Mineralization of organic content (measured as DOC) was low (22%) due to the low fluence rate (0.14 mW/cm2), however, a large reduction in colour (94%) and A254 (75%) occurred after delivering a UV fluence of 48 × 103 mJ/cm2 at the original pH of 8.3. Fairly similar results were obtained at pH 7, but the reduction of DOC increased at lower pH with 38% and 36% achieved at pH 4 and 5, respectively. Similar trends were observed for colour and A254 reduction. These results, in conjunction with excitation–emission matrix spectra, biological dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) assay and apparent molecular size distribution, demonstrated that the prototype system led to the breakdown of the chromophore bonds and thus changes in the molecular structure, and degradation of high molecular weight (MW) compounds to low MW compounds. Coagulation (1.5 and 3 mmol L?1 Al3+ at pH 5) led to a significant reduction of DOC (34–38%), colour (50–66%) and A254 (47–54%), and subsequent UVC/H2O2 treatment led to further reduction in these parameters. For a target DOC reduction of 15 mg/L, the EE/O was 15 kWh/m3 when coagulation was used as pre-treatment to the UVC/H2O2 treatment (UV fluence 36 × 103 mJ/cm2) and it reduced to less than half after biological treatment (as BDOC assay). This study demonstrated the potential of UV-LEDs as an alternative UV source for degrading the organic matter in ROC using advanced oxidation.

M. Umar; F.A. Roddick; L. Fan; O. Autin; B. Jefferson

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Gel deswelling under reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When a swollen gel is pressed into contact with a semipermeable membrane the solvent is squeezed out at the interface and the gel deswells. The rate at which the gel far from the interface advances is found to be proportional to [(P 0?E)/f t]1/2 where P 0 is the applied pressure E the longitudinal elastic modulus of the gel f the friction coefficient between the solvent and polymer and t the elapsed time. Satisfactory agreement is found between the experimental macroscopic values of E obtained in this way for polyacrylamide gels at two concentrations and the microscopic values of E obtained from inelastic light scattering.

A. M. Hecht; E. Geissler

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

A hybrid ED/RO process for TDS reduction of produced waters  

SciTech Connect

Large volumes of produced waters are generated from natural gas production. In the United States the prevailing management practice for produced waters is deep well injection, but this practice is costly. Therefore minimizing the need for deep well injection is desirable. A major treatment issue for produced waters is the reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS), which consist mostly of inorganic salts. A hybrid electrodialysis/reverse-osmosis (ED/RO) treatment process is being developed to concentrate the salts in produced waters and thereby reduce the volume of brine that needs to be managed for disposal. The desalted water can be used beneficially or discharged. In this study, laboratory feasibility experiments were conducted by using produced waters from multiple sites. A novel-membrane configuration approach to prevent fouling and scale formation was developed and demonstrated. Results of laboratory experiments and plans for field demonstration are discussed.

Tsai, S.P.; Datta, R.; Frank, J.R. [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), or ionelectrodialysis is also much more sensitive to dissolved organics than reverse

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Forward osmosis :a new approach to water purification and desalination.  

SciTech Connect

Fresh, potable water is an essential human need and thus looming water shortages threaten the world's peace and prosperity. Waste water, brackish water, and seawater have great potential to fill the coming requirements. Unfortunately, the ability to exploit these resources is currently limited in many parts of the world by both the cost of the energy and the investment in equipment required for purification/desalination. Forward (or direct) osmosis is an emerging process for dewatering aqueous streams that might one day help resolve this problem. In FO, water from one solution selectively passes through a membrane to a second solution based solely on the difference in the chemical potential (concentration) of the two solutions. The process is spontaneous, and can be accomplished with very little energy expenditure. Thus, FO can be used, in effect, to exchange one solute for a different solute, specifically chosen for its chemical or physical properties. For desalination applications, the salts in the feed stream could be exchanged for an osmotic agent specifically chosen for its ease of removal, e.g. by precipitation. This report summarizes work performed at Sandia National Laboratories in the area of FO and reviews the status of the technology for desalination applications. At its current state of development, FO will not replace reverse osmosis (RO) as the most favored desalination technology, particularly for routine waters. However, a future role for FO is not out of the question. The ability to treat waters with high solids content or fouling potential is particularly attractive. Although our analysis indicates that FO is not cost effective as a pretreatment for conventional BWRO, water scarcity will likely drive societies to recover potable water from increasingly marginal resources, for example gray water and then sewage. In this context, FO may be an attractive pretreatment alternative. To move the technology forward, continued improvement and optimization of membranes is recommended. The identification of optimal osmotic agents for different applications is also suggested as it is clear that the space of potential agents and recovery processes has not been fully explored.

Miller, James Edward; Evans, Lindsey R.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Sandia National Laboratories: RO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RO ECIS-UNM: Biomimetic Membranes for Water Purification On February 20, 2013, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Energy Efficiency, Facilities, Global Climate & Energy, Materials...

178

DESALTED WATER FROM A HYBRID RO/MSF PLANT WITHRDF COMBUSTION: MODELLING AND ECONOMICS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hybrid process of seawater desalting couples the reverse osmosis with the multi-stage flash process. The hybrid process is usually planned to improve the performance of MSF and reduce the cost of desalted ...

ELISABETTA FOIS; ANTONIO LALLAI; GIAMPAOLO MURA

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Evaluation of Membrane Processes for Reducing Total Dissolved Solids Discharged to the Truckee River  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for endangered species. Reverse osmosis RO and nanofiltration NF , in conjunction with ultrafiltration UF also have to be removed from the effluent in order to maintain their TMDLs. Reverse osmosis RO

180

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reverse osmosis (RO) (46% of global capacity), multi-stage flash (MSF) (36% of global capacity), electrodialysis (

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Climatic Change (2009) 97:409437 DOI 10.1007/s10584-009-9626-y  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-gallon pump-price to cover irrigation costs, using reverse osmosis (RO), desalinated, sea water. Such mature

182

Gel deswelling under reverse osmosis. II  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Previous observations of the rate of deswelling z 0 of polyacrylamide gels under the influence of an externally applied pressure P showed that z 0 2 is proportional to P. This behavior was interpreted as indicating the formation of a concentrated layer of gel at the deswelling surface favored by an attractive potential between the gel and the membrane. In this article optical measurements of the concentration gradient profile of a series of gels undergoing deswelling are reported. From these curves it is shown that for small degrees of deswelling the collective diffusion constant D varies with concentration as c 0.5 but increases more strongly with concentration at large degrees of deswelling. The zeroth and first moments of these curves are in good agreement with the calculated concentration increment induced by the external pressure and the observed rate of deswelling of the gel respectively. It is concluded that there is no evidence of a distinct controlling layer at the interface between the gel and the membrane and the observed linearity between z 0 2 and P is the consequence of the nonscaling behavior of D in the equation of motion.

E. Geissler; A. M. Hecht

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Borosilicate Microporous Glasses for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The characteristics of microporous borosilicate glasses are described. Glasses with an optimum pore distribution are recommended for production and application.

S. L. Zakharov

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Industrial Waste Treatment Opportunities for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since the beginning of our industrial economy, an abundant supply of clean water has been a major factor in the choice of plant locations. In many instances in the past, industry has used water from our rivers...

J. G. Mahoney; M. E. Rowley; L. E. West

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Reverse osmosis module successfully treats landfill leachate  

SciTech Connect

By law, modern landfills are to be constructed with double liners to prevent contaminants from leaching into surface and ground water. Despite this design feature, however, both hazardous and non-hazardous compounds do leach from the waste disposed in landfills. The resulting contaminated water, or leachate, must be collected and treated. Rochem Environmental, Inc. (Houston, Texas) has developed a new membrane process, known as the Disc Tube{trademark} system, to remove a variety of contaminants from landfill leachate. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

16 IDA JournAl | Fourth QuArter 2010 www.IDADesAl.org Treatment Innovations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

areas are turning to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, the energy require- ments can be a large to a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant, the energy demand of desalination is reduced, and two tight and technically feasible across a broad range of operating conditions. Forward Osmosis­Reverse Osmosis Process

187

Osmosis Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Osmosis Capital Osmosis Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name Osmosis Capital Place London, United Kingdom Zip EC4M 9DN Sector Carbon Product An investment firm seeking low carbon economy opportunity investments through its Osmosis Capital Fund. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

188

Solid-State NMR Molecular Dynamics Characterization of aHighly Chlorine-Resistant Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Random Copolymer Blended with Poly(ethylene glycol) Oligomers for Reverse Osmosis Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(3) However, PAs show a critical weakness to chlorine (e.g., NaOCl) that is added as an oxidizing biocide to remove microorganisms that accumulate on the membrane surface, blocking water flux. ... (6, 10, 11) Hence, BPS-20K, a relatively low DS material, was considered as an alternative RO membrane material owing to its excellent NaCl separation property being similar to that of commercial PA (>99%). ...

Chang Hyun Lee; Justin Spano; James E. McGrath; Joseph Cook; Benny D. Freeman; Sungsool Wi

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

189

July/August 2006, Vol. 61, No. 4 171 ngested inorganic arsenic (InAs) causes cancer of the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

domestic wells commonly use reverse osmosis (RO) water filtration units to reduce arsenic con- centrations of 351 homes in Churchill County, NV, (the same area where our study took Reverse Osmosis Filter Use water generally do not apply to private domestic wells. Reverse osmosis (RO) units commonly are used

California at Berkeley, University of

190

Economics of seawater RO desalination in the Red Sea region, Egypt. Part 1. A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tackling water shortage issues with desalting of seawater and salty water is common in the desert nations of the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The fast growing development in Egypt has required big movements of investments and people from the Nile Valley towards the east, with the fantastic Red Sea and Sinai coastal zones, and also towards the Western Desert that has promising brackish groundwater potentialities. In both cases, fresh water supply is essential and desalination is a feasible option that can cover the wide gap between the available capacities and the accelerating demands. The cost of desalination, either thermal or membrane, is inversely proportional to the production capacity. This greatly affects the economics of desalination at the modern tourism development area on the Red Sea. The sporadic nature of the tourist hotels and resorts along more than 1500 km of coastal strip, at Sinai and the Red Sea region, favores the small capacity reverse osmosis plants with the range between 200 and 3000 m3/d. The higher RO plant capacities (>300 m3/d) and fewer and limited to the main towns. The present work outlined the economic variables and limitations that influence the pure water cost by using the small capacity SWRO desalination plants. The techno-economic study was made to estimate the actual cost of production on real field measurements. The fixed and operating costs of five selected SWRO plants of 250, 500, 2000, 3500 and 4800 m3/d were evaluated and discussed. It was found that the production cost resulted from small SWRO desalination plants is much higher than the world cost. The study indicated that the economic larger SWRO desalination capacity (>20,000 m3/d) should be considered during the development strategy and planning of the new tourist projects. The related recommendations to the technical, operational and environmental considerations are given in detail.

Azza Hafez; Samir El-Manharawy

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

This journal is c the Owner Societies 2012 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Cite this: DOI: 10.1039/c2cp42121f  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies. Currently, reverse osmosis (RO), multistage flash distillation (MSF), and electrodialysis (ED recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method

Santiago, Juan G.

192

Desalination is here. In the arid southwest, from Texas to California, as well as in Florida and a few other states, the demand for freshwater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to approximately 80% in conventional reverse osmosis (RO) systems, meaning that 20% of the water requires disposal then available for further RO treatment, and (ii) the direct application of electrodialysis to RO concentrate

Kamat, Vineet R.

193

Published: August 12, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 8483 dx.doi.org/10.1021/es201654k |Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 84838490  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as microfiltration (MF), reverse osmosis (RO), and ultraviolet irradiation with advanced oxidation processes (UV for desalination processes such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) to protect the membranes from-Scale Investigation of Trace Organic Compounds Rejection by Forward Osmosis Nathan T. Hancock, Pei Xu, Dean M. Heil

194

1 Removal of Trace Organic Chemicals and Performance of a Novel 2 Hybrid Ultrafiltration-Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diluted during the process. A reverse osmosis (RO) system is then used to 16 reconcentrate the diluted DS, additional 46 treatment processes such as nanofiltration (NF) or reverse 47 osmosis (RO),3-7 activated carbon from municipal wastewater. The UFO-MBR 10 system uses both ultrafiltration (UF) and forward osmosis (FO

195

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-barrier protection of drinking water, reduction in reverse osmosis membrane fouling due to impurities in impaired, such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF), are capable of rejecting most dissolved constituents 2010 Accepted 29 June 2010 Available online 5 August 2010 Keywords: Osmosis Forward osmosis Osmotic

196

Final Report: Computer Simulation of Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis in Structured Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Molecular simulation methods were developed as part of this project to increase our fundamental understanding of membrane based separation systems. Our simulations clarified for example that steric (size) effects had a significant impact on the desalination membranes. Previously it was thought the separation was entirely driven by coulombic force (attractive/repulsive forces at the membrane surfaces). Steric effects played an important role, because salt ions in brackish water are never present alone, but are strongly hydrated which effectively increases their size, and makes it impossible to enter a membrane, while the smaller water molecules can enter more readily. Membrane surface effects did play a role in increasing the flux of water, but not in the separation itself. In addition we also developed simulation methods to study ion exchange, gas separations, and pervaporation. The methods developed were used to once again increase our fundamental understanding of these separation processes. For example our studies showed that when the separation factor of gases in membranes can be significantly affected by the presence of another gas, it is generally because the separation mechanism has changed. For example in the case of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, in their pure state the separation factor is determined by diffusion, while in mixtures it is influenced more by adsorption in the membrane (zeolite in our case) Finally we developed a new technique using the NMR chemical shift to determine intermolecular interactions for mixtures. For polar-nonpolar systems such as Xe dissolved in water we were able to significantly improve the accuracy of gas solubilities, which are very sensitive to the cross interaction between water and Xe.

Sohail Murad

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

197

Elemental, Isotopic, and Spectroscopic Assessment of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Matter Sampled with a Portable Reverse Osmosis System A L E X A N D R E O U E L L E T , D R A G O S H C manuscript received December 26, 2007. Accepted January 8, 2008. Portable reverse osmosis (RO) systems implies the rinsing of the reverse osmosis system with a solution of dilute Na

Long, Bernard

198

Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.22 µm. Seawater, reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate collected from a wastewater reclamation plant for the treatment of saline water and wastewater such as thermal distillation and reverse osmosis [2,3]. MD has several advantages compared to conventional thermal distillation and reverse osmosis processes [3

199

Page 5Working Together We Can . . .Volume 9, Issue 9 Marana Pilot Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the results of innovative tech- niques aimed at lowering the cost of Reverse Osmosis and mitigating its in the Northwest Tucson area are considering treat- ing CAP water with reverse osmosis (RO) to reduce TDS reverse osmosis with very low TDS, but the remaining 15% is left with a salt concentration 1/10th

Fay, Noah

200

Proceedings of the ASME 2012 10th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels July 8-12, 2012, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and efforts have focused on the improvement of membrane-based desalination methods such as reverse osmosis or various membranes and includes reverse osmosis (RO) and membrane electro dialysis [2,6,7]. Thermally based) [2-4]. Of all these methods, reverse osmosis and multistage flash distillation ar

Hidrovo, Carlos H.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Author's personal copy Journal of Membrane Science 331 (2009) 3139  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

triacetate; ED, electrodialysis; EDR, electrodialysis reversal; EMWD, Eastern Municipal Water District; FO concen- trated feed solutions. In the current study, two reverse osmosis (RO) brine streams with total is operating two reverse osmosis (RO) desalination facilities and designing a third. The groundwater is blended

202

Synthesis of Reverse Osmosis Membranes by Plasma Polymerization of Allylamine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...probably cause the larger micropores to...and perhaps plasma formed membranes...and gas dynamic plasma conditions, a...time, humidity, atmosphere, and curing temperature...FEBRUARY 1973 Plasma polymerization...to as a motor area, the precentral...conceivable that a large number of organic...

John R. Hollahan; Theodore Wydeven

1973-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

203

Synthesis of Reverse Osmosis Membranes by Plasma Polymerization of Allylamine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ex-perimental technique of plasma polym-erization...CHCH2NH2, after plasma polym-erization in a high-frequency (1 3.56 Mhz) discharge at-0...energy from the radio-frequency (RF) gen-erator...conditions for plasma polymeriza-tion-power...

John R. Hollahan; Theodore Wydeven

1973-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

204

Manufacture of Khoa, an Indian Milk Product, by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of synthetic membranes in the food and dairy industry is rapidly increasing around the world [1], To date, the major applications on a world-wide basis is the use of ultrafiltration for fractionating chee...

Dharam Pal; Munir Cheryan

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

The influence of charged surfactants upon reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cationic as well as anionic surfactants influence the transport properties of cellulose acetate membranes. The rejection of the surfactants is decreased when electrolytes are added to the solution and can reac...

E. Hinke; D. Laslop; E. Staude

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Dynamic characterization of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes  

SciTech Connect

An original method has been proposed to determine the dynamic permeability of membranes. Experiments were run under different operating conditions (various transmembrane pressures, membranes, concentrations, and solutes), and the experimental data were processed using this dynamic permeability model. The results show that permeability defined in this manner reflects the differences in the membrane behavior from pure water to a solution or from one solution to another. With dynamic permeability data, membrane condition can also be evaluated after use without the need to run experiments with pure water.

Lebrun, R.E.; Xu, Y. [Univ. du Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada). Dept. du Genie Chimique

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

The Pace of Change in Seawater Desalination by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For many years desalination was regarded as a process the application of which was, on the whole, restricted to the Middle East and a few island communities around the world where rainfall or collection areas ...

Ian Lomax

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Reverse Osmosis: Application to Potato-Starch Factory Waste Effluents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the major problems of our country, and most others, is pollution of the water supplies. In this paper, we hope to describe for you a specific pollution problem of great importance, a possible means of alle...

W. L. Porter; J. Siciliano; S. Krulick; E. G. Heisler

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Recent Studies on Grafting Polyelectrolytes to Membranes for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The grafting of polyelectrolytes to polymer films leads to considerable increases in their water sorption and changes in their water permeability and salt rejection properties. Cellulose acetate polyvinyl chlorid...

V. Stannett; H. B. Hopfenberg; F. Kimura-Yeh…

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This review focuses on the present status of forward osmosis (FO) niches in two main areas: seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Specific applications for desalination and impaired-quality water treatment and reuse are described, as well as the benefits, advantages, challenges, costs and knowledge gaps on FO hybrid systems are discussed. FO can play a role as a bridge to integrate upstream and downstream water treatment processes, to reduce the energy consumption of the entire desalination or water recovery and reuse processes, thus achieving a sustainable solution for the water-energy nexus. FO hybrid membrane systems showed to have advantages over traditional membrane process like high pressure reverse osmosis and nanofiltration for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v) higher overall sustainability of the desalination and wastewater treatment process. Nevertheless, major challenges make FO systems not yet a commercially viable technology, the most critical being the development of a high flux membrane, capable of maintaining an elevated salt rejection and a reduced internal concentration polarization effect, and the availability of appropriate draw solutions (cost effective and non-toxic), which can be recirculated via an efficient recovery process. This review article highlights the features of hybrid FO systems and specifically provides the state-of-the-art applications in the water industry in a novel classification and based on the latest developments toward scaling up these systems.

R. Valladares Linares; Z. Li; S. Sarp; Sz.S. Bucs; G. Amy; J.S. Vrouwenvelder

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF) cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. As an alternative to RO...

Lubis, Mirna R.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

212

0011-9164/09/$ See front matter 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Desalination 239 (2009) 1021  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the diluted DS is treated in a reverse osmosis (RO) unit; the by-product is a reconcentrated DS for reuse. For potable reuse (e.g., indirect reuse through aquifer recharge), advanced treat- ment [e.g., reverse osmosis) 10­21 The forward osmosis membrane bioreactor: A low fouling alternative to MBR processes Andrea

213

Synchronous effect of slipping heavy loads on ro-ro ship rolling in waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Common effect of wave and slip of internal vehicles will make rolling of the roll-on ship serious. This is one of the important reasons for overturn of ro-ro ships. The multibody system with a floating base is co...

Yin-long Zhang Doctor ???; Qing Shen ??…

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Forward with Osmosis: Emerging Applications for Greater Sustainability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Forward with Osmosis: Emerging Applications for Greater Sustainability ... Menachem Elimelech is the Roberto Goizueta Professor of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at Yale University and a World Class University Professor at Korea University in Seoul, Korea. ...

Laura A. Hoover; William A. Phillip; Alberto Tiraferri; Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

215

Experimental investigation of induced-charge electro-osmosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the general phenomenon of induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO), nonlinear electro-osmotic slip generated when an electric field acts on its own induced charge around a polarizable surface, in the context of ...

Levitan, Jeremy Asher, 1977-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Microbial desalination cells for energy production and desalination Younggy Kim 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exoelectrogenic microorganisms Microbial fuel cells Electrodialysis Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are a new a thermodynamically reversible pro- cess at 50% water recovery [3­5]. The most energy efficient systems for seawater.elsevier.com/locate/desal #12;plants using reverse osmosis (RO) [3,5]. It is thought that further ad- vances in reverse osmosis

217

Planning and Design of Desalination Plants Effluent Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant. ”salinity in Seawater Reverse Osmosis." Desalination & Waterfrom Seawater Reverse Osmosis Brine by Electrodialysis:

Maalouf, Sami

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

18   2.3.2  Reverse  Osmosis  46   4.2.1  Reverse  Osmosis  Relative  Humidity Reverse  Osmosis SERC  Reliability  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Ingenieurb ro f r Energieanlagen IBE | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ingenieurb ro f r Energieanlagen IBE Ingenieurb ro f r Energieanlagen IBE Jump to: navigation, search Name Ingenieurbüro für Energieanlagen (IBE) Place Bad Nauheim, Germany Zip 61231 Sector Services, Solar, Wind energy Product Planning and consultancy services for wind and solar projects. References Ingenieurbüro für Energieanlagen (IBE)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Ingenieurbüro für Energieanlagen (IBE) is a company located in Bad Nauheim, Germany . References ↑ "[ Ingenieurbüro für Energieanlagen (IBE)]" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Ingenieurb_ro_f_r_Energieanlagen_IBE&oldid=346913" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

220

COU N T Y RO A  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COU N T Y RO A D 16 S FA LL S RD N E R A I L R O A D A V E N E N A T E S R H O D E S NE C C LA N DO N RD E JO NE S ST B E A V E R D A M R D N E W E A V E R C REEK RD REY MO ND NE...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Saving Energy, Water, and Money with Efficient Water Treatment Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a method of purifying water for industrial processes and human consumption; RO can remove mineral salts as well as contaminants such as bacteria and pesticides. Advances in water treatment technologies have enhanced and complemented the conventional RO process, reducing energy and water consumption, lowering capital and operating costs, and producing purer water. This publication of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program introduces RO, describes the benefits of high-efficiency reverse osmosis (HERO), and compares HERO with RO/electrodeionization (EDI) technology.

Not Available

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Energy Conversion from Salinity Gradients by Forward Osmosis–Electrokinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy Conversion from Salinity Gradients by Forward Osmosis–Electrokinetics ... Through the use of a salinity gradient, a suction force is created to induce a hydrodynamic flow in the FO submodule based on the principle of FO. ... Kiviat, F. E.Energy Recovery from Saline Water by Means of Electrochemical Cells Science 1976, 194, 719– 720 ...

Yanmei Jiao; Chun Yang; Yuejun Kang

2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

223

UNIVERSIT D'ANGERS Anne 2008 N d'ordre 897  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a technico-economical study comparing RO and NF processes for Tan Tan brackish water (4 g.L-1 ) desalination2009 #12;Abstract A competing membrane process to Reverse Osmosis (RO) for brackish water desalination for brackish water desalination is of a good relevance. In order to predict and compare NF and RO membranes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

The seismology programme of CoRoT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce the main lines and specificities of the CoRoT Seismology Core Programme. The development and consolidation of this programme has been made in the framework of the CoRoT Seismology Working Group. With a few illustrative examples, we show how CoRoT data will help to address various problems associated with present open questions of stellar structure and evolution.

Michel, E; Auvergne, M; Catala, C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system   

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration – nanofiltration / reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating ...

Richards, B.S.; Capão, D.P.S.; Schäfer, Andrea

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Desalination of water by vapor transport through hydrophobic nanopores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although Reverse osmosis (RO) is the state-of-the-art desalination technology, it still suffers from persistent drawbacks including low permeate flux, low selectivity for non-ionic species, and lack of resistance to chlorine. ...

Lee, Jongho, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Highly permeable polymeric membranes based on the incorporation of the functional water channel protein Aquaporin Z  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...also be a large step in improving the economics of desalination for drinking water applications. Desalination is becoming increasingly important for...RO is a commercial reverse-osmosis desalination membrane with data from Matsura (38...

Manish Kumar; Mariusz Grzelakowski; Julie Zilles; Mark Clark; Wolfgang Meier

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Dendritic Anion Hosts: Perchlorate Uptake by G5-NH2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

may limit their utilization in drinking water treatment. Reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), and electrodialysis (ED) are also not cost-effective or efficient at recovering perchlorate from contaminated water

Goddard III, William A.

229

Osmosis, colligative properties, entropy, free energy and the chemical potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A diffusive model of osmosis is presented that explains currently available experimental data. It makes predictions that distinguish it from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis, some of which have already been confirmed experimentally and others have yet to be tested. It also provides a simple kinetic explanation of Raoult's law and the colligative properties of dilute aqueous solutions. The diffusive model explains that when a water molecule jumps from low to high osmolarity at equilibrium, the free energy change is zero because the work done pressurizing the water molecule is balanced by the entropy of mixing. It also explains that equal chemical potentials are required for particle exchange equilibrium in analogy with the familiar requirement of equal temperatures at thermal equilibrium.

Peter Hugo Nelson

2014-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

230

Effects of trace metals on diatom export products from the euphotic zone and significance for biogeochemical cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Combined Electrodialysis/Reverse Osmosis. Aquaticby combined electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, most of

Richter, Daniel J.

231

A Near-term Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Weinert, Jonathan X.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

A Near-Term Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Weinert, Jonathan X.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

An Assessment of the Near-Term Costs of Hydrogen Refueling Stations and Station Components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen dispenser Water Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Lipman, Timothy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

An Assessment of the Near-Term Costs of Hydrogen Refueling Stations and Station Components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Lipman, T E; Weinert, Jonathan X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Perlick: ENERGY STAR Referral (HP48RO-S)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE referred Perlick refrigerator HP48RO-S to EPA, brand manager of the ENERGY STAR program, for appropriate action after DOE testing revealed that the model does not meet ENERGY STAR requirements.

236

RoBOT: "Rocks Beneath Our Toes" An experiential learning opportunity in mineralogy and geochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RoBOT: "Rocks Beneath Our Toes" An experiential learning opportunity in mineralogy Foundation What is RoBOT? The "Rocks Beneath Our Toes" or RoBOT Program began in 2006 with funding from high school RoBOT participants on a weekend field trip to collect and document rock samples

Baxter, Ethan F.

237

Reductive Coupling of [(RO)2Ti(L2)2] Complexes Containing a Chelating Bis(aryloxide) Ligand with Ketones (L2 = bpy, dmbpy, or phen)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

[(RO)2Ti(L2)2] complexes {(RO)2 = DMSC = 1,2-alternate dimethylsilyl-bridged p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene dianion, or MBMP = 2,2‘-methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) dianion; L2 = bpy, dmbpy, or phen} react with aromatic ketones in a reversible manner to afford Ti-?2-ketone complexes [(RO)2Ti(?2-OCArR)(L2)] (Ar = aryl, while R = aryl or alkyl), which undergo further reaction with ketone to give the corresponding 2-aza-5-oxa-titanacyclopentene. ... The reactivity of [(RO)2Ti(L2)2] complexes (L2 = bpy, dmbpy, or phen; (RO)2 = DMSC or MBMP) with ketones was investigated (DMSC = 1,2-alternate dimethylsilyl-bridged p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene dianion; MBMP = 2,2‘-methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) dianion). ... The molecular structures of [(DMSC)Ti(bpy)2] (6a) and [(DMSC)Ti(bpy)2] (7a) were characterized by X-ray crystallography. ...

David Owiny; Jesudoss V. Kingston; Marc Maynor; Sean Parkin; Jeff W. Kampf; Folami T. Ladipo

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

238

Development of a reverse osmosis/electrodialysis process to concentrate natural organic matter.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Disinfection in water treatment has been used to protect public health for over 100 years. Disinfectants are added to inactivate pathogens in the drinking water… (more)

Smith, Bryan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Improving recovery in reverse osmosis desalination of inland brackish groundwaters via electrodialysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As freshwater resources are limited and stressed, and as the cost of conventional drinking water treatment continues to increase, interest in the development of non-traditional… (more)

Walker, William Shane, 1981-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Renewable energy powered membrane technology: Salt and inorganic contaminant removal by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis   

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fluctuating energy and pH on retention of dissolved contaminants from real Australian groundwaters using a solar (photovoltaic) powered ultrafiltration – ...

Richards, Laura A.; Richards, Bryce S.; Schäfer, Andrea

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The Development of a Synthesis Approach for Optimal Design of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the developed representation, by accounting for detailed water quality information, within the SWRO desalination network optimization problem. The superstructures were modified to incorporate models that capture the performance of common membrane elements...

Alnouri, Sabla

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

242

Autonomous control and membrane maintenance optimization of photovoltaic reverse osmosis systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supply of clean water in remote and off-grid areas has been a major global challenge for humanity. Over 780 million people lack access to clean water [1]. However, a significant fraction of these people have access to ...

Bhujle, Aditya Sarvanand

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Evaluation of Cleaning Strategies for Removal of Biofilms from Reverse-Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Some variability in cleaning efficiencies between the LC and HC membranes...appeared to be cleaned with higher efficiency in nearly all cases. This variability...procedure for potable water and swimming pools. J. Am. Water Works Assoc...

C. Whittaker; H. Ridgway; B. H. Olson

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Hybrid electrodialysis reverse osmosis system design and its optimization for treatment of highly saline brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The demand is rising for desalination technologies to treat highly saline brines arising from hydraulic fracturing processes and inland desalination. Interest is growing in the use of electrical desalination technologies ...

McGovern, Ronan Killian

245

Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes for the improvement of must quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When the vintage is poor, different must concentration techniques are used for overcoming grape compositional deficiency, such as evaporative or freeze concentration, and membrane processes. The membrane filtrati...

Sandra Pati; Domenico La Notte…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Pretreatment of Oil Field and Mine Waste Waters for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a brine treatment process for the Morcinek mine near the city of Katowice in Upper Silesia in Poland. The process was developed jointly by Aquatech Services, Inc. (Aquatech) and the Lawren...

W. L. Bourcier; H. Brandt; J. H. Tait

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Review on modelling and control of desalination system using reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dissolved salts in seawater or brackish water are reduced to a potable level through separation techniques, like, distillation, multiple effect vapor compression, evaporation, or by membrane processes such as ele...

S. Sobana; Rames C. Panda

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Dynamics of reverse osmosis in a standalone cogenerative nuclear reactor (Part I: reactivity changes)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study considers the dynamic behaviour of the pressurised water reactor safety features, represented by the integrity of the fuel cladding, under some transient cases. A cosine-shaped heating through the fuel is taken with the corresponding coolant lumps, to simulate realistic cases encountered in nuclear reactors. A mathematical model was developed for the Westinghouse 3411 MWth pressurised water reactor, as an example of a familiar design with predominantly published data design. The model consists of two parts. The first part is concerned with the dynamics of the primary side of the reactor, which is described in this paper. The second part is concerned with the secondary side of the plant, which is described elsewhere in this issue. To study the dynamics of the reactor, a model of 17 lumped parameters was used, consisting of first-order differential equations deduced from the first principles considering six groups of delayed neutrons. A computer program was developed using the Runge-Kutta method to solve these equations and to predict the behaviour of the state variables with time. Two case studies were considered as examples for normal transients. The first case study, which represents Part 1 of this study, considers the effect of primary side transient on the system as the reactivity changes. Reactor reactivity changes, including movements of the reactor control rods, which are taken as an example for the effect of the reactor primary side conditions. These reactivity changes vary from 0.0005 up to 0.003, both for positive and negative reactivity. The results of the developed model, which describe the dynamic response of the reactor primary circuit, have been analysed and verified with the relevant models. These results indicate that the reactor components and the integrity of the fuel cladding were attained during different step changes of reactivity.

Aly Karameldin; M.M. Shamloul; M.R. Shaalan; M.H. Esawy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

The use of reverse osmosis technology for water treatment in power engineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of operation of DVS-M/150 installations for a total output of 150 m3/h (ZAO NPK Mediana-Fil’tr) at the Water Treatment Department of the Novocherkassk Thermal Power Plant (NchGRES) are presented, and ...

A. N. Samodurov; S. E. Lysenko; S. L. Gromov; A. A. Panteleev…

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Ab initio calculation of the structure of acetate cellulose membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The elementary unit of the monoacetate cellulose membrane in lithium, sodium, and potassium chloride solutions was simulated with the Gaussian-98 program package. The results are used for qualitative explanation ...

E. V. Butyrskaya; V. A. Shaposhnik; A. A. Reznikov

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Water permeability of nanoporous graphene at realistic pressures for reverse osmosis desalination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoporous graphene (NPG) shows tremendous promise as an ultra-permeable membrane for water desalination thanks to its atomic thickness and precise sieving properties. However, a significant gap exists in the literature ...

Cohen-Tanugi, David

252

Control of residual aluminum from conventional treatment to improve reverse osmosis performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2005. The Role of Dissolved Aluminum in Silica Chemistry forDraft Public Health Goal for Aluminum in Drinking Water .1994. Control of Residual Aluminum in Filtered Water . AWWA,

Gabelich, C J; Ishida, K P; Gerringer, F W; Evangelista, R; Kalyan, M; Suffet, I H

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Performance Limiting Effects in Power Generation from Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to utilize the free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for clean and renewable power generation. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the performance limiting phenomena in ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

254

Thermodynamic and Energy Efficiency Analysis of Power Generation from Natural Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Gibbs free energy of mixing dissipated when fresh river water flows into the sea can be harnessed for sustainable power generation. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is one of the methods proposed to generate power from natural salinity gradients. In ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

255

Influence of Natural Organic Matter Fouling and Osmotic Backwash on Pressure Retarded Osmosis Energy Production from Natural Salinity Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Influence of Natural Organic Matter Fouling and Osmotic Backwash on Pressure Retarded Osmosis Energy Production from Natural Salinity Gradients ... Therefore, SRNOM fouling of porous support in PRO detrimentally constrains the ability of the membrane to convert salinity gradient energy into useful work. ... Other unique areas of forward osmosis research include pressure-retarded osmosis for generation of electricity from saline and fresh water and implantable osmotic pumps for controlled drug release. ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

256

Planning and Design of Desalination Plants Effluent Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Seawater Reverse Osmosis Brine by Electrodialysis:reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination, electrodialysis (ED) asReverse Osmosis 14 2.2.2. Electrodialysis .

Maalouf, Sami

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, each indicating asubjected to reverse osmosis filtration, microfiltration,processing industry are reverse osmosis systems and ultra-

Brush, Adrian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal recovery from reverse osmosis concentrate. Journal ofnanofil- tration and reverse osmosis membranes. Journal ofrecovery [%] Assumed cost reverse osmosis [$/m 3 permeate

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by Distillation and by Reverse Osmosis - Trends Towards theReliabilityFirst Corporation Reverse Osmosis Steam Assistedwater through reverse osmosis (30). While saline water can

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from ion exchange, reverse osmosis, filtration and otherStripping Ion Exchange Reverse Osmosis Chemical TreatmentElectrolytic Oxidation Reverse Osmosis tJl trafi 1 tration

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

An Analysis of Near-Term Hydrogen Vehicle Rollout Scenarios for Southern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterhydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Nicholas, Michael A; Ogden, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

processing industry are reverse osmosis systems and ultra-ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis has been used for applepassed through a reverse osmosis membrane and an ultra-

Masanet, Eric

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Membrane Desalination of Agricultural Drainage Water: Water Recovery Enhancement and Brine Minimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.J. Petersen, Composite Reverse-Osmosis and NanofiltrationPilot-scale testing of reverse osmosis using conventionalY. Cohen, High- Recovery Reverse Osmosis Using Intermediate

Cohen, Yoram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Use of bioassays to assess the water quality of wastewater treatment plants for the occurrence of estrogens and androgens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exposed to reconstituted reverse osmosis water (Control) andprocesses included reverse osmosis, filtration/chlorinationbeen treated with reverse osmosis. Our results also suggest

Schlenk, Daniel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

A Critical Analysis of Technological Innovation and Economic Development in Southern California's Urban Water Reuse And Recycling Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regional Innovation System Reverse Osmosis Small Businessclaims the largest reverse osmosis desalination plant in thetechniques such as reverse osmosis, and improving filtration

Pilip-Florea, Shadrach Jay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Self-Assembled Materials as Novel Nanotechnology-Enabled Ultrafiltration Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on polyamide composite reverse osmosis membrane properties,1997, 124, H. Hachisuka, K. Ikeda, Reverse osmosis compositemembrane and reverse osmosis treatment method for water

Pendergast, MaryTheresa Monahan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, each indicating asubjected to reverse osmosis filtration, microfiltration,processing industry are reverse osmosis systems and ultra-

Brush, Adrian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis membranes, as well asion exchange, reverse osmosis, and ammonia stripping.Metcalf & Eddy Inc. 2003). Reverse osmosis occurs when water

Lekov, Alex

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Removal of Chloride from Wastewater by Advanced Softening Process Using Electrochemically Generated Aluminum Hydroxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, several processes have been employed in removing chloride from water and wastewater. 3 Among these processes are reverse osmosis and electrodialysis [8]. However these technologies are nonselective and expensive. They also produce brine, which has... and other dissolved solids is an important step before reuse of treated wastewater. Furthermore, chloride removal from industrial wastewater can facilitate water reuse and recycle. Reverse osmosis (RO) is widely used for chloride and other dissolved...

Mustafa, Syed Faisal

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

270

6 Isotope Composition of Organic Matter in Seawater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

................................................................................109 6.4.3 Reverse Osmosis/Electrodialysis Method

Guo, Laodong

271

GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION NEEDS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION IN CRYSTALLINE AND ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS SYMPOSIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or, commercially, reverse osmosis. This occurs where adifferential is the result. The reverse of osmosis is called

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hoods Pump System Motors Reverse Osmosis Storage Fan SystemMixers Fume Hoods Reverse Osmosis Transport System Packing

McKane, Aimee T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Artificial Cellulosomes and Arsenic Cleanup: From Single Cell Programming to Synthetic Yeast Consortium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

adsorption, and reverse osmosis (Kartinen and Martin, 1995;exchange, adsorption, and reverse osmosis (DeMarco et al. ,

Tsai, Shen-Long

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on boron levels. Reverse osmosis (through cellulose acetate)treated by one or more reverse- osmosis cycles. Hmvever, it

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Electron energy spectra, fluxes, and day-night asymmetries of boron-8 solar neutrinos from the 391-day salt phase sno data set  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Following desalination by reverse osmosis and water puri?not be removed by the reverse osmosis method, as that would

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Effects of trace metals on diatom export products from the euphotic zone and significance for biogeochemical cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrodialysis/Reverse Osmosis. Aquatic Geochemistry, 16(electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, most of which is in the

Richter, Daniel J.

277

Toward Resource Recovery from Wastewater: Extraction of Phosphorus from Digested Sludge Using a Hybrid Forward Osmosis–Membrane Distillation Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Toward Resource Recovery from Wastewater: Extraction of Phosphorus from Digested Sludge Using a Hybrid Forward Osmosis–Membrane Distillation Process ... † Strategic Water Infrastructure Laboratory, School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia ...

Ming Xie; Long D. Nghiem; William E. Price; Menachem Elimelech

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

278

ADVANCED MATERIALS Membranes for Clean Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and security. Polymer-based membrane separation technologies based on reverse osmosis, forward osmosis active layer used in reverse osmosis membranes, interfacial polymerization of trimesoyl chloride (TMC

279

Pharmacokinetics of Ro 23-9424, a dual-action cephalosporin, in animals.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...suggesting that excretion of the intact molecule is a major route of...23-9424 was not quantitated, but intact Ro 23-9424 was found in high...in vivo is primarily due to intact Ro 23-9424, although the...15) that the second "warhead" of such a cephalosporin...

J G Christenson; K K Chan; R Cleeland; B Dix-Holzknecht; H H Farrish Jr; I H Patel; A Specian

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Ro(g)-graded equivariant cohomology theory and sheaves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consequence of the latter is that we get a simple model of the Eilenberg-MacLane space K(M;V). Proposition II.18 further identi es the homotopy groups of the G- xed subset of this model space with some RO(G)-graded Bredon cohomology groups of a point... XH ! = HomG-Top(G=H;X); 6 where sends a2XH to fa : G=H!X with fa(gH) = ga. The inverse of sends f2HomG-Top(G=H;X) to f(H). Proof. See [tD87, p. 25, Proposition 3.8]. If (X j 2J) is a collection of G-spaces then the product Q 2J X is again a G...

Yang, Haibo

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Bioluminescence-Based Method for Measuring Assimilable Organic Carbon in Pretreatment Water for Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...bioluminescence-based assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test was developed for determining the...luminescence and is nutritionally robust. AOC was measured in both a pilot plant and a...treatment. This article presents a marine AOC test for determining the biological growth...

Lauren A. Weinrich; Orren D. Schneider; Mark W. LeChevallier

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

Microbial fouling of reverse-osmosis membranes used in advanced wastewater treatment technology: chemical, bacteriological, and ultrastructural analyses.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Science report. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 72:41-49...filter procedure for potable water and swimming pools. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 71:402-405...sewage effluent: the effect of recovery. Water Res. 11:379-385...

H F Ridgway; A Kelly; C Justice; B H Olson

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Design of an Energy Recovery Concept for a Small-scale Renewable-driven Reverse Osmosis Desalination System:.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The desalination industry has grown exponentially the last four decades as countries seek solutions to water scarcity caused by population growth, climate change, pollution and… (more)

Michas, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Experiments and modeling of multilayered coatings and membranes : application to thermal barrier coatings and reverse osmosis membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I developed a novel methodology for characterizing interfacial delamination of thermal barrier coatings. The proposed methodology involves novel experiments-plus numerical simulations in order to determine ...

Luk-Cyr, Jacques

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

The corrosion performance of high chromium stainless steels and titanium alloys at a reverse osmosis plant in Arabian Gulf seawater  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate the corrosion performance of four high chromium stainless steels and Grade 2 titanium in flowing Arabian Gulf natural seawater. The EIS provided information concerning the changes to the interfacial impedance as a function of exposure time for these alloys. The impedance spectra for all the alloys showed slight changes at the low frequency region over the exposure period. The open-circuit potentials (OCP) of these alloys were also monitored as a function of exposure time. The stainless steel alloys exhibited slight fluctuation in potential around the initial exposure potential. However, Grade 2 titanium initial potential was more active and then gradually shifted towards the noble direction. The linear polarization resistance (LPR) method indicated that Grade 2 titanium exhibited the lowest corrosion rate with respect to the stainless steel alloys. The results of the EIS analysis and OCP indicated that Grade 2 titanium performed better than the four high chromium stainless steel alloys.

Al-Odwani, A.; Al-Tabatabaei, M.; Carew, J.; Al-Hashem, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Analysis of the tensioning force of the drainage material during fabrication of a roll type reverse osmosis module  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A procedure is proposed for determination of forces and stresses during winding of the drainage material during fabrication of a roll module from conditions of stability, strength, and stiffness of the dischar...

V. I. Kochetov; S. I. Lazarev; V. Yu. Popov

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Photo of the Week: RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Photo of the Week: RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory April 1, 2013 - 3:40pm Addthis Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam signs the robot of Hardin Valley Academy's FIRST robotics team during the dedication of DOE's Carbon Fiber Technology Facility, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The RoHAWKtics team (named after their school mascot) spent an intense six weeks constructing the robot, using design, engineering, and problem-solving skills. The team will be moving on to a national competition in April. Learn more about the FIRST competition. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

288

Photo of the Week: RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Photo of the Week: RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory April 1, 2013 - 3:40pm Addthis Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam signs the robot of Hardin Valley Academy's FIRST robotics team during the dedication of DOE's Carbon Fiber Technology Facility, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The RoHAWKtics team (named after their school mascot) spent an intense six weeks constructing the robot, using design, engineering, and problem-solving skills. The team will be moving on to a national competition in April. Learn more about the FIRST competition. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

289

DR. J. ROSS MACDONALD IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY AND THE roUBLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DR. J. ROSS MACDONALD CHAPTER I IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY AND THE roUBLE LAYER IN SOLIDS AND LIQillDS· J. ROSS MACDONALD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Macdonald, James Ross

290

The Hvar survey for roAp stars: II. Final results (Research Note)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The 60 known rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars are excellent laboratories to test pulsation models in the presence of stellar magnetic fields. Our survey is dedicated to search for new group members in the Northern Hemisphere. We attempt to increase the number of known chemically peculiar stars that are known to be pulsationally unstable. About 40 h of new CCD photometric data of 21 roAp candidates, observed at the 1m Austrian-Croatian Telescope (Hvar Observatory) are presented. We carefully analysed these to search for pulsations in the frequency range of up to 10mHz. No new roAp star was detected among the observed targets. The distribution of the upper limits for roAp-like variations is similar to that of previoius similar efforts using photomultipliers and comparable telescope sizes. In addition to photometric observations, we need to consolidate spectroscopic information to select suitable targets.

Paunzen, E; Rode-Paunzen, M; Handler, G; Bozic, H

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

The asteroseismic ground-based observational counterpart of CoRoT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present different aspects of the ground-based observational counterpart of the CoRoT satellite mission. We give an overview of the selected asteroseismic targets, the numerous instruments and observatories involved, and the first scientific results.

Uytterhoeven, K; Mathias, P; Amado, P J; Rainer, M; Martin-Ruiz, S; Rodríguez, E; Paparo, M; Pollard, K; Maceroni, C; Balaguer-Nunoz, L; Ribas, I; Catala, C; Neiner, C; García, R A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

The Ro (S¹)-graded equivariant homotopy of THH(Fp)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main result of this thesis is the computation of ... for ... These RO(S¹)-graded TR-groups are the equivariant homotopy groups naturally associated to the S¹-spectrum THH(Fp), the topological Hochschild S¹-spectrum. ...

Gerhardt, Teena Meredith

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Reversible logic for supercomputing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is about making reversible logic a reality for supercomputing. Reversible logic offers a way to exceed certain basic limits on the performance of computers, yet a powerful case will have to be made to justify its substantial development expense. ... Keywords: applications modeling, climate change global warming, computer architecture, quantum dot cellular automata, reversible logic, supercomputing

Erik P. DeBenedictis

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Economies of Size in Municipal Water-Treatment Technologies: A Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Brackish Groundwater Reverse-Osmosis Desalination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 ES Classification by Cost Category, Type, and Item. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 ES Classification by Facility Segment.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 Reported Cost of Supply and Treatment ($/1,000 gallons) for Surface-Water Treatment Facilities and RO Desalination Facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3 Initial Construction Costs for a 2.0 mgd Facility...

Boyer, Christopher N.; Rister, M. Edward; Rogers, Callie S.; Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Browning, Charles Jr.; Elium III, James R.; Seawright, Emily K.

295

Water purification by shock electrodialysis: Deionization, filtration, separation, and disinfection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

purification is performed primarily by reverse osmosis (RO) plants and in some cases by electrodialysis (EDWater purification by shock electrodialysis: Deionization, filtration, separation, and disinfection H L I G H T S · Experiments demonstrate the multi- functionality of shock electrodialysis. · Besides

Bazant, Martin Z.

296

Microbial Electrodialysis Cell for Simultaneous Water Desalination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microbial Electrodialysis Cell for Simultaneous Water Desalination and Hydrogen Gas Production M electrodialysis cell (MEDC). We examined the use of the MEDC process using two different initial Na for this process are a major concern (1). Of the different commercially available technologies, reverse osmosis (RO

297

Journal of Membrane Science 228 (2004) 516 Experimental study of desalination using direct contact membrane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Journal of Membrane Science 228 (2004) 5­16 Experimental study of desalination using direct contact and a new membrane module were investigated to improve water desalination. The performances of three with the reverse osmosis (RO) process for desalination. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords

298

Predictive Modeling of Large-Scale Commercial Water Desalination Plants: Data-Based Neural Network and Model-Based Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predictive Modeling of Large-Scale Commercial Water Desalination Plants: Data-Based Neural Network for developing predictive models for large-scale commercial water desalination plants by (1) a data (MSF) and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants in the world. Our resulting neural network

Liu, Y. A.

299

Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission VIII. CoRoT-7b: the first Super-Earth with measured radius  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the discovery of very shallow (DF/F = 3.4 10-4), periodic dips in the light curve of an active V = 11.7 G9V star observed by the CoRoT satellite, which we interpret as due to the presence of a transiting companion. We describe the 3-colour CoRoT data and complementary ground-based observations that support the planetary nature of the companion. Methods. We use CoRoT color information, good angular resolution ground-based photometric observations in- and out- of transit, adaptive optics imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy and preliminary results from Radial Velocity measurements, to test the diluted eclipsing binary scenarios. The parameters of the host star are derived from optical spectra, which were then combined with the CoRoT light curve to derive parameters of the companion. We examine carefully all conceivable cases of false positives, and all tests performed support the planetary hypothesis. Blends with separation larger than 0.40 arcsec or triple systems are almost excluded with a 8 10-4 ris...

Léger, A; Schneider, J; Barge, P; Fridlund, M; Samuel, B; Ollivier, M; Günther, E; Deleuil, M; Deeg, H J; Auvergne, M; Alonso, R; Aigrain, S; Alapini, A; Almenara, J M; Baglin, A; Barbieri, M; Bruntt, H; Borde, P; Bouchy, F; Cabrera, J; Catala, C; Carone, L; Carpano, S; Csizmadia, Sz; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Foing, B; Fressin, F; Gandolfi, D; Gillon, M; Gondoin, Ph; Grasset, O; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Hébrard, G; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Llebaria, A; Loeillet, B; Mayor, M; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Paetzold, M; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Renner, S; Samadi, R; Shporer, A; Sotin, Ch; Tingley, B; Wuchterl, G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Report on the CoRoT Evolution and Seismic Tools Activity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the work undertaken by the Evolution and Seismic Tools Activity (ESTA) team of the CoRoT Seismology Working Group. We have focused on two main tasks: Task 1 - now finished - has aimed at testing, comparing and optimising seven stellar evolution codes which will be used to model the internal structure and evolution of the CoRoT target stars. Task 2, still underway, aims at testing, comparing and optimising different seismic codes used to calculate the oscillations of models for different types of stars. The results already obtained are quite satisfactory, showing minor differences between the different numerical tools provided the same assumptions on the physical parameters are made. This work gives us confidence on the numerical tools that will be available to interpret the future CoRoT seismic data.

Monteiro, M J P F G; Montalban, J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Castro, M; Degl'Innocenti, S; Moya, A; Roxburgh, I W; Scuflaire, R; Baglin, A; Cunha, M S; Eggenberger, P; Fernandes, J; Goupil, M J; Hui-Bon-Hoa, A; Marconi, M; Marques, J P; Michel, E; Miglio, A; Morel, P; Pichon, B; Moroni, P G P; Provost, J; Ruoppo, A; Suárez, J C; Suran, M; Teixeira, T C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Study of HD 169392A observed by CoRoT and HARPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The numerous results obtained with asteroseismology thanks to space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler are providing a new insight on stellar evolution. After five years of observations, CoRoT is going on providing high-quality data. We present here the analysis of the double star HD169392 complemented by ground-based spectroscopic observations. This work aims at characterizing the fundamental parameters of the two stars, their chemical composition, the acoustic-mode global parameters including their individual frequencies, and their dynamics. We have analysed HARPS observations of the two stars to retrieve their chemical compositions. Several methods have been used and compared to measure the global properties of acoustic modes and their individual frequencies from the photometric data of CoRoT. The new spectroscopic observations and archival astrometric values suggest that HD169392 is a wide binary system weakly bounded. We have obtained the spectroscopic parameters for both components, suggesting the origin...

Mathur, S; Catala, C; Benomar, O; Davies, G R; Garcia, R A; Salabert, D; Ballot, J; Mosser, B; Regulo, C; Chaplin, W J; Elsworth, Y; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Mantegazza, L; Michel, E; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Roxburgh, I W; Samadi, R; Steslicki, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Verner, G A; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Forteza, S Barcelo; Baudin, F; Cortes, T Roca

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Synthesis of reversible sequential elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To construct a reversible sequential circuit, reversible sequential elements are required. This work presents novel designs of reversible sequential elements such as the D latch, JK latch, and T latch. Based on these reversible latches, we construct ... Keywords: Reversible logic, sequential circuits, sequential elements

Min-Lun Chuang; Chun-Yao Wang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Highly Robust Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) Hollow Fiber Membranes with High Power Densities for Renewable Salinity-Gradient Energy Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) Salinity-gradient energy (i.e., osmotic power) generated from the mixing of solutions with different salinities via pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) represents a high potential source of renewable energy. ... Thorsen, T.; Holt, T.The potential for power production from salinity gradients by pressure retarded osmosis J. Membr. ... When using saline water as the feed soln., the efficiency of the osmotic pressure decreases with increasing feed concn. ...

Gang Han; Peng Wang; Tai-Shung Chung

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

306

N E U RO S C I E N C E Watchful Waking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1603 N E U RO S C I E N C E Watchful Waking Sleep is traditionally thought to consist of two states; the printed sections that had been exposed to pH 7 water became ionized and did not react on heating

Wilf, Peter

307

A unified model for the detailed investigation of membrane modules and RO plants performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work a straightforward procedure for the detailed investigation of the performance of the membrane modules and RO plants has been suggested. The analysis is based on analytical equations for a two dimensional flow of two components and determines the permeate flow rate and the quality of the produced water. A software was developed, based in the proposed mathematical model, which can predict the brine and permeate characteristics for every individual membrane module in the pressure vessels in an RO plant, regardless of the type of the membranes. The predictions of the proposed software were verified by experimental data for a 380 m3/d RO plant, with 8'' membrane module made by FilmTec. An excellent agreement was found between the prediction of the suggested model and the experimental data. The membrane performance predictions of the developed software were also compared and verified with the predictions made by commercial softwares of different membrane producers. The model can make prediction for any parameter at any point of the process. An equation for the permeate pressure in the membrane envelop was developed and the permeate pressure profile was presented and suggestions were made for possible weak points of the membrane envelops. It is believed that the analytical model which is presented in this work is a simple, accurate and quick procedure for modeling the RO plants performance and it can be applied in any type of membrane modul

S.A. Avlonitis; M. Pappas; K. Moutesidis

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

All Skate, Now Reverse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All Skate, Now Reverse is a memoir that consists of personal narratives that are set in or are about my growing up in Nebraska. It is about life and its defining moments, and the collection summons up childhood epiphanies ...

Glover, Angela l.

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

309

A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis  

SciTech Connect

The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Reversible collisionless magnetic reconnection  

SciTech Connect

Reversible magnetic reconnection is demonstrated for the first time by means of gyrokinetic numerical simulations of a collisionless magnetized plasma. Growth of a current-driven instability in a sheared magnetic field is accompanied by magnetic reconnection due to electron inertia effects. Following the instability growth, the collisionless reconnection is accelerated with development of a cross-shaped structure of current density, and then all field lines are reconnected. The fully reconnected state is followed by the secondary reconnection resulting in a weakly turbulent state. A time-reversed simulation starting from the turbulent state manifests that the collisionless reconnection process proceeds inversely leading to the initial state. During the reversed reconnection, the kinetic energy is reconverted into the original magnetic field energy. In order to understand the stability of reversed process, an external perturbation is added to the fully reconnected state, and it is found that the accelerated reconnection is reversible when the deviation of the E × B streamlines due to the perturbation is comparable with or smaller than a current layer width.

Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Solar powered desalination system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

17 1.2.4 Reverse Osmosis…………………………………………………19 1.345 Chapter 2: Reverse Osmosis System…………………………………………………….46 2.1 Reverse Osmosis System Set Up…………………………………………….46 2.2

Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

A Water Conservation Scenario for the Residential and Industrial Sectors in California: Potential Saveings of Water and Related Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for re-use Filter x Reverse osmosis Flocculent Counter flowEvaporation recovery c) Reverse osmosis [45r] pg 77 pg 100through ion exchange or reverse osmosis units to remove the

Benenson, P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tract C-a Tract C-b Reverse osmosis Amortized capital andadsorption, and reverse osmosis. Salts in the leachate wouldWastewater Reclamation by Reverse Osmosis," JWPCF, 21, No.

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Antiadhesive and Antibacterial Coatings for Biofouling Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new concept for reverse osmosis membranes. J Membrane SciA new concept for reverse osmosis membranes. J Membrane SciM. C. , Biofouling in reverse osmosis membranes for seawater

Marambio Jones, Catalina Stephanie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Patterns and Etiologies of Diarrheal Illness Among Two Key Immunocompromised Populations: HIV-Infected and Elderly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of faucet mounted and reverse osmosis filters was higherUnder the sink filter Reverse osmosis filter Other Don’tAn under-sink model A reverse osmosis unit 4 {LABEL SINK}

Saha, Sona Rhiju

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

The CoRoT Evolution and Seismic Tools Activity: Goals and Tasks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The forthcoming data expected from space missions such as CoRoT require the capacity of the available tools to provide accurate models whose numerical precision is well above the expected observational errors. In order to secure that these tools meet the specifications, a team has been established to test and, when necessary, to improve the codes available in the community. The CoRoT evolution and seismic tool activity (ESTA) has been set up with this mission. Several groups have been involved. The present paper describes the motivation and the organisation of this activity, providing the context and the basis for the presentation of the results that have been achieved so far. This is not a finished task as future even better data will continue to demand more precise and complete tools for asteroseismology.

Lebreton, Y; Montalban, J; Moya, A; Baglin, A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Goupil, M J; Michel, E; Provost, J; Roxburgh, I W; Scuflaire, R

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

CoRoT observations of O stars: diverse origins of variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Six O-type stars were observed continuously by the CoRoT satellite during a 34.3-day run. The unprecedented quality of the data allows us to detect even low-amplitude stellar pulsations in some of these stars (HD 46202 and the binaries HD 46149 and Plaskett's star). These cover both opacity-driven modes and solar-like stochastic oscillations, both of importance to the asteroseismological modelling of O stars. Additional effects can be seen in the CoRoT light curves, such as binarity and rotational modulation. Some of the hottest O-type stars (HD 46223, HD 46150 and HD 46966) are dominated by the presence of red-noise: we speculate that this is related to a sub-surface convection zone.

Blomme, R; Degroote, P; Mahy, L; Aerts, C; Cuypers, J; Godart, M; Gosset, E; Hareter, M; Montalban, J; Morel, T; Nieva, M F; Noels, A; Oreiro, R; Poretti, E; Przybilla, N; Rainer, M; Rauw, G; Schiller, F; Simon-Diaz, S; Smolders, K; Ventura, P; Vuckovic, M; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Michel, E; Samadi, R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

On the ro-vibrational energies for the lithium dimer; maximum-possible rotational levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Deng-Fan potential is used to discuss the reliability of the improved Greene-Aldrich approximation and the factorization recipe of Badawi et al.'s [17] for the central attractive/repulsive core. The factorization recipe is shown to be a more reliable approximation and is used to obtain the ro-vibrational energies for the lithium dimer. For each vibrational state only a limited number of the rotational levels are found to be supported by the lithium dimer.

Omar Mustafa

2015-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

319

Cross-functional environmental initiatives : addressing Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) technical challenges at Sun Microsystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The European Union (EU) passed the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive, effective January 2006, banning the sale of electronics equipment containing lead and five other hazardous substances into EU countries. ...

Greenlaw, Tamara

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

HD 50844: the new look of Delta Sct stars from CoRoT space photometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has also been suggested that the detection of a wealth of very low amplitude modes in Delta Sct stars was only a matter of signal--to--noise ratio. Access to this treasure, impossible from the ground, is one of the scientific aims of the space mission CoRoT, a space mission developed and operated by CNES. This work presents the results obtained on HD 50844: the 140,016 datapoints were analysed using independent approaches and several checks performed. A level of 10^{-5} mag was reached in the amplitude spectra of the CoRoT timeseries. The frequency analysis of the CoRoT timeseries revealed hundreds of terms in the frequency range 0--30 d^{-1}. All the cross--checks confirmed this new result. The initial guess that Delta Sct stars have a very rich frequency content is confirmed. The spectroscopic mode identification gives theoretical support since very high--degree modes (up to ell=14) are identified. We also prove that cancellation effects are not sufficient in removing the flux variations associated to th...

Poretti, E; Garrido, R; Lefèvre, L; Mantegazza, L; Rainer, M; Rodríguez, E; Uytterhoeven, K; Amado, P J; Martin-Ruiz, S; Moya, A; Niemczura, E; Suárez, J C; Zima, W; Baglin, A; Auvergne, M; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Samadi, R; Alvarez, M; Mathias, P; Paparo, M; Papics, P; Plachy, E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Surface structure of the CoRoT CP2 target star HD 50773  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare surface maps of the chemically peculiar star HD 50773 produced with a Bayesian technique and based on high quality CoRoT photometry with those derived from rotation phase resolved spectropolarimetry. The goal is to investigate the correlation of surface brightness with surface chemical abundance distribution and the stellar magnetic field. The rotational period of the star was determined from a nearly 60 day long continuous light curve obtained during the initial run of CoRoT. Using a Bayesian approach to star-spot modelling, which in this work is applied for the first time for the photometric mapping of a CP star, we derived longitudes, latitudes and radii of four different spot areas. Additional parameters like stellar inclination and the spot's intensities were also determined. The CoRoT observations triggered an extensive ground-based spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric observing campaign and enabled us to obtain 19 different high resolution spectra in Stokes parameters I and V with NARVAL, E...

Lüftinger, T; Weiss, W; Petit, P; Aurière, M; Nesvacil, N; Gruberbauer, M; Shulyak, D; Alecian, E; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Donati, J -F; Kochukhov, O; Michel, E; Piskunov, N; Roudier, T; Samadi, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Time reversal communication system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

Candy, James V. (Danville, CA); Meyer, Alan W. (Danville, CA)

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

323

Reverse Coherent Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

Raúl García-Patrón; Stefano Pirandola; Seth Lloyd; Jeffrey H. Shapiro

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

324

A Study of Novel Hexavalent Phosphazene Salts as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Two novel multi-valent salts based on phosphazene chemistry have been synthesized and characterized as forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes. Commercially obtained hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene was reacted with the sodium salt of 4-ethylhydroxybenzoate to yield hexa(4-ethylcarboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene. Hydrolysis, followed by and neutralization with NaOH or LiOH, of the resulting acidic moieties yielded water soluble sodium and lithium phosphazene salts, respectively. Degrees of dissociation were determined through osmometry over the range of 0.05-0.5 m, giving degrees of 3.08-4.95 per mole, suggesting a high osmotic potential. The Li salt was found to be more ionized in solution than the sodium salt, and this was reflected in FO experiments where the Li salt gave higher initial fluxes (~ 7 L/m2h) as compared to the sodium salt (~6 L/m2h) at identical 0.07 m draw solution concentrations at 30 °C. Longer term experiments revealed no detectable degradation of the salts; however some hydrolysis of the cellulose acetate membrane was observed, presumably due to the pH of the phosphazene salt draw solution (pH = ~8).

Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Sustained Self-Reversal in the Reversed-Field Pinch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spontaneous reversal of the toroidal field in a reversed-field pinch as a result of low-? (small J?J?) resisitive kink mode activity is investigated with use of a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics code. Helical and three-dimensional steady reversed states are obtained. In three dimensions quasisteady fluctuating states are observed above a critical value of the pinch parameter ?.

A. Y. Aydemir and D. C. Barnes

1984-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

326

Design of Water Filter for Third World Countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research &Responsibilities Sections Written Reverse osmosis filter research Acknowledgements Slow sand.2 Reverse Osmosis Filters 12.0 Recommendations _______________ Jingwen Wang #12;- 4 - Table of Contents List

Sun, Yu

327

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop The National Renewable Energy Laboratory hosted a workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art of reversible fuel...

328

The universal red-giant oscillation pattern; an automated determination with CoRoT data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CoRoT and Kepler satellites have provided thousands of red-giant oscillation spectra. The analysis of these spectra requires efficient methods for identifying all eigenmode parameters. The assumption of new scaling laws allows us to construct a theoretical oscillation pattern. We then obtain a highly precise determination of the large separation by correlating the observed patterns with this reference. We demonstrate that this pattern is universal and are able to unambiguously assign the eigenmode radial orders and angular degrees. This solves one of the current outstanding problems of asteroseismology hence allowing precise theoretical investigation of red-giant interiors.

Mosser, B; Goupil, M J; Michel, E; Elsworth, Y; Barban, C; Kallinger, T; Hekker, S; DeRidder, J; Samadi, R; Baudin, F; Pinheiro, F J G; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Catala, C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Effect of Thermodynamic Restriction on Energy Cost Optimization of RO Membrane Water Desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Thermodynamic Restriction on Energy Cost Optimization of RO Membrane Water Desalination ... Reduction of the overall cost of water production represents a major challenge and, in the present work, various elements of water production cost are evaluated from the viewpoint of optimization, with respect to various costs (energy, membrane area and permeability, brine management, and pressure drop), as well as the important thermodynamic cross-flow constraint, utilization of energy recovery devices, and operational feed and permeate flow rate constraints. ... Overall, as process costs above energy costs are added, the operational point for achieving minimum water production cost shifts to higher recoveries. ...

Aihua Zhu; Panagiotis D. Christofides; Yoram Cohen

2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

330

Reversal bending fatigue testing  

SciTech Connect

Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

331

HD 174884: a strongly eccentric, short-period early-type binary system discovered by CoRoT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accurate photometric CoRoT space observations of a secondary seismological target, HD 174884, led to the discovery that this star is an astrophysically important double-lined eclipsing spectroscopic binary in an eccentric orbit (e of about 0.3), unusual for its short (3.65705d) orbital period. The high eccentricity, coupled with the orientation of the binary orbit in space, explains the very unusual observed light curve with strongly unequal primary and secondary eclipses having the depth ratio of 1-to-100 in the CoRoT 'seismo' passband. Without the high accuracy of the CoRoT photometry, the secondary eclipse, 1.5 mmag deep, would have gone unnoticed. A spectroscopic follow-up program provided 45 high dispersion spectra. The analysis of the CoRoT light curve was performed with an adapted version of PHOEBE that supports CoRoT passbands. The final solution was obtained by simultaneous fitting of the light and the radial velocity curves. Individual star spectra were derived by spectrum disentangling. The uncerta...

Maceroni, C; Michel, E; Harmanec, P; Prsa, A; Briquet, M; Niemczura, E; Morel, T; Ladjal, D; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Samadi, R; Aerts, C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Mixed modes in red-giant stars observed with CoRoT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CoRoT mission has provided thousands of red-giant light curves. The analysis of their solar-like oscillations allows us to characterize their stellar properties. Up to now, the global seismic parameters of the pressure modes remain unable to distinguish red-clump giants from members of the red-giant branch. As recently done with Kepler red giants, we intend to analyze and use the so-called mixed modes to determine the evolutionary status of the red giants observed with CoRoT. We also aim at deriving different seismic characteristics depending on evolution. The complete identification of the pressure eigenmodes provided by the red-giant universal oscillation pattern allows us to aim at the mixed modes surrounding the l=1 expected eigenfrequencies. A dedicated method based on the envelope autocorrelation function is proposed to analyze their period separation. We have identified the mixed-mode signature separation thanks to their pattern compatible with the asymptotic law of gravity modes. We have shown tha...

Mosser, B; Montalb, J; Beck, P G; Miglio, A; Belkacem, K; Goupil, M J; Hekker, S; De Ridder, J; Dupret, M A; Elsworth, Y; Noels, A; Baudin, F; Michel, E; Samadi, R; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Catala, C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

The solar-like CoRoT target HD 170987: spectroscopic and seismic observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CoRoT mission is in its third year of observation and the data from the second long run in the galactic centre direction are being analysed. The solar-like oscillating stars that have been observed up to now have given some interesting results, specially concerning the amplitudes that are lower than predicted. We present here the results from the analysis of the star HD 170987.The goal of this research work is to characterise the global parameters of HD 170987. We look for global seismic parameters such as the mean large separation, maximum amplitude of the modes, and surface rotation because the signal-to-noise ratio in the observations do not allow us to measure individual modes. We also want to retrieve the stellar parameters of the star and its chemical composition.We have studied the chemical composition of the star using ground-based observations performed with the NARVAL spectrograph. We have used several methods to calculate the global parameters from the acoustic oscillations based on CoRoT data....

Mathur, S; Catala, C; Bruntt, H; Mosser, B; Appourchaux, T; Ballot, J; Creevey, O L; Gaulme, P; Hekker, S; Huber, D; Karoff, C; Piau, L; Regulo, C; Roxburgh, I W; Salabert, D; Verner, G A; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Chaplin, W J; Elsworth, Y; Michel, E; Samadi, R; Sato, K; Stello, D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Pulsations in the late-type Be star HD 50209 detected by CoRoT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The presence of pulsations in late-type Be stars is still a matter of controversy. It constitutes an important issue to establish the relationship between non-radial pulsations and the mass-loss mechanism in Be stars. To contribute to this discussion, we analyse the photometric time series of the B8IVe star HD 50209 observed by the CoRoT mission in the seismology field. We use standard Fourier techniques and linear and non-linear least squares fitting methods to analyse the CoRoT light curve. In addition, we applied detailed modelling of high-resolution spectra to obtain the fundamental physical parameters of the star. We have found four frequencies which correspond to gravity modes with azimuthal order m=0,-1,-2,-3 with the same pulsational frequency in the co-rotating frame. We also found a rotational period with a frequency of 0.679 \\cd (7.754 $\\mu$Hz). HD 50209 is a pulsating Be star as expected from its position in the HR diagram, close to the SPB instability strip.

Diago, P D; Auvergne, M; Fabregat, J; Hubert, A -M; Floquet, M; Frémat, Y; Garrido, R; Andrade, L; De Batz, B; Emilio, M; Espinosa-Lara, F; Huat, A -L; Janot-Pacheco, E; Leroy, B; Martayan, C; Neiner, C; Semaan, T; Suso, J; Catala, C; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Michel, E; Samadi, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Efficacy of an integrated continuing medical education (CME) and quality improvement (QI) program on radiation oncologist (RO) clinical practice  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: There has been little radiation oncologist (RO)-specific research in continuing medical education (CME) or quality improvement (QI) program efficacy. Our aim was to evaluate a CME/QI program for changes in RO behavior, performance, and adherence to department protocols/studies over the first 12 months of the program. Methods and Materials: The CME/QI program combined chart audit with feedback (C-AWF), simulation review AWF (SR-AWF), reminder checklists, and targeted CME tutorials. Between April 2003 and March 2004, management of 75 patients was evaluated by chart audit with feedback (C-AWF) and 178 patients via simulation review audit (SR-AWF) using a validated instrument. Scores were presented, and case management was discussed with individualized educational feedback. RO behavior and performance was compared over the first year of the program. Results: Comparing the first and second 6 months, there was a significant improvement in mean behavior (12.7-13.6 of 14, p = 0.0005) and RO performance (7.6-7.9 of 8, p = 0.018) scores. Protocol/study adherence significantly improved from 90.3% to 96.6% (p = 0.005). A total of 50 actions were generated, including the identification of learning needs to direct CME tutorials, the systematic change of suboptimal RO practice, and the alteration of deficient management of 3% of patients audited during the program. Conclusion: An integrated CME/QI program combining C-AWF, SR-AWF, QI reminders, and targeted CME tutorials effectively improved targeted RO behavior and performance over a 12-month period. There was a corresponding increase in departmental protocol and study adherence.

Leong, Cheng Nang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore)]. E-mail: Cheng_Nang_Leong@mail.nhg.com.sg; Shakespeare, Thomas Philip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Mukherjee, Rahul K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Back, Michael F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Lee, Khai Mun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Lu, Jiade Jay [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Wynne, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Lim, Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Tang, Johann [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Zhang Xiaojian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Fudan Hospital, Shanghai (China)

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Reverse slapper detonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

Weingart, Richard C. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Economies of size in municipal water treatment technologies: Texas lower Rio Grande Valley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

advancements have improved the economic viability of reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination of brackish-groundwater as a potable water source. Brackish-groundwater may be an alternative water source that provides municipalities an opportunity to hedge against... droughts, political shortfalls, and protection from potential surface-water contamination. This research specifically focuses on investigating economies of size for conventional surface-water treatment and brackish-groundwater desalination by using results...

Boyer, Christopher Neil

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

338

An Analysis of the Economic and Financial Life-Cycle Costs of Reverse-Osmosis Desalination in South Texas: A Case Study of the Southmost Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desalination provides a supply alternative for potable water for many communities, along with possible defenses against security threats potentially affecting clean water supplies. The economic and financial life-cycle costs associated with building...

Sturdivant, A.; Rister, M.; Rogers, C.; Lacewell, R.; Norris, J.; Leal, J.; Garza, J.; Adams, J.

339

Installation of Reverse Osmosis Unit Reduces Refinery Energy Consumption: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Petroleum Technical Case Study  

SciTech Connect

This case study is the latest in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. The case studies document the activities, savings, and lessons learned on these projects.

U.S. Department of Energy

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

340

The characteristics of cobalt or copper salt-coordinated poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-2,4-diamino-6-vinyl-s-triazine) membrane for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-2,4-diamino-6-vinyl-s-triazine) membranes in which a part of pyridine rings was coordinated with cobalt or copper salt, considerably enhanced salt rejection without appreciable reductio...

Eizo Oikawa; Yoshiji Honda; Yuji Sawada

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The implementation of non pharmaceutical interventions(NPIs) in smaller to large communities and its relation to RO and R(t) during HIN1 pandemic 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) during the time of the 2009 HINI pandemic and its possible relation to RO and R(t). RO is defined as the mean number of people that a newly infected ...

Hashmi, Sahar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

3/30/2014 Morile de vnt minuscule care ncarc bateria telefonului mobil | Solar-Magazin.ro http://www.solar-magazin.ro/cercetare/inventii-solare/incarcarea-bateriilor-telefoanelor-mobile-cu-mori-de-vant-minuscule.html 1/2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DESPRE NOI PUBLICITATE CONTACT Cost Of Solar Panel nextag.com/Home-and-Garden Tons of Home and Garden Items. Cost Of Solar Panel on Sale! One person likes this. Sign Up to see w hat your friends like3/30/2014 Morile de vânt minuscule care încarc bateria telefonului mobil | Solar-Magazin.ro http

Chiao, Jung-Chih

343

Asteroseismic analysis of the CoRoT \\delta-Scuti star HD174936  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an analysis of the \\delta-Scuti star object HD 174936 (ID 7613) observed by CoRoT during the first short run SRc01 (27 days). A total number of 422 frequencies we are extracted from the light curve using standard prewhitening techniques. This number of frequencies was obtained by considering a spectral significance limit of sig = 10 using the software package SigSpec. Our analysis of the oscillation frequency spectrum reveals a spacing periodicity of around 52 \\muHz. Although modes considered here are not in the asymptotic regime, a comparison with stellar models confirms that this signature may stem from a quasi-periodic pattern similar to the so-called large separation in solar-like stars.

Hernández, A García; Michel, E; Garrido, R; Suárez, J C; Rodríguez, E; Amado, P J; Martín-Ruíz, S; Rolland, A; Poretti, E; Samadi, R; Baglin, A; Auvergne, M; Catala, C; Lefèvre, L; Baudin, F

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Asteroseismic analysis of the CoRoT target HD 169392  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The satellite CoRoT (Convection, Rotation, and planetary Transits) has provided high-quality data for almost six years. We show here the asteroseismic analysis and modeling of HD169392A, which belongs to a binary system weakly gravitationally bound as the distance between the two components is of 4250 AU. The main component, HD169392A, is a G0IV star with a magnitude of 7.50 while the second component is a G0V-G2IV star with a magnitude of 8.98. This analysis focuses on the main component, as the secondary one is too faint to measure any seismic parameters. A complete modeling has been possible thanks to the complementary spectroscopic observations from HARPS, providing Teff=5985+/-60K, log g=3.96+/-0.07, and [Fe/H]=- 0.04+/-0.10.

Mathur, S; Catala, C; Benomar, O; Davies, G R; Garcia, R A; Salabert, D; Ballot, J; Mosser, B; Regulo, C; Chaplin, W J; Elsworth, Y; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Mantegazza, L; Michel, E; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Roxburgh, I W; Samadi, R; Steslicki, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Verner, G A; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Forteza, S Barcelo; Baudin, F; Cortes, T Roca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

NASA (NSPIRES) Guidance for Applicants G97v3/RO/NSPIRES March 2011 Page 1 of 20  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NASA (NSPIRES) Guidance for Applicants G97v3/RO/NSPIRES March 2011 Page 1 of 20 INTERNAL USER GUIDE A Guide to the NASA Online Proposal System (NSPIRES) (NASA Solicitation and Proposal Integrated Review and Evaluation System) A Guide to applying for funding from NASA NASA homepage web page: http://science.nasa

346

Revisiting CoRoT RR Lyrae stars: detection of period doubling and temporal variation of additional frequencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We search for signs of period doubling in CoRoT RR Lyrae stars. The occurrence of this dynamical effect in modulated RR Lyrae stars might help us to gain more information about the mysterious Blazhko effect. The temporal variability of the additional frequencies in representatives of all subtypes of RR Lyrae stars is also investigated. We pre-process CoRoT light curves by applying trend and jump correction and outlier removal. Standard Fourier technique is used to analyze the frequency content of our targets and follow the time dependent phenomena. The most comprehensive collection of CoRoT RR Lyrae stars, including new discoveries is presented and analyzed. We found alternating maxima and in some cases half-integer frequencies in four CoRoT Blazhko RR Lyrae stars, as clear signs of the presence of period doubling. This reinforces that period doubling is an important ingredient to understand the Blazhko effect - a premise we derived previously from the Kepler RR Lyrae sample. As expected, period doubling is d...

Szabó, R; Paparó, M; Chapellier, E; Poretti, E; Baglin, A; Weiss, W W; Kolenberg, K; Guggenberger, E; Borgne, J -F Le

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Heating of beam ions by ion acoustic waves A. Vaivads, K. Ro nnmark, T. Oscarsson, and M. Andre  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spectral density at frequencies much below the ion gyrofrequency. The wave power decreases with increasingHeating of beam ions by ion acoustic waves A. Vaivads, K. RoÃ? nnmark, T. Oscarsson, and M. AndreÃ? Swedish Institute of Space Physics, University of UmeaÃ? , S-901 87 UMEAÃ? , Sweden Received: 30 April 1997

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

348

Reversible micromachining locator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

349

The CoRoT primary target HD 52265: models and seismic tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HD 52265 is the only known exoplanet-host star selected as a main target for the seismology programme of the CoRoT satellite. As such, it will be observed continuously during five months, which is of particular interest in the framework of planetary systems studies. This star was misclassified as a giant in the Bright Star Catalog, while it is more probably on the main-sequence or at the beginning of the subgiant branch. We performed an extensive analysis of this star, showing how asteroseismology may lead to a precise determination of its external parameters and internal structure. We first reviewed the observational constraints on the metallicity, the gravity and the effective temperature derived from the spectroscopic observations of HD 52265. We also derived its luminosity using the Hipparcos parallax. We computed the evolutionary tracks for models of various metallicities which cross the relevant observational error boxes in the gravity-effective temperature plane. We selected eight different stellar models which satisfy the observational constraints, computed their p-modes frequencies and analysed specific seismic tests. The possible models for HD 52265, which satisfy the constraints derived from the spectroscopic observations, are different in both their external and internal parameters. They lie either on the main sequence or at the beginning of the subgiant branch. The differences in the models lead to quite different properties of their oscillation frequencies. We give evidences of an interesting specific behaviour of these frequencies in case of helium-rich cores: the ``small separations'' may become negative and give constraints on the size of the core. We expect that the observations of this star by the CoRoT satellite wi ll allow choosing between these possible models.

M. Soriano; S. Vauclair; C. Vauclair; M. Laymand

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

350

The integration of water vane pump and hydraulic vane motor for a small desalination system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An integration of water vane pump and hydraulic vane motor was introduced in small reverse osmosis (RO) system, in which the hydraulic vane motor was used as energy recovery device. The hydraulic performance and energy consumption of one combination of pump and hydraulic motor were investigated under different operation conditions. This type of integration pump reduces energy cost and simplifies the system setup, thus it could be an alternative choice for small RO desalination system. Our results demonstrated that the improvement of volumetric efficiencies of the pump and the hydraulic motor was the main factor to increase the prototype pump performance.

Yong Lu; Yuanyang Zhao; Gaoxuan Bu; Pengcheng Shu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Evaluation of Selective Ion Exchange Resins for Removal of Mercury from the H-Area Water Treatment Unit  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the ability of seven ion exchange (IX) resins, some of which were mercury specific, to remove mercury in H-Area WTU waters from three sources (Reverse Osmosis (RO) Feed, RO Permeate from Train A, and a mercury ''hot spot'' extraction well HEX 18). Seven ion exchange resins, including ResinTech CG8 and Dowex 21K (the cation and anion exchange resins currently used at the H-Area WTU) were screened against five alternative ion exchange materials plus an experimental blank. Mercury decontamination factors (DFs), mercury breakthrough, and post-test contaminant concentrations of IX resins were determined for each IX material tested.

Serkiz, S.M.

2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

352

Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from saline wastewater in bioelectrochemical systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in physical and chemical separation processes such as ion-exchange, electrodialysis, or reverse osmosis [1

354

I P I P I P P I P I I PI P I  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.V.Tokarchuk Abstract. Hydrodynamics of an electrolyte solution transport through a reverse osmosis membrane

355

Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to Magnesium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to Magnesium Triborane in the Solid State Under Moderate Conditions. Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to...

357

DEPXRTMEKT OF ENV]RO~:MENTAL F'ROTECTION DlVklOh OF  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

. * . * @.+<, .-- v 7, -e -5 u i' ;. - - : ,.:,, 4-.1M-4. a". : ' - l-1 &dp d 3-m 3jPr5Py DEPXRTMEKT OF ENV]RO~:MENTAL F'ROTECTION DlVklOh OF ~NVIR0N~Eh~A.L OUR' tiIn - . BUREAU OF R&DllmcN t=ROTE~lOH ' 1 ,_ jBD 5cOTCH ROAD. ~R~%~obi. fd. 1. 08628 .' - ._ -_ _ . . : S=_srterrjer 27, 1977 - ,. _ :.- ,_..I \ L . x=- a-. JEC): f' eust C--l L-9 ,c:c- -*r 2ze E&f&y _3=iz=Et=g cr;i\' ==Siq ' ---res"LE;, c2iiIps - de- ~-z7~~to3, Bew --d Jersey DE540 3ez' -- . w- Tecsk: i 25, 1577, A&=!= --t' -jD,r= of

358

Solar-like oscillations with low amplitude in the CoRoT target HD 181906  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context: The F8 star HD 181906 (effective temperature ~6300K) was observed for 156 days by the CoRoT satellite during the first long run in the centre direction. Analysis of the data reveals a spectrum of solar-like acoustic oscillations. However, the faintness of the target (m_v=7.65) means the signal-to-noise (S/N) in the acoustic modes is quite low, and this low S/N leads to complications in the analysis. Aims: To extract global variables of the star as well as key parameters of the p modes observed in the power spectrum of the lightcurve. Methods: The power spectrum of the lightcurve, a wavelet transform and spot fitting have been used to obtain the average rotation rate of the star and its inclination angle. Then, the autocorrelation of the power spectrum and the power spectrum of the power spectrum were used to properly determine the large separation. Finally, estimations of the mode parameters have been done by maximizing the likelihood of a global fit, where several modes were fit simultaneously. Resu...

García, R A; Samadi, R; Ballot, J; Barban, C; Benomar, O; Chaplin, W J; Gaulme, P; Appourchaux, T; Mathur, S; Mosser, B; Toutain, T; Verner, G A; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Boumier, P; Bruntt, H; Catala, C; Deheuvels, S; Elsworth, Y; Jiménez-Reyes, S J; Michel, E; Hernandez, F Perez; Roxburgh, I W; Salabert, D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Non-radial oscillations in the red giant HR7349 measured by CoRoT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Convection in red giant stars excites resonant acoustic waves whose frequencies depend on the sound speed inside the star, which in turn depends on the properties of the stellar interior. Therefore, asteroseismology is the most robust available method for probing the internal structure of red giant stars. Solar-like oscillations in the red giant HR7349 are investigated. Our study is based on a time series of 380760 photometric measurements spread over 5 months obtained with the CoRoT satellite. Mode parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood estimation of the power spectrum. The power spectrum of the high-precision time series clearly exhibits several identifiable peaks between 19 and 40 uHz showing regularity with a mean large and small spacing of Dnu = 3.47+-0.12 uHz and dnu_02 = 0.65+-0.10 uHz. Nineteen individual modes are identified with amplitudes in the range from 35 to 115 ppm. The mode damping time is estimated to be 14.7+4.7-2.9 days.

Carrier, F; Baudin, F; Barban, C; Hatzes, A P; Hekker, S; Kallinger, T; Miglio, A; Montalban, J; Morel, T; Weiss, W W; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Catala, C; Michel, E; Samadi, R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Short-lived spots in solar-like stars as observed by CoRoT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context. CoRoT light curves have an unprecedented photometric quality, having simultaneously a high signal-to-noise ratio, a long time span and a nearly continuous duty-cycle. Aims. We analyse the light-curves of four bright targets observed in the seismology field and study short-lived small spots in solar-like stars. Methods. We present a simple spot modeling by iterative analysis. Its ability to extract relevant parameters is ensured by implementing relaxation steps to avoid convergence to local minima of the sum of the residuals between observations and modeling. The use of Monte-Carlo simulations allows us to estimate the performance of the fits. Results. Our starspot modeling gives a representation of the spots on these stars in agreement with other well tested methods. Within this framework, parameters such as rigid-body rotation and spot lifetimes seem to be precisely determined. Then, the lifetime/rotation period ratios are in the range 0.5 - 2, and there is clear evidence for differential rotation.

Mosser, B; Lanza, A F; Hulot, J C; Catala, C; Baglin, A; Auvergne, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Modelling a high-mass red giant observed by CoRoT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The G6 giant HR\\,2582 (HD\\,50890) was observed by CoRoT for approximately 55 days. Mode frequencies are extracted from the observed Fourier spectrum of the light curve. Numerical stellar models are then computed to determine the characteristics of the star (mass, age, etc...) from the comparison with observational constraints. We provide evidence for the presence of solar-like oscillations at low frequency, between 10 and 20\\,$\\mu$Hz, with a regular spacing of $(1.7\\pm0.1)\\mu$Hz between consecutive radial orders. Only radial modes are clearly visible. From the models compatible with the observational constraints used here, We find that HR\\,2582 (HD\\,50890) is a massive star with a mass in the range (3--\\,5\\,$M_{\\odot}$), clearly above the red clump. It oscillates with rather low radial order ($n$ = 5\\,--\\,12) modes. Its evolutionary stage cannot be determined with precision: the star could be on the ascending red giant branch (hydrogen shell burning) with an age of approximately 155 Myr or in a later phase (h...

Baudin, F; Goupil, M J; Samadi, R; Lebreton, Y; Bruntt, H; Morel, T; Lefèvre, L; Michel, E; Mosser, B; Carrier, F; De Ridder, J; Hatzes, A; Hekker, S; Kallinger, T; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Catala, C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Plaskett's Star: Analysis of the CoRoT photometric data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The SRa02 of the CoRoT space mission for Asteroseismology was partly devoted to stars belonging to the Mon OB2 association. An intense monitoring was performed on Plaskett's Star (HD47129) and the unprecedented quality of the light curve allows us to shed new light on this very massive, non-eclipsing binary system. We particularly aimed at detecting periodic variability which might be associated with pulsations or interactions between both components. We also searched for variations related to the orbital cycle which could help to constrain the inclination and the morphology of the binary system. A Fourier-based prewhitening and a multiperiodic fitting procedure were applied to analyse the time series and extract the frequencies of variations. We describe the noise properties to tentatively define an appropriate significance criterion, to only point out the peaks at a certain significance level. We also detect the variations related to the orbital motion and study them by using the NIGHTFALL program. The peri...

Mahy, L; Baudin, F; Rauw, G; Godart, M; Morel, T; Degroote, P; Aerts, C; Blomme, R; Cuypers, J; Noels, A; Michel, E; Baglin, A; Auvergne, M; Catala, C; Samadi, R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Federated Authentication & Authorisation for e-Science J. Watt, R.O. Sinnott, J. Jiang, T. Doherty, A.J. Stell, D. Martin, G. Stewart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Federated Authentication & Authorisation for e-Science J. Watt, R.O. Sinnott, J. Jiang, T. Doherty, UK j.watt@nesc.gla.ac.uk Abstract The Grid and Web service community are defining a range of stan

Glasgow, University of

364

Pulsation spectrum of Delta Sct stars: the binary HD 50870 as seen with CoRoT and HARPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results obtained with the CoRoT satellite for HD 50870, a Delta Sct star which was observed for 114.4 d. The 307,570 CoRoT datapoints were analysed with different techniques. The photometric observations were complemented over 15 nights of high-resolution spectroscopy with HARPS on a baseline of 25 d. Some uvby photometric observations were also obtained to better characterize the pulsation modes. HD 50870 proved to be a low-amplitude, long-period spectroscopic binary system seen almost pole-on (i~21 deg. The brighter component, which also has the higher rotational velocity (v sin i=37.5 km/s), is a delta Sct-type variable. There is a dominant axisymmetric mode (17.16 c/d). After the detection of about 250 terms (corresponding to an amplitude of about 0.045 mmag) a flat plateau appears in the power spectrum in the low-frequency region up to about 35 c/d. We were able to detect this plateau only thanks to the short cadence sampling of the CoRoT measurements (32 s). The density distribution vs. f...

Mantegazza, L; Michel, E; Rainer, M; Baudin, F; Hernandez, A Garcia; Semaan, T; Alvarez, M; Amado, P J; Garrido, R; Mathias, P; Moya, A; Suarez, J C; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Catala, C; Samadi, R

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

The structure of disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars as traced by CO ro-vibrational emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the emission and absorption of CO ro-vibrational lines in the spectra of intermediate mass pre-main-sequence stars with the aim to determine both the spatial distribution of the CO gas and its physical properties. We also aim to correlate CO emission properties with disk geometry. Using high-resolution spectra containing fundamental and first overtone CO ro-vibrational emission, observed with CRIRES on the VLT, we probe the physical properties of the circumstellar gas by studying its kinematics and excitation conditions. We detect and spectrally resolve CO fundamental ro-vibrational emission in 12 of the 13 stars observed, and in two cases in absorption. Keeping in mind that we studied a limited sample, we find that the physical properties and spatial distribution of the CO gas correlate with disk geometry. Flaring disks show highly excited CO fundamental emission up to v$_u$ = 5, while self-shadowed disks show CO emission that is not as highly excited. Rotational temperatures range between ~250-2000...

van der Plas, G; Waters, L B F M; Dominik, C

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

The variability of the CoRoT target HD171834: gamma Dor pulsations and/or activity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the preliminary results of a frequency and line-profile analysis of the CoRoT gamma Dor candidate HD171834. The data consist of 149 days of CoRoT light curves and a ground-based dataset of more than 1400 high-resolution spectra, obtained with six different instruments. Low-amplitude frequencies between 0 and 5 c/d, dominated by a frequency near 0.96 c/d and several of its harmonics, are detected. These findings suggest that HD171834 is not a mere gamma Dor pulsator and that stellar activity plays an important role in its variable behaviour. Based on CoRoT space data and on ground-based observations with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatory under the ESO Large Programmes ESO LP 178.D-0361 and ESO LP 182.D-0356 (FEROS/2.2m and HARPS/3.6m), and data collected with FOCES/2.2m at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman at Calar Alto, SOPHIE/1.93m at Observatoire de Haute Provence, FIES/NOT at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, and HERCULES/1.0m at Mount John University Observatory.

Uytterhoeven, K; Baglin, A; Rainer, M; Poretti, E; Amado, P; Chapellier, E; Mantegazza, L; Pollard, K; Suarez, J C; Kilmartin, P M; Sato, K H; Garcia, R A; Auvergne, M; Michel, E; Samadi, R; Catala, C; Baudin, F

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced membrane filtration Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

recycling... osmosis (RO) membrane filtration processes have been widely used in water recycling due... partitioning and possible breakthrough of such contaminants in NFRO...

368

Environmental Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University, 1989 Selected Recent Publications "Reverse Osmosis Biofilm Dispersal by Osmotic Back Retarded Osmosis Energy Production from Natural Salinity Gradients." Environmental Science & Technology, 2013. "A Forward Osmosis-Membrane Distillation Hybrid Process for Direct Sewer Mining: System

Elimelech, Menachem

369

Reversal modes in magnetic nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The magnetic switching of ferromagnetic nanotubes is investigated as a function of their geometry. Two independent methods are used: Numerical simulations and analytical calculations. It is found that for long tubes the reversal of magnetization is achieved by two mechanism: The propagation of a transverse or a vortex domain wall depending on the internal and external radii of the tube.

P. Landeros; S. Allende; J. Escrig; E. Salcedo; D. Altbir; E. E. Vogel

2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

370

Reverse engineering the human brain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Thompson Reverse engineering the human brain Vincent Walsh Department of Experimental...can be used to temporarily prevent the brain from carrying out some of its normal functions...outline some of the advances in understanding brain function made by using TMS, and, in particular...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Cosmological Significance of Time Reversal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... reversal at nearly the same time, that time being coincident with the occurrence of the Schwarzschild singularity, that is, the point at which the limiting radius, R = GM/ ... increases it would seem that a phenomenon not dissimilar to the spherical gravitational collapse of Schwarzschild will inevitably commence. This phenomenon depends on the relative velocity, and thus the position ...

KARY MULLIS

1968-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

372

Reversals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the fall of 1996, a few months before Jim Hall made the case against the Boeing 737 in his long letter to the...

Gerry Byrne

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Reverse engineering of integrated circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

Chisholm, Gregory H. (Shorewood, IL); Eckmann, Steven T. (Colorado Springs, CO); Lain, Christopher M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Veroff, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings  

SciTech Connect

We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

375

The Carlson-Simpson Lemma in Reverse Mathematics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6.3 Reverse Mathematicswords . . . . . 1.4 Reverse Mathematics diagrams Miller-1.1 Reverse Mathematics . . . . . . 1.2 The Dual Ramsey

Erhard, Julia Christina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Summary and presentations from the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop held April 19,...

377

The CoRoT target HD175726: an active star with weak solar-like oscillations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context. The CoRoT short runs give us the opportunity to observe a large variety of late-type stars through their solar-like oscillations. We report observations of the star HD175726 that lasted for 27 days during the first short run of the mission. The time series reveals a high-activity signal and the power spectrum presents an excess due to solar-like oscillations with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Aims. Our aim is to identify the most efficient tools to extract as much information as possible from the power density spectrum. Methods. The most productive method appears to be the autocorrelation of the time series, calculated as the spectrum of the filtered spectrum. This method is efficient, very rapid computationally, and will be useful for the analysis of other targets, observed with CoRoT or with forthcoming missions such as Kepler and Plato. Results. The mean large separation has been measured to be 97.2+-0.5 microHz, slightly below the expected value determined from solar scaling laws.We also show stro...

Mosser, B; Appourchaux, T; Barban, C; Baudin, F; Boumier, P; Bruntt, H; Catala, C; Deheuvels, S; García, R A; Gaulme, P; Regulo, C; Roxburgh, I; Samadi, R; Verner, G; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Ballot, J; Benomar, O; Mathur, S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

A fresh look at the seismic spectrum of HD49933: analysis of 180 days of CoRoT photometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar-like oscillations have now been observed in several stars, thanks to ground-based spectroscopic observations and space-borne photometry. CoRoT, which has been in orbit since December 2006, has observed the star HD49933 twice. The oscillation spectrum of this star has proven difficult to interpret. Thanks to a new timeseries provided by CoRoT, we aim to provide a robust description of the oscillations in HD49933, i.e., to identify the degrees of the observed modes, and to measure mode frequencies, widths, amplitudes and the average rotational splitting. Several methods were used to model the Fourier spectrum: Maximum Likelihood Estimators and Bayesian analysis using Markov Chain Monte-Carlo techniques. The different methods yield consistent result, and allow us to make a robust identification of the modes and to extract precise mode parameters. Only the rotational splitting remains difficult to estimate precisely, but is clearly relatively large (several microHz in size).

Benomar, O; Campante, T L; Chaplin, W J; García, R A; Gaulme, P; Toutain, T; Verner, G A; Appourchaux, T; Ballot, J; Barban, C; Elsworth, Y; Mathur, S; Mosser, B; Régulo, C; Roxburgh, I W; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Catala, C; Michel, E; Samadi, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF HD 100546. I. ANALYSIS OF ASYMMETRIC RO-VIBRATIONAL OH EMISSION LINES  

SciTech Connect

We present observations of ro-vibrational OH and CO emission from the Herbig Be star HD 100546. The emission from both molecules arises from the inner region of the disk extending from approximately 13 AU from the central star. The velocity profiles of the OH lines are narrower than the velocity profile of the [O I] {lambda}6300 line, indicating that the OH in the disk is not cospatial with the O I. This suggests that the inner optically thin region of the disk is largely devoid of molecular gas. Unlike the ro-vibrational CO emission lines, the OH lines are highly asymmetric. We show that the average CO and average OH line profiles can be fit with a model of a disk comprised of an eccentric inner wall and a circular outer disk. In this model, the vast majority of the OH flux (75%) originates from the inner wall, while the vast majority of the CO flux (65%) originates on the surface of the disk at radii greater than 13 AU. Eccentric inner disks are predicted by hydrodynamic simulations of circumstellar disks containing an embedded giant planet. We discuss the implications of such a disk geometry in light of models of planet-disk tidal interactions and propose alternative explanations for the origin of the asymmetry.

Liskowsky, Joseph P.; Brittain, Sean D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 118 Kinard Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Najita, Joan R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Carr, John S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7211, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Doppmann, Greg W. [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Troutman, Matthew R., E-mail: sbritt@clemson.edu, E-mail: najita@noao.edu, E-mail: carr@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: gdoppmann@keck.hawaii.edu, E-mail: troutmanm@umsl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

``New`` countercurrent demineralization techniques are carving a place in water treatment  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how supplementing older treatment methods with modern advancements creates water treatment technology greater than the sum of its parts. Water treatment technology has rapidly advanced in recent years to where a myriad of options are now available for producing makeup water for utility boilers. Some of the newer methods include two-pass reverse osmosis (RO), RO followed by mixed-bed demineralization and triple-membrane treatment consisting of ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and RO. All of these techniques have performed well in various applications. A technique that is gaining attention is packed-bed, counter-currently regenerated demineralization. This process combines ion exchange with advanced regeneration methods in a system that produces water of significantly better quality than that of conventional cation/anion units.

Buecker, B.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Use of ceregenins to create novel biofouling resistant water water-treatment membranes.  

SciTech Connect

Scoping studies have demonstrated that ceragenins, when linked to water-treatment membranes have the potential to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced molecules that mimic antimicrobial peptides. Evidence includes measurements of CSA-13 prohibiting the growth of and killing planktonic Pseudomonas fluorescens. In addition, imaging of biofilms that were in contact of a ceragenin showed more dead cells relative to live cells than in a biofilm that had not been treated with a ceragenin. This work has demonstrated that ceragenins can be attached to polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, though work needs to improve the uniformity of the attachment. Finally, methods have been developed to use hyperspectral imaging with multivariate curve resolution to view ceragenins attached to the RO membrane. Future work will be conducted to better attach the ceragenin to the RO membranes and more completely test the biocidal effectiveness of the ceragenins on the membranes.

Kirk, Matthew F.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Feng, Yanshu; McGrath, Lucas K.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Pollard, Jacob; Hibbs, Michael R.; Savage, Paul B.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Comparative study of power and water cogeneration systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of three combined systems using reverse osmosis to produce drinkable water and a Rankine cycle which produces mechanical power have been analyzed and compared. The RO subsystem incorporates a power recovery unit (a hydraulic turbine in the first two cases and a pressure exchange unit in the third case). The coupling between the RO and Rankine subsystems is only mechanical in the first case (the Rankine cycle provides mechanical power to the pumps of the RO subsystem), while in the two other cases the coupling is both mechanical and thermal (the heat rejected by the condenser of the Rankine cycle is transferred to the seawater). The minimum values of the Rankine cycle mass ratio for the three systems and the maximum operating temperature for the two last systems have been established. Energy and exergy efficiencies are also compared for identical entering parameters.

N. Bouzayani; N. Galanis; J. Orfi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

An overview of time?reversal acoustics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time?reversal invariance is a very powerful concept in physics. In the field of acoustics where time reversal invariance occurs time?reversal experiments may be achieved simply with arrays of transmit?receive transducers allowing an incident wave field to be sampled recorded time?reversed and re?emitted. Time reversal mirrors (TRMs) may be used to study random media and chaotic reverberating structures. Common to these complex media is a remarkable robustness exemplified by observations that the more complex the medium between the probe source and the TRM the sharper the focus. TRMs open the way to new signal processings that interest imaging detection telecommunications and therapy. Time reversal mirrors have plenty of applications including ultrasonic therapy and medical imaging non destructive testing telecommunications underwater acoustics seismology sound control home automation. An overview of these fields will be presented.

Mathias Fink

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

HD 51106 and HD 50747: an ellipsoidal binary and a triple system observed with CoRoT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an analysis of the observations of HD 51106 and HD 50747 by the satellite CoRoT, obtained during its initial run, and of the spectroscopic preparatory observations. AIMS: We complete an analysis of the light curve, extract the main frequencies observed, and discuss some preliminary interpretations about the stars. Methods: We used standard Fourier transform and pre-whitening methods to extract information about the periodicities of the stars. Results: HD 51106 is an ellipsoidal binary, the light curve of which can be completely explained by the tidal deformation of the star and smaller secondary effects. HD 50747 is a triple system containing a variable star, which exhibits many modes of oscillation with periods in the range of a few hours. On the basis of this period range and the analysis of the physical parameters of the star, we conclude that HD 50747 is a Gamma-Doradus star.

Dolez, N; Michel, E; Hua, A Hui Bon; Vauclair, G; Contel, D Le; Mathias, P; Poretti, E; Amado, P J; Rainer, M; Samadi, R; Baglin, A; Catala, C; Auvergne, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Valtier, J C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

CoRoT measures solar-like oscillations and granulation in stars hotter than the Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oscillations of the Sun have been used to understand its interior structure. The extension of similar studies to more distant stars has raised many difficulties despite the strong efforts of the international community over the past decades. The CoRoT (Convection Rotation and Planetary Transits) satellite, launched in December 2006, has now measured oscillations and the stellar granulation signature in three main sequence stars that are noticeably hotter than the sun. The oscillation amplitudes are about 1.5 times as large as those in the Sun; the stellar granulation is up to three times as high. The stellar amplitudes are about 25% below the theoretic values, providing a measurement of the nonadiabaticity of the process ruling the oscillations in the outer layers of the stars.

E. Michel; A. Baglin; M. Auvergne; C. Catala; R. Samadi

2008-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

386

Advanced Security Infrastructures for Grid Education Prof R.O. Sinnott, A.J. Stell, Dr J.P. Watt, Prof D.W. Chadwick,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advanced Security Infrastructures for Grid Education Prof R.O. Sinnott, A.J. Stell, Dr J.P. Watt domain. Keywords: Grid, education, Security, PERMIS, Shibboleth. 1. Introduction As Grid technology addressing these challenges. This is one of the first full Grid computing courses available today. Security

Kent, University of

387

Nonidentified Kikuchi lines with reverse contrast  

SciTech Connect

Electron diffraction patterns of silicon in transmission with contrast reversal from bright to dark for an unidentified Kikuchi line along its length have been obtained. The contrast reversal of an unidentified line is explained within the elementary mechanism of Kikuchi pattern formation taking into account the Kikuchi electron double diffraction.

Karakhanyan, K. R., E-mail: kkarakhanyan@yandex.ru [Yerevan State University (Armenia)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reversibility of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), i.e. that they could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser1 REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1 , Søren Højgaard Jensen1,2 , Anne Hauch1,3 , Ib Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø National Laboratory

389

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanofiltration Treatment Options for Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Treatment Demands Nanofiltration Treatment Options for Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Treatment Demands Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting a study on the use of nanofiltration (NF) treatment options to enable use of non-traditional water sources as an alternative to freshwater make-up for thermoelectric power plants. The project includes a technical and economic evaluation of NF for two types of water that contain moderate to high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS): (1) cooling tower recirculating water and (2) produced waters from oil & gas extraction operations. Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most mature and commonly considered option for high TDS water treatment. However, RO is generally considered to be too expensive to make treatment of produced waters for power plant use a feasible application. Therefore, SNL is investigating the use of NF, which could be a more cost effective treatment option than RO. Similar to RO, NF is a membrane-based process. Although NF is not as effective as RO for the removal of TDS (typical salt rejection is ~85 percent, compared to >95 percent for RO), its performance should be sufficient for typical power plant applications. In addition to its lower capital cost, an NF system should have lower operating costs because it requires less pressure to achieve an equivalent flux of product water.

390

Economic and energetic analysis of capturing CO2 from ambient air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...captured). When analyzing the economics of climate...9 Desalination, reverse osmosis...ethanol distillation and desalination...CO2; and 1.5% N2). Desalination, reverse osmosis. Description...

Kurt Zenz House; Antonio C. Baclig; Manya Ranjan; Ernst A. van Nierop; Jennifer Wilcox; Howard J. Herzog

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

ORNL 2012-G00208/tcc UT-B ID 201002406  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at pretreatment conditions compared to reverse osmosis membranes that are limited to low temperature processing/ chemicals · Less prone to fouling than reverse osmosis membranes Potential Applications · Biomass

Pennycook, Steve

392

26 Maple Syrup Digest THE "JONES RULE OF 86" REVISITED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the present day when concentration by reverse osmosis is common, and the value and difference in sap (or enough. Given our increasingly powerful Reverse Osmosis machines, the resultant high concentrate sugar

Hayden, Nancy J.

393

Membrane Scientist Los Angeles, CA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and working hands on to ensure quality and commercial viability of reverse osmosis products including hand cast and commercial reverse osmosis membrane testing and synthesis, prototype membrane testing and new

Alpay, S. Pamir

394

Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 1986, 25,1027-1030 1027 Conclusions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, DC, 1968; Applied Mathematics Se- ries, Vol. 55; p 238. Ohya, H.; Sourirajan, S. Reverse Osmosis. Sourirajan, S. Reverse Osmosis; Logos: London, 1970. Received for reuiew September 11, 1985 Accepted May 16

Kirschvink, Joseph L.

395

Ion beam analysis of materials for water purification: Partitioning of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reverse osmosis membranes Xijing Zhang1, David G. Cahill1, Orlando Coronell2 and Benito J. Mariñas2. 1 reverse osmosis membrane, Dow Liquid Separations Conventional wisdom is

Braun, Paul

396

FM 4-20.158 TO 13C7-7-61  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

..........................................................................................v Chapter 1 Rigging 600-Gallons Per Hour (GPH) Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU) on a 20-Foot-3 Preparing Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU) ...................... 1-11 Lifting

US Army Corps of Engineers

397

Water Treatment using Electrocoagulation Ritika Mohan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reverse Osmosis (HEROTM). Semiconductor industrial waste water amounts to approximately 105 ­ 106 gal of brine amounting to almost 103 104 gal/day water. The difference between conventional Reverse Osmosis

Fay, Noah

398

Le Lait (1984), 64, 143-162 Aspect nergtique du relvement par osmose  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Summary ENERGETIC CONSIDERATION ABOUT THE CONCENTRATION WITH REVERSE OSMOSIS OF «PIQUETTES» BEFORE DISTILLATION ft is possible ta concentrate «piquettes» by reverse osmosis, before the distillation

Boyer, Edmond

399

Reversible chemisorption on highly dispersed Ru catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen and carbon monoxide adsorptions have been studied by static gas volumetric measurement on a range of highly dispersed Y-zeolite-supported ruthenium catalysts prepared by ion exchange. At ambient temperature, the absorption isotherms indicated two distinct types of adsorption - reversible (composed of both physisorption and weak chemisorption) and irreversible (strongly chemisorbed). The catalysts were highly dispersed and had average particle diameters ranging from 0.9 to 1.6 nm. Reversible hydrogen chemisorption was found to be a function of average particle diameter and dispersion. On the other hand, reversible carbon monoxide chemisorption seemed to be mainly due to interaction with the support.

Yang, C.H.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Molar Mass, Surface Tension, and Droplet Growth Kinetics of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, thus enabling direct characterization of marine DOM. K¨ohler Theory Analysis

Nenes, Athanasios

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film, a team from the University of Washington and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has identified separate magnetic-reversal mechanisms in the two branches of a hysteresis loop. This advance in fundamental understanding will provide new insights for developing the next generation of information storage and sensing devices where exchange bias is expected to play a critical role.

402

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Wednesday, 31 July 2013 00:00 In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

403

Subsurface imaging with reverse vertical seismic profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents imaging results from a 3D reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) dataset measured at a hydrocarbon bearing pinnacle reef in northern Michigan. The study presented many challenges in seismic data ...

Krasovec, Mary L. (Mary Lee), 1972-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

How to reverse-engineer quality rankings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A good or bad product quality rating can make or break an organization. However, the notion of “quality” is often defined by an independent rating ... step in this process is to “reverse-engineer” a rating compan...

Allison Chang; Cynthia Rudin; Michael Cavaretta; Robert Thomas…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Fuel Cells Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings Annual Merit Review Proceedings Workshop & Meeting Proceedings

406

Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries. Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable magnesium...

407

Materials and System Issues with Reversible SOFC | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Lessons Learned from...

408

Characterization of ion selective membranes for application in reverse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characterization of ion selective membranes for application in reverse electrodialysis systems I would have imagined when I started. i #12;Abstract Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a renewable

Kjelstrup, Signe

409

CoRoT's view on variable B8/9 stars: spots versus pulsations: Evidence for differential rotation in HD 174648  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context. There exist few variability studies of stars in the region in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between the A and B-star pulsational instability strips. With the aid of the high precision continuous measurements of the CoRoT space satellite, low amplitudes are more easily detected, making a study of this neglected region worthwhile. Aims. We collected a small sample of B stars observed by CoRoT to determine the origin of the different types of variability observed. Methods. We combine literature photometry and spectroscopy to measure the fundamental parameters of the stars in the sample, and compare asteroseismic modelling of the light curves with (differentially rotating) spotted star models. Results. We found strong evidence for the existence of spots and differential rotation in HD 174648, and formulated hypotheses for their origin. We show that the distinction between pulsations and rotational modulation is difficult to make solely based on the light curve, especially in slowly rotating stars.

Degroote, P; Samadi, R; Aerts, C; Kurtz, D W; Noels, A; Miglio, A; Montalban, J; Bloemen, S; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Michel, E; Auvergne, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Discrimination reversal learning in yearling horses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DISCRIMINATION REVERSAL LEARNING IN YEARLING HORSES A Thesis by JEANNA CHASTAIN FISKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976... Major Subjects Animal Science DISCRIMINATION REVERSAL LEARNING IN YEARLING HORSES A Thesis by JEANNA CHASTAIN FISKE Approved as to style and content by& Chai an o Committee ad oi epartment Member Nem er December 1976 ABSTRACT Discrimination...

Fiske, Jeanna Chastain

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Possible detection of phase changes from the non-transiting planet HD 46375b by CoRoT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work deals with the detection of phase changes in an exoplanetary system. HD 46375 is a solar analog known to host a non-transiting Saturn-mass exoplanet with a 3.0236 day period. It was observed by the CoRoT satellite for 34 days during the fall of 2008. We attempt to identify at optical wavelengths, the changing phases of the planet as it orbits its star. We then try to improve the star model by means of a seismic analysis of the same light curve and the use of ground-based spectropolarimetric observations. The data analysis relies on the Fourier spectrum and the folding of the time series. We find evidence of a sinusoidal signal compatible in terms of both amplitude and phase with light reflected by the planet. Its relative amplitude is Delta Fp/F* = [13.0, 26.8] ppm, implying an albedo A=[0.16, 0.33] or a dayside visible brightness temperature Tb ~ [1880,2030] K by assuming a radius R=1.1 R_Jup and an inclination i=45 deg. Its orbital phase differs from that of the radial-velocity signal by at...

Gaulme, P; Guillot, T; Mosser, B; Mary, D; Weiss, W W; Schmider, F -X; Bourguignon, S; Deeg, H J; Régulo, C; Aigrain, S; Schneider, J; Bruntt, H; Deheuvels, S; Donati, J -F; Appourchaux, T; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Michel, E; Samadi, R; 10.1051/0004-6361/201014303

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Accurate p-mode measurements of the G0V metal-rich CoRoT target HD 52265  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The star HD 52265 is a G0V metal-rich exoplanet-host star observed in the seismology field of the CoRoT space telescope from November 2008 to March 2009. The satellite collected 117 days of high-precision photometric data on this star, showing that it presents solar-like oscillations. HD 52265 was also observed in spectroscopy with the Narval spectrograph at the same epoch. We characterise HD 52265 using both spectroscopic and seismic data. The fundamental stellar parameters of HD 52265 were derived with the semi-automatic software VWA, and the projected rotational velocity was estimated by fitting synthetic profiles to isolated lines in the observed spectrum. The parameters of the observed p modes were determined with a maximum-likelihood estimation. We performed a global fit of the oscillation spectrum, over about ten radial orders, for degrees l=0 to 2. We also derived the properties of the granulation, and analysed a signature of the rotation induced by the photospheric magnetic activity. Precise determin...

Ballot, J; Samadi, R; Vauclair, G; Benomar, O; Bruntt, H; Mosser, B; Stahn, T; Verner, G A; Campante, T L; García, R A; Mathur, S; Salabert, D; Gaulme, P; Régulo, C; Roxburgh, I W; Appourchaux, T; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Chaplin, W J; Deheuvels, S; Michel, E; Bazot, M; Creevey, O; Dolez, N; Elsworth, Y; Sato, K H; Vauclair, S; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; 10.1051/0004-6361/201116547

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Constraining magnetic-activity modulations in 3~solar-like stars observed by CoRoT and NARVAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stellar activity cycles are the manifestation of dynamo process running in the stellar interiors. They have been observed during years to decades thanks to the measurement of stellar magnetic proxies at the surface of the stars such as the chromospheric and X-ray emissions, and the measurement of the magnetic field with spectropolarimetry. However, all of these measurements rely on external features that cannot be visible during for example, a Maunder-type minimum. With the advent of long observations provided by space asteroseismic missions, it has been possible to pierce inside the stars and study their properties. Moreover, the acoustic-mode properties are also perturbed by the presence of these dynamos. We track the temporal variations of the amplitudes and frequencies of acoustic modes allowing us to search for signature of magnetic activity cycles, as has already been done in the Sun and in the CoRoT target HD49933. We use asteroseimic tools and more classical spectroscopic measurements performed with t...

Mathur, S; Morgenthaler, A; Salabert, D; Petit, P; Ballot, J; Regulo, C; Catala, C

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Where Does My Water Come From? The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) the water wars of the 1970s and 2) the construction of the largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO Springs have brackish groundwater reverse osmosis plants; and Dunedin and Clearwater have groundwater reverse osmosis plants. Tampa Bay Water's sources vary throughout the year and current source

Jawitz, James W.

415

Part II: Short Answer Questions. Write a brief, but complete answer to each question, confining your answer to the space provided.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will not be removed by reverse osmosis? Reverse osmosis purifies water by passing it through a membrane. Any small to these hard minerals and prevent them from binding to the soap molecules. (8) 3. Both distillation and reverse osmosis are processes that will produce highly purified, but not absolutely pure water. (a) What types

Viola, Ronald

416

Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-driven desalination with reverse osmosis: the state of the art Andrea Ghermandi*, Rami Messalem Ben-Gurion University; accepted in revised form 17 June 2009 abstract Solar-driven reverse osmosis desalination can potentially experimental and design systems worldwide. Our results show that photovoltaic-powered reverse osmosis is techni

Messalem, Rami

417

Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scale study of chlorination-induced transport property changes of a seawater reverse osmosis membrane of a seawater reverse osmosis membrane Axel Ettori a,b,c , Emmanuelle Gaudichet-Maurin c , Pierre Aimar a, BP 76, 78603 Maisons-Laffitte cedex, France H I G H L I G H T S A 4" spiral wound reverse osmosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

418

Murdoch University Dixon Road, Rockingham  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. These research themes comprise: pre-treatment, reverse osmosis desalting, novel desalting Evaluation of non-chemical pulsed power technology as an antifouling pre- treatment for reverse osmosis-treatment process for reverse osmosis desalination Prof. Linda Zou, University of South Australia

419

The tip of the iceberg: the frequency content of the Delta Sct star HD 50844 from CoRoT space photometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been suggested that the detection of a wealth of very low amplitude modes in Delta Sct stars was only a matter of signal--to--noise ratio. Access to this treasure, impossible from the ground, is one of the scientific aims of the space mission CoRoT, developed and operated by CNES. This work presents the results obtained on HD 50844: the 140,016 datapoints allowed us to reach the level of 10^{-5} mag in the amplitude spectra. The frequency analysis of the CoRoT timeseries revealed hundreds of terms in the frequency range 0--30 d^{-1}. The initial guess that Delta Sct stars have a very rich frequency content is confirmed. The spectroscopic mode identification gives theoretical support since very high--degree modes (up to ell=14) are identified. We also prove that cancellation effects are not sufficient in removing the flux variations associated to these modes at the noise level of the CoRoT measurements. The ground--based observations indicate that HD 50844 is an evolved star that is slightly underabunda...

Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Michel, E; Baglin, A; Auvergne, M; Catala, C; Samadi, R; Rodríguez, E; Garrido, R; Amado, P; Martin-Ruiz, S; Moya, A; Suarez, C; Baudin, F; Zima, W; Alvarez, M; Mathias, P; Paparo, M; Papics, P; Plachy, E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Reverse-Engineering Banks' Financial Strength Ratings Using ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 27, 2006 ... reverse-engineering a superior bank rating system, which turns out to ...... sector (

mal92

2009-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Reversed Doppler effect under reflection from a shock electromagnetic wave  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility of observing the reversed Doppler effect in an electrodynamic system of coupled transmission...

A. M. Belyantsev; A. B. Kozyrev

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

423

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

424

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

425

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

426

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

427

Development of an integrated reverse engineering system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of a customised reverse engineering system in which a 3D digitiser (MicroScribe-3DX) has been integrated with a computer-aided design (CAD) system (Pro/ENGINEER). The application programme written in C language enables a real-time input from the digitiser to Pro/ENGINEER. Two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) were used: the MicroScribe-3D Software Development Kit (SDK) and Pro/TOOLKIT. The former allows the user to develop an integrated system through intuitive and high-level function calls to the digitiser. The latter enables a user to customise a Pro/ENGINEER environment. This system offers an intuitive and user-friendly means for reverse engineering. It also helps to shorten the whole reverse engineering process. This is because the digitised data can be displayed and edited in real time, so that early identification and exclusion of the undesired and incorrect data are made possible.

X.W. Xu; L. Song

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Tokamak Equilibria with Reversed Current Density  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations of nearly zero toroidal current in the central region of tokamaks (the “current hole”) raises the question of the existence of toroidal equilibria with very low or reversed current in the core. The solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium equation with hollow toroidal current density profile including negative current density in the plasma center are investigated. Solutions of the corresponding eigenvalue problem provide simple examples of such equilibrium configurations. More realistic equilibria with toroidal current density reversal are computed using a new equilibrium problem formulation and computational algorithm which do not assume nested magnetic surfaces.

A. A. Martynov; S. Yu. Medvedev; L. Villard

2003-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

429

Reversed Doppler Effect in Photonic Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonrelativistic reversed Doppler shifts have never been observed in nature and have only been speculated to occur in pathological systems with simultaneously negative effective permittivity and permeability. This Letter presents a different, new physical phenomenon that leads to a nonrelativistic reversed Doppler shift in light. It arises when light is reflected from a moving shock wave propagating through a photonic crystal. In addition to reflection of a single frequency, multiple discrete reflected frequencies or a 10 GHz periodic modulation can also be observed when a single carrier frequency of wavelength 1????m is incident.

Evan J. Reed; Marin Solja?i?; John D. Joannopoulos

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

430

An Explanation for Beta's Mean-reversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the designation as an UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR Approved by Research Advisor: Dr. Dennis Jansen May 2014 Major: Economics TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................. 8 1 ABSTRACT An Explanation for Beta’s Mean Reversion. (May 2014) Connor Matthew Bodkin Department of Economics Texas A&M University Research Advisor: Dr. Dennis Jansen Department of Economics This study aims to improve upon...

Bodkin, Connor Matthew

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

431

Mitochondrial modulation: reversible phosphorylation takes center stage?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.5 billion years, mitochondria have evolved from oxygen-scavenging bacterial symbionts into pri- mary controlMitochondrial modulation: reversible phosphorylation takes center stage? David J. Pagliarini1 and Center for Human Genetics Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA In the past 1

Pagliarini, David J.

432

Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) is a pressurized heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor that began operation at 40 MW. The reactor was subsequently upgraded to 60 MW and operated at that level for several years. The reactor undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Questions which were raised about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal transition led to a reactor shutdown and subsequent resumption of operation at a reduced power of 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these questions is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW. Direct use of the experimental results and an understanding of the governing phenomenology supports this conclusion.

Cheng, L.Y.; Tichler, P.R.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Reversing entanglement change by a weak measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 82, 052323 (2010) Reversing entanglement change by a weak measurement Qingqing Sun,1,* M. Al-Amri,2 Luiz Davidovich,3 and M. Suhail Zubairy1 1Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering, Texas A...

Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Davidovich, Luiz; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

A comprehensive techno-economical review of indirect solar desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar powered desalination has been the focus of great interest recently worldwide. In the past, majority of the experimental investigations focused on solar coupled thermally driven conventional desalination technologies such as Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) and Multi-Effect Distillation (MED). With the advancement in membrane technology and its advantages such as high Recovery Ratios (RR) and low specific energy requirements Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination has gained popularity. Currently, 52% of the indirect solar desalination plants are RO based with MED and MSF having a 13% and 9% share respectively. Membrane Distillation (MD) based plants represent 16% of the total and have been a focus of recent research efforts. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of all the indirect solar desalination technologies along with plant specific technical details. Efforts assessing the economic feasibility and cost affecting parameters for each desalination technology are also reviewed.

Muhammad Tauha Ali; Hassan E.S. Fath; Peter R. Armstrong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Investigation into economical desalination using optimized hybrid renewable energy system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the use of hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs) in Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination. Mathematical model aided with a newly developed computer program for sizing (HRES) components. The study evaluates the individual and total expenses needed as well as the amount of excess renewable energy production. An optimization program was developed to select the best (HRES) combination that can produce desalinated water in a relatively economic cost. It demonstrates an investigated optimization approach based on minimization of the excess energy. It presents the impact of the considered optimization technique on the unit cost of energy and consequently unit cost of desalinated water. Unit production costs of both energy and desalinated water for two existing small and medium (RO) plants powered with conventional electricity grid are compared with the generated electricity from optimized (HRES). Cost sensitivity evaluation for (HRES) components to estimate the most economical price of (HRES) for desalination is presented.

A. Hossam-Eldin; A.M. El-Nashar; A. Ismaiel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Wind tunnel balances from the pre-war...rather than the mass of spray which...desalination plant (van Hoof...tonnes and a plant rating of 150kW...material for mass production...anti-fouling treatments. For ships...housing spray plant producing an...osmosis in wastewater reuse and seawater...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Knuteson-RO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AERIs for ARM: Accuracy and Applications AERIs for ARM: Accuracy and Applications R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, D. H. DeSlover, T. P. Dirkx, W. F. Feltz, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin University of Wisconsin - Madison Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies Madison, Wisconsin Introduction Measurements from the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) are used within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to improve our understanding of the atmospheric processes important for atmospheric radiation. One of the earliest ARM goals was the collection of high spectral resolution emission data for validation of radiative transfer model (RTM) calculations in the infrared (IR). Over the years, the list of applications of AERI data have grown to include remote

438

A REVERSE SHOCK IN GRB 130427A  

SciTech Connect

We present extensive radio and millimeter observations of the unusually bright GRB 130427A at z = 0.340, spanning 0.67-12 days after the burst. We combine these data with detailed multi-band UV, optical, NIR, and Swift X-ray observations and find that the broadband afterglow emission is composed of distinct reverse shock and forward shock contributions. The reverse shock emission dominates in the radio/millimeter and at ?< 0.1 days in the UV/optical/NIR, while the forward shock emission dominates in the X-rays and at ?> 0.1 days in the UV/optical/NIR. We further find that the optical and X-ray data require a wind circumburst environment, pointing to a massive star progenitor. Using the combined forward and reverse shock emission, we find that the parameters of the burst include an isotropic kinetic energy of E{sub K,{sub iso}} ? 2 × 10{sup 53} erg, a mass loss rate of M-dot ?3×10{sup -8} M{sub ?} yr{sup –1} (for a wind velocity of 1000 km s{sup –1}), and a Lorentz factor at the deceleration time of ?(200 s) ? 130. Due to the low density and large isotropic energy, the absence of a jet break to ?15 days places only a weak constraint on the opening angle, ?{sub j} ?> 2.°5, and therefore a total energy of E{sub ?} + E{sub K} ?> 1.2 × 10{sup 51} erg, similar to other gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The reverse shock emission is detectable in this burst due to the low circumburst density, which leads to a slow cooling shock. We speculate that this property is required for the detectability of reverse shocks in radio and millimeter bands. Following on GRB 130427A as a benchmark event, observations of future GRBs with the exquisite sensitivity of the Very Large Array and ALMA, coupled with detailed modeling of the reverse and forward shock contributions, will test this hypothesis.

Laskar, T.; Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chakraborti, S.; Lunnan, R.; Chornock, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chandra, P. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Ray, A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

439

Thermoeconomic analysis of some existing desalination processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a thermoeconomic analysis of the widely used and existing desalination processes. Thermoeconomic approach is used to distribute the cost of the whole process on the internal streams based on exergy not energy. The stream-cost equations are arranged in a matrix form and solved to calculate the monetary cost of the process streams. The cost associated with the rejected streams as well as the cost of the exergy destruction are calculated for process units. This in turn enables to point out the units which have the higher sum of investment and exergy destruction costs. Cost effective of the whole process recalling enhancement of these units. The most widely used desalination processes and especially are located in Suez Gulf region such as Multi stage flash (MSF), multi effect evaporation (MEE), thermal vapor compression (MEE-TVC), mechanical vapor compression (MEE-MVC), and reverse osmosis RO are considered and compared. This comparison is performed using developed Visual Design and Simulation (VDS) software. The results show that both Mechanical Vapor Compression (MEE-MVC) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems are in competition and they give lower unit product cost.

Abdulnasser A. Mabrouk; A.S. Nafey; H.E.S. Fath

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

On Reverse Engineering in the Cognitive and Brain Andreas Schierwagen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On Reverse Engineering in the Cognitive and Brain Sciences Andreas Schierwagen Institute #12;On Reverse Engineering in the Cognitive and Brain Sciences Andreas Schierwagen Institute research initiatives try to utilize the operational principles of organisms and brains to develop

Schierwagen, Andreas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Effects of draw solutions and membrane conditions on electricity generation and water flux in osmotic microbial fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

membrane processes such as microfil- tration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis con. Such a water movement does not require external energy input like that in reverse osmosis; thus, FO is a low Keywords: Forward osmosis Osmotic microbial fuel cell Wastewater treatment Water flux Draw solution a b

442

Sakhalin reversal tops C. I. S. action  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the outlook for joint ventures in the former U.S.S.R. has been badly muddied by Russia's reversal on one of the biggest investment opportunities: development off Sakhalin Island. Russia's Supreme Council has suspended award of a feasibility study of development of oil and gas reserves off Sakhalin to a combine of Marathon Oil Co., McDermott International, and Mitsui and Co., (MMM). Development project cost is pegged at $9 - 10 billion.

Not Available

1992-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

443

An in-depth study of HD 174966 with CoRoT photometry and HARPS spectroscopy. Large separation as a new observable for \\delta Sct stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this work was to use a multi-approach technique to derive the most accurate values possible of the physical parameters of the \\delta Sct star HD174966. In addition, we searched for a periodic pattern in the frequency spectra with the goal of using it to determine the mean density of the star. First, we extracted the frequency content from the CoRoT light curve. Then, we derived the physical parameters of HD174966 and carried a mode identification out from the spectroscopic and photometric observations. We used this information to look for the models fulfilling all the conditions and discussed the inaccuracies of the method because of the rotation effects. In a final step, we searched for patterns in the frequency set using a Fourier transform, discussed its origin and studied the possibility of using the periodicity to obtain information about the physical parameters of the star. A total of 185 peaks were obtained from the Fourier analysis of the CoRoT light curve, being almost all reliable pulsati...

Hernández, A García; Michel, E; Suárez, J C; Poretti, E; Martín-Ruíz, S; Amado, P J; Garrido, R; Rodríguez, E; Rainer, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Rodrigo, C; Solano, E; Rodón, J R; Mathias, P; Rolland, A; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Catala, C; Samadi, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Variability in the CoRoT photometry of three hot O-type stars. HD 46223, HD 46150 and HD 46966  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The detection of pulsational frequencies in stellar photometry is required as input for asteroseismological modelling. The second short run (SRa02) of the CoRoT mission has provided photometric data of unprecedented quality and time-coverage for a number of O-type stars. We analyse the CoRoT data corresponding to three hot O-type stars, describing the properties of their light curves and we search for pulsational frequencies, which we then compare to theoretical model predictions. We determine the amplitude spectrum of the data, using the Lomb-Scargle and a multifrequency HMM-like technique. Frequencies are extracted by prewhitening, and their significance is evaluated under the assumption that the light curve is dominated by red noise. We search for harmonics, linear combinations and regular spacings among these frequencies. We use simulations with the same time sampling as the data as a powerful tool to judge the significance of our results. From the theoretical point of view, we use the MAD non-adiabatic p...

Blomme, R; Catala, C; Cuypers, J; Gosset, E; Godart, M; Montalban, J; Ventura, P; Rauw, G; Morel, T; Degroote, P; Aerts, C; Noels, A; Michel, E; Baudin, F; Baglin, A; Auvergne, M; Samadi, R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Progress on the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation by Casey Brown, Versa Power Systems, at the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop, April 19, 2011

446

Transition fields during geomagnetic reversals and their geodynamic significance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...show that for certain reversals, a path midway between the two preferred paths (i...show that for certain reversals, a path midway between the two preferred paths (i...show that for certain reversals, a path midway between the two preferred paths (i...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

The Testing of Geomagnetic Reversal Models: Recent Developments [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

20 August 1982 research-article The Testing of Geomagnetic Reversal Models: Recent...data are most useful with regard to the testing of geomagnetic reversal models. First...English illus. United Kingdom 1985 The testing of geomagnetic reversal models; recent...

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Reverse Audio Engineering: Model-Based Inversion of Dynamic Range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Reverse Audio Engineering: Model-Based Inversion of Dynamic Range Compression Stanislaw Gorlow, Graduate Student Member, IEEE and Joshua D. Reiss, Member, IEEE Abstract--Reverse audio engineering so far, reverse audio engineering. I. INTRODUCTION SOUND or audio engineering is an established discipline

449

Time Reversal in Solids (Linear and Nonlinear Elasticity): Multimedia Resources in Time Reversal  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Dynamic nonlinear elastic behavior, nonequilibrium dynamics, first observed as a curiosity in earth materials has now been observed in a great variety of solids. The primary manifestations of the behavior are characteristic wave distortion, and slow dynamics, a recovery process to equilibrium that takes place linearly with the logarithm of time, over hours to days after a wave disturbance. The link between the diverse materials that exhibit nonequilibrium dynamics appears to be the presence of soft regions, thought to be 'damage' at many scales, ranging from order 10-9 m to 10-1 m at least. The regions of soft matter may be distributed as in a rock sample, or isolated, as in a sample with a single crack [LANLhttp://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/nonlinear.shtml]. The Geophysics Group (EES-11) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has posted two or more multimedia items under each of the titles below to demonstrate aspects of their work: 1) Source Reconstruction Using Time Reversal; 2) Robustness and Efficiency of Time Reversal Acoustics in Solid Media; 3) Audio Example of Time Reversal - Speech Privacy; 4) Crack Imagining with Time Reversal - Experimental Results; 5) Time Reversal of the 2004 (M9.0) Sumatra Earthquake.

450

Characterization of uncertainties in the operation and economics of the proposed seawater desalination plant in the Gaza Strip  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the Gaza Strip, the available freshwater sources are severely polluted and overused. Desalination of seawater through reverse osmosis (RO) has become the most realistic option to meet a rapidly growing water demand. It is estimated that the Gaza Strip will need to develop a seawater desalination capacity of about 120,000 m3/d by the year 2008, and an additional 30,000 m3/d by the year 2016 in order to maintain a fresh water balance in the coastal aquifer and to fulfill the water demand for different uses in a sustainable manner. Cost and reliability of a large RO facility are still subject to much uncertainty. The cost of seawater desalination by RO systems varies with facility size and lifetime, financing conditions, intake type and pre-treatment requirements, power requirements, recovery rate, chemicals cost, spare parts cost, and membrane replacement cost. The permeate salinity is a function of feed water temperature, recovery rate, and permeate flux. The quantity of water produced depends mainly on plant size, recovery rate, and operating load factor. Many of these parameters are subject to a great deal of uncertainty. The objective of this work is to develop a probabilistic model for the simulation of seawater reverse osmosis processes using a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach. This model represents a new application of probabilistic modeling tools to a large-scale complex system. The model is used to: (1) characterize the different uncertainties involved in the RO process; (2) optimize the RO process reliability and cost; and (3) study how uncertainty in unit capital cost, unit operation and maintenance (O&M) cost, and permeate quality is related to different input variables. The model utilizes information from journal articles, books, expert opinions, and technical reports related to the study area, and can be used to support operators and decision makers in the design of RO systems and formulation of operational policies. The structure of the model is not specific to the Gaza Strip and can be easily populated with data from any large-scale RO plant in any part of the world.

Said Ghabayen; Mac McKee; Mariush Kemblowski

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

A reverse counterfactual analysis of causation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to justly acknowledge. Particular thanks go to: Knut Nygaard, for pizza and weights in Boston; Julian Hendrix for cat-sitting, house-sitting and wife-sitting while I was at Harvard; Richard Lloyd Morgan, for listening; Jackie Solomon and Maria Whelan... , Schaffer 2007. 4Collins, Hall and Paul say that a divide-and-conquer methodology is acceptable, given how tough the analysis of causation is (Collins et al. 2004, 38–39). 1.5. THINKING ABOUT THE REVERSE COUNTERFACTUAL 13 the difference between e occurring...

Broadbent, Alex

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

452

Steady State Thermoelectric Field-Reversed Configurations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that the cross-field thermoelectric force of magnetized plasmas can maintain field-reversed configurations against resistive diffusion, resulting in a steady state device attractive for thermonuclear fusion. If a peaked radial temperature profile is maintained, the thermoelectric force is in the opposite direction to the usual resistive friction, thus maintaining the field configuration. The field maintenance is tantamount to dynamo action, operating even in two dimensions. We show that a steady state device can be made by simply heating the O-point: no external electric fields or particle sources are needed. The feasibility of this scheme for fusion is discussed.

A. B. Hassam; R. M. Kulsrud; R. J. Goldston; H. Ji; M. Yamada

1999-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

453

Kinetic Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration  

SciTech Connect

New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is an innovative confinement approach that offers a unique fusion reactor potential because of its compact and simple geometry, translation properties, and high plasma beta. One of the most important issues is FRC stability with respect to low-n (toroidal mode number) MHD modes. There is a clear discrepancy between the predictions of standard MHD theory that many modes should be unstable on the MHD time scale, and the observed macroscopic resilience of FRCs in experiments.

E.V. Belova; R.C. Davidson; H. Ji; and M. Yamada

2002-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

454

Global Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration  

SciTech Connect

New computational results are presented which provide a theoretical basis for the stability of the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is a compact toroid with negligible toroidal field in which the plasma is confined by a poloidal magnetic field associated with toroidal diamagnetic current. Although many MHD modes are predicted to be unstable, FRCs have been produced successfully by several formation techniques and show surprising macroscopic resilience. In order to understand this discrepancy, we have developed a new 3D nonlinear hybrid code (kinetic ions and fluid electrons), M3D-B, which is used to study the role of kinetic effects on the n = 1 tilt and higher n modes in the FRC. Our simulations show that there is a reduction in the tilt mode growth rate in the kinetic regime, but no absolute stabilization has been found for s bar less than or approximately equal to 1, where s bar is the approximate number of ion gyroradii between the field null and the separatrix. However, at low values of s bar, the instabilities saturate nonlinearly through a combination of a lengthening of the initial equilibrium and a modification of the ion distribution function. These saturated states persist for many Alfven times, maintaining field reversal.

E.V. Belova; S.C. Jardin; H. Ji; R.M. Kulsrud; W. Park; M. Yamada

2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. IV. OBSERVATIONS OF KEPLER, CoRoT, AND HIPPARCOS STARS FROM THE GEMINI NORTH TELESCOPE  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of 71 speckle observations of binary and unresolved stars, most of which were observed with the DSSI speckle camera at the Gemini North Telescope in 2012 July. The main purpose of the run was to obtain diffraction-limited images of high-priority targets for the Kepler and CoRoT missions, but in addition, we observed a number of close binary stars where the resolution limit of Gemini was used to better determine orbital parameters and/or confirm results obtained at or below the diffraction limit of smaller telescopes. Five new binaries and one triple system were discovered, and first orbits are calculated for other two systems. Several systems are discussed in detail.

Horch, Elliott P. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Ciardi, David R., E-mail: horche2@southernct.edu, E-mail: steve.b.howell@nasa.gov, E-mail: everett@noao.edu, E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.edu [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Mail Code 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Lead Grant Reference Lead Grant RO Grant Holder Last Name, First Name Project Title NE/K000071/1 Newcastle University Mr R Gaulton Dual-wavelength laser scanning for forest health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Newcastle University Mr R Gaulton Dual-wavelength laser scanning for forest health monitoring. NE/K000381/1Lead Grant Reference Lead Grant RO Grant Holder Last Name, First Name Project Title NE/K000071/1 and sensory mechanisms in bat navigation NE/K000403/1 University of Southampton Dr S Watt Emplacement dynamics

457

Novel 4-Way Refrigerant Reversing Valve for Heat Pumps  

SciTech Connect

This project is nearing completion. Since the last progress report (November, 1999), all experimental tests have been completed. Preliminary analysis shows the refrigerant pressure drops through the reversing valve were reduced by an average of about 60{percent}, when compared to traditional reversing valves. Also, the prototype reversing valve reduced the overall coefficient of performance (COP) by an average of only 0.45{percent}.

Darin W. Nutter

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

458

Dynamic simulation of a reverse Brayton refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

A test refrigerator based on the modified Reverse Brayton cycle has been developed in the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently. To study the behaviors of this test refrigerator, a dynamic simulation has been carried out. The numerical model comprises the typical components of the test refrigerator: compressor, valves, heat exchangers, expander and heater. This simulator is based on the oriented-object approach and each component is represented by a set of differential and algebraic equations. The control system of the test refrigerator is also simulated, which can be used to optimize the control strategies. This paper describes all the models and shows the simulation results. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental data are also presented. Experimental validation on the test refrigerator gives satisfactory results.

Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Lei, L. L.; Tang, J. C. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 China and Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

459

Direct observation of time reversal violation  

SciTech Connect

A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique opportunity for a search of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and PHI, Factories. The two quantum effects of the first decay as a filtering measurement and the transfer of information to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of 'in' and 'out' states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system.

Bernabeu, J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Valencia, and IFIC, Joint Centre Univ. Valencia-CSIC (Spain)

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

460

Control of magnetization reversal in oriented strontium ferrite thin films  

SciTech Connect

Oriented Strontium Ferrite films with the c axis orientation were deposited with varying oxygen partial pressure on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. The angle dependent magnetic hysteresis, remanent coercivity, and temperature dependent coercivity had been employed to understand the magnetization reversal of these films. It was found that the Strontium Ferrite thin film grown at lower (higher) oxygen partial pressure shows Stoner-Wohlfarth type (Kondorsky like) reversal. The relative importance of pinning and nucleation processes during magnetization reversal is used to explain the type of the magnetization reversal with different oxygen partial pressure during growth.

Roy, Debangsu, E-mail: debangsu@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Anil Kumar, P. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known...

462

Reversible mechanism for spin crossover in transition-metal cyanides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the mechanisms for reversible and repeatable spin transition in a Prussian blue analog crystal, KCo[Fe(CN)[subscript 6

Kabir, Mohammad Mukul

463

Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of Singlet Oxygen Generation Previous Next List Jihye Park, Dawei Feng, Shuai Yuan and Hong-Cai Zhou, Angew. Chem. Int....

464

Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

at Proton Energy Presentation by Everett Anderson, PROTON ON SITE, at the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop, April 19, 2011 revfcwkshpanderson.pdf More Documents &...

465

Reverse audio engineering for active listening and other applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work deals with the problem of reverse audio engineering for active listening. The format under consideration corresponds to the audio CD. The musical content… (more)

Gorlow, Stasnislaw

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

Childress, Amy E.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Chapter 9 - Nanotechnology-Based Membranes for Water Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Herein we present a critical review of nanotechnology-enabled materials touted as low-energy replacements for conventional reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in desalination and water reuse applications. Zeolite coatings promise a highly selective material that have the chemical, thermal, and mechanical stabilities of conventional ceramic membranes. Nanocomposite membranes exhibit up to three times higher permeability than current commercial polymeric membranes, with no change in salt rejection, and can be fabricated with antimicrobial and photoreactive functionalities. Biomimetic membranes can produce highly selective membranes potentially useful in both forward osmosis and RO applications. Aquaporin (AQP)-based lipid bilayer vesicles exhibit nearly 100 times higher water permeability than commercial membranes with near perfect salt rejection. Carbon nanotube (CNT)- and graphene-based membranes (theoretically) exhibit acceptable salt rejections with water permeabilities between 5 and 1000 times higher than commercial membranes. Self-assembled block copolymer membranes represent a fully polymeric approach to forming highly selective structures reminiscent of AQP- or CNT-based materials.

Eric M.V. Hoek; Mary Theresa M. Pendergast; Asim K. Ghosh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Tests of time reversal in neutron?nucleus scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments to test time?reversal invariance are discussed. The experiments are based on observables constructed from the momentum and spin vectors of epithermal neutrons and from the spin of an aligned or polarized target. It is shown that the proposed tests are detailed balance tests of time?reversal invariance. The status of the experiments is briefly reviewed.

J. David Bowman

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.

Bredemann, Michael V

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

470

Hydrogenation of Magnesium Nickel Boride for Reversible Hydrogen Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of Magnesium Nickel Boride for Reversible Hydrogen Storage ... Use of hydrogen for transportation applications requires materials that not only store hydrogen at high density but that can operate reversibly at temperatures and pressures below approximately 100 °C and 10 bar, respectively. ... This composition is based on assuming the following complete hydrogenation reaction:which stores 2.6 wt % hydrogen. ...

Wen Li; John J. Vajo; Robert W. Cumberland; Ping Liu; Son-Jong Hwang; Chul Kim; Robert C. Bowman, Jr.

2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

471

Reverse Ecology: From Systems to Environments and Back  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 15 Reverse Ecology: From Systems to Environments and Back Roie Levy and Elhanan Borenstein the environments in which they evolved and are adapted to. Re- verse Ecology--an emerging new frontier's ecology. The Reverse Ecology framework facilitates the translation of high-throughput genomic data

Borenstein, Elhanan

472

Synthesis of the Optimal 4-bit Reversible Circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal synthesis of reversible functions is a non-trivial problem. One of the major limiting factors in computing such circuits is the sheer number of reversible functions. Even restricting synthesis to 4-bit reversible functions results in a huge search space (16!~2^44 functions). The output of such a search alone, counting only the space required to list Toffoli gates for every function, would require over 100 terabytes of storage. In this paper, we present an algorithm that synthesizes an optimal circuit for any 4-bit reversible specification. We employ several techniques to make the problem tractable. We report results from several experiments, including synthesis of random 4-bit permutations, optimal synthesis of all 4-bit linear reversible circuits, synthesis of existing benchmark functions, and distribution of optimal circuits. Our results have important implications for the design and optimization of quantum circuits, testing circuit synthesis heuristics, and performing experiments in the area of quantum information processing.

Oleg Golubitsky; Sean M. Falconer; Dmitri Maslov

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

473

Linear multistep methods for integrating reversible differential equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper studies multistep methods for the integration of reversible dynamical systems, with particular emphasis on the planar Kepler problem. It has previously been shown by Cano & Sanz-Serna that reversible linear multisteps for first-order differential equations are generally unstable. Here, we report on a subset of these methods -- the zero-growth methods -- that evade these instabilities. We provide an algorithm for identifying these rare methods. We find and study all zero-growth, reversible multisteps with six or fewer steps. This select group includes two well-known second-order multisteps (the trapezoidal and explicit midpoint methods), as well as three new fourth-order multisteps -- one of which is explicit. Variable timesteps can be readily implemented without spoiling the reversibility. Tests on Keplerian orbits show that these new reversible multisteps work well on orbits with low or moderate eccentricity, although at least 100 steps/radian are required for stability.

Wyn Evans; Scott Tremaine

1999-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

474

BIMETALLIC LITHIUM BOROHYDRIDES TOWARD REVERSIBLE HYDROGEN STORAGE  

SciTech Connect

Borohydrides such as LiBH{sub 4} have been studied as candidates for hydrogen storage because of their high hydrogen contents (18.4 wt% for LiBH{sub 4}). Limited success has been made in reducing the dehydrogenation temperature by adding reactants such as metals, metal oxides and metal halides. However, full rehydrogenation has not been realized because of multi-step decomposition processes and the stable intermediate species produced. It is suggested that adding second cation in LiBH{sub 4} may reduce the binding energy of B-H. The second cation may also provide the pathway for full rehydrogenation. In this work, several bimetallic borohydrides were synthesized using wet chemistry, high pressure reactive ball milling and sintering processes. The investigation found that the thermodynamic stability was reduced, but the full rehydrogenation is still a challenge. Although our experiments show the partial reversibility of the bimetallic borohydrides, it was not sustainable during dehydriding-rehydriding cycles because of the accumulation of hydrogen inert species.

Au, M.

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

475

Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

476

POLAR FIELD REVERSAL OBSERVATIONS WITH HINODE  

SciTech Connect

We have been monitoring yearly variation in the Sun's polar magnetic fields with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode to record their evolution and expected reversal near the solar maximum. All magnetic patches in the magnetic flux maps are automatically identified to obtain the number density and magnetic flux density as a function of the total magnetic flux per patch. The detected magnetic flux per patch ranges over four orders of magnitude (10{sup 15}-10{sup 20} Mx). The higher end of the magnetic flux in the polar regions is about one order of magnitude larger than that of the quiet Sun, and nearly that of pores. Almost all large patches ({>=}10{sup 18} Mx) have the same polarity, while smaller patches have a fair balance of both polarities. The polarity of the polar region as a whole is consequently determined only by the large magnetic concentrations. A clear decrease in the net flux of the polar region is detected in the slow rising phase of the current solar cycle. The decrease is more rapid in the north polar region than in the south. The decrease in the net flux is caused by a decrease in the number and size of the large flux concentrations as well as the appearance of patches with opposite polarity at lower latitudes. In contrast, we do not see temporal change in the magnetic flux associated with the smaller patches (<10{sup 18} Mx) and that of the horizontal magnetic fields during the years 2008-2012.

Shiota, D. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN (Institute of Physics and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsuneta, S.; Shimojo, M.; Orozco Suarez, D.; Ishikawa, R. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sako, N., E-mail: shiota@riken.jp [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

477

Durability Evaluation of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation on the performance and durability of single solid oxide cells (SOCs) is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory. Reversible operation of SOCs includes electricity generation in the fuel cell mode and hydrogen generation in the electrolysis mode. Degradation is a more significant issue when operating SOCs in the electrolysis mode. In order to understand and mitigate the degradation issues in high temperature electrolysis, single SOCs with different configurations from several manufacturers have been evaluated for initial performance and long-term durability. A new test apparatus for single cell and small stack tests has been developed for this purpose. Cells were obtained from four industrial partners. Cells from Ceramatec Inc. and Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI) showed improved durability in electrolysis mode compared to previous stack tests. Cells from Saint Gobain Advanced Materials Inc. (St. Gobain) and SOFCPower Inc. demonstrated stable performance in the fuel cell mode, but rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode, especially at high current density. Electrolyte-electrode delamination was found to have a significant impact on degradation in some cases. Enhanced bonding between electrolyte and electrode and modification of the electrode microstructure helped to mitigate degradation. Polarization scans and AC impedance measurements were performed during the tests to characterize cell performance and degradation.

Xiaoyu Zhang; James E. O'Brien; Robert C. O'Brien; Gregory K. Housley

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Ground-based observations of the beta Cephei CoRoT main target HD 180642: abundance analysis and mode identification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The known beta Cephei star HD 180642 was observed by the CoRoT satellite in 2007. From the very high-precision light curve, its pulsation frequency spectrum could be derived for the first time (Degroote and collaborators). In this paper, we obtain additional constraints for forthcoming asteroseismic modeling of the target. Our results are based on both extensive ground-based multicolour photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy. We determine T_eff = 24 500+-1000 K and log g = 3.45+-0.15 dex from spectroscopy. The derived chemical abundances are consistent with those for B stars in the solar neighbourhood, except for a mild nitrogen excess. A metallicity Z = 0.0099+-0.0016 is obtained. Three modes are detected in photometry. The degree l is unambiguously identified for two of them: l = 0 and l = 3 for the frequencies 5.48694 1/d and 0.30818 1/d, respectively. The radial mode is non-linear and highly dominant with an amplitude in the U-filter about 15 times larger than the strongest of the other modes. For th...

Briquet, M; Morel, T; Aerts, C; De Cat, P; Mathias, P; Lefever, K; Miglio, A; Poretti, E; Martin-Ruiz, S; Paparo, M; Rainer, M; Carrier, F; Gutiérrez-Soto, J; Valtier, J C; Benko, J M; Bognár, Z; Niemczura, E; Amado, P J; Suárez, J C; Moya, A; Rodriguez-Lopez, C; Garrido, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Argonne CNM Highlight: Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Reverse Chemmical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Ferroelectric materials display a spontaneous electric polarization below the Curie temperature that can be reoriented, typically by applying an electric field. In this study, researchers from Argonne, Northern Illinois University, and The University of Pennsylvania have demonstrated that the chemical environment can control the polarization orientation in an ultrathin ferroelectric film. This is complementary to recent predictions that polarization can affect surface chemistry and illuminates potential applications in sublithographic patterning and electrically tunable catalysts. In situ synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements showed that high or low

480

Technical and economic feasibility of membrane technology. Fourth technical progress report, June 17-September 16, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on the investigation of the potential application of reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and electrodialysis to the system of solids concentration in beet sugar process streams. During this period, emphasis was put on running reverse osmosis tests with a new prototype machine to select the most suitable membranes for the concentrating of sugar solutions. An economic analysis of using reverse osmosis in a factory producing 10/sup 6/ gal/day of thin juice is discussed. (DMC)

Sandre, A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ro reverse osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Iowa's first electrodialysis reversal water treatment plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 1979 the City of Washington was notified by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) that the City was in violation of the radium standard for drinking water. The City of Washington authorized an engineering study to determine the most cost-effective and practical way to remove radium and, at the same time, improve overall water quality. Several possible treatment alternatives were evaluated. It was finally decided to utilize electrodialysis reversal (EDR). Washington obtains its water from three deep wells ranging in capacity from 600–780 gpm. The untreated water withdrawn from the wells first passes through the EDR units. There are three EDR units, each able to produce 285 gpm of finished water. In the future, another EDR unit can be easily added to the other three units, since the new plant was built and plumbed for an additional EDR unit if water demand increased. The Jordan aquifer supply is adequate for current and future needs. The average daily water usage in 1993 was 818,000 gal/d. In order to meet peak flows, it is possible to bypass the EDR units with part of the untreated water and then blend treated and untreated water. The treated water meets IDNR standards of 5.0 pC/L. After the EDR units, the water flows through an aerator where odor-causing gases and carbon dioxide are removed. Aeration reduces the amount of caustic soda and chlorine used in the finished water. The hydrogen sulfide gas leaves the water as it passes through the aerator, and this loss of gas creates less chlorine demand. Total and free chlorine residuals are now detected in every water main of the town, whereas before, the residuals would not be detected in certain area of Washington. Phosphates have been cut back from 7 pounds per day to one pound per day. Better water quality is now being achieved with fewer chemicals added to the finished water. Washington's water treatment plant is the first municipal EDR plant in the State of Iowa and one of the largest municipal installations in the United States.

John Hays

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas. Reversible Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen...

483

Reverse logistics network design for spent batteries: a simulation study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

End of life (EOL) product management, which encompasses reuse, remanufacturing and materials recycling, requires a structured reverse logistic network in order to collect products efficiently at the end of their life cycle. This work describes modelling and simulation of reverse logistics network design for collection of spent batteries for Sangrur District of North India. To compare different order assignment, a simulation model of forward and reverse logistics networks has been developed. Several simulation experiments have been designed to analyse impact of the system design factors on the operational performance of the reverse logistics system. The simulation results show that the model presented in this paper calculates the battery collection cost, transfer time, transfer cost, and resource utilisation in a predictable manner. Moreover, it provides a tool to understand how the system behaves by carrying out 'what-if' assessments and to identify which parameters are most important for more detailed analysis.

Arvind Jayant; Pardeep Gupta; S.K. Garg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Reverse Auction Bidding- A Study of Industry Professionals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study. (Professional Paper), TAMU, College Station. Smeltzer, L. R., & Carr, A. S. (2003). Electronic reverse auctions: Promises, risks and conditions for success. Industrial Marketing Management, 32(6), 481-488 Thompson, J., & Knoll, H...

Piper, Robert

2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

485

First-Principles Prediction of Thermodynamically Reversible Hydrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

First-Principles Prediction of Thermodynamically Reversible Hydrogen Storage Reactions in the Li-Mg-Ca-B-H system Home Author: V. Ozolins, E. H. Majzoub, C. Wolverton Year: 2009...

486

Hydrogen production in a reversible flow filtration combustion reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The noncatalytic process of syngas production by means of partial oxidation of ... by air oxygen in a reversible flow filtration combustion reactor has been investigated experimentally. We have ... providing the ...

Yu. M. Dmitrenko; P. A. Klevan

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Global confinement and discrete dynamo activity in the MST reversed...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

confinement and discrete dynamo activity in the MST reversed-field pinch* S. Hokin,+ A. Almagri, S. Assadi, J. Beckstead, G. Chartas, N. Cracker, M. Cudzinovic, D. Den Hat-tog, FL...

488

Synthesis of Reversible Functions Using Various Gate Libraries and Design Specifications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This dissertation is devoted to efficient automated logic synthesis of reversible circuits using various gate types and initial specifications. These Reversible circuits are of… (more)

Alhagi, Nouraddin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Journal Article: Real-time sub-Ångstrom imaging of reversible...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

imaging of reversible and irreversible conformations in rhodium catalysts and graphene Citation Details Title: Real-time sub-ngstrom imaging of reversible and...

490

E-Print Network 3.0 - analogue reverse transcriptase Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 Summary: of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase by d4TTP: an Equivalent Incorporation... (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT), there is little detailed...

491

Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...

492

Property:Power Transfer Method | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

then sent ashore via a subsea pipeline. Onshore the fluid passes through a standard hydroelectric turbine to generate zero-emission electricity andor through a reverse osmosis...

493

Preserving the legacy: Physical treatment technologies (Ptl0201). Audiovisual  

SciTech Connect

Survey includes deep, dual bed, and belt filters; baghouses; centrifuges; distillation; reverse osmosis; microfiltration; flocculation; evaporation and settling ponds; air stripping; electrostatic precipitation; and adsorption.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

494

Optimization of membrane stack configuration for efficient hydrogen production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells coupled  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of membrane stack configuration for efficient hydrogen production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis 2013 Keywords: Microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell Ammonium bicarbonate Hydrogen reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack into the MEC, which was called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis

495

Design of stand-alone brackish water desalination wind energy system for Jordan  

SciTech Connect

More than 100 underground water wells drilled in Jordan are known to have brackish water with total desolved solids (TDS) over 1500 ppm but not greater than 4000 ppm. The world standard for potable water limits the TDS count to 500 ppm in addition to being free from live microorganisms or dangerous mineral and organic substances. A reverse osmosis desalination scheme powered by a stand-alone wind energy converter (WEC) is proposed to produce fresh water water from wells located in potentially high-wind sites. The purpose of this study if to present the main design parameters and economic estimates of a wind-assisted RO system using a diesel engine as the baseline energy source and an electric wind turbine for the wind energy source. It is found that brackish water pumping and desalinating using WECs costs 0.67 to 1.16 JD/m[sup 3] (JD = Jordanian Dinar, 1US$ = 0.68 JD), which is less than using conventional diesel engines especially in remote areas. In addition, the wind-reverse osmosis system becomes more economically feasible for higher annual production rates or in good wind regimes.

Habali, S.M.; Saleh, I.A.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Deterministic Ratchets, Circle Maps, and Current Reversals R. Salgado-Garcia,1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- rameters such as ``current quantization,'' current reversal, and devil's staircase phenomena [6,7]. Though

Aldana, Maximino

497

Characterization of aircraft noise during thrust reverser engagement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Airport noise impact on communities has been an area of considerable study. However it has been determined that thrust reverser engagement is an area requiring further research. This paper presents findings on thrust reverser from a noise study done at Washington?Dulles International Airport (IAD) in October of 2004. Previous studies have found that high levels of acoustic energy in commercial aircraft during takeoff are contained below 300 Hz [Sharp Ben H. Guovich Yuri A. and Albee William W. ‘‘Status of Low?Frequency Aircraft Noise Research and Mitigation ’’ Wyle Report WR 01?21 San Francisco September 2001]. Preliminary analysis of thrust reverser signatures indicates similar findings. A categorization of aircraft noise during thrust reverser engagement is given and looks at factors that may affect the noise characteristics. Some of these factors include: plane type engine type and thrust ratings. In addition a brief analysis of frequency weightings of the Equivalent Sound Level (Leq) and Sound Exposure Level (SEL) metrics and their application to thrust reverser noise is discussed. [Work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Occurrence of pharmaceutically active and non-steroidal estrogenic compounds in three different wastewater recycling schemes in Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The discovery that natural and synthetic chemicals, in the form of excreted hormones and pharmaceuticals, as well as a vast array of compounds with domestic and industrial applications, can enter the environment via wastewater treatment plants and cause a wide variety of environmental and health problems even at very low concentrations, suggests the need for improvement of water recycling. Three Australian wastewater recycling schemes, two of which employ reverse osmosis (RO) technology, the other applying ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration, have been studied for their ability to remove trace organic contaminants including 11 pharmaceutically active compounds and two non-steroidal estrogenic compounds. Contaminant concentrations were determined using a sensitive analytical method comprising solid phase extraction, derivatization and GC with MS using selected ion monitoring. In raw wastewater, concentrations of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications were comparable to those found in wastewaters around the world. Remarkably, removal efficiencies for the three schemes were superior to literature values and RO was responsible for the greatest proportion of contaminant removal. The ability of RO membranes to concentrate many of the compounds was demonstrated and highlights the need for continued research into monitoring wastewater treatment, concentrate disposal, improved water recycling schemes and ultimately, safer water and a cleaner environment.

Jawad H. Al-Rifai; Candace L. Gabelish; Andrea I. Schäfer

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Induced organic fouling with antiscalants in seawater desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of exposure reverse osmosis (RO) membrane to antiscalants (AS) on consequent organic fouling during seawater desalination was analyzed. Membrane surface properties (hydrophobicity and zeta potential) were altered upon the conditioning of the membrane with AS during the desalination process. For all AS used, polyphosphonate, polyacrylate, or dendrimeric carboxylated based AS, membrane zeta-potential became less negatively charged over pH range between 3 and 10. Furthermore, the membrane became significantly more hydrophobic when dendrimeric carboxylated and polyacrylate based AS were used and only minor effects were observed for the polyphosphonate based AS. The membrane organic fouling process, tested with different model organic foulants (alginate and BSA), was significantly enhanced in the presence of polyacrylate or carboxylated dendrimeric based AS, which were used to condition the membrane surface. These changes in fouling behavior are likely attributed to the AS effects on RO membrane hydrophobicity and zeta potential after exposure and adsorption to the RO membrane. Force curve measurements using atomic force microscopy (AFM) on membranes and adsorption of the organic foulants on sensors of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring were used to explain the induced adsorption of the model organic foulants by polyacrylate and carboxylated dendrimeric based AS.

Amer Sweity; Zeev Ronen; Moshe Herzberg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Nanofiltration separation of polyvalent and monovalent anions in desalination brines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work, as part of a global membrane process for the recovery of alkali and acids from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination brines, focuses on the nanofiltration (NF) separation of polyvalent and monovalent anions, more specifically sulfate and chloride. This pretreatment stage plays a key role in the whole recovery process. Working with model brines simulating the concentration of RO concentrates, 0.2–1.2 M chloride concentration and 0.1 M sulfate concentration, the experimental performance and modeling of the NF separation is reported. The study has been carried out with the NF270 (Dow Filmtec) membrane. The effect of operating pressure (500–2000 kPa), ionic strength (0.4–1.3 M) and chloride initial concentration (0.2–1.2 M) on the membrane separation capacity has been investigated. Finally, the Donnan Steric Pore Model (DSPM) together with experimentally determined parameters, effective pore radius (rp), thickness of the membrane effective layer (?) and effective membrane charge density (Xd), was proved accurate enough to satisfactorily describe the experimental results. In this work we provide for the first time the analysis of partitioning effects and transport mechanism in the NF separation of sulfate and chloride anions in concentrations that simulate those found in RO desalination brines.

A. Pérez-González; R. Ibáñez; P. Gómez; A.M. Urtiaga; I. Ortiz; J.A. Irabien

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z