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Sample records for river basin permian

  1. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Oquirrh-Wood River basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geslin, J.K. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Strata of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Oquirrh-Wood River Basin (OWRB) lie unconformably above the Antler orogenic belt and flysch trough/starved basin in NW Utah, NE Nevada, and SC Idaho. Strata of the basin, now separated geographically by the Neogene Snake River Plain, show similar subsidence histories, identical mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary fill, and identical chert pebble conglomerate beds supplied by one or more DesMoinesian uplifts containing Lower Paleozoic strata. This conglomerate, of the lower Sun Valley Group, Snaky Canyon Formation, and parts of the Oquirrh Formation, was reworked progressively southward, to at least the Idaho-Utah border. It is present in strata as young as Virgilian. Virgilian to Leonardian rocks are ubiquitously fine-grained mixed carbonate-siliciclastic turbidites. These rocks contain cratonal, well-sorbed subarkosic and quartzose sand and silt in part derived from the Canadian Shield. This siliciclastic fraction is intimately mixed with arenaceous micritized skeletal material and peloids derived from an eastern carbonate platform represented by the Snaky Canyon Formation in east-central Idaho, an eastern facies of the Eagle Creek Member, Wood River Formation in the Boulder Mountains, and the Oquirrh Formation in the Deep Creek Mountains. Subsidence of the OWRB may have been caused by two phases (DesMoinesian and Wolfcampian to Leonardian) of crustal loading by continental margin tectonism to the west. An elevated rim separated the OWRB from coeval volcanogenic basins to the west. Earlier, Antler-age structures may have been reactivated. A new pulse of tectonism occurred in Leonardian to Guadalupian time as in most places carbonatic and phosphatic strata of the Leonardian to Guadalupian Park City and Phosphoria Formation overlie OWRB strata, with different geographic arrangement of basinal, slope, and shelf depocenters.

  2. Permian basin gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haeberle, F.R.

    1995-06-01

    Of the 242 major gas fields in the Permian basin, 67 are on the Central Basin Platform, 59 are in the Delaware basin, 44 are in the Midland basin, 28 are in the Val Verde basin, 24 are on the Eastern Shelf, 12 are in the Horshoe Atoll and eight are on the Northwest Shelf. Eleven fields have produced over one trillion cubic feet of gas, 61 have produced between 100 billion and one trillion cubic feet of gas and 170 have produced less than 100 billion cubic feet. Highlights of the study show 11% of the gas comes from reservoirs with temperatures over 300 degrees F. and 11% comes from depths between 19,000 and 20,000 feet. Twenty percent of the gas comes from reservoirs with pressures between 1000 and 2000 psi, 22% comes from reservoirs with 20-24% water saturation and 24% comes from reservoirs between 125 and 150 feet thick. Fifty-three reservoirs in the Ellenburger formation have produced 30% of the gas, 33% comes from 88 reservoirs in the Delaware basin and 33% comes from reservoirs with porosities of less than five percent. Forty percent is solution gas and 46% comes from combination traps. Over 50% of the production comes from reservoirs with five millidarcys or less permeability, and 60% of the gas comes from reservoirs in which dolomite is the dominant lithology. Over 50% of the gas production comes from fields discovered before 1957 although 50% of the producing fields were not discovered until 1958.

  3. Pennsylvanian and Permian paleogeography of south-central Idaho: The Wood River basin

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    Mahoney, J.B. ); Burton, B.R. ); O'Brien, J.P.; Link, P.K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Sun Valley Assemblage (Wood River, Dollarhide, and Grand Prize formations) was deposited in the Wood Rover basin in what is now south-central Idaho, north of the Snake River Plain, from the Atokan to Wolfcampian and Leonardian( ). Atokan and Des Moinesian deposition occurred in braided deltas and overlying clear water carbonate shoals. The rocks of this depositional system vary in thickness from tens to several hundreds of meters reflecting irregularities in the erosional surface on the underlying foundered Antler highland. This basal unconformity has been sheared during Mesozoic and Paleogene deformation. Significant regional subsidence of the Wood River basin began in the Des Moinesian, was most rapid in the Virgilian, and slowed in the Wolfcampian, resulting in total thickness of over 2,000 m for each of the three formations. In the central part of the basin (Wood River Formation) a sub-wave-base ramp system with southeastern paleoslope was fed by turbidite flows of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic fine-grained sediment that had been thoroughly mixed on a shelf area to the north and east. The carbonate fraction may have been derived from the Snaky Canyon Formation carbonate platform to the east. To the north, a siliciclastic fan or ramp system (Grand Prize Formation) was present. Virgilian and Wolfcampian strata represent highstand systems tracts and a lowstand tract is present in strata deposited near the Virgilian-Wolfcampian boundary.

  4. Late Paleozoic structural evolution of Permian basin

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    Ewing, T.E.

    1984-04-01

    The southern Permian basin is underlain by the NNW-trending Central Basin disturbed belt of Wolfcamp age (Lower Permian), the deep Delaware basin to its west, and the shallower Midland basin to its eat. The disturbed belt is highly segmented with zones of left-lateral offset. Major segments from south to north are: the Puckett-Grey Ranch zone; the Fort Stockton uplift; the Monahans transverse zone; the Andector ridges and the Eunice ridge; the Hobbs transverse zone; and the Tatum ridges, which abut the broad Roosevelt uplift to the north. The disturbed belt may have originated along rift zones of either Precambrian or Cambrian age. The extent of Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian deformation is unclear; much of the Val Verde basin-Ozona arch structure may have formed then. The main Wolfcamp deformation over thrust the West Texas crustal block against the Delaware block, with local denudation of the uplifted edge and eastward-directed backthrusting into the Midland basin. Latter in the Permian, the area was the center of a subcontinental bowl of subsidence - the Permian basin proper. The disturbed belt formed a pedestal for the carbonate accumulations which created the Central Basin platform. The major pre-Permian reservoirs of the Permian basin lie in large structural and unconformity-bounded traps on uplift ridges and domes. Further work on the regional structural style may help to predict fracture trends, to assess the timing of oil migration, and to evaluate intrareservoir variations in the overlying Permian giant oil fields.

  5. New tools attack Permian basin stimulation problems

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    Ely, J.W.; Schubarth, S.K.; Wolters, B.C.; Kromer, C. )

    1992-06-08

    This paper reports that profitable stimulation treatments in the Permian basin of the southwestern U.S. combine new tools with technology and fluids previously available. This paper reports that a wide selection of fracturing fluids and techniques needs to be considered to solve the varied problems associated with stimulating hydrocarbon reservoirs that are at diverse depths, temperatures, pressures, and lithologies. The Permian basin of West Texas and New Mexico is the most fertile ground in the U.S. for some of the newer stimulation technologies. In this basin, these new tools and techniques have been applied in many older producing areas that previously were treated with more conventional stimulation techniques, including acidizing and conventional fracturing procedures.

  6. Sedimentology of Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming, and a comparison to the subsurface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.

    1993-04-01

    Outcrops of the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation near Beulah, Wyoming consist of dolomite, gypsum, and sandstone units deposited in transgressive-regressive cycles. Three depositional cycles are partly exposed in the Simons Ranch anticline near Beulah, and provide an opportunity to view fades of the upper Minnelusa Formation in three dimensions. The cycles observed in outcrop were informally labelled cycle 1, cycle 2, and cycle 3 in ascending stratigraphic order. Cycle 2 contains a basal, laterally extensive sabkha sandstone and an overlying, laterally restricted sandstone that represents a preserved eolian-dune complex. The eolian-dune sandstone of cycle 2 was partially reworked during the marine transgression that initiated cycle 3. The eolian-dune deposit grades laterally into an apron of contorted and massive-bedded sandstones that formed as water-saturated sands liquified and slumped from the margins of the eolian dune. The partially reworked eolian-dune topography was covered by gypsum beds of cycle 3. The sandstone of cycle 3 is interpreted as a laterally continuous sabkha sandstone. West Mellott field (secs. 8, 9, T52N, R68W) represents a subsurface example of the facies and facies relationships observed in outcrop. The eolian-dune sandstone of the C cycle, which was partially reworked by the transgression of the B cycle, produces oil at West Mellott. The draping of dolomite and anhydrite of the B cycle on the eolian-dune sandstone of the C cycle is analogous to the draping of gypsum on dune sand in cycle 2 in outcrop.

  7. Stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian detrital reservoirs, Permian basin

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    Van Der Loop, M. )

    1992-04-01

    Significant oil reserves have been found to date in stratigraphic traps in Pennsylvanian detrital reservoirs on the Central Basin platform and Reagan uplift of the Permian basin. The 32 MMBOEG Arenoso field area, discovered in 1966, is the largest producing field. Along a 75 mi northwest-southeast trend, 23 other smaller fields will produce an average 850 MBOEG each, for a total estimated ultimate recovery to date in the trend of 52 MMBOEG. These stratigraphic traps are elusive and complex. However, reservoir quality is excellent, and because of the poorly understood trap types, significant reserves remain to be found in the trend. The Pennsylvanian detrital consists of chert cobble conglomerates, coarse sands, red shales, and gray limestones deposited in an environment that grades seaward from alluvial fan to braided stream to shallow marine. The chert cobble conglomerates of the alluvial fan facies and the coarse sands of the braided stream facies are the highest quality pay zones. Porosities range from 5 to 20%, with permeability ranging up to 26 d. The total unit is seldom more than 400 ft thick; reservoir rock thicknesses within the unit range up to 100 ft. Because of the complex nature of the alluvial fan and braided stream deposits, dry development wells can be expected within fields. These Strawn deposits are located adjacent to and overlying the eroded lower Paleozoic uplifts of the southern Central Basin platform. The major source of the chert cobbles is erosion of the Devonian tripolitic chert. Renewed structural uplift combined with sea level drop in the middle Wolfcampian locally truncated some Pennsylvanian detrital alluvial fan deposits, and complicated or destroyed a potential trap by depositing Wolfcamp chert conglomerates on top of the Pennsylvanian conglomerates.

  8. Pennsylvanian-Permian tectonism in the Great Basin: The Dry Mountain trough and related basins

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    Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.; Gallegos, D.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Pennsylvanian-Permian tectonism affected the continental margin of western North America from the Yukon to the Mojave Desert. Specific signatures of this tectonism include local angular unconformities, regional disconformities, renewed outpouring of clastic debris from a reactivated Antler and related highlands, and development of deeper water basins with anoxic sediments deposited below wave base. The basins formed include Ishbel trough (Canada), the Wood River basin (Idaho), Cassia basin, Ferguson trough, Dry Mountain trough (all Nevada), and unnamed basins in Death Valley-Mojave Desert region. The Dry Mountain trough (DMT) was initiated during early Wolfcampian and received up to 1,200 m of sediment by the late Leonardian. The lower contact is a regional unconformity with the Ely Limestone, or locally with the Diamond Peak or Vinini formations. Thus, following a period of localized regional uplift that destroyed the Ely basin, portions of the uplifted and exposed shelf subsided creating the Dry Mountain trough. Evidence suggesting a tectonic origin for the DMT includes (1) high subsidence rates (60-140 m/m.y.); (2) renewed influx of coarse clastic debris from the Antler highlands: (3) possible pre-Early Permian folding, thrusting, and tilting within the highlands; and (4) differential subsidence within the Dry Mountain trough, suggesting the existence of independent fault blocks.

  9. Oil and gas resources remaining in the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    In this book the authors present a reevaluation of the oil and gas resource base remaining in existing Permian Basin reservoirs. The Permian Basin is one of the nation's premier sources of oil production, accounting for almost one quarter of the total domestic oil resource. The distribution and magnitude of oil and gas resources discovered in the basin are documented at the play and reservoir levels. Data on reservoir geology and volumetric analysis come from the oil and gas atlases published by the Bureau of Economic Geology, the Bureau's oil-reservoir data base, and NRG Associates Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States.

  10. Basin development, petrology, and paleogeography - Early Permian carbonates, northwestern Bolivia

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    Canter, K.L.; Isaacson, P.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Early Permian carbonate rocks of the Yaurichambi Formation in northwestern Bolivia demonstrate in-situ, low-paleolatitude development within a complexly interbedded sequence punctuated by siliciclastics apparently derived from a western source. The Yaurichambi Formation (Copacabana Group) occurs above a regional caliche surface that caps Upper Carboniferous quartzarenites. Lower beds of the formation are characterized by interbedded carbonate and quartz-rich lithologies. This interval is gradationally overlain by a shallowing-upward, carbonate-dominated sequence. Mud-rich wackestones and packstones grade upward to bioclastic packstones and grainstones. Common allochems in bioclastic-rich lithologies include echinoderms, brachiopods, fenestrate bryozoans, intraclasts, and less common corals. Uppermost beds contain abundant siliciclastic interbeds. Where exposed, this carbonate sequence is terminated by the Tiquina Sandstone. Permian rocks were deposited in a northwest-southeast-oriented basin. Siliciclastic flooding from the western and southwestern margin of the basin dominated throughout the Carboniferous and occurred intermittently during the Permian, with apparent shallowing to the south. A low-latitude paleogeographic setting for these rocks is indicated by the carbonate lithologies dominating the Lower Permian sequence. Sedimentary and diagenetic features diagnostic of semi-arid warm-water deposition include penecontemporaneous dolomites, fenestral fabric, and calcretes. Furthermore, the faunas are similar to those found in equivalent strata of the Permian basin area of west Texas, indicating that deposition occurred at relatively low latitudes.

  11. What happened in the Permian basin in the 1980s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, C.J. )

    1992-04-01

    Using an established and well-recognized database of significant oil and gas fields, changes in exploration patterns are tracked on a play basis through the 1980s and compared to those of previous decades. The Permian basin is here considered to contain a total of 71 producing trends (plays) and approximately 1500 significant oil and gas fields (with reserves over 1 million bbl of oil equivalent). Changes in the field characteristics that are examined include discovery and growth rates, trap type, field size, dominant formations and lithologies, reservoir type, and depth to production. Significant conclusions may help direct future exploration strategy in the basin.

  12. Forward stratigraphic modeling of the Permian of the Delaware Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiucheng, Ye; Kerans, C.; Bowman, S. )

    1996-01-01

    Permian platform-to-basin strata of the Delaware Basin In west Texas and New Mexico represent one of the world's most complete, best studied, and most hydrocarbon productive records of this geologic period in the world. This superb marriage of a refined stratigraphic framework and active exploration provided impetus to develop a forward stratigraphic model of this section to better predict the distribution of reservoir and seal relationships. The approximately 30 m.y. interval modeled is composed of 2 km of platform strata and 3 km of basinal strata divided into 8 composite sequences (average 3 m.y. duration) and 45 high-frequency sequences (400 ky m.y. duration). A 130 km dip section through the basin margin Guadalupe/Deleware Mountain outcrop is inversely modeled to derive local tectonic subsidence and a sea level curve for the Permian. In this process, the highest and lowest shoreline positions of each sequence are interpreted based on facies description which are assumed to approximate the highest and lowest relative sea level. A eustatic sea level curve is calculated by restoring these shoreline positions and removing local tectonic subsidence using a polynomial fit to the derived relative sea level curve. The quantitatively constrained curve for the Permian contains 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order 180m. This quantitatively constrained accommodation history (calculated eustatic curve and subsidence history) are input into the PHIL forward modeling program. Model variables of sediment supply are depositional system are adjusted to match known outcrop relations. The resulting model is potentially capable of predicting stratigraphy elsewhere in the basin using only subsidence history data from the inverse model.

  13. Forward stratigraphic modeling of the Permian of the Delaware Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiucheng, Ye; Kerans, C.; Bowman, S.

    1996-12-31

    Permian platform-to-basin strata of the Delaware Basin In west Texas and New Mexico represent one of the world`s most complete, best studied, and most hydrocarbon productive records of this geologic period in the world. This superb marriage of a refined stratigraphic framework and active exploration provided impetus to develop a forward stratigraphic model of this section to better predict the distribution of reservoir and seal relationships. The approximately 30 m.y. interval modeled is composed of 2 km of platform strata and 3 km of basinal strata divided into 8 composite sequences (average 3 m.y. duration) and 45 high-frequency sequences (400 ky m.y. duration). A 130 km dip section through the basin margin Guadalupe/Deleware Mountain outcrop is inversely modeled to derive local tectonic subsidence and a sea level curve for the Permian. In this process, the highest and lowest shoreline positions of each sequence are interpreted based on facies description which are assumed to approximate the highest and lowest relative sea level. A eustatic sea level curve is calculated by restoring these shoreline positions and removing local tectonic subsidence using a polynomial fit to the derived relative sea level curve. The quantitatively constrained curve for the Permian contains 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order 180m. This quantitatively constrained accommodation history (calculated eustatic curve and subsidence history) are input into the PHIL forward modeling program. Model variables of sediment supply are depositional system are adjusted to match known outcrop relations. The resulting model is potentially capable of predicting stratigraphy elsewhere in the basin using only subsidence history data from the inverse model.

  14. Origin and diagenesis of clay minerals in relation to sandstone paragenesis: An example in eolian dune reservoirs and associated rocks, Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Eolian dune sandstones are the principal reservoir rocks in the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming. These sandstones formed as shorelines retreated and dunes migrated across siliciclastic sabkhas. Sandstones are mainly quartzarenites; on average, clay minerals constitute about 5 wt.% the whole rock. Although present in minor amounts, clay minerals play an important role in the diagenetic evolution of these sandstones. Allogenic clay minerals are present in shaly rock fragments and laminae. Early infiltration of clays into porous sabkha sands commonly form characteristic menisei or bridges between framework grains or, when more extensive, form coatings or rims on grain surfaces. Authigenic clays include nearly pure smectite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S), and late diagenetic illite and corrensite; these clay minerals are present as pore-lining cements. In addition to the deposition and neoformation of clay minerals throughout sandstone paragenesis, the conversion of smectite to illite occurred as temperatures increased with progressive burial. A temperature of 103C is calculated at a present depth of 3,200 m using a geothermal gradient of 30C/km and a mean annual surface temperature of 7C. After correction for uplift and erosion (250 m), the maximum calculated temperature for the conversion of all random I/S to ordered I/S is 100C. This calculated temperature is in excellent agreement with temperatures of 100-110C implied from I/S geothermometry.

  15. Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales, southern Junggar basin, northwest China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, A.R.; Brassell, S.C.; Graham, S.A. )

    1992-12-01

    Upper Permian organic-rich lacustrine mudstones (oil shales) that crop out in the southern Junggar basin rank among the richest and thickest petroleum source rock intervals in the world, with maximum TOC values reaching 34% and Rock-Eval pyrolytic yields (S[sub 2]) up to 200 kg HC/t rock. Lacustrine sedimentary facies define an overall transgressive-regressive cycle of approximately 2000 m gross thickness, which includes approximately 800 m of source rocks averaging 4.1% TOC and 26.2 kg HC/t rock. Basinal facies comprise silicic, organic-rich, laminated lacustrine mudstones and interbedded siltstones; organic matter contained in the mudstones ranges in composition from type I to type III. Basinal facies were deposited in a deep, oxygen-deficient, stratified lake. Lake-margin facies consist of nonlaminated siliciclastic mudstones, rippled dolomitic silstones and sandstones, and minor limestones. Maximum TOC values are approximately 6%. Desiccation cracks are common in the marginal facies, but evaporite minerals are rare or absent. Biomarker correlation parameters measured from rock extracts exhibit significant stratigraphic variability, but strongly support the hypothesis that Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales charge the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar basin. Karamay oils are characterized by high relative abundances of [beta]-carotane. This characteristic is restricted to desiccated facies in the outcrop sections, however. We therefore propose that an abundance of [beta]-carotane indicates elevated environmental salinities during deposition of the oil shales. 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Controls on reservoir development in Devonian Chert: Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruppel, S.C.; Hovorka, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    Chert reservoirs of the Lower Devonian Thirtyone Formation contain a significant portion of the hydrocarbon resource in the Permian basin. More than 700 million bbl of oil have been produced from these rocks, and an equivalent amount of mobile oil remains. Effective exploitation of this sizable remaining resource, however, demands a comprehensive appreciation of the complex factors that have contributed to reservoir development. Analysis of Thirtyone Formation chert deposits in Three Bar field and elsewhere in the Permian basin indicates that reservoirs display substantial heterogeneity resulting from depositional, diagenetic, and structural processes. Large-scale reservoir geometries and finer scale, intra-reservoir heterogeneity are primarily attributable to original depositional processes. Despite facies variations, porosity development in these cherts is principally a result of variations in rates and products of early silica diagenesis. Because this diagenesis was in part a function of depositional facies architecture, porosity development follows original depositional patterns. In reservoirs such as Three Bar field, where the Thirtyone Formation has been unroofed by Pennsylvanian deformation, meteoric diagenesis has created additional heterogeneity by causing dissolution of chert and carbonate, especially in areas of higher density fracturing and faulting and along truncated reservoir margins. Structural deformation also has exerted direct controls on heterogeneity that are particularly noteworthy in reservoirs under waterflood. High-density fracture zones create preferred flow paths that result in nonuniform sweep through the reservoir. Faulting locally creates compartments by offsetting reservoir flow units. As such, the processes and models defined here improve understanding of the causes of heterogeneity in all Thirtyone chert reservoirs in the Permian basin and aid recovery of the sizable hydrocarbon resource remaining in these rocks.

  17. Permian `Wolfcamp` limestone reservoirs: Powell ranch field, eastern Midland basin: Discussion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, S.J.

    1997-10-01

    The {open_quotes}E&P Notes{close_quotes} paper by S.L. Montgomery (1996) on Wolfcamp resedimented carbonates in the Permian basin concerns an exploration play with the potential for significant reserves; however, its economic importance and geological complexity, and the question of whether his model can be extended to other areas in the Permian basin warrant this discussion.

  18. Experience with pumpoff control in the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neely, A.B.; Tolbert, H.O.

    1988-05-01

    Shell Western EandP Inc. has installed pumpoff control on more than 2,500 sucker-rod pumping wells in the Permian Basin during the last 12 years. These systems fall into three basic categories: stand-alone analog devices, stand-alone microprocessor units with optional communication capabilities to a central computer, and a centralized system where well data are communicated to a central computer for pumpoff decisions. Evaluation has shown that production can be maintained or slightly increased while energy consumption and maintenance expense are substantially reduced. The pumpoff controllers also provide well data that are beneficial in maintaining good surveillance.

  19. Increased activity expected in Permian basin, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagar, R.

    1988-03-14

    Exploration and development activities in two of the most important petroleum provinces in the U.S. are mixed, but the outlook is bright. There has been a steady increase in drilling in oil plays of the deepwater Gulf of Mexico and in the Permian basin of West Texas and New Mexico. But natural gas drilling has not seen much of an increase, although activity involving Miocne sands in the shallow water portion of the gulf is starting to pick up. Deep gas drilling, stalled by the 1986 spot price collapse, has not yet shown signs of new life, even though production is scheduled to begin this year from the Jurassic Norphlet deep gas play off Alabama. There should be continued increases this year in deepwater and Permian basin drilling if oil prices remain in the $18-20/bbl range. And gas drilling is expected to pick up considerably if spot prices strengthen. An important factor in the drilling outlook is an expectation that major interstate transmission companies this year will resume buying long term gas supplies for resale. Long term contracts reduce producer uncertainty in project economics.

  20. Crosswell seismic imaging in the Permian Basin, West Texas, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langan, R.T.; Harris, J.M.; Jensen, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    Crosswell seismic imaging technology has advanced rapidly over the last three years as the processing methods have become more robust, the cost of data acquisition has fallen, and the interwell distances of operation have increased. The Permian Basin of west Texas, USA is proving to be an ideal environment in which to develop this technology because of the relatively low seismic attenuation of the carbonate-dominated lithology, the moderate well spacings in the large number of mature fields, and the unusually high number of reflecting horizons. Current technology permits us to operate in carbonates at well spacings on the order of 2000 ft (650 m) and to image P- and S-wave reflecting horizons on a scale of 8 to 25 ft (2.4 to 7.6 m). Crosswell technology is not limited to carbonates, although the majority of recent applications have been in this environment. We are involved in three separate crosswell experiments in the Permian Basin, each with unique objectives. The first experiment involves a CO{sub 2} pilot project in a Grayburg Formation reservoir on the eastern edge of the Central Basin Platform. Here we are attempting to characterize the reservoir at a scale unobtainable from 3-D surface seismic data and to image CO{sub 2} fronts directly. The second experiment deals with a waterflood in a Middle Clearfork Formation reservoir on the Eastern Shelf, where we are trying to explain the erratic response of adjacent wells to water injection. In the third project we are trying to image the structure and stratigraphy of subtle {open_quotes}anomalies{close_quotes} in 3-D surface seismic images of the Wolfcamp Formation.

  1. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10`` to 20`` API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  2. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  3. Cyclostratigraphy and duration of the Yates Formation (Permian, Late Guadalupian) of the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borer, J.M.; Harris, P.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Using log, core, and outcrop data, the authors have identified patterns in cyclic sequences of the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate Yates Formation of the Permian basin. A composite well log, representing the entire formation through a single sea level-sensitive facies tract, exhibits two orders of cyclicity with Milankovitch band periodicity. At the shelf margin, large-scale cycles consist of subequal dolomite- and siliciclastic-rich intervals. Small-scale cycles are carbonate and siliciclastic couplets that exhibit regular changes in lithology and thickness (bundling) that define the large-scale cycles. Cycle packaging changes across the shelf due to the updip (landward) pinch-out of high frequency carbonate intervals. Several lines of evidence suggest that the depositional cycles are the product of orbitally forced sea level fluctuations with 100- and 400-k.y. periods (Milankovitch eccentricity cycles). This implies that the five large-scale cycles present in the Yates represent about 2 m.y. of deposition. A lower frequency (third-order) sea level cycle was also active during Yates deposition. This 1.5- to 2-m.y. cycle is apparent from Fischer plots and a lithofacies cross section. The third-order cycle may be related to a low-frequency Milankovitch signal or tectonics. Fischer plots and stratigraphic analysis suggest that all the sea level fluctuations had relatively low magnitudes ranging from approximately 2 m for the 100-k.y. cycles, 8-12 m for the 400-k.y. cycles, and 5 m for the 1.5- to 2-m.y. cycle. The architecture of Yates Formation reservoirs is related to the stacking of depositional sequences during the three orders of sea-level fluctuations. In general, the low frequency (1.5-2 m.y.) cycle controlled the lateral position and reservoir quality of 400-k.y. depositional cycles (reservoir units); whereas, high-frequency (100 k.y.) sea level cycles controlled heterogeneity within reservoir units.

  4. Comparison of selected oil-field brines from fields in the Permian basin, West Texas-southeast New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    Stiff diagrams of oil-field brines from the west Texas Permian basin are identifiable within the geological framework. Plotted from a simple analysis of three cations and three anions, older Paleozoic waters can be categorized as either 'pristine' or modified, usually by a later influx of Permian or early Pennsylvanian water. These different plots can be segregated by geologic province. The Permian brines differ by age and also by environment (shelf, basin, etc.).

  5. Polish permian basin: Lithofacies traps for gas within the Rotliegende deposits as a new exploration potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnkowski, P.H. )

    1993-09-01

    Rotliegende deposits are the most prospective reservoir gas rocks in the Polish Permian basin. Thirty years of their exploration have led to location of numerous gas fields in the upper-most part of these series, particularly in the area of the Fore-Sudetic monocline. Up to this time, exploration studies concentrated mainly on structural objects, and most of the structures were positive gas traps. Well and seismic data also indicate an occurrence of lithofacies gas traps; they occur mainly in the sandstone zones within the fanglomerates surrounding the Wolsztyn Ridge. When comparing the facies regularities in the known gas fields in the German Permian basin (interfingering sandstones and claystones) to the facies patterns of the Polish Permian basin, one may suspect similar exploration possibilities. These are the first promising results. Advances in analysis of the Rotliegende depositional systems will enable us to create a new exploration potential.

  6. Geologic evolution of the Late Permian Capitan shelf margin, northern Delaware basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grover, G.A. )

    1991-03-01

    A two-phase model, based on outcrop and subsurface data rimming the northern half of the Delaware basin, characterizes the evolution of the late Guadalupian Capitan shelf margin, a margin that prograded up to 19 km basinward while an interval of over 700 m accumulated. Phase 1, during Seven Rivers shelf (early Capitan) deposition, accounts for 70-80% of the total progradation, over 50% of the total aggradation, and corresponds with shelf facies devoid of siliciclastics, emplacement of abundant carbonate debris on the slope and basin margin, and deposition of 50-70% of the Bell Canyon siliciclastic interval in the basin. The clastics bypassed the growing Capitan margin and were equally important to that of the allochthonous carbonate debris in filling accommodation space to facilitate progradation of the margin. The second phase, during Yates-Tansill (middle-upper Capitan) time, was dominated by aggradation, steepening of the shelf margin, deepening of the basin, and deposition of abundant siliciclastics on the shelf. This model differs from previous reconstructions that show uniform growth of the Capitan reef, and it contradicts the long-standing dogma of reciprocal sedimentation. This two-phase growth model adds insight into deposition of the two principle Guadalupian reservoir facies that account for nearly 50% of the Permian basin in-place oil reserves. Offlapping sheets of inner shelf carbonates (e.g., San Andres Formation, McElroy field) relate to periods of shelf progradation whereas widespread sheets of shelf clastics (e.g., Yates Formation, N. Ward Estes field) reflect periods of shelf aggradation. The model should be useful in evaluating the evolution of other shelves, particularly mixed shelves.

  7. Tectonic controls on Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales in the Junggar basin, NW China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, A.R.; Brassell, S.C.; Graham, S.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Collision of the Tarim craton with the southern margin of Asia during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian resulted in uplift of an ancestral Tian Shan range and geographic isolation of the previously marine Junggar basin. Dramatic shifts from marine to nonmarine sedimentation took place in both the southern Junggar and northern Tarim basins during the Permina. Paleocurrent analysis indicate that by the Late Permian, coarse-grained sediments in both basins were being supplied predominantly from the area of the Tian Shan. During the Late Permian, the southern Junggar received in excess of 5,000 m of nonmarine sediments, including approximately 1,000 m of laminated, highly organic-rich lacustrine mudstones (oil shales). These deposits commonly have TOCs of 20-30%, and Rock-Eval pyrolitic yields reaching 2,000 mg/g, ranking them among the most prolific petroleum source rocks in the world. Based on a comparison of the distribution of steranes and extended tricyclic terpanes, these Upper Permian oil shales appear to be the primary source of oils in the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar basin. Ancestral uplift of the Tian Shan thus produced a complex tectono-hydrologic partitioning of the Late Permina Junggar basin, which exerted a strong influence on the character of petroleum source rocks deposited within the basin.

  8. Proceedings of the 1992 SPE Permian Basin oil and gas recovery conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of the 1992 Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference. Topics covered include: fluid-loss measurements from drilling fluid, CO{sub 2} injection, coalbed methane production, drilling equipment, hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells, reservoir characterization, cementing and well completions, and well testing.

  9. Permian evolution of sandstone composition in a complex back-arc extensional to foreland basin: The Bowen Basin, eastern Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, J.C. . Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis); Fielding, C.R. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Caritat, P de . Dept. of Geology); Wilkinson, M.M. )

    1993-09-01

    The Bowen Basin is a Permo-Triassic, back-arc extensional to foreland basin that developed landward of an intermittently active continental volcanic arc associated with the eastern Australian convergent plate margin. The basin has a complex, polyphase tectonic history that began with limited back-arc crustal extension during the Early Permian. This created a series of north-trending grabens and half grabens which, in the west, accommodated quartz-rich sediment derived locally from surrounding, uplifted continental basement. In the east, coeval calc-alkaline, volcanolithic-rich, and volcaniclastic sediment was derived from the active volcanic arc. This early extensional episode was followed by a phase of passive thermal subsidence accompanied by episodic compression during the late Early Permian to early Late Permian, with little contemporaneous volcanism. In the west, quartzose sediment was shed from stable, polymictic, continental basement immediately to the west and south of the basin, whereas volcanolithic-rich sediment that entered the eastern side of the basin during this time was presumably derived from the inactive, and possibly partly submerged volcanic arc. During the late Late Permian, flexural loading and increased compression occurred along the eastern margin of the Bowen Basin, and renewed volcanism took place in the arc system to the east. Reactivation of this arc led to westward and southward spread of volcanolithic-rich sediment over the entire basin. Accordingly, areas in the west that were earlier receiving quartzose, craton-derived sediment from the west and south were overwhelmed by volcanolithic-rich, arc-derived sediment from the east and north. This transition from quartz-rich, craton-derived sediments to volcanolithic-rich, arc-derived sediments is consistent with the interpreted back-arc extensional to foreland basin origin for the Bowen Basin.

  10. Development of the Permian-Triassic sequence in the basin Fringe area, southern Netherlands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geluk, M.; Van Doorn, D.; Plomp, A.; Duin, E. )

    1993-09-01

    Geological studies in the fringe area of the southern Permian basin led to new insights in the distribution and development of the Permian-Triassic sequence. During the Permian, the fringe area formed a platform, attached to the London-Brabant Massif, while during the Triassic it is characterized by strongly subsiding half grabens. In the southern Netherlands, Rotliegende sandstones and conglomerates have a much wider distribution than previously recognized. The Rotliegende deposits are capped by claystones and carbonates of the Upper Permian Zechstein. In the offshore, an important feeder system of clastics from the London-Brabant Massif was active during deposition of the Rotliegende and the Zechstein. In course of time, the location of major sandstone deposition shifted westward. Deposition of the Triassic Buntsandstein was controlled by the development of a large feeder system, which transported clastics from the Vosges northward, through the Roer Valley Graben and West netherlands Basin into the Off Holland Low. This system was responsible for the deposition of the economically important sheet sandstones of the Volpriehausen, Detfurth, Hardegsen, and Solling formations. A regional unconformity occurs below the Solling Formation. The sandstones are capped by claystones, evaporites, and sandstones of the Rot Formation. During deposition of the Muschelkalk, the differences in subsidence decreased and shallow marine sediments are interbedded with evaporites. Several unconformities occur within the Keuper. In the previous half grabens in the southern Netherlands, the Keuper is incomplete, which may be indicative for a possible reversal of the tectonic movements during this period.

  11. Structural evolution of the Permian-Triassic Cooper basin, Australia: Relation to hydrocarbon trap styles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apak, S.N.; Stuart, W.J.; Lemon, N.M.; Wood, G.

    1997-04-01

    The structural and depositional history of the Cooper basin in eastern central Australia has revealed that the basin is a mildly compressional structural depression controlled by northwestrending and northeast-trending pre-Permian basement features. Pronounced pre-Permian compressions are indicated by northeast-trending major structures, the Gidgealpa-Merrimelia-Innamincka and Murteree-Nappacoongee trends. Detailed chronostratigraphic facies analysis, with closely spaced palynological control, of the Patchawarra Formation revealed that two pronounced phases of uplift occurred during the Sakmarian. The major intrabasin highs were rejuvenated during these tectonic events, as documented by crestal unconformities (middle and upper Patchawarra unconformities). Evidence of each event is dominantly tectonic in character, with similar depositional patterns over these highs related to each event. These events are also recognizable in midflank areas and basin margins with contemporaneous deposition in deeper parts of the basin. Results from this research show potential for future hydrocarbon discoveries within structural, stratigraphic, and structural/stratigraphic traps in the Cooper basin. Various trap styles are closely associated with faults, unconformities, and lateral facies changes. Lowside fault closures, onlap plays, and unconformity traps are expected to be well developed along intrabasinal highs, basin margins, and preexisting structures. The primary reservoir targets would be deltaic sequences comprising shoreline sandstones, distributary and delta-mouth bar deposits that may be well developed in synclinal areas, and flanks of intrabasin highs in the Copper basin.

  12. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rychel, Dwight

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  13. Comparison of Permian basin giant oil fields with giant oil fields of other U. S. productive areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haeberle, F.R. )

    1992-04-01

    Covering over 40 million ac, the Permian basin is the fourth largest of the 28 productive areas containing giant fields. The 56 giant fields in the basin compare with the total of 264 giant oil fields in 27 other productive areas. Cumulative production figures of 18 billion bbl from the giant fields in the Permian basin are the largest cumulative production figures from giant fields in any of the productive areas. An estimated 1.9 billion bbl of remaining reserves in giant fields rank the basin third among these areas and the 19.9 billion bbl total reserves in giant fields in the basin are the largest total reserves in giant fields in any of the productive areas. The 1990 production figures from giant fields place the basin second in production among areas with giant fields. However, converting these figures to by-basin averages for the giant fields places the Permian basin 12th in field size among the areas with giant fields. Based on average reserves per well, the basin ranks 18th. Average 1990 production per giant field place the basin seventh and the average 1990 production per well in giant fields place the Permian basin 14th among the areas with giant fields.

  14. Permian {open_quotes}Wolfcamp{close_quotes} limestone reservoirs: Powell Ranch field, Eastern Midland Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    Deep-water carbonate channel reservoirs form important oil reservoirs along the toe of the Eastern Shelf of the Permian basin in west Texas. In northwestern Glasscock County, these `Wolfcamp` reservoirs are Leonardian (Early Permian) in age and define high-energy channels incised into surrounding carbonate detritus and basinal shale. Porous grain-flow material filling these channels, along with encasing detritus, was derived from the shallow shelf located six miles to the east. Reservoirs are in packstone and grainstone facies and have significant interparticle and moldic porosity. Relevant exploration began in the 1960s, but expanded slowly thereafter due to lack of success caused by complex patterns of channel occurrence. Results of a three-dimensional (3-D) seismic survey conducted in 1990 have greatly enhanced the identification and mapping of productive channels in the Powell Ranch field complex. Wells in this complex are capable of flowing 400-1200 bbl of oil per day, and have reserves ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MBO. The new 3-D data have improved the relevant geologic model and dramatically increased rates of drilling success. Application of such data to this setting offers a potential model for other parts of the Permian basin.

  15. Carboniferous-Lower Permian carbonate reservoirs of the Timan-Pechora Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhemchugova, V.A.; Schamel, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Carboniferous-Lower Permian carbonate succession of the Timan-Pechora basin is a major hydrocarbon-bearing complex, hosting about half of the oil and nearly a third of the gas reserves of the basin. The succession represents the last episode of carbonate deposition on the northeastern margin of the Russian platform before the closure of the Ural seaway in the mid-Permian. The lower part of the succession (upper Visean-Moscovian) contains three major transgressive-regressive sequences. Depositional facies ranged from nearshore carbonate-shale-evaporite through shallow shelf detrital carbonates to outer-shelf carbonate-siliceous shale. The most pronounced regression during this interval occurred during the Serpukhovian, when marine sabkhas covered vast portions of the carbonate platform. Late Carboniferous-Early Permian sedimentation was complicated by the onset of Uralian tectonism. Flysch from the encroaching orogen accumulated initially in the east, advanced westward across the passive margin, and finally covered the carbonate platform in Artinskian-Kungurian time. Simultaneously, structural inversion along the Pechora-Kolva aulacogen and elsewhere provided sites for bioherm growth, in addition to exposing parts of the lower succession to erosion and karstification. Overall polarity of the basin switched as the eastern margin was elevated in the frontal thrusts of the Urals. The carbonate succession was terminated by increased clastic input from the advancing Ural orogen. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Wolfcampian and early Leonardian fore-shelf carbonate debris production, Permian basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becher, J.W.; Von Der Hoya, H.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Since 1980, a number of Wolfcampian and early Leonardian oil fields have been discovered in a previously unexplored carbonate environment of the Permian basin i.e. basinal fore-shelf debris. These fields range up to 25 MMBOE in size. The Permian basin formed during the Early Pennsylvanian through the earliest Leonardian. Carbonate buildups dominated shelf-edge deposition and a syntectonic wedge of shelf debris was shed into the basins during both high and low sea level stands. Combined eustatic and tectonic sea level fluctuations of over 300 ft have been documented. The geometry, texture, and seismic expression of the debris changes with depositional slope, which ranges from very steep fault-block edges on the Central Basin platform to gentle ramps on the eastern shelf. Productive, low-stand deposits derived from steep shelf edges, consist of turbidite grainstones; clean, very coarse, lithoclastic, debris flaws; and allochthonous slide blocks. These deposits were derived from point sources on the eroded shelf and have a single-lobe or multi-lobe fan geometry. Debris clasts commonly display subaerial lithification and leaching. Lowstand fans extend 4-8 mi into the basin. Productive, lowstand deposits derived from ramp settings have a submarine channel geometry and consist dominantly of grainstone and packstone. Porosity has been enhanced by late subsurface solution. Nonproductive, highstand deposits were derived from a line source and have an apron geometry. These deposits consist of thinly bedded shaly, bioclastic turbidites with no evidence of lithification before final transport.

  17. Yates field, west Texas: Geology of a Permian basin giant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heymans, M.J. ); Craig, D.H.

    1991-03-01

    Yates field, which produces oil largely from Late Permian San Andres dolomites, was discovered in 1926 and logged its billionth barrel in 1985. It is remarkable for the size of its original oil in place (four billion barrels estimated) and for its early ability to produce hundreds to thousands of barrels per hour from individual wells at depths of less than 2,000 ft. The high quality of the reservoir has been related to the following geologic characteristics: (1) a broad anticline with significant closure located at the apex of regional structure which formed a trap for large volumes of primary and secondary oil; (2) a vast integrated system of porosity (ranging from intergrain/intercrystal pores to joints, fractures, and small caves) that imparts high storage capacity and transmissivity to the reservoir dolomites; (3) a thick, efficient seal of anhydrite capping the reservoir sequence; and (4) high flowing pressures during much of the history of the field. The western area of the Yates field reservoir is dominated by peritidal to lagoonal mudstones and wackestones; the eastern area, by shallow subtidal packstones and grainstones. These depositional facies reflect both aggradation and eastward progradation of upper San Andres carbonates. Effective engineering management of the field has followed from a recognition of the quite different reservoir qualities in the two areas of the field and from adapting secondary and tertiary recovery techniques to constraints imposed by the geologic factors listed above.

  18. Eustatic and tectonic control on localization of porosity and permeability, Mid-Permian, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, S.P.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The Goose Egg Formation of the northeastern Bighorn basin was deposited in an arid shoreline (sabkha) environment during a time of global cyclic sea level variations and local tectonic uplift Eustatic sea level lows are represented by terrestrial red beds (seals), whereas highs resulted in the deposition of supratidal to shallow subtidal carbonates (reservoirs). Pennsylvanian and Permian differential uplift along the present basin margin localized a broken chain of barrier islands and shoals during deposition of the Ervay and earlier carbonate members, as recognized in outcrop at Sheep and Little Sheep Mountain anticlines. The Ervay Member on these paleohighs is typified by fenestral dolomite, containing abundant tepees and pisoids. This fabric is interpreted to have folded in the highest intertidal to supratidal sabkha environment which developed on the leeward shores of these islands. The fenestral carbonates grade basinward (westward) into narrow bioclastic grainstone beach deposits and then to open-shelf fossiliferous packstones and wackestone. To the east lie laminated lagoonal micritic limestones and dolomites. Outcrop and core study has shown the fenestral facies to be limited to areas coincident with present-day basin margin anticlines. Not only are these the locations of the most porous facies, but tight Laramide folding of the Goose Egg carbonates resulted in pervasive fracturing and thus very high permeabilities in the same structures. The close association of Laramide folds and productive Permian carbonate horizons in the northeast Bighorn basin could well be characteristic for other yet to be explored structures along the basin-margin trend.

  19. Strontium and sulfur isotope study of well-preserved Permian anhydrite, Palo Duro basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leary, D.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The {delta}{sup 34}S, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio, and strontium concentrations for 50 well-preserved samples of Permian marine anhydrite have been determined. The samples were collected from two continuous cores drilled through cyclic Permian evaporites, The Department of Energy drilled the samples in its search for a permanent storage facility for high-level nuclear waste. Primary depositional fabrics (selenite pseudomorphs) and high strontium concentrations (average 1,850 ppm), in association with published bromide and fluid inclusion data from associated halite, suggest primary seawater {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios may be recorded in many of the samples. The general shape of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio curve through the Permian is in accord with previously published observations. However, the increased stratigraphic detail from this unique set of cores constrains the abrupt charge in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr during the Permian at a precision previously available only in Deep Sea Drilling Project material. Interpretation of the more complex portions of the curve is limited by poor biostratigraphic control, the specter of provincial early diagenetic effects, and interpretation of the time significance of hiatal surfaces in cyclic strata. Age relationships are constrained by a K-Ar date on an interbedded volcanic ash in the Ochoan strata, and fusulinid age determinations of a well-documented regional transgression during the earliest Guadalupe. Sulfur isotopes yield typical Permian values of 12{per thousand} during the marine portion of the basin fill phase, and abruptly shift to 10{per thousand} in those cycles with a significant component of siliciclastic sediment.

  20. Texas-Louisiana- Mississippi Salt Basin Greater Green River Basin

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Texas-Louisiana- Mississippi Salt Basin Greater Green River Basin W. Gulf Coast Basin ... Major Tight Gas Plays, Lower 48 States 0 200 400 100 300 Miles Source: Energy ...

  1. Carbonate sequence stratigraphy on the development geology scale: Outcrop and subsurface examples from the Permian Grayburg Formation, Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, R.F. )

    1993-11-01

    Grayburg outcrop studies in the Guadalupe Mountains, combined with subsurface reservoir studies in the Permian basin, have helped define updip, downdip, and strike-view variations in reservoir architecture in a carbonate ramp setting. The hierarchy of sequence stratigraphy was identified within the Grayburg sequence, identifying simple sequences, parasequence sets, parasequences, beds, and laminae. Sequence stratigraphy slices the reservoir horizontally, becoming more complex updip, whereas depositional facies slice the reservoir vertically into dip-view compartments and strike-view strips. The resulting thin compartments and strips are nature's version of grid cell blocks, which the petroleum industry uses in reservoir stimulation. Once the Grayburg sequence stratigraphic model was defined, additional geologic and engineering data were superimposed upon it: carbonate facies and rock types; siliciclastic beds; log-derived grain-rich vs. mud-rich intervals; the transition from reservoir quality to nonreservoir rock; pressure distribution; edge water, bottom water, and connate water distribution; and the structural position within the reservoir. These various reservoir data were combined to outline the overall geometry of remaining floodable portions of reservoirs. Ultimately, high-porosity high-permeability flow units were identified as being responsible for cycling water between injection and production wells during primary recovery. Profile modification was used to eliminate or reduce the influence of these flow units. This procedure redirected injection water to recover bypassed and unswept mobile oil. The use of sequence stratigraphy in managing carbonate reservoirs is a powerful tool if properly applied. A better understanding of these relationships can help improve ultimate recovery from carbonate reservoirs and explain why and how reservoirs perform under primary, secondary, and tertiary operations.

  2. Evolution of Permian carbonate shelf and foreshelf detrital systems, Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Reid, A.M. II; Reid, S.T.

    1986-03-01

    A major phase of shelf progradation and consequent filling of the Midland basin began in the Early Permian. Prior to this time, shelf carbonate systems were mostly ineffective in generating coarse detritus in quantities sufficient to infill adjoining basins. Beginning in the Early Permian (Wolfcampian), however, the character of shelf and basin deposition was abruptly modified, in part because of faunal changes - proliferation of rock-forming biotic communities and the consequent potential for rapid shelf-marginal oversteepening - and the effects of sea level fluctuations and periods of shale influx. Shelf systems in the northern Midland basin and Eastern shelf evolved from ramps in the lowermost Wolfcamp to steep rimmed platforms by the lower Leonard. Shelf progradation into the Midland basin was cyclic, with extensive carbonate shelves having developed during sea level highstands and massive shale wedges deposited during alternate lowstands. Coarse megabreccia with markedly little sand dominates in the lower to middle Wolfcamp systems, despite the occurrence of ramps in this section. Such an anomaly can be explained by invoking widespread shelf wastage caused by the inherent instability and failure of the shale slopes on which these ramps were deposited. In certain middle Wolfcamp zones, thin shelf-ramp sections may be recognized only because any thick shelf-marginal buildups that may have been present have been displaced into adjoining basinal tracts. The evolution to rimmed-platform shelves by the lower Leonard strata, foreshelf debris occurs mostly as complexes of megabreccia wedges and aprons, anastomosing megabreccia, and sand-channel and lobe deposits derived from adjoining rimmed-platforms. Major variations exist in the gross geometries of foreshelf units and component reservoirs even laterally within rocks of the same age.

  3. Porosity formation in deep-burial environment: overview, with examples, from Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Harris, P.M.

    1989-03-01

    Porosity formation accompanying deep burial is ubiquitous and widespread in the Permian basin, particularly but not exclusively in offshore platform and resedimented basinal carbonates of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Hydrocarbon reservoirs in such platform carbonate examples locally contain evidence of subaerial exposure and meteoric diagenesis. Commonly, much of the porosity formed during exposure is ultimately reduced by compaction and cementation during early burial. By contrast, no evidence of meteoric diagenesis is observed in associated basinal carbonates, although compaction and cementation accompanying progressive burial are readily evident. In both cases, however, such early diagenesis is overprinted by late burial dissolution, sometimes coincident with hydrocarbon emplacement, creating rocks of high porosity. The formation of porosity by cement dissolution may exhume occluded pores or enhance relict pores that formed in the eogenetic zone, the result being a preponderance of interparticle and moldic pores and residual cements that mimic vadose and phreatic products. In other cases, nonfabric selective dissolution, locally associated with fractures or stylolites, creates vuggy porosity which may resemble that formed during eodiagenesis. Multiple phases of deep-burial dissolution and partial cementation or replacement (by calcite or dolomite) are indicated for many of these diagenetic systems and result in a complex suite of different pore types.

  4. Lithofacies and cyclicity of the Yates Formation, Permian basin: Implications for reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borer, J.M.; Harris, P.M. )

    1991-04-01

    Siliciclastics of the Yates Formation (Permian, upper Guadalupian) are significant hydrocarbon reservoirs in the US Permian basin. Subsurface and outcrop data show that the most porous lithofacies occur in a clastic-dominated middle shelf and that evaporitic inner shelf and carbonate outer shelf equivalents are mostly nonporous. Lithofacies relations and much of the heterogeneity in Yates reservoirs are related to the stacking of depositional sequences (i.e., siliciclastic-carbonate alternations and sandstone-argillaceous siltstone alternations) in response to three orders of orbitally forced, low-amplitude, eustatic variation. In general, siliciclastics dominated the Yates shelf during lowstand parts of asymmetric, 400-k.y. sea level fluctuations, whereas carbonates were deposited during sea level highstands. The character and position of sand depocenters on the Yates shelf during these lowstands were controlled by a longer duration third-order sea level variation. Shorter duration cycles controlled the heterogeneity within the 400-k.y. depositional sequences. The variation in cycle packaging, lithology, and reservoir quality between the Central Basin platform and Northwest shelf may be a response of eustatic variation on parts of the shelf with different slopes or subsidence profiles. The lithofacies described from the Yates Formation and the deposition model proposed to explain the stratigraphy may be valuable as analogs in other basins containing mixed siliciclastic-carbonate settings.

  5. Biomarker analysis of Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales, Junggar basin, NW China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales containing up to 34% TOC (total organic carbon) underlie approximately 50,000 km{sup 2} of the Junggar basin in western China, and appear to be the principal source of oils in the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar and in several recent discoveries in other areas of the basin. The siliceous oil shales were deposited in a sediment-starved foreland basin during a period of predominantly humid climate. Previous biomarker studies of crude oils from Karamay field have documented an abundance of {beta}-carotane (which in some cases dominates the aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution) and gammacerane, suggesting a source bed deposited under hypersaline conditions. However, relatively complete outcrop exposures of finely laminated oil shales in the southern Junggar conspicuously lack evaporites, extensive dessication horizons, or other sedimentological evidence of playa lake environments. Indeed, the aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution in bitumen extracts from southern Junggar oil shales appear characteristic of freshwater to brakish water deposition of organic matter in an anoxic lake. Normal alkanes show a slight odd-over-even preference with relatively low levels of the C{sub 22}, n-alkane, pristane/phytane ratios close to unity, low {beta}-carotane and gammacerane levels, and the absence of C{sub 34}-C{sub 35} hopanes. This apparent difference in source bed depositional environments may be due to tectonic partitioning between separate depocenters of the Late Permian Junggar basin. Alternatively, hypersaline oil shale facies may be limited to deeper basinal areas, whereas upslope southern Junggar sediments record highstands in lake level or influx of fresh water from the adjacent drainage areas.

  6. Fluvial sedimentology and basin analyses of the Permian Fairchild and Buckley formations, Beardmore Glacier region, and the Weller Coal Measures, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isbell, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Beardmore Glacier region contains a 1-km-thick Permian fluvial sequence that was deposited in an elongate basin along the margin of the East Antarctica craton. Fluvial architecture, sandstone composition and paleocurrents within the basin record a change from an early Permian cratonic to a late Permian foreland basin. The Lower Permian Fairchild Formation consists entirely of overlapping channel-form sandstone bodies deposited by braided streams. Arkosic sandstone was deposited by SE flowing streams. Fairchild strata record slow subsidence within a broad cratonic basin. The Lower to Upper Permian Buckley Formation consists of an arkosic lower member and a volcaniclastic upper member. Paleocurrents which consist of transverse and longitudinal paleocurrents, suggest a cratonward migration of the basin axis through time. The Buckley Formation was deposited within a braided stream setting and is an important unit because it contains interstratified channel-sandstone sheets, shale and coal, along with evidence of channel-belt avulsions. Sandstone sheets predominate at the base of the formation, while flood-plain deposits thicken and increase in abundance upward. The interaction between fluvial processes and subsidence rates produced this alluvial stratigraphy. The Lower Permian Weller Coal Measures in southern Victoria Land were deposited within a narrow basin located cratonward of the foreland basin. Basin geometry and depositional patterns are similar to those of fault-bounded basins. Although basin formation is not constrained, deposition of the Weller was contemporaneous with the development of the foreland basin. This suggests a relationship between subsidence within the two basins.

  7. Acid-sludge characterization and remediation improve well productivity and save costs in the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, T.C.; Hwang, R.J.; Beaty, D.W.; Dolan, J.D.; McCarty, R.A.; Franzen, A.L.

    1997-02-01

    Many oil wells in the Permian Basin have reported sludging problems associated with acid stimulations. The acid sludge is similar among wells and was identified as a viscous emulsion stabilized by asphaltene-rich organic solids. The sludging tendency of the oil increased with the concentrations of asphaltenes and resins, base number of the oil, and ferric ion content in the acid. Only three out of nine commercial acid systems tested were effective in preventing acid-sludge formation; they all use the same novel iron control technology, i.e., catalytic reduction of ferric ions. Several commercial and generic solvent systems were effective in dissolving acid sludge, including mixtures of an aromatic solvent (e.g., xylene) with either isopropyl alcohol (2:1 volume ratio), or ethylene glycol-monobutylether (EGMBE) (2:1 to 3:1 volume ratios). Selection of acid formulations and solvent systems was based on cost effectiveness and operation safety. Field implementation proved successful. If the results of this study had been implemented earlier in the lives of some of the Permian Basin properties, the recovery of 574 BOPD of lost or deferred production from 99 wells could have been realized. This would have resulted in an estimated increased revenue of over US $3 million in 1 year.

  8. Permian Bone Spring formation: Sandstone play in the Delaware basin. Part I - slope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1997-08-01

    New exploration in the Permian (Leonardian) Bone Spring formation has indicated regional potential in several sandstone sections across portions of the northern Delaware basin. Significant production has been established in the first, second, and third Bone Spring sandstones, as well as in a new reservoir interval, the Avalon sandstone, above the first Bone Spring sandstone. These sandstones were deposited as submarine-fan systems within the northern Delaware basin during periods of lowered sea level. The Bone Spring as a whole consists of alternating carbonate and siliciclastic intervals representing the downdip equivalents to thick Abo-Yeso/Wichita-Clear Fork carbonate buildups along the Leonardian shelf margin. Hydrocarbon exploration in the Bone Spring has traditionally focused on debris-flow carbonate deposits restricted to the paleoslope. Submarine-fan systems, in contrast, extend a considerable distance basinward of these deposits and have been recently proven productive as much as 40-48 km south of the carbonate trend.

  9. Permian-triassic paleogeography and stratigraphy of the west Netherlands basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speksnijder, A. )

    1993-09-01

    During the Permian, the present West Netherlands basin (WNB) was situated at the southernmost margin of the southern Permian basin (SPB). The thickness of Rotilegende sandstones therefore is very much reduced in the WNB. The relatively thin deposits of the Fringe Zechstein in the WNB, however, also contrast strongly in sedimentary facies with thick evaporite/carbonate alternations in the main SPB to the north, although the classic cyclicity of Zechstein deposition still can be recognized. The Fringe Zechstein sediments are mainly siliciclastic and interfinger with both carbonates and anhydrites toward the evaporite basin. End members are thin clay layers that constitute potential seals to underlying Rotliegende reservoirs and relatively thick sandstones (over 100 m net sand) in the western part of the WNB. Nevertheless, favorable reservoir/seal configurations in the Fringe Zechstein seem to be sparse because only minor hydrocarbon occurrences have been proven in the area to date. The situation is dramatically different for the Triassic in the WNB. The [open quotes]Bunter[close quotes] gas play comprises thick Fringe Buntsandstein sandstones (up to 250 m), vertically sealed by carbonates and anhydritic clays of the Muschelkalk and Keuper formations. The Bunter sandstones are largely of the same age as the classic Volpriehausen, Detfurth, and Hardegsen alluvial sand/shale alternations recognized elsewhere, but the upper onlapping transgressive sands and silts correlate with evaporitic clays of the Roet basin to the north. A total volume of 65 x 10[sup 9]m[sup 3] of gas has so far been found in the Triassic Bunter sandstones of the WNB.

  10. Tectonics, eustasy, and sequence stratigraphy - The Middle Pennsylvanian-Wolfcampian of the Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarg, J.F. )

    1992-04-01

    The depositional patterns of sedimentary rocks are controlled by the interaction of tectonics, eustasy, and sediment supply. Tectonics and eustasy combine to cause relative changes of sea level that control the accommodation space for sediments. Sediment supply controls how much of the accommodation space is filled. Tectonics has the greatest effect on accommodation. Long-term basin fill histories are interpreted as first-order tectonic events. Second-order tectonic events are initiated by increase in the rate of subsidence that progressively decay and may culminate in a period of uplift or structural growth. Three second-order tectonic events characterize the middle-late Paleozoic history of the Permian basin. These events occur over tens of millions of years and are (1) Givetian-Meramecian, (2) Chesterian-Desmoinesian, and (3) Missourian-Guadalupian. Sediment response to these tectonic events include initial backstepping carbonate platform deposition, followed by deepening and starvation of the basin areas resulting in black shale deposition. Eustasy controls the rate of relative sea level change and is the major controlling factor on the timing of stratigraphic discontinuities. The discontinuities bound sequences and subdivide them into systems tracts. The Middle Pennsylvanian-Wolfcampian of the Permian basin can be subdivided into 19-21 third-order sequences (1-5-m.y. duration) and include six Desmoinesian, four Missourian, five to six Virgilian, and four to five Wolfcampian cycles. The cyclothems of the mid-continent represent higher order depositional sequences that stack in an orderly fashion to comprise the systems tracts of the third-order sequences.

  11. Regional basinal sandstone depositional patterns during the Guadalupian (Late Permian), Delaware basin, west Texas-New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisen, J.H.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Examination of well logs from more than 300 Delaware basin wells penetrating the Bell Canyon and Brushy Canyon formations has allowed definition of regional depositional patterns during the Late Permian (Guadalupian). Characteristic gamma-ray hot-kicks mark thin but widespread calcareous shales or limestones representing starved basin sedimentation during sea level highstands. Correlation of such markers along three strike and ten dip lines permitted isopaching of intervening lowstand clastic wedges. The low-stand wedges typically thin significantly from basin margin to basin center and are marked by a prominent linearity oriented perpendicular to the margin. These lineations probably represent channelized turbidite and grain-flow deposits. Most intervals show dozens of such lineations indicating multiple input points for terrigenous detritus rather than just a few major point sources of debris. The resulting deposits appear to be more apron-like than fan-like and coalesce into broad, sheetlike deposits toward the basin center. Isopach thicks vary in position through time, but terrigenous sediment transport is predominantly from northerly directions throughout the analyzed interval. Thus, the filling of the Midland basin at the close of Cherry Canyon deposition did not result in a major new source of terrigenous debris from the east (Central Basin platform). The well-sorted nature of the basinal sands, their widely distributed input points, apron-like geometry, and other factors argue for migration of eolian dunes to the shelf margin during sea level lowstands. Transport of these well-sorted, unconsolidated sands into the basin was not however, mainly by direct eolian processes as has been proposed recently, but must have involved submarine current mechanisms.

  12. Diagenesis of early Permian evaporites and carbonates, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Posey, H.H.; Fisher, R.S.; Hovorka, S.D.; Elliott, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Anhydrite nodules within dolomite grainstone constitute a characteristic facies marking the transition from open marine deposits of the Lower Permian Wolfcamp Formation into hypersaline dolomite and evaporite deposits of the overlying Wichita Formation. Accompanying this transition is a shift from nodular to bedded anhydrite, a decrease in faunal diversity, finer carbonate grain size, a greater abundance of algae and a decrease in calcite abundance. Anhydrite nodules in the Upper Wolfcamp probably displaced carbonate muds before Wichita deposition. Other diagenetic features include dolomitization, and anhydrite recrystallization and replacement by silica. Sr, C, O and S isotopes help account for many of the primary and diagenetic features. Values for delta/sup 34/S and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr from unaltered Wichita anhydrite beds (approx.13.5 per thousands and 0.7078) indicate equilibrium with Early Permian seawater. Unaltered Upper Wolfcamp nodules, most abundant in the northeastern Palo Dura Basin, have lighter delta/sup 34/S (approx.12.7 per thousands) but probably record the seawater delta/sup 34/S composition of Early Permian, pre-Wichita Formation seawater. delta/sup 34/S of altered anhydrite nodules, cements and anhydrite veins are 1 to 4 per thousands heavier, probably due to anhydrite reduction during silicification. Dolomite ranges from -1 to +5.5 (delta/sup 13/C, PDB) and -1 to +3(delta/sup 18/O, PDB) whereas limestone ranges from -1 to +7 (delta/sup 13/C) and -4.5 to -2.5 (delta/sup 18/O). Dolomite delta/sup 13/C and delta/sup 18/O values are 2 to 4 thousands heavier than adjacent limestone, suggesting that dolomite and calcite are locally in equilibrium.

  13. Sediment body quantification: Examples from a Late Permian mixed influence deltaic system, Bowen Basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falkner, A.; Fielding, C. )

    1990-05-01

    The Bowen basin open-cut coal mines of central Queensland, Australia, provide some of the best exposures of alluvial and fluviodeltaic sequences in the world. Within the Bowen basin coal is mined extensively along a strike length of 5-600 km exposing various parts of an Upper Permian terrestrial to shallow-marine sequence. Individual mines cover 10-30 km of strike and may work several different seams that are correlatable between mines. The project described here is aimed at providing a detailed database on facies geometry within coal-bearing alluvial and fluviodeltaic sequences of the Bowen basin. Data has been collected from the profusion of very large open-cut coal mine exposures in eastern Queensland, Australia, and rationalized into a form useful for hydrocarbon reservoir description. High-quality geometrical data is obtained from controlled photomosaics of highwalls supplemented by information from close-spaced borehole networks. Detailed information from core and accessible exposures allows accurate sedimentological interpretation. Interpretation of the German Creek Formation, one of the coalbearing units of the Bowen basin, suggests that accumulation occurred on an extensive lower delta plain, within a mixed (i.e., wave-tide-fluvial influenced) delta. Four facies have been identified, two of which are possible reservoirs: facies A, major channelized sandstone bodies (4-11 m thick and 0.5-5 km wide, elongate perpendicular to basin edge), interpreted as deltaic distributary channel fills; and facies B, tabular sandstone bodies (9-20 m thick tens of km in areal extent, elongate parallel to basin margin) internally dominated by hummocky cross-stratification, interpreted as proximal mouth bar deposits.

  14. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  15. Revised fusulinid biostratigraphic zonation and depositional sequence correlation, subsurface Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T.; Mazzullo, S.J.; Robbins, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    Current revisions in fusulinid zonation enable them to subdivide the fossiliferous Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian section in the Permian basin into more biostratigraphic zones than the older scheme of R.V. Hollingsworth, each zone of shorter temporal duration than has previously been recognized. The identification of distinct fusulinid assemblage subzones within the absolute chronology of radiometric dating provides the basis for these stratigraphic subdivisions. The Atoka is divided into five assemblage subzones, each with an approximate duration of 1.0 m.y. In the Strawn, five subzones each of about 0.8 m.y. duration are recognized within the Cherokee; the three subzones in the Marmaton are each of 0.67 m.y. duration. Within Canyon and Cisco shelf carbonate sections are presently recognized seven and six subzones, respectively; the approximate duration of each is 0.33 and 1.03 m.y. The shelf Wolfcamp section is divisible into seven subzones, each of about 2.36 m.y. span. The entire Leonard shelf section comprises six subzones, each of about 1.83 m.y. duration; three subzones are presently recognized in the lower Leonard and three cumulatively in the middle and upper Leonard sections. These biostratigraphic subzones correspond to single or composite sediment packages (parasequences) that can be correlated regionally from shelf into basinal strata, using wireline log and conventional and processed seismic sections. Such packages comprise parts of individual depositional sequences as recognized by seismic-stratigraphic interpretations. Carbonate (various shelf and foreshelf detrital facies) and sandstone reservoirs occur within individual subzones within these sequences and can be readily defined and mapped by subsurface facies studies.

  16. Zircon and apatite fission-track evidence for an Early Permian thermal peak and relatively rapid Late Permian cooling in the Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roden, M.K. . Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science); Wintsch, R.P. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    New zircon fission-track ages compliment published apatite fission-track ages in the Appalachian Basin to narrowly constrain its thermal history. Geologic evidence can only constrain timing of the thermal peak to be younger than late Pennsylvanian sediments ([approximately] 300 Ma) and older than Mesozoic sediments in the Newark and Gettysburg Basins ([approximately] 210 Ma). Apatite fission-track ages as old as 246 Ma require the Alleghanian thermal peak to have been pre-Triassic. Preliminary data on reset zircon fission-track ages from middle Paleozoic sediments range from 255 to 290 Ma. Zircon fission-track apparent ages from samples younger and structurally higher than these are not reset. Thus, the oldest reset zircon fission-track age constraints the time of the Alleghanian thermal peak to be earliest Permian. Rates of post-Alleghanian cooling have not been well-constrained by geologic data and could be very slow. The difference between apatite and zircon fission-track ages for most of the samples range from 100--120 m.y. reflecting Permo-Triassic cooling of only 1 C/m.y. However, one sample with one of the oldest apatite ages, 245 Ma, yields one of the younger zircon ages of 255 Ma. This requires cooling rates of 10 C/m.y. and uplift rates of [approximately] 0.5 mm/yr. Collectively, these data support an early Permian thermal peak and a two-stage cooling history, consisting of > 100 C cooling (> 8 km denundation) in the Permian followed by relatively slow cooling and exhumation throughout the Mesozoic.

  17. Renewed petroleum generation related to Tertiary intrusions and increased heat flow, western Permian basin, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, C.E.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1989-03-01

    Higher paleogeothermal gradients, commencing in the Tertiary after maximum burial, have caused renewed petroleum generation in the western Permian basin. Evidence for this reheating is two distinct trends in the mean random vitrinite reflectance (R/sub m/) and depth data compiled from over 40 wells. One group, with a 0.7% R/sub m//km gradient, is from the western edge of the basin; the other, with a 0.5% R/sub m//km gradient, is from the central and eastern portions. Post-Mississippian tilting produced greater subsidence and a thicker, mostly uneroded sedimentary section in the eastern portion of the Permian basin. Continued tilting prior to the Cretaceous caused uplift and erosion that exposed the Upper Permian section in the western part. Potassium-argon ages of igneous intrusions along the western edge of the basin show they were emplaced about 35 Ma, followed by Miocene to Holocene basin-and-range-type block faulting and associated high heat flow. Isopach-reflectance contours confirm this renewed heating is post-tectonic - that is, it occurred after eastward tilting and erosion had reduced burial depth. Maximum temperatures computed from R/sub m/-depth relationships infer that paleogeothermal gradients exceeded 40/degrees/C/km (2.2/degrees/F/100 ft) in the Tertiary. This reheating thermally matured rocks as young as Guadalupian in the western Permian basin and apparently caused a second episode of petroleum generation. By this time, however, the potential reservoir rocks and evaporite seals had been deeply eroded, resulting in poor conditions for trapping the renewed pulse of petroleum.

  18. Groundwater flow, late cementation, and petroleum accumulation the Permian Lyons Sandstone, Denver basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.K.; Bethke, C.M. )

    1994-02-01

    The gray diagenetic facies of the Permian Lyons Sandstone, associated with all known petroleum accumulations in the formation, formed late in the history of the Denver basin as an alteration product of the formation's red facies. The red facies that makes up most of the sandstone contains iron oxide coating, quartz overgrowths and calcite cements. The gray facies, which occurs locally in the deep basin, is distinguished by pore-filling dolomite and anhydrite cements and by a lack of iron oxide and calcite. The dolomite and anhydrite cements overlie bitumen that was deposited by migrating oil, and hence formed after oil was first generated in the basin, late in the Cretaceous or early in the Tertiary. The isotopic composition of oxygen in the dolomite ranges to such light values that the cement must have formed deep in the basin in the presence of meteoric water. The gray facies likely formed in a regime of groundwater flow resulting from Laramide uplift of the Front Range during the Tertiary. In our model, saline groundwater flowed eastward through the Pennsylvanian Fountain Formation and then upwelled along the basin axis, where is discharged into the Lyons Sandstone. The saline water mixed with more dilute groundwater in the Lyons, driving a reaction that dissolved calcite and, by a common-ion effect, precipitated dolomite and anhydrite. The facies' gray color resulted from reduction of ferric oxide in the presence of migrating oil or the Fountain brine. Underlying source beds by this time had begun to generate petroleum, which migrated by buoyancy into the Lyons. The association of the gray facies with petroleum accumulations can be explained if the Fountain brines discharged across aquitards along the same fractures that transmitted oil. As petroleum accumulated in the Lyons, the newly formed cements prevented continued migration, as is observed in shallower strata, by sealing oil into the reservoirs from which it is produced today. 77 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Enigmatic uppermost Permian-lowermost Triassic stratigraphic relations in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K. )

    1991-06-01

    Eighteen measured sections in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana provide the basis for an analysis of Permian-Triassic stratigraphic relations. This boundary is well defined to the south where gray calcareous siltstones of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody disconformably overlie the Upper Permian Ervay Member of the Park City Formation with little physical evidence of a significant hiatus. The Dinwoody is gradationally overlain by red beds of the Red Peak Formation. The Dinwoody this to zero near the state line. Northward, the erathem boundary is enigmatic because fossils are absent and there is no evidence of an unconformity. Poor and discontinuous exposures contribute to the problem. Up to 20 m of Permian or Triassic rocks or both overlie the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone in the westernmost surface exposures on the eastern flank of the Bighorn basin with physical evidence of an unconformity. East of the exposed Tensleep, Ervay-like carbonates are overlain by about 15 m of Dinwoody-like siltstones interbedded with red beds and thin dolomitic limestone. In both areas, they are overlain by the Red Peak Formation. Thin carbonates within the Dinwoody are silty, coarse algal laminates with associated peloidal micrite. Carbonates north of the Dinwoody termination and above probably Ervay are peloidal algal laminates with fenestral fabric and sparse coated shell fragments with pisoids. These rocks may be Dinwoody equivalents or they may be of younger Permian age than the Ervay. Regardless, revision of stratigraphic nomenclature in this area may bed required.

  20. Dolomitization of coeval shelf and fore-shelf carbonates, Lower Permian, Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Qiuchang, Ye )

    1991-03-01

    Coeval shelf and fore-shelf carbonates in Lower Permian (Leonardian) rocks in the Midland basin are pervasively dolomitized. Shelf strata consist of a regional mosaic of shelf margin reef, lagoon, and peritidal facies associated with contemporaneous evaporite deposition; fore-shelf facies consist of resedimented shelf margin deposits. Numerous relative sea-level fluctuations that resulted in the formation of Type 1 and 2 unconformities are recognized throughout this section. Mean stable oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of the shelf strate suggest that dolomitization occurred essentially syndepositionally, likely by interaction with normal marine( ) and hypersaline fluids. In fore-shelf strata petrographic evidence, in combination with paleotemperature estimates from isotopic data and the burial depth-temperature history of these rocks, suggest relatively early (late Permian) dolomitization in rock-dominated systems. Three possible modes of dolomitization could have affected these fore-shelf beds: (1) dolomitization by reflux of normal-marine and/or hypersaline fluids during sea level highstands or lowstands; (2) dolomitization by mixed meteoric-marine fluids during lowstands; and (3) replacement by calcic dolomites via reaction with circulating marine fluids during deposition and early, shallow burial without organic matter influences. The latter mode of origin, however, is favored for most of the rocks examined on the basis of the slightly positive carbon isotopic compositions, Sr versus MgCO{sub 3} compositions (mean Sr 61 ppm, mean MgCO{sub 3} 49.5), and low Mn contents (mean 61 ppm) of the dolomites, although later burial recrystallization is indicated by their relatively depleted isotopic compositions.

  1. CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section ...

  2. Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U. S. A. ). A model for displacement of connate brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R. )

    1993-06-01

    Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Cyclic sedimentation, depositional environments, and facies distribution of the Permian Paddock member of the Yeso Formation, Vacuum (Glorieta) field, northwest shelf of the Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, D.E. ); Womochel, D.R. )

    1992-04-01

    The Vacuum (Glorieta) field is located on the northwest shelf of the Permian basin in central Lea County, New Mexico. Cumulative oil production of 62 MMBO is primarily from the upper 100 ft of the Leonardian Paddock Member of the Yeso Formation. Cores from 10 wells were examined to identify lithologies and facies relationships. Five lithofacies were identified: (1) fine-grained quartz sandstone/siltstone facies, (2) pelletoid mudstone facies, (3) skeletal packstone/wackestone facies, (4) oolitic-pelletoid grainstone facies, and (5) crystalline dolomite facies. These lithofacies occur sequentially in four shoaling-upward cycles that can be correlated throughout much of the study area. Three major depositional environments are recognized in the Paddock Member of the Yeso Formation: (1) a subtidal open-marine environment in which the oolitic grainstone facies was deposited, (2) a subtidal protected shallow-marine environment where the skeletal packstone/wackestone facies was deposited, and (3) a subtidal to supratidal restricted shallow-marine environment where the pelletoid mudstone facies accumulated. Facies analysis indicates that the Paddock Member was deposited on a broad shallow-marine shelf. Numerous shoaling-upward cycles are possibly related to worldwide Permian sea level fluctuations. Porosity development is enhanced at the upper surface of each shoaling-upward cycle by dissolution of fossil fragments and grains.

  4. A case study of exploitation in the Lovington Strawn Trend, Permian Basin, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanks, K.A. ); Williams, M.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The Lovington New Mexico area, located in the northwest shelf of the Permian basin, produces oil from Pennsylvanian-age phylloid algal bioherms within the lower Strawn limestone. Strawn carbonates were deposited on the northwest flank of the Central Basin axis in a low-energy midramp setting. Algal bioherms developed as steep-sided, loaf-shaped buildups elongate in a dip direction. Mounds range from 20 to 180 ft (6-55 m) thick and average 112 mi (0.8 km) wide by 0.5 to 1 mi (0.8-1.6 km) long and occur at an average depth of 11,300 ft (3,444 m). Porosity occurs in the mound facies, usually in one massive zone with values ranging from 4 to 14%. Porous mounds are sealed by nonporous lime mudstones (intermound facies), the predominant facies within the Strawn limestone. A basinal black shale overlies the Strawn limestone across the play fairway and provides a source for Strawn oil. In the downflank portion of the play, skeletal grainstones occur beneath the Strawn shale, onlapping the mound and intermound facies. Areas of thick grainstone development are associated with poor production due to reduced porosity/permeability and possible loss of sealing facies. Prediction of undrilled mounds between well control is difficult from log, dipmeter, or drill cuttings data. Isolated Strawn limestone isopach thicks coincident with anomalous seismic character can be used to predict mound locations. Disrupted or anomalous seismic character is caused by thickening of the Strawn interval when porous and abrupt facies/velocity changes between mound and intermound limestone facies. Correct spatial imaging of the steep-sided algal mounds is critical in developing an accurate subsurface target. Once a prospect has been identified, a well-defined bottom-hole location is required to ensure a valid test of the prospect.

  5. New interpretations of Pennsylvanian and Permian stratigraphy, San Juan basin and southeast Paradox basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, A.C. Jr.; Condon, S.M. )

    1989-09-01

    The Honaker Trail, Paradox, and Pinkerton Trail Formations of the Hermosa Group are recognized throughout most of the San Juan basin. The Paradox Formation is extended southeastward beyond the limits of its evaporite facies into the basin, where it consists of thick shelf-carbonate rocks and thin black shale, sandstone, and siltstone interbeds. Where the Hermosa Group thins onto the marginal uplifts, the Paradox loses the thick carbonate rocks and becomes indistinguishable from the rest of the Hermosa. The Hermosa is correlated in the subsurface with the Madera and Sandia Formations to the southeast. The transitional Rico Formation, between the marine Hermosa Group and the continental Cutler Formation, is identified throughout the subsurface of the San Juan basin and is correlated with similar deposits out-cropping along the northern and eastern margins. The Cutler Formation includes the Organ Rock, Cedar Mesa, and Halgaito members throughout most of the basin. In the vicinity of the Hogback monocline, the Cedar Mesa Sandstone Member undergoes a gradational eastward facies change from cyclic evaporite and sandstone to thick-bedded sandstone. The subsurface Cedar Mesa is correlated in part with similar rocks in the outcropping Abo and Supai Formations.

  6. Extent of water-rock interactions in Lower Permian Wolfcamp carbonates, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, R.S.; Posey, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    A laterally-extensive permeable zone in upper Wolfcampian carbonate strata constitutes the first important transmissive unit below a thick evaporite sequence that is being considered for nuclear waste isolation. The extent of water-rock interaction was evaluated by comparing the chemical and isotopic composition of formation water and core collected at four DOE test wells. Wolfcamp mineralogy is dominantly calcite and dolomite with minor anhydrite at each of the four sites despite minor variations in depositional environment, diagenetic alteration, and abundance of clastic material. Isotopic compositions of calcite and dolomite and of anhydrite are within the ranges expected for Permian marine sediments altered by early diagenesis. Wolfcamp formation water compositions are more variable than host rock compositions, and are not completely controlled by local water-rock equilibria. Wolfcamp brines from two wells in the western part of the basin have depleted isotopic compositions relative to the two eastern wells and have not equilibrated with Wolfcamp carbonates, whereas the eastern fluids have. Strontium in the western samples is more radiogenic than that of the eastern samples, indicating a greater influence of clays or feldspars on the western fluids. Comparison of water and rock compositions suggests: (1) the western brines have interacted less with the carbonate host than the eastern brines due to shorter residence times or greater water: rock ratios, and (2) the minerals encountered along flow paths prior to entering the Wolfcamp are different for the western and eastern Wolfcamp brines.

  7. Cycle stratigraphy and porosity in Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian shelf limestones, eastern Central Basin Platform, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saller, A.H.; Dickson, J.A.D.; Boyd, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Pennyslvanian and Lower Permian shelfal limestones were studied in core and wireline logs on the eastern side of the Central Basin platform in west Texas. Sixty-three (63) cycles were delineated in the study interval, which includes 200-250 m of Canyon (Missourian), Cisco (Virgilian), and Wolfcamp strata. Four general lithofacies are present: fossiliferous wackestones and packstones, grainstones, phylloid algal boundstones, and shales. These lithologies typically occur in 1-18-m-thick cycles bounded by subaerial exposure surfaces. Grainstones in the upper part of some cycles indicate a shallowing of environments prior to subaerial exposure. Many cycles have subaerial exposure surfaces developed on subtidal fossiliferous wackestones or packstones suggesting rapid falls in sea level. Long-term transgressive intervals (transgressive systems tracts or TST) are dominated by thick (>4 m) cycles, whereas long-term regressive intervals (highstand systems tract or HST) are dominated by thinner cycles. Stable carbon isotope data suggest that thick cycles in TSTs were subjected to short periods of subaerial exposure, whereas thin cycles in the HSTs were subjected to much longer subaerial exposure. Where present, reservoir-grade porosity occurs in the upper part of cycles, 0.3-5 m below subaerial exposure surfaces. Prolonged subaerial exposure apparently reduced matrix porosity by allowing more time for calcite precipitation, which was especially effective in reducing porosity in micritic strata below exposure surfaces.

  8. Geochemistry of post-uplift calcite in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiggins, W.D.; Harris, P.M. ); Burruss, R.C. )

    1993-06-01

    Integration whole-oil gas chromatography of produced oil and oil inclusions, formation-water chemistry, and stable isotopes has identified environment-diagnostic differences in calcite cements between oil field and outcrop environments in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. Calcite-[delta][sup 13]C and fluid-inclusion composition are the most diagnostic of pore-fluid evolution and can help interpret rock-fluid reactions. Late-stage calcite cement in the northwestern part of the basin formed in a meteoric aquifer that was emplaced by Neogene-age uplift and tilting of the Guadalupe Mountains. Where the confined aquifer intersects the Henderson oil field, the water, which is less saline than sea water, has 900-1,400 ppm bicarbonate alkalinity because of oil oxidation and contains 750 ppm H[sub 2]S as a result of anhydrite calcitization and sulfate reduction. The oil field has been severly damaged by biodegradation. Modeling of [delta][sup 13]C in pore-filling calcite from the field (mean [delta][sup 13]C = [minus]17% PDB) suggests oxidation of oil provided nearly 100% of the carbon in the cement. Comparison of gas chromatograms of produced oil and oil liberated from fluid inclusions in calcite shows that inclusion oil is older and more severely biodegraded (paraffin-free) than produced oil. This implies that oil in the reservoir was remobilized soon after Neogene-age meteoric invasion and carbonate cementation. The Algerita Escarpment in the Guadalupe Mountains is the site of active meteoric water recharge and growth of phreatic calcite cement. The phreatic cement contains single-phase, aqueous fluid inclusions. The cement is depleted in [sup 13]C to an extent that is diagnostic of a 1:1 mixture of soil-CO[sub 2] from decay of C[sub 4]-type plants (desert grasses) and carbon derived from dolomite matrix by ground-water dissolution. 64 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Facies architecture of Spraberry submarine fan reservoirs (Permian), Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guevara, E.H.; Tyler, N.

    1989-03-01

    Facies of mud-rich submarine fans of the Spraberry formation (Permian, Leonardian) form oil reservoirs in the central part of the Midland basin, west Texas. The principal reservoirs are submarine-channel and associated facies in the upper parts of generally upward-coarsening and upward-thickening sequences of the Jo Mill (lower Spraberry) and Driver and overlying Floyd (upper Spraberry) fans. They are naturally fractured, massive and laminated, very fine-grained, calcareous sandstones and siltstones usually occurring in beds 2 to approximately 12 ft thick. Two main subdivisions, inner and middle to outer fan, are recognized using isoliths, log motifs, and cores of predominantly terrigenous clastic, mostly basin-wide genetic intervals. The boundary between the subdivisions approximately coincides with the location of the subjacent Horseshoe atoll (Pennsylvanian). The narrow range in grain size of the fans results in limited basinward variations in texture and sedimentary structures and paucity of Bouma sequences. Facies architecture strongly influences hydrocarbon distribution and recovery. Wells having the best cumulative productions generally occur in sandstone depositional axes. Most accumulations in inner fan facies are scattered structural traps having relatively high recovery efficiencies (24%, Jo Mill field). The largest accumulations in mid to outer fan facies are stratigraphic traps in meandering to anastomosing channel sandstone belts 1-3 mi wide occurring in a widespread area. Recovery efficiencies range from 5% (Spraberry trend, stratigraphic trap) to 15% (Benedum field, combined stratigraphic-structural trap). Additional reserves can be recovered from partly drained and untapped reservoir compartments, especially in layered and compartmentalized middle to outer fan facies.

  10. Occurrence and significance of magnesite in Upper Permian (Guadalupian) Tansill and Yates Formations, Delaware Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garber, R.A.; Harris, P.M.; Borer, J.M. )

    1990-02-01

    Magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}) occurs pervasively in a 270-ft (82-m) cored interval of Upper Permian (Guadalupian) shelf deposits from the northern rim of the Delaware basin portion of the Permian basin, New Mexico. In their core example, magnesite is found in tidal flat/lagoon and pisolite shoal dolomites and siltstones of the Tansill and uppermost Yates formations. The interval is overlain by magnesite-bearing anhydrite and a thick halite section of the (Ochoan) Salado Formation. The basinwide extent of magnesite is unknown. Magnesite may have formed either (1) during Ochoan deposition or thereafter, after burial of the Tansill and Yates formations, from dense brines originating from the overlying Salado evaporites; or less likely, (2) syndepositionally with the Tansill and Yates sediments. Preliminary measurements of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes for magnesite yield normal Permian values for {delta}{sup 13}C averaging + 6.84% (PDB) and slightly evaporitic values for {delta}{sup 18}O averaging + 1.04% (PDB); corrected {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope composition averages 0.70687. Because a high content of associated uranium in the magnesite-rich part of the core causes large gamma-ray deflections similar to those for shale, and because the density of magnesite is close to that of anhydrite, the presence of magnesite could lead to improper evaluation of lithology and porosity from logs and could ultimately result in failure to recognize potential reservoir zones. 14 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Pumping test and fluid sampling report, Mansfield No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin: Report of the Geologic Project Manager, Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    This report describes pumping test and fluid sampling activities performed at the Mansfield No. 1 well in Oldham County about 10 miles north of Vega, Texas. The well site was selected by TBEG and is located along the northern margin of the Palo Duro Basin in an area of active dissolution with the Permian salt sections. The objectives of the pumping test and fluid sampling program were to collect data to determine the hydrologic characteristics (formation pressure and permeability) of deep water bearing formations, and to obtain formation fluid samples for analyses (gas and fluid chemistry) in order to evaluate fluid migration and age relationships in the Permian Basin. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Fluvial and deltaic facies and environments of the late permian back-reef shelves of the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, J. )

    1993-02-01

    The Artesia Group is a sequence of carbonates, evaporites, and clastics that was deposited across the back-reef shelves of the Permian Basin during late Permian time. There has been some controversy over the depositional environments of the clastic members of the Artesia Group and the role of sea level fluctuations in their accumulation. However, the results of a regional core study of the Queen Formation of the Artesia Group indicate that they were largely deposited in desert fluvial and deltaic environments during low-stands of sea level. Three fluvial-deltaic facies are recognized within the clastic members of the Queen. The first consists of medium to very find sandstones and silty sandstones with cross-beds, ripple cross-laminae, and planar and wavy laminae. This facies forms wavy sheets that thicken and thin along linear trends, and was deposited in sandy braided streams. The second facies consists of very find to fine sandstones, silty sandstones, and siltstones with ripple cross-laminae, planar and wavy laminae, cross-beds, clay drapes and pedogenetic cutans, as well as siltstones and silty mudstones with haloturbation structures and evaporite nodules. This facies forms thick planar sheets, and was deposited in fluvial sandflats and adjacent fluvial-dominated continental sabkhas. The third facies consists of cyclic deposits of haloturbated silty mudstones that grade into siltstones and very fine sandstones with crossbeds, planar and wavy laminae, haloturbation structures and evaporite nodules. Each cycle forms a lobate body that is bounded by carbonates or evaporites and which was deposited in sheet deltas that formed along the landward margins of a back-reef lagoon.

  13. Tectonic mechanisms for formation of the Central Basin platform and adjacent basinal areas, Permian basin, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Kennming; Dorobek, S.L. )

    1992-04-01

    Formation of the Central Basin platform (CBP), with the Delaware basin to its west and the Midland basin to its east, has been attributed to the crustal deformation in the foreland area of the Marathon Orogen during the late Paleozoic. Because of complexities in the areal distribution and magnitudes of uplift along the length of the CBP, its formative mechanisms are still controversial. Previous interpretations about the mechanisms for uplift of the CBP are based on the characteristics of the boundary faults between the CBP and adjacent basinal areas. Here, an integrated tectonic model is proposed for formation of the uplift and adjacent basins based on studies of the structure of sedimentary layers overlying Precambrian basement rocks of the uplift and restoration of the lower Paleozoic strata in the Delaware basin.

  14. Diagenetic history and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Permian carbonate buildups, Wegener Halvoe area, Jameson Land basin, east Greenland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholle, P.A.; Ulmer, D.S. ); Stemmerik, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The Upper Permian of Jameson Land includes two carbonate sequences, the Karstryggen and Wegener Halvoe formations. The Karstryggen Formation contains hypersaline carbonates and localized evaporites that were heavily weathered and dissected prior to deposition of the overlying strata. The overlying Wegener Halvoe Formation represents an abrupt and extensive marine inundation over the underlying karstified Karstryggen surface. Bryozoan-brachiopod-algal-cement buildups of the Wegener Halvoe Formation are localized on karstic highs, and show up to 150 m of depositional relief. The diagenetic histories of the core and flank facies are very different. Core facies porosity was initially obliterated by marine cements, but repeated meteoric exposure altered unstable core facies constituents. This alteration produced extensive secondary porosity through grain and cement leaching with local collapse brecciation. Flank strata, however, underwent little sea-floor diagenesis, and low permeability and mineralogically stable grain composition protected these strata from meteoric alteration. Subsequent fracturing and hydrothermal fluid flow, however, flushed hydrocarbons and filled pores with ferroan calcite, barite, fluorite, galena, and baroque dolomite. This heating and flushing is thought to have been especially intense in the Wegener Halvoe region; thus, more basinal areas may still have reservoirs containing significant oil in equivalent Upper Permian limestones. If, as is likely, the sea level changes affecting the Greenland Permian were eustatic, then this study may provide significant clues to porosity development throughout the largely unexplored northern Zechstein basin and the Arctic basin of the Barent Sea. This study also provides some important connections to the probably time-equivalent Guadalupian carbonate reservoir rocks of west Texas-New Mexico and Wyoming.

  15. Diagenesis and reservoir potential of Permian-Triassic fluvial/lacustrine sandstones in the southern Junggar basin, northwestern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhaohui; Longstaffe, F.J.; Parnell, J.

    1997-11-01

    The Junggar basin is one of the largest oil-producing areas in China, and contains Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales with some of the greatest hydrocarbon potential in the world. In this study, we present the diagenetic characteristics of Permian-Triassic sandstones from the southern Junggar basin and evaluate their reservoir potential. The uppermost Permian and Lower Triassic Cangfanggou Group in the southern Junggar basin is characterized by alternating fluvial and lacustrine deposits, whereas the Middle-upper Triassic Xiaoquangou Group was deposited predominantly in a lacustrine environment; fluvial and deltaic sedimentation was subordinate. The sandstones of the Cangfanggou and Xiaoquangou groups are volcanic litharenites. Their detrital modes and textures of volcanic fragments suggest a primarily andesitic/basaltic volcanic-arc provenance. Early diagenesis of the sandstones is characterized by nonferroan calcite cementation, grain-coating, pore-lining clay minerals, and the initial dissolution of detrital grains. Authigenic quartz; pore-filling phyllosilicates; pore-filling, grain-replacive zeolites; albitized detrital plagioclase; authigenic K-feldspar; illite; and late calcite dominate burial diagenesis. The formation of iron oxides and dissolution of calcite cement resulted from tectonic uplift during the Tertiary. Albitization and zeolite formation during burial are among the most pronounced diagenetic processes that affected these sandstones. Pore-filling clay minerals, calcite, and zeolites have substantially reduced sandstone porosity. However, appreciable primary porosity has been preserved by the formation of early clay coats and pore linings, which retarded further cementation. Secondary porosity is present to varying degrees in the sandstones and is the result of dissolution of unstable framework grains.

  16. OIL RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CO2 INJECTION MONITORING IN THE PERMIAN BASIN WITH CROSSWELL ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Wilt

    2004-02-01

    Substantial petroleum reserves exist in US oil fields that cannot be produced economically, at current prices, unless improvements in technology are forthcoming. Recovery of these reserves is vital to US economic and security interests as it lessens our dependence on foreign sources and keeps our domestic petroleum industry vital. Several new technologies have emerged that may improve the situation. The first is a series of new flooding techniques to re-pressurize reservoirs and improve the recovery. Of these the most promising is miscible CO{sub 2} flooding, which has been used in several US petroleum basins. The second is the emergence of new monitoring technologies to track and help manage this injection. One of the major players in here is crosswell electromagnetics, which has a proven sensitivity to reservoir fluids. In this project, we are applying the crosswell EM technology to a CO{sub 2} flood in the Permian Basin oil fields of New Mexico. With our partner ChevronTexaco, we are testing the suitability of using EM for tracking the flow of injected CO{sub 2} through the San Andreas reservoir in the Vacuum field in New Mexico. The project consisted of three phases, the first of which was a preliminary field test at Vacuum, where a prototype system was tested in oil field conditions including widely spaced wells with steel casing. The results, although useful, demonstrated that the older technology was not suitable for practical deployment. In the second phase of the project, we developed a much more powerful and robust field system capable of collecting and interpreting field data through steel-cased wells. The final phase of the project involved applying this system in field tests in the US and overseas. Results for tests in steam and water floods showed remarkable capability to image between steel wells and provided images that helped understand the geology and ongoing flood and helped better manage the field. The future of this technology is indeed bright

  17. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purves, W.J. ); Ting, S.C. )

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  18. Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, F.J.; Kerans, C.

    1997-05-29

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study.

  19. Precambrian basement geology of the Permian basin region of west Texas and Eastern New Mexico: A geophysical perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.; Keller, G.R.

    1996-03-01

    Because most of the Permian basin region of west Texas and southern New Mexico is covered by Phanerozoic rocks, other means must be found to examine the Precambrian upper crustal geology of the region. We have combined geologic information on the Precambrian from outcrops and wells with geophysical information from gravity and magnetic surveys in an integrated analysis of the history and structure of basement rocks in the region. Geophysical anomalies can be related to six Precambrian events: formation of the Early Proterozoic outer tectonic belt, igneous activity in the southern Granite-Rhyolite province, an episode of pre-Grenville extension, the Grenville orogeny, rifting to form the Delaware aulacogen, and Eocambrian rifting to form the early Paleozoic continental margin. Two geophysical features were studied in detail: the Abilene gravity minimum and the Central Basin platform gravity high. The Abilene gravity minimum is shown to extend from the Delaware basin across north-central Texas and is interpreted to be caused by a granitic batholith similar in size to the Sierra Nevada batholith in California and Nevada. This batholith appears to be related to formation of the southern Granite- Rhyolite province, possibly as a continental margin arc batholith. Because of this interpretation, we have located the Grenville tectonic front southward from its commonly quoted position, closer to the Llano uplift. Middle Proterozoic mafic intrusions are found to core the Central Basin platform and the Roosevelt uplift. These intrusions formed at about 1.1 Ga and are related in time to both the Mid-Continent rift system and the Grenville orogeny in Texas. Precambrian basement structures and changes in lithology have influenced the structure and stratigraphy in the overlying Permian basin, and thus have potential exploration significance.

  20. Socioeconomic impact of infill drilling recovery from carbonate reservoirs in the Permian basin, west Texas. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jagoe, B.K.

    1994-05-01

    This investigative study presents results on the socioeconomic impact of infill drilling recovery from carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin. The amount of incremental oil and gas production from infill drilling in 37 carbonate reservoir units is established using decline curve analysis. The increase in incremental recovery is used to compute the amount of increased revenue and taxes (local, state and federal). A job market analysis is performed to determine the impact of these increased revenues on primary jobs in the oil industry and secondary jobs in the community. Secondary jobs are generated by oil industry workers spending money in the community. The appropriation of the estimated taxes is analyzed to determine which government agencies benefit most from the infill drilling. The observations from this research are that most of the San Andres and Clearfork carbonate reservoir units in the Permian Basin are potentially profitable to infill drill. The incremental oil and gas production from infill drilling could maintain or create many primary jobs within the local oil industry and also secondary jobs in the community. The incremental production could generate taxes which would greatly benefit certain local, state, and federal government agencies.

  1. Thermal properties of Permian Basin evaporites to 493 K and 30 MPa confining pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, W.B.; Heard, H.C.; Boro, C.O.; Keller, K.T.; Ralph, W.E.; Trimmer, D.A.

    1987-01-26

    Laboratory measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of four rock salts, two anhydrites, and two dolomites bordering the Cycle 4 and Cycle 5 bedded salt formations in the Permian Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Measurement conditions ranged from 303 to 473 K in temperature, and 0.1 to 31.0 MPa in hydrostatic confining pressure. Within the +-5% measurement resolution neither conductivity nor diffusivity showed a dependence upon pressure in any of the rocks. Conductivity and diffusivity in all rocks had a negative temperature dependence. For the two Cycle 4 salt samples, conductivity over the temperature range explored fell from 5.5 to 3.75 W/m.K, and diffusivity fell from about 2.7 to 1.7 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s. One of the Cycle 5 salts was a single crystal which had anomalous results, but the other had a low conductivity, about 3.4 W/m.K, with very weak temperature dependence, and a high diffusivity, 3.8 to 2.5 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s over the temperature range. In the nonsalts, conductivity and diffusivity decreased 10 to 20% over the temperature range explored, which was 308 < T < 373 K. Typical values at 308 K for conductivity were 5.4 W/m.K for both anhydrites and 3.4 and 2.6 W/m.K for the two different dolomite samples. Approximate values at 308 K for diffusivity were 2.3 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s for the anhydrites and 1.4 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s for both the dolomites. The coefficient of thermal linear expansion was measured for the Cycle 5 salt and nonsalts over 308 < T < 493 and 0.1 < P < 30.0 MPa. Typically, the coefficient varied from about 12 x 10/sup -6/ K/sup -1/ at P = 3.0 MPa to 4 x 10/sup -6/ K/sup -1/ at P = 30 MPa for both nonsalt rocks. In anhydrite, it decreased with increasing temperature at a rate of roughly 5 x 10/sup -8/ K/sup -2/ at all pressures. In dolomite, the coefficient increased at roughly the same rate. Expansion of the salt ranged from 33 to 38 x 10/sup -6/ K/sup -1/ and was independent of pressure

  2. Regulatory Project Manager for Salina and Permian Basins for the NWTS (National Waste Terminal Storage) Program: Final techical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The identification of candidate sites for nuclear waste repositories involves geological and environmental studies to characterize potential sites. These investigations include the collection and analysis of detailed geological and environmental data and comparison of the data against predetermined site performance criteria, i.e., geologic characteristics, environmental protection, and socioeconomic impacts. The work summarized in this final technical report encompasses mainly ''environmental characterization'' studies in the Permian Basin in the Texas Panhandle during the period of 1977-86; in the earlier phase of the contract, regional environmental work was also done in the Salina Basin (1977-79) and certain licensing support activities and safety analyses were conducted (1977-82). Considerable regulatory support work was also performed during 1986. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Growth rates of upper Permian carbonate platform, Capitan margin of northern Delaware basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, P.M.; Grover, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Subsurface and outcrop studies of the Capitan margin (late Guadalupian, Capitanian) in the northern Delaware basin have revealed that over 80% of the total progradation of the margin, over half the total aggradation of the platform (150 of 290 m), and over two-thirds of the basin fill (190 of 280 m) occurred during an early phase of development equating with Seven Rivers beds on the platform. The amount of progradation varied from 6 km from outcrop data in the Guadalupe Mountains to 19 km along trend to the east from subsurface information. The later phase of Capitan margin development was coincident with Yates and Tansill deposition on the platform and was dominated by aggradation and steepening of the margin. Corresponding to this two-phase model, two third-order cycles of relative sea level occur within the Capitanian on the eustasy curve of Ross and Ross: a Seven Rivers cycle lasting 1.5 m.y. and a Yates-Tansill cycle of 1.0 m.y. Progradation rates for the Capitan range from 2.6 to 8.3 m/1000 years. Similar rates are calculated from high-resolution seismic lines across the Cenozoic margin of northwestern great Bahama Bank. Accumulation rates for the Capitan, uncorrected for compaction, average 125 ..mu..m/year and 335 ..mu..m/year for the early phase shelf and shelf margin, respectively, and 160 ..mu..m/year and 430..mu..m/year for the later phase shelf and shelf margin. These accumulation rates are similar to those of other ancient, prograding platforms.

  4. CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to ...

  5. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  6. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz

    2003-04-01

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  7. Evaporite replacement within the Permian strata of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and the Delaware Basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The Park City and Goose Egg Formations of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming and the Seven Rivers, Yates and Tansill Formations of west Texas and New Mexico contain numerous examples of silicified and calcitized evaporites. Both areas show significant preserved interstitial evaporite, but on outcrop the discrete crystals and nodular evaporites have been extensively replaced. These replacements appear to be a multistage phenomenon. Field and petrographic evidence (matted fabrics in nodules; evaporite inclusions) indicate that silicification involved direct replacement of evaporites and probably occurred during earlier stages of burial. Calcitization, however, appears to be a much later phenomenon and involved precipitation of coarse crystals within evaporite molds. The calcites are typically free of evaporite inclusions. Isotopic analyses of these calcites give a wide range of values from [minus]6.04 to [minus]25.02 [per thousand] [delta][sup 18]O and +6.40 to [minus]25.26 [per thousand] [delta][sup 13]C, reflecting their complex diagenetic histories. In both localities, silicification of evaporites was completed by the end of hydrocarbon migration and emplacement. The extremely broad isotopic range of the calcites indicates that the calcitization occurred during a long period of progressive uplift and increased groundwater circulation associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting. The very light oxygen values within the Bighorn Basin were produced by thermochemical sulfate reduction during deepest burial of the region. Evaporite diagenesis in both the Bighorn and Delaware Basins is an ongoing process that started prior to hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to do significant porosity change.

  8. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-01-13

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs

  9. Lower Permian facies of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: depositional systems, shelf-margin evolution, paleogeography, and petroleum potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handford, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    A Palo geological study suggests that potential hydrocarbon reservoirs occur in shelf-margin carbonates, delta-front sandstones, and fan-delta arkoses. Zones of porous (greater than 10 percent) dolomite are concentrated near shelf margins and have configurations similar to productive Lower Permian shelf-margin trends in New Mexico. Delta-front sandstones (log-computed porosity of 18 to 25 percent) are similar to producing deltaic sandstones of Morris Buie-Blaco Fields in North-Central Texas. Porous (18 percent) fan-delta sandstones along the south flank of the Amarillo Uplift may form reservoirs similiar to that of the Mobeetie Field on the north side of the Amarillo Uplife in Wheeler County, Texas. Potential hydrocarbon source beds occur in slope and basinal environments. Total organic carbon generally ranges from 1 to 2.3 percent by weight and averages 0.589 percent by weight.

  10. Palomagnetic orientation of fractures and bedding in Rotliegende and Zechstein cores from the southern Permian basin, North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Alstine, D.R.; Butterworth, J.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Fractures and bedding in Rotliegende sandstone and Zechstein dolomite cores of the southern Permian Basin can be accurately oriented using our standard paleomagnetic core-orientation technique. In recent project involving vertical, deviated, and horizontal wells, we have paleomagnetically oriented 1874 ft of Rotliegende and Zechstein cores from 113 intervals ranging in length from 8 in. to 119 ft. Accuracy of our paleomagnetic core-orientations can be demonstrated by (1) consistency in fracture patterns derived from vertical and horizontal cores near the same reservoir location, (2) consistency in Rotliegende paleowind directions derived from paleomagnetically oriented cores with paleowind directions derived from mechanically oriented cores from the southern Permian Basin, and (3) agreement between structural dip determined from paleomagnetically oriented interdune bedding planes with structural dip determined from paleomagnetically oriented strike-0parallel, strike-perpendicular, and bedding-plane fractures. Paleomagnetic orientation of Rotliegende cores can be especially cost effect. Excellent core recovery and use of long core barrels in the Rotliegende means that [open quotes]continuous intervals[close quotes] (defined as the maximum lengths of core that can be reliably reconstructed by fitting adjacent core pieces) of more than 100 ft long can be achieved by following our recommended core-handling procedures. We statistically average the same number of paleomagnetic plug samples regardless of the length of a [open quotes]continuous interval.[close quotes] The paleomagnetic signals in Rotliegende sandstone and Zechstein dolomite are sufficiently stable that fractures and bedding can be paleomagnetically oriented even in slabbed cores drilled decades ago.

  11. Stratigraphy and reservoir potential of glacial deposits of the Itarare Group (Carboniferous-Permian), Parana basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franca, A.B. ); Potter, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Drilling in the Parana basin of Brazil in the mid-1980s discovered gas and condensate in the Itarare Group, and showed that glacial deposits in Brazil can contain hydrocarbons. The reservoir potential of the Carboniferous-Permian Itarare Group of the basin is analyzed using new subsurface data from 20 deep wells drilled in the early to middle 1980s. Central to the analysis was the construction of over 3000 km of cross sections based on more than 100 wells, the description of more than 400 m of core, and study of 95 thin sections. Subsurface exploration and mapping of the Itarare are greatly aided by the recognition of three recently defined and described formations and four members, which are traceable for hundreds of kilometers. These units belong to three major glacial cycles in which the pebbly mudstones and shales are seals and glacially related sandstones are reservoirs. The best sandstone reservoirs in the deep subsurface belong to the Rio Segredo Member, the upper-most sandy unit of the Itarare. The Rio Segredo Member is the best petroleum target because it is overlain by thick seals and massive pebbly mudstones and shales, and because it is shallower and less compacted than underlying, more deeply buried sandstones. This member has little detrital matrix and much of its porosity is secondary, developed by carboxylic acid and CO{sub 2} generated when Jurassic-Cretaceous basalts, sills, and dikes were intruded into the Parana basin as Gondwana broke up.

  12. Variations in vitrinite reflectance values for the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation, southeastern Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado; implications for burial history and potential hydrocarbon generation. The Frying Pan Member of the Maroon Formation; a lower Permian( ) basin-margin dune field in northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuccio, V.F.; Johnson, R.C.; Johnson, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation in the southeastern Piceance basin is thermally mature enough to have produced hydrocarbons by thermal generation, but only part of the Mesaverde is thermally mature enough to have expelled significant amounts of natural gas. The Early Permian( ) Frying pan Member of the Maroon Formation consists of quartz rich, very fine to fine-grained sandstone deposited in eolian dune and interdune environments. The Frying pan Member (formerly called the sandstone of the Frying pan River) is removed from the State Bridge Formation and assigned to the Maroon Formation.

  13. Diagenetic overprint of original depositional architecture in a shallow water carbonate reservoir, Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruppel, S.C.; Lucia, F.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Permian shallow-water carbonate reservoirs are highly heterogeneous because of complex variations in depositional facies produced by high-frequency sea level rise and fall. Accordingly, establishment of a cycle stratigraphic framework is fundamental to defining reservoir heterogeneity. Because nearly all of these reservoirs have experienced multiple episodes of dolomitization and sulfate emplacement, however, permeability is a n of diagenetic overprint. The extent to which diagenesis can affect permeability development is dramatically displayed in the Grayburg Formation (middle Permian) at South Cowden field, Weit Texas. Three scales of cyclicity contribute to original depositional facies heterogeneity in the Grayburg; high-frequency cycles, averaging 3 meters in thickness, constitute the fundamental architectural element in the main reservoir interval. Despite original depositional heterogeneity due to this cyclicity, however, permeability development is substantially the result of two diagenetic events: (1) dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones and (2) late alteration and removal of anhydrite. Dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones has produced irregular vertical zones of higher permeability in mud-dominated bases of high-frequency cycles in leeward ramp-crest highstand successions. Because dolomite diagenesis is concentrated in burrowed highstand successions, the distribution of resultant permeability trends is partly constrained by patterns of longterm accommodation and high frequency cyclicity. Anhydrite diagenesis, which is characterized by conversion to gypsum or by complete removal of sulfate, is developed along basinward margins of the field and cross cuts original depositional framework.

  14. Diagenetic overprint of original depositional architecture in a shallow water carbonate reservoir, Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruppel, S.C.; Lucia, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Permian shallow-water carbonate reservoirs are highly heterogeneous because of complex variations in depositional facies produced by high-frequency sea level rise and fall. Accordingly, establishment of a cycle stratigraphic framework is fundamental to defining reservoir heterogeneity. Because nearly all of these reservoirs have experienced multiple episodes of dolomitization and sulfate emplacement, however, permeability is a n of diagenetic overprint. The extent to which diagenesis can affect permeability development is dramatically displayed in the Grayburg Formation (middle Permian) at South Cowden field, Weit Texas. Three scales of cyclicity contribute to original depositional facies heterogeneity in the Grayburg; high-frequency cycles, averaging 3 meters in thickness, constitute the fundamental architectural element in the main reservoir interval. Despite original depositional heterogeneity due to this cyclicity, however, permeability development is substantially the result of two diagenetic events: (1) dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones and (2) late alteration and removal of anhydrite. Dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones has produced irregular vertical zones of higher permeability in mud-dominated bases of high-frequency cycles in leeward ramp-crest highstand successions. Because dolomite diagenesis is concentrated in burrowed highstand successions, the distribution of resultant permeability trends is partly constrained by patterns of longterm accommodation and high frequency cyclicity. Anhydrite diagenesis, which is characterized by conversion to gypsum or by complete removal of sulfate, is developed along basinward margins of the field and cross cuts original depositional framework.

  15. Modeling reservoir heterogeneity within outer ramp carbonate facies using an outcrop analog, San Andres Formation of the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, R.A.; Harris, P.M.; Grant, C.W.

    1994-09-01

    Variably cyclic, fusulinid-rich, outer ramp facies of the Permian San Andres Formation are exposed along the Algerita escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. We have used the outcrop exposures and cored wells drilled adjacent to the outcrop to assess reservoir- and interwell-scale variability of permeability as a potential analog for carbonate reservoirs in the Permian basin and elsewhere. Permeability distribution was evaluated using a field permeameter and conventional measurements on small core plugs taken along vertical and horizontal outcrop traverses and from the slim-hole cores. Geostatistical models of permeability variation, honoring the geologic and petrophysical data, were constructed and input into a waterflood simulator to understand the interactions between heterogeneity and flow. Different vertical variogram characteristics are displayed by cyclic and less distinctly cyclic parts of the San Andres. Variograms constructed for horizontal transect data from three distinct stratigraphic units have nearly identical properties. Overall, the ranges of correlation are short (3-3.5 in; 10-12 ft) when compared to typical interwell distances, supporting a nearly uncorrelated and highly variable permeability model. Using observed short ranges of vertical and horizontal correlation and honoring the vertical transect data, cross sectional, conditionally simulated permeability fields were generated and used in simulated waterfloods to investigate the sensitivities to an oil recovery model and overall fluid injection rate for this style of stratigraphy and cyclicity. Cyclic parts of the section are characterized by a potential for early water breakthrough and relatively high vertical sweep efficiencies. Within the less distinctly cyclic section, waterflood fronts have a fingerlike profile and vertical sweep efficiency is generally poorer.

  16. The tectonic mechanism for uplift and rotation of crustal blocks in the Central basin platform, Permian basin, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Kennming; Dorobek, S.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The Central basin platform is a positive tectonic element in the subsurface of the Permian basin. This enigmatic platform strikes north-northwest-south-southeast and at a high angle to the Marathon fold-and-thrust belt to the south. Although the uplift of the platform was related temporally to major overthrusting in the orogenic belt to the south and east, its formative mechanisms are still poorly understood. Previously compiled tectonic maps and cross sections were analyzed to identify the significant characteristics of this complicated structure. (1) Much of the platform is bounded by laterally discontinuous, high-angle faults with large vertical displacements. (2) The bounding faults suggest that the platform is composed of several discrete blocks that are arranged in a dextral en echelon pattern. (3) The southwest and northeast corners of each block typically are bounded by major faults; block uplift is greatest at the southwest and northeast corners. (4) Blocks are separated by west-northwest-east-southeast-trending transfer zones. These characteristics suggest that the Central Basin platform was subjected to a north-northwest-south-southeast-trending dextral couple that caused the platform to split into several blocks. Individual blocks rotated in the same clockwise sense and produced the maximum uplift observed at the southwest and northeast corners of blocks. In addition to the above characteristics, the amount of uplift an the width of individual blocks progressively decrease toward the north; block boundaries also become less defined northward. However, these additional complexities are not fully understood yet.

  17. Dayao County Yupao River BasDayao County Yupao River Basin Hydro...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dayao County Yupao River BasDayao County Yupao River Basin Hydro electricity Development Co Ltd in Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dayao County Yupao River BasDayao County Yupao...

  18. Subsurface cross section of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macke, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Powder River basin is one of the most actively explored Rocky Mountain basins for hydrocarbons, yet the lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) rocks of this interval remain little studied. As a part of a program studying the evolution of sedimentary basins, approximately 3200 km of cross section, based on more than 50 combined geophysical and lithologic logs, have been constructed covering an area of about 200,000 km/sup 2/. The present-day basin is a Cenozoic structural feature located between the stable interior of the North American craton and the Cordilleran orogenic belt. At various times during the early Paleozoic, the basin area was not distinguishable from either the stable craton, the Williston basin, the Central Montana trough, or the Cordilleran miogeocline. Both deposition and preservation in the basin have been greatly influenced by the relative uplift of the Transcontinental arch. Shows of oil and dead oil in well cuttings confirm that hydrocarbons have migrated through at least parts of the basin's lower Paleozoic carbonate section. These rocks may have been conduits for long-distance migration of hydrocarbons as early as Late Cretaceous, based on (1) the probable timing of thermal maturation of hydrocarbon-source rocks within the basin area and to the west, (2) the timing of Laramide structural events, (3) the discontinuous nature of the reservoirs in the overlying, highly productive Pennsylvanian-Permian Minnelusa Formation, and (4) the under-pressuring observed in some Minnelusa oil fields. Vertical migration into the overlying reservoirs could have been through deep fractures within the basin, represented by major lineament systems. Moreover, the lower Paleozoic rocks themselves may also be hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  19. Lithospheric flexure and composite tectonic loads in the foreland of the Marathon orogenic belt: Permian Basin, west Texas and southern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Kenn Ming; Dorobek, S. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Lithospheric flexure caused by loading of orogenic belts is regarded as the main process that produces subsidence in foreland basins. However in some foreland areas, subsidence may be affected by synorogenic foreland uplifts that act as additional loads. The Permian Basin is located in the foreland area of the late Paleozoic Marathon orogenic belt (Mob). The Permian Basin consists of several sub-basins that are separated by several structurally complex uplifts. Uplift of the Central Basin Platform (CBP) and subsidence in adjacent basins were coeval with final stages of deformation in the Marathon orogen. The CBP is oriented at high angles to the Marathon orogen and consists of several blocks arranged in an en echelon pattern. Data suggest that uplift of the CBP was affected by clockwise rotation of crustal blocks between NNW-SSE trending boundary faults. Although both the Delaware Basin (DB) and Val Verde Basin (VVB) are adjacent to the Mob, the synorogenic geometries of these basins are different. The VVB has a typical flexural profile that apparently is due to loading of the Marathon orogen. However, the flexural profile becomes narrower and deeper toward the western end of the VVB where the basin is bordered by the southernmost block of the CBP. In contrast, synorogenic DB profiles have composite wavelengths which show maximum deflection next to the Mob and toward the uplifted blocks of the CBP. This suggests that synorogenic subsidence of the DB was affected by loading of the CBP. In addition, the loading geometry across the uplifted CBP is asymmetric, with greater uplift and basement shortening on the western side of the CBP and less uplift and basement shortening on the eastern side. This may explain greater synorogenic subsidence in the DB than the Midland Basin.

  20. Outcrop analogs for mdoeling heterogeneous restricted platform reservoirs: Grayburg Formation (Guadalupian) of the Guadalupe Mountains and subsurface Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Bebout, D.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Restricted platform deposits of the Permian basin have produced more than 10 billion bbl of oil, but because of complex internal facies architecture ultimate recovery rarely exceeds 30% of original oil in place. The first step in locating and exploiting the substantial unrecovered hydrocarbons in this play is developing improved development-oriented (as opposed to exploration-oriented) models of facies/permeability heterogeneity. Quantitative geologic/engineering analysis of outcrops analogous to reservoirs allows characterization of styles of variability and three-dimensional geometry at interwell, reservoir, and play scales beyond that possible using limited subsurface data. The Guadalupian Grayburg Formation is exposed in the northern Guadalupe Mountains less than 60 mi west of reservoir trends on the Northwest Shelf and Central Basin platform. These outcrops provide a test for the development of outcrop-based reservoir heterogeneity models. A 10-mi dip section of the mixed siliciclastic/carbonate Grayburg of the Guadalupes exhibits inner ramp (4-mi dip width), ramp-crest ooid shoal/tidal flat (4 mi dip width), and outer ramp fusulinid-peloid (2-mi dip width) facies tracts. Maximum facies heterogeneity occurs in upward-shallowing cycles of the ramp crest where porous ooid shoals pass laterally into tight peloid packstones in less than 1,000 ft. Siliciclastic sands are intercalated in all facies tracts typically as sheets. However, in the ramp crest they also occur as 15-ft-thick by 50-ft-wide channels dissecting ooid shoals. Grayburg reservoirs on the eastern side of the Central Basin platform contain facies tracts and styles of heterogeneity analogous to the outcrop. Production trends from these reservoirs similarly illustrate most variability in grainstone shoal complexes.

  1. Oregon Willamette River Basin Mitigation Agreement | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    River Basin Mitigation Agreement Author State of Oregon Recipient Bonneville Power Administration Published Publisher Not Provided, 10222010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI...

  2. Influence of Permian salt dissolution on Cretaceous oil and gas entrapment and reserve potential, Denver basin, Western Nebraska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldham, D.W.; Smosna, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    Location and trap type of Cretaceous oil and gas fields in the D-J Fairway of Nebraska are related to the occurrence of 12 Permian salt zones. Salt distribution is controlled by the configuration of evaporate basins, truncation at a sub-Jurassic unconformity, and post-Jurassic subsurface dissolution. The Sidney Trough, which marks the eastern (regionally updip) limit of Cretaceous oil production in western Nebraska, is a rootless salt-dissolution collapse feature, whose location and origin is controlled by an abrupt linear facies change from thick, porous Lyons Sandstone to Leonardian salt. Eastward gravity-driven groundwater flow within the Lyons occurred in response to hydraulic gradient and recharge along the Front Range Uplift following Laramide orogeny. Dissolution of salt at the facies change caused collapse of overlying strata, producing fractures through which cross-formational flow occurred. Younger salts were dissolved, enhancing relief across the regional depression and subsidiary synclines. Timing of post-Jurassic dissolution influenced entrapment within D and J sandstone reservoirs. Where Early Cretaceous (pre-reservoir) dissolution occurred, structure at the D and J sandstone level is relatively simple, and stratigraphic traps predominate. Where Late Cretaceous - Tertiary (post-reservoir) dissolution occurred, structure is more complex, formation waters are more saline, oil and gas are localized on dissolution-induced anticlines, and per-well reserves are significantly higher.

  3. Carbonate reservoirs deposited during sea level lowstands, Permian basin: Occurrence, geometry, facies, and origin of porosity of in-situ buildups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, S.J. ); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T.

    1990-02-01

    Carbonate reservoirs composed of in-situ reefs and associated facies, mostly deposited basinward of shallow platforms during sea level lowstands, are common in Pennsylvanian rocks in the Permian basin. Specific examples include some Atokan and Strawn fields in the Delaware basin, and Canyon-Cisco fields in the Midland basin. Such reservoirs are conspicuous by their absence in Permian rocks, where lowstand facies are instead siliciclastics and detrital carbonates. In-situ lowstand carbonate reservoirs are represented by phylloid algal reefs (Atokan, Canyon-Cisco), crinoid banks locally with some Chaetetes and phylloid algal reefs (Strawn), and bryozoan-algal boundstone reefs (Canyon-Cisco). These facies are associated with bioclastic and, locally, oolitic sandstones. Lowstand reservoirs are both underlain and overlain by deep-water facies, and field geometries range from equidimensional to slightly elongate, generally parallel to platform margins. Porosity in many fields is due to extensive leaching and karsting accompanying subaerial or shallow subsurface meteoric exposure. Accordingly, porosity predictions are best based on knowledge of reconstructed sea level curves. However, many reservoir pore systems have resulted from deep-burial dissolution accompanying chemical compaction and the migration of fluids out of the basin. Porosity predictions in such cases must rely on knowledge of diagenesis and aspects of basin hydrodynamics.

  4. High-resolution stratigraphic forward modeling: A case study of the lower-middle San Andres formation, Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuster, M.W. , Rijswijk ); Childers, D.W. )

    1993-09-01

    This study has attempted to calibrate Shell's two-dimensional (2-D) basin modeling program as an exploration tool by simulating the stratigraphy of a mixed carbonate/clastic third-order depositional sequence. The lower-middle San Andres Formation was selected because available log, core, and outcrop data from the Northwest Shelf area, Permian basin, provided an excellent calibration set. A regional stratigraphic cross section from the Cato-Chaveroo to the Wasson fields was constructed delineating lithology and porosity distribution. Approximately 10 shoaling-upward depositional cycles were interpreted. A higher frequency, five-in-one cyclicity was also interpreted based on core and outcrop data. The observed stratigraphy was simulated using a composite eustasy consisting of third-order (2,000,000 yr), fourth-order (100,000 yr), and fifth-order (20,000 yr) sinusoids each at five-meter amplitudes. Subsidence input was constrained by back-stripped tectonic subsidence curves calculated from well data. Sedimentation parameters were interactively derived. New empirically based algorithms were used to model Dunham lithofacies, environmental facies, and sabkha anhydrite distribution. Synthetic log and 2-D synthetic seismic profiles were constructed from the simulation output. The simulation results suggest that (1) relative sea level is the dominant control on the observed depositional cyclicity, (2) the distribution of regional seal facies (anhydrite) reflects falling sea level and prolonged exposure, (3) limestone-dolomite trends on the shelf are grossly related to environment and (4) the distribution of grainstones and packstones (potential reservoirs) occurs as fourth- and fifth-order offlapping and aggradational pods. The synthetic log signatures compared to [open quotes]real[close quotes] logs substantiate the interpreted depositional cyclicity, but also point out the difficulty in interpreting high-order cycles based on log data alone.

  5. The occurrence of freshwater limestones in the Upper Pennsylvanian and lower Permian of the northern Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggleston, J.R. ); Ferdinand, L.F. )

    1990-05-01

    Freshwater limestones comprise a significant portion of the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata of the northern Appalachian basin. In some areas, the Monogahela Group consists of as much as 50% freshwater limestones. These limestones are clayey to silty, iron-bearing, sparsely fossiliferous, micritic, and thinly bedded or nodular and are presumed to be lacustrine in origin. They are part of a recurring sequence of beds that include coal, sandstone, shale/clay, and marine limestone. The initial goals of this study are to develop a stratigraphic framework for these freshwater limestones and to determine, their lateral continuity, thickness variability, and relation to other beds in this section, in particular the coals, on a regional scale. The Pittsburgh coal and Ames limestone are very persistent regionally and are used as a datum. Regional correlations show that possibly 20 freshwater limestone beds are persistent and widespread; some cover at least 5,000 mi{sup 2} in eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia and western Maryland. Cross sections and fence diagrams constructed from drill logs and measured sections indicate that the thickness of these limestone beds varies laterally and between beds, ranging from less than 1 to 150 ft thick. Correlations also show stratigraphic and paleogeographic relationships between the coals and freshwater limestones. Many of the limestones underlie coal beds, directly in some places. The coals and limestones are better developed in the northern part of the Appalachian basin. These associations may hold significant clues to the depositional and the paleoclimatic setting of the freshwater limestones and the coals.

  6. Development strategy in a fractured dolomite reservoir, Permian Basin, Southwestern USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H.

    1995-06-01

    The Permian (Guadalupian) San Andres reservoir at Keystone field, in Winkler County, Texas, is divided into 3 major stratigraphic units and 12 flow units on the basis of multiple upward-shoaling cycles of shallow-water marine to tidal-flat carbonate facies. Minor amounts of siliciclastic material concentrated in tidal-flat rocks impart a gamma-ray signature that allows correlation with well logs. These rocks are now thoroughly dolomitized and cemented with anhydrite and gypsum. Most of the resource is in the upper five flow units, and the original upper flow units indicates that the highest concentration of hydrocarbons is in the center of the study area, with a 1,500-ft-wide, 100-ft-thick fairway of high saturations having a northwest-southeast trend. Matrix permeabilities in this reservoir are very low, commonly less than 1 md in rocks having porosities of nearly 10 percent. Now wells in areas of highest original oil in place initially produce at rates up to 120 barrels of oil per day. However, these high production rates are commonly short lived and decline an average of 75 percent in the first 6 months. Vertical fractures in this reservoir are visible in cores and on a microimage log. Early floodwater breakthrough occurred without increased oil production in a pilot waterflood. These production characteristics, combined with direct observations of fractures, indicate that productivity is dependent on fracture permeability. Borehole asymmetry and regional stress measurements suggest that the direction of principal compressive stress, which dictates the strike of fractures that effectively transmit fluids, is northeast-southwest. Thus, horizontal boreholes parallel to the strike of maximum oil volume and perpendicular to the strike of effective fractures will maximize primary recovery. Recognition that injected water must load fractures before effectively sweeping the matrix will be critical in designing an effective waterflood.

  7. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-05-01

    The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres

  8. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  9. Controls of alluvial stratigraphy in the Upper Pennsylvania-Lower Permian Dunkard Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominic, D.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Casselman, Pittsburgh, and Waynesburg formations exposed in northern West Virginia were deposited within a foreland basin adjacent to the Alleghenian fold and thrust belt. Sandstones were deposited in fluvial channels on an aggrading and prograding coastal plain. however, unlike mid-continental cyclothems, these channels were isolated from eustatic changes because previous delta progradation had blocked circulation between the local depositional basin and the larger mid-continental sea. Thus, eustatic changes had no direct or strong influence on Dunkard basin deposition, a conclusion supported by interbasinal correlation. Also, climate was largely stable during this interval. The evolution of channel properties, therefore, most likely reflects the influence of intrabasinal controls and possibly tectonism. Detailed correlation indicates that coeval channel belts were separated by about 50 km with an intervening area of slower subsidence and deposition. Quantitative reconstruction of bankfull hydraulics and geometry indicates that channels were of moderate sinuosity, were not braided, and were of two distinct sizes (average widths, 80 and 250 m, respectively). An overall decrease in discharge in the smaller channels throughout the studied interval may be attributed to a slowing of subsidence rates as the locus of sedimentation prograded beyond the northwestern margin of the Rome Trough or to thrustward migration of a forebulge following episodic thrusting. The increase in size and discharge of channels in the uppermost Waynesburg Formation is attributed to progradation of the upper fluvial-deltaic plain over the lower fluvial-deltaic plain, a progradation that may likewise have been promoted by thrusting.

  10. The Major-ion Composition of Permian Seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowenstein, T K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.; Kovalevych, Volodymyr M.; Horita, Juske

    2005-01-01

    The major-ion (Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and Cl{sup -}) composition of Permian seawater was determined from chemical analyses of fluid inclusions in marine halites. New data from the Upper Permian San Andres Formation of Texas (274--272 Ma) and Salado Formation of New Mexico (251 Ma), analyzed by the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) method, along with published chemical compositions of fluid inclusions in Permian marine halites from North America (two formations of different ages) and the Central and Eastern European basins (eight formations of four different ages) show that Permian seawater shares chemical characteristics with modern seawater, including SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > Ca{sup 2+} at the point of gypsum precipitation, evolution into Mg{sup 2+}-Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}-Cl{sup -} brines, and Mg{sup 2+}/K{sup +} ratios {approx} 5. Permian seawater, however, is slightly depleted in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and enriched in Ca{sup 2+}, although modeling results do not rule out Ca{sup 2+} concentrations close to those in present-day seawater. Na{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} in Permian seawater are close to (slightly below) their concentrations in modern seawater. Permian and modern seawater are both classified as aragonite seas, with Mg{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} ratios >2, conditions favorable for precipitation of aragonite and magnesian calcite as ooids and cements. The chemistry of Permian seawater was modeled using the chemical composition of brine inclusions for three periods: Lower Permian Asselian-Sakmarian (296--283 Ma), Lower Permian Artinskian-Kungurian (283--274 Ma), and Upper Permian Tatarian (258--251 Ma). Parallel changes in the chemistry of brine inclusions from equivalent age evaporites in North America, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe show that seawater underwent secular variations in chemistry over the 50 million years of the Permian. Modeled SO{sub 4}{sup 2

  11. Sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies of the Silurian-Devonian interval of the northern Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canter, K.L.; Geesaman, R.C. ); Wheeler, D. )

    1992-04-01

    The Silurian and Devonian intervals of the northern Central Basin platform area of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico include the Fusselman, Wristen, and Thirtyone formations and the Woodford Shale. The carbonate-rich Fusselman, Wristen, and Thirtyone formations record a transition from ramp to platform deposition. Oolite grainstones of the lower Fusselman Formation were deposited in a ramp setting during an Upper Ordovician/Lower Silurian transgression. The overlying crinoid packstones and grainstones represent shoals that developed along a break in slope separating the evolving platform from a southward-dipping starved basin. By the close of Fusselman deposition, the platform was well developed, with shallow peridtidal mudstones and wackestones, and high-energy grainstones deposited as near-parallel facies tracts over the platform area. The platform system became fully developed during the deposition of the Wristen Formation. Porous dolomitic peridtidal and platform margin facies grade downdip into nonporous, limy and argillaceous open-shelf facies. Platform facies are typified by numerous shallowing-upward parasequences that terminated at subaerial exposure surfaces. The rocks of the Lower Devonian Thirtyone Formation were deposited as a wedge that onlaps the exposed Silurian platform margin. This formation contains a porous, chert-rich, lowstand deposit; a transgressive disconformity; and variably porous, grain-rich highstand deposits representing an overall sea level rise. A major unconformity marks the contact between the karsted upper surface of the Thirtyone Formation and the overlying organic-rich, anoxic Woodford Shale.

  12. Building the 3-D jugsaw puzzle: Applications of sequence stratigraphy to 3-D reservoir characterization, Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tinker, S.W.

    1996-04-01

    Reservoir characterization involves the quantification, integration, reduction, and analysis of geological, petrophysical, seismic, and engineering data. This is no small task. A principal goal of reservoir characterization is to derive a spatial understanding of interwell heterogeneity. Traditionally, geologic attempts to characterize interwell heterogeneity have been done using hand-drawn or computer-generated two-dimensional (2-D) maps and cross sections. Results can be improved dramatically using three-dimensional (3-D) interpretation and analysis techniques. Three-dimensional reservoir characterization requires the same input data used in 2-D approaches, and the cost is equal to, and commonly lower than, traditional 2-D methods. The product of 3-D reservoir characterization is a 3-D reservoir model. The language used to communicate the results of a 3-D reservoir model is visualization; i.e., visual images of numerical data. All of the available log and core data in a model area are incorporated in a 3-D model, but the data are depicted as colored cells rather than as log traces. The integrity of the 3-D reservoir model is largely a function of the stratigraphic framework. Interpreting the correct stratigraphic framework for a subsurface reservoir is the most difficult and creative part of the 3-D modeling process. Sequence and seismic stratigraphic interpretation provide the best stratigraphic framework for 3-D reservoir modeling. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pro- cess of 3-D deterministic reservoir modeling and to illustrate the advantages of using a sequence stratigraphic framework in 3-D modeling. Mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sediment outcrop and subsurface examples from the Permian basin of west Texas and New Mexico will be used as examples, but the concepts and techniques can be applied to reservoirs of any age.

  13. Pyrolysis and hydrocarbon source bed potential of the Upper Devonian Woodford Shale, Hovey Channel, southern Permian basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussain, M.; Bloom, M.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Upper Devonian Woodford Shale in the Hovey Channel area, southern Permian basin, is 50 m thick and composed largely of brown to black, pyritic, spore-bearing, organic-rich, fissile shale an chert. Total organic carbon, distillable hydrocarbons, genetic potential, organic carbon index, hydrogen index, temperature of maximum hydrocarbon generation, and kerogen transformation index of the Woodford Shale suggest a matured to overmatured, gas-generating source bed. The total organic carbon content of the formation ranged from a low of 0.77% in the cherty samples to a high of 4.59% in a shaley sample, averaging 2.18%. Distillable hydrocarbon content of the samples is fairly high (averaging 1.72 mg HC/gm{degree} rock), varying from 0.90 mg HC/gm{degree} rock to 3.22 mg HC/gm{degree} rock. Genetic potential evaluated in terms of both residual and total generative potential showed above average potential, averaging 3.25 mg HC/gm{degree} rock for the residual and 4.90 mg HC/gm{degree} rock for the total, respectively. Live organic carbon index values ranged from 11-28%, characterizing the formation as a moderate to good source bed. Hydrogen index values ranged from 73 mg HC/gm{degree} C org to 155 mg HC/gm{degree} C org, suggesting overmaturity and gas-generation potential of the source bed. Temperature of maximum hydrocarbon generation values and kerogen transformation ratio values (averaging 0.34) also indicate overmatured nature of the Woodford Shale.

  14. Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, F.J.; Kerans, C.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study.

  15. Spatial design principles for sustainable hydropower development in river basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Henriëtte I.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Opperman, Jeff J.; Kelly, Michael R.

    2015-02-27

    How can dams be arranged within a river basin such that they benefit society? Recent interest in this question has grown in response to the worldwide trend toward developing hydropower as a source of renewable energy in Asia and South America, and the movement toward removing unnecessary dams in the US. Environmental and energy sustainability are important practical concerns, and yet river development has rarely been planned with the goal of providing society with a portfolio of ecosystem services into the future. We organized a review and synthesis of the growing research in sustainable river basin design around four spatial decisions: Is it better to build fewer mainstem dams or more tributary dams? Should dams be clustered or distributed among distant subbasins? Where should dams be placed along a river? At what spatial scale should decisions be made? We came up with the following design principles for increasing ecological sustainability: (i) concentrate dams within a subset of tributary watersheds and avoid downstream mainstems of rivers, (ii) disperse freshwater reserves among the remaining tributary catchments, (iii) ensure that habitat provided between dams will support reproduction and retain offspring, and (iv) formulate spatial decision problems at the scale of large river basins. Based on our review, we discuss trade-offs between hydropower and ecological objectives when planning river basin development. We hope that future testing and refinement of principles extracted from our review will define a path toward sustainable river basin design.

  16. Spatial design principles for sustainable hydropower development in river basins

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jager, Henriëtte I.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Opperman, Jeff J.; Kelly, Michael R.

    2015-02-27

    How can dams be arranged within a river basin such that they benefit society? Recent interest in this question has grown in response to the worldwide trend toward developing hydropower as a source of renewable energy in Asia and South America, and the movement toward removing unnecessary dams in the US. Environmental and energy sustainability are important practical concerns, and yet river development has rarely been planned with the goal of providing society with a portfolio of ecosystem services into the future. We organized a review and synthesis of the growing research in sustainable river basin design around four spatialmore » decisions: Is it better to build fewer mainstem dams or more tributary dams? Should dams be clustered or distributed among distant subbasins? Where should dams be placed along a river? At what spatial scale should decisions be made? We came up with the following design principles for increasing ecological sustainability: (i) concentrate dams within a subset of tributary watersheds and avoid downstream mainstems of rivers, (ii) disperse freshwater reserves among the remaining tributary catchments, (iii) ensure that habitat provided between dams will support reproduction and retain offspring, and (iv) formulate spatial decision problems at the scale of large river basins. Based on our review, we discuss trade-offs between hydropower and ecological objectives when planning river basin development. We hope that future testing and refinement of principles extracted from our review will define a path toward sustainable river basin design.« less

  17. Savannah River Site - D-Area Oil Seepage Basin | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - D-Area Oil Seepage Basin Savannah River Site - D-Area Oil Seepage Basin January 1, 2014 ... InstallationName, State: Savannah River Site, SC Responsible DOE Office: Savannah River ...

  18. Diagenesis and secondary porosity enhancement from dissolution of analcime cement in reservoir sandstones: The Upper Permian Pingdiquan Formation, Junggar basin, northwest China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhaohui, T.; Longstaffe, F.J.; Parnell, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Junggar Basin is one of the largest and most important oil-producing basins in China, in which Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales are among the thickest and richest petroleum source rocks in the world. The Upper Permian Pingdiquan Formation was deposited predominantly in fan-delta sequences within a lacustrine setting. The Pingdiquan Formation sandstones constitute the principal oil reservoirs, whereas the interbedded black shales are the predominant oil source rocks. The early diagenetic mineral assemblage in the sandstones comprises siderite, pyrite, analcime, albite, calcite and authigenic quartz as well as trace amount of halite; By contrast, the late diagenetic minerals are characterized by authigenic K-feldspar, ankerite, and minor amounts of mixed-layer clay minerals. Petrographic, mineralogical and available paleoecological data suggest that early authigenic minerals in the sandstones were controlled by alternating periodic fresh water and saline/alkaline water episodes in a lacustrine environment. The cementation of siderite, analcime, calcite and albite occluded the substantial porosity in the sandstones at an early diagenetic stage. However, extensive dissolution of analcime cement and labile detrital feldspars occurred during burial diagenesis, resulting in a significant secondary porosity enhancement in the sandstones and making them very good quality oil reservoirs. The origin of secondary porosity is related to the generation of various organic acids due to organic maturation of the interbedded exceptionally organic-rich oil shales.

  19. Diagenesis and secondary porosity enhancement from dissolution of analcime cement in reservoir sandstones: The Upper Permian Pingdiquan Formation, Junggar basin, northwest China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhaohui, T.; Longstaffe, F.J. ); Parnell, J. )

    1996-01-01

    The Junggar Basin is one of the largest and most important oil-producing basins in China, in which Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales are among the thickest and richest petroleum source rocks in the world. The Upper Permian Pingdiquan Formation was deposited predominantly in fan-delta sequences within a lacustrine setting. The Pingdiquan Formation sandstones constitute the principal oil reservoirs, whereas the interbedded black shales are the predominant oil source rocks. The early diagenetic mineral assemblage in the sandstones comprises siderite, pyrite, analcime, albite, calcite and authigenic quartz as well as trace amount of halite; By contrast, the late diagenetic minerals are characterized by authigenic K-feldspar, ankerite, and minor amounts of mixed-layer clay minerals. Petrographic, mineralogical and available paleoecological data suggest that early authigenic minerals in the sandstones were controlled by alternating periodic fresh water and saline/alkaline water episodes in a lacustrine environment. The cementation of siderite, analcime, calcite and albite occluded the substantial porosity in the sandstones at an early diagenetic stage. However, extensive dissolution of analcime cement and labile detrital feldspars occurred during burial diagenesis, resulting in a significant secondary porosity enhancement in the sandstones and making them very good quality oil reservoirs. The origin of secondary porosity is related to the generation of various organic acids due to organic maturation of the interbedded exceptionally organic-rich oil shales.

  20. Source versus depositional controls on sandstone composition in a foreland basin: The El Imperial Formation (Mid Carboniferous-Lower Permian), San Rafael basin, western Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espejo, E.S. ); Lopez-Gamundi, O.R. . Frontier Exploration Dept.)

    1994-01-01

    The El Imperial Formation (mid-Carboniferous-Lower Permian) constitutes a progradational sandstone-rich succession deposited in the San Rafael foreland basin of western Argentina. Four facies associations have been identified: a basal glacial marine association, a shallow marine association, a deltaic association, and an uppermost fluvial association. Sand-prone deposits in the deltaic association, a shallow marine association, a deltaic association, and an uppermost fluvial association. Sand-prone deposits in the deltaic association are represented by prodelta and delta-front shales and subordinate fine sandstones (Facies A), deltaic platform, wave-reworked channel mouth-bar sandstones (Facies B), and fluvial-dominated distributary channel sandstones (Facies C). Analysis of framework grains of sandstone samples from Facies B and C shows two distinct mineral assemblages or petrofacies. The quartzose petrofacies is characterized by high contents of quartz and low percentages of feldspar and lithic grains. The quartzolithic petrofacies shows an increase in labile components, in particular lithic fragments, and a concomitant decrease in quartz. The quartzolithic petrofacies shows a source signature. Average detrital modes of sandstones from this petrofacies are similar to those from overlying fluvial sandstones. All wave-reworked, channel mouth-bar sandstones (Facies B) correspond compositionally to the quartzose petrofacies, whereas detrital modes from the distributary-channel sandstones (Facies C) fall into the quartzolithic petrofacies. This correspondence between depositional environment and petrofacies suggests a strong depositional influence on composition (depositional signature). Abrasion (mechanical breakdown) by wave action in shallow marine environments accounts for the quartz-rich nature and paucity of labile grains in the quartzose petrofacies.

  1. Early-to-late-diagenetic dolomitization of platform carbonates: Lower Ordovician Ellenburger Group, Permian basin, west Texas and southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amthor, J.E. ); Friedman, G.M. Northeastern Science Foundation, Troy, NY )

    1991-03-01

    Pervasive early- to late-diagenetic dolomitization of Lower Ordovician Ellenburger carbonates in the deep Permian basin is recorded in core samples having present-day burial depths of 1.5 to 7.0 km. Fine-crystalline planar replacement dolomite formed during early diagenesis in a subtidal to peritidal setting under near-surface, low-temperature conditions, with Mg{sup 2+} for dolomitization of precursor lime mud supplied by diffusion from overlying seawater. During intermediate burial (500-2,000 m), medium- to coarse-crystalline planar-s dolomite replaced allochems and matrix, or occurred as void-filling. Burial-history and thermal maturation calculations suggest that deep-burial dolomite cementation occurred during the Late Pennsylvanian/Early Permian. Inter- and intracrystalline dissolution surfaces are observed within the paragenetic sequence. Major truncation surfaces between early replacement dolomites and later void-filling dolomites, and between planar and nonplanar dolomite cements are evidence for dolomite dissolution. Deep-discharge of meteoric fluids as a result of frequent periods of karsting in overlying strata, and long-distance fluid migration during the Ouachita orogeny from foreland basins to the south are invoked for sources of undersaturated fluids causing dolomite dissolution and creating matrix-porosity in the deep subsurface. Similar diagenetic relationships have been described from other deeply buried carbonate rocks elsewhere, indicating that trends and timing of dolomitization, dissolution and porosity formation, and cementation by late dolomite and calcite are intimately related to the evolution of sedimentary basins. The origin of massive dolostones such as the Ellenburger is best explained in the context of basin evolution, rather than by a single model of dolomite formation.

  2. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  3. Permian chronostratigraphy in Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baars, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    Correlations between the type Permian System of Russia and North American strata have been difficult for decades because of biostratigraphic and nomenclatural confusion. Consequently, a standard Permian section was established in west Texas that is widely accepted throughout North America. Series of the North American standard section are, in ascending order, Wolfcampian, Leonardian, Guadalupian, and Ochoan. This nomenclature was adopted for usage in Kansas in 1951, but was later abandoned in favor of local terminology. However, direct biostratigraphic correlations between Kansas and the west Texas standard section have now been firmly established, and local chronostratigraphic names, i.e., Big Blue, Lyon, Geary, Cimarron, and Custer, have not been widely accepted. The Kansas Geological Survey has now readopted usage of the Wolfcampian Series for rocks of the Admire, Council Grove, and Chase Groups; the Leonardian Series for rocks of the Summer and Nippewalla Groups; and the Guadalupian Series for rocks of the Whitehorse, Day Creek, and Big Basin Formations. The Wolfcampian Series in Kansas (and elsewhere in North America) contains post-Virgilian (latest Carboniferous) strata that predate the classical Permian System of the Russian type section. Consequently, the Pennsylvanian/Permian boundary will probably have to be raised stratigraphically to conform to global usage.

  4. Phanerozoic tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Trans-Pecos and Permian basin regions (Mexico, Texas, New Mexico) using Landsat imagery, subsurface and outcrop data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markello, J.R.; Sarg, J.F.

    1996-08-01

    Integrating regional Landsat imagery, outcrop field studies, and subsurface data has resulted in a more comprehensive understanding and delineation of the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Trans-Pecos region. Landsat imagery were acquired and registered to the existing 1:25000 scale maps and mosaiced to create a regional view of the Trans-Pecos and Permian basin region. The imagery were used to extrapolate and map key stratigraphic and tectonic elements after calibration from documented outcrop and subsurface data. The interpretations aided in the extrapolation of scattered control information and were critical in the complete reconstruction of the geologic history of the area. The Trans-Pecos Phanerozoic history comprises five tectono-depositional phases, and these have controlled the shape of the modem landscape: (1) Late Proterozoic rifting (Gondwana from Laurentia), and development of the Early-Middle Paleozoic Tobosa basin; (2) Pennsylvanian collision (South and North Americas), and differentiation of the Tobosa basin into the Midland, Delaware, Orogrande, and Pedregosa basins separated by basement blocks: Central Basin Platform, Diablo Platform, Burro-Florida Platform; (3) Middle Mesozoic transtensional rifting (Mexico from North America), and Late Jurassic failed rifting of the Mexican Chihuahua and Coahuila Troughs west and south of the Diablo Platform; (4) Late Mesozoic Laramide collision (Mexico and Texas), and development of the Chihuahua fold/thrust belt limited by the western margin of the Diablo Platform; (5) Late Cenozoic North American basin and Range rifting, and development of Rio Grande grabens, block-faulted mountains, and volcanics. The Tobosa basin was a passive-margin interior sag; its continental margin was south of the Marathons.

  5. Illite/Smectite diagenesis in the NanXiang, Yitong, and North China Permian-carboniferous basins: Application to petroleum exploration in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xinhua Deng; Youngchuan Sun; Xinrong Lei

    1996-02-01

    The NanXiang basin in Henan Province and the Yitong basin in Jilin Province, located in the eastern part of China, are composed mainly of Tertiary nonmarine clastic sequences that thicken to more than 4000-5000 m. The North China Permian-Carboniferous basin consists of Permian-Carboniferous systems composed of marine and nonmarine coal-bearing sequences. Clay diagenesis in these basins was studied by systematic x-ray diffraction analysis. The clay mineralogy consists of illite, smectite, mixed-layered illite/smectite (I/S), kaolinite, and chlorite. The major clay reaction is the illitization of smectite with depth and temperature. The reactions generally involve discrete smectite stage to smectite, plus the randomly interstratified I/S (R = 0 in the Reichweite nomenclature), followed by the first rapid change (1) to the ordered I/S of short-range stacking (R = 1) and the second rapid change (11) to the metastable stage (with the ordered I/S of long-range stacking-R {ge}3). The first rapid change leads to the appearance of I/S-ordered I/S and disappearance of discrete smectite. The proportion of smectite layers (Ps) in the I/S in the metastable stage remained unchanged (15-20%) over a thick burial interval. The discrete illite stage finally occurs in highly mature areas. Potassium-feldspar (K-feldspar) in rocks and K ions in present formation waters are available for the I/S reactions; I/S reactions in these areas responded mainly to temperature. The I/S transition from the randomly interstratified I/S (R = 0) to the ordered I/S occurred at 80-95{degrees}C and coincided with the onset of the oil window in source rocks and with secondary porosity enhancement of sand-stones. Integrating the I/S reactions with thermal histories, hydrological regimes, structure, sedimentation, and sandstone diagenesis of each basin allows formulation of clay diagenetic models for each specific basin.

  6. Dolomite, gypsum, and anhydrite in Permian McElroy field, Central Basin platform: genetic and spatial relationships to facies tracts, cyclicity, structure, and pay zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machel, H.G.; Longacre, S.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Permian McElroy field at the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform is part of the giant P.J.W.D.M. field complex. Oil production occurs mainly from the Grayburg Formation, which consists of at least four and possibly five internal sedimentary cycles. Trapping is facilitated by a combination of structure (asymmetrical anticline) and a seal of fine-grained peritidal and supratidal dolostones plugged and overlain by gypsum and anhydrite. Although most oil is located close to the top of the structure, the gross pay zone appears to be subdivided into smaller irregularly shaped pods. The geometry and degree of interconnection of these pods are difficult to predict and may be related to the internal cyclicity as well as to diagenesis and structure. Dolomitization largely enhanced and emplacement of sulfates largely reduced the reservoir quality. Data suggest subhorizontal fluid flow in at least one part of the field during dolomite formation or recrystallization from gypsum-saturated brines. Sulfur and oxygen isotope data of the sulfates scatter from 10.0 to 12.5 /per thousand/ CDT and 10.0 to 14.3 /per thousand/ SMOW, respectively, suggesting precipitation from Late Permian brines and later recrystallization and redistribution accompanied by oxidation of bacterial sulfide, minor mixing with older or younger sulfate, equilibration of isotopically heavier formation waters, or a combination thereof.

  7. Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, Jerry F.; Kerans, Charles

    1997-05-29

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study. Subsurface Activities - We continue to prepare two final reports that summarize research results of the South Cowden Field study. One report summarizes results of the petrophysical characterization research, and one summarizes results of the fluid-flow modeling research. Outcrop Activities - We also continue to prepare the final report, which summarizes the research results of the Grayburg outcrop reservoir study.

  8. Hydrocarbon rims on monazite in Permian-Triassic arenites, northern Perth Basin, Western Australia: Pointers to the former presence of oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, B.; Glover, J.E. ); Alexander, R. )

    1989-02-01

    Black opaque hydrocarbon rims about 0.05 mm thick are preserved around detrital monazite grains in Permian-Triassic arenites of the norther Perth Basin, Western Australia. Chromatographic analysis indicates derivation from oil chemically like that elsewhere in the sequence, and the rims seem to be remnants of oil, which was largely flushed away. The hydrocarbon rims may have adhered to the monazite grains because of irradiation; they are not found on other grains. Monazite-rich heavy mineral bands are probably responsible for abnormally high radioactivity recorded locally by gamma-ray logs in wells penetrating the sandstones. A preliminary search has revealed similar rims around monazite in other Western Australian arenites ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. Thin-section examination of heavy mineral concentrations may therefore be a useful, simple technique to indicate the former presence of hydrocarbons in dry arenites.

  9. Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, Jerry F.; Kerans, Charles

    1997-05-19

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study. Subsurface Activities - We continue to prepare two final reports that summarize research results of the South Cowden Field study. One report summarizes results of the petrophysical characterization research, and one summarizes results of the fluid-flow modeling research. Outcrop Activities - We also continue to prepare the final report, which summarizes the research results of the Grayburg outcrop reservoir study.

  10. Strike variability of carbonate platform margin stratal architecture and cycle stacking patterns: Outcrop and seismic examples from lower Permian depositional sequences of the Permian Basin, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitchen, W.M. )

    1996-01-01

    Strike variability in stratal architecture, cycle stacking patterns and facies differentiation within sequences exemplifies the potential for differential stratigraphic response of platforms to eustasy. Variability exists within base-level cycles of several scales within a compound stratigraphic hierarchy, though the causes may vary among different scales. Cross-sections from outcrops in the Sierra Diablo document the framework and stacking pattern of 3rd-order sequences (HFS), including: two progradational middle Wolfcampian HFS (mW1-2), one backstepped upper Wolfcampian HFS (uW1), one progradational lower Leonardin HFS (L1), aggradational middle (L2) and upper Leonardian HFS (L3), three progradatic upper Leonardian HFS (L4-6), and two backstepped, aggradational upper Leonardian HFS (L7-8). Seismic lines from the northern Delaware and Midland Basins and San Simon Channel area document the regional consistency of 3rd-order sequence stacking patterns (a response to eustasy), but show variability related to local subsidence, antecedent topography (owing to deeper structures and platform margin erosion), windward vs. leeward facing, and siliciclastic sediment supply. Sequences L2 and L3 appear to exhibit the greatest variability in stacking pattern. Strike variability in 4th/5th-order cycle stacking patterns within 3rd-order sequences as studied in outcrop is greatest in sequences L2 and L3, in which headland-bight margin trends are developed on a lateral scale of 1-2 miles. Aggrational to backstepping reef-margin facies with steep ([le]35[degrees]) foreslopes developed along headlands. Mudstones abut these margin facies abruptly along headlands and may contain megabreccias at the toe-of-slope. More gently sloping (10-15[degrees]) [open quotes]ramp[close quotes] margin strata composed of fusulinid packstones characterize bights.

  11. Expression of syndepositional tectonic uplift in Permian Goose Egg formation (Phosphoria equivalent) carbonates and red beds of Sheep Mountain anticline, Bighorn basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, S.P.; Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A.

    1989-03-01

    Based on detailed field observations at Sheep Mountain, a doubly plunging anticline in the northeastern Bighorn basin in Wyoming, there appears to have been active tectonic uplift at this site contemporaneous with Pennsylvanian and Permian sedimentation. The Permian (Leonardian to Guadalupian) Goose Egg Formation at Sheep Mountain consists of 25-60 m of silty red beds (including minor carbonate and evaporite units) capped by 15-30 m of dominantly intertidal carbonates (the Ervay Member). A strong lateral variation of facies normal to the trend of the anticline is found within the red-bed sequence: carbonate beds on the anticline flanks are transitional with a gypsum/anhydrite facies along the crest. Similarly, shales on the anticline limbs grade into sandstones near the fold axis, indicating a paleohigh roughly coincidental with the present-day anticline crest. Ervay deposition (late Guadalupian) was marked by a more extensive uplifted structure in a marginal marine setting. On Sheep Mountain the unit is typified by intertidal fenestral carbonates, whereas outcrops to the east suggest a restricted marine facies and outcrops to the west reflect a more open marine environment. Thin sand lenses present in the Ervay are thought to represent terrigenous sediments blown onto the sometimes emergent bank which were then captured through adhesion and cementation. Anticlinal features similar to Sheep Mountain are common along the eastern margin of the Bighorn basin. When found in the subsurface, these structures are often associated with hydrocarbon production from the Ervay Member. Tectonic uplift contemporaneous with deposition of this unit may explain the localization of the productive fenestral facies on the present-day anticlines.

  12. Upper Permian fluviolacustrine deposits of southern Africa and the late Permian climate southern Gondwana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yemane, K. . Dept. of Geology Bryn Mawr Coll., PA . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Upper Permian-age fluviolacustrine deposits are widespread throughout southern Africa. In the southern part of the subcontinent, where deposition took place in foreland basin settings, the sequences are thicker and fluvial-dominated whereas, lacustrine-dominated deposits accumulated in settings of low relief, broad warping and mild faulting at the northern end. The geographic extent and lateral correlatability of these deposits suggest the existence of concurrent, perhaps interconnected, giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks throughout the subcontinent, thousands of miles inland from the sea. This period of major lake development within fluvial depositional settings suggests climatic conditions that sustained a uniquely wet continental environment, deep in the heart of the Gondwanan supercontinent. Simulations based on various general circulation and energy balance climate models predict extreme seasonal temperatures and aridity for Gondwana at the palaeolatitudes of southern Africa during the Late Permian. On the other hand, distribution of climate-sensitive rocks, palynologic and palaeobotanic data and vertebrate fossils, coroborate the temperature climate documented by sedimentologic studies. The erroneous modeling results may have arisen from the fact that the models do not employ palaeogeographies that accommodate the existence of the vast lakes and rivers of Gondwana. The Late Permian palaeogeography of series of giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks would have had considerable influences on the regional climate. This suggests that it is imperative that numerical modeling studies incorporate accurate palaeogeographies, constructed based on available geological data, in order to recreate past climates with acceptable degree of accuracy.

  13. Shale Gas Development in the Susquehanna River Basin

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Resource Challenges From Energy Production Major Types of Power Generation in SRB - Total 15,300 Megawatts - 37.5% 4.0% 12.0% 15.5% 31.0% Nuclear Coal Natural Gas Hydroelectric Other Marcellus Shale Gas Development in the Susquehanna River Basin The Basin: * 27,510-square-mile watershed * Comprises 43 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed * 4.2 million population * 60 percent forested * 32,000+ miles of waterways The Susquehanna River: * 444 miles, largest tributary to the Chesapeake Bay

  14. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  15. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  16. Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1985-06-13

    This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

  17. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  18. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  19. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  20. Tectonic and eustatic controls on the carbonate stratigraphy of the Leonardian-Guadalupin (Permian) section, northwestern Delaware basin, New Mexico and Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glaser, K.S.; Vail, P.R. ); Jordan, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The effects of tectonics and eustasy on carbonate sedimentation have been determined using seismic, well logs, and outcrop data for the middle Permian of the Delaware basin. Sequence and chronostratigraphic analyses indicate the section contains a broad, tectonically controlled aggradational/progradational cycle overprinted by eustatic sea level cycles. Early Leonardian deposition of the Abo Formation and the third Bone Spring sand occurred during a period of rapid subsidence, producing the aggradational geometry observed on seismic and well logs. This followed a time of uplift to the northwest of the study area, which caused enhanced shelf erosion during the late Wolfcampian. The aggradational style of deposition continued through the middle Leonardian. Late Leonardian time is characterized by progradational geometry, due to a slower subsidence rate. This resulted in a 15-km progradation of the Bone Spring shelf margin in the northwestern part of the Delaware basin. A second period of uplift to the northwest followed, leading to the deposition of the sands of the Brushy Canyon Formation (Guadalupian). This aggradational/progradational cycle is followed by a similar cycle which ends after the deposition of the Capitan Formation. Within the carbonate-dominated Leonardian aggradational/progradational cycle, nine sea level cycles are recognized. The lowstand systems tracts within this package are of two types. The lowstands within the aggradational part of the section consist primarily of slope fans, while those associated with progradation contain large lowstand prograding wedges. Steep margins are associated with aggradation, while progradation is characterized by a ramplike geometry. Highstands are widespread on the shelf and prograde into the basin throughout this interval.

  1. Deep-water density current deposits of Delaware Mountain Group (Permian), Delaware basin, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harms, J.C.; Williamson, C.R.

    1988-03-01

    The Guadalupian Delaware Mountain Group is a 1000-1600-m (3281-5250-ft) thick section of siltstone and sandstone deposited in a deep-water density-stratified basin surrounded by carbonate banks or reefs and broad shallow evaporite-clastic shelves. The most prevalent style of basinal deposition was suspension settling of silt. Laminated siltstone beds are laterally extensive and cover basin-floor topographic irregularities and flat-floored channels as much as 30 m (99 ft) deep and 1 km or more wide. Channels can be observed in outcrop at the basin margin and can be inferred from closely spaced wells in the basin. The channels are straight to slightly sinuous, trend at high angles to the basin margin, and extend at least 70 km (43 mi) into the basin. Sandstone beds, confined to channels, form numerous stratigraphic traps. Hydrocarbon sealing beds are provided by laminated organic siltstone, which laterally can form the erosional margin where channels are cut into siltstone beds. Thick beds of very fine-grained sandstones fill the channels. These sandstones contain abundant large and small-scale traction-current-produced stratification. These sandy channel deposits generally lack texturally graded sedimentation units and show no regular vertical sequence of stratification types or bed thickness. Exploration predictions based on submarine fan models formed by turbidity currents would anticipate very different proximal-distal changes in sandstone geometry and facies. 16 figures.

  2. Simulation of sedimentary fill of Sichuan basin by upper Permian coals and carbonate sequences - an example of use of SEDPAK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, J; Kendall, C.G.S.C.; Strobel, J.; Cannon, R.; Moore, P.; Bezdek, J.; Biswas, G.

    1989-03-01

    The Upper Permian sediments of Sichuan and western Hubei provinces of China, in ascending order, are (1) the basal Ermi basaltic volcanic sequence which exceeds 800-m thickness to the west but is only a few centimeters thick in the east; (2) the overlying coal-bearing Longtan Formation which onlaps as continental coal sequences to the west but downlaps and thins to a few meters of marine shales to the east where it is interbedded with and overlain by thick shelfal carbonates of the Wujiaping Formation; and (3) a thick wedge of carbonates of the Changxing Formation which onlaps the lower coals and interfingers with a thin upper coal sequence to the west. The post-volcanic sedimentary fill can be considered as two supercycles responding to two major sea level changes. The SEDPAK simulation captures deposition of the two supersequences. The first sequence is modeled as onlapping lowstand clastics and coals which, interfingering with ramp carbonates, deepen upward and begin to give up as sea level rise exceeds carbonate growth. The second is modeled as a sequence of ramp to platform carbonates which initially catches up and then keeps up while interfingering westward with coast marine coal sequences. SEDPAK highgrades the hydrocarbon potential of the carbonate buildups in the second sequence.

  3. Suspension- and current-deposit reservoirs in the Delaware basin: Trends and cycles in siltstones of the Permian Bone Spring Limestone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, J.C. ); Brooks, L.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Cores show that siltstone to very fine-grained sandstone oil reservoirs within the Permian Bone Spring Limestone are composed of submillimeter- to centimeter-thick sedimentation laminae. Blanketing of small-scale topography suggests that the laminae were deposited over wide areas as sediment settled vertical to the sea floor. Superimposed on the event laminae, were (1) background sedimentation of dolomitic, organic-rich, mudstone, (2) invertebrate burrowing, and (3) reworking by gentle bottom currents. Currents produced wispy ripply bedding and starved ripple forms that were draped by later deposits. Paleoflow was subparallel to the basin margin. Several sedimentation patterns occur within the formation. Three clastic intervals 25-50-m thick are interbedded with dolomitic mudstones of similar thickness. The clastic intervals are composed of three to six siltstone beds, each up to 25-m thick. Upsection within the beds increases in event-laminae, thickness, bioturbation, and current reworking. Other reports have suggested that these are turbidite-fan deposits, but locally, paleocurrent orientations and the lack of diagnostic assemblages and sequences of sedimentary structures argue against this interpretation. Rather, some of these deposits compare favorably with the few existing sedimentologic descriptions of Quaternary dust storm deposition in marine basins. The siltstone beds may also record deflation of the exposed adjacent shelf during lowered sea level. Very fine grain size and extensive carbonate cementation produce 5-10 pd permeability and 4-15% porosity. Sedimentary laminations cause significantly reduced vertical permeability where they are not disrupted by bioturbation, but permeability may be enhanced by natural fractures. Some reservoir thickenings are attributed to the formation of giant ripples by bottom currents, dictating a different exploration rationale than the turbidite-fan model.

  4. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico - petrophysical characterization of the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, F.J.

    1997-06-01

    Reservoir performance of the South Cowden Grayburg field suggests that only 21 percent of the original oil in place has been recovered. The purpose of this study is to construct a realistic reservoir model to be used to predict the location of the remaining mobile oil. Construction of reservoir models for fluid-flow simulation of carbonate reservoirs is difficult because they typically have complicated and unpredictable permeability patterns. Much of the difficulty results from the degree to which diagenetic overprinting masks depositional textures and patterns. For example, the task of constructing a reservoir model of a limestone reservoir that has undergone only cementation and compaction is easier than constructing a model of a karsted reservoir that has undergone cavern formation and collapse as well as cementation and compaction. The Permian-age carbonate-ramp reservoirs in the Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico, are typically anhydritic dolomitized limestone. Because the dolomitization occurred soon after deposition, depositional fabrics and patterns are often retained, and a reservoir model can be constructed using depositional concepts. Recent studies of the San Andres outcrop in the Guadalupe Mountains and the Seminole San Andres reservoir in the Permian Basin illustrate how depositional fabrics and patterns can be used to construct a reservoir model when depositional features are retained.

  5. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs

  6. Sequence stratigraphic framework and exploration potential of lower Permian (Wolfcampian) gravity-flow deposits, eastern Midland Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, W.A.; Clopine, W.W. ); Kokkoros, G.F.; Wiley, B.H. )

    1996-01-01

    Eight major Wolfcampian sequences (W1-W8) have been identified on seismic data and well logs in a 1500 square mile study area along the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin. These sequences compose two lower frequency sequences (W1-W5 W6-W8) which are separated by a major erosional surface associated with a sea-level fall near the time of the early-middle Wolfcampian boundary. Sea-level falls associated with sequences W5 and W6 resulted in significant erosion of platform-margin deposits, incision of a submarine canyon several miles into the Eastern Shelf, and deposition of carbonate gravity flows in the Midland Basin. Gravity flows entered the basin via the submarine canyon and fed basin-floor fan systems which extend up to 25 miles basinward of the toe-of-slope. Within the study area, production from carbonate gravity-flow deposits is mostly from three submarine fan systems within sequences W5 and W6 - the Credo (10 MMBOER) fan (oldest) , the Triple M (5 MMBOER)-Howard Glasscock (7 MMBOER) fan, and the Hutto (5 MMBOER) fan (youngest). The maximum gross thickness of the fans ranges from 100 to 200 feet. Regional isolith and seismic amplitude data were used to high-grade a 70 square mile area in the vicinity of Triple M and Howard Glasscock fields. Model-based velocity inversions, constrained by sonic and density data from 52 wells, were performed utilizing a grid of 2-D seismic data and a 3-D survey. Both Triple M and Howard Glasscock fields are clearly defined by high-velocity anomalies within the productive basin-floor fan interval of sequence W6. An untested high-velocity anomaly with a velocity signature and stratal geometry similar to the two fields, and estimated reserves of 5 MMBOER, is scheduled to be drilled in 1995.

  7. Sequence stratigraphic framework and exploration potential of lower Permian (Wolfcampian) gravity-flow deposits, eastern Midland Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, W.A.; Clopine, W.W.; Kokkoros, G.F.; Wiley, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    Eight major Wolfcampian sequences (W1-W8) have been identified on seismic data and well logs in a 1500 square mile study area along the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin. These sequences compose two lower frequency sequences (W1-W5 & W6-W8) which are separated by a major erosional surface associated with a sea-level fall near the time of the early-middle Wolfcampian boundary. Sea-level falls associated with sequences W5 and W6 resulted in significant erosion of platform-margin deposits, incision of a submarine canyon several miles into the Eastern Shelf, and deposition of carbonate gravity flows in the Midland Basin. Gravity flows entered the basin via the submarine canyon and fed basin-floor fan systems which extend up to 25 miles basinward of the toe-of-slope. Within the study area, production from carbonate gravity-flow deposits is mostly from three submarine fan systems within sequences W5 and W6 - the Credo (10 MMBOER) fan (oldest) , the Triple M (5 MMBOER)-Howard Glasscock (7 MMBOER) fan, and the Hutto (5 MMBOER) fan (youngest). The maximum gross thickness of the fans ranges from 100 to 200 feet. Regional isolith and seismic amplitude data were used to high-grade a 70 square mile area in the vicinity of Triple M and Howard Glasscock fields. Model-based velocity inversions, constrained by sonic and density data from 52 wells, were performed utilizing a grid of 2-D seismic data and a 3-D survey. Both Triple M and Howard Glasscock fields are clearly defined by high-velocity anomalies within the productive basin-floor fan interval of sequence W6. An untested high-velocity anomaly with a velocity signature and stratal geometry similar to the two fields, and estimated reserves of 5 MMBOER, is scheduled to be drilled in 1995.

  8. Water scarcity and development in the Tigris-Euphrates river basin. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This report will examine aspects of water scarcity and development, and discuss solutions available to avoid conflict over water in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin. (MM).

  9. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  10. Reservoir characterization of a Permian Slope Fan/basin-floor fan complex: Cherry Canyon Formation, Ward County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spain, D.R. )

    1990-05-01

    The Cherry Canyon Formation consists of a 925-ft- (280-m) thick section of up to 25 different sandstone and siltstone units that were deposited in a deep-water environment in the Delaware basin. Lowstand sedimentation by fluid density currents with periodic turbidity currents resulted in a broad-migrating channelized slope fan/basin-floor fan complex interpreted to exhibit an intricate reservoir geometry. Thirteen lithofacies are identified. Primary reservoirs are found in massive channel sandstones, and beds of lesser reservoir quality are present in laminated overbank/interchannel sandstones. Original depositional fabric modified by diagenetic cements and authigenic clays created three petrophysical rock types. Type I reservoirs contain intergranular macroporosity relatively free of carbonate cement and authigenic clay. Types II and III reservoirs contain mesoporosity and abundant microporosity created by moderate to abundant carbonate cementation and plugging of pore throats by authigenic grain-coating chlorite and pore-bridging fibrous illite. Depositional and diagenetic factors combine with insufficient oil column height to yield low initial oil saturations that decrease with depth in a hydrocarbon-water transition zone. Mercury injection capillary pressure measurements illustrate the vertical stratification of petrophysical rock types that exist in the section; reservoirs which contain all water are interbedded with reservoirs containing mostly oil. Subsequently, a slight change in height above free water can drive production from all water to all oil. Hydrocarbon column heights greater than 60 ft are required to establish water-free oil production. Accurate reservoir water saturations can be derived using Archie's equation; when combined with a movable oil analysis and drainage relative permeability/fractional flow curves, initial water cuts can be predicted to maximize deliverability.

  11. Historical trends and extremes in boreal Alaska river basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hinzman, Larry

    2015-05-12

    Climate change will shift the frequency, intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events and have particularly disastrous consequences in vulnerable systems such as the warm permafrost-dominated Interior region of boreal Alaska. This work focuses on recent research results from nonparametric trends and nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) analyses at eight Interior Alaskan river basins for the past 50/60 years (1954/642013). Trends analysis of maximum and minimum streamflow indicates a strong (>+50%) and statistically significant increase in 11-day flow events during the late fall/winter and during the snowmelt period (late April/mid-May), followed by a significant decrease in the 11-day flow events during the post-snowmelt period (late May and into the summer). The AprilMayJune seasonal trends show significant decreases in maximum streamflow for snowmelt dominated systems (<50%) and glacially influenced basins (24% to 33%). Annual maximum streamflow trends indicate that most systems are experiencing declines, while minimum flow trends are largely increasing. Nonstationary GEV analysis identifies time-dependent changes in the distribution of spring extremes for snowmelt dominated and glacially dominated systems. Temperature in spring influences the glacial and high elevation snowmelt systems and winter precipitation drives changes in the snowmelt dominated basins. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation was associated with changes occurring in snowmelt dominated systems, and the Arctic Oscillation was linked to one lake dominated basin, with half of the basins exhibiting no change in response to climate variability. The paper indicates that broad scale studies examining trend and direction of change should employ multiple methods across various scales and consider regime dependent shifts to identify and understand changes in extreme streamflow within boreal forested watersheds of Alaska.

  12. Historical trends and extremes in boreal Alaska river basins

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hinzman, Larry

    2015-05-12

    Climate change will shift the frequency, intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events and have particularly disastrous consequences in vulnerable systems such as the warm permafrost-dominated Interior region of boreal Alaska. This work focuses on recent research results from nonparametric trends and nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) analyses at eight Interior Alaskan river basins for the past 50/60 years (1954/64–2013). Trends analysis of maximum and minimum streamflow indicates a strong (>+50%) and statistically significant increase in 11-day flow events during the late fall/winter and during the snowmelt period (late April/mid-May), followed by a significant decrease in the 11-day flowmore » events during the post-snowmelt period (late May and into the summer). The April–May–June seasonal trends show significant decreases in maximum streamflow for snowmelt dominated systems (<–50%) and glacially influenced basins (–24% to –33%). Annual maximum streamflow trends indicate that most systems are experiencing declines, while minimum flow trends are largely increasing. Nonstationary GEV analysis identifies time-dependent changes in the distribution of spring extremes for snowmelt dominated and glacially dominated systems. Temperature in spring influences the glacial and high elevation snowmelt systems and winter precipitation drives changes in the snowmelt dominated basins. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation was associated with changes occurring in snowmelt dominated systems, and the Arctic Oscillation was linked to one lake dominated basin, with half of the basins exhibiting no change in response to climate variability. The paper indicates that broad scale studies examining trend and direction of change should employ multiple methods across various scales and consider regime dependent shifts to identify and understand changes in extreme streamflow within boreal forested watersheds of Alaska.« less

  13. Historical trends and extremes in boreal Alaska river basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hinzman, Larry

    2015-05-12

    Climate change will shift the frequency, intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events and have particularly disastrous consequences in vulnerable systems such as the warm permafrost-dominated Interior region of boreal Alaska. This work focuses on recent research results from nonparametric trends and nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) analyses at eight Interior Alaskan river basins for the past 50/60 years (1954/64–2013). Trends analysis of maximum and minimum streamflow indicates a strong (>+50%) and statistically significant increase in 11-day flow events during the late fall/winter and during the snowmelt period (late April/mid-May), followed by a significant decrease in the 11-day flow events during the post-snowmelt period (late May and into the summer). The April–May–June seasonal trends show significant decreases in maximum streamflow for snowmelt dominated systems (<–50%) and glacially influenced basins (–24% to –33%). Annual maximum streamflow trends indicate that most systems are experiencing declines, while minimum flow trends are largely increasing. Nonstationary GEV analysis identifies time-dependent changes in the distribution of spring extremes for snowmelt dominated and glacially dominated systems. Temperature in spring influences the glacial and high elevation snowmelt systems and winter precipitation drives changes in the snowmelt dominated basins. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation was associated with changes occurring in snowmelt dominated systems, and the Arctic Oscillation was linked to one lake dominated basin, with half of the basins exhibiting no change in response to climate variability. The paper indicates that broad scale studies examining trend and direction of change should employ multiple methods across various scales and consider regime dependent shifts to identify and understand changes in extreme streamflow within boreal forested watersheds of Alaska.

  14. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico. Quarterly report, January 1--April 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, F.J.; Kerans, C.

    1996-04-30

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low-permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study.

  15. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, F.J.; Kerans, C.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity that occur in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study. Technical progress is reported for outcrop activities and subsurface activities.

  16. Geological characterization of permian submarine fan reservoirs of the driver waterflood unit, Spraberry Trend, Midland Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guevara, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the geological characterization and assessment of the relationship between reservoir stratigraphy and oil recovery of the Driver waterflood unit of the Spraberry Trend, Midland Basin, West Texas. In this study , the author focuses on the Driver waterflood unit, which is located in Midland, Glasscock, Upton, and Reagan Counties and is part of the giant Spraberry Trend currently being studied by the Bureau. Gamma-ray logs and scout cards from more than 350 wells and slabbed cores from 2 wells, along with core analyses and production data, provided the main sources of information for the study. Fifteen log-defined genetic-stratigraphic operational units were delineated in the Spraberry Formation and were correlated throughout the study area to define the stratigraphic framework. The text presents net sandstone and siltstone maps, cross sections, depth plots of core analyses, and maps of production data. The author describes the depositional systems and hydrocarbon distribution in the Driver unit (currently operated by Standard Oil), details the influence of reservoir stratigraphy on oil recovery, and outlines opportunities for additional recovery. He notes that reservoir management strategies must take into account the stratigraphic heterogeneities of accumulations in the unit. He concludes that a program of selective recompletions and infill drilling based on knowledge of both reservoir stratigraphy and natural fractures is the key to improving oil recovery from the Driver unit in particular and from the Spraberry Trend in general.

  17. Silicification of evaporites in Permian (Guadalupian) back-reef carbonates of the Delaware basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulmer-Scholle, D.; Scholle, P.A.; Brady, P.V. . Dept. of Geological Science)

    1993-09-01

    Outcrops of the Seven Rivers, Yates, and Tansill Formations contain widespread evaporites replaced by quartz and calcite. The original evaporites consisted of discrete horizons, scattered nodules, enterolithic layers, and individual crystals or crystal fragments of gypsum and/or anhydrite within a finely crystalline dolomite matrix. The fluid inclusions in the replacive megaquartz are primary,and many contain both hydrocarbons and water. Daughter minerals of halite, gypsum, or possibly antarcticite (CaCl[sub 2] [center dot] 6H[sub 2]O) are also found within the aqueous inclusions. Homogenization-temperature data for hydrocarbon and aqueous fluid inclusions average 67.7C and 67.1C, respectively. Hydrocarbon-bearing and aqueous inclusions are thus interpreted to have formed simultaneously from the same fluids. Eutectic melting and final melting temperatures for aqueous inclusions indicate that the fluids were concentrated brines consisting of CaCl[sub 2] and NaCl. Oxygen-isotope values for the megaquartz replacements averaged 28.4[per thousand] (SMOW), indicating precipitation from evaporative waters with an isotopic composition of +2.9 [per thousand] (SMOW). Evaporite silicification was coeval with or slightly postdated hydrocarbon migration. The fluid-inclusion data provide a record of the fluid temperatures and compositions that prevailed during silica precipitation. These data, coupled with regional stratigraphy and published geothermal gradients, suggest a burial depth of approximately 1.3 km during silicification. The source of the silica for evaporite replacement is problematic. The authors postulate, however, that silica may have been derived from dissolution of siliciclastics in back-reef units.

  18. Permian age from radiolarites of the Hawasina nappes, Oman Mountains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wever, P.D. ); Grissac C.B. ); Bechennec, F. )

    1988-10-01

    The Hawasina napper of the Oman Mountains yielded Permian radiolarians from cherts stratigraphically overlying a thick volcanic basement (Al Jil Formation) at the base of the Hamrat Duru Group. This fauna represents the first Permian radiolarians and radiolarites in the central and western Tethyan realm. A Permain age for pelagic sequences within the Hawasina Complex of Oman has major significance for regional paleogeographic reconstruction. A clear differentiation between platform (reefal sediments) and basin (radiolarites) from the base of the Late Permian (255 Ma) is implied. It suggests a flexure of the platform during Permian time; the present data implies that a zone of rifting was already developed adjacent to the northeast Gondwana platform margin during the Late Permian. The Hamrat Duru Basin corresponds to an opening intracontinental rift area (sphenochasm) between Arabia and northeast Gondwana, a reentrant of the paleo-Tethys.

  19. Microearthquake surveys of Snake River plain and Northwest Basin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    microearthquakes; Nevada; North America; passive systems; Pershing County Nevada; Raft River; reservoir rocks; seismic methods; seismicity; seismology; Snake River plain;...

  20. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian basin, west Texas and New Mexico. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, F.J.; Kerans, C.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low-permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study. Mapping and documenting ooid channel deposits continued through the third quarter. A report on the geological characterization of the South Cowden field has been completed and submitted as the 1995 annual report. An initial simulation model of part of the Moss Unit has been prepared using a simple layering scheme and geostatistical techniques.

  1. Sustaining a Vision: DOE Funding Boosts Building Energy Efficiency in Yukon River Basin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Yukon River Inter-tribal Watershed Council (YRITWC) is a coalition of sovereign tribal and First Nations governments founded in 1997 to increase indigenous communities' resiliency in the Yukon River Basin. In 2009, the YRITWC partnered with the Cold Climate Housing Research Center to integrate renewable energy into innovative arctic housing design in the community of Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska.

  2. Growth faulting and syntectonic casting of the Dawson Creek Graben Complex: A North American craton-marginal trough; Carboniferous-Permian Peace River Embayment, western Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barclay, J.E.; Utting, J. ); Krause, F.F.; Campbell, R.I. )

    1991-06-01

    The Dawson Creek Graben Complex was a 150 {times} 300 km, craton-perpendicular trough near the western North American craton margin. Sedimentary infill spanned 100 million years, and this tectonically controlled basin provides a comparison with other craton-marginal troughs or aulacogens, such as the Big Snowy, Uinta, Delaware, and Southern Oklahoma. The authors suspect that the graben complex was controlled by outboard, Antler-like orogeny and perhaps some strike-slip control. This syntectonic graben infill model provides a basis for developing new structural-stratigraphic plays in this mature basin. This extensional trough rests on a former basement arch and is centered in the broadly downwarped Peace River embayment. Sediment infill records several graben casting stages beginning with westernmost down-dropping, which then extended eastward and was accompanied by an increase in growth-type block faulting. Subsidence and faulting decay was followed by a retreat to western areas and tectonic stabilization. The complex was an arcuate half-graben, steep to the north, that widened asymmetrically and increased in depth to the west through time. The complex contained a principal half-graben with neighboring satellite grabens; throughout the complex are numerous kilometer-scale horst and graben blocks. The horsts subsided slower than neighboring grabens. This differential subsidence along block-bounding syn- and postdepositional growth-type normal faults controlled formation and bed thickness, as did inter- and intraformational unconformities.

  3. Marine carbonate embayment system in an Eolian dune terrain, Permian Upper Minnelusa Formation, Rozet Area, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achauer, C.W.

    1987-05-01

    The eolian origin for Minnelusa sandstones has been stressed in numerous published articles. However, the dolomites that are interbedded with the eolian sandstones have received little attention. Isopach mapping of one of the dolomite units (Dolomite I) reflects a marine embayment system whose individual embayments range from 1/2 to 1 mi in width and trend primarily in a northwest direction. Consistently the embayment dolomites pinch out against the flanks of reworked, low relief, broad, eolian dune ridges. So far, 108 mi/sup 2/ of the Dolomite I marine embayment system have been mapped, but the overall extent of the system is undoubtedly much greater. Dolomite I is rarely cored, but cores from stratigraphically higher embayment dolomites in the upper Minnelusa show that these dolomites display the following, shoaling-upward sequence: (1) subtidal, sparingly fossiliferous dolomite; (2) intertidal, algal-laminated or brecciated or mud-cracked dolomite; and (3) very thin, supratidal, nodular anhydrite. The embayments, therefore, became the sites of marine sabkhas located between eolian dunes. Two main conclusions emerge from this study: (1) the juxtaposition of eolian sandstones and marine dolomites in a tectonically stable area suggests that eustatic sea level changes and a very arid climate were responsible for the marked environmental and lithologic changes observed in the upper Minnelusa, and (2) arid, coastal, evaporitic sabkhas bordered by eolian dunes are known from a number of modern and ancient cases, but marine carbonate embayments and associated evaporitic sabkhas that penetrate deeply into eolian sandstone terrains are rare.

  4. Petrographic report on clay-rich samples from Permian Unit 4 salt, G. Friemel No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin, Deaf Smith County, Texas: unanalyzed data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukui, L M

    1983-09-01

    This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on five samples of clay-rich rock from salt-bearing Permian strata sampled by drill core from G. Friemel No. 1 Well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. Five samples of clay-rich rock from depths of about 2457, 2458, 2521, 2548, and 2568 feet were analyzed to determine the amounts of soluble phase (halite) and the amounts and mineralogy of the insoluble phases. The amounts of halite found were 59, 79, 47, 40, and 4 weight percent, respectively, for the samples. The insoluble minerals are predominately clay (20 to 60 volume percent) and anhydrite (up to 17 volume percent), with minor (about 1.0%) and trace amounts of quartz, dolomite, muscovite, and gypsum. The clays include illite, chlorite, and interstratified chlorite-smectite. The results presented in this petrographic report are descriptive, uninterpreted data. 2 references, 7 tables.

  5. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1988.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1987-10-01

    The FY 1988 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) presents Bonneville Power Administration's plans for implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) in FY 1988. The Work Plan focuses on individual Action Items found in the amended Program for which Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has determined it has authority and responsibility to implement. The FY 1988 Work Plan emphasizes continuation of 95 ongoing projects, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. These continuing activities are summarized briefly by Program area: (1) mainstem passage; (2) artificial propagation; (3) natural propagation; (4) resident fish and wildlife; and (5) planning activities.

  6. Moving to the Powder River Basin in search of the American dream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-03-15

    As the Big Three American automakers cut jobs in Michigan, Wyoming's booming but isolated coal mining industry in the Powder River Basin is trying to lure some of these dissatisfied workers. DRM has attracted workers to the benefaction plant and P & H MinePro Services working on surface mining equipment has been successful, as have Peabody's Powder River coal subsidiary and Kiewitt's Buckshin mine. 2 photos.

  7. Strike variability of carbonate platform margin stratal architecture and cycle stacking patterns: Outcrop and seismic examples from lower Permian depositional sequences of the Permian Basin, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitchen, W.M.

    1996-12-31

    Strike variability in stratal architecture, cycle stacking patterns and facies differentiation within sequences exemplifies the potential for differential stratigraphic response of platforms to eustasy. Variability exists within base-level cycles of several scales within a compound stratigraphic hierarchy, though the causes may vary among different scales. Cross-sections from outcrops in the Sierra Diablo document the framework and stacking pattern of 3rd-order sequences (HFS), including: two progradational middle Wolfcampian HFS (mW1-2), one backstepped upper Wolfcampian HFS (uW1), one progradational lower Leonardin HFS (L1), aggradational middle (L2) and upper Leonardian HFS (L3), three progradatic upper Leonardian HFS (L4-6), and two backstepped, aggradational upper Leonardian HFS (L7-8). Seismic lines from the northern Delaware and Midland Basins and San Simon Channel area document the regional consistency of 3rd-order sequence stacking patterns (a response to eustasy), but show variability related to local subsidence, antecedent topography (owing to deeper structures and platform margin erosion), windward vs. leeward facing, and siliciclastic sediment supply. Sequences L2 and L3 appear to exhibit the greatest variability in stacking pattern. Strike variability in 4th/5th-order cycle stacking patterns within 3rd-order sequences as studied in outcrop is greatest in sequences L2 and L3, in which headland-bight margin trends are developed on a lateral scale of 1-2 miles. Aggrational to backstepping reef-margin facies with steep ({le}35{degrees}) foreslopes developed along headlands. Mudstones abut these margin facies abruptly along headlands and may contain megabreccias at the toe-of-slope. More gently sloping (10-15{degrees}) {open_quotes}ramp{close_quotes} margin strata composed of fusulinid packstones characterize bights.

  8. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fsh Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, R. Todd

    2001-12-31

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla River Basin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Habitat enhancement projects continued to be maintained on 44 private properties, four riparian easements and one in-stream enhancement agreement were secured, two new projects implemented and two existing projects improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities in the Umatilla River Basin. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River and Buckaroo Creek. Improvements were implemented at existing project sites on the upper Umatilla River and Wildhorse Creek. A stream bank stabilization project was implemented at approximately River Mile 37.4 Umatilla River to stabilize 760 feet of eroding stream bank and improve in-stream habitat diversity. Habitat enhancements at this site included construction of six rock barbs with one large conifer root wad incorporated into each barb, stinging approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings, planting 195 tubling willows and 1,800 basin wildrye grass plugs, and seeding 40 pounds of native grass seed. Staff time to assist in development of a subcontract and fence materials were provided to establish eight spring sites for off-stream watering and to protect wetlands within the Buckaroo Creek Watershed. A gravel bar was moved and incorporated into an adjacent point bar to reduce stream energy and stream channel confinement within the existing project area at River Mile 85 Umatilla River. Approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings were stung and trenched into the stream channel margins and stream banks, and 360

  9. CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health- Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Environment, Safety and Health program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System.

  10. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  11. CRAD, Management- Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Management at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System.

  12. CRAD, Engineering- Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Engineering program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System.

  13. CRAD, Training- Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Environment, Safety and Health program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System.

  14. CRAD, Conduct of Operations- Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Conduct of Operations program at the Office of River Protection, K Basin Sludge Waste System.

  15. CRAD, Emergency Management- Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Emergency Management program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System.

  16. Primary oil-shale resources of the Green River Formation in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trudell, L.G.; Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Mason, G.M.

    1983-04-01

    Resources of potential oil in place in the Green River Formation are measured and estimated for the primary oil-shale resource area east of the Green River in Utah's Uinta Basin. The area evaluated (Ts 7-14 S, Rs 19-25 E) includes most of, and certainly the best of Utah's oil-shale resource. For resource evaluation the principal oil-shale section is divided into ten stratigraphic units which are equivalent to units previously evaluated in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. Detailed evaluation of individual oil-shale units sampled by cores, plus estimates by extrapolation into uncored areas indicate a total resource of 214 billion barrels of shale oil in place in the eastern Uinta Basin.

  17. Structure and geologic history of late Cenozoic Eel River basin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, S.H. Jr.

    1988-03-01

    The Eel River basin formed as a late Cenozoic forearc basin floored by late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic allochthonous terranes (central and coastal belts of the Franciscan complex). Regionally, basement rocks are unconformably overlain on land by a sedimentary sequence as much as about 4200 m thick that comprises the Bear River Formation (early and middle Miocene) and the Wildcat Group (late Miocene to middle Pleistocene) and offshore by broadly coeval upper Tertiary and Quaternary deposits as much as 3300 m thick. Offshore, the southern part of the basin is typified by the seaward extensions of youthful northeast-dipping thrust and reverse faults and northwest-trending anticlines. The latest period of deformation in this part of the basin began during the middle Pleistocene and probably reflects north-northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction and encroachment of the Pacific plate. Farther north, the western basin margin and adjacent upper continental slope are separated from the axial part of the offshore basin by a narrow zone of north-northwest-trending, right-stepping en echelon folds. These folds indicate that northeast-southwest compression characteristic of the southern part of the basin is accompanied toward the north by right-lateral shear between the accretionary complex to the west and the basin to the east. The northeastern margin of the offshore basin is cut by north to north-northwest-trending high-angle reverse faults that vertically offset basement rocks as much as 1300 m, west side down. These faults, which may merge northward, coincide with older terrane boundaries and locally show evidence of late Cenozoic reactivation with possible right-lateral slip.

  18. Target reservoirs for CO/sub 2/ miscible flooding. Task Two: summary of available reservoir and geological data. Volume 1. Permian basin geological and reservoir data; Part 3. FARMER-San Andres through NOLLEY-Wolfcamp. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, L.B.

    1981-10-01

    The stated objective of this study is to build a solid engineering foundation to serve as the basis for field mini- and pilot tests in both high and low oil saturation carbonate reservoirs for the purpose of extending the technology base in carbon dioxide miscible flooding. The six tasks in this study are as follows: summary of available CO/sub 2/ field test data; summary of existing reservoir and geological data; selection of target reservoirs; selection of specific reservoirs for CO/sub 2/ injection tests; selection of specific sites for test wells in carbonate reservoirs; and drilling and coring activities. This report for Task Two consists of a summary of existing reservoir and geological data on carbonate reservoirs located in west Texas, southeast New Mexico, and the Rocky Mountain states and is contained in two volumes, each with several parts. This volume, in four parts, is a summary of reservoir data for fields in the Permian basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico.

  19. Survey of Columbia River Basin Streams for Giant Columbia River Spire Snail Fluminicola columbiana and Great Columbia River limpet Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Frest, T.J.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA )

    1989-10-01

    Surveys have confirmed the survival of both the giant Columbia River spire snail Fluminicola columbiana and the great Columbia River limpet Fisherola nuttalli in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington State, as well as other sites in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. A review of historical collection records suggests that both species exist in still other sites of the Columbia River Basin. At present, there is insufficient information to allow adequate appraisal of either species relative to possible federal or state listing as endangered or threatened species. The results of our studies suggest that additional undiscovered populations of both species exist. There is a relatively good chance that pristine habitat required by spire snails and limpets remains in 37 streams or portions of streams in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana (British Columbia was considered outside the project scope). For a thorough survey, visits to more than 600 sites will be required. 20 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATERSHED RUNOFF FLOW - UPPER COOSA RIVER BASIN UPSTREAM FROM PLANT HAMMOND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.

    2011-10-24

    The ability of water managers to maintain adequate supplies in the coming decades depends on future weather conditions, as climate change has the potential to reduce stream flows from their current values due to potentially less precipitation and higher temperatures, and possibly rendering them unable to meet demand. The upper Coosa River basin, located in northwest Georgia, plays an important role in supplying water for industry and domestic use in northern Georgia, and has been involved in water disputes in recent times. The seven-day ten-year low flow (7Q10 flow) is the lowest average flow for seven consecutive days that has an average recurrence interval of 10 years. The 7Q10 flow is statistically derived from the observed historical flow data, and represents the low flow (drought) condition for a basin. The upper Coosa River basin also supplies cooling water for the 935MW coal-fired Hammond plant, which draws about 65% of the 7Q10 flow of the upper Coosa River to dissipate waste heat. The water is drawn through once and returned to the river directly from the generator (i.e., no cooling tower is used). Record low flows in 2007 led to use of portable cooling towers to meet temperature limits. Disruption of the Plant Hammond operation may trigger closure of area industrial facilities (e.g. paper mill). The population in Georgia is expected to double from 9 million to 18 million residents in the next 25 years, mostly in the metropolitan Atlanta area. Therefore, there will be an even greater demand for potable water and for waste assimilation. Climate change in the form of persistent droughts (causing low flows) and high ambient temperatures create regulatory compliance challenges for Plant Hammond operating with a once-through cooling system. Therefore, the Upper Coosa River basin was selected to study the effect of potential future weather change on the watershed runoff flow.

  1. Yakima River Basin Fish Passage Phase II Fish Screen Construction, Project Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, R. Dennis

    2008-01-01

    On December 5, 1980, Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Public Law 96-501). The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council (now the Northwest Power and Conservation Council). The Council was charged with the responsibility to prepare a Regional Conservation and Electric Power Plan and to develop a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife including related spawning grounds and habitat on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The Council adopted its Fish and Wildlife Program on November 15, 1982. Section 800 of the Program addresses measures in the Yakima River Basin. The Yakima measures were intended to help mitigate hydroelectric impacts in the basin and provide off-site mitigation to compensate for fish losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River Basin. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) was designated as a major source of funding for such off-site mitigation measures and was requested to initiate discussions with the appropriate Federal project operators and the Council to determine the most expeditious means for funding and implementing the program. The primary measures proposed for rapid implementation in the Yakima River basin were the installation of fish passage and protective facilities. Sec. 109 of The Hoover Power Plant Act of 1984, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to design, construct, operate, and maintain fish passage facilities within the Yakima River Basin. Under Phase I of the program, improvements to existing fish passage facilities and installation of new fish ladders and fish screens at 16 of the largest existing diversion dams and canals were begun in 1984 and were completed in 1990. The Yakima Phase II fish passage program is an extension of the Phase I program. In 1988, the Yakama Nation (YN) submitted an application to amend Sections 803(b) and 1403(4.5) of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council

  2. Forecasting changes in water quality in rivers associated with growing biofuels in the Arkansas-White-Red river basin, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta; Brandt, Craig C; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Schweizer, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    The mid-section of the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin near the 100th parallel is particularly promising for sustainable biomass production using cellulosic perennial crops and residues. Along this longitudinal band, precipitation becomes limiting to competing crops that require irrigation from an increasingly depleted groundwater aquifer. In addition, the deep-rooted perennial, switchgrass, produces modest-to-high yields in this region with minimal inputs and could compete against alternative crops and land uses at relatively low cost. Previous studies have also suggested that switchgrass and other perennial feedstocks offer environmentally benign alternatives to corn and corn stover. However, water quality implications remain a significant concern for conversion of marginal lands to bioenergy production because excess nutrients produced by agriculture for food or for energy contribute to eutrophication in the dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico. This study addresses water quality implications for the AWR river basin. We used the SWAT model to compare water quality in rivers draining a baseline, pre-cellulosic-bioenergy and post-cellulosic-bioenergy landscapes for 2022 and 2030. Simulated water quality responses varied across the region, but with a net tendency toward decreased amounts of nutrient and sediment, particularly in subbasins with large areas of bioenergy crops in 2030 future scenarios. We conclude that water quality is one aspect of sustainability for which cellulosic bioenergy production in this region holds promise.

  3. Forecasting changes in water quality in rivers associated with growing biofuels in the Arkansas-White-Red river basin, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jager, Yetta; Brandt, Craig C; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Schweizer, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    The mid-section of the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin near the 100th parallel is particularly promising for sustainable biomass production using cellulosic perennial crops and residues. Along this longitudinal band, precipitation becomes limiting to competing crops that require irrigation from an increasingly depleted groundwater aquifer. In addition, the deep-rooted perennial, switchgrass, produces modest-to-high yields in this region with minimal inputs and could compete against alternative crops and land uses at relatively low cost. Previous studies have also suggested that switchgrass and other perennial feedstocks offer environmentally benign alternatives to corn and corn stover. However, water quality implications remain a significant concernmore » for conversion of marginal lands to bioenergy production because excess nutrients produced by agriculture for food or for energy contribute to eutrophication in the dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico. This study addresses water quality implications for the AWR river basin. We used the SWAT model to compare water quality in rivers draining a baseline, pre-cellulosic-bioenergy and post-cellulosic-bioenergy landscapes for 2022 and 2030. Simulated water quality responses varied across the region, but with a net tendency toward decreased amounts of nutrient and sediment, particularly in subbasins with large areas of bioenergy crops in 2030 future scenarios. We conclude that water quality is one aspect of sustainability for which cellulosic bioenergy production in this region holds promise.« less

  4. Application of the ELOHA Framework to Regulated Rivers in the Upper Tennessee River Basin: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Dolloff, Dr. Charles A; Mathews, David C

    2013-01-01

    In order for habitat restoration in regulated rivers to be effective at large scales, broadly applicable frameworks are needed that provide measurable objectives and contexts for management. The Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA) framework was created as a template to assess hydrologic alterations, develop relationships between altered streamflow and ecology, and establish environmental flow standards. We tested the utility of ELOHA in informing flow restoration applications for fish and riparian communities in regulated rivers in the Upper Tennessee River Basin (UTRB). We followed the steps of ELOHA to generate flow alteration-ecological response relationships and then determined whether those relationships could predict fish and riparian responses to flow restoration in the Cheoah River, a regulated system within the UTRB. Although ELOHA provided a robust template to construct hydrologic information and predict hydrology for ungaged locations, our results do not support the assertion that over-generalized univariate relationships between flow and ecology can produce results sufficient to guide management in regulated rivers. After constructing multivariate models, we successfully developed predictive relationships between flow alterations and fish/riparian responses. In accordance with model predictions, riparian encroachment displayed consistent decreases with increases in flow magnitude in the Cheoah River; however, fish richness did not increase as predicted four years post- restoration. Our results suggest that altered temperature and substrate and the current disturbance regime may have reduced opportunities for fish species colonization. Our case study highlights the need for interdisciplinary science in defining environmental flows for regulated rivers and the need for adaptive management approaches once flows are restored.

  5. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  6. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Kern, J. Chris; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally-produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. The authors also report on tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  7. Depositional architecture of lacustrine-delta and fluvial systems of the Permian Epsilon and Toolachee Formations at Dullingari field, southeastern Cooper basin, south Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose, W.A.; Hamilton, D.S.; Holtz, M.H. )

    1996-01-01

    The Epsilon and Toolachee Formations record a transition from lacustrine deltas to fluvial depositional systems in the southeastern part of the Cooper Basin. Gas reservoirs in these formations occur mainly in narrow (typically less than 2 mi [3.2 km] wide) belts of distributary- and fluvial-channel sandstones in structurally high areas in Dullingari field and neighboring areas. In a study by the Bureau of Economic Geology and Santos to document distribution of Epsilon and Toolachee lithotacies, we mapped multiple depositional axes and projected them into undeveloped areas in the field. We performed a high-resolution sequence-stratigraphic study, defining four operational Epsilon subunits bounded by lacustrine mudstones recording periods of delta-platform abandonment and subsidence. In contrast, six genetic Toolachee subunits are bounded by regionally extensive coal seams recording pervasive sediment-supply shutoff and peat-swamp development over broad areas. Epsilon lacustrine deltas prograded northwestward over a muddy substrate on a broad, shallow basin floor. Distributary-channel axes, defined by narrow, northwest-trending belts of upward-fining sandstones less than 20 ft (6 m) thick, are projected across the field area. However, the younger Toolachee Formation contains northeast-trending sandstones in structural troughs, suggesting tectonic control on deposition. Detailed lithofacies maps of these formations provide a framework for assessing potential development targets at Dullingari field.

  8. Depositional architecture of lacustrine-delta and fluvial systems of the Permian Epsilon and Toolachee Formations at Dullingari field, southeastern Cooper basin, south Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose, W.A.; Hamilton, D.S.; Holtz, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Epsilon and Toolachee Formations record a transition from lacustrine deltas to fluvial depositional systems in the southeastern part of the Cooper Basin. Gas reservoirs in these formations occur mainly in narrow (typically less than 2 mi [3.2 km] wide) belts of distributary- and fluvial-channel sandstones in structurally high areas in Dullingari field and neighboring areas. In a study by the Bureau of Economic Geology and Santos to document distribution of Epsilon and Toolachee lithotacies, we mapped multiple depositional axes and projected them into undeveloped areas in the field. We performed a high-resolution sequence-stratigraphic study, defining four operational Epsilon subunits bounded by lacustrine mudstones recording periods of delta-platform abandonment and subsidence. In contrast, six genetic Toolachee subunits are bounded by regionally extensive coal seams recording pervasive sediment-supply shutoff and peat-swamp development over broad areas. Epsilon lacustrine deltas prograded northwestward over a muddy substrate on a broad, shallow basin floor. Distributary-channel axes, defined by narrow, northwest-trending belts of upward-fining sandstones less than 20 ft (6 m) thick, are projected across the field area. However, the younger Toolachee Formation contains northeast-trending sandstones in structural troughs, suggesting tectonic control on deposition. Detailed lithofacies maps of these formations provide a framework for assessing potential development targets at Dullingari field.

  9. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico--waterflood performance analysis for the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    A reservoir engineering study was conducted of waterflood performance in the South Cowden field, an Upper Permian Grayburg reservoir on the Central Basin Platform in West Texas. The study was undertaken to understand the historically poor waterflood performance, evaluate three techniques for incorporating petrophysical measurements and geological interpretation into heterogeneous reservoir models, and identify issues in heterogeneity modeling and fluid-flow scaleup that require further research. The approach included analysis of relative permeability data, analysis of injection and production data, heterogeneity modeling, and waterflood simulation. The poor South Cowden waterflood recovery is due, in part, to completion of wells in only the top half of the formation. Recompletion of wells through the entire formation is estimated to improve recovery in ten years by 6 percent of the original oil in place in some areas of the field. A direct three-dimensional stochastic approach to heterogeneity modeling produced the best fit to waterflood performance and injectivity, but a more conventional model based on smooth mapping of layer-averaged properties was almost as good. The results reaffirm the importance of large-scale heterogeneities in waterflood modeling but demonstrate only a slight advantage for stochastic modeling at this scale. All the flow simulations required a reduction to the measured whole-core k{sub v}/k{sub h} to explain waterflood behavior, suggesting the presence of barriers to vertical flow not explicitly accounted for in any of the heterogeneity models. They also required modifications to the measured steady-state relative permeabilities, suggesting the importance of small-scale heterogeneities and scaleup. Vertical flow barriers, small-scale heterogeneity modeling, and relative permeability scaleup require additional research for waterflood performance prediction in reservoirs like South Cowden.

  10. Assessing Pacific Lamprey Status in the Columbia River Basin.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser, Mary L.; Close, David A.

    2003-06-01

    In the Columbia River drainage, salmonid-based monitoring programs have historically been used to assess status of both adult and juvenile Pacific lamprey. We compared adult lamprey counts at hydropower dams to recent radiotelemetry results and found that the counts underestimated losses between some dams and overestimated passage times through reservoirs. Count data were not correlated with trap captures of adults conducted in the same area and at the same time, likely due to lamprey-specific behaviors that result in inaccurate counts. We recommend maintenance of traditional count protocols, but emphasize the need for continued research to develop an accurate correction factor to apply to these data. Existing salmonid-based sampling for juvenile lamprey is inadequate and we highlight the need for standardized larval lamprey monitoring that provides both abundance and size distributions. Our electrofishing survey for juvenile lamprey indicated that this technique provides critical information on lamprey recruitment and is feasible over large spatial scales.

  11. Permian karst topography in the Wichita uplift, southwestern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, R.N. Busbey, A.B. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-02-01

    The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is one part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian deformation that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. As a result of a partial inversion, the Lower Paleozoic section of this aulacogen was sequentially stripped off an uplift between the Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, resulting in the exposure of ultrabasic rocks deep in the Cambrian igneous fill of the aulacogen. Following the late Paleozoic tectonism, the topography of the uplift was entombed beneath Permian sediments and remained essentially undisturbed until exhumation during the present erosional cycle. Modern erosion is gradually exposing this topography, permitting morphometric analysis of the Permian hill forms. Because of the variation of lithology in the uplift, it is possible to isolate the effects of weathering processes such as intense hydrolysis of the igneous rocks (producing, among other features, or topography) and limestone dissolution, in the form of a surface and subsurface karst imprint. The latter process resulted in a network of small caves that are essentially fissures eroded along tectonic fractures. These small caves can be found in all the exposed areas of limestone. They are particularly noteworthy for three reasons: in at least five examples they contain a complex fauna of Permian vertebrates (mostly fragmentary), speleothems in some examples contain hydrocarbon inclusions, derived from the underlying Anadarko basin, some of the caves yield evidence of post burial evolution in the form of clay infiltration from the surface and brine flushing from the underlying Anadarko basin.

  12. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can

  13. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R-REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING -10499

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.

    2010-01-04

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the 105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate it from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,384 cubic meters or 31,894 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were designed and tested for the reactor ISD project, and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and material flow considerations, maximum lift heights and differential height requirements were determined. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material

  14. Simulating coarse-scale vegetation dynamics using the Columbia River Basin succession model-crbsum. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keane, R.E.; Long, D.G.; Menakis, J.P.; Hann, W.J.; Bevins, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    The paper details the landscape succession model developed for the coarse-scale assessment called CRBSUM (Columbia River Basin SUccession Model) and presents some general results of the application of this model to the entire basin. CRBSUM was used to predict future landscape characteristics to evaluate management alternatives for both mid-and coarse-scale efforts. A test and sensitivity analysis of CRBSUM is also presented. This paper was written as a users guide for those who wish to run the model and interprete results, and its was also written as documentation for some results of the Interior Columbia River Basin simulation effort.

  15. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  16. Middle-Late Permian mass extinction on land

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Retallack, G.J.; Metzger, C.A.; Greaver, T.; Jahren, A.H.; Smith, R.M.H.; Sheldon, N.D.

    2006-11-15

    The end-Permian mass extinction has been envisaged as the nadir of biodiversity decline due to increasing volcanic gas emissions over some 9 million years. We propose a different tempo and mechanism of extinction because we recognize two separate but geologically abrupt mass extinctions on land, one terminating the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) at 260.4 Ma and a later one ending the Permian Period at 251 Ma. Our evidence comes from new paleobotanical, paleopedological, and carbon isotopic studies of Portal Mountain, Antarctica, and comparable studies in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Extinctions have long been apparent among marine invertebrates at both the end of the Guadalupian and end of the Permian, which were also times of warm-wet greenhouse climatic transients, marked soil erosion, transition from high- to low-sinuosity and braided streams, soil stagnation in wetlands, and profound negative carbon isotope anomalies. Both mass extinctions may have resulted from catastrophic methane outbursts to the atmosphere from coal intruded by feeder dikes to flood basalts, such as the end-Guadalupian Emeishan Basalt and end-Permian Siberian Traps.

  17. A passive margin-type submarine fan complex, Permian Ecca Group, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickens, H.D. ); Bouma, A.H. )

    1991-03-01

    A submarine fan complex, comprising five arenaceous fan systems separated by basinal shale units, occurs in the southwestern part of the intracratonic Karoo basin in South Africa. Although basin development is related to a subduction zone bordering the palaeo-Pacific ocean to the south of Gondwanaland and the evolution of the Cape Fold Belt, the entire Lower Permian Ecca Group basin-fill succession reflects depositional characteristics of a passive-margin setting. The submarine fan complex, 250 m thick, originated from sediments supplied by Mississippi-type deltas dominating the Ecca coastline. The fine grain-size and low sand/shale ratio of the submarine fan and deltaic deposits reflect the maturity of the ancient river systems. Outcrops of the fan complex are well exposed and cover an area of 650 km{sup 2}. The strata are not affected by folding, and deep erosion allows three-dimensional viewing of mid-fan to outer-fan deposits. Features of interest include stacked lobe deposits displayed along 2.5 km of a 60 m high cliff section, and a transverse cliff section through channel-fill deposits 500 m wide. Paleocurrent directions reveal that each sequence had its own main source area located to the northwest and south of its present geographic location. The cyclic nature of the fan complex is attributed to relative sea-level changes; deposition took place on the basin floor in water depths that do not exceed 500 m. Shoaling of the basin to wave base depths is reflected in the pro-delta and delta front deposits overlying the uppermost fan sequence. Major factors in controlling direction of fan progradation were delta switching and basin floor topography.

  18. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Katharine Lee Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Hohn; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; James A. Drahovzal; Christopher D. Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; Taury Smith; Ron Riley; Mark Baranoski

    2005-04-01

    The Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Research Consortium has made significant progress toward their goal of producing a geologic play book for the Trenton-Black River gas play. The final product will include a resource assessment model of Trenton-Black River reservoirs; possible fairways within which to concentrate further studies and seismic programs; and a model for the origin of Trenton-Black River hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 15 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia and Kentucky. In addition, three surfaces for the area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. A 16-layer velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Considerable progress was made in fault trend delineation and seismic-stratigraphic correlation within the project area. Isopach maps and a network of gamma-ray cross sections supplemented with core descriptions allowed researchers to more clearly define the architecture of the basin during Middle and Late Ordovician time, the control of basin architecture on carbonate and shale deposition and eventually, the location of reservoirs in Trenton Limestone and Black River Group carbonates. The basin architecture itself may be structurally controlled, and this fault-related structural control along platform margins influenced the formation of hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs in original limestone facies deposited in high energy environments. This resulted in productive trends along the northwest margin of the Trenton platform in Ohio. The continuation of this platform margin into New York should provide further areas with good exploration potential. The focus of the petrographic study shifted from cataloging a broad spectrum of carbonate rocks that occur in the

  19. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkman, Jed

    2005-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts on private properties in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of this effort is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled nine properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and four properties on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Major accomplishments during the reporting period include the following: (1) Secured approximately $229,000 in project cost share; (2) Purchase of 46 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River to be protected perpetually for native fish and wildlife; (3) Developed three new 15 year conservation easements with private landowners; (4) Installed 3000 feet of weed barrier tarp with new plantings within project area on the mainstem Walla Walla River; (5) Expanded easement area on Couse Creek to include an additional 0.5 miles of stream corridor and 32 acres of upland habitat; (6) Restored 12 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River and 32 acres on Couse Creek to native perennial grasses; and (7) Installed 50,000+ new native plants/cuttings within project areas.

  20. Permian potentiometric analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devary, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties.

  1. Pennsylvanian-Permian Antler foreland of eastern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, W.S. . Dept. of Geosciences); Trexler, J.H. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Models for the Antler foreland generally assume that it was a Mississippian feature dominated by a single, large basin (the Antler foredeep). Recent work indicates that the foreland, as a tectonic region, is longer-lived, and is better described as a series of sub-basins separated by intervening structural highs. Long sections reveal space/time changes in depositional facies and sedimentologic features indicative or suggestive of this repeated tectonism. For example, in the southern Pancake Range, the fluvial-deltaic clastic units of the Late Mississippian-earliest Pennsylvanian Neward Canyon sequence are overlain by 540 m of cyclical Pennsylvanian Ely Limestone. The flooding event that marks the boundary between these units occurs during a long-term 2nd order eustatic low stand and thus reflects the regional tectonism that created the Ely basin'. Further, tectonically driven subsidence seems necessary to sustain deposition of the thick of marginal marine-open shelf Ely Limestone at this locality. Regionally, Early Permian deposition within the Dry Mountain trough was dominated by a complex series of local tectonic controls. Within eastern Nevada, tectonic influences on the stratigraphy continued through at least the Middle Permian, and this tectonism perhaps merged with that of the classic Late Permian-Early Triassic Sonoma orogeny. One consequence of this protracted tectonism was development or reactivation of zones of structural weakness that fragmented the foreland into a series of basins and highs and that accommodated differing geometries and styles of deformation.

  2. Powder River Basin Coalbed Methane Development and Produced Water Management Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Advanced Resources International

    2002-11-30

    Coalbed methane resources throughout the entire Powder River Basin were reviewed in this analysis. The study was conducted at the township level, and as with all assessments conducted at such a broad level, readers must recognize and understand the limitations and appropriate use of the results. Raw and derived data provided in this report will not generally apply to any specific location. The coal geology in the basin is complex, which makes correlation with individual seams difficult at times. Although more than 12,000 wells have been drilled to date, large areas of the Powder River Basin remain relatively undeveloped. The lack of data obviously introduces uncertainty and increases variability. Proxies and analogs were used in the analysis out of necessity, though these were always based on sound reasoning. Future development in the basin will make new data and interpretations available, which will lead to a more complete description of the coals and their fluid flow properties, and refined estimates of natural gas and water production rates and cumulative recoveries. Throughout the course of the study, critical data assumptions and relationships regarding gas content, methane adsorption isotherms, and reservoir pressure were the topics of much discussion with reviewers. A summary of these discussion topics is provided as an appendix. Water influx was not modeled although it is acknowledged that this phenomenon may occur in some settings. As with any resource assessment, technical and economic results are the product of the assumptions and methodology used. In this study, key assumptions as well as cost and price data, and economic parameters are presented to fully inform readers. Note that many quantities shown in various tables have been subject to rounding; therefore, aggregation of basic and intermediate quantities may differ from the values shown.

  3. Plans for Implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program in Fiscal Year 1986.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1985-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program is an effort to enhance, protect, and mitigate losses of those fish and wildlife which have been affected by the development, operation, and management of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia River Basin. The implementation plan is organized to address the action items assigned to BPA in Section 1500 of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program (1984). These action items generally relate to one or more specific measures in the Program. The following information is listed for each project: budget summary, projects, obligation plan, and work plan and milestones.

  4. Why are Hydro projects not being built in the Upper Ohio River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, P.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued licenses for the 16 Upper Ohio River Basin Associates (UORBHA) projects. As of January 1, 1995 it appears that one has achieved long term financing and has a market for the purchase of power, the Belleville Hydro Project. Of the remaining licensees, many have surrendered their licenses and others may be in jeopardy of not making their commencement of construction deadlines. Some that have surrendered licenses have new applications pending. This paper attempts to identify the reasons for the lack of development of these projects, explains the reasons why the Belleville Hydro Project has gone forward, and perhaps why the others have not.

  5. Technical Appendix for Development for Modified Streamflows 1928-1989 : Columbia River & Coastal Basin.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-06-01

    The report ``Adjusted Streamflow and Storage 1928-1989`` contains listings of historical flows for the sites in the Columbia River and Coastal Basins. This section of the Technical Appendix provides for the site specific procedures used to determine those historical flows. The study purpose, authority, and definitions are given in the main report. The purpose of this section of the Technical Appendix is to document the computational procedures used at each of the project sites to develop historical flows for the period July 1928--September 1989.

  6. Regional hydrology of the Green River-Moab area, northwestern Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rush, F.E.; Whitfield, M.S.; Hart, I.M.

    1982-12-01

    The Green River-Moab area encompasses about 7800 square kilometers or about 25% of the Paradox basin. The entire Paradox basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite (salt) beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Confining beds consist of evaporite beds of mostly salt, and overlying and underlying thick sequences of rocks with minimal permeability; above and below these confining beds are aquifers. The upper Mesozoic sandstone aquifer, probably is the most permeable hydrogeologic unit of the area and is the subject of this investigation. The principal component of groundwater outflow from this aquifer probably is subsurface flow to regional streams (the Green and Colorado Rivers) and is about 100 million cubic meters per year. All other components of outflow are relatively small. The average annual recharge to the aquifer is about 130 million cubic meters, of which about 20 million cubic meters is from local precipitation. For the lower aquifer, all recharge and discharge probably is by subsurface flow and was not estimated. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. Brines are present in the confining beds, but solution of beds of salt probably is very slow in most parts of the area. No brine discharges have been identified.

  7. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkman, Jed; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-04-01

    In 2001, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of these efforts is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled six properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and one property on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Since 1997, approximately 7 miles of critical salmonid habitat has been secured for restoration and protection under this project. Major accomplishments to date include the following: Secured approximately $250,000 in cost share; Secured 7 easements; Planted 30,000+ native plants; Installed 50,000+ cuttings; and Seeded 18 acres to native grass. Pre and post-project monitoring efforts were included for all projects, incorporating methodologies from CTUIR's Draft Monitoring Plan. Basin-wide monitoring also included the deployment of 6 thermographs to collect summer stream temperatures.

  8. The composition of Permian seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horita, J.; Friedman, T.J.; Lazar, B.; Holland, H.D. )

    1991-02-01

    Forty-nine brine inclusions in marine halite from the Ochoan Salado Formation in the Delaware Basin and fifteen inclusions in halite from the Leonardian Wellington Formation in the Kansas Basin were extracted, and their chemical compositions were determined. The brines are of the Na-K-Mg-Cl-SO{sub 4} type; their compositions resemble those of evaporated modern seawater. The values of (m{sub Cl{sup {minus}}} - m{sub Na{sup +}})/m{sub Br{sup {minus}}} and (m{sub Mg{sup 2+}} + ,{sub Ca{sup 2+}} {minus} m{sub SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}} {minus} {1/2}m{sub HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}})/m{sub Br{sup {minus}}} of the inclusion brine from the two formations are equal to or slightly higher than those of modern seawater. The original m{sub Na{sup +}}/m{sub Br{sup {minus}}} and m{sub Cl{sup {minus}}}/m{sub Br{sup {minus}}} ratios of the inclusion brines were probably equal to or slightly larger than those of modern seawater. The values of m{sub Mg{sup 2+}}/m{sub Br{sup {minus}}} of the inclusion brines from the Salado Formation are very close to that of modern seawater; the ratios of inclusion brines from the Wellington Formation are very close to that of modern seawater; the ratios of inclusion brines from the Wellington Formation are slightly lower, probably due to the formation of dolomite/magnesite. The m{sub Mg{sup 2+}}/m{sub Br{sup {minus}}} ratio in the initial seawater was probably close to the parent seawater of the Salado brines. The values of (m{sub SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}} {minus} m{sub Ca{sup 2+}} + {1/2}m{sub HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}})/m{sub Br{sup {minus}}} of the inclusion brines appear to be reduced by the formation of dolomite/magnesite, and the value of this ratio in Permian seawater was probably similar to that of modern seawater. The m{sub K{sup +}}/m{sub Br{sup -}} ratios of the inclusion brines are variable, but the original ratios are probably close to or slightly larger than that of modern seawater.

  9. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Surdam; Zunsheng Jiao; Nicholas K. Boyd

    1999-11-01

    The new exploration technology for basin center gas accumulations developed by R.C. Surdam and Associates at the Institute for Energy Research, University of Wyoming, was applied to the Riverton Dome 3-D seismic area. Application of the technology resulted in the development of important new exploration leads in the Frontier, Muddy, and Nugget formations. The new leads are adjacent to a major north-south trending fault, which is downdip from the crest of the major structure in the area. In a blind test, the drilling results from six new Muddy test wells were accurately predicted. The initial production values, IP, for the six test wells ranged from < one mmcf/day to four mmcf/day. The three wells with the highest IP values (i.e., three to four mmcf/day) were drilled into an intense velocity anomaly (i.e., anomalously slow velocities). The well drilled at the end of the velocity anomaly had an IP value of one mmcf/day, and the two wells drilled outside of the velocity anomaly had IP values of < one mmcf/day and are presently shut in. Based on these test results, it is concluded that the new IER exploration strategy for detecting and delineating commercial, anomalously pressured gas accumulation is valid in the southwestern portions of the Wind River Basin, and can be utilized to significantly reduce exploration risk and to increase profitability of so-called basin center gas accumulations.

  10. Status Report: USGS coal assessment of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Luppens; Timothy J. Rohrbacher; Jon E. Haacke; David C. Scott; Lee M. Osmonson

    2006-07-01

    This publication reports on the status of the current coal assessment of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This slide program was presented at the Energy Information Agency's 2006 EIA Energy Outlook and Modeling Conference in Washington, DC, on March 27, 2006. The PRB coal assessment will be the first USGS coal assessment to include estimates of both regional coal resources and reserves for an entire coal basin. Extensive CBM and additional oil and gas development, especially in the Gillette coal field, have provided an unprecedented amount of down-hole geological data. Approximately 10,000 new data points have been added to the PRB database since the last assessment (2002) which will provide a more robust evaluation of the single most productive U.S. coal basin. The Gillette coal field assessment, including the mining economic evaluation, is planned for completion by the end of 2006. The geologic portion of the coal assessment work will shift to the northern and northwestern portions of the PRB before the end of 2006 while the Gillette engineering studies are finalized. 7 refs.

  11. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly project status report, 1 April--30 June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report contains a cluster of twenty separate project reports concerning the fate, environmental transport, and toxicity of hazardous wastes in the Mississippi River Basin. Some of topics investigated involve: biological uptake and metabolism; heavy metal immobilization; biological indicators; toxicity; and mathematical models.

  12. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-10-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  13. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  14. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1989.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife.

    1988-11-01

    The FY 1989 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) presents Bonneville Power Administration's plans for implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) in FY 1989. The Work Plan focuses on individual Action Items found in the 1987 Program for which Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has determined that it has authority and responsibility to implement. Each of the entries in the Work Plan includes objectives, background, and progress to date in achieving those objectives, and a summary of plans for implementation in FY 1989. Most Action Items are implemented through one or more BPA-funded projects. Each Action Item entry is followed by a list of completed, ongoing, and planned projects, along with objectives, results, schedules, and milestones for each project. The FY 1989 Work Plan emphasizes continuation of 113 projects, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. BPA also plans to start 20 new projects in FY 1989. The number of ongoing FY 1988 projects to be continued in FY 1989 and the number of new projects planned to start in FY 1989 are based on current (September 7, 1988) procurement expectations. Several projects presently in BPA's procurement process are expected to be contracted by September 30, 1988, the last day of FY 1988. Although these projects have not yet started, they have been listed in the Work Plan as ongoing FY 1988 projects, based on projected start dates in late September 1988. Throughout the Work Plan, those projects with projected start dates in September 1988 have been noted.

  15. John Day River Sub-Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project; 2008 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Russ M.; Alley, Pamela D.; Goin Jr, Lonnie

    2009-07-15

    Work undertaken in 2008 included: (1) Seven new fence projects were completed thereby protecting approximately 10.97 miles of streams with 16.34 miles of riparian fence; (2) Renewal of one expired lease was completed thereby continuing to protect 0.75 miles of stream with 1.0 mile of riparian fence. (3) Maintenance of all active project fences (106.54 miles), watergaps (78), spring developments (33) were checked and repairs performed; (3) Planted 1000 willow/red osier on Fox Creek/Henslee property; (4) Planted 2000 willows/red osier on Middle Fork John Day River/Coleman property; (5) Planted 1000 willow/red osier cuttings on Fox Creek/Johns property; (6) Since the initiation of the Fish Habitat Project in 1984 we have 126.86 miles of stream protected using 211.72 miles of fence protecting 5658 acres. The purpose of the John Day Fish Habitat Enhancement Program is to enhance production of indigenous wild stocks of spring Chinook and summer steelhead within the sub basin through habitat protection, enhancement and fish passage improvement. The John Day River system supports the largest remaining wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead in Northeast Oregon.

  16. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-06-01

    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  17. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fryer, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has been conducting a study concerning the epidemiology and control of three fish pathogens which cause major disease problems in salmonids of the Columbia River basin. The pathogens studied include Cera to myxa Shasta, the myxosporean parasite which causes ceratomyxosis; Renibacterium salmoninarum, the bacterium which is the etiological agent of bacterial kidney disease; and the rhabdovirus which causes infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). During this project, the host and geographic range of C. Shasta have been more precisely determined and the known geographic range has been significantly expanded. The effects of the parasite on fish migrating through the Columbia River and on their introduction into salt water have been examined. Similar studies have been conducted with R. salmoninarum and it has been shown that bacterial kidney disease occurs at all life stages of salmonids and is responsible for mortality in both fresh and salt water. It has also been demonstrated that different isolates of R. salmoninarum have different antigenic composition. Results of demonstration projects designed to control IHN by using UV treated water for early rearing of salmonid fry were equivocal. The scope of the project was considerably narrowed and focused during the past two years The project has concentrated on a study concerning the biology of C. Shasta and the identification of potential chemotherapeutants for control of bacterial kidney disease. The emphasis of work on C. Shasta has been its pathogenesis. This aspect of the parasite has been investigated using histopathologic and immunologic methodology. Mode of transmission, the nature of the infectious stage, and potential intermediate hosts of the parasite have also been areas of active research. Classes of chemotherapeutants with the highest potential for efficacy against R. salmoninarum have been

  18. Paleomagnetic studies of Carboniferous and Permian in the U. K. Southern North Sea: Core orientation, paleocurrent analysis, and diagenetic application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, P. ); Hartley, A.J. )

    1991-03-01

    The U.K. southern North Sea is a major gas province with production from Carboniferous and Permian reservoirs. It was a foreland basin in Carboniferous times uplifted to form a Lower Permian desert basin and subsequently deeply buried during the Mesozoic. Paleomagnetic methods have been used for burial analysis, core orientation, and paleocurrent studies. VRM is shown to be of only limited value for core orientation; problems relating to drilling effects and deflection by ChRM will be discussed. Detailed thermal demagnetization studies are most valuable. Blocking temperature spectra can be related to burial history curves, and ChRM directions isolated and compared with Carboniferous and Permian reference directions. ChRM is a valuable parameter for core orientation and thus paleocurrent studies. Examples will be shown from the Carboniferous and Lower Permian.

  19. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, 30 December 1992--29 December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier DBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ``Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin`` project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  20. 2,"Laramie River Station","Coal","Basin Electric Power Coop",1710

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"Jim Bridger","Coal","PacifiCorp",2111 2,"Laramie River Station","Coal","Basin Electric Power Coop",1710 3,"Dave Johnston","Coal","PacifiCorp",760 4,"Naughton","Coal","PacifiCorp",687 5,"Dry Fork Station","Coal","Basin

  1. Genetic and Phenotype [Phenotypic] Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-99 Report : Populations of the Pend Oreille, Kettle, and Sanpoil River Basins of Colville National Forest.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-05-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-99 was year two of a five-year project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-99 we worked in collaboration with the Colville National Forest and Kalispel Indian Tribe to catalog populations in the northeastern corner of Washington State.

  2. CTUIR Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2009-02-09

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2008 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2008-January 31, 2009) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight primary fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, McKay Creek, West Fork Spring Hollow, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying one fish passage barrier on West Birch Creek; (2) participating in six projects planting 10,000 trees and seeding 3225 pounds of native grasses; (3) donating 1000 ft of fencing and 1208 fence posts and associated hardware for 3.6 miles of livestock exclusion fencing projects in riparian areas of West Birch and Meacham Creek, and for tree screens to protect against beaver damage on West Fork Spring Hollow Creek; (4) using biological control (insects) to reduce noxious weeds on three treatment areas covering five acres on Meacham Creek; (5) planning activities for a levee setback project on Meacham Creek. We participated in additional secondary projects as opportunities arose. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at additional easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Proper selection and implementation of

  3. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project: 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheeler, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    The Umatilla habitat improvement program is funded under the Northwest Power Planning Council`s Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program measure 704 (d) (1) 34.02, and targets the improvement of water quality and the restoration of riparian areas, spawning and rearing habitat of steelhead, spring and fall chinook and coho salmon. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation are responsible for enhancing stream reaches within the Reservation boundaries as guided by an implementation plan developed cooperatively with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and the USDA Forest Service, Umatilla National Forest. Treatment areas included the lower 4 miles of Meacham Creek, the lower {1/4} mile of Boston Canyon Creek, and the Umatilla River between RM 78.5 and 80. The upper {1/2} of the Meacham Creek project area including Boston Canyon Creek, which were initially enhanced during 1989, were reentered for maintenance and continued enhancements. Approximately 2400 cu. yds. of boulders and 1000 cu. yds. of riprap was used in the construction of in-stream, stream bank and flood plain structures and in the anchoring of large organic debris (LOD) placements. In-stream structures were designed to increase instream cover and channel stability and develop of a defined thalweg to focus low summer flows. Flood plain structures were designed to reduce sediment inputs and facilitate deposition on flood plains. Riparian recovery was enhanced through the planting of over 1000 willow cuttings and 400 lbs. of grass seed mix and through the exclusion of livestock from the riparian corridor with 4.5 miles of high tensile smooth wire fence. Photo documentation and elevational transects were used to monitor changes in channel morphology and riparian recovery at permanent standardized points throughout the projects. Water quality (temperature and turbidity) data was collected at locations within the project area and in tributaries programmed for future enhancements.

  4. The Wyodak-Anderson coal assessment, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana -- An ArcView project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores, R.M.; Gunther, G.; Ochs, A.; Ellis, M.E.; Stricker, G.D.; Bader, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    In 1997, more than 305 million short tons of clean and compliant coal were produced from the Wyodak-Anderson and associated coal beds and zones of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. To date, all coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson, which averages 0.47 percent sulfur and 6.44 percent ash, has met regulatory compliance standards. Twenty-eight percent of the total US coal production in 1997 was from the Wyodak-Anderson coal. Based on the current consumption rates and forecast by the Energy Information Administration (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coal is projected to produce 413 million short tons by the year 2016. In addition, this coal deposit as well as other Fort Union coals have recently been targeted for exploration and development of methane gas. New US Geological Survey (USGS) digital products could provide valuable assistance in future mining and gas development in the Powder River Basin. An interactive format, with querying tools, using ArcView software will display the digital products of the resource assessment of Wyodak-Anderson coal, a part of the USGS National Coal Resource Assessment of the Powder River Basin. This ArcView project includes coverages of the data point distribution; land use; surface and subsurface ownerships; coal geology, stratigraphy, quality and geochemistry; and preliminary coal resource calculations. These coverages are displayed as map views, cross sections, tables, and charts.

  5. Identifying and Mitigating Potential Nutrient and Sediment Hot Spots under a Future Scenario in the Missouri River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, May; Zhang, Zhonglong

    2015-09-01

    Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for large-scale watershed modeling could be useful for evaluating the quality of the water in regions that are dominated by nonpoint sources in order to identify potential “hot spots” for which mitigating strategies could be further developed. An analysis of water quality under future scenarios in which changes in land use would be made to accommodate increased biofuel production was developed for the Missouri River Basin (MoRB) based on a SWAT model application. The analysis covered major agricultural crops and biofuel feedstock in the MoRB, including pasture land, hay, corn, soybeans, wheat, and switchgrass. The analysis examined, at multiple temporal and spatial scales, how nitrate, organic nitrogen, and total nitrogen; phosphorus, organic phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, and total phosphorus; suspended sediments; and water flow (water yield) would respond to the shifts in land use that would occur under proposed future scenarios. The analysis was conducted at three geospatial scales: (1) large tributary basin scale (two: Upper MoRB and Lower MoRB); (2) regional watershed scale (seven: Upper Missouri River, Middle Missouri River, Middle Lower Missouri River, Lower Missouri River, Yellowstone River, Platte River, and Kansas River); and (3) eight-digit hydrologic unit (HUC-8) subbasin scale (307 subbasins). Results showed that subbasin-level variations were substantial. Nitrogen loadings decreased across the entire Upper MoRB, and they increased in several subbasins in the Lower MoRB. Most nitrate reductions occurred in lateral flow. Also at the subbasin level, phosphorus in organic, sediment, and soluble forms was reduced by 35%, 45%, and 65%, respectively. Suspended sediments increased in 68% of the subbasins. The water yield decreased in 62% of the subbasins. In the Kansas River watershed, the water quality improved significantly with regard to every nitrogen and phosphorus compound. The improvement was

  6. Summary Report for Bureau of Fisheries Stream Habitat Surveys : Willamette River Basin, 1934-1942, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, Bruce A.; Clark, Sharon E.; Sedell, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains summary reports of stream habitat-surveys, conducted in the Willamette River basin, by the Bureau of Fisheries (BOF, now National Marine Fisheries Service) from 1934-1942. These surveys were part of a larger project to survey streams in the Columbia River basin that provided, or had provided, spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and steelhead (Rich, 1948). The purpose of the survey was, as described by Rich, 'to determine the present condition of the various tributaries with respect to their availability and usefulness for the migration, breeding, and rearing of migratory fishes'. Current estimates of the loss of anadromous fish habitat in the Columbia River Basin are based on a series of reports published from 1949-1952 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The reports were brief, qualitative accounts of over 5000 miles of stream surveys conducted by the BOF from 1934-1946 (Bryant, 1949; Bryant and Parkhurst, 1950; Parkhurst, 1950a-c; Parkhurst et al., 1950). Despite their brevity, these BOF reports have formed the basis for estimating fish habitat losses and conditions in the Columbia River Basin (Fulton, 1968, 1970; Thompson, 1976; NPPC, 1986). Recently, the field notebooks from the BOF surveys were discovered. The data is now archived and stored in the Forest Science DataBank at Oregon State University (Stafford et al., 1984; 1988). These records are the earliest and most comprehensive documentation available of the condition and extent of anadromous fish habitat before hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin. They provide the baseline data for quantifying changes and setting a benchmark for future restoration of anadromous fish habitat throughout the Basin. The summaries contained in this book are exact replicates of the originals. Due to discrepancies between the field data and the summaries, the database should be used to assess pool and substrate conditions. This data is available from the Bonneville Power

  7. Summary Report for Bureau of Fisheries Stream Habitat Surveys : Yakima River Basin, 1934-1942, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, Bruce A.; Clark, Sharon E.; Sedell, James R.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains summary reports of stream habitat surveys, conducted in the Yakima River basin, by the Bureau of Fisheries (BOF, now National Marine Fisheries Service) from 1934-1942. These surveys were part of a larger project to survey streams in the Columbia River basin that provided, or had provided, spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and steelhead (Rich, 1948). The purpose of the survey was, as described by Rich, 'to determine the present condition of the various tributaries with respect to their availability and usefulness for the migration, breeding, and rearing of migratory fishes'. Current estimates of the loss of anadromous fish habitat in the Columbia River Basin are based on a series of reports published from 1949-1952 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The reports were brief, qualitative accounts of over 5000 miles of stream surveys conducted by the BOF from 1934-1946 (Bryant, 1949; Bryant and Parkhurst, 1950; Parkhurst, 1950a-c; Parkhurst et al., 1950). Despite their brevity, these BOF reports have formed the basis for estimating fish habitat losses and conditions in the Columbia River Basin (Fulton, 1968, 1970; Thompson, 1976; NPPC, 1986). Recently, the field notebooks from the BOF surveys were discovered. The data is now archived and stored in the Forest Science DataBank at Oregon State University (Stafford et al., 1984; 1988). These records are the earliest and most comprehensive documentation available of the condition and extent of anadromous fish habitat before hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin. They provide the baseline data for quantifying changes and setting a benchmark for future restoration of anadromous fish habitat throughout the Basin. The summaries in this book are exact replicates of the originals. Due to discrepancies between the field data and the summaries, the database should be used to assess pool and substrate conditions. This data is available from the Bonneville Power Administration. The Bureau

  8. Regional socioeconomic impacts of alternative energy scenarios for the Ohio River Basin Energy Study region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, S.I.; Graham, A.S.

    1980-10-01

    The report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. It describes projected socioeconomic impacts of the ORBES energy futures, defined as scenarios, on the region. The region consists of all of Kentucky, most of West Virginia, and substantial portions of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The major impact areas considered are employment impacts of coal-fired power plants and of coal mining; population impacts of coal-fired power plants and coal mining; and public service impacts (e.g., water and sewer systems). The analyses of power plant impacts was aided by use of the ORBES Labor Impact Model (OLIM), which projects total county employment over time by scenario. For coal-mining employment impacts, a set of employment multipliers was developed using existing data to enable county- and regional-level employment changes. The mining employment data also are used in conjunction with other forecasts to look at general migration trends within the study region.

  9. Flow dynamics and erosion rate of representative karst basin (Upper Aniene River, Central Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bono, P.; Percopo, C.

    1996-04-01

    Experimental data refer to a preliminary estimate of suspended solid and solute load of a perennial river. The basin is composed almost entirely of bare mesozoic, highly fractured, karstified carbonate rocks of the central Apennine range. The suspended solid load related to stormflow events in 1991 corresponds to about 14,970 t yr{sup -1}. For the same period the solute load is 60,060 t yr{sup -1} for a mean base flow discharge of 9.4 m{sup 3} s{sup -1}. Based on the mean concentration of Ca + Mg in water, the value of dissolution of carbonate rocks of 37.1 m{sup 3} km{sup -2} (equivalent approximately to 0.04 mm yr{sup -1}) was calculated. Physical and chemical variations that occur during storm events indicate the complex dynamic processes in the karst aquifier and the role undertaken by the epikarst as perched water reservoir and by the major conduits that develop through the vadose and saturated zones of the karst system. 12 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Seismic facies analysis of lacustrine system: Paleocene upper Fort Union Formation, Wind River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liro, L.M.; Pardus, Y.C.

    1989-03-01

    The authors interpreted seismic reflection data, supported by well control, to reconstruct the stratigraphic development of Paleocene Lake Waltman in the Wind River basin of Wyoming. After dividing the upper Fort Union into eight seismic sequences, the authors mapped seismic attributes (amplitude, continuity, and frequency) within each sequence. Interpretation of the variation in seismic attributes allowed them to detail delta development and encroachment into Lake Waltman during deposition of the upper Fort Union Formation. These deltas are interpreted as high-energy, well-differentiated lobate forms with distinct clinoform morphology on seismic data. Prograding delta-front facies are easily identified on seismic data as higher amplitude, continuous events within the clinoforms. Seismic data clearly demonstrate the time-Transgressive nature of this facies. Downdip of these clinoforms, homogeneous shales, as evidenced by low-amplitude, generally continuous seismic events, accumulated in an interpreted quiet, areally extensive lacustrine setting. Seismic definition of the lateral extent of this lacustrine facies is excellent, allowing them to effectively delineate changes in the lake morphology during deposition of the upper Fort Union Formation. Encasing the upper Fort Union lacustrine deposits are fluvial-alluvial deposits, interpreted from discontinuous, variable-amplitude seismic facies. The authors highlight the correlation of seismic facies data and interpretation to well log data in the Frenchie Draw field to emphasize the accuracy of depositional environment prediction from seismic data.

  11. Tectonic implications of facies patterns, Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, D.M.; Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C. )

    1991-02-01

    Paleozoic tectonism is indicated by a study of a west-east facies analysis transect across the northern portion of the Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT). In an attempt to characterize the Early Permian basin-filling sequences, three broadly recognizable facies packages have been identified across the DMT: the western margin facies and the central basin facies of the DMT and an eastern shelf facies. In the western margin facies of the basin, pulses of tectonic activity are recorded at McCloud Spring in the Sulphur Springs Range. Here, shallow open-marine carbonate overlies eroded Vinini Formation and, in turn, is unconformably overlain by basinal marine carbonate. An unconformity also marks the contact with the overriding prograding coarse clastic facies. These abrupt transitions suggest the sediments were deposited in a tectonically active area where they preservation of Waltherian sequences is unlikely to occur. Similarly abrupt transitions are evident in the western part of the central basin facies. At Portuguese Springs n the Diamond Range, a thin basal marine conglomerate delineates Lower Permian sedimentation over the Pennsylvanian Ely Formation. Coarsening-upward basinal carbonate strata of pelagic, hemipelagic, and turbidite components overlie the basal conglomerate. this progression of sediments is unconformably overlain by a subaerial sequence of coarse clastic deposits. Within the eastern part of the central basin facies in the Maverick Spring Range, the Lower Permian sediments are open-marine siltstone, wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. The sediments are assigned to a gradually sloping ramp, indicating the effects of tectonism on this margin of the basin were subdued.

  12. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Chris Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; James Drahovzal; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; John Bocan; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Katharine Lee Avary

    2004-10-01

    The ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' has reached the mid-point in a two-year research effort to produce a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 exploration and production companies and 6 research team members, including four state geological surveys, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks and one administrative and technology transfer task are being conducted basin-wide by research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined at least once. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 10 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York and Pennsylvania. In addition, three surfaces in that area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. In the Kentucky-Ohio-West Virginia portion of the study area, a velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Fifteen formation tops have been identified on seismic in that area. Preliminary conclusions based on the available seismic data do not support the extension of the Rome Trough into New York state. Members of the stratigraphy task team measured, described and photographed numerous cores from throughout the basin, and tied these data back to their network of geophysical log cross sections. Geophysical logs were scanned in raster files for use in detailed well examination and construction of cross sections. Logs on these cross sections that are only in raster format are being converted to vector format for final cross section displays. The petrology team measured and sampled one classic outcrop in Pennsylvania and ten cores in four states. More than 600 thin sections were prepared from samples in those four states. A seven-step procedure is being used to analyze all thin

  13. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark; Perkins, Raymond R.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  14. Permian and Pennsylvanian tectonic events in eastern California in relation to major plate motions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, C.H.; Sedlock, R. ); Stone, P. )

    1993-04-01

    Northwest-trending basins cutting across older northeast-trending facies belts in eastern California opened by Middle Pennsylvanian time and continued to develop and expand into the Early Permian. Basin development was accompanied by east-vergent thrust-faulting in the Early Permian and was followed by development of northeast-trending folds and regional uplift in middle and Late Permian time. These events have been considered products of long-tern sinistral truncation of the western North American continental margin. Later, in the Late Permian, extensional faulting created small northeast-trending basins in which deposition of terrestrial and shallow-marine rocks occurred. The author consider all late Paleozoic tectonism in eastern California to have been driven by plate interactions along the western margin of North America and to be only indirectly related to the late Paleozoic collision between North America and Gondwana. They propose that the truncated part of North America was part of the Paleo-pacific plate. In Nevada the margin of this plate, along which the Havallah assemblage eventually was emplaced, was convergent, but in California the margin bent sharply and became transform. This fault continued as the Mojave-Sonora mega-shear into Mexico where the oceanic part of the Paleopacific plate was subducted under Gondwana, forming an extensive arc now represented by rocks in S. America.

  15. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  16. the Central Basin Platform,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Bolden, G.P., 1984, Wrench Faulting in Selected Areas of the Permian Basin, &: Moore, G. ... I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I Henry, C.A. and Price, J.G., 1985, Summary of ...

  17. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LOWER GREEN RIVER FORMATION, SOUTHWEST UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Robert Bereskin

    2003-02-11

    Anastamosing, low gradient distributary channels produce {approx}30 gravity, paraffinic oils from the Middle Member of the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation in the south-central portion of the Uinta Basin. This localized depocenter was situated along the fluctuating southern shoreline of Lake Uinta, where complex deposits of marginal-lacustrine to lower delta plain accumulations are especially characteristic. The Middle Member contains several fining-upward parasequences that can be recognized in outcrop, core, and downhole logs. Each parasequence is about 60 to 120 feet thick and consists of strata deposited during multiple lake level fluctuations that approach 30 to 35 feet in individual thickness. Such parasequences represent 300,000-year cycles based on limited absolute age dating. The subaerial to subaqueous channels commonly possess an erosional base and exhibit a fining upward character. Accordingly, bedding features commonly range from large-scale trough and planar cross bedding or lamination at the base, to a nonreservoir, climbing ripple assemblage near the uppermost reservoir boundary. The best reservoir quality occurs within the laminated to cross-stratified portions, and the climbing ripple phase usually possesses more deleterious micas and/or detrital clays. Diagenesis also exerts a major control on reservoir quality. Certain sandstones were cemented by an early, iron-poor calcite cement, which can be subsequently leached. Secondary intergranular porosity (up to 20%) is largely responsible for the 10 -100 millidarcy rock, which represents petrophysical objectives for both primary and secondary production. Otherwise, intense compaction, silicic and iron-rich carbonate cements, and authigenic clays serve to reduce reservoir quality to marginal economic levels.

  18. Significance of cyclic Pennsylvanian-Permian coral/algal buildups Snaky Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canter, K.L. ); Isaacson, P.E. )

    1991-02-01

    Five cyclic algal, hydrozoan, and coral buildups occur within a thick sequence of Pennsylvanian-Permian (Virgilian through Wolfcampain) carbonates in south-central Idaho. The Juniper Gulch Member of the Snaky Canyon Formation, as described by Skipp and coworkers, is approximately 600 m thick and contains four depositional facies, including: (1) open circulation outer( ) platform, (2) hydrozoan and phylloid algal mound-dominated carbonate buildup, (3) backmound, restricted platform/lagoon, and (4) restricted inner platform facies. Several microlithofacies, including lime mud-rich bafflestone, diversely fossiliferous packstone and grainstone, bryozoan lime floatstone, and phylloid algal and hydrozoan (Palaeoaplysina) lime bindstone are described within the phylloid algal mounds. Successional faunal assemblage stages are recognized within the buildups. Colonial rugose corals comprise a stabilization stage. When the algal communities of the diversification stage reached wave base, because of their rapid upward growth, cross-bedded oolitic grainstone and occasional cross-bedded dolomite shoals developed. Supratidal to high intertidal platform sedimentation is represented by dolomitic Palaeoaplysina bindstone, algal mat bindstone, and vuggy dolomite. Five vertical sequences of buildup development, each terminate by intertidal, supratidal, or erosional events, are seen in the Juniper Gulch Member in the North Howe stratigraphic section of the southern Lost River Range. The carbonate platform was constructed within a depositional basin that includes an eroded highland to the west, and a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate inner platform with craton uplifts to the east.

  19. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  20. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2003-2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Tara

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes activities conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Juvenile Outmigration and Survival M&E project in the Umatilla River subbasin between 2004-2006. Information is used to make informed decisions on hatchery effectiveness, natural production success, passage improvement and flow enhancement strategies. Data collected includes annual estimates of smolt abundance, migration timing, and survival, life history characteristics and productivity status and trends for spring and fall Chinook salmon, coho salmon and summer steelhead. Productivity data provided is the key subbasin scale measure of the effectiveness of salmon and steelhead restoration actions in the Umatilla River. Information is also used for regional planning and recovery efforts of Mid-Columbia River (MCR) ESA-listed summer steelhead. Monitoring is conducted via smolt trapping and PIT-tag interrogation at Three Mile Falls Dam. The Umatilla Juvenile Outmigration and Survival Project was established in 1994 to evaluate the success of management actions and fisheries restoration efforts in the Umatilla River Basin. Project objectives for the 2004-2006 period were to: (1) operate the PIT tag detection system at Three Mile Falls Dam (TMFD), (2) enhance provisional PIT-tag interrogation equipment at the east bank adult fish ladder, (3) monitor the migration timing, abundance and survival of naturally-produced juvenile salmonids and trends in natural production, (4) determine migration parameters and survival of hatchery-produced fish representing various rearing, acclimation and release strategies, (5) evaluate the relative survival between transported and non-transported fish, (6) monitor juvenile life history characteristics and evaluate trends over time, (7) investigate the effects of river, canal, fishway operations and environmental conditions on smolt migration and survival, (8) document the temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species, and (9

  1. Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

    2003-09-01

    This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in fall and winter. Manual stream flow measurements at Pepper bridge showed an increase in 2002 of 110-185% from July-September, over flows from 2001. This increase is apparently associated with a 2000 settlement agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the irrigation districts to leave minimum flows in the river. Stream temperatures in the Walla Walla basin were similar to those in 2001. Upper montane tributaries maintained maximum summer temperatures below 65 F, while sites in mid and lower Touchet and Walla Walla rivers frequently had daily maximum temperatures well above 68 F (high enough to inhibit migration in adult and juvenile salmonids, and to sharply reduce survival of their embryos and fry). These high temperatures are possibly the most critical physiological barrier to salmonids in the Walla Walla basin, but other factors (available water, turbidity or sediment deposition, cover, lack of pools, etc.) also play a part in salmonid survival, migration, and breeding success. The increased flows in the Walla Walla, due to the 2000 settlement agreement, have not shown consistent improvements to stream temperatures. Rainbow/steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout represent the most common salmonid in the basin. Densities of Rainbow/steelhead in the Walla Walla River from the Washington/Oregon stateline to Mojonnier Rd. dropped slightly from 2001, but are still considerably higher than before the 2000 settlement agreement. Other salmonids including; bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and brown trout (Salmo

  2. Geology of the oil and gas bearing Permian formation in the Polish Lowlands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorski, J.; Wagner, R. )

    1993-09-01

    Permian rocks occur over more than 80% of the Polish territory and, in middle Poland, they occur at considerable depth, from 2 to 6 km. The Early Permian was a period of long-lasting intensive volcanic activity. The Late Permian and Zechstein began with desert deposition which was followed by evaporitic deposition of a shallow epicontinental sea. The middle Polish trough (MPT) constituted the central part of the late Permian basin and was the site of the earliest and longest deposition with the most intensive periodical subsidence not compensated by sedimentation. Subsidence rate and syndepositional faulting substantially controlled the paleogeographic pattern. The final structure of the oil and gas fields was caused by late diagenesis and Upper Cretaceous structural remodeling. The upper Rotliegendes have the biggest natural gas fields. Reservoir rocks are sandstone and sandstones interfingering with conglomerates in tectonically active zones. The most promising areas for hydrocarbon exploration are the marginal parts of the basin (UPL) and the contact zone between MPT and the adjacent platforms. In the central part of the basin, the most promising are sandstone complexes on elevated tectonic blocks. Zechstein hydrocarbon fields occur in carbonate horizons of the first three cycles (PZ1, PZ2, and PZ3). In some areas, the Zechstein limestones (Cal), constitute the natural gas reservoir. Main dolomite (Ca2), oil, gas, and condensate fields are connected with the carbonate platform or its slope. Source rocks for oil occur in the Ca2 basinal facies or in the deeper parts of the platform-type lagoons. Oil migration is short and lateral, from either the basin or lagoon, toward the carbonate platform. Gas in Ca2 derived from the sub-Zechstein basement and migrated vertically along fault zones. The most prospective areas are reservoir horizons of the carbonate platform occurring in the near source rocks. The play dolomite Ca3 is not very promising.

  3. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is the 1991 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. In April 1992, Snake River fall chinook salmon were listed as ``threatened`` under the Endangered Species Act. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon can not be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  4. Assessment of Salmonids and their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Trump, Jeremy; Karl, David

    2002-12-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about these threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77.12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2001 field season (March to November, 2001).

  5. Assessment of Salmonids and their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin of Washington : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Karl, David; Coyle, Terrence

    2001-11-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about the threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77. 12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of their habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2000 field season (March to November, 2000).

  6. Tectonic implications of new Pennsylvanian-Permian conodont data from the Diamond Mountains, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Hofwegen, D.T. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    An unstable Late Paleozoic Cordilleran margin has been recognized by several authors, however, detailed data documented the timing of individual tectonic episodes have been unavailable. In the central and northern Great Basin, a regional unconformity separates Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian strata from overlying Permian units. The timing and extent of this unconformity vary within the region, raising questions about the paleotopography. The hiatus represented by the Pennsylvanian-Permian unconformity may have resulted from Late Paleozoic tectonism, yet available age dates have been insufficient to bracket its duration with the resolution required to test this tectonic hypothesis. New conodont and lithostratigraphic data from central Nevada document the nature and extent of the hiatus locally, and suggest definitions of regional tectonic episodes. Variation in the magnitude of the hiatus between Pennsylvanian and Permian units, rapid facies shifts and variation in the thickness of Permian strata are recorded in three stratigraphic sections along the 45 mile length of the Diamond Mountains, north of Eureka, Nevada. Differences in the duration of this hiatus can be recognized using Pennsylvanian conodont lineages of Streptogathodus and Idiognathodus, and the Permian Mesogondollela bisseli-Sweetognathus whitei and Neostreptognathodus pequopensis-Sweetognathus behnkeni assemblage zones. The hiatus in the northern Diamond Mountains ranges from Atokan to latest Wolfcampian; in the central Diamonds, Morrowan to Leonardian ; in the southern Diamonds, Atokan to late Wolfcampian or Leonardian. Immediately south of the Diamond Mountains, at Secret Canyon, the hiatus spans Late Mississippian to lower upper Wolfcampian. Early Permian sedimentation in the region seems to have been strongly influenced by tectonically produced Late Pennsylvanian topography.

  7. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  8. Dalhart's only Permian field gets best oil well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that activity is picking up in Proctor Ranch oil field in the northwestern Texas panhandle, the only Permian producing field in the lightly drilled Dalhart basin. During the last 2 1/2 months, the field has a new operator and a new producing well, the best of five drilled since discovery in 1990. Corlena Oil Co., Amarillo, acquired the field from McKinney Oil Co. in May and tested its first well in early July. The 1-64 Proctor, 18 miles west of Channing, pumped at rates as high as 178 bd of oil and 6 b/d of water from Permian Wolfcamp dolomite perforations at 4,016-29 ft. Corlena plans to drill another well south of the field soon. The lease requires that the next well be spudded by early November. The field appears to be combination structural-stratigraphic trap in which the dolomite pinches out against the Bravo Domes-Oldham nose to the west.

  9. Savannah River Site Basin Cleanup Comes Full Circle to Los Angeles Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – Several news headlines referred to 96 million shade balls covering a Los Angeles reservoir, and they seemed oddly familiar to Savannah River Site (SRS) employees.

  10. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Wayne

    2007-04-01

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. Spawning ground surveys for spring (stream-type) Chinook salmon were conducted in four main spawning areas (Mainstem, Middle Fork, North Fork, and Granite Creek System) and seven minor spawning areas (South Fork, Camas Creek, Desolation Creek, Trail Creek, Deardorff Creek, Clear Creek, and Big Creek) in the John Day River basin during August and September of 2005. Census surveys included 298.2 river kilometers (88.2 rkm within index, 192.4 rkm additional within census, and 17.6 rkm within random survey areas) of spawning habitat. We observed 902 redds and 701 carcasses including 227 redds in the Mainstem, 178 redds in the Middle Fork, 420 redds in the North Fork, 62 redds in the Granite Creek System, and 15 redds in Desolation Creek. Age composition of carcasses sampled for the entire basin was 1.6% age 3, 91.2% age 4, and 7.1% age 5. The sex ratio was 57.4% female and 42.6% male. Significantly more females than males were observed in the Granite Creek System. During 2005, 82.3% of female carcasses sampled had released all of their eggs. Significantly more pre-spawn mortalities were observed in Granite Creek. Nine (1.3%) of 701 carcasses were of hatchery origin. Of 298 carcasses examined, 4.0% were positive for the presence of lesions. A significantly higher incidence of gill lesions was found in the Granite Creek System when compared to the rest of the basin. Of 114 kidney samples tested, two (1.8%) had clinical BKD levels. Both infected fish were age-4 females in the Middle Fork. All samples tested for IHNV were negative. To estimate spring Chinook and summer steelhead smolt-to-adult survival (SAR) we PIT tagged 5,138 juvenile