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Sample records for ro reverse osmosis

  1. Reverse Osmosis Optimization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reverse Osmosis Optimization Reverse Osmosis Optimization Report assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. It provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. This report is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system

  2. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  3. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  4. A comparison of ROChem reverse osmosis and spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siler, J.L.

    1992-01-31

    Testing of the ROChem Disc Tube[reg sign] reverse osmosis (RO) module's performance on biologically active feed waters has been completed. Both the ROChem module (using Filmtec standard-rejection seawater membranes) and the Filmtec spiral-wound membrane module (using Filmtec high-rejection seawater membranes) were tested with stimulant solutions containing typical bacteria and metal hydroxide levels found in the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) influent. Results indicate that the ROChem module gave superior performance over the spiral-wound module. Water flux losses were reduced by over 30% for water recoveries above 40%.

  5. A comparison of ROChem reverse osmosis and spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siler, J.L.

    1992-01-31

    Testing of the ROChem Disc Tube{reg_sign} reverse osmosis (RO) module`s performance on biologically active feed waters has been completed. Both the ROChem module (using Filmtec standard-rejection seawater membranes) and the Filmtec spiral-wound membrane module (using Filmtec high-rejection seawater membranes) were tested with stimulant solutions containing typical bacteria and metal hydroxide levels found in the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) influent. Results indicate that the ROChem module gave superior performance over the spiral-wound module. Water flux losses were reduced by over 30% for water recoveries above 40%.

  6. Optimal design of reverse osmosis module networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maskan, F.; Wiley, D.E.; Johnston, L.P.M.; Clements, D.J.

    2000-05-01

    The structure of individual reverse osmosis modules, the configuration of the module network, and the operating conditions were optimized for seawater and brackish water desalination. The system model included simple mathematical equations to predict the performance of the reverse osmosis modules. The optimization problem was formulated as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization. The objective function was the annual profit for the system, consisting of the profit obtained from the permeate, capital cost for the process units, and operating costs associated with energy consumption and maintenance. Optimization of several dual-stage reverse osmosis systems were investigated and compared. It was found that optimal network designs are the ones that produce the most permeate. It may be possible to achieve economic improvements by refining current membrane module designs and their operating pressures.

  7. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petty, S.E.; Eliason, S.D.; Laegreid, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) was evaluated as a treatment technology for the removal of organics from biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW) generated from an experimental biomass gasifier at Texas Tech University. Wastewaters were characteristically high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) with initial values ranging from 32,000 to 68,000 mg/1. Since RO is normally considered a complementary treatment technology, wastewaters were pretreated by biological or wet air oxidation (WAO) processes. One set of experiments were run using untreated wastewaters to compare membrane performance with those experiments using pretreated wastewaters. Experiments were run for 8 to 10 hrs using UOP's TFC-85 membrane operating at 700 psig and 18 to 20/sup 0/C. This membrane is similar to the NS-100, a membrane known for being effective in the separation of organics from solution. Separation of organics from solution was determined by COD removal. Removal percentages for biologically pretreated wastewaters averaged 98% except for one group of runs averaging 69% removal. This exception was probably due to the presence of milk solids in the feed. Use of RO on WAO pretreated wastewaters and unpretreated feeds resulted in 90% COD removal. Membrane degradation was observed when using full-strength and WAO pretreated feeds, but not when using feeds that had undergone biological pretreatment. Color removal was computed for the majority of experiments completed. Overall, 99 to 100% of the total color was removed from BGW feeds, values which coincide with those reported in the literature for other wastewaters.

  8. Treatment of produced waters by electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuggle, K.; Humenick, M.; Barker, F.

    1992-08-01

    Two oil field produced waters and one coal bed methane produced water from Wyoming were treated with electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis. All three produced waters would require treatment to meet the new Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requirements for effluent discharge into a class III or IV stream. The removal of radium 226 and oil and grease was the primary focus of the study. Radium 226 and oil and grease were removed from the produced waters with electrocoagulation. The best removal of radium 226 (>84%) was achieved with use of a non-sacrificial anode (titanium). The best removal of oil and grease (>93%) was achieved using a sacrificial anode (aluminum). By comparison, reverse osmosis removed up to 87% of the total dissolved solids and up to 95% of the radium 226.

  9. Designing a biocidal reverse osmosis membrane coating: Synthesis and biofouling properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Kang, Seoktae; Adout, Atar; Altman, Susan J.; Elimelech, Menachem; Cornelius, Chris J.

    2015-12-04

    In this study, a biocidal coating was developed in order to reduce biofouling on a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane using a quaternary ammonium (QA) functionalized polymer. The synthesis of a series of polysulfone (PS) ionomers with QA groups is described, and a method for spraying these QA ionomers as an alcoholic solution, which dried into water insoluble coatings. Contact angle and streaming potential were used to analyze the coating's hydrophilicity and surface charge. Both PS-QA1 and the commercial RO membrane had an apparent contact angle of 68° that increased to 126° for PS-QA12 corresponding to alkyl chain length. A negativelymore » charged particle-probe was used to measure coated and uncoated RO membrane interaction forces. Measured interaction forces correlated strongly with the length of alkyl chains or hydrophobicity of the coated surfaces. Uncoated RO membranes and ones coated with PS-QA were exposed to suspensions of Escherichia coli cells. All four PS-QA coatings showed significant biotoxicity and killed 100% of the E. coli cells, but uncoated RO membranes had metabolically active biofilms. However, coatings tested in a RO crossflow system showed a flux reduction that is attributed to mass transfer resistance due to excessively thick films.« less

  10. Designing a biocidal reverse osmosis membrane coating: Synthesis and biofouling properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Kang, Seoktae; Adout, Atar; Altman, Susan J.; Elimelech, Menachem; Cornelius, Chris J.

    2015-12-04

    In this study, a biocidal coating was developed in order to reduce biofouling on a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane using a quaternary ammonium (QA) functionalized polymer. The synthesis of a series of polysulfone (PS) ionomers with QA groups is described, and a method for spraying these QA ionomers as an alcoholic solution, which dried into water insoluble coatings. Contact angle and streaming potential were used to analyze the coating's hydrophilicity and surface charge. Both PS-QA1 and the commercial RO membrane had an apparent contact angle of 68° that increased to 126° for PS-QA12 corresponding to alkyl chain length. A negatively charged particle-probe was used to measure coated and uncoated RO membrane interaction forces. Measured interaction forces correlated strongly with the length of alkyl chains or hydrophobicity of the coated surfaces. Uncoated RO membranes and ones coated with PS-QA were exposed to suspensions of Escherichia coli cells. All four PS-QA coatings showed significant biotoxicity and killed 100% of the E. coli cells, but uncoated RO membranes had metabolically active biofilms. However, coatings tested in a RO crossflow system showed a flux reduction that is attributed to mass transfer resistance due to excessively thick films.

  11. Water permeability of nanoporous graphene at realistic pressures for reverse osmosis desalination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2014-08-21

    Nanoporous graphene (NPG) shows tremendous promise as an ultra-permeable membrane for water desalination thanks to its atomic thickness and precise sieving properties. However, a significant gap exists in the literature between the ideal conditions assumed for NPG desalination and the physical environment inherent to reverse osmosis (RO) systems. In particular, the water permeability of NPG has been calculated previously based on very high pressures (1000–2000 bars). Does NPG maintain its ultrahigh water permeability under real-world RO pressures (<100 bars)? Here, we answer this question by drawing results from molecular dynamics simulations. Our results indicate that NPG maintains its ultrahigh permeability even at low pressures, allowing a permeate water flux of 6.0 l/h-bar per pore, or equivalently 1041 ± 20 l/m{sup 2}-h-bar assuming a nanopore density of 1.7 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}.

  12. Novel Fouling-Reducing Coatings for Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration, and Reverse Osmosis Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benny Freeman

    2008-08-31

    Polymeric membranes could potentially be the most flexible and viable long-term strategy for treatment of produced water from oil and gas production. However, widespread use of membranes, including reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, for produced water purification is hindered due to fouling caused by the impurities present in the water. Fouling of RO membranes is likely caused by surface properties including roughness, hydrophilicity, and charge, so surface modification is the most widely considered approach to improve the fouling properties of current RO membranes. This project focuses on two main approaches to surface modification: coating and grafting. Hydrophilic coating and grafting materials based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are applied to commercial RO membranes manufactured by Dow FilmTec and GE. Crossflow filtration experiments are used to determine the fouling resistance of modified membranes, and compare their performance to that of unmodified commercial RO membranes. Grafting and coating are shown to be two alternative methods of producing modified membranes with improved fouling resistance.

  13. Some Results Bearing on the Value of Improvements of Membranes for Reverse Osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamont, A

    2006-03-08

    This analysis evaluates the potential economic benefits that could result from the improvements in the permeability of membranes for reverse osmosis. The discussion provides a simple model of the operation of a reverse osmosis plant. It examines the change in the operation that might result from improvements in the membrane and computes the cost of water as a function of the membrane permeability.

  14. Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

  15. Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.; Hergert, T.R.

    1995-03-01

    Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), formerly a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facility, were treated. No chemical pretreatment of the water was utilized during this study. The treatment system was staged as follows: multimedia filtration, granular activated carbon adsorption, hollow tube ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membrane filtration. Various recovery rates and two RO membrane models were tested. Analytical measurements included total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), gross alpha ({alpha}) and gross beta ({beta}) activity, uranium isotopes {sup 233/234}U and {sup 238}U, plutonium {sup 239/240}Pu, and americium {sup 241}Am. Particle measurement between 1--150 microns ({mu}) included differential particle counts (DPC), and total particle counts (TPC) before and after treatment at various sampling points throughout the test. Performance testing showed this treatment system produced a high quality effluent in clarity and purity. Compared to raw water levels, TSS was reduced to below detection of 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and TDS reduced by 98%. Gross {alpha} was essentially removed 100%, and gross {beta} was reduced an average of 94%. Uranium activity was reduced by 99%. TPC between 1-150{mu} were reduced by an average 99.8% to less than 1,000 counts per milliliter (mL), similar in purity to a good drinking water treatment plant. Raw water levels of {sup 239/240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were below reliable quantitation limits and thus no removal efficiencies could be determined for these species.

  16. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation

  17. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The membranes generally exhibited reasonable

  18. pH effect on the separation of uranium fluoride effluents by the reverse osmosis process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun Chen ); Min-Lin Chu; Mu-Chang Shieh , Lung-tan, )

    1992-04-01

    Ammonium fluoride solutions and uranium fluoride effluents (UFE) with solute concentrations from 0.101 to 7,920 kg/m{sup 3}, at pH 2.80 to 9.60, have been treated with a continuous feedback reverse osmosis (RO) process. The solute rejections of NH{sub 4}{sup +}, F{sup {minus}}, and U{sup 6+} depend heavily on the feed pH value. For ammonium fluoride solutions, the rejection ratio of NH{sub 4}{sup +} decreases sharply from ca. 90 to 44.2% with the feed pH increased from 3.30 to 9.60, while that of F{sup {minus}} increases abruptly from 44.8 to 99.9% at the same pH change. For UFE solutions, the rejection ratio of U{sup 6+} remains greater than 90% at pH 2.80-7.13, while that of F{sup {minus}} decreases steadily from 96.4 to 18.8% with decreasing feed pH. Accordingly, the fluoride ions can be separated from UFE solutions under acidic conditions. The changes of solute rejection with feed pH can be explained by the different solubilities of the solutes in the membrane at different pH values. The UFE solutions with {alpha} and {beta} activities at 20.4-53.7 and 8.99-21.3 ({times} 10{sup 5} Baq/m{sup 3}) can be reduced to a level lower than 2.41 and 3.37 ({times}10{sup 5} Baq/m{sup 3}), respectively, by the current RO process.

  19. An Advanced Reverse Osmosis Technology For Application in Nuclear Desalination Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphries, J.R.; Davies, K.; Ackert, J.A.

    2002-07-01

    The lack of adequate supplies of clean, safe water is a growing global problem that has reached crisis proportions in many parts of the world. It is estimated that 1.5 billion people do not have access to adequate supplies of safe water, and that as a result nearly 10,000 people die every day and thousands more suffer from a range of debilitating illnesses due to water related diseases. Included in this total is an estimated 2.2 million child deaths annually. As the world's need for additional sources of fresh water continues to grow, seawater and brackish water desalination are providing an increasingly important contribution to the solution of this problem. Because desalination is an energy intensive process, nuclear desalination provides an economically attractive and environmentally sound alternative to the burning of fossil fuels for desalination. Nevertheless, the enormity of the problem dictates that additional steps must be taken to improve the efficiency of energy utilization and reduce the cost of water production in order to reduce the financial and environmental burden to communities in need. An advanced reverse osmosis (RO) desalination technology has been developed that emphasizes a nontraditional approach to system design and operation, and makes use of a sophisticated design optimization process that can lead to highly optimized design configurations and operating regimes. The technology can be coupled with a nuclear generating station (NGS) to provide an integrated facility for the co-generation of both water and electricity. Waste heat from the NGS allows the use of 'preheated' feedwater into the RO system, improving the efficiency of the RO process and reducing the cost of water production. Because waste heat, rather than process heat, is used the desalination system can be readily coupled to any existing or advanced reactor technology with little or no impact on reactor design and operation and without introducing additional reactor safety

  20. Assessment of oil-pretreatment technologies to improve performance of reverse-osmosis systems. Technical literature review and technologies evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tansel, B.; Villate, J.

    1992-06-19

    The services provided under this contract include both theoretical and experimental research for development of an appropriate technology for treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons in source water for reverse osmosis (RO) systems. This report evaluates and screens the candidate technologies identified during the literature review in accordance with the approved Technology Evaluation Plan. A short-list of technologies that warrant further study is recommended to be carried forward to the experimental phase. The contamination problems due to petroleum hydrocarbons have been long recognized. However, the treatment technologies available for treatment of petroleum contaminated media are still very limited. Major limitations relative to treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons include: exact chemical composition is not defined; aerobic treatment processes are not effective for breaking down heavy petroleum hydrocarbons; anaerobic treatment processes are slow; and physical/chemical treatment processes are expensive and there is usually additional waste produced during treatment of the contaminated media.

  1. A Remote Absorption Process for Disposal of Evaporate and Reverse Osmosis Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunsell, D.A.

    2008-07-01

    Many commercial nuclear plants and DOE facilities generate secondary waste streams consisting of evaporator bottoms and reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. Since liquids are not permitted in disposal facilities, these waste streams must be converted to dry solids, either by evaporation to dried solids or by solidification to liquid-free solids. Evaporation of the liquid wastes reduces their volume, but requires costly energy and capital equipment. In some cases, concentration of the contaminants during drying can cause the waste to exceed Class A waste for nuclear utilities or exceed DOE transuranic limits. This means that disposal costs will be increased, or that, when the Barnwell, SC disposal site closes to waste outside of the Atlantic Compact in July 2008, the waste will be precluded from disposal for the foreseeable future). Solidification with cement agents requires less energy and equipment than drying, but results in a volume increase of 50-100%. The doubling or tripling of waste weight, along with the increased volume, sharply increases shipping and disposal costs. Confronted with these unattractive alternatives, Diversified Technologies Services (DTS), in conjunction with selected nuclear utilities and D and D operations at Rocky Flats, undertook an exploratory effort to convert this liquid wastewater to a solid without using cement. This would avoid the bulking effect of cement, and permit the waste to be disposed of the Energy Solutions facility in Utah as well as some DOE facilities. To address the need for an attractive alternative to drying and cement solidification, a test program was developed using a polymer absorbent media to convert the concentrate streams to a liquid-free waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of the pertinent burial sites. Two approaches for mixing the polymer with the liquid were tested: mechanical mixing and in-situ incorporation. As part of this test program, a process control program (PCP) was developed that is

  2. Sidestream treatment of high silica cooling water and reverse osmosis desalination in geothermal power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mindler, A.B.; Bateman, S.T.

    1981-01-19

    Bench scale and pilot plant test work has been performed on cooling water for silica reduction and water reuse, at DOE's Raft River Geothermal Site, Malta, Idaho in cooperation with EG and G (Idaho), Inc. Technical supervision was by Permutit. A novel process of rusting iron shavings was found effective and economical in reducing silica to less than 20 mg/l. Reverse Osmosis was investigated for water reuse after pretreatment and ion exchange softening.

  3. Watts nickel and rinse water recovery via an advanced reverse osmosis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, C.; White, I.E.; Ludwig, R.

    1993-08-01

    The report summarizes the results of an eight month test program conducted at the Hewlett Packard Printed Circuit Board Production Plant, Sunnyvale, CA (H.P.) to assess the effectiveness of an advanced reverse osmosis system (AROS). The AROS unit, manufactured by Water Technologies, Inc. (WTI) of Minneapolis, MN, incorporates membrane materials and system components designed to treat metal plating rinse water and produce two product streams; (1) a concentrated metal solution suitable for the plating bath, and (2) rinse water suitable for reuse as final rinse. Waste water discharge can be virtually eliminated and significant reductions realized in the need for new plating bath solution and rinse water.

  4. Low-temperature distillation plants: a comparison with seawater reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.

    1981-07-01

    Low-temperature distillation plants using large aluminum-alloy heat-transfer surfaces have reduced energy requirements to levels projected today for second-generation seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plants. Less sensitive to feed contamination, and totally free from maintenance associated with a complex and critical feed-pretreatment system and periodic membrane replacements, the low-temperature distillation plants out-perform SWRO plants also by their higher-quality product, 2-10 ppM TDS versus 300 to 1000 ppM TDS. Energy requirements and operating costs for Low Temperature Vapor Compression (LT-VC) and Multi-Effect-Distillation (LT-MED) plants, in dual-purpose and various waste-heat-utilization schemes, are compared with those of SWRO plants. 10 references, 14 figures, 8 tables.

  5. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Comparison of Energy Efficiency and Power Density in Pressure Retarded Osmosis and Reverse Electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yip, NY; Elimelech, M

    2014-09-16

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and reverse electrodialysis (RED) are emerging membrane-based technologies that can convert chemical energy in salinity gradients to useful work. The two processes have intrinsically different working principles: controlled mixing in PRO is achieved by water permeation across salt-rejecting membranes, whereas RED is driven by ion flux across charged membranes. This study compares the energy efficiency and power density performance of PRO and RED with simulated technologically available membranes for natural, anthropogenic, and engineered salinity gradients (seawater-river water, desalination brine-wastewater, and synthetic hypersaline solutions, respectively). The analysis shows that PRO can achieve both greater efficiencies (54-56%) and higher power densities (2.4-38 W/m(2)) than RED (18-38% and 0.77-1.2 W/m(2)). The superior efficiency is attributed to the ability of PRO membranes to more effectively utilize the salinity difference to drive water permeation and better suppress the detrimental leakage of salts. On the other hand, the low conductivity of currently available ion exchange membranes impedes RED ion flux and, thus, constrains the power density. Both technologies exhibit a trade-off between efficiency and power density: employing more permeable but less selective membranes can enhance the power density, but undesired entropy production due to uncontrolled mixing increases and some efficiency is sacrificed. When the concentration difference is increased (i.e., natural -> anthropogenic -> engineered salinity gradients), PRO osmotic pressure difference rises proportionally but not so for RED Nernst potential, which has logarithmic dependence on the solution concentration. Because of this inherently different characteristic, RED is unable to take advantage of larger salinity gradients, whereas PRO power density is considerably enhanced. Additionally, high solution concentrations suppress the Donnan exclusion effect of the

  9. Design of a photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plant in off-grid operation for desalination of brackish water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broeker, C.; Carvalho, P.C.M.; Menne, K.; Ortjohann, E.; Temme, L.; Voss, J.

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plants in off-grid operation constitute a promising system technology for meeting a part of the water requirements in regions without dependable water supply and electric grid system power supply. This paper presents a new procedure for optimum system design configuration. The goal is to provide the cheapest possible water supply while fulfilling all regional and technical boundary conditions. The starting point of the procedure is a rough design based on a load duration curve. Subsequent time sequence simulations which image the system behavior completely, permit checking of various plant variants for compliance with the boundary conditions. Objective mutual comparisons of the plant variants are possible, also taking the system costs into consideration. The possibilities of the developed procedure are demonstrated taking a village supply in Northeast Brazil as example.

  10. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: industrial. January 1976-June 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1976-June 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 281 citations, 35 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  11. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. November 1976-October 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for November 1976-October 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 294 citations, 13 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. On-Site Pilot Study - Removal of Uranium, Radium-226 and Arsenic from Impacted Leachate by Reverse Osmosis - 13155

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurray, Allan; Everest, Chris; Rilling, Ken; Vandergaast, Gary; LaMonica, David

    2013-07-01

    Conestoga-Rovers and Associates (CRA-LTD) performed an on-site pilot study at the Welcome Waste Management Facility in Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the effectiveness of a unique leachate treatment process for the removal of radioactive contaminants from leachate impacted by low-level radioactive waste. Results from the study also provided the parameters needed for the design of the CRA-LTD full scale leachate treatment process design. The final effluent water quality discharged from the process to meet the local surface water discharge criteria. A statistical software package was utilized to obtain the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the results from design of experiment applied to determine the effect of the evaluated factors on the measured responses. The factors considered in the study were: percent of reverse osmosis permeate water recovery, influent coagulant dosage, and influent total dissolved solids (TDS) dosage. The measured responses evaluated were: operating time, average specific flux, and rejection of radioactive contaminants along with other elements. The ANOVA for the design of experiment results revealed that the operating time is affected by the percent water recovery to be achieved and the flocculant dosage over the range studied. The average specific flux and rejection for the radioactive contaminants were not affected by the factors evaluated over the range studied. The 3 month long on-site pilot testing on the impacted leachate revealed that the CRA-LTD leachate treatment process was robust and produced an effluent water quality that met the surface water discharge criteria mandated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and the local municipality. (authors)

  13. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Dual-purpose desalting, RO versus MSF an economic comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, D.C.; Battey, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Capital and annual operating costs are estimated for producing water using three combinations of seawater reverse osmosis and gas turbines. The costs and operating parameters were developed for Middle East conditions assuming a Red Sea water source. The plants were designed to produce 37,850 m/sup 3//d (10 mgd) of potable water and to export 50,000 kW of power. The reverse osmosis plant utilizes energy recovery and was designed with full pretreatment for a surface water supply. Electricity is provided by either gas turbines, steam turbines, or combined cycle plants. Power and water costs developed for these systems were compared to costs for conventional, dual-purpose MSF/steam turbine plants for the same water and power production. These evaluations considered two levels of fuel costs. The results of this study show the significant effect of fuel costs on process selection and on water and power costs. Capital and operating costs were 20 to 28 percent less and 23 to 33 percent less, respectively, for the RO/gas turbine and RO/combined cycle plants as compared to conventional, dual-purpose MSF steam turbine plants. In addition to economics, the merits of the systems are discussed relative to delivery, ease and flexibility of operation, turndown capability, and so forth.

  15. SWITCHABLE POLARITY SOLVENTS AS DRAW SOLUTES FOR FORWARD OSMOSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick F. Stewart; Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Cathy Rae

    2013-03-01

    Switchable polarity solvents (SPS), mixtures of carbon dioxide, water, and tertiary amines, are presented as viable forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes allowing a novel SPS FO process. In this study substantial osmotic strengths of SPS are measured with freezing point osmometry and were demonstrated to induce competitive ?uxes at high salt concentrations on a laboratory-scale FO unit utilizing a ?at sheet cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane. Under the experimental conditions the SPS degrades the CTA membrane; however experiments with polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes display stability towards SPS. Once the draw is diluted the major fraction of the switchable polarity solvent can be mechanically separated from the puri?ed water after polar to nonpolar phase shift induced by introduction of 1 atm carbon dioxide to 1 atm of air or nitrogen with mild heating. Trace amounts of SPS can be removed from the separated water with RO in a process that avoids solution concentration polarization. The separated nonpolar phase can be regenerated to a full strength draw and recycled with the re-addition of 1 atm of carbon dioxide.

  16. Osmosis Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Osmosis Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Osmosis Capital Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: EC4M 9DN Sector: Carbon Product: An investment firm seeking low carbon economy...

  17. A hybrid ED/RO process for TDS reduction of produced waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, S.P.; Datta, R.; Frank, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Large volumes of produced waters are generated from natural gas production. In the United States the prevailing management practice for produced waters is deep well injection, but this practice is costly. Therefore minimizing the need for deep well injection is desirable. A major treatment issue for produced waters is the reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS), which consist mostly of inorganic salts. A hybrid electrodialysis/reverse-osmosis (ED/RO) treatment process is being developed to concentrate the salts in produced waters and thereby reduce the volume of brine that needs to be managed for disposal. The desalted water can be used beneficially or discharged. In this study, laboratory feasibility experiments were conducted by using produced waters from multiple sites. A novel-membrane configuration approach to prevent fouling and scale formation was developed and demonstrated. Results of laboratory experiments and plans for field demonstration are discussed.

  18. Forward osmosis :a new approach to water purification and desalination.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, James Edward; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2006-07-01

    Fresh, potable water is an essential human need and thus looming water shortages threaten the world's peace and prosperity. Waste water, brackish water, and seawater have great potential to fill the coming requirements. Unfortunately, the ability to exploit these resources is currently limited in many parts of the world by both the cost of the energy and the investment in equipment required for purification/desalination. Forward (or direct) osmosis is an emerging process for dewatering aqueous streams that might one day help resolve this problem. In FO, water from one solution selectively passes through a membrane to a second solution based solely on the difference in the chemical potential (concentration) of the two solutions. The process is spontaneous, and can be accomplished with very little energy expenditure. Thus, FO can be used, in effect, to exchange one solute for a different solute, specifically chosen for its chemical or physical properties. For desalination applications, the salts in the feed stream could be exchanged for an osmotic agent specifically chosen for its ease of removal, e.g. by precipitation. This report summarizes work performed at Sandia National Laboratories in the area of FO and reviews the status of the technology for desalination applications. At its current state of development, FO will not replace reverse osmosis (RO) as the most favored desalination technology, particularly for routine waters. However, a future role for FO is not out of the question. The ability to treat waters with high solids content or fouling potential is particularly attractive. Although our analysis indicates that FO is not cost effective as a pretreatment for conventional BWRO, water scarcity will likely drive societies to recover potable water from increasingly marginal resources, for example gray water and then sewage. In this context, FO may be an attractive pretreatment alternative. To move the technology forward, continued improvement and optimization

  19. Final Report: Computer Simulation of Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis in Structured Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohail Murad

    2012-01-03

    Molecular simulation methods were developed as part of this project to increase our fundamental understanding of membrane based separation systems. Our simulations clarified for example that steric (size) effects had a significant impact on the desalination membranes. Previously it was thought the separation was entirely driven by coulombic force (attractive/repulsive forces at the membrane surfaces). Steric effects played an important role, because salt ions in brackish water are never present alone, but are strongly hydrated which effectively increases their size, and makes it impossible to enter a membrane, while the smaller water molecules can enter more readily. Membrane surface effects did play a role in increasing the flux of water, but not in the separation itself. In addition we also developed simulation methods to study ion exchange, gas separations, and pervaporation. The methods developed were used to once again increase our fundamental understanding of these separation processes. For example our studies showed that when the separation factor of gases in membranes can be significantly affected by the presence of another gas, it is generally because the separation mechanism has changed. For example in the case of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, in their pure state the separation factor is determined by diffusion, while in mixtures it is influenced more by adsorption in the membrane (zeolite in our case) Finally we developed a new technique using the NMR chemical shift to determine intermolecular interactions for mixtures. For polar-nonpolar systems such as Xe dissolved in water we were able to significantly improve the accuracy of gas solubilities, which are very sensitive to the cross interaction between water and Xe.

  20. Energy requirements of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS-FO) water purification process

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Orme, Christopher J.; Mines, Gregory L.; Wilson, Aaron D.

    2015-08-01

    A model was developed to estimate the process energy requirements of a switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS FO) system for water purification from aqueous NaCl feed solution concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 molal at an operational scale of 480 m3/day (feed stream). The model indicates recovering approximately 90% of the water from a feed solution with NaCl concentration similar to seawater using SPS FO would have total equivalent energy requirements between 2.4 and 4.3 kWh per m3 of purified water product. The process is predicted to be competitive with current costs for disposal/treatment of produced water from oilmore » and gas drilling operations. As a result, once scaled up the SPS FO process may be a thermally driven desalination process that can compete with the cost of seawater reverse osmosis.« less

  1. Energy requirements of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS-FO) water purification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Orme, Christopher J.; Mines, Gregory L.; Wilson, Aaron D.

    2015-08-01

    A model was developed to estimate the process energy requirements of a switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS FO) system for water purification from aqueous NaCl feed solution concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 molal at an operational scale of 480 m3/day (feed stream). The model indicates recovering approximately 90% of the water from a feed solution with NaCl concentration similar to seawater using SPS FO would have total equivalent energy requirements between 2.4 and 4.3 kWh per m3 of purified water product. The process is predicted to be competitive with current costs for disposal/treatment of produced water from oil and gas drilling operations. As a result, once scaled up the SPS FO process may be a thermally driven desalination process that can compete with the cost of seawater reverse osmosis.

  2. Energy requirements of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (SPS-FO) water purification process (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Energy requirements of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS-FO) water purification process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy requirements of the switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS-FO) water purification process A model was developed to estimate the process energy requirements of a switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis (SPS FO) system for water

  3. Zero Liquid Discharge Technology | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membrane Technology Purifies Water Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membrane Technology Purifies Water GE's Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membrane technology addresses industrial waste water treatment and recycling needs, purifying water for cooling, boilers, and general

  4. ECIS-UNM: Biomimetic Membranes for Water Purification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Reverse osmosis (RO) is currently the best method of desalination (making fresh water from ... A nanoporous biomimetic membrane on a nanostructured support used for water desalination ...

  5. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Limited clean water supplies face further stress due to its required use in a number of industrial processes. Reverse osmosis (RO) is currently the best method of desalination ...

  6. Nanoscale Material Properties | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Symposium and Exhibition Focuses on Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces IMG0475 Innovation 247: We're Always Open a57-v-zero-liquid-discharge Reverse Osmosis (RO)...

  7. Property List for RO Code '37', EDI

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8/12 Property List for RO Code '37', EDI 1 Total Property Cost BARCODE DESCRIPTION MFR. MODEL_NO SN COST BLDG ROOM 0000001264 15HP AIR COMPRESSOR CHAMPION 15WTS55A WTS-A4358 $12,000.00 OFF ROCKS 0000001262 15HP AIR COMPRESSOR CHAMPION 15WTS55A WTS-A4786 $20,000.00 OFF ROCKS 0000001265 15HP COMPRESSOR CHAMPION 15WTS55A WTS-A-4133 $12,000.00 OFF ROCKS 0000001261 50HP COMPRESSOR (OIL KOBELCO KNWAO/B-H 02H0338 $50,000.00 OFF ROCKS 0199329 ANALYZER POWER QUALI DRANETZ TECH IN 658 NA020C034 $14,445.66

  8. Perlick: ENERGY STAR Referral (HP48RO-S)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE referred Perlick refrigerator HP48RO-S to EPA, brand manager of the ENERGY STAR program, for appropriate action after DOE testing revealed that the model does not meet ENERGY STAR requirements.

  9. ARM - VAP Product - mmcrmode4ro200309091cloth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ro200309091cloth Documentation Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) Citation DOI: 10.5439/1027356 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : MMCRMODE4RO200309091CLOTH ARSCL: derived, MMCR Mode 4 (robust mode) moments Active Dates 2003.09.27 - 2004.08.10

  10. AmeriFlux US-Ro1 Rosemount- G21

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baker, John [USDA-ARS; Griffis, Tim [University of Minnesota; Griffis, Timothy [University of Minnesota

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ro1 Rosemount- G21. Site Description - This tower is located in a farm field farmed in accordance with the dominant farming practice in the region: a corn/soybean rotation with chisel plow tillage in the fall following corn harvest and in the spring following soybeans.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Ro3 Rosemount- G19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, John; Griffis, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ro3 Rosemount- G19. Site Description - This tower is located in a farm field farmed in accordance with the cominant farming practice in the region: a corn/soybean rotation with chisel plow tillage in the fall following corn harvest and in the spring following soybeans.

  12. CX-012598: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Replace ETP Reverse Osmosis (RO) Cooling Towers (CTWs) and Add a Chemical Addition System CX(s) Applied: B1.5Date: 41827 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  13. ARM - VAP Product - mmcrmode4ro200404141cloth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    404141cloth Documentation Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) Citation DOI: 10.5439/1027357 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : MMCRMODE4RO200404141CLOTH ARSCL: derived, MMCR Mode 4 (robust mode) moments, 20040415 version Active Dates 2004.04.15 - 2007.11.27

  14. ARM - VAP Product - mmcrmode4ro200712011cloth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    712011cloth Documentation Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) Citation DOI: 10.5439/1027358 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : MMCRMODE4RO200712011CLOTH ARSCL: derived, MMCR Mode 4 (robust mode) moments, 20071201 version Active Dates 2008.01.01 - 2011.03.23

  15. Hybrid joule heating/electro-osmosis process for extracting contaminants from soil layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Nitao, John J.

    2003-06-10

    Joule (ohmic) heating and electro-osmosis are combined in a hybrid process for removal of both water-soluble contaminants and non-aqueous phase liquids from contaminated, low-permeability soil formations that are saturated. Central to this hybrid process is the partial desaturation of the formation or layer using electro-osmosis to remove a portion of the pore fluids by induction of a ground water flow to extraction wells. Joule heating is then performed on a partially desaturated formation. The joule heating and electro-osmosis operations can be carried out simultaneously or sequentially if the desaturation by electro-osmosis occurs initially. Joule heating of the desaturated formation results in a very effective transfer or partitioning of liquid state contaminants to the vapor phase. The heating also substantially increases the vapor phase pressure in the porous formation. As a result, the contaminant laden vapor phase is forced out into soil layers of a higher permeability where other conventional removal processes, such as steam stripping or ground water extraction can be used to capture the contaminants. This hybrid process is more energy efficient than joule heating or steam stripping for cleaning low permeability formations and can share electrodes to minimize facility costs.

  16. Copy of Capitalized Property RO23_120213_1.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capitalized Property 1 RO BARCODE DESCRIPTION MANUF. MODEL SN COST BLDG ROOM INVT_DATE 23 C5508 PRECISION ION POLISH GATAN INC 691 UNIT 427 01070301 $50,626.00 28 113 24-Sep-13 23 0000002116 TouchTable System TOUCHTABLE TT45 TT45S000378 $52,986.00 B03 134 19-Sep-13 23 0000002362 SYSTEM PUMP AMETEK Q AMETEK Q5000 CYL1A1308CYLIB1309CM $56,260.00 OFF TEXAS 11-Sep-12 23 0000000577 ANALYSIS SYSTEM BENC PFEIFFER GSD 301 C 44253789 $57,731.50 B25 115 30-Sep-13 23 0000002222 SLAVE NODES PSSC LABS PSSC

  17. CNS-sponsored RoHAWKtics competes at world's largest robotics competition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Y-12 National Security Complex RoHAWKtics ... CNS-sponsored RoHAWKtics competes at world's largest robotics competition Posted: July 7, 2016 - 9:10am The RoHAWKtics robotics team at Hardin Valley Academy, sponsored by Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC, achieved a top 50 ranking at the FIRST® Robotics Championship in St. Louis. Despite a broken bolt, a flat tire and countless other issues, the robotics team at Hardin Valley Academy, sponsored by Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC,

  18. Photo of the Week: RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Photo of the Week: RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory April 1, 2013 - 3:40pm Addthis Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam signs the robot of Hardin Valley Academy's FIRST robotics team during the dedication of DOE's Carbon Fiber Technology Facility, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The RoHAWKtics team (named after their school mascot) spent an intense six weeks constructing the robot, using design, engineering, and

  19. PRE-DISCOVERY OBSERVATIONS OF CoRoT-1b AND CoRoT-2b WITH THE BEST SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauer, H.; Erikson, A.; Kabath, P.; Hedelt, P.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Paris, P. v.; Renner, S.; Titz, R.; Voss, H.; Boer, M.; Tournois, G.; Carone, L.; Eigmueller, P.

    2010-01-15

    The Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope (BEST) wide-angle telescope installed at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence and operated in remote control from Berlin by the Institut fuer Planetenforschung, DLR, has observed the CoRoT target fields prior to the mission. The resulting archive of stellar photometric light curves is used to search for deep transit events announced during CoRoT's alarm mode to aid in fast photometric confirmation of these events. The 'initial run' field of CoRoT (IRa01) was observed with BEST in 2006 November and December for 12 nights. The first 'long run' field (LRc01) was observed from 2005 June to September for 35 nights. After standard CCD data reduction, aperture photometry has been performed using the ISIS image subtraction method. About 30,000 light curves were obtained in each field. Transits of the first detected planets by the CoRoT mission, CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-2b, were found in archived data of the BEST survey and their light curves are presented here. Such detections provide useful information at the early stage of the organization of follow-up observations of satellite alarm-mode planet candidates. In addition, no period change was found over {approx}4 years between the first BEST observation and last available transit observations.

  20. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  1. Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative (RoMIC-AFRI)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the RoMIC-AFRI was established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of preventing contamination. The initiative...

  2. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  3. A Study of Novel Hexavalent Phosphazene Salts as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart

    2013-03-01

    Two novel multi-valent salts based on phosphazene chemistry have been synthesized and characterized as forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes. Commercially obtained hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene was reacted with the sodium salt of 4-ethylhydroxybenzoate to yield hexa(4-ethylcarboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene. Hydrolysis, followed by and neutralization with NaOH or LiOH, of the resulting acidic moieties yielded water soluble sodium and lithium phosphazene salts, respectively. Degrees of dissociation were determined through osmometry over the range of 0.05-0.5 m, giving degrees of 3.08-4.95 per mole, suggesting a high osmotic potential. The Li salt was found to be more ionized in solution than the sodium salt, and this was reflected in FO experiments where the Li salt gave higher initial fluxes (~ 7 L/m2h) as compared to the sodium salt (~6 L/m2h) at identical 0.07 m draw solution concentrations at 30 °C. Longer term experiments revealed no detectable degradation of the salts; however some hydrolysis of the cellulose acetate membrane was observed, presumably due to the pH of the phosphazene salt draw solution (pH = ~8).

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of energy density in pressure retarded osmosis: The impact of solution volumes and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimund, Kevin K.; McCutcheon, Jeffrey R.; Wilson, Aaron D.

    2015-08-01

    A general method was developed for estimating the volumetric energy efficiency of pressure retarded osmosis via pressure-volume analysis of a membrane process. The resulting model requires only the osmotic pressure, π, and mass fraction, w, of water in the concentrated and dilute feed solutions to estimate the maximum achievable specific energy density, uu, as a function of operating pressure. The model is independent of any membrane or module properties. This method utilizes equilibrium analysis to specify the volumetric mixing fraction of concentrated and dilute solution as a function of operating pressure, and provides results for the total volumetric energy density of similar order to more complex models for the mixing of seawater and riverwater. Within the framework of this analysis, the total volumetric energy density is maximized, for an idealized case, when the operating pressure is π/(1+√w⁻¹), which is lower than the maximum power density operating pressure, Δπ/2, derived elsewhere, and is a function of the solute osmotic pressure at a given mass fraction. It was also found that a minimum 1.45 kmol of ideal solute is required to produce 1 kWh of energy while a system operating at “maximum power density operating pressure” requires at least 2.9 kmol. Utilizing this methodology, it is possible to examine the effects of volumetric solution cost, operation of a module at various pressure, and operation of a constant pressure module with various feed.

  5. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore » FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  6. Time reversal communication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  7. THE FUTURE OF THE SUN: AN EVOLVED SOLAR TWIN REVEALED BY CoRoT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do Nascimento, J.-D. Jr.; Da Costa, J. S.; Castro, M.; Takeda, Y.; Melendez, J.

    2013-07-10

    The question of whether the Sun is peculiar within the class of solar-type stars has been the subject of active investigation over the past three decades. Although several solar twins have been found with stellar parameters similar to those of the Sun (albeit in a range of Li abundances and with somewhat different compositions), their rotation periods are unknown, except for 18 Sco, which is younger than the Sun and with a rotation period shorter than solar. It is difficult to obtain rotation periods for stars of solar age from ground-based observations, as a low-activity level implies a shallow rotational modulation of their light curves. CoRoT has provided space-based long time series from which the rotation periods of solar twins as old as the Sun could be estimated. Based on high-signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectroscopic observations gathered at the Subaru Telescope, we show that the star CoRoT ID 102684698 is a somewhat evolved solar twin with a low Li abundance. Its rotation period is 29 {+-} 5 days, compatible with its age (6.7 Gyr) and low lithium content, A{sub Li} {approx}< 0.85 dex. Interestingly, our CoRoT solar twin seems to have enhanced abundances of the refractory elements with respect to the Sun, a typical characteristic of most nearby twins. With a magnitude V {approx_equal} 14.1, ID 102684698 is the first solar twin revealed by CoRoT, the farthest field solar twin so far known, and the only solar twin older than the Sun for which a rotation period has been determined.

  8. STANDING ORDER 1. Standing Order Number: EP-DIV-S0-20222, R.O

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CC;K CLEAR FORM

    STANDING ORDER 1. Standing Order Number: EP-DIV-S0-20222, R.O 2. Standing Order Type: (check one) [8J Division D Facility 3. Applicable Facilities: All EWMO Facilities 4. Standing Order Title: EWMO Legacy TRU Waste Pause 5. Distribution List: (By Functional Title) TA-54 Timely Order Book, Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Timely Order Book, Radioassay and Nondestructive Testing (RANT) Facility Timely Order Book, and Environmental Programs

  9. THE CoRoT DISCOVERY OF A UNIQUE TRIPLE-MODE CEPHEID IN THE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poretti, E.; Baglin, A.; Weiss, W. W.

    2014-11-10

    The exploitation of the CoRoT treasure of stars observed in the exoplanetary field allowed the detection of a unusual triple-mode Cepheid in the Milky Way, CoRoT 0223989566. The two modes with the largest amplitudes and a period ratio of 0.80 are identified with the first (P {sub 1} = 1.29 days) and second (P {sub 2} = 1.03 days) radial overtones. The third period, which has the smallest amplitude but is able to produce combination terms with the other two, is the longest one (P {sub 3} = 1.89 days). The ratio of 0.68 between the first-overtone period and the third period is the unusual feature. Its identification with the fundamental radial or a nonradial mode is discussed with respect to similar cases in the Magellanic Clouds. In both cases, the period triplet and the respective ratios make the star unique in our Galaxy. The distance derived from the period-luminosity relation and the galactic coordinates put CoRoT 0223989566 in the metal-rich environment of the ''outer arm'' of the Milky Way.

  10. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  11. Reversible brazing process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  12. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2006-04-25

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  13. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2003-12-09

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  14. Reverse slapper detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weingart, Richard C.

    1990-01-01

    A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

  15. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Neste, Charles W.; Senesac, Lawrence R.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  16. Tools_Equipment under 10K RO 23_120213.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Other Government Furnished Property (GFP) / Equipment 1 RO BARCODE DESCRIPTION MANUF. MODEL SN COST BLDG ROOM INVT_DATE 23 0000032497 THERMAL LABELING SYS BRADY WORLDWIDE TLS2200 BPTLS901644924 $0.00 28 119 24-Sep-13 23 F13412 PWR SUPPLY & READ BR BROOKS 5878 881OHC025872 $0.00 94 01 24-Sep-13 23 0000032498 THERMAL LABELING SYS BRADY WORLDWIDE TLS2200 BPTLS902745018 $0.00 17 106 24-Sep-13 23 0000106857 RECIRCULATOR POLYSCI POLY SCIENCE N0691883 G52197 $0.00 83 242 4-Oct-13 23 0000021812

  17. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    of 1 ) United States Patent 5,158,704 Fulton ,   et al. October 27, 1992 Supercritical fluid reverse micelle systems

  18. Ab initio ro-vibronic spectroscopy of SiCCl (X{sup ~2}Π)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brites, Vincent; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Léonard, Céline; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2014-07-21

    The full dimensional potential energy surfaces of the {sup 2}A{sup ′} and {sup 2}A{sup ′′} electronic components of X{sup ~2}Π SiCCl have been computed using the explicitly correlated coupled cluster method, UCCSD(T)-F12b, combined with a composite approach taking into account basis set incompleteness, core-valence correlation, scalar relativity, and higher order excitations. The spin-orbit and dipole moment surfaces have also been computed ab initio. The ro-vibronic energy levels and absorption spectrum at 5 K have been determined from variational calculations. The influence of each correction on the fundamental frequencies is discussed. An assignment is proposed for bands observed in the LIF experiment of Smith et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 6446 (2002)]. The overall agreement between the experimental and calculated ro-vibronic levels is better than 7 cm{sup −1} which is comparable with the 10–20 cm{sup −1} resolution of the emission spectrum.

  19. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, Leander J. (Los Alamos, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved.

  20. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  1. DEPXRTMEKT OF ENV]RO~:MENTAL F'ROTECTION DlVklOh OF

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    . * @.+<, .-- v 7, -e -5 u i' ;. - - : ,.:,, 4-.1M-4. a". : ' - l-1 &dp d 3-m 3jPr5Py DEPXRTMEKT OF ENV]RO~:MENTAL F'ROTECTION DlVklOh OF ~NVIR0N~Eh~A.L OUR' tiIn - . BUREAU OF R&DllmcN t=ROTE~lOH ' 1 ,_ jBD 5cOTCH ROAD. ~R~%~obi. fd. 1. 08628 .' - ._ -_ _ . . : S=_srterrjer 27, 1977 - ,. _ :.- ,_..I \ L . x=- a-. JEC): f' eust C--l L-9 ,c:c- -*r 2ze E&f&y _3=iz=Et=g cr;i\' ==Siq ' ---res"LE;, c2iiIps - de- ~-z7~~to3, Bew --d Jersey DE540 3ez' -- . w- Tecsk: i 25,

  2. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  3. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  4. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Wednesday, 28 September 2005 00:00 The phenomenon of exchange bias has...

  5. Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation in Tokamak OhmicL-Mode Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy...

  6. Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The workshop was divided into two sessions-a PEM reversible fuel cell session and a reversible SOFC... critical issues, materials and systems barriers, and manufacturing issues ...

  7. ON THE ASYMMETRY OF THE OH RO-VIBRATIONAL LINES IN HD 100546

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedele, D.; Bruderer, S.; Van den Ancker, M. E.; Pascucci, I. E-mail: mvandena@eso.org

    2015-02-10

    We present multi-epoch high-spectral resolution observations with VLT/CRIRES of the OH doublet {sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} P4.5 (1+, 1–) (2.934 μm) toward the protoplanetary disk around HD 100546. The OH doublet is detected at all epochs and is spectrally resolved while nearby H{sub 2}O lines remain undetected. The OH line velocity profile is different in the three data sets: in the first epoch (2012 April, P.A. = 26°) the OH lines are symmetric and line broadening is consistent with the gas being in Keplerian rotation around the star. No OH emission is detected within a radius of 8-11 AU from the star: the line emitting region is similar in size and extent to that of the CO ro-vibrational lines. In the other two epochs (2013 March and 2014 April, P.A. = 90° and 10°, respectively) the OH lines appear asymmetric and fainter compared to 2012 April. We investigate the origin of these line asymmetries which were taken by previous authors as evidence for tidal interaction between a (unseen) massive planet and the disk. We show that the observed asymmetries can be fully explained by a misalignment of the slit of the order of 0.''04-0.''20 with respect to the stellar position. The disk is spatially resolved and the slit misalignment is likely caused by the extended dust emission which is brighter than the stellar photosphere at near-infrared wavelengths which is the wavelength used for the pointing. This can cause the photo-center of HD 100546 to be misaligned with the stellar position at near-infrared wavelengths.

  8. A 0.8-2.4 ?m Transmission spectrum of the hot Jupiter CoRoT-1b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlawin, E.; Herter, T.; Zhao, M.; Teske, J. K.

    2014-03-01

    Hot Jupiters with brightness temperatures ?2000 K can have TiO and VO molecules as gaseous species in their atmospheres. The TiO and VO molecules can potentially induce temperature inversions in hot Jupiter atmospheres and also have an observable signature of large optical to infrared transit depth ratios. Previous transmission spectra of very hot Jupiters have shown a lack of TiO and VO, but only in planets that also appear to lack temperature inversions. We measure the transmission spectrum of CoRoT-1b, a hot Jupiter that was predicted to have a temperature inversion potentially due to significant TiO and VO in its atmosphere. We employ the multi-object spectroscopy method using the SpeX and MORIS instruments on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and the Gaussian process method to model red noise. By using a simultaneous reference star on the slit for calibration and a wide slit to minimize slit losses, we achieve transit depth precision of 0.03%-0.09%, comparable to the atmospheric scale height but detect no statistically significant molecular features. We combine our IRTF data with optical CoRoT transmission measurements to search for differences in the optical and near-infrared absorption that would arise from TiO/VO. Our IRTF spectrum and the CoRoT photometry disfavor a TiO/VO-rich spectrum for CoRoT-1b, suggesting that the atmosphere has another absorber that could create a temperature inversion or that the blackbody-like emission from the planet is due to a spectroscopically flat cloud, dust, or haze layer that smoothes out molecular features in both CoRoT-1b's emission and transmission spectra. This system represents the faintest planet hosting star (K = 12.2) with a measured planetary transmission spectrum.

  9. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Gregory H.; Eckmann, Steven T.; Lain, Christopher M.; Veroff, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  10. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Brian Eric

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.

  11. Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Summary and presentations from the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop held April 19, ...

  12. Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy Everett Anderson NRELDOE Reversible Fuel Cell Workshop 19 April 2011 Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy ...

  13. The intrinsic and interactive effects of RO 15-4513 and ethanol on locomotor activity, body temperature, and blood glucose concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, A.L.; Healey, P.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Verne, S.L.; Atrens, D.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The ability of the putative ethanol antagonist RO 15-4513 to antagonize ethanol-induced hypoactivity, hypothermia and hyperglycemia was investigated in rats. Although RO 15-4513 produced hypoactivity by itself, it attenuated ethanol-induced hypoactivity. This antagonism suggests that ethanol-induced hypoactivity is mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex which is thought to be the site of action of RO 15-4513. In contrast, although RO 15-4513 produced hypothermia by itself, it had no significant effect on ethanol-induced hypothermia. This suggests that the hypothermic effect of ethanol is not mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex. The fact that RO 15-4513, ethanol and the vehicle all produced hyperglycemia suggests a common stress effect and does not permit any firm conclusions to be drawn as to the interaction between ethanol and RO 15-4513 in modulating glycemic responses. These data indicate that the ethanol antagonism of RO 15-4513 is primarily confined to ethanol's behavioral effects and that ethanol's behavioral and physiological effects are mediated by neurochemically distinct mechanisms.

  14. Process of forming compounds using reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linehan, John C.; Fulton, John L.; Bean, Roger M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for producing a nanometer-sized metal compound. The process comprises forming a reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system comprising a polar fluid in a non-polar or low-polarity fluid. A first reactant comprising a multi-component, water-soluble metal compound is introduced into the polar fluid in a non-polar or low-polarity fluid. This first reactant can be introduced into the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system during formation thereof or subsequent to the formation of the reverse micelle or microemulsion system. The water-soluble metal compound is then reacted in the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system to form the nanometer-sized metal compound. The nanometer-sized metal compound is then precipitated from the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system.

  15. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Wednesday, 28 September 2005 00:00 The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron

  16. Time Reversal of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Toulouse III, CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2008-08-15

    Using Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we study the time reversibility of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in kicked optical lattices, showing that in the regime of quantum chaos, the dynamics can be inverted from explosion to collapse. The accuracy of time reversal decreases with the increase of atom interactions in BEC, until it is completely lost. Surprisingly, quantum chaos helps to restore time reversibility. These predictions can be tested with existing experimental setups.

  17. Gravity controlled anti-reverse rotation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-01-01

    A gravity assisted anti-reverse rotation device for preventing reverse rotation of pumps and the like. A horizontally mounted pawl is disposed to mesh with a fixed ratchet preventing reverse rotation when the pawl is advanced into intercourse with the ratchet by a vertically mounted lever having a lumped mass. Gravitation action on the lumped mass urges the pawl into mesh with the ratchet, while centrifugal force on the lumped mass during forward, allowed rotation retracts the pawl away from the ratchet.

  18. Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation in Tokamak Ohmic L -Mode Plasmas Authors: Rice, J. E. ; Cziegler, I. ; Diamond, P. H. ; Duval, B. P. ; ...

  19. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their...

  20. Engineered Osmosis for Energy Efficient Separations: Optimizing Waste Heat Utilization FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT DOE F 241.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NATHAN HANCOCK

    2013-01-13

    The purpose of this study is to design (i) a stripper system where heat is used to strip ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a diluted draw solution; and (ii) a condensation or absorption system where the stripped NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are captured in condensed water to form a re-concentrated draw solution. This study supports the Industrial Technologies Program of the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and their Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge award solicitation. Results from this study show that stimulated Oasys draw solutions composed of a complex electrolyte solution associated with the dissolution of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} gas in water can successfully be stripped and fully condensed under standard atmospheric pressure. Stripper bottoms NH{sub 3} concentration can reliably be reduced to < 1 mg/L, even when starting with liquids that have an NH{sub 3} mass fraction exceeding 6% to stimulate diluted draw solution from the forward osmosis membrane component of the process. Concentrated draw solution produced by fully condensing the stripper tops was show to exceed 6 M-C with nitrogen-to-carbon (N:C) molar ratios on the order of two. Reducing the operating pressure of the stripper column serves to reduce the partial vapor pressure of both NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} in solution and enables lower temperature operation towards integration of industrial low-grade of waste heat. Effective stripping of solutes was observed with operating pressures as low as 100 mbar (3-inHg). Systems operating at reduced pressure and temperature require additional design considerations to fully condense and absorb these constituents for reuse within the Oasys EO system context. Comparing empirical data with process stimulation models confirmed that several key parameters related to vapor-liquid equilibrium and intrinsic material properties were not accurate. Additional experiments and refinement of material property databases within the

  1. Fuel cell system with coolant flow reversal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Method and apparatus for cooling electrochemical fuel cell system components. Periodic reversal of the direction of flow of cooling fluid through a fuel cell stack provides greater uniformity and cell operational temperatures. Flow direction through a recirculating coolant fluid circuit is reversed through a two position valve, without requiring modulation of the pumping component.

  2. Three component vibrational time reversal communication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Ten Cate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Time reversal provides an optimal prefilter matched signal to apply to a communication signal before signal transmission. Time reversal allows compensation for wave speed dispersion and can function well in reverberant environments. Time reversal can be used to focus elastic energy to each of the three components of motion independently. A pipe encased in concrete was used to demonstrate the ability to conduct communications of information using three component time reversal. Furthermore, the ability of time reversal to compensate for multi-path distortion (overcoming reverberation) will be demonstrated and the rate of signal communication will be presented. [The U.S. Department ofmore » Energy, through the LANL/LDRD Program, is gratefully acknowledged for supporting this work.]« less

  3. Infrastructure Security EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1283P Water Purification at Lower Energy Costs Using natural membrane-bound biological channels as inspiration, biomimetic membranes are made from self-assembled nanopores tuned with atomic layer deposition. Biomimetic membranes are designed to purify water using reverse osmosis (RO) technology, which removes impurities from water with applied pressure powered by electrical energy. These membranes filter out salts and larger solution components, leaving behind clean drinking water. The

  4. Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, Dean W.; Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.; Consani, Keith A.

    1993-08-24

    This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

  5. Knuteson-RO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    role of the U.S. Depart- ment of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to bridge the gap between R&D and commercial availability of advanced vehicle technologies. AVTA supports DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program in moving these technologies from R&D to market deployment by examining market factors and customer requirements, evaluating performance and durability of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles, and assessing the performance of these

  6. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  7. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in...

  8. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or ... remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location ...

  9. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and H. Ohldag, "Direct imaging of asymmetric magnetization reversal in exchange-biased FeMnPd bilayers by x-ray photoemission electron microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 107203...

  10. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Ohldag, "Direct imaging of asymmetric magnetization reversal in exchange-biased FeMnPd bilayers by x-ray photoemission electron microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 107203 (2005...

  11. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  12. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  13. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  14. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  15. Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film,

  16. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Wednesday, 31 July 2013 00:00 In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny

  17. Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Prepared by: Dr. Robert J. Remick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Mr. Douglas Wheeler DJW Technology YOU'RE INVITED  NREL WORKSHOP Reversible fuel cells operate like batteries and may be one solution to the problem of storing electricity generated by variable resources. This workshop will bring together subject matter experts and fuel cell developers to discuss the state-of- the-art and to draft a road

  18. Reversible ratchet effects for vortices in conformal pinning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible ratchet effects for vortices in conformal pinning arrays Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 3, 2016 Title: Reversible...

  19. Fractional Topological Phases and Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fractional Topological Phases and Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry in Strained Graphene Title: Fractional Topological Phases and Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry in Strained Graphene ...

  20. Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible Control of Singlet Oxygen Generation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of Singlet Oxygen ...

  1. Time-reversal symmetric hierarchy of fractional incompressible...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Time-reversal symmetric hierarchy of fractional incompressible liquids Title: Time-reversal symmetric hierarchy of fractional incompressible liquids Authors: Santos, Luiz ; ...

  2. Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation Systems Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation ...

  3. REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING STREAM-DISK IMPACT IN INTERACTING BINARIES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER ...

  4. Time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity in n -doped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity in n -doped BiH Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity in n -doped ...

  5. CX-004923: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Battelle-Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Reverse Absorption Osmosis CycleCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/04/2010Location(s): Columbus, OhioOffice(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy

  6. Time reversal signal processing for communication.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Derek P.; Jacklin, Neil; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Counsil, David T.

    2011-09-01

    Time-reversal is a wave focusing technique that makes use of the reciprocity of wireless propagation channels. It works particularly well in a cluttered environment with associated multipath reflection. This technique uses the multipath in the environment to increase focusing ability. Time-reversal can also be used to null signals, either to reduce unintentional interference or to prevent eavesdropping. It does not require controlled geometric placement of the transmit antennas. Unlike existing techniques it can work without line-of-sight. We have explored the performance of time-reversal focusing in a variety of simulated environments. We have also developed new algorithms to simultaneously focus at a location while nulling at an eavesdropper location. We have experimentally verified these techniques in a realistic cluttered environment.

  7. Integrated Wind Energy/Desalination System: October 11, 2004 -- July 29, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GE Global Research

    2006-10-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of multiple concepts for integrating wind turbines and reverse osmosis desalination systems for water purification.

  8. Transport Physics in Reversed Shear Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinton, F.M.; Batha, S.H.; Beer, M.A.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Efthimion, P.C.; Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schmidt, G.L.; Scott, S.D.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Von Goeler, S.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Bush, C.E.

    1997-12-31

    Reversed magnetic shear is considered a good candidate for improving the tokamak concept because it has the potential to stabilize MHD instabilities and reduce particle and energy transport. With reduced transport the high pressure gradient would generate a strong off-axis bootstrap current and could sustain a hollow current density profile. Such a combination of favorable conditions could lead to an attractive steady-state tokamak configuration. Indeed, a new tokamak confinement regime with reversed magnetic shear has been observed on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) where the particle, momentum, and ion thermal diffusivities drop precipitously, by over an order of magnitude. The particle diffusivity drops to the neoclassical level and the ion thermal diffusivity drops to much less than the neoclassical value in the region with reversed shear. This enhanced reversed shear (ERS) confinement mode is characterized by an abrupt transition with a large rate of rise of the density in the reversed shear region during neutral beam injection, resulting in nearly a factor of three increase in the central density to 1.2 X 10(exp 20) cube m. At the same time the density fluctuation level in the reversed shear region dramatically decreases. The ion and electron temperatures, which are about 20 keV and 7 keV respectively, change little during the ERS mode. The transport and transition into and out of the ERS mode have been studied on TFTR with plasma currents in the range 0.9-2.2 MA, with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.7-4.6 T, and the radius of the q(r) minimum, q{sub min}, has been varied from r/a = 0.35 to 0.55. Toroidal field and co/counter neutral beam injection toroidal rotation variations have been used to elucidate the underlying physics of the transition mechanism and power threshold of the ERS mode.

  9. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis-Membrane Distillation System for Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat: Thermodynamic Analysis and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Yip, NY; Cath, TY; Osuji, CO; Elimelech, M

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 degrees C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 degrees C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for

  10. Forward and reverse characteristics of irradiated MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paccagnella, A.; Ceschia, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Soncini, G.; Bellutti, P.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1996-06-01

    pMOSFETs biased with V{sub gs} < V{sub gd} during Co{sup 60} {gamma} irradiation have shown substantial differences between the forward and reverse subthreshold characteristics, induced by a non-uniform charge distribution in the gate oxide. Correspondingly, modest differences have been observed in the over-threshold I-V characteristics. After irradiation, the forward subthreshold curves can shift at higher or lower gate voltages than the reverse ones. The former behavior has been observed in long-channel devices, in agreement with the classical MOS theory and numerical simulations. The latter result has been obtained in short-channel devices, and it has been correlated to a parasitic punch-through conduction mechanism.

  11. Reversing entanglement change by a weak measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Qingqing; Zubairy, M. Suhail; Al-Amri, M.; Davidovich, Luiz

    2010-11-15

    Entanglement of a system changes due to interactions with the environment. A typical type of interaction is amplitude damping. If we add a detector to monitor the environment and only select the no-damping outcome, this amplitude damping is modified into a weak measurement. Here we show that the entanglement change of a two-qubit state due to amplitude damping or weak measurement can be probabilistically reversed. For the amplitude-damping case, the entanglement partially recovers under most conditions. For the weak-measurement case, the recovery of the initial entangled state is exact. The reversal procedure involves another weak measurement, preceded and followed by bit flips applied to both qubits. We propose a linear optics scheme for the experimental demonstration of these procedures.

  12. Membranes for Reverse-Organic Air Separations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Membranes Use Reverse Separation to Reduce Pollutant Emissions: Many industrial applications need a process to separate pollutants known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air in order to protect the environment and save energy. One such application is the venting of vapor from underground storage tanks (UST) used in gasoline storage and dispensing. These vapors, which can build up and create high pressure within the UST, contribute to ground-level ozone and smog upon release.

  13. On the design of reversible QDCA systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBenedictis, Erik P.; Frank, Michael P. (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL); Ottavi, Marco; Frost-Murphy, Sarah E.

    2006-10-01

    This work is the first to describe how to go about designing a reversible QDCA system. The design space is substantial, and there are many questions that a designer needs to answer before beginning to design. This document begins to explicate the tradeoffs and assumptions that need to be made and offers a range of approaches as starting points and examples. This design guide is an effective tool for aiding designers in creating the best quality QDCA implementation for a system.

  14. Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands Activated by (C5Me5)2Yb Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between ...

  15. Progress on the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Casey Brown, Versa Power Systems, at the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop, April 19, 2011

  16. Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Everett Anderson, PROTON ON SITE, at the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop, April 19, 2011

  17. Time Reversal in Solids (Linear and Nonlinear Elasticity): Multimedia Resources in Time Reversal

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dynamic nonlinear elastic behavior, nonequilibrium dynamics, first observed as a curiosity in earth materials has now been observed in a great variety of solids. The primary manifestations of the behavior are characteristic wave distortion, and slow dynamics, a recovery process to equilibrium that takes place linearly with the logarithm of time, over hours to days after a wave disturbance. The link between the diverse materials that exhibit nonequilibrium dynamics appears to be the presence of soft regions, thought to be 'damage' at many scales, ranging from order 10-9 m to 10-1 m at least. The regions of soft matter may be distributed as in a rock sample, or isolated, as in a sample with a single crack [LANLhttp://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/nonlinear.shtml]. The Geophysics Group (EES-11) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has posted two or more multimedia items under each of the titles below to demonstrate aspects of their work: 1) Source Reconstruction Using Time Reversal; 2) Robustness and Efficiency of Time Reversal Acoustics in Solid Media; 3) Audio Example of Time Reversal - Speech Privacy; 4) Crack Imagining with Time Reversal - Experimental Results; 5) Time Reversal of the 2004 (M9.0) Sumatra Earthquake.

  18. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  19. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  20. Kinetic Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.V. Belova; R.C. Davidson; H. Ji; and M. Yamada

    2002-07-09

    New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is an innovative confinement approach that offers a unique fusion reactor potential because of its compact and simple geometry, translation properties, and high plasma beta. One of the most important issues is FRC stability with respect to low-n (toroidal mode number) MHD modes. There is a clear discrepancy between the predictions of standard MHD theory that many modes should be unstable on the MHD time scale, and the observed macroscopic resilience of FRCs in experiments.

  1. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  2. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  3. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  4. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  5. Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can

  6. IMPROVED VARIABLE STAR SEARCH IN LARGE PHOTOMETRIC DATA SETS: NEW VARIABLES IN CoRoT FIELD LRa02 DETECTED BY BEST II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruth, T.; Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Eigmueller, P.; Erikson, A.; Kirste, S.; Pasternacki, T.; Rauer, H.; Titz-Weider, R.; Kabath, P.; Chini, R.; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.

    2012-06-15

    The CoRoT field LRa02 has been observed with the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope II (BEST II) during the southern summer 2007/2008. A first analysis of stellar variability led to the publication of 345 newly discovered variable stars. Now, a deeper analysis of this data set was used to optimize the variability search procedure. Several methods and parameters have been tested in order to improve the selection process compared to the widely used J index for variability ranking. This paper describes an empirical approach to treat systematic trends in photometric data based upon the analysis of variance statistics that can significantly decrease the rate of false detections. Finally, the process of reanalysis and method improvement has virtually doubled the number of variable stars compared to the first analysis by Kabath et al. A supplementary catalog of 272 previously unknown periodic variables plus 52 stars with suspected variability is presented. Improved ephemerides are given for 19 known variables in the field. In addition, the BEST II results are compared with CoRoT data and its automatic variability classification.

  7. Towards reversible basic linear algebra subprograms: A performance study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Yoginath, Srikanth B.

    2014-12-06

    Problems such as fault tolerance and scalable synchronization can be efficiently solved using reversibility of applications. Making applications reversible by relying on computation rather than on memory is ideal for large scale parallel computing, especially for the next generation of supercomputers in which memory is expensive in terms of latency, energy, and price. In this direction, a case study is presented here in reversing a computational core, namely, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, which is widely used in scientific applications. A new Reversible BLAS (RBLAS) library interface has been designed, and a prototype has been implemented with two modes: (1) amore » memory-mode in which reversibility is obtained by checkpointing to memory in forward and restoring from memory in reverse, and (2) a computational-mode in which nothing is saved in the forward, but restoration is done entirely via inverse computation in reverse. The article is focused on detailed performance benchmarking to evaluate the runtime dynamics and performance effects, comparing reversible computation with checkpointing on both traditional CPU platforms and recent GPU accelerator platforms. For BLAS Level-1 subprograms, data indicates over an order of magnitude better speed of reversible computation compared to checkpointing. For BLAS Level-2 and Level-3, a more complex tradeoff is observed between reversible computation and checkpointing, depending on computational and memory complexities of the subprograms.« less

  8. Towards reversible basic linear algebra subprograms: A performance study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Yoginath, Srikanth B.

    2014-12-06

    Problems such as fault tolerance and scalable synchronization can be efficiently solved using reversibility of applications. Making applications reversible by relying on computation rather than on memory is ideal for large scale parallel computing, especially for the next generation of supercomputers in which memory is expensive in terms of latency, energy, and price. In this direction, a case study is presented here in reversing a computational core, namely, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, which is widely used in scientific applications. A new Reversible BLAS (RBLAS) library interface has been designed, and a prototype has been implemented with two modes: (1) a memory-mode in which reversibility is obtained by checkpointing to memory in forward and restoring from memory in reverse, and (2) a computational-mode in which nothing is saved in the forward, but restoration is done entirely via inverse computation in reverse. The article is focused on detailed performance benchmarking to evaluate the runtime dynamics and performance effects, comparing reversible computation with checkpointing on both traditional CPU platforms and recent GPU accelerator platforms. For BLAS Level-1 subprograms, data indicates over an order of magnitude better speed of reversible computation compared to checkpointing. For BLAS Level-2 and Level-3, a more complex tradeoff is observed between reversible computation and checkpointing, depending on computational and memory complexities of the subprograms.

  9. Review of field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.

    2011-07-15

    This review addresses field-reversed configurations (FRCs), which are compact-toroidal magnetic systems with little or no toroidal field and very high {beta} (ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure). Although enthusiasm for the FRC has primarily been driven by its potential for an attractive fusion reactor, this review focuses on the physics rather than on technological or engineering aspects. Major advances in both theory and experiment have taken place since the previous comprehensive FRC review in 1988. Even so many questions remain. In particular, even though FRC experiments have exhibited remarkable stability, how well this extrapolates to larger systems remains unresolved. The review considers FRCs under familiar topical categories: equilibrium, global stability, self-organization, transport, formation, and sustainment.

  10. Digital reverse propagation in focusing Kerr media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goy, Alexandre; Psaltis, Demetri

    2011-03-15

    Lenses allow the formation of clear images in homogeneous linear media. Holography is an alternative imaging method, but its use is limited to cases in which it provides an advantage, such as three-dimensional imaging. In nonlinear media, lenses no longer work. The light produces intensity-dependent aberrations. The reverse propagation method used in digital holography to form images from recorded holograms works even in Kerr media [M. Tsang, D. Psaltis, and F. G. Omenetto, Opt. Lett. 28, 1873 (2003).]. The principle has been experimentally demonstrated recently in defocusing media [C. Barsi, W.Wan, and J.W. Fleischer, Nat. Photonics 3, 211 (2009).]. Here, we report experimental results in focusing media.

  11. Dynamics and efficiency of magnetic vortex circulation reversal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dynamics and efficiency of magnetic vortex circulation reversal Not Available Temp HTML Storage 2: Urbnek, Michal; Uhl, Vojtch; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Kan, Jimmy J.; ...

  12. Reversible Aptamer-Au Plasmon Rulers for Secreted Single Molecules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Somin Eunice; Chen, Qian; Bhat, Ramray; Petkiewicz, Shayne; Smith, Jessica M.; Ferry, Vivian E.; Correia, Ana Luisa; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Bissell, Mina J.

    2015-06-03

    Plasmon rulers, consisting of pairs of gold nanoparticles, allow single-molecule analysis without photobleaching or blinking; however, current plasmon rulers are irreversible, restricting detection to only single events. Here, we present a reversible plasmon ruler, comprised of coupled gold nanoparticles linked by a single aptamer, capable of binding individual secreted molecules with high specificity. We show that the binding of target secreted molecules to the reversible plasmon ruler is characterized by single-molecule sensitivity, high specificity, and reversibility. Lastly, such reversible plasmon rulers should enable dynamic and adaptive live-cell measurement of secreted single molecules in their local microenvironment.

  13. Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Presented ...

  14. Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of Singlet Oxygen Generation Previous Next List Jihye Park, Dawei Feng, Shuai Yuan and Hong-Cai Zhou, Angew. Chem. Int....

  15. A Reversible Crystallinity-Preserving Phase Transition in Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible Crystallinity-Preserving Phase Transition in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Discovery, ... was discovered in a metal-organic framework (MOF) PCN-526. During the phase ...

  16. Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or Thermal Treatment in a Metal-Organic Framework Previous Next List Jinhee Park , Daqiang Yuan , Khanh T. Pham , ...

  17. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation ...

  18. A Reversible Crystallinity-Preserving Phase Transition in Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible Crystallinity-Preserving Phase Transition in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Discovery, Mechanistic Studies, and Potential Applications Previous Next List Liu, Dahuan; Liu,...

  19. Materials and System Issues with Reversible SOFC | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cells Workshop Summary Report Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Lessons Learned from SOFCSOEC Development...

  20. Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

    1983-12-08

    The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  1. Reversible piezomagnetoelectric switching in bulk polycrystalline ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, T. Bennett, J.; Brown, A. P.; Wines, T.; Bell, A. J.; Comyn, T. P.; Smith, R. I.

    2014-08-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in materials offer tremendous advantages in device functionality enabling technologies including advanced electronic memory, combining electronic speed, and efficiency with magnetic robustness. However, low cost polycrystalline ME materials are excluded from most commercial applications, operating only at cryogenic temperatures, impractically large electric/magnetic fields, or with low ME coefficients (1-100 mV/cm Oe). Despite this, the technological potential of single compound ME coupling has continued to drive research into multiferroics over the last two decades. Here we show that by manipulating the large induced atomic strain within the polycrystalline, room temperature multiferroic compound 0.7BiFeO{sub 3}–0.3PbTiO{sub 3}, we can induce a reversible, piezoelectric strain controlled ME effect. Employing an in situ neutron diffraction experiment, we have demonstrated that this piezomagnetoelectric effect manifests with an applied electric field >8 kV/mm at the onset of piezoelectric strain, engineered in to the compound by crystallographic phase mixing. This produces a remarkable intrinsic ME coefficient of 1276 mV/cm Oe, due to a strain driven modification to the oxygen sub-lattice, inducing an increase in magnetic moment per Fe{sup 3+} ion of +0.142 μ{sub B}. This work provides a framework for investigations into strain engineered nanostructures to realize low-cost ME devices designed from the atoms up, as well as contributing to the deeper understanding of single phase ME coupling mechanisms.

  2. A high performance field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Garate, E.; Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Gota, H.; Barnes, D.; Deng, B. H.; Thompson, M. C.; Trask, E.; Yang, X.; Putvinski, S.; Rostoker, N.; Andow, R.; Aefsky, S.; Bolte, N.; Bui, D. Q.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Conventional field-reversed configurations (FRCs), high-beta, prolate compact toroids embedded in poloidal magnetic fields, face notable stability and confinement concerns. These can be ameliorated by various control techniques, such as introducing a significant fast ion population. Indeed, adding neutral beam injection into the FRC over the past half-decade has contributed to striking improvements in confinement and stability. Further, the addition of electrically biased plasma guns at the ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved stability. Together, these enabled the build-up of a well-confined and dominant fast-ion population. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, macroscopically stable hot FRCs (with total plasma temperature of ∼1 keV) with record lifetimes were achieved. These accomplishments point to the prospect of advanced, beam-driven FRCs as an intriguing path toward fusion reactors. This paper reviews key results and presents context for further interpretation.

  3. Rigid-rotor, field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conti, F. Giammanco, F.; Plasma Diagnostics and Technologies Ltd., Via Giuntini 63, 56023 Navacchio ; Wessel, F. J.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Bolte, N.; Morehouse, M.; Qerushi, A.; Rahman, H. U.; Roche, T.; Slepchenkov, M.

    2014-02-15

    The radial profiles, n(r), B{sub z}(r), and E{sub r}(r), for a Flux-Coil (“inductively driven”), Field-Reversed Configuration (FC-FRC) are measured and compared to the predictions of the Rigid-Rotor Model (RRM), which is an analytic, one-dimensional, time-independent, equilibrium description for the FRC. Injectors mounted on both ends of the confinement vessel provide a pre-fill plasma. Coaxial coils mounted outside the vacuum boundaries of the annular-confinement vessel accelerate the plasma and produce the FRC. The density profile is measured by laser interferometry, the magnetic-field profile using an in-situ probe array, and the electric-field profile using an in-situ, floating-probe array. Free parameters for each profile are measured, which also allow other intrinsic-plasma parameters to be determined, using computer-fit algorithms: null radius, radial thickness, plasma temperature, rotation frequencies, the latter of which are independently verified by spectroscopy. All radial profiles agree with the RRM predictions, for the experimental configuration, parameter regime, and specified-time interval studied here.

  4. Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bredemann, Michael V

    2014-11-04

    The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.

  5. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, P.F.; Frank, A.J.

    1993-05-04

    Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversibly electroactive materials such as polyvinylferrocene, silicon-linked ferrocene or quinone.

  6. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversibly electroactive materials such as polyvinylferrocene, silicon-linked ferrocene or quinone.

  7. Method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berryman, James G.

    2004-06-29

    A method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics. Time-reversal acoustics uses an iterative process to determine the optimum signal for locating a strongly reflecting target in a cluttered environment. An acoustic array sends a signal into a medium, and then receives the returned/reflected signal. This returned/reflected signal is then time-reversed and sent back into the medium again, and again, until the signal being sent and received is no longer changing. At that point, the array has isolated the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination and has effectively determined the location of a single target in the medium (the one that is most strongly reflecting). After the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination has been determined, to determine the location of other targets, instead of sending back the same signals, the method sends back these time reversed signals, but half of them will also be reversed in sign. There are various possibilities for choosing which half to do sign reversal. The most obvious choice is to reverse every other one in a linear array, or as in a checkerboard pattern in 2D. Then, a new send/receive, send-time reversed/receive iteration can proceed. Often, the first iteration in this sequence will be close to the desired signal from a second target. In some cases, orthogonalization procedures must be implemented to assure the returned signals are in fact orthogonal to the first eigenvector found.

  8. Use of ceragenins to create novel biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Feng, Yanshu; Savage, Paul B.; Pollard, Jacob; Sanchez, Andres L.; Fellows, Benjamin D.; Jones, Howland D. T.; McGrath, Lucas K.

    2008-12-01

    Scoping studies have demonstrated that ceragenins, when linked to water-treatment membranes have the potential to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced molecules that mimic antimicrobial peptides. Evidence includes measurements of CSA-13 prohibiting the growth of and killing planktonic Pseudomonas fluorescens. In addition, imaging of biofilms that were in contact of a ceragenin showed more dead cells relative to live cells than in a biofilm that had not been treated with a ceragenin. This work has demonstrated that ceragenins can be attached to polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, though work needs to improve the uniformity of the attachment. Finally, methods have been developed to use hyperspectral imaging with multivariate curve resolution to view ceragenins attached to the RO membrane. Future work will be conducted to better attach the ceragenin to the RO membranes and more completely test the biocidal effectiveness of the ceragenins on the membranes.

  9. Consider nanofiltration for membrane separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, L.P. ); Cheryna, M.; Rajagopalan, N. )

    1994-03-01

    The best known liquid-phase membrane processes are reverse osmosis (RO), ultrafiltration (UF), microfiltration (MF), dialysis, and electrodialysis (ED). However, over the past few years, a new membrane process called nanofiltration (NF) has emerged that promises to significantly widen the application of membranes in liquid-phase separations. This paper discusses the following: NF operating range, membrane properties, and the following applications: demineralizing water, cleaning up contaminated groundwater, ultrapure water, effluents containing heavy metals, offshore oil platforms, yeast production, pulp and paper mills, textile production, electroless copper plating, and cheese whey production.

  10. Magnetization reversal in TmCrO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshii, Kenji

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► We observed two magnetization reversals in TmCrO{sub 3}. ► The reversal at 28 K is attributed to antiparallel coupling between Cr{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}. ► The other reversal originates from spin reorientation. ► Magnetocaloric effect is observed at the spin reorientation temperature. ► Characteristic magnetization switching is demonstrated. -- Abstract: The perovskite chromite TmCrO{sub 3} shows magnetization reversal at two temperatures. The reversal at ∼28 K is attributed to the antiparallel coupling between Tm{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} moments, while that at the lower temperature (∼6–7 K) is rooted in a rotation of the magnetic moments. Magnetocaloric measurements offer a relatively large entropy change (∼4–5 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}) at the lower temperature. The reversal at ∼28 K is accompanied by a sign change of an exchange-bias-like field. The absence of the training effect suggests that this behavior is rooted in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy. The existence of the two magnetization reversals offers the characteristic switching of magnetization. For example, the magnetization is flipped without changing the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  11. Three-dimensional time reversal communications in elastic media

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ten Cate, James A.

    2016-02-23

    Our letter presents a series of vibrational communication experiments, using time reversal, conducted on a set of cast iron pipes. Time reversal has been used to provide robust, private, and clean communications in many underwater acoustic applications. Also, the use of time reversal to communicate along sections of pipes and through a wall is demonstrated here in order to overcome the complications of dispersion and multiple scattering. These demonstrations utilize a single source transducer and a single sensor, a triaxial accelerometer, enabling multiple channels of simultaneous communication streams to a single location.

  12. Communication: Ro-vibrational control of chemical reactivity in H+CH{sub 4}→ H{sub 2}+CH{sub 3} : Full-dimensional quantum dynamics calculations and a sudden model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welsch, Ralph Manthe, Uwe

    2014-08-07

    The mode-selective chemistry of the title reaction is studied by full-dimensional quantum dynamics simulation on an accurate ab initio potential energy surface for vanishing total angular momentum. Using a rigorous transition state based approach and multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree wave packet propagation, initial state-selected reaction probabilities for many ro-vibrational states of methane are calculated. The theoretical results are compared with experimental trends seen in reactions of methane. An intuitive interpretation of the ro-vibrational control of the chemical reactivity provided by a sudden model based on the quantum transition state concept is discussed.

  13. Effects of q -profile structures on intrinsic torque reversals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Effects of q -profile structures on intrinsic torque reversals Authors: Lu, Z. X. ; Wang, W. X. ; Diamond, P. H. ; Tynan, G. ; Ethier, S. ; Chen, J. ; Gao, C. ; Rice, J. E. ...

  14. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    millitesla (mT) to reverse the direction of a vortex core. ... and their possible application to data storage technologies. ... Is there a physical limit to how far this process can go? At ...

  15. Reversible CO Scavenging via Adsorbate-Dependent Spin State Transition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible CO Scavenging via Adsorbate-Dependent Spin State Transitions in an Iron(II)-Triazolate Metal-Organic Framework Previous Next List Reed, Douglas A.; Xiao, Dianne J.; ...

  16. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This paper on titan plasma engineering contains papers on the following topics: reversed-field pinch as a fusion reactor; parametric systems studies; magnetics; burning-plasma simulations; plasma transient operations; current drive; and physics issues for compact RFP reactors.

  17. Reversible Magnesium Intercalation into a Layered Oxyfluoride Cathode -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joint Center for Energy Storage Research December 18, 2015, Research Highlights Reversible Magnesium Intercalation into a Layered Oxyfluoride Cathode Powder diffraction of oxyfluoridecathode with intercalated Mg and capacities of oxyfluorideand oxide cathodes Scientific Achievement Magnesium was reversibly intercalated at room temperature into an oxyfluoride cathode without the co-intercalation of electrolytes or protons and without the formation of unwanted side-products that commonly

  18. Speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) in a pine forest during BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chan, A. W. H.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hohaus, T.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Zhao, Y.; Day, D. A.; Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.; Teng, A. P.; et al

    2016-02-02

    Understanding organic composition of gases and particles is essential to identifying sources and atmospheric processing leading to organic aerosols (OA), but atmospheric chemical complexity and the analytical techniques available often limit such analysis. Here we present speciated measurements of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs) using a novel dual-use instrument (SV-TAG-AMS) deployed at Manitou Forest, CO, during the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS) 2011 campaign. This instrument provides on-line speciation of ambient organic compounds with 2 h time resolution. The species in this volatility range are complexmore » in composition, but their chemical identities reveal potential sources. Observed compounds of biogenic origin include sesquiterpenes with molecular formula C15H24 (e.g., β-caryophyllene and longifolene), which were most abundant at night. A variety of other biogenic compounds were observed, including sesquiterpenoids with molecular formula C15H22, abietatriene and other terpenoid compounds. Many of these compounds have been identified in essential oils and branch enclosure studies but were observed in ambient air for the first time in our study. Semivolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes were observed with highest concentrations during the day and the dependence on temperature suggests the role of an evaporative source. Using statistical analysis by positive matrix factorization (PMF), we classify observed S/IVOCs by their likely sources and processes, and characterize them based on chemical composition. The total mass concentration of elutable S/IVOCs was estimated to be on the order of 0.7 µg m–3 and their volatility distributions are estimated for modeling aerosol formation chemistry.« less

  19. Real-time sub- Å ngstrom imaging of reversible and irreversible...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Real-time sub- ngstrom imaging of reversible and irreversible conformations in rhodium catalysts and graphene Title: Real-time sub- ngstrom imaging of reversible and ...

  20. Technical and economic feasibility of membrane technology. Fourth technical progress report, June 17-September 16, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandre, A.

    1980-10-01

    Progress is reported on the investigation of the potential application of reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and electrodialysis to the system of solids concentration in beet sugar process streams. During this period, emphasis was put on running reverse osmosis tests with a new prototype machine to select the most suitable membranes for the concentrating of sugar solutions. An economic analysis of using reverse osmosis in a factory producing 10/sup 6/ gal/day of thin juice is discussed. (DMC)

  1. Lower hybrid accessibility in a large, hot reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziubek, R.A.; Harvey, R.W.; Hokin, S.A.; Uchimoto, E.

    1995-11-01

    Accessibility and damping of the slow wave in a reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma is investigated theoretically, using projected Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) plasma parameters. By numerically solving the hot plasma dispersion relation, regions of propagation are found and the possibility of mode conversion is analyzed. If the parallel index of refraction of the wave is chosen judiciously at the edge of the plasma, the slow wave is accessible to a target region located just inside the reversal surface without mode conversion. Landau damping is also optimized in this region. A representative fast electron population is then added in order to determine its effect on accessibility and damping. The presence of these electrons, whose parameters were estimated by extrapolation of Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) data, does not affect the accessibility of the wave. However, the initial phase velocity of the wave needs to be increased somewhat in order to maintain optimal damping in the target zone.

  2. Implications of Scheduled ITC Reversion for RPS Compliance: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowder, Travis; Miller, John; O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Heeter, Jenny

    2015-09-14

    This poster presents DRAFT initial results of a forthcoming NREL analysis. The analysis investigates the impacts of the scheduled investment tax credit (ITC) reversion from 30 percent to 10 percent for certain solar photovoltaic projects. Specifically, it considers whether the reversion will result in increased use of alternative compliance payments (ACPs) in lieu of solar renewable energy credits (SRECs) for renewable portfolio standard (RPS) compliance. The analysis models the effect of a 10 percent ITC on power purchase agreement (PPA) prices for non-residential systems in the eight states with solar carve-outs and solar ACPs. Our preliminary results suggest that states will likely install sufficient capacity to meet long-term targets through SRECs rather than ACPs following the ITC reversion. However, the analysis shows that the ITC reversion could affect project economics such that capacity shortfalls in certain states could temporarily increase the use of ACPs. NREL anticipates publishing a full report of this analysis in fall 2015. credits (SRECs) for renewable portfolio standard (RPS) compliance. The analysis models the effect of a 10 percent ITC on power purchase agreement (PPA) prices for non-residential systems in the eight states with solar carve-outs and solar ACPs. Our preliminary results suggest that states will likely install sufficient capacity to meet long-term targets through SRECs rather than ACPs following the ITC reversion. However, the analysis shows that the ITC reversion could affect project economics such that capacity shortfalls in certain states could temporarily increase the use of ACPs. NREL anticipates publishing a full report of this analysis in fall 2015.

  3. E-print Network : Main View : Search Results for Title: "Reversible...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible control of spin-polarized supercurrents in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions" Author: Banerjee AND Robinson...

  4. Energy current imaging method for time reversal in elastic media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Brian E; Ulrich, Timothy J; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves A; Larmat, Carene; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert A; Griffa, Michele

    2009-01-01

    An energy current imaging method is presented for use in locating sources of wave energy during the back propagation stage of the time reversal process. During the back propagation phase of an ideal time reversal experiment, wave energy coalesces from all angles of incidence to recreate the source event; after the recreation, wave energy diverges in every direction. An energy current imaging method based on this convergence/divergence behavior has been developed. The energy current imaging method yields a smaller spatial distribution for source reconstruction than is possible with traditional energy imaging methods.

  5. In-situ Characterization of Highly Reversible Phase Transformation by

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron X-ray Laue Microdiffraction In-situ Characterization of Highly Reversible Phase Transformation by Synchrotron X-ray Laue Microdiffraction In-situ Characterization of Highly Reversible Phase Transformation by Synchrotron X-ray Laue Microdiffraction Print Monday, 23 May 2016 09:50 In situ measurement of the orientation matrices for the austenite and martensite phases of the alloy Cu25Au30Zn45 across the interface was performed by synchrotron x-ray Laue microdiffraction at the ALS.

  6. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print Wednesday, 28 March 2007 00:00 In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to

  7. Modified polynomial function model for reversed field pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, W.; Sprott, J.C.

    1990-11-01

    A generalized analytic representation for the magnetic field and current density profiles in a reversed field pinch is proposed. These profiles have zero current density at the wall and finite plasma pressure. The profiles are characterized by two free parameters here taken to be the field reversal parameter (F) and pinch parameter ({Theta}). From the profiles, many useful quantities such as magnetic energy, beta, inductane, resistance and ohmic input power are calculated. These quantities provide a basis for analyzing experimental data and performing electrical circuit modeling of RFP discharges. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  8. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    flow rate. In the new design, the evaporator system, membrane reactor, and reverse osmosis system are scaled on hydraulic flow rate, while the anaerobic digester, aeration...

  9. 5-20-10_FinalTestimony_Podonsky.pdf

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with using groundwater as irrigation water for growing vegetables rather than reverse osmosis filtered water or cistern water; - The general aim of the garden projects at...

  10. IMI Project Sections Table

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reuse 2,000,000 A smooth resin deposition technology will be developed for reverse osmosis membranes used in water treatment and industrial and municipal wastewater reuse. Thin...

  11. CX-008729: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reverse Osmosis System Removal CX(s) Applied: B1.26 Date: 06/25/2012 Location(s): Idaho Offices(s): Idaho Operations Office

  12. Pankratz DOE Presentation.ppt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tom Pankratz - 5 November 2015 - tp@globalwaterintel.com Reverse Osmosis Desalination "%&'()&*+,-&*.).0&12'&3"'4.5")* "%&'()*+,-.012,1*3 456323&'...

  13. NERSC Announces Winners of Inaugural HPC Achievement Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    being far more efficient and possibly less expensive than existing desalination systems. ... One common method of desalination, called reverse osmosis, uses membranes to filter the ...

  14. Utilization of saturated solar ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loeb, S.

    1981-08-18

    A saturated non-convective solar pond is employed as an unmixing device in conjunction with reverse electrodialysis or pressureretarded osmosis for power generation.

  15. Department of Energy Awards $92 Million for Groundbreaking Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    selections focus on accelerating innovation in green technology while increasing ... The system uses reverse osmosis to efficiently separate water from the salt solution. This ...

  16. MHK Technologies/Wavemill | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Wavemill device utilizes wave motion to drive pistons, which drive a water pump. The water is then pumped ashore where it undergoes reverse osmosis and becomes...

  17. MHK Technologies/OMI Combined Energy System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Combined Energy System CES consists of four sub system components a seawater wave pump a hydro turbine electric generator a reverse osmosis filtration unit and an...

  18. Thinnest Nanofiltration Membrane to Date is Produced | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EmailPrint A separation membrane is a key component in both nanofiltration and reverse osmosis filtration systems. Reducing the thickness of the membrane reduces the pressure that...

  19. MHK Technologies/Seadov | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Click here Axial Flow Turbine Technology Description 3 wind turbines power the reverse osmosis plant on board to desalinate the ocean water into potable water Subject to site...

  20. NOVEL MEMBRANES AND SYSTEMS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WATER...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A smooth resin deposition technology will be developed for reverse osmosis membranes used in water treatment and industrial and municipal wastewater reuse. Thin films of the resin ...

  1. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1987-01-01

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  2. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-06-05

    A high power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  3. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1987-02-10

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime. 10 figs.

  4. Rotational stability of a long field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, D. C. Steinhauer, L. C.

    2014-02-15

    Rotationally driven modes of long systems with dominantly axial magnetic field are considered. We apply the incompressible model and order axial wavenumber small. A recently developed gyro-viscous model is incorporated. A one-dimensional equilibrium is assumed, but radial profiles are arbitrary. The dominant toroidal (azimuthal) mode numbers ℓ=1 and ℓ=2 modes are examined for a variety of non-reversed (B) and reversed profiles. Previous results for both systems with rigid rotor equilibria are reproduced. New results are obtained by incorporation of finite axial wavenumber and by relaxing the assumption of rigid electron and ion rotation. It is shown that the frequently troublesome ℓ=2 field reversed configuration (FRC) mode is not strongly affected by ion kinetic effects (in contrast to non-reversed cases) and is likely stabilized experimentally only by finite length effects. It is also shown that the ℓ=1 wobble mode has a complicated behavior and is affected by a variety of configuration and profile effects. The rotationally driven ℓ=1 wobble is completely stabilized by strong rotational shear, which is anticipated to be active in high performance FRC experiments. Thus, observed wobble modes in these systems are likely not driven by rotation alone.

  5. Simulation studies of nucleation of ferroelectric polarization reversal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Winchester, Benjamin Michael

    2014-08-01

    Electric field-induced reversal of spontaneous polarization is the defining characteristic of a ferroelectric material, but the process(es) and mechanism(s) associated with the initial nucleation of reverse-polarity domains are poorly understood. This report describes studies carried out using phase field modeling of LiTaO3, a relatively simple prototype ferroelectric material, in order to explore the effects of either mechanical deformation or optically-induced free charges on nucleation and resulting domain configuration during field-induced polarization reversal. Conditions were selected to approximate as closely as feasible those of accompanying experimental work in order to provide not only support for the experimental work but also ensure that additional experimental validation of the simulations could be carried out in the future. Phase field simulations strongly support surface mechanical damage/deformation as effective for dramatically reducing the overall coercive field (Ec) via local field enhancements. Further, optically-nucleated polarization reversal appears to occur via stabilization of latent nuclei via the charge screening effects of free charges.

  6. Single line reversing system capsular pneumatic freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, P.B.

    1999-07-01

    In the 1800's the first Pneumatic Tube Systems sent a carrier vertically from one floor to another in a hospital using a foot-powered bellows. The carrier was returned to the starting point down the same tube using gravity. This was the first Single Line Reversing system. As the stations were moved apart horizontally the foot-powered bellows at both ends became ineffective and were replaced with a single blower or exhauster. The blower/exhauster ran continuously therefore a second line for returning carriers to the starting point, had to be installed - hence Twin Line systems. These systems were used for transporting mail, paperwork, medications, steel mill samples, parts, tools, medical lab samples, etc., in hospitals, stores and other businesses. Twin Line systems were very popular until about 1970 at which time installation labor and material costs became expensive and controls were becoming unnecessarily complicated and expensive. These reasons plus new technology forced the return to Single Line Reversing technology. Back in the 1800's three ``people transporting'' subways were built. A fourth system was built under the Pentagon in the 1950's or 1960's. It is difficult to find information on this one. All are Single Line Reversing systems. The difference between a Single Line Reversing and a Twin Line system is exactly as the names imply. The principle of the operation of these systems is covered herein. The physics for these two kinds of systems is the same. The Single Line Reversing system is technically more complex but capital and operating expense is far less costly. These costs are discussed herein.

  7. Desalination technology evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bene, J.V.; Loh, G.T.; Schleicher, R.W.; Sgammato, T.A.; Sinha, A.K.

    1992-12-01

    The shortage of potable water has hindered economic development in South Florida and other areas of the United States. This project, cosponsored with Florida Power & Light (FPL), examines the economics of colocation of a water desalination plant with an electric power plant to take advantage of shared facilities, personnel, and equipments well as existing intake and outfall structures. In combination, these factors should reduce the cost of desalinated water. The first step in determining the viability of colocation is identification of desalination technologies best suited for dual-purpose applications in retrofits at existing fossil plants. Based on energy efficiency and commercial maturity, reverse osmosis (RO) and low-temperature multieffect distillation (LT-MED) technologies appear to be the best candidates for such application. In fact, RO provides the best economics for the plants and conditions studied. Of the emerging technologies evaluated, sodium molecular pumping and solvent extraction technologies should be further investigated for their potential in significantly reducing desalination costs.

  8. Desalination technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bene, J.V.; Loh, G.T.; Schleicher, R.W.; Sgammato, T.A.; Sinha, A.K. )

    1992-12-01

    The shortage of potable water has hindered economic development in South Florida and other areas of the United States. This project, cosponsored with Florida Power Light (FPL), examines the economics of colocation of a water desalination plant with an electric power plant to take advantage of shared facilities, personnel, and equipments well as existing intake and outfall structures. In combination, these factors should reduce the cost of desalinated water. The first step in determining the viability of colocation is identification of desalination technologies best suited for dual-purpose applications in retrofits at existing fossil plants. Based on energy efficiency and commercial maturity, reverse osmosis (RO) and low-temperature multieffect distillation (LT-MED) technologies appear to be the best candidates for such application. In fact, RO provides the best economics for the plants and conditions studied. Of the emerging technologies evaluated, sodium molecular pumping and solvent extraction technologies should be further investigated for their potential in significantly reducing desalination costs.

  9. Forward and reverse control system for induction motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, J.T.

    1987-09-15

    A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

  10. Two-step polarization reversal in biased ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels, John E. Ukritnukun, Supphatuch; Glaum, Julia; Cozzan, Clayton; Tutuncu, Goknur; Dosch, Chris; Andrieux, Jerome; Jo, Wook; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-06-14

    Polarization reversal in polycrystalline ferroelectrics is shown to occur via two distinct and sequential domain reorientation steps. This reorientation sequence, which cannot be readily discriminated in the overall sample polarization, is made apparent using time-resolved high-energy x-ray diffraction. Upon application of electric fields opposite to the initial poling direction, two unique and significantly different time constants are observed. The first (faster time constant) is shown to be derived by the release of a residual stress due to initial electrical biasing and the second (slower time constant) due to the redevelopment of residual stress during further domain wall motion. A modified domain reorientation model is given that accurately describes the domain volume fraction evolution during the reversal process.

  11. Fast chirality reversal of the magnetic vortex by electric current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, W. L. Liu, R. H.; Urazhdin, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Erokhin, S. G.; Berkov, D.

    2014-12-01

    The possibility of high-density information encoding in magnetic materials by topologically stable inhomogeneous magnetization configurations such as domain walls, skyrmions, and vortices has motivated intense research into mechanisms enabling their control and detection. While the uniform magnetization states can be efficiently controlled by electric current using magnetic multilayer structures, this approach has proven much more difficult to implement for inhomogeneous states. Here, we report direct observation of fast reversal of magnetic vortex by electric current in a simple planar structure based on a bilayer of spin Hall material Pt with a single microscopic ferromagnetic disk contacted by asymmetric electrodes. The reversal is enabled by a combination of the chiral Oersted field and spin current generated by the nonuniform current distribution in Pt. Our results provide a route for the efficient control of inhomogeneous magnetization configurations by electric current.

  12. Reversible and irreversible ion migration processes in lead halide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    perovskites for photovoltaics | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Reversible and irreversible ion migration processes in lead halide perovskites for photovoltaics March 9, 2016 at 4:30 PM/36-462 Eric Hoke Stanford University, Draper Laboratory hoke-eric Lead hybrid perovskites are a promising family of photovoltaic absorber materials that have achieved power conversion efficiencies of over 20%. Lead halide perovskites are ionic materials with a low lattice energy which are unusual properties

  13. Understanding the Initial Stages of Reversible Mg Deposition and Stripping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Inorganic Nonaqueous Electrolytes - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research April 8, 2015, Research Highlights Understanding the Initial Stages of Reversible Mg Deposition and Stripping in Inorganic Nonaqueous Electrolytes MgCl+ Desolvation Diagram Scientific Achievement The chemical species at the Mg-anode surface in the presence of Magnesium Aluminum-Chloro complex (MACC) electrolyte were identified. While solvent molecules (THF and DME) are loosely bound at the Mg(0001) surface, the

  14. Cooling by Time Reversal of Atomic Matter Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Toulouse III, CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2008-02-01

    We propose an experimental scheme which allows us to realized approximate time reversal of matter waves for ultracold atoms in the regime of quantum chaos. We show that a significant fraction of the atoms return back to their original state, being at the same time cooled down by several orders of magnitude. We give a theoretical description of this effect supported by extensive numerical simulations. The proposed scheme can be implemented with existing experimental setups.

  15. Advanced Catalysts and MEAs for Reversible Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts and MEAs for Reversible Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells Hui Xu (PI) Giner Inc Newton, MA This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information DOE Catalyst Work Group Meeting June 8, 2015 2 Barriers Addressed * Activity (catalyst; MEA) * Durability (catalyst; MEA) * Cost (catalyst; MEA) Technical Targets * Design and develop ORR/OER bi-functional oxide catalysts * Integrate ORR/OER bifunctional oxide catalysts and alkaline membranes to

  16. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  17. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  18. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  19. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  20. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  1. Corrosion/erosion pipe inspection using reverse geometry radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert, R.D.

    1996-07-01

    Measurement of corrosion in piping was studied using the Digiray Reverse Geometry X-ray{reg_sign} (RGX{reg_sign}) imaging system during a series of field tests. Sponsored by Shell, Exxon and Mobil oil companies, these were recently carried out at the Shell Martinez refinery facility. Results of the field tests as well as other RGX radiographs taken in the laboratory by Digiray will be described in this report.

  2. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  3. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very

  4. Reversible geling co-polymer and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutowska, Anna

    2005-12-27

    The present invention is a thereapeutic agent carrier having a thermally reversible gel or geling copolymer that is a linear random copolymer of an [meth-]acrylamide derivative and a hydrophilic comonomer, wherein the linear random copolymer is in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum geling molecular weight cutoff and a therapeutic agent.

  5. Progress on the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology Presented by: Casey Brown 19 April 2011 Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems - All Rights Reserved Versa Power Systems * Versa Power Systems is a developer of planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) * Privately held company headquartered in Littleton, Colorado, United States * SOFC development facility in Calgary, Alberta, Canada * Activities in both stationary and mobile SOFC development Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems - All Rights

  6. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  7. Dynamic processes in field-reversed-configuration compact toroids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rej, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this lecture, the dynamic processes involved in field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation, translation, and compression will be reviewed. Though the FRC is related to the field-reversed mirror concept, the formation method used in most experiments is a variant of the field-reversed THETA-pinch. Formation of the FRC eqilibrium occurs rapidly, usually in less than 20 ..mu..s. The formation sequence consists of several coupled processes: preionization; radial implosion and compression; magnetic field line closure; axial contraction; equilibrium formation. Recent experiments and theory have led to a significantly improved understanding of these processes; however, the experimental method still relies on a somewhat empirical approach which involves the optimization of initial preionization plasma parameters and symmetry. New improvements in FRC formation methods include the use of lower voltages which extrapolate better to larger devices. The axial translation of compact toroid plasmas offers an attractive engineering convenience in a fusion reactor. FRC translation has been demonstrated in several experiments worldwide, and these plasmas are found to be robust, moving at speeds up to the Alfven velocity over distances of up to 16 m, with no degradation in the confinement. Compact toroids are ideal for magnetic compression. Translated FRCs have been compressed and heated by imploding liners. Upcoming experiments will rely on external flux compression to heat a translater FRC at 1-GW power levels. 39 refs.

  8. A Reversible Structural Phase Transition in ZnV2O6 at High Pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Reversible Structural Phase Transition in ZnV2O6 at High Pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Reversible Structural Phase Transition in ZnV2O6 at High Pressures ...

  9. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  10. Reversible Bending Fatigue Testing on Zry-4 Surrogate Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L

    2014-01-01

    Testing high-burnup spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presents many challenges in areas such as specimen preparation, specimen installation, mechanical loading, load control, measurements, data acquisition, and specimen disposal because these tasks are complicated by the radioactivity of the test specimens. Research and comparison studies conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) resulted in a new concept in 2010 for a U-frame testing setup on which to perform hot-cell reversible bending fatigue testing. Subsequently, the three-dimensional finite element analysis and the engineering design of components were completed. In 2013 the ORNL team finalized the upgrade of the U-frame testing setup and the integration of the U-frame setup into a Bose dual linear motor test bench to develop a cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT). A final check was conducted on the CIRFT test system in August 2013, and the CIRFT was installed in the hot cell in September 2013 to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The fatigue responses of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding and the role of pellet pellet and pellet clad interactions are critical to SNF vibration integrity, but such data are not available due to the unavailability of an effective testing system. While the deployment of the developed CIRFT test system in a hot cell will provide the opportunity to generate the data, the use of a surrogate rod has proven quite effective in identifying the underlying deformation mechanism of an SNF composite rod under an equivalent loading condition. This paper presents the experimental results of using surrogate rods under CIRFT reversible cyclic loading. Specifically, monotonic and cyclic bending tests were conducted on surrogate rods made of a Zry-4 tube and alumina pellet inserts, both with and without an epoxy bond.

  11. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  12. Synthesis and magnetic reversal of bi-conical Ni nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biziere, N.; Lassalle Ballier, R.; Viret, M.

    2011-09-15

    Template synthesis in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes has been used to grow hour glass shaped nickel nanowires with a constriction in the range of tens of nanometers at the center. Anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements have been performed on a single nanowire to follow magnetization reversal of the structure. The results are explained via 3D micromagnetic simulations showing the appearance of a complex vortex state close to the constriction whose propagation depends on the angle between the cone axis and the applied field. The interest of this original growth process for spintronics is discussed.

  13. Perturbative transport studies in the reversed-field pinch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perturbative transport studies in the reversed-field pinch This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article. 2005 Nucl. Fusion 45 1342 (http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/45/11/015) Download details: IP Address: 128.104.166.233 The article was downloaded on 11/10/2010 at 22:09 Please note that terms and conditions apply. View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About

  14. Error-field penetration in reversed magnetic shear configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H. H.; Wang, Z. X.; Wang, X. Q. [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, X. G. [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Error-field penetration in reversed magnetic shear (RMS) configurations is numerically investigated by using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic model in slab geometry. To explore different dynamic processes in locked modes, three equilibrium states are adopted. Stable, marginal, and unstable current profiles for double tearing modes are designed by varying the current intensity between two resonant surfaces separated by a certain distance. Further, the dynamic characteristics of locked modes in the three RMS states are identified, and the relevant physics mechanisms are elucidated. The scaling behavior of critical perturbation value with initial plasma velocity is numerically obtained, which obeys previously established relevant analytical theory in the viscoresistive regime.

  15. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    38 Please note that terms and conditions apply. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 104006 (http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/55/10/104006) Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience | International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Fusion Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 104006 (8pp) doi:10.1088/0029-5515/55/10/104006 Overview of results from the MST

  16. New Limit on Time-Reversal Violation in Beta Decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumm, H. P.; Chupp, T. E.; Cooper, R. L.; Coulter, K. P.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Garcia, A.; Jones, G. L.; Nico, J. S.; Thompson, A. K.; Trull, C. A.; Wietfeldt, F. E.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-02

    We report the results of an improved determination of the triple correlation DP{center_dot}(p{sub e}xp{sub v}) that can be used to limit possible time-reversal invariance in the beta decay of polarized neutrons and constrain extensions to the standard model. Our result is D=[-0.96{+-}1.89(stat){+-}1.01(sys)]x10{sup -4}. The corresponding phase between g{sub A} and g{sub V} is {phi}{sub AV}=180.013 deg. {+-}0.028 deg. (68% confidence level). This result represents the most sensitive measurement of D in nuclear {beta} decay.

  17. Reverse licensing: international technology transfer to the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharokhi, M.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation, theoretically and empirically, focuses on US licensees as the recipient of foreign technology, and investigates characteristics of licensees, licenses, and licensed technology. The viability of reverse licensing, as an international growth strategy, is evaluated from the standpoint of two groups of firms. The first consists of thousands of small and medium sized US manufacturing firms, with few products and virtually no R and D expenditures. Without R and D, new technology and stiff international competition, they are forced into bankruptcies despite their extreme importance in the economy (48% of private workforce, 42% of sales, and 38% of GNP). The second group consists of thousands of small and medium sized firms overseas, with a relatively good supply of technology (i.e., patents) and anxious to exploit the US market but lack required resources for FDI. Technology licensing is, perhaps, the only viable option available to them. Reverse licensing provides both groups with a mechanism for their growth, survival, and prosperity. Many US firms have utilized this strategy for many years (i.e, 118 in Ohio) for tapping foreign sources including Soviet bloc technology.

  18. Semi-Implicit Reversible Algorithms for Rigid Body Rotational Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nukala, Phani K; Shelton Jr, William Allison

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents two semi-implicit algorithms based on splitting methodology for rigid body rotational dynamics. The first algorithm is a variation of partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK) methodology that can be formulated as a splitting method. The second algorithm is akin to a multiple time stepping scheme and is based on modified Crouch-Grossman (MCG) methodology, which can also be expressed as a splitting algorithm. These algorithms are second-order accurate and time-reversible; however, they are not Poisson integrators, i.e., non-symplectic. These algorithms conserve some of the first integrals of motion, but some others are not conserved; however, the fluctuations in these invariants are bounded over exponentially long time intervals. These algorithms exhibit excellent long-term behavior because of their reversibility property and their (approximate) Poisson structure preserving property. The numerical results indicate that the proposed algorithms exhibit superior performance compared to some of the currently well known algorithms such as the Simo-Wong algorithm, Newmark algorithm, discrete Moser-Veselov algorithm, Lewis-Simo algorithm, and the LIEMID[EA] algorithm.

  19. Time reversal invariance - a test in free neutron decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lising, Laura J.

    1999-05-18

    Time reversal invariance violation plays only a small role in the Standard Model, and the existence of a T-violating effect above the predicted level would be an indication of new physics. A sensitive probe of this symmetry in the weak interaction is the measurement of the T-violating ''D''-correlation in the decay of free neutrons. The triple-correlation D{sigma}{sub n}{center_dot}p{sub e} x p{sub v} involves three kinematic variables, the neutron spin, electron momentu, and neutrino (or proton) momentum, and changes sign under time reversal. This experiment detects the decay products of a polarized cold neutron beam with an octagonal array of scintillation and solid-state detectors. Data from first run at NIST's Cold Neutron Research Facility give a D-coefficient of -0.1 {+-} 1.3(stat.) {+-} 0.7(syst) x 10{sup -3}. This measurement has the greatest bearing on extensions to the Standard model that incorporate leptoquarks, although exotic fermion and lift-right symmetric models also allow a D as large as the present limit.

  20. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1980-12-02

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor

  1. Statistical Stability and Time-Reversal Imgaing in Random Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J; Borcea, L; Papanicolaou, G; Tsogka, C

    2002-02-05

    Localization of targets imbedded in a heterogeneous background medium is a common problem in seismic, ultrasonic, and electromagnetic imaging problems. The best imaging techniques make direct use of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the array response matrix, as recent work on time-reversal acoustics has shown. Of the various imaging functionals studied, one that is representative of a preferred class is a time-domain generalization of MUSIC (MUltiple Signal Classification), which is a well-known linear subspace method normally applied only in the frequency domain. Since statistical stability is not characteristic of the frequency domain, a transform back to the time domain after first diagonalizing the array data in the frequency domain takes optimum advantage of both the time-domain stability and the frequency-domain orthogonality of the relevant eigenfunctions.

  2. Adiabatic model and design of a translating field reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Intrator, T. P.; Siemon, R. E.; Sieck, P. E.

    2008-04-15

    We apply an adiabatic evolution model to predict the behavior of a field reversed configuration (FRC) during decompression and translation, as well as during boundary compression. Semi-empirical scaling laws, which were developed and benchmarked primarily for collisionless FRCs, are expected to remain valid even for the collisional regime of FRX-L experiment. We use this approach to outline the design implications for FRX-L, the high density translated FRC experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A conical theta coil is used to accelerate the FRC to the largest practical velocity so it can enter a mirror bounded compression region, where it must be a suitable target for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) implosion. FRX-L provides the physics basis for the integrated MTF plasma compression experiment at the Shiva-Star pulsed power facility at Kirtland Air Force Research Laboratory, where the FRC will be compressed inside a flux conserving cylindrical shell.

  3. Magnetization reversal driven by a spin torque oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sbiaa, R.

    2014-09-01

    Magnetization reversal of a magnetic free layer under spin transfer torque (STT) effect from a magnetic hard layer with a fixed magnetization direction and an oscillating layer is investigated. By including STT from the oscillating layer with in-plane anisotropy and orthogonal polarizer, magnetization-time dependence of free layer is determined. The results show that the frequency and amplitude of oscillations can be varied by adjusting the current density and magnetic properties. For an optimal oscillation frequency (f{sub opt}), a reduction of the switching time (t{sub 0}) of the free layer is observed. Both f{sub opt} and t{sub 0} increase with the anisotropy field of the free layer.

  4. Reducing collective quantum state rotation errors with reversible dephasing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Kevin C.; Norcia, Matthew A.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Bohnet, Justin G.; Thompson, James K.

    2014-12-29

    We demonstrate that reversible dephasing via inhomogeneous broadening can greatly reduce collective quantum state rotation errors, and observe the suppression of rotation errors by more than 21?dB in the context of collective population measurements of the spin states of an ensemble of 2.110{sup 5} laser cooled and trapped {sup 87}Rb atoms. The large reduction in rotation noise enables direct resolution of spin state populations 13(1) dB below the fundamental quantum projection noise limit. Further, the spin state measurement projects the system into an entangled state with 9.5(5) dB of directly observed spectroscopic enhancement (squeezing) relative to the standard quantum limit, whereas no enhancement would have been obtained without the suppression of rotation errors.

  5. Anomalous transport theory for the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, P.W.; Hegna, C.C; Sovinec, C.R.

    1996-09-01

    Physically motivated transport models with predictive capabilities and significance beyond the reversed field pinch (RFP) are presented. It is shown that the ambipolar constrained electron heat loss observed in MST can be quantitatively modeled by taking account of the clumping in parallel streaming electrons and the resultant self-consistent interaction with collective modes; that the discrete dynamo process is a relaxation oscillation whose dependence on the tearing instability and profile relaxation physics leads to amplitude and period scaling predictions consistent with experiment; that the Lundquist number scaling in relaxed plasmas driven by magnetic turbulence has a weak S{sup {minus}1/4} scaling; and that radial E{times}B shear flow can lead to large reductions in the edge particle flux with little change in the heat flux, as observed in the RFP and tokamak. 24 refs.

  6. Amplification and reversal of Knudsen force by thermoelectric heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neill, William J.; Wada, Mizuki; Strongrich, Andrew D.; Cofer, Anthony; Alexeenko, Alina A.

    2014-12-09

    We show that the Knudsen thermal force generated by a thermally-induced flow over a heated beam near a colder wall could be amplified significantly by thermoelectric heating. Bidirectional actuation is achieved by switching the polarity of the thermoelectric device bias voltage. The measurements of the resulting thermal forces at different rarefaction regimes, realized by changing geometry and gas pressure, are done using torsional microbalance. The repulsive or attractive forces between a thermoelectrically heated or cooled plate and a substrate are shown to be up to an order of magnitude larger than for previously studied configurations and heating methods due to favorable coupling of two thermal gradients. The amplification and reversal of the Knudsen force is confirmed by numerical solution of the Boltzmann-ESBGK kinetic model equation. Because of the favorable scaling with decreasing system size, the Knudsen force with thermoelectric heating offers a novel actuation and sensing mechanism for nano/microsystems.

  7. Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operation with Low Degradation | Department of Energy for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 petri_versa%20_power_kickoff.pdf (3.53 MB) More Documents & Publications Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Progress on the

  8. Considerations for the use of the modified line reversal technique for gas temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkleman, B.C.

    1993-06-01

    Several areas related to the successful and accurate application of modified line reversal are discussed. Initially, generalized modified line reversal equations are developed. A review of basic line reversal theory is presented followed by development of correction factors for optical system effects. Image size and their effect on accurate determinations of spectral radiances is discussed. Temperature biases introduced by image vignetting is calculated. Measured image irradiances are given.

  9. Magnetization reversal induced by in-plane current in Ta/CoFeB...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    current are accordance with those for magnetization reversal by spin transfer torque originated from the spin Hall effect in the Ta layer. Authors: Zhang, C. 1 ;...

  10. Strong and Reversible Binding of Carbon Dioxide in a Green Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Strong and Reversible Binding of Carbon Dioxide in a Green Metal-Organic Framework Previous Next List Jeremiah J. Gassensmith, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Ronald A. Smaldone, Ross S. ...