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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Risk assessment activities at NIOSH: Information resources and needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the Occupational Safety and Health, and Mine Safety and Health Acts, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is charged with development of recommended occupational safety and health standards, and with conducting research to support the development of these standards. Thus, NIOSH has been actively involved in the analysis of risk associated with occupational exposures, and in the development of research information that is critical for the risk assessment process. NIOSH research programs and other information resources relevant to the risk assessment process are described in this paper. Future needs for information resources are also discussed.

Stayner, L.T.; Meinhardt, T.; Hardin, B. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF PCE EMISSIONS FROM DRY CLEANING ACTIVITIES IN FRANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF PCE EMISSIONS FROM DRY CLEANING ACTIVITIES IN FRANCE L DELERY1 Verneuil-en-halatte-F ABSTRACT Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is a solvent used mostly in the dry health effects caused by chronic inhalation exposure of PCE. PCE is suspected to be probably carcinogenic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

Risk Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A set of issues that state and local governments should carefully consider, with the goal of helping them assess and anticipate solutions for some worst case or unfortunate case scenarios as they...

4

Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group (RWG) was established to assist DOE in the appropriate and effective use of quantitative risk assessment in nuclear safety related activities.

5

Quantitative Risk Assessment and the Notion of Acceptable Risk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kristen Shrader-Frechette divides the activity of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) into three stages: (1) risk identification, (2) risk estimation, and (3) risk evaluation.1 Given the present level of developme...

James Humber; Robert Almeder

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Risk Assess - updated  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Software Development Risk Assessment Software Development Risk Assessment Note: The purpose of this prompt list is to provide project managers with a tool for identifying and planning for potential project risks. It is process-based and supports the framework established by the DOE Software Engineering Methodology. It will be used within the stage exit process as an additional tool to ensure that the project manager has identified and is managing known risk factors. Additional detailed information describes the various risk factors and how to score them. Performing a risk assessment is an important step in being prepared for potential problems that can occur within any software project. During the risk assessment, if a potential risk is identified, a solution or plan of action should be developed. (A problem analyzed and planned

7

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Risk Assessment Documents Risk Assessment Documents ORNL RA Graphic Results ORNL Baseline Risk Assessment Results ORNL Screening Risk Assessment Results ORNL Other Risk Assessment Results ORNL RA Graphic Results WAG 2 Residential Landuse Sediment - Total Risk Sediment - Cesium 137 Risk Sediment - Cobalt 60 Risk Surface Water - Total Hazard Surface Water - Total Risk Surface Water - Strontium 90 Risk Surface Water - Tritium Risk Recreational Landuse Sediment - Total Risk Sediment - Cesium 137 Risk Sediment - Cobalt 60 Risk Surface Water - Total Hazard Surface Water - Total Risk Surface Water - Strontium 90 Risk Surface Water - Tritium Risk Recreational Landuse (No Fish) Surface Water - Total Hazard Surface Water - Total Risk Surface Water - Strontium 90 Risk Surface Water - Tritium Risk Industrial Landuse

8

Qualitative methods for assessing risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

D&D and Risk Assessment Tools  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

ORISE and PNNL both developed tools to assist in the risk assessment and planning of D&D activities. PNNL developed a Risk D&D tool, a rapid prototype computerbased model, to evaluate...

10

Mercury Risk Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: IMPACTS OF LOCAL DEPOSITIONS *T.M. Sullivan 1 , F.D. Lipfert 2 , S.M. Morris 2 , and S. Renninger 3 1 Building 830, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 2 Private Consultants 3 Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has announced plans to regulate emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants. However, there is still debate over whether the limits should be placed on a nationwide or a plant-specific basis. Before a nationwide limit is selected, it must be demonstrated that local deposition of mercury from coal-fired power plants does not impose an excessive local health risk. The principal health

11

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Risk Assessment Documents Risk Assessment Documents Y-12 RA Graphic Results Y-12 Baseline Risk Assessment Results Y-12 Screening Risk Assessment Results Bullet Graphic Risk Results Arrow Bear Creek Valley Maps Residential Landuse Groundwater - Total Hazard (range: 1 - 900) Groundwater - Total Hazard (range: 0.1 - 1) Groundwater - Total Risk (range: 10-4 - 1) Groundwater - Total Risk (range: 10-5 - 10-4) Groundwater - Total Risk (range: 10-6 - 10-5) Groundwater - Dichloroethane, 1,1- Hazard Groundwater - Dichloroethene, 1,1- Hazard Groundwater - Dichloroethene, 1,1- Risk Groundwater - Dichloroethane, 1,2- Risk Groundwater - Dichloroethene, 1,2- Hazard Groundwater - Nitrate Hazard Groundwater - Radium Risk Groundwater - Technetium-99 Risk Groundwater - Tetrachloroethene Hazard Groundwater - Tetrachloroethene Risk

12

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Graphic Results Graphic Results Baseline Risk Assessment Results Screening Risk Assessment Results Other Risk Assessment Results Graphic Results K-25 Groundwater Residential Landuse Bedrock Wells - Total Hazard (range: 1-30) Bedrock Wells - Total Hazard (range: 0.1 - 1) Bedrock Wells - Total Risk Bedrock Wells - Arsenic Risk Bedrock Wells - Dichloroethene, 1,1- Risk Bedrock Wells - Trichloroethene Risk Unconsolidated Wells - Total Hazard (range: 1-150) Unconsolidated Wells - Total Hazard (range: 0.1 - 1) Unconsolidated Wells - Total Risk (range:10-4 - 1) Unconsolidated Wells - Total Risk (range:10-6 - 10-4) Unconsolidated Wells - Arsenic Risk Unconsolidated Wells - Trichloroethene Risk ORNL WAG 2 Residential Landuse Sediment - Total Risk Sediment - Cesium 137 Risk Sediment - Cobalt 60 Risk

13

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Risk Assessment Documents - ORR Risk Assessment Documents - ORR Bullet Baseline Risk Assessments Bullet Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Environmental Assessment Report South Campus Facility, Oak Ridge Tenn [DOE/OR/02-1274&D] Bullet Baseline Risk Assessment for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek [DOE/OR/1119 & D2 & V2] Bullet Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study Report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit [DOE/OR/01 1282 & D1] [ORNL/ER-2] Bullet The Utility of Existing Data Conducting a CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir (draft) [ORNL/ER-?] Bullet East Fork Poplar Creek Sewer Line Beltway Remedial Investigation Report [DOE/OR/02-1119&D2] Bullet Screening Risk Assessments Bullet Preliminary Assessment of Radiation Doses to the Public from Cesium

14

Risk Identification and Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mitigation Technique |Internal Control (if needed)| ||| ||| ||| References RiskOpportunity Categories People - Risks that affect the individual well being. Mission...

15

Risk Assessment Approaches for Nanomaterials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%) with extrapolation to lower "acceptable" risk 3. Analogy or comparative toxicity to other substances with similar7/3/2013 1 Risk Assessment Approaches for Nanomaterials Eileen D. Kuempel, PhD Nanotechnology to Nanomaterials Risk Assessment 1. No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest (LOAEL) with uncertainty

Farritor, Shane

16

Risk assessment and the law  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Risk assessment and the law ... I am not at all sure that federal judges, immune from the political process, should ever be involved, under any circumstances, as arbiters of the degree of risk acceptable to the public. ...

1980-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

17

Information needs for risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. The guidelines provide a framework for organizing the information, evaluating data, and for carrying out the risk assessment in a scientifically plausible manner. In the absence of sufficient scientific information or when abundant data are available, the guidelines provide alternative methodologies that can be employed in the risk assessment. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

18

Document Number Q0029500 Baseline Risk Assessment Update 4.0 Baseline Risk Assessment Update  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Baseline Risk Assessment Update Baseline Risk Assessment Update 4.0 Baseline Risk Assessment Update This section updates the human health and the ecological risk assessments that were originally presented in the 1998 RI (DOE 1998a). The impacts on the 1998 risk assessments are summarized in Section 2.9. 4.1 Human Health Risk Assessment Several activities completed since 1998 have contributed to changes in surface water and ground water concentrations. Activities that have impacted, or likely impacted surface water and ground water concentrations are Millsite Excavation (Section 2.1) Remediation of Soil and Sediment Along Montezuma Creek (Section 2.3) Millsite Dewatering and Treatment (Section 2.5) PRB Treatability Study (Section 2.6) Surface water and ground water monitoring data have been used to refine the list of COCs

19

Environmental Risk Assessment of Paroxetine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ERAs can be categorized according to the problems addressed:? Predictive risk assessments estimate risks from proposed future actions such as marketing a new medicine, operating a new process, or emitting a new aqueous or atmospheric contaminant. ... If SF acceptable risk to the environment. ...

Virginia L. Cunningham; David J. C. Constable; Robert E. Hannah

2004-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

20

Guide for ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ecological risk assessment evaluates the likelihood that adverse ecological effects may occur or are occurring as a result of exposure to one or more stressors. Ecological risk assessment provides a critical element for environmental decision making by giving risk managers an approach for considering available scientific information along with the other factors they need to consider (e.g., social, legal, political, or economic) in selecting a course of action. The primary audience for this document is risk assessors and risk managers at EPA, although these Guidelines also may be useful to others outside the Agency.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Country Risk Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are a multitude of organizations providing country risk services using their proprietary benchmarking. The central ... in a quantifiable manner, individual country sovereign risk and the implication of such...

Mohamed A. Ramady

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group (RWG) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group (RWG) Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group (RWG) Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group (RWG) Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group (RWG) Welcome: The Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group (RWG) is established to assist DOE in the appropriate and effective use of quantitative risk assessment in nuclear safety related activities. The activities of the group will help DOE ensure that risk assessments supporting nuclear safety decisions are conducted in a consistent manner, of appropriate quality, properly tailored to the needs of the decisions they are intended to support and documented. The RWG will also assist DOE in assessing the adequacy of available risk assessment tools and guidance supporting nuclear safety at its nuclear facilities.

23

Utility View of Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper will address a utility perspective in regard to risk assessment, reliability, and impact on the utility system. Discussions will also include the critical issues for utilities when contracting for energy and capacity from cogenerators...

Bickham, J.

24

Risk Assessment & Management Information | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Regulatory Framework, April 2012 Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group (RWG) web page DOE Standard on Development and Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in DOE...

25

Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5/002F 5/002F April 1998 Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment (Published on May 14, 1998, Federal Register 63(93):26846-26924) Risk Assessment Forum U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. NOTICE This report contains the full text of the Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. However, the format of this version differs from the Federal Register version, as follows: text boxes that are included in this document at their point of reference were instead listed at the end of the Federal Register document as text notes, due to format limitations for Federal Register documents.

26

Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment (SFTRA) Draft NUREG-2125 Overview for National Transportation Stakeholders Forum John Cook Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation 1 SFTRA Overview Contents * Project and review teams * Purpose and goals * Basic methodology * Improvements relative to previous studies * Draft NUREG structure and format * Routine shipment analysis and results * Accident condition analysis and results * Findings and conclusions * Schedule 2 SFTRA Research and Review Teams * Sandia National Laboratory Research Team [$1.8M; 9/06-9/12] - Doug Ammerman - principal investigator - Carlos Lopez - thermal - Ruth Weiner - RADTRAN * NRC's SFTRA Technical Review Team - Gordon Bjorkman - structural

27

Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms{open_quote} risk assessment{close_quote} and{open_quote} risk management{close_quote} are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of {open_quotes}... the most significant data and uncertainties...{close_quotes} in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are {open_quotes}...those that define and explain the main risk conclusions{close_quotes}. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation.

Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

RISK ASSESSMENT TECHNICAL EXPERT WORKING GROUP | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

RISK ASSESSMENT TECHNICAL EXPERT WORKING GROUP RISK ASSESSMENT TECHNICAL EXPERT WORKING GROUP RISK ASSESSMENT TECHNICAL EXPERT WORKING GROUP The Risk Assessment Technical Expert Working Group (RWG) is established to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) with the appropriate and effective use of quantitative risk assessment in nuclear safety-related activities. The activities of the group will help DOE make sure that risk assessments supporting nuclear safety decisions are: conducted in a consistent manner; of appropriate quality; properly documented; and properly tailored to the needs of the decisions they are intended to support. The RWG will also assist DOE in assessing the adequacy of available tools and guidance necessary to support nuclear safety at its nuclear facilities. RWG_Charter_March_2012.pdf

29

Risk Assessment: Establishing Practical Thresholds for Acceptable and Tolerable Risks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Risk assessment therefore requires a broad understanding of ... targeted to determine the acceptability of a given risk for diverse groups or individuals within any society. If certain levels of risk are deemed b...

Graciela Peters-Guarin; Stefan Greiving

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

NUREG-1150 risk assessment methodology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the methodology developed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NCR's) evaluation of severe accident risks in NUREG-1150. After the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, the NRC initiated a sever accident research program to develop an improved understanding of severe accidents and to provide a second technical basis to support regulatory decisions in this area. A key product of this program is NUREG-1150, which provides estimates of risk for several nuclear reactors of different design. The principal technical analyses for NUREG-1150 were performed at Sandia National Labs. under the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program and the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program. A major aspect of the work was the development of a methodology that improved upon previous full-scale probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) in several areas which are described.

Benjamin, A.S.; Amos, C.N.; Cunningham, M.A.; Murphy, J.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Chapter 14 - Pipeline Flow Risk Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Risk assessment is the process of assessing risks and factors influencing the level of safety of a project. It involves researching how hazardous events or states develop and interact to cause an accident. The risk assessment effort should be tailored to the level and source of technical risk involved with the project and the project stage being considered. The assessment of technical risk will take different forms in different stages of the project. Pipeline flow risk mainly includes fluid leakage and blockage happening in the pipelines. This chapter describes the application of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for the blockage in the oil and gas pipelines.

Yong Bai; Qiang Bai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Nuclear weapon system risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a process for evaluating hazardous operations by considering what can go wrong, the likelihood of these undesired events, and the resultant consequences. Techniques used in PRA originated in the 1960s. Although there were early exploratory applications to nuclear weapons and other technologies, the first major application of these techniques was in the Reactor Safety Study, WASH-1400, {sup 1} in which the risks of nuclear power accidents were thoroughly investigated for the first time. Recently, these techniques have begun to be adapted to nuclear weapon system applications. This report discusses this application to nuclear weapon systems.

Carlson, D.D.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

P-03/001F P-03/001F March 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment Risk Assessment Forum U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.2. ORGANIZATION AND APPLICATION OF THE GUIDELINES . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 1.2.1. Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 1.2.2. Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 1.3. KEY FEATURES OF THE CANCER GUIDELINES .

34

UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National Adaptation Programme Meg Patel Defra #12 change #12;Weather & climate impacts - economic, societal, environmental Water consumption per capita;Legislative Framework Climate Change Act 2008 Adaptation Reporting Power 2011 Climate Change Risk Assessment

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

35

EPA`s risk assessment guidelines: Overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment guidelines for cancer, quantification, and exposure issues are discussed.

Patton, D.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

Risk Assessment Technical Expert Working Group Charter, January 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ASSESSMENT TECHNICAL EXPERT WORKING GROUP ASSESSMENT TECHNICAL EXPERT WORKING GROUP CHARTER January 2012 PURPOSE: To support effective and appropriate utilization of risk assessment tools in nuclear safety applications at defense nuclear facilities. OBJECTIVES: The Risk Assessment Technical Expert Working Group (RWG) is established to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) with the appropriate and effective use of quantitative risk assessment in nuclear safety-related activities. The activities of the group will help DOE make sure that risk assessments supporting nuclear safety decisions are: conducted in a consistent manner; of appropriate quality; properly documented; and properly tailored to the needs of the decisions they are intended to support. The RWG will also assist DOE in assessing the adequacy of available tools and

37

Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(California, Texas Gulf Coast, New England Atlantic Coast) will be of particular interest. The goal is to conduct a quantitative risk assessment on the pipeline, truck, and rail transportation modes to these areas. As a result of the quantitative risk...

Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Questions This page represents the most commonly approached topics from our users. What internet browser works best for the RAIS? We attempt to accommodate every browser. If there is a problem viewing the RAIS pages or downloading items, let us know what browser you are using and we will try and fix the problem. How can I use the information on the RAIS? The information on the RAIS can be used for teaching material and performing risk assessments that comply with EPA guidance. Feel free to use the information; it is available to the public. However, please give proper credit to the RAIS and the team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and The University of Tennessee where you see fit. Also, the databases we maintain are updated on a quarterly basis or sooner, so you may need to "time-stamp"

39

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Glossary of Environmental Restoration Terms Glossary of Environmental Restoration Terms These definitions are from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Risk Assessment Program staff and affiliates and the following sources: Click on the letter that begins the term for which you are searching. To search for another term, at the end of each definition, click on the. If a link leaves the glossary to go to an outside page you will see a. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Abatement: The reduction in degree or intensity of pollution. Absorbed Dose: The energy imparted to a unit mass of matter by ionizing radiation. The unit of absorbed dose is the rad or gray. One rad equals 100 ergs per gram. The amount of a substance absorbed into the body, usually

40

Environment Pollution Risk Assessment In Ukraine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An excessive concentration of industrial facilities and automobile transport in Ukraine has led to an extremely high anthropogenic ... Environment pollution risk assessments for industrial regions of Ukraine have...

G. I. Rudko

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Medical Surveillance n Based on risk assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2.12 #12;Medical Surveillance Criteria n Based on risk assessment n Pre-placement n evaluate of numbers exists n Predict an outcome given similar events Medical Surveillance Risk Assessment 2.12 #12;n What is the natural host? n Does agent cross species barriers? n Wild-type agent or attenuated? n

Collins, Gary S.

42

Co-SSponsored by: RISK ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Co-SSponsored by: RADIATION RISK ASSESSMENT WWoorrkksshhoopp PPrroocceeeeddiinnggss November 5 - 7, 2001 Las Vegas, Nevada Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute U.S. Environmental Protection Agency #12 Noguchi, Jun Funabiki and Kimiaki Saito 118 Radiation Risk Assessment Workshop Proceedings i #12

43

Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radionuclide Decay Chain Radionuclide Decay Chain Using the Radionuclide Decay Chain Tool Click on the steps below for detailed instructions about each page of the Radionuclide Chain Tool. 1. Select Isotope 2. Decay Chain Table 3. Decay Chain Animation 1. Select Isotope Select the isotope of interest and click the "Submit" button. 2. Decay Chain Table A table of the ICRP 107 decay chain appears that displays the parent and all daughters in the decay chain through the stable isotope(s). The half-life, decay modes, and the branching fractions are given. Decay chains that are repeated as a result of multiple branching fractions are only presented once in the table. Text below the decay chain table contains decay mode definitions and further information on the daughters included in the +D slope factors for risk assessment purposes. A back button is provided to return to the main page. To watch an animated representation of the decay process, click the link "Click for visual diagram."

45

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RAIS Risk Exposure Models for Radionuclides User's Guide RAIS Risk Exposure Models for Radionuclides User's Guide Note The RAIS presents this updated Risk calculator in response to the following: incorporating chemical-specific parameters from the lastest EPI release, addition of air as a media, and conversion to a new database structure. The previous RAIS Risk calculator presented Risks for radionuclides and chemcials together. Recent development of chemical and radionuclide exposure equations has necessitated that the RAIS separate the chemicals and the radionuclides. To calculate risks for chemicals, use the RAIS Risk Exposure Models for Chemicals calculator. Currently the agricultural equations for the RAIS chemical and radionuclide risk calculators are identical. The EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goals for

46

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Risk Exposure Models for Chemicals User's Guide Risk Exposure Models for Chemicals User's Guide 1. Introduction The purpose of this calculator is to assist Remedial Project Managers (RPMs), On Scene Coordinators (OSC's), risk assessors and others involved in decision-making at hazardous waste sites and to determine whether levels of contamination found at the site may warrant further investigation or site cleanup, or whether no further investigation or action may be required. The risk values presented on this site are chemical-specific values for individual contaminants in air, water, soil and biota that may warrant further investigation or site cleanup. It should be noted that the risks in this calculator are based upon human health risk and do not address potential ecological risk. Some sites in sensitive ecological settings may also need to be evaluated for potential

47

Integrated risk assessment for LNG terminals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents an integrated risk assessment framework for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminals. The basic steps for risk assessment are the following: a) hazard identification, b) accident sequence modeling, where logic models such as Event Trees and Fault Trees are developed c) data acquisition and parameter estimation, used to estimate frequencies of the initiating events, component unavailability and probabilities of human actions, d) accident sequence quantification, where all accident sequences are assessed, e) consequence assessment, where release, evaporation rate, radiation levels and overpressure owing to immediate or delayed ignition of LNG is performed and f) integration of results where risk indices are assessed. Risk assessment of an onshore and an offshore LNG terminal is performed, according to the basic methodological steps, and the distances where individual risk levels equal to 10?5–10?7/yr are assessed and presented in the form of individual contours. A section dedicated to I.A. Papazoglou, pioneer in Quantitative Risk Assessment both in the nuclear and chemical industry is also provided.

O.N. Aneziris; I.A. Papazoglou; M. Konstantinidou; Z. Nivolianitou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal.

NONE

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

Mahmoudi, Hossein, E-mail: mahmoudi@uni-hohenheim.de [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany) [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Renn, Ortwin [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany)] [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany); Vanclay, Frank [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hoffmann, Volker [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany)] [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Karami, Ezatollah [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

St. Louis Sites Fact Sheet RISK ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-3905 or write to the St. Louis District, Corps of Engineers, FUSRAP Project Office, 8945 Latty Avenue, BerkeleySt. Louis Sites Fact Sheet RISK ASSESSMENT "Gateway to Excellence" U.S. Army Corps of Engineers St. Together, they help determine the most effective way to clean up a site while reducing the overall risk

US Army Corps of Engineers

51

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ORR Offsite: Relative Risk Ranking Sites ORR Offsite: Relative Risk Ranking Sites These rankings are based on the EM-40 Release Site Methodology. Select a release site to receive information concering that site. Please note that not all of the listed sites are linked to further information. Animal Burial Site I Animal Burial Site II Animal Burial Site III Atomic City Auto Parts - Contaminated Creek Sediments Atomic City Auto Parts - Contaminated Soils Atomic City Auto Parts - Surface Debris Clinch River/Poplar Creek CSX Railroad David Witherspoon, Inc., 1630 Site David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LDRIF) Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - Bruner Site Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - NOAA Site Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Oak Ridge Tool Engineering, Inc. Solway Drums Site Swine Waste Lagoons

52

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ORNL: Relative Risk Ranking Sites ORNL: Relative Risk Ranking Sites These rankings are based on the EM-40 Release Site Methodology. Select a release site to receive information concerning that site. Please note that not all of the listed sites are linked to further information. 3001 Storage Canal (OGR) 3517 Filter Pit (Fission Product Development Laboratory) Abandoned Burn Pit Abandoned Sanitary Waste Pipeline and Septic Tank N of 7917 Abandoned Underground Waste Oil Storage Tank 7002A Above-ground Demineralized-water Holding Tanks Aircraft Reactor Experiment Contaminated Tool Storage Aircraft Reactor Experiment Surface Impoundment Buried Scrap Metal Area C-14 Allocation in White Oak Trees C-14 Allocation in White Pine Trees C-14 Allocation in Woody Biomass Plantation Species C-14 Efflux in Yellow Poplar Stand

53

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Plant: Relative Risk Ranking Sites Plant: Relative Risk Ranking Sites These rankings are based on the EM-40 Release Site Methodology. Select a release site to receive information concerning that site. Please note that not all of the listed sites are linked to further information. Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline ACN Drum Yard Bear Creek Burial Grounds Bear Creek Contaminated Floodplain Soils Beta-4 Security Pits Building 81-10 Area Mercury Contaminated Soils Building 9201-2 Transformer and Capacitor Storage Area Building 9201-3 Coolant Salt Technology Facility Building 9201-4 Building 9201-4 External Pipes Building 9201-5E Northeast Yard Waste Storage Area Building 9202 East Pad Waste Storage Area Building 9204-2 West Yard Waste Storage Area Building 9206 Underground Tank Building 9215 West Pad Waste Storage Area

54

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ETTP: Relative Risk Ranking Sites ETTP: Relative Risk Ranking Sites These rankings are based on the EM-40 Release Site Methodology. Select a release site to receive information concerning that site. Please note that not all of the listed sites are linked to further information. 518 Main Substation 600 Series Oil Storage Area 695/687 Oil Storage Operations Building 523 Grease {Burial Site} Building 526 Heavy Equipment Shop Building 569 Heavy Equipment Shop Building 665 Steam Shed Building F-29 Gasoline Station Demolition Materials Placement Area Duct Island Road F-05 Laboratory Burial Ground F-07 Material Warehouse F-08 Laboratory Flannagans Loop Road Groundwater Plume Centered Under North Side of K-1070-C/D Groundwater Plume Emanating from K-1401 Acid Line Groundwater Plume near Mitchell Branch Groundwater Plume Originating from K-1420 Building

55

NUREG-1150 risk assessment results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The methodology developed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) evaluation of severe accident risks in NUREG-1150 is noted. This paper discusses the results. The principal technical analyses for NUREG-1150 were performed at Sandia National Labs. under the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program and the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program. The analyses have been completed so far for four reference plants: (a) a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a dry, subatmospheric containment (Surry Unit 1), (b) a PWR with an ice condenser containment (Sequoyah Unit 1), (c) a boiling water reactor (BWR) with a Mark I containment (Peach Bottom Unit 2), and (d) a BWR with a Mark III containment (Grand Gulf Unit 1). A fifth NUREG-1150 plant, a PWR with a large, dry containment (Zion Unit 1), has been evaluated separately by Brookhaven National Lab. Sample risk results for one of the plants (Surry) are presented. The results for Sequoyah, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf are broadly compared with those for Surry.

Benjamin, A.S.; Kunsman, D.M.; Boyd, G.J.; Lewis, S.R.; Amos, C.N.; Smith, L.N.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What's New What's New November 2013 Updates ECO mammalian SSLs were updated for cadmium, antimony , arsenic, inorganic, barium, Beryllium, chromium VI, cobalt, copper, lead, silver, vanadium, cyanide (total complex), methyl mercury, sulfide, thallium and tin. October 2013 Updates The biota intake rates for the radionuclide PRG and risk tools were updated to correct an improper units conversion. September 2013 Updates IRIS updates for 1,4-Dioxane and Biphenyl were completed. PPRTV values have been updated for Biphenyl, 3,4-Dichlorobenzotrifluoride, Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (Tetryl), Endosulfan Sulfate, 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane, Nitromethane, Dibenzothiophene, 2-Ethoxyethanol, 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine, Butylated hydroxytoluene, Ethyl Acetate, tert-Amyl Alcohol, 2,2-Difluoropropane,

57

Resource handbook on transportation risk assessment.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This resource handbook contains useful information to streamline radioactive material transportation risk assessments for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents prepared for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs. Streamlining refers to instituting steps that can increase the efficiency of future assessments, reduce costs, and promote increased quality and consistency across the DOE complex. This handbook takes advantage of the wealth of information developed through decades of DOE's NEPA experience. It contains a review of historical assessments; a description of comprehensive and generally acceptable transportation risk assessment methodology (i.e., models); and a compilation of supporting data, parameters, and generally accepted assumptions. This handbook also includes a discussion paper that addresses cumulative impacts (Appendix A). The discussion paper illustrates the evolving and sometimes unresolved issues encountered in transportation risk assessment. Other topics, such as sabotage, environmental justice, and human factors, may be addressed in the future. This resource document was developed as the first primary reference book providing useful information for conducting transportation risk assessments for radioactive material in the NEPA context.

Chen, S. Y.; Biwer, B. M.; Monette, F. A.; Environmental Assessment; SNL; BAPL; USOE; Battelle Memorial Inst.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemical Toxicity MetaData Chemical Toxicity MetaData Using the Chemical Toxicity Metadata Tool Click on the steps below for detailed instructions about each page of the CPM Calculator. 1. Select Chemicals 2. Select Toxicity Metadata 3. Results 1. Select Chemicals Highlight the chemicals of interest and use the arrow buttons to move them to the "selected" box. 2. Select Toxicity Metadata Highlight the type of toxicity values to retrieve the desired toxicity metadata and press the "submit form" button. 3. Results The toxicity values and the metadata will be displayed in tables that are available for download. The Chemical Toxicity Metadata tool follows the same hierarchy as the Chemical Toxicity Value tool. Only one toxicity value type is given per chemical even though multiple sources may have values. The RAIS follows a hierarchy when selecting the toxicity values we use in PRG and risk calculations. The hierarchy is as follows:

59

Using Monte-Carlo simulation for risk assessment: application to occupational exposure during remediation works  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to apply the Monte-Carlo techniques to develop a probabilistic risk assessment. The risk resulting from the occupational exposure during the remediation activities of a uranium tailings disposal, in an abandoned uranium mining ... Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, occupational exposure, risk and dose assessment, uranium tailings disposal

M. L. Dinis; A. Fiúza

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Area CPM User's Guide Area CPM User's Guide 1. Introduction Field sampling has the potential to be an extremely time-consuming and expensive portion of a radiological site remediation. Collected samples must be shipped to an off-site laboratory or counted in an on-site mobile unit in order to establish areas of contamination and to ensure that acceptable residual levels of contaminants remain. The Area CPM Calculator is a web-based calculator that estimates a gamma detector response for a target level of surface contamination. This calculator provides a rapid, exceptionally cost-effective assessment of contamination and cleanup standards based on field instrument data, which minimizes the use of more expensive sample collection and laboratory analysis. A correction factor for cpm analysis established between this

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Health effects of risk-assessment categories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Fermilab | Directorate | Internal Audit Services | Risk Assessment and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Risk Assessment and Planning Risk Assessment and Planning How are topics selected for an internal audit? A Year At A Glance Throughout the year we collect ideas and input from the Board of Directors Audit Committee, Management, DOE Fermi Site Office and DOE Office of Inspector General. We also reference the Contractor Assurance System (CAS) web pages for information about the structure of the systems. In addition, CAS (management system) owners are interviewed with respect to Internal Audit's risk assessments and audit plans. We prepare reports that summarize the results of individual audits, as well issue an annual report of activities. Internal audit reports are distributed as they are issued, to a wide audience including the Audit Committee, Management, the DOE Fermi Site Office, the DOE Chicago Office,

63

Computation and Visualization of Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computation and Visualization of Risk Assessment in Deep Brain Stimulation Planning Alexandre Research Centre Abstract. Deep Brain Stimulation is a neurosurgical approach for the treatment part of the brain. To safely reach the target of interest, care- ful planning must be performed

Recanati, Catherine

64

Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Ecological risk assessment benefits environmental management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ecological risk assessment process in its ideal form is an unbiased approach for assessing the probability of harm to the environment as a consequence of a given action. This information can then be combined with other societal values and biases in the management of such risks. However, as the process currently is understood, decision makers often are accused of manipulating information in order to generate decisions or achieve buy in from the public in support of a particular political agenda. A clear understanding of the nature of the risk management process can help define areas where information should be free from social or personal bias, and areas where values and judgments are critical. The authors do not propose to discuss the individual`s decision-making process, but rather to address the social process of risk communication and environmentally-related decision-making, identifying which parts of that process require bias-free, scientifically generated information about the consequences of various actions and which parts need an understanding of the social values which underlie the informed choices among those possible actions.

Fairbrother, A.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Perceived risk, real risk: social science and the art of probabilistic risk assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...close down the plant in March 1987...first time a nuclear power plant had been closed...safety and risk analysis procedures-in...risks from terrorism appear to be...in ambushing nuclear waste trucks...influence on the assessments-those of...

WR Freudenburg

1988-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

69

Applying a weed risk assessment approach to GM crops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Current approaches to environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants are modelled on chemical risk assessment methods, which have a strong focus on toxicity. There are additional types of ha...

Paul K. Keese; Andrea V. Robold; Ruth C. Myers; Sarah Weisman…

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

High Performance Lipoprotein Profiling for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the severity of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the related mortality rate to this disease, new methods are necessary for risk assessment and treatment prior to the onset of the disease. The current paradigm in CVD risk assessment has shifted...

Larner, Craig

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

71

Use of Policy Risk Assessment Results in Political Decision Making  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Notwithstanding the differences in scientific and political contexts, the discussion around risk assessment has been grown up during the...

Liliana Cori; Gabriel Guliš; Joanna Kobza…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Elderly Risk Assessment of Falls with BSN , L. Atallah1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elderly Risk Assessment of Falls with BSN R.C. King1 , L. Atallah1 , C. Wong1 , F. Miskelly2 and G.king@imperial.ac.uk Abstract- Due to the natural aging process, the risks associated with falling can increase significantly. Clinically, the Tinetti Gait and Balance Assessment has been widely used to assess the risk of falls

Atallah, Louis

73

Simulation and Risk Assessment Archived Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Archived Projects Archived Projects Advanced Analytical Instrumentation and Facilities for In Situ Reaction Studies NETL 6/2002 Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By- Product Disposal and Utilization University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center 1/23/2003 Risk Assessment for Long-Term Storage of CO 2 in Geologic Formations NETL 3/2005 Geology and Reservoirs Simulation for Brine Field NETL 6/27/2005 Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas - Experimental Studies and Model Development University of Pittsburgh 7/6/2005 Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment ChemImage Biothreat LLC 9/29/2005 Assessments of Environmental Impacts and Beneficial Use of Coalbed Methane Produced Water in the Powder River Basin Western Research Institute 1/1/2006

74

Assessing political risk for foreign investments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Political risk assessment provides a prediction of the likelihood that future foreign government actions will deteriorate the return on a planned foreign investment. Such political risk predictions are commonly provided with great assurance by political experts. Political risk assessments are frequently quantified to two or three significant figures, so that comparisons can be made between various countries, at various times in the future. It is my contention that most of such quantifications and predictions are nonsense; that the political future is not being accurately predicted. It is useful to describe some general axioms on predicting the future: (1) Future events can be predicted in a rigorous manner only if they represent expected outcomes of physical laws; (2) Future events can be predicted with some statistical confidence if they represent a modest extrapolation of consistent history into the future; (3) The farther into the future one predicts, the less reliable history-based predictions should be: (4) Predictions become less certain as more parameters influence the event; (5) Predictions must be less certain as more precision is required; and (6) Predictions of singular future complex political events are merely guesses, no matter how they may be swaddled in statistical mumbo-jumbo. For proper analysis of political risk it is important to create multiple scenarios of the future, to be well acquainted with foreign politics, and to understand the economic fundamentals of the country where you are considering investments. Such approaches allow management to look for possible flexibilities in investments, to consider insurance, hedging, and other risk abatement techniques against some of the most likely negative political/economic outcomes.

Downey, M.W.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

A Resource Handbook on DOE Transportation Risk Assessment | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

A Resource Handbook on DOE Transportation Risk Assessment A Resource Handbook on DOE Transportation Risk Assessment A Resource Handbook on DOE Transportation Risk Assessment This resource handbook was compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Transportation Risk Assessment Working Group. This document includes the first of a planned series of discussion papers on topical aspects of transportation risk problems. These discussion papers are intended to provide practical advice to program managers and technical personnel responsible for preparing NEPA documents and other transportation risk assessments. A Resource Handbook on DOE Transportation Risk Assessment More Documents & Publications EIS-0218-SA-01: Supplement Analysis Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Key Documents

76

Aging assessment for active fire protection systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

Ross, S.B. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (United States); Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Workshop overview: Arsenic research and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chronic exposure of humans through consumption of high levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs)-contaminated drinking water is associated with skin lesions, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, and cancers. Additionally, humans are exposed to organic arsenicals when used as pesticides and herbicides (e.g., monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}) also known as cacodylic acid). Extensive research has been conducted to characterize the adverse health effects that result from exposure to iAs and its metabolites to describe the biological pathway(s) that lead to adverse health effects. To further this effort, on May 31, 2006, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) sponsored a meeting entitled 'Workshop on Arsenic Research and Risk Assessment'. The invited participants from government agencies, academia, independent research organizations and consultants were asked to present their current research. The overall focus of these research efforts has been to determine the potential human health risks due to environmental exposures to arsenicals. Pursuant in these efforts is the elucidation of a mode of action for arsenicals. This paper provides a brief overview of the workshop goals, regulatory context for arsenical research, mode of action (MOA) analysis in human health risk assessment, and the application of MOA analysis for iAs and DMA{sup V}. Subsequent papers within this issue will present the research discussed at the workshop, ensuing discussions, and conclusions of the workshop.

Sams, Reeder [Integrated Risk Information System Program, National Center for Environmental Assessment, MC: B-243 01, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)], E-mail: sams.reeder@epa.gov; Wolf, Douglas C. [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ramasamy, Santhini; Ohanian, Ed [Health and Ecological Criteria Division, Office of Science and Technology, Office of Water, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Chen, Jonathan [Antimicrobials Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Lowit, Anna [Health Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

DOE Draft Standard, Development and Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessments  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Draft Standard, Development and Use of Probabilistic Risk Draft Standard, Development and Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessments in Department of Energy Nuclear Safety Applications, 12/10 DOE Draft Standard, Development and Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessments in Department of Energy Nuclear Safety Applications, 12/10 The Department has taken several actions to provide an infrastructure for providing appropriate controls and support for use of risk assessments and risk informed decision making as it applies to nuclear safety including establishing a Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group, revising its Nuclear Safety Policy to explicitly address the use and control of risk assessments, and developing this DOE Technical Standard for Control and Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment for interim use and comment.1

79

Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment The objective of the PTRA program is to develop new tools and approaches for understanding, limiting, and managing the risks of proliferation and physical security for fuel cycle options. NE, in collaboration with National Nuclear Security Administration, will focus on assessments required to inform domestic fuel cycle technology and system option development, partnering with other organizations to share results of assessments. These analytical/predictive tools for comprehensive proliferation risk assessments will provide important information for discussions and decisions regarding fuel cycle options. These assessments will: Exploit science-based approaches for analyzing difficult-to-quantify

80

Risk Assessment in Support of DOE Nuclear Safety, Risk Information Notice,  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Risk Assessment in Support of DOE Nuclear Safety, Risk Information Risk Assessment in Support of DOE Nuclear Safety, Risk Information Notice, June 2010 Risk Assessment in Support of DOE Nuclear Safety, Risk Information Notice, June 2010 On August 12, 2009, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 2009-1, Risk Assessment Methodologies at Defense Nuclear Facilities. This recommendation focused on the need for clear direction on use of quantitative risk assessments in nuclear safety applications at defense nuclear facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently analyzing directives, standards, training, and other tools that may support more effective development and use of risk assessment. Working with the Chief of Defense Nuclear Safety and the Chief of Nuclear Safety, staff from the Office of Health,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key area of the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) strategy is the development of methodologies and tools that will be used to predict the safety, security, safeguards, performance, and deployment viability of SMRs. The goal of the SMR PRA activity will be to develop quantitative methods and tools and the associated analysis framework for assessing a variety of risks. Development and implementation of SMR-focused safety assessment methods may require new analytic methods or adaptation of traditional methods to the advanced design and operational features of SMRs. We will need to move beyond the current limitations such as static, logic-based models in order to provide more integrated, scenario-based models based upon predictive modeling which are tied to causal factors. The development of SMR-specific safety models for margin determination will provide a safety case that describes potential accidents, design options (including postulated controls), and supports licensing activities by providing a technical basis for the safety envelope. This report documents the progress that was made to implement the PRA framework, specifically by way of demonstration of an advanced 3D approach to representing, quantifying and understanding flooding risks to a nuclear power plant.

Curtis Smith; Steven Prescott; Tony Koonce

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Risk Assessment Technical Expert Working Group (RWG) Conference Call  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Conference Conference Call Minutes, March 8, 2010 Risk Assessment Technical Expert Working Group (RWG) Conference Call Minutes, March 8, 2010 Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group Charter - The steering committee discussed the draft charter. Two recommended changes were agreed upon: * A sentence will be added to identify that the steering committee will develop protocols to define specifics relative to certain work activities (such as peer reviews) * Agreed to add Steve Koonin, Undersecretary for Science for signature. Note: Sharon Steele is officially the NNSA representative to the steering committee. 2. Web Page - Jim O'Brien reviewed the website. In general, the steering committee agreed that with small changes the web site was ready to go "live."

83

Risk Assessment Technical Expert Working Group (RWG)Conference Call  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Conference Call Conference Call Minutes, February 20, 2010 Risk Assessment Technical Expert Working Group (RWG)Conference Call Minutes, February 20, 2010 Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group Charter - discussed who should sign and at what level the charter should be authorized. It was concluded that the Under Secretaries as the Central Technical Authorities and HS-1 should ultimately authorize the charter. It was recognized that having such high level approval of the charter would likely increase the time needed to finalize it, However, it was concluded that any delay would not impact activities because the business of the working group will move forward in the interim. Members should provide comments on current draft to Jim O'Brien (with cc to all members) by March 8 with the goal of

84

Hydrogen quantitative risk assessment workshop proceedings.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) Toolkit Introduction Workshop was held at Energetics on June 11-12. The workshop was co-hosted by Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and HySafe, the International Association for Hydrogen Safety. The objective of the workshop was twofold: (1) Present a hydrogen-specific methodology and toolkit (currently under development) for conducting QRA to support the development of codes and standards and safety assessments of hydrogen-fueled vehicles and fueling stations, and (2) Obtain feedback on the needs of early-stage users (hydrogen as well as potential leveraging for Compressed Natural Gas [CNG], and Liquefied Natural Gas [LNG]) and set priorities for %E2%80%9CVersion 1%E2%80%9D of the toolkit in the context of the commercial evolution of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). The workshop consisted of an introduction and three technical sessions: Risk Informed Development and Approach; CNG/LNG Applications; and Introduction of a Hydrogen Specific QRA Toolkit.

Groth, Katrina M.; Harris, Aaron P.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Probabilistic Risk Assessment for dairy waste management systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques were used to evaluate the risk of contamination of surface and ground water with wastewater from an open lot dairy in Erath County, Texas. The dairy supported a complex waste management system...

Leigh, Edward Marshall

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

86

Risk assessment of landfill disposal sites - State of the art  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A risk assessment process can assist in drawing a cost-effective compromise between economic and environmental costs, thereby assuring that the philosophy of 'sustainable development' is adhered to. Nowadays risk analysis is in wide use to effectively manage environmental issues. Risk assessment is also applied to other subjects including health and safety, food, finance, ecology and epidemiology. The literature review of environmental risk assessments in general and risk assessment approaches particularly regarding landfill disposal sites undertaken by the authors, reveals that an integrated risk assessment methodology for landfill gas, leachate or degraded waste does not exist. A range of knowledge gaps is discovered in the literature reviewed to date. From the perspective of landfill leachate, this paper identifies the extent to which various risk analysis aspects are absent in the existing approaches.

Butt, Talib E. [Sustainability Centre in Glasgow (SCG), George Moore Building, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: t_e_butt@hotmail.com; Lockley, Elaine [Be Environmental Ltd. Suite 213, Lomeshaye Business Village, Turner Road, Nelson, Lancashire, BB9 7DR, England (United Kingdom); Oduyemi, Kehinde O.K. [Built and Natural Environment, Baxter Building, University of Abertay Dundee, Bell Street, Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.oduyemi@abertay.ac.uk

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

P4-10-04: Automated Breast Cancer Risk Assessment: Identifying High Risk Women in the Primary Care Setting.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...high risk patients than average risk patients (p0.04). Use of...Conclusions: Performing personalized risk assessment and use of the decision...care setting was feasible and acceptable. These results suggest risk assessment alone may be enough...

E Ozanne; Z Omer; and K Carlson

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

88

Performing Probabilistic Risk Assessment Through RAVEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Reactor Analysis and Virtual control ENviroment (RAVEN) code is a software tool that acts as the control logic driver and post-processing engine for the newly developed Thermal-Hydraulic code RELAP-7. RAVEN is now a multi-purpose Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) software framework that allows dispatching different functionalities: Derive and actuate the control logic required to simulate the plant control system and operator actions (guided procedures), allowing on-line monitoring/controlling in the Phase Space Perform both Monte-Carlo sampling of random distributed events and Dynamic Event Tree based analysis Facilitate the input/output handling through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and a post-processing data mining module

A. Alfonsi; C. Rabiti; D. Mandelli; J. Cogliati; R. Kinoshita

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

DOE (Department of Energy) risk assessment worksheets: A structured approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume consists of the worksheets for each step in completing the guideline. This guideline outlines the approach to conducting risk assessments of computer security. (JEF)

Not Available

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Development of Probabilistic Risk Assessments for Nuclear Safety...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

OF PROBABILISTIC RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR NUCLEAR SAFETY APPLICATIONS U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, DC 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release;...

92

Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of organohalogen contaminants (dioxins, PCB, PBDE andInvestigation into levels of dioxins, furans, PCBs and PBDEsfor risk assessment of dioxin-contaminated sites. Ambio 36:

Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing potential risk Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nature of risk assessment. For example, the potential ecological risks associated with potato expression... Agricultural and Biological Risk Assessment, Department of...

94

Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ``baseline`` risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Risk Assessment Technical Expert Working Group (RWG)Conference Call  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

May 6, 2010 May 6, 2010 Risk Assessment Technical Expert Working Group (RWG)Conference Call Minutes, May 6, 2010 Risk Assessment Information Notice (IN): HSS provided the draft IN to safety basis experts from SNL, Y-12 and PNNL for their review and comment. Their comments were addressed and the IN is back into concurrence. 2. DNFSB Brief: HSS is coordinated with the RWG and DNFSB to schedule a DNFSB brief in June. 3. Risk Assessment Training: The National Training Center is presenting its risk assessment overview course May 18-20 at DOE headquarters. HS-20 is planning to discuss DOE's nuclear safety risk assessment study and plans for policy and guidance development at the end of the course. 4. External Risk Study: Data collection has been completed at NASA, NEI, NASA, and FDA. HS-20

96

NETL: Carbon Storage - Simulation and Risk Assessment Focus Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Simulation and Risk Assessment Simulation and Risk Assessment Carbon Storage Simulation and Risk Assessment Focus Area The Simulation and Risk Assessment Focus Area is an integrated effort to develop advanced simulation models of the subsurface and integrate the results into a risk assessment that includes both technical and programmatic risks. As the simulation models are refined with new data, the uncertainty surrounding the identified risks decreases, which in turn provides a more accurate risk assessment and mitigation plan for each project site. Both qualitative and quantitative protocols will be developed to ensure the safe and permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2). Results from the simulation models will be incorporated into risk assessments on a project-by-project basis and on a larger basin-scale. As carbon capture and storage (CCS) becomes deployed in major basins, macro model results will be needed to manage reservoirs for pressure management, plume migration, and potential risks of multiple CO2 injection projects across the basin.

97

D&D and Risk Assessment Tools  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Page 1 of 2 Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Tennessee Washington D&D and Risk Assessment Tools Challenge The Department of Energy has numerous facilities which require deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). While carrying out the D&D of these facilities various health, safety and environmental requirements must be met. The challenge addressed in this study is to develop tools to assist the D&D workforce to be in compliance with the requirements, to efficiently and effectively manage risk from health and safety concerns, to promote safety in D&D activities, and to provide computer-based models to people doing the work. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) each undertook a portion of the

98

Risk Analysis and Probabilistic Survivability Assessment (RAPSA): An Assessment Approach for Power Substation Hardening1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or infrastructure system, and cause widespread fear from a major or prolonged service disruption [8]. In assessingRisk Analysis and Probabilistic Survivability Assessment (RAPSA): An Assessment Approach for Power System Analysis (SSA) with Probability Risk Assessment (PRA). The method adds quantitative information

Krings, Axel W.

99

Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

100

Modelling risk and risking models: the diffusive boundary between science and policy in volcanic risk assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the appreciation that the eruptions may continue for 282 decades and should be regarded as a “chronic” problem for planning purposes (Donovan and 283 Oppenheimer, 2014). Managing this transition has required consistent yet innovative 284 approaches to scientific... to their advice. 524 There is abundant evidence of the political challenges of risk assessment and management on 525 Montserrat, and the complex boundaries and connectivities involved (Aspinall et al., 2002; 526 Haynes et al., 2007; Donovan and Oppenheimer...

Donovan, Amy R.; Oppenheimer, Clive

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

An Application of Qualitative Risk Assessment in Park Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Application of Qualitative Risk Assessment in Park Management Janet M. Carey, Mark A. Burgman, Cameron Miller and Yung En Chee * T he identification and prioritisation of natural values we describe an application of ecological risk assessment techniques for identifying and analysing

Burgman, Mark

102

Risk Assessment in Support of DOE Nuclear Safety, Risk Information Notice, June 2010  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On August 12, 2009, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board(DNFSB) issued Recommendation 2009?1, Risk Assessment Methodologies at Defense Nuclear Facilities. Thisrecommendation focused on the...

103

Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site.

Not Available

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Risk Assessment Technical Expert Working Group (RAWG) Conference Call Minutes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Risk Assessment Technical Expert Working Group (RWG) Risk Assessment Technical Expert Working Group (RWG) Conference Call Minutes May 6, 2010 PARTICIPANTS Members: Don Nichols (CDNS), Jim O'Brien (HSS), Carol Sohn (SC), Rich Stark (NE), Bill Weaver (EM for Steve Krahn), Todd Lapointe (CNS for Chip Lagdon) Others: Kamiar Jamali (NE), Andy Wallo (DNFSB 2009-1 Responsible Manager), Rama Sastry (HSS), Samuel Rosenbloom (HSS) SUMMARY 1. Risk Assessment Information Notice (IN): HSS provided the draft IN to safety basis experts from SNL, Y-12 and PNNL for their review and comment. Their comments were addressed and the IN is back into concurrence. 2. DNFSB Brief: HSS is coordinated with the RWG and DNFSB to schedule a DNFSB brief in June. 3. Risk Assessment Training: The National Training Center is presenting its risk assessment overview

105

A Resource Handbook on DOE Transportation Risk Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This resource handbook was compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Transportation Risk Assessment Working Group. This document includes the first of a planned series of discussion papers on topical aspects of transportation risk problems. These discussion papers are intended to provide practical advice to program managers and technical personnel responsible for preparing NEPA documents and other transportation risk assessments.

106

Simulation and Risk Assessment for Carbon Storage | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Carbon Capture and Storage » Simulation Carbon Capture and Storage » Simulation and Risk Assessment for Carbon Storage Simulation and Risk Assessment for Carbon Storage Research in simulation and risk assessment is focused on development of advanced simulation models of the subsurface and integration of the results into a risk assessment that includes both technical and programmatic risks. Simulation models are critical for predicting the flow of the CO2 in the target formations, chemical changes that may occur in the reservoir, and geomechanical effects that increased pressures might have on the target formation and seal(s). Improved models that can simulate faults/fractures, the subsurface behavior of system fluids, and geochemical/mechanical/flow effects are needed. Research continues to develop innovative, advanced

107

Global Risk Assessment of Natural Disasters: new perspectives.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides and volcanic activities has had devastating effects on human life. Risk is the probability of harmful consequences from… (more)

Mona, Khaleghy Rad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

The Resource Handbook on DOE Transportation Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an attempt to bring forth increased efficiency and effectiveness in assessing transportation risks associated with radioactive materials or wastes, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Transportation Program (NTP) published a resource handbook in 2002. The handbook draws from the broad technical expertise among DOE national laboratories and industry, which reflects the extensive experience gained from DOE's efforts in conducting assessments (i.e., environmental impact assessments) within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in the past 20 years. The handbook is intended to serve as a primary source of information regarding the approach and basis for conducting transportation risk assessments under normal or accidental conditions that are associated with shipping radioactive materials or wastes. It is useful as a reference to DOE managers, NEPA assessors, technical analysts, contractors, and also stakeholders. It provides a summary of pertinent U.S. policies and regulations on the shipment of radioactive materials, existing guidance on preparing transportation risk assessments, a review of previous transportation risk assessments by DOE and others, a description of comprehensive and generally accepted transportation risk assessment methodologies, and a compilation of supporting data, parameters, and assumptions. The handbook also provides a discussion paper on an issue that has been identified as being important in the past. The discussion paper focuses on cumulative impacts, illustrating the ongoing evolution of transportation risk assessment. The discussion may be expanded in the future as emerging issues are identified. The handbook will be maintained and periodically updated to provide current and accurate information.

Chen, S. Y.; Kapoor, A. K.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

109

NETL: Health Effects - Risk Assessment of Reduced Mercury Emissions From  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Risk Assessment of Reduced Mercury Emissions From Coal-Fired Power Plants Risk Assessment of Reduced Mercury Emissions From Coal-Fired Power Plants Given that mercury emissions from coal power plants will almost certainly be limited by some form of national regulation or legislation, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is performing an assessment of the reduction in human health risk that may be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of mercury. The primary pathway for mercury exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to mercury exposure is the fetus. Therefore, the risk assessment focuses on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Preliminary Risk Assessment A preliminary risk assessment was conducted using a simplified approach based on three major topics: Hg emissions and deposition (emphasizing coal plants), Hg consumption through fish, and dose-response functions for Hg. Using information available from recent literature, dose response factors (DRFs) were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions.

110

The Impact of Assessment Procedures and Need for Cognition on Fraud Risk Assessments .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Due to the increasing awareness of fraudulent financial reporting, auditors' responsibility to conduct quality fraud risk assessments has been raised by a current audit standard,… (more)

Trongmateerut, Pailin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

NGNP Risk Management through Assessing Technology Readiness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Throughout the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project life cycle, technical risks are identified, analyzed, and mitigated and decisions are made regarding the design and selection of plant and sub-system configurations, components and their fabrication materials, and operating conditions. Risk resolution and decision making are key elements that help achieve project completion within budget and schedule constraints and desired plant availability. To achieve this objective, a formal decision-making and risk management process was developed for NGNP, based on proven systems engineering principles that have guided aerospace and military applications.

John W. Collins

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A stochastic approach to risk assessment of hazardous waste sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A deterministic risk assessment model was evaluated for the variability in its input parameters, Information on these variables was gathered to characterize the variability. Statistical distributions were assigned to the variables based...

Arangath, Vishwanathan Vasu

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

River Corridor Baseline Risk Assessment (RCBRA) Human Health...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by end of year Status of River Corridor Risk Assessments 2 RCBRA will be used in CERCLA Remedial InvestigationFeasibility Study (RIFS) * RCBRA provides "basis for action" to...

114

US EPA: OSWER: Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, January 2009  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

540-R-070-002 540-R-070-002 OSWER 9285.7-82 January 2009 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment) Final Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................1 1.1 Background ....................................................................................................................1 1.2 Purpose and Scope .........................................................................................................2 1.3 Effects on Other Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology

115

Nutrition Can Modulate the Toxicity of Environmental Pollutants: Implications in Risk Assessment and Human Health  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century.Pollutants: Implications in Risk Assessment and Human Healthand their implications in risk assessment and human health.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Quantification issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quantitative procedures associated with noncancer risk assessment include reference dose (RfD), benchmark dose, and severity modeling. The RfD, which is part of the EPA risk assessment guidelines, is an estimation of a level that is likely to be without any health risk to sensitive individuals. The RfD requires two major judgments: the first is choice of a critical effect(s) and its No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL); the second judgment is choice of an uncertainty factor. This paper discusses major assumptions and limitations of the RfD model.

Dourson, M.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

Use of information resources by the state of Tennessee in risk assessment applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major resources used by the Bureau of Environment, and Environmental Epidemiology (EEP) for risk assessment are: the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), Health and Environmental Effects Summary Table (HEAST), Agency for Toxic Substances and disease Registry (ATSDR) Toxicological Profiles, databases at the National Library of Medicine (NLM), World Health Organization (WHO) ENvironmental Criteria, and documents that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published on Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) risk assessment activities. The Risk Assessment Review has been helpful in providing information about availability of new documents or information. No systematic method has been made available to us to locate information resources. IRIS User`s Support has been helpful in making appropriate and timely referrals. Most other EPA resources were located by serendipity and persistence. The CERCLA methodology for risk assessments is being used in environmental programs, and at present, one person is responsible for all risk assessment activities in the department, but plans are underway to train one or two people from each program area. 2 figs.

Bashor, B.S. [Tennessee Department of Health and Environment, Nashville (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

118

An Overview of Quantitative Risk Assessment of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management of flight hardware, trade studies, and reliability prediction of new hardware. In the risk management area, life limits based on QRA are being used in the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) program [1 been used by MSFC to predict the reliability of newly developed hardware such as X-33 and X-34 engines

Christian, Eric

119

The Challenge of Earthquake Risk Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Smith Institute of Geological Nuclear Sciences P.O. Box 30-368...recently been added with the risk of terrorism and issues of homeland security...measures if necessary (e.g., for nuclear power plants). Unlike the AAL, which is...

Warwick Smith

120

Bridge Functionality Relationships for Improved Seismic Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bridge Functionality Relationships for Improved Seismic Risk Assessment of Transportation Networks Jamie E. Padgett,a... M.EERI, and Reginald DesRoches,b... M.EERI Relationships between bridge damage and the resulting loss of functionality of the bridge are critical to assessing the impact of an earthquake event

Padgett, Jamie Ellen

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Co-benefits Risk Assessment (COBRA) Screening Model | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Co-benefits Risk Assessment (COBRA) Screening Model Co-benefits Risk Assessment (COBRA) Screening Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Co-benefits Risk Assessment (COBRA) Screening Model Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Climate Complexity/Ease of Use: Moderate Website: www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/resources/cobra.html Cost: Free Related Tools Tool for Selecting CDM Methods & Technologies Modular Applied General Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET) COMMUTER Model ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS Automated tool that can be downloaded from the website. Converts emissions reductions into air quality improvements, estimates annual adverse health impacts avoided, and monetizes the value of these. Approach COBRA converts emissions reductions into air quality improvements, and

122

Innovative methods in assessing political risk for business internationalization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Political risk assessment, together with portfolio analysis, has become an important part of international business investment decision making. In this paper, by using different knowledge discovery techniques, we attempt to assess the relevance and actionability of ‘good governance’ indicators in political risk assessment. For that purpose, we have integrated good governance indicators data with political instability classification from the Political Instability Task Force (PITF) research. From this study, two models that capture the intuitive reasoning of investors have been developed. The usefulness of the models has been evaluated by comparison with factual investment data. Our findings suggest that quantitative indicators of good governance may provide the basis for accurate and meaningful models for the assessment and prediction of political risk.

Ruth Rios-Morales; Dragan Gamberger; Tom Šmuc; Francisco Azuaje

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required (California, Texas Gulf Coast, New England Atlantic Coast... Atlantic Coast because of the large volume. It is beneficial to look at these areas as opposed to the iv smaller areas because pipeline transportation requires very large volumes. In order to find a meaningful comparison between all three...

Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

124

NUREG-1150 risk assessment methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NUREG-1150 constitutes a full-scope reassessment of the risks to the public from several light water reactor plants with various containment types. Emphasis has been placed on determining the magnitude and character of the uncertainties, rather than focusing upon a point estimate. The risk-reduction potential of proposed plant modifications (backfits and procedural changes) has also been studied, and their costs and benefits have been evaluated. It has been found that the risks from internal events are generally lower than previously evaluated in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS). However, certain unresolved phenomenological issues cause the tops of the uncertainty bands to appear at levels that are comparable to or higher than the RSS point estimates. The issues that are important vary from plant to plant. Most of the postulated plant modifications do not appear to be cost-effective, although a few procedural changes are possible exceptions. Several reviews of this work are in progress, and a second iteration is being performed to include external events, incorporate new technical information, and address comments.

Benjamin, A.S.; Boyd, G.J.; Lewis, S.R.; Amos, C.N.; Cunningham, M.A.; Murphy, J.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR ECOTOXICOLOGY, ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND MULTIPLE STRESSORS: CANADIAN EXPERIENCE IN DEFINING ACCEPTABLE RISK LEVELS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Canada, human and ecological risk assessments are supported by administrative and policy ... laboratory exposure and toxicology components. Canada’s risk assessment approach allows and even encourages the ... ...

Ruth N. HULL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Risk identification and assessment in a risk based audit environment: the effects of budget constraints and decision aid use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In particular, this approach has important implications for risk identification and risk assessment. The success of the RBA approach is contingent on understanding what factors improve or interfere with the accuracy of these risk judgments. I examine how budget...

Diaz, Michelle Chandler

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Incorporating the Technology Roadmap Uncertainties into the Project Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes two methods, Technology Roadmapping and Project Risk Assessment, which were used to identify and manage the technical risks relating to the treatment of sodium bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste treatment technology under consideration was Direct Vitrification. The primary objective of the Technology Roadmap is to identify technical data uncertainties for the technologies involved and to prioritize the testing or development studies to fill the data gaps. Similarly, project management's objective for a multi-million dollar construction project includes managing all the key risks in accordance to DOE O 413.3 - ''Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.'' In the early stages, the Project Risk Assessment is based upon a qualitative analysis for each risk's probability and consequence. In order to clearly prioritize the work to resolve the technical issues identified in the Technology Roadmap, the issues must be cross- referenced to the project's Risk Assessment. This will enable the project to get the best value for the cost to mitigate the risks.

Bonnema, B.E.

2002-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

128

Incorporating the Technology Roadmap Uncertainties into the Project Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes two methods, Technology Roadmapping and Project Risk Assessment, which were used to identify and manage the technical risks relating to the treatment of sodium bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste treatment technology under consideration was Direct Vitrification. The primary objective of the Technology Roadmap is to identify technical data uncertainties for the technologies involved and to prioritize the testing or development studies to fill the data gaps. Similarly, project management's objective for a multi-million dollar construction project includes managing all the key risks in accordance to DOE O 413.3 - "Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets." In the early stages, the Project Risk Assessment is based upon a qualitative analysis for each risk's probability and consequence. In order to clearly prioritize the work to resolve the technical issues identified in the Technology Roadmap, the issues must be cross- referenced to the project's Risk Assessment. This will enable the project to get the best value for the cost to mitigate the risks.

Bonnema, Bruce Edward

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Development of risk assessment methodology for municipal sludge incineration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. The sludge management practices addressed by the series include land application practices, distribution and marketing programs, landfilling, surface disposal, incineration and ocean disposal. In particular, these reports provide methods for evaluating potential health and environmental risks from toxic chemicals that may be present in sludge. The document addresses risks from chemicals associated with incineration of municipal sludge. These proposed risk assessment procedures are designed as tools to assist in the development of regulations for sludge management practices. The procedures are structured to allow calculation of technical criteria for sludge disposal/reuse options based on the potential for adverse health or environmental impacts. The criteria may address management practices (such as site design or process control specifications), limits on sludge disposal rates or limits on toxic chemical concentrations in the sludge.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Coupling Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, Life-Cycle Assessment, and Risk Assessment for Emerging Threats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coupling Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, Life-Cycle Assessment, and Risk Assessment for Emerging Threats ... Emerging environmental threats such as novel chemical compounds, biological agents, and nanomaterials present serious challenges to traditional models of risk analysis and regulatory risk management processes. ... The recent emergence of new materials, technologies, and other environmental stressors in both the marketplace and the public consciousness coincides with increased recognition of the importance of an integrated systems approach to environmental health and safety that includes life-cycle thinking, public participation, and adaptive management of risks associated with emerging threats. ...

Igor Linkov; Thomas P. Seager

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

131

Guidance for Data Useability in Risk Assessment (Part A)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Superfund Superfund Guidance for Data Useability in Risk Assessment (Part A) Final April 1992 Guidance for Data Useability in Risk Assessment (Part A) Final Notice: Guidance for Radioanalytical Data Usability in Risk Assessment is Given in Part B Office of Emergency and Remedial Response U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 20460 NOTICE The policies and procedures set forth here are intended as guidance to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other government employees. They do not constitute rulemaking by the Agency, and may not be relied on to create a substantive or procedural right enforceable by any other person. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency may take action that is at variance with the policies and procedures in this guidance and may change them at any time without

132

DNFSB Policy Statement 5, Assessing Risk, dated August 15, 2013  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Washington, DC 20004 Policy Statement PS-5 Date: August 15, 2013 Subject Policy Statement on assessing risk. Summary This policy statement establishes the approach the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board will take to assess risk when making recommendations to the Secretary of Energy. Peter S. Winokur, Ph.D. Chairman I. Background The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2013 [Pub. L. No. 112- 239] revised the enabling statute for the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board). The statute now requires the Board to "specifically assess risk (whenever sufficient data exists)" in making recommendations to the Secretary of Energy [ 42 U.S.C. § 2286(a)(5)]. The revised statute reads as follows, with changes in bold italics:

133

Application of Risk Assessment and Management to Nuclear Safety |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Application of Risk Assessment and Management to Nuclear Safety Application of Risk Assessment and Management to Nuclear Safety Application of Risk Assessment and Management to Nuclear Safety September 20, 2012 Presenter: Commissioner George Apostolakis US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Topics covered: Management of (unquantified at the time) uncertainty was always a concern. Defense-in-depth and safety margins became embedded in the regulations. "Defense-in-Depth is an element of the NRC's safety philosophy that employs successive compensatory measures to prevent accidents or mitigate damage if a malfunction, accident, or naturally caused event occurs at a nuclear facility." [Commission's White Paper, February 1999] Design Basis Accidents are postulated accidents that a nuclear facility must be designed and built to withstand without loss to the

134

Risk assessment in the DOE Assurance Program for Remedial Action  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides information obtained during the performance of risk assessment tasks in support of the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) sponsored by the Office of Operational Safety of the Department of Energy. We have presented a method for the estimation of projected health effects at properties in the vicinity of uranium mill tailing piles due to transported tailings or emissions from the piles. Because radon and radon daughter exposure is identified as the principal factor contributing to health effects at such properties, the basis for estimating lung cancer risk as a result of such exposure is discussed in detail. Modeling of health risk due to a secondary pathway, ingestion of contaminated, home-grown food products, is also discussed since it is a potentially important additional source of exposure in certain geographic locations. Risk assessment methods used in various mill tailings reports are reviewed. The protocols for radiological surveys conducted in DOE-sponsored remedial action programs are critically reviewed with respect to their relevance to the needs of health risk estimation. The relevance of risk assessment to the APRA program is discussed briefly.

Marks, S.; Cross, F.T.; Denham, D.H.; Kennedy, W.E.; Stenner, R.D.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

June 2010, Risk Assessment in Support of DOE Nuclear Safety  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Assistance Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Assistance Nuclear Safety, Quality Assurance and Environment Information Notice June 2010 1 BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: On August 12, 2009, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 2009-1, Risk Assessment Methodologies at Defense Nuclear Facilities. This recommendation focused on the need for clear direction on use of quantitative risk assessments in nuclear safety applications at defense nuclear facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently analyzing directives, standards, training, and other tools that may support more effective development and use of

136

Risk assessment of climate systems for national security.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate change, through drought, flooding, storms, heat waves, and melting Arctic ice, affects the production and flow of resource within and among geographical regions. The interactions among governments, populations, and sectors of the economy require integrated assessment based on risk, through uncertainty quantification (UQ). This project evaluated the capabilities with Sandia National Laboratories to perform such integrated analyses, as they relate to (inter)national security. The combining of the UQ results from climate models with hydrological and economic/infrastructure impact modeling appears to offer the best capability for national security risk assessments.

Backus, George A.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick; Brown, Theresa Jean; Cai, Ximing [University of Illinois-Urbana; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Constantine, Paul [Stanford University; Dalbey, Keith R.; Debusschere, Bert J.; Fields, Richard; Hart, David Blaine; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Kerstein, Alan R.; Levy, Michael [National Center for Atmospheric Research; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Najm, Habib N.; Overfelt, James Robert; Parks, Mancel Jordan; Peplinski, William J.; Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Taylor, Mark A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Villa, Daniel L.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Level III probabilistic risk assessment for N Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Level III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford reservation in Washington. The objectives of the PRA are to assess the risks to the public and the Hanford site workers posed by the operation of N Reactor, to compare those risks to proposed DOE safety goals, and to identify changes to the plant that could reduce the risk. The scope of the PRA is comprehensive, excluding only sabotage and operation errors of commission. State-of-the-art methodology is employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study of five commercial nuclear power plants. The structure of the probabilistic models allowed complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin Hypercube sampling techniques were used to develop uncertainty distributions for the risks associated with postulated core damage events initiated by fire, seismic, and internal events as well as the overall combined risk. The combined risk results show that N Reactor meets the primary DOE safety goals and compared favorably to the plants considered in the NUREG-1150 analysis. 36 figs., 81 tabs.

Camp, A.L.; Kunsman, D.M.; Miller, L.A.; Sprung, J.L.; Wheeler, T.A.; Wyss, G.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

139

Assessment of University Sustainability Activities SUSTAINABILITY TRACKING,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment of University Sustainability Activities under the SUSTAINABILITY TRACKING, ASSESSMENT Rashed-Ali, PhD. Prepared for: The UTSA Sustainability Council May 3rd , 2011 #12;yhd/s ^hDD Zz 2 | P a g-Ali, Assistant Professor in the College of Architecture, conducted a survey and assessment of UTSA sustainability

Dodla, Ramana

140

RadRAT: a radiation risk assessment tool for lifetime cancer risk projection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Risk projection methods allow for timely assessment of the potential magnitude of radiation-related cancer risks following low-dose radiation exposures. The estimation of such risks directly through observational studies would generally require infeasibly large studies and long-term follow-up to achieve reasonable statistical power. We developed an online radiation risk assessment tool (RadRAT) which can be used to estimate the lifetime risk of radiation-related cancer with uncertainty intervals following a user-specified exposure history (https://irep.nci.nih.gov/radrat). The uncertainty intervals constitute a key component of the program because of the various assumptions that are involved in such calculations. The risk models used in RadRAT are broadly based on those developed by the BEIR VII committee for estimating lifetime risk following low-dose radiation exposure of the US population for eleven site-specific cancers. We developed new risk models for seven additional cancer sites, oral, oesophagus, gallbladder, pancreas, rectum, kidney and brain/central nervous system (CNS) cancers, using data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The lifetime risk estimates are slightly higher for RadRAT than for BEIR VII across all exposure ages mostly because the weighting of the excess relative risk and excess absolute risk models was conducted on an arithmetic rather than a logarithmic scale. The calculator can be used to estimate lifetime cancer risk from both uniform and non-uniform doses that are acute or chronic. It is most appropriate for low-LET radiation doses  

Amy Berrington de Gonzalez; A Iulian Apostoaei; Lene H S Veiga; Preetha Rajaraman; Brian A Thomas; F Owen Hoffman; Ethel Gilbert; Charles Land

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Single track effects, biostack and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This talk addresses the single-track nature of the space radiation environment, and points out the importance of single hits'' in the evaluation of radiation risk for long-term missions occurring outside the earth's magnetic field. A short review is made of biological objects found to show increased effects when hit'' by a single heavy charged-particle in space. A brief discussion is given of the most provocative results from the bacterial spore B. subtilis: experimental evidence that tracks can affect biological systems at much larger distances from the trajectory than previously suspected, and that the resultant inactivation cross section in space calculated for this system is very large. When taken at face value, the implication of these results, when compared to those from experiments performed at ground-based accelerators with beams at low energies in the same LET range, is that high-energy particles can exert their influence a surprising distance from their trajectory and the inactivation cross sections are some twenty times larger than expected. Clearly, beams from high-energy heavy-ion accelerators should be used to confirm these results. For those end points that can also be caused by low-LET beams such as high-energy protons, it is important to measure their action cross sections as well. The ratio of the cross sections for a high-LET beam to that of a low-LET beam is an interesting experimental ratio and, we suggest, of more intrinsic interest than the RBE. It is a measure of the biological'' importance of one particle type relative to another particle type. This ratio will be introduced and given the name RPPE (Relative Per Particle Effectiveness). Values of RPPE will be discussed.

Curtis, S.B.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Single track effects, biostack and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This talk addresses the single-track nature of the space radiation environment, and points out the importance of single ``hits`` in the evaluation of radiation risk for long-term missions occurring outside the earth`s magnetic field. A short review is made of biological objects found to show increased effects when ``hit`` by a single heavy charged-particle in space. A brief discussion is given of the most provocative results from the bacterial spore B. subtilis: experimental evidence that tracks can affect biological systems at much larger distances from the trajectory than previously suspected, and that the resultant inactivation cross section in space calculated for this system is very large. When taken at face value, the implication of these results, when compared to those from experiments performed at ground-based accelerators with beams at low energies in the same LET range, is that high-energy particles can exert their influence a surprising distance from their trajectory and the inactivation cross sections are some twenty times larger than expected. Clearly, beams from high-energy heavy-ion accelerators should be used to confirm these results. For those end points that can also be caused by low-LET beams such as high-energy protons, it is important to measure their action cross sections as well. The ratio of the cross sections for a high-LET beam to that of a low-LET beam is an interesting experimental ratio and, we suggest, of more intrinsic interest than the RBE. It is a measure of the ``biological`` importance of one particle type relative to another particle type. This ratio will be introduced and given the name RPPE (Relative Per Particle Effectiveness). Values of RPPE will be discussed.

Curtis, S.B.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Human extinction risk and uncertainty: Assessing conditions for action  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Under what sets of conditions ought humanity undertake actions to reduce the risk of human extinction? Though many agree that the risk of human extinction is high and intolerable, there is little research into the actions society ought to undertake if one or more methods for estimating human extinction risk indicate that the acceptable threshold is exceeded. In addition to presenting a set of patterns of lower and upper probabilities that describe human extinction risks over 1000 years, the paper presents a framework for philosophical perspectives about obligations to future generations and the actions society might undertake. The framework for philosophical perspectives links three perspectives—no regrets, fairness, maintain options—with the action framework. The framework for action details the six levels of actions societies could take to reduce the human extinction risk, ranging from doing nothing (Level I) to moving to an extreme war footing in which economies are organized around reducing human extinction risk (Level VI). The paper concludes with an assessment of the actions that could be taken to reduce human extinction risk given various patterns of upper and lower human extinction risk probabilities, the three philosophical perspectives, and the six categories of actions.

Bruce Tonn; Dorian Stiefel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Assessment and management of roof fall risks in underground coal mines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accidents caused by roof falls are commonly faced problems of underground coal mines. These accidents may have detrimental effects on workers in the form of injury, disability or fatality as well as mining company due to downtimes, interruptions in the mining operations, equipment breakdowns, etc. This study proposes a risk and decision analysis methodology for the assessment and management of risk associated with mine roof falls in underground coal mines. In the proposed methodology, risk assessment requires the determination of probabilities, possible consequences and cost of consequences. Then the risk is managed by the application of decision-making principles. The probabilities are determined by the analysis of 1141 roof fall data from 12 underground mines in the Appalachian region. The consequences are assessed based on the type of injuries observed after roof falls and the place of the mining activity. The cost of consequences is modeled by the so-called “relative cost criterion”. A decision analysis framework is developed in order to manage the evaluated risk for a single mine. Then this model is extended to a regional model for the management of the roof fall risks in the mines of whole Appalachia. The proposed model is illustrated with an example and it is found to be a powerful technique for coping with uncertainties and the management of roof fall risks.

H.S.B. Duzgun; H.H. Einstein

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Grain & Oilseed Production Peace Region snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri

Pedersen, Tom

146

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Wine Grape & Tree Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

Pedersen, Tom

147

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Livestock Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

Pedersen, Tom

148

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Fraser Valley & Metro Vancouver snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

149

Information resource use and need in risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The manner in which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses information resources comprises an interesting illustration of federal agency information use. A description of the context in which risk assessment occurs within the FDA is followed by a discussion of information access and use, as well as a practical example.

Turturro, A. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

Guidance Note 052 RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF SUBSTANCES HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH REGULATIONS (COSHH) and the DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES AND EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES Involving the Use of Hazardous Chemicals. COSHH requires health risks to be assessed and controlled by dangerous substances. The sections below correspond approximately to the sections in the form. The major

151

Risk assessment for organic micropollutants: U. S. point of view  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Basic research and monitoring of sludge utilization programs have identified specific pathways by which potentially toxic constituents of sewage sludge can reach and cause toxicity to livestock, humans, plants, soil biota, wildlife, etc. In the process of preparing a new regulation for land application of sewage sludge in the US, a pathway approach to risk assessment was undertaken. Two Pathways were found to comprise the greatest risk from persistent lipophilic organic compounds such as PCBs: (1) direct ingestion of sludge by children; and (2) adherence of sludge to forage/pasture crops from surface application of fluid sludge, followed by grazing and ingestion of sludge by livestock used as human food. Each pathway considers risk to Most Exposed Individuals (MEIs) who have high exposure to sludge. Because 1990 sewage sludges contain very low levels of PCBs, the estimated risk level to MEIs was less 0.0001, low sludge PCBs and low probability of simultaneously meeting all the constraints of the MEI indicate that MEIs are at less 0.0000001 lifetime risk. The authors conclude that quantitative risk assessment for potentially toxic constituents in sewage sludge can be meaningfully conducted because research has provided transfer coefficients from sludges and sludge-amended soils to plants and animals needed for many organic compounds.

Chaney, R.L.; Ryan, J.A.; O'Connor, G.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

SCUBA TECHNIQUES USED IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE NUCLEAR  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

SCUBA TECHNIQUES USED IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE NUCLEAR SCUBA TECHNIQUES USED IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE NUCLEAR LEAKAGE AROUND AMCHITKA ISLAND, ALASKA Stephen Jewett, Max Hoberg, Heloise Chenelot, Shawn Harper Institute of Marine Science, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7220 Joanna Burger Division of Life Sciences, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), 604 Allison Road, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 Michael Gochfeld, CRESP and EOHSI, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 Abstract Amchitka Island, in the Aleutians, had three underground nuclear tests (1 965 to 1971) ranging from approximately 80 kilotons to 5 megatons. Initial surveys (1960s-1970s) did

153

Cable Hot Shorts and Circuit Analysis in Fire Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under existing methods of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), the analysis of fire-induced circuit faults has typically been conducted on a simplistic basis. In particular, those hot-short methodologies that have been applied remain controversial in regards to the scope of the assessments, the underlying methods, and the assumptions employed. To address weaknesses in fire PRA methodologies, the USNRC has initiated a fire risk analysis research program that includes a task for improving the tools for performing circuit analysis. The objective of this task is to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms linking fire-induced cable damage to potentially risk-significant failure modes of power, control, and instrumentation cables. This paper discusses the current status of the circuit analysis task.

LaChance, Jeffrey; Nowlen, Steven P.; Wyant, Frank

1999-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

154

Screening Risk Assessment for Possible Radionuclides in the Amchitka Marine Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of its environmental stewardship program the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is reevaluating three sites where underground nuclear tests were conducted in the deep subsurface of Amchitka Island, Alaska. The tests (i.e., Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin) were conducted in 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively. Extensive investigations were conducted on these tests and their effect on the environment. Evaluations at the time of testing indicated limited release of radionuclides and absence of risk related to the testing; however, these are being reevaluated under the current DOE environmental stewardship program. A screening risk assessment of potential radionuclide release into the marine environment is an important part of this reevaluation. The risk assessment is one of three interrelated activities: a groundwater model and this screening risk assessment, both of which guide the decisions in the third activity, the site closure plan. Thus, the overall objective of the work is to understand, and subsequently manage, any risk to humans and the environment through a closure and long-term stewardship plan. The objective of this screening risk assessment is to predict whether possible releases of radionuclides at the ocean floor would represent potential risks to Native Alaskans by consumption of marine subsistence species. In addition, risks were predicted for consumers of commercial catches of marine organisms. These risks were calculated beginning with estimates of possible radionuclide release at the seafloor (from a groundwater modeling study), into the seawater, through possible uptake by marine organisms, and finally possible consumption by humans. The risk assessment model has 11 elements, progressing from potential release at the seafloor through water and food chains to human intake. Data for each of these elements were systematically found and synthesized from many sources, and represent the best available knowledge. Whenever precise data were lacking, the most conservative data were selected. Conservative assumptions and values were used for radionuclide uptake factors and for marine food ingestion rates by human receptors. The dispersion of material in the marine environment utilized a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved model (CORMIX). In addition, the screening level of 1 x 10{sup -6} or 1 excess cancer in 1 million is considered by the EPA to be below the level of concern. The end result, as presented in this report, is a highly conservative estimate of potential risks that are well below the EPA's most conservative risk threshold for both subsistence users and commercial-catch consumers.

NNSA /NV

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

155

Radiological Risk Assessment of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessment of the health risk from exposure to aerosols of depleted uranium (DU) is an important outcome of the Capstone aerosol studies that established exposure ranges to personnel in armored combat vehicles perforated by DU munitions. Although the radiation exposure from DU is low, there is concern that DU deposited in the body may increase cancer rates. Radiation doses to various organs of the body resulting from the inhalation of DU aerosols measured in the Capstone studies were calculated using International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Organs and tissues with the highest calculated committed equivalent 50-yr doses were lung and extrathoracic tissues (nose and nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, mouth and thoracic lymph nodes). Doses to the bone surface and kidney were about 5 to 10% of the doses to the extrathoracic tissues. The methodologies of the ICRP International Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) were used for determining the whole body cancer risk. Organ-specific risks were estimated using ICRP and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodologies. Risks for crewmembers and first responders were determined for selected scenarios based on the time interval of exposure and for vehicle and armor type. The lung was the organ with the highest cancer mortality risk, accounting for about 97% of the risks summed from all organs. The highest mean lifetime risk for lung cancer for the scenario with the longest exposure time interval (2 h) was 0.42%. This risk is low compared with the natural or background risk of 7.35%. These risks can be significantly reduced by using an existing ventilation system (if operable) and by reducing personnel time in the vehicle immediately after perforation.

Hahn, Fletcher; Roszell, Laurie E.; Daxon, Eric G.; Guilmette, Ray A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

156

Environmental risk assessment for aquifer thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of the International Energy Agency (IEA). The US Department of Energy represents the United States in the IEA for Annex IV, the IEA task for research and development in aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). Installation and operation of an ATES system is necessarily intrusive to ground-water resources. Therefore, governmental authorities usually require an environmental risk assessment to be performed before permission to construct an ATES system is granted. Writing an accurate statement of risk presupposes a knowledge of aquifer and ground-water characteristics and that an engineering feasibility study has taken place. Effective and logical presentation of the results of the risk assessment can expedite the grant of approval. Introductory remarks should address questions regarding why the ATES project has been proposed, what it is expected to accomplish, and what the expected benefits are. Next, the system configuration, including the aquifer, ATES plant, and well field, should be described in terms of size and location, design components, and thermal and hydraulic capacity. The final element of system design, the predicted annual operating cycle, needs to be described in sufficient detail to allow the reviewer to appreciate the net hydraulic, thermal, and hydrochemical effects imposed on the aquifer. Risks may be environmental or legal. Only after a reviewer has been introduced to the proposed system's design, operation, and scale can risk issues can be identified and weighed against the benefits of the proposed ATES system.

Hall, S.H.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Environmental risk assessment for aquifer thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of the International Energy Agency (IEA). The US Department of Energy represents the United States in the IEA for Annex IV, the IEA task for research and development in aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). Installation and operation of an ATES system is necessarily intrusive to ground-water resources. Therefore, governmental authorities usually require an environmental risk assessment to be performed before permission to construct an ATES system is granted. Writing an accurate statement of risk presupposes a knowledge of aquifer and ground-water characteristics and that an engineering feasibility study has taken place. Effective and logical presentation of the results of the risk assessment can expedite the grant of approval. Introductory remarks should address questions regarding why the ATES project has been proposed, what it is expected to accomplish, and what the expected benefits are. Next, the system configuration, including the aquifer, ATES plant, and well field, should be described in terms of size and location, design components, and thermal and hydraulic capacity. The final element of system design, the predicted annual operating cycle, needs to be described in sufficient detail to allow the reviewer to appreciate the net hydraulic, thermal, and hydrochemical effects imposed on the aquifer. Risks may be environmental or legal. Only after a reviewer has been introduced to the proposed system`s design, operation, and scale can risk issues can be identified and weighed against the benefits of the proposed ATES system.

Hall, S.H.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Triazine herbcides: Ecological risk assessment in North American surface waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The triazine herbicides are some of the most widely used pesticides in North America. Some are found in surface waters in North America and risks to aquatic ecosystems are a possible concern. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive aquatic ecological risk assessment conducted using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The assessment of exposure data concentrated on Midwestern us watersheds, the area of greatest triazine use in North America and showed that concentrations of some triazines rarely exceeded 20 {mu}g/L in rivers, streams, and reservoirs. The effects assessment showed that phytoplankton were the most sensitive organisms to triazines followed, in decreasing order of sensitivity, by macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton and fish. Distribution analysis of sensitivity to atrazine showed 10th percentile of 37 {mu}g/L for LC50s in all organisms and 5.4 {mu}g/L for LC50s in algae and plants. Simazine showed 10th percentiles of 188 {mu}g/L for LC50s in all organisms and 27 {mu}g/L for LC50s in aquatic plants. Comparisons of the exposure and effects distributions showed low probabilities of exceeding the 10th percentiles of the sensitivity distributions. These results will be discussed in relation to the mechanism of action of these substances and other stressors in the environment.

Solomon, K.R. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Perceived risk, real risk: social science and the art of probabilistic risk assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...BUSINESS 59 : S225 ( 1986 ). FARHARPILGRIM, B.C., PUBLIC REACTIONS NUC 183 ( 1984 ). FISCHHOFF, B, ACCEPTABLE RISK 33 ( 1981 ). FISCHHOFF, B, ANAL ACTUAL VS PERCE 235 ( 1983 ). FISCHHOFF, B, KNOWING WITH CERTAINTY - APPROPRIATENESS...

WR Freudenburg

160

Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Vol.II  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

United States United States Office of Emergency and EPA/540/1-89/001 Environmental Protection Remedial Responce March 1989 Agency Washington, DC 20460 Superfund Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume II Environmental Evaluation Manual Interim Final EPA EPA/540/1-89/001 March 1989 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume II Environmental Evaluation Manual Interim Final Office of Emergency and Remedial Response U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 20460 Disclaimer The policies and procedures set forth here are intended as guidance to Agency and other government employees. They do not constitute rulemaking by the Agency, and may not be relied on to create a substantive or procedural right enforceable by any other person. The Government may take action

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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161

Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials: A Survey of Industrial Approaches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thus, voluntary industrial risk assessment initiatives can be considered vital to the environmental health and safety issues associated with engineered nanomaterials. ... However, given that NPM may cause harm (3-6) and that there are currently no regulations that take the specific properties of NPM into account, the responsibility for safe production and products is mostly left with industry. ... The prodn. of significant quantities of engineered nanomaterials will inevitably result in the introduction of these materials to the environment. ...

Aasgeir Helland; Martin Scheringer; Michael Siegrist; Hans G. Kastenholz; Arnim Wiek; Roland W. Scholz

2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

162

Hanford safety analysis and risk assessment handbook (SARAH)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 1,2, and 3 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. SARAH describes currently acceptable methodology for development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of technical safety requirements (TSR) based on 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management,'' Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' and provides data to ensure consistency in approach.

GARVIN, L.J.

2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

163

Annual Report: National Risk Assessment Partnership (30 September 2012)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is conducting research to advance the science and engineering knowledge base for technologies that will accelerate the business case for CO{sub 2} capture and storage, including prediction and quantification of risks that may relate to potential liabilities. As part of this effort, NETL, through its Office of Research and Development (ORD), is leading a multi-laboratory effort that leverages broad technical capabilities across the DOE complex: the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP). NRAP involves five DOE national laboratories: NETL, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This team is working together to develop a science-based method for quantifying the likelihood of risks (and associated potential liabilities) for CO{sub 2} storage sites. NRAP is an effort that harnesses the breadth of capabilities across the DOE National Laboratory (NL) system into a mission-focused platform that will develop the integrated science base that can be applied to risk assessment for long-term storage of CO{sub 2}.

Bromhal, Grant; Guthrie, George

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

164

Critical issues in assessing ecotoxicological risk in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cal/EPA is developing general guidelines for ecotoxicological risk assessment (ERA). Towards this end, Cal/EPA has established, within the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), an Ecotoxicology Unit that has primary responsibility for these guidelines. In order to facilitate guideline development, OEHHA sponsored a series of three workshops that provided a forum for review and discussion of ERA technical issues among risk assessors, regulators, risk managers, and other interested groups. The first workshop provided an overview of ERA practices at the state, federal and international levels and identified controversial aspects of the process. The second workshop reviewed different types of ERAs conducted by regulatory agencies in California, selection and use of assessment endpoints, as well as available methods and models for effects and exposure measurement. The third workshop critically evaluated strengths and weaknesses of current ERA processes and methodologies by examination of several case studies in California. The proceedings of the workshops provided valuable information and expert opinions on critical issues in ERA. A summary of workshop recommendations will be presented.

Donohoe, R.; Ricker, K.; Yamamoto, J.; Donald, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA (United States). Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment; Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

165

Quantification of escalation effects in offshore quantitative risk assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Loss-of-containment events on offshore installations can lead to complex escalation effects, especially in congested modules, where the close proximity of processing equipment and control systems creates the potential for very many different escalation paths. Conventional risk analysis tools are not well suited to deriving and evaluating the large number of possibilities, relying on the risk analyst to devise and quantify a ‘representative’ set of scenarios. The danger is that the ‘representative’ scenarios lack realism, may be insufficiently detailed to support upgrade decisions, and tend towards ‘generic’ risk analysis. A novel computer simulation technique has therefore been developed which starts from a list of initiating loss-of-containment events and utilizes physical rule sets and consequence models to generate consistent and detailed accident scenarios from a basic platform description, comprising a collection of equipment items, structural elements and protective systems. The program has proved stable on application to a variety of offshore installations, including simple gas platforms, a typical deep sea oil and gas platform, and a semi-submersible production vessel. It eliminates the manual drafting and analysis of event trees, which is very laborious even when aided by interactive computer tools; and, because the risk model comprises factual information, rather than abstract concepts, it is much more accessible and amenable to scrutiny by discipline engineers, allowing operators to derive and maintain a genuinely ‘living’ quantitative risk assessment.

Mark Morris; Alan Miles; John Cooper

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

QUANTITATIVE MICROBIAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN A PERI-URBAN COMMUNITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in dose-response assessment in QMRA. The risks were significantly higher than the acceptable risk level defined by USEPA and WHO for drinking water, which was used as a guideline acceptable risk in this studyi QUANTITATIVE MICROBIAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN A PERI

Richner, Heinz

167

A risk assessment software tool for evaluating potential risks to human health and the environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ecology and National Environmental Policy Act Division (END), is providing a sitewide evaluation of alternative strategies for the final disposition of the Rocky Flats Plant material inventory. This analysis is known as the Systems Engineering Analysis (SEA) for the Rocky Flats Plant. The primary intent of the SEA is to support the Rocky Flats Plant decision-making. As part of the SEA project, a risk assessment software tool has been developed which will assist in the analysis by providing an evaluation of potential risks to human health and the environment for the purpose of augmenting future decisions at the site.

Drendel, G. [ICF/Kaiser, Lakewood, CO (United States); Jones, M.; Shain, D. [EG & G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Allen, B.; Gentry, R.; Shipp, A.; Van Landingham, C. [ICF Kaiser, Ruston, LA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Improved Cancer Risk Assessment Using Text Mining Name Mode of Action Precision  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improved Cancer Risk Assessment Using Text Mining Name Mode of Action Precision Aflatoxin B1 for risk assessment purposes Cancer Risk Assessment examines existing scientific evidence to determine the relationship between exposure to a chemical and the likelihood of developing cancer from that exposure. Text

Korhonen, Anna

169

Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 14: 919946, 2008 Copyright C Taylor & Francis Group, LLC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Tracked Vehicle Movement across Desert the ecological risk assessment, using the MERAF, for the tracked vehicle movement component of the testing or mule deer abundance and reproduction. Key Words: ecological risk assessment, tracked vehicle, desert

Hargrove, William W.

170

An integrated environmental modeling framework for performing Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Standardized methods are often used to assess the likelihood of a human-health effect from exposure to a specified hazard, and inform opinions and decisions about risk management and communication. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is specifically ... Keywords: Integrated environmental modeling, Manure, Pathogens, QMRA, Risk assessment, Watershed modeling

Gene Whelan, Keewook Kim, Mitch A. Pelton, Jeffrey A. Soller, Karl J. Castleton, Marirosa Molina, Yakov Pachepsky, Richard Zepp

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ``produced water.`` Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application. It is possible to have confidence in the predictions of many of the existing models because of their fundamental physical and chemical mechanistic underpinnings and the extensive work already done to compare model predictions and empirical observations. The working group recommends that modeling tools be applied for benchmarking PBT/POPs according to exposure-to-emissions relationships, and that modeling tools be used to interpret emissions and monitoring data. The further development of models that couple fate, long-range transport, and bioaccumulation should be fostered, especially models that will allow time trends to be scientifically addressed in the risk profile.

Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Assessing Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Consequences of Damage to Critical Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the publication of 'Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructure,' there has been a keen understanding of the complexity, interdependencies, and shared responsibility required to protect the nation's most critical assets that are essential to our way of life. The original 5 sectors defined in 1997 have grown to 18 Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources (CIKR), which are discussed in the 2009 National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and its supporting sector-specific plans. The NIPP provides the structure for a national program dedicated to enhanced protection and resiliency of the nation's infrastructure. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides in-depth, multi-disciplinary assessments of threat, vulnerability, and consequence across all 18 sectors at scales ranging from specific facilities to infrastructures spanning multi-state regions, such as the Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) sector. Like many of the CIKR sectors, the ONG sector is comprised of production, processing, distribution, and storage of highly valuable and potentially dangerous commodities. Furthermore, there are significant interdependencies with other sectors, including transportation, communication, finance, and government. Understanding the potentially devastating consequences and collateral damage resulting from a terrorist attack or natural event is an important element of LLNL's infrastructure security programs. Our work began in the energy sector in the late 1990s and quickly expanded other critical infrastructure sectors. We have performed over 600 physical assessments with a particular emphasis on those sectors that utilize, store, or ship potentially hazardous materials and for whom cyber security is important. The success of our approach is based on building awareness of vulnerabilities and risks and working directly with industry partners to collectively advance infrastructure protection. This approach consists of three phases: The Pre-Assessment Phase brings together infrastructure owners and operators to identify critical assets and help the team create a structured information request. During this phase, we gain information about the critical assets from those who are most familiar with operations and interdependencies, making the time we spend on the ground conducting the assessment much more productive and enabling the team to make actionable recommendations. The Assessment Phase analyzes 10 areas: Threat environment, cyber architecture, cyber penetration, physical security, physical penetration, operations security, policies and procedures, interdependencies, consequence analysis, and risk characterization. Each of these individual tasks uses direct and indirect data collection, site inspections, and structured and facilitated workshops to gather data. Because of the importance of understanding the cyber threat, LLNL has built both fixed and mobile cyber penetration, wireless penetration and supporting tools that can be tailored to fit customer needs. The Post-Assessment Phase brings vulnerability and risk assessments to the customer in a format that facilitates implementation of mitigation options. Often the assessment findings and recommendations are briefed and discussed with several levels of management and, if appropriate, across jurisdictional boundaries. The end result is enhanced awareness and informed protective measures. Over the last 15 years, we have continued to refine our methodology and capture lessons learned and best practices. The resulting risk and decision framework thus takes into consideration real-world constraints, including regulatory, operational, and economic realities. In addition to 'on the ground' assessments focused on mitigating vulnerabilities, we have integrated our computational and atmospheric dispersion capability with easy-to-use geo-referenced visualization tools to support emergency planning and response operations. LLNL is home to the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) and the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC). NA

Suski, N; Wuest, C

2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

178

Depleted uranium residual radiological risk assessment for Kosovo sites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the recent conflict in Yugoslavia, depleted uranium rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of areas in Kosovo with depleted uranium penetrators and dust. Although chemical toxicity is the most significant health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict. Uranium munitions are considered to be a source of radiological contamination of the environment. Based on measurements and estimates from the recent Balkan Task Force UNEP mission in Kosovo, we have estimated effective doses to resident populations using a well-established food-web mathematical model (RESRAD code). The UNEP mission did not find any evidence of widespread contamination in Kosovo. Rather than the actual measurements, we elected to use a desk assessment scenario (Reference Case) proposed by the UNEP group as the source term for computer simulations. Specific applications to two Kosovo sites (Planeja village and Vranovac hill) are described. Results of the simulations suggest that radiation doses from water-independent pathways are negligible (annual doses below 30 ?Sv). A small radiological risk is expected from contamination of the groundwater in conditions of effective leaching and low distribution coefficient of uranium metal. Under the assumptions of the Reference Case, significant radiological doses (>1 mSv/year) might be achieved after many years from the conflict through water-dependent pathways. Even in this worst-case scenario, DU radiological risk would be far overshadowed by its chemical toxicity.

Marco Durante; Mariagabriella Pugliese

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Process for Designing and Conducting Ecological Risk Assessments, Step 5-glossary, June, 1997  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OVERVIEW Before the WP and SAP are signed, it is important to verify that the field sampling plan they specify is appropriate and implementable at the site. If this has not already been done, it should be done now. During field verification of the sampling design, the testable hypotheses, exposure pathway models, and measurement endpoints are evaluated for their appropriateness and implementability. The assessment endpoint(s), however, should not be under evaluation in this step; the appropriateness of the assessment endpoint should have been resolved in Step 3. If an assessment endpoint is changed at this step, the risk assessor must return to Step 3, because the entire process leading to the actual site investigation in Step 6 assumes the selection of

180

Advanced Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment Demonstration Project Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratories (INL) has an ongoing research and development (R&D) project to remove excess conservatism from seismic probabilistic risk assessments (SPRA) calculations. These risk calculations should focus on providing best estimate results, and associated insights, for evaluation and decision-making. This report presents a plan for improving our current traditional SPRA process using a seismic event recorded at a nuclear power plant site, with known outcomes, to improve the decision making process. SPRAs are intended to provide best estimates of the various combinations of structural and equipment failures that can lead to a seismic induced core damage event. However, in general this approach has been conservative, and potentially masks other important events (for instance, it was not the seismic motions that caused the Fukushima core melt events, but the tsunami ingress into the facility).

Justin Coleman

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Obesity, High Energy Intake, Lack of Physical Activity, and the Risk of Kidney Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...activity, alcohol consumption, diet (69-item...Assessment of obesity and energy intake Participants...North Carolina). Energy intake and total...status, alcohol consumption, smoking, BMI...of cancer in the world: comparative risk...height, body mass, energy intake, and physical...

Sai Yi Pan; Marie DesMeules; Howard Morrison; and Shi Wu Wen

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Page 1 Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Page 1 Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Heidi Borchers University of New Hampshire, Environmental Ultraviolet (UV) lamps generate ultraviolet light through the vaporization of elemental mercury, by using

183

Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Process for Designing and Conducting Ecological Risk Assessments, Steps 1-4, June, 1997  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 1 OVERVIEW The screening-level problem formulation and ecological effects evaluation is part of the initial ecological risk screening assessment. For this initial step, it is likely that site- specific information for determining the nature and extent of contamination and for characterizing ecological receptors at the site is limited. This step includes all the functions of problem formulation (more fully described in Steps 3 and 4) and ecological effects analysis, but on a screening level. The results of this step will be used in conjunction with exposure estimates in the preliminary risk calculation in Step 2. STEP 1: SCREENING-LEVEL PROBLEM FORMULATION AND ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS EVALUATION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Step 1 is the screening-level problem formulation process and ecological effects evaluation

184

Developing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Framework for Geological Storage CO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operational risks for CCS projects include: risks of capturing, compressing, transporting and injecting CO?; risks of well blowouts; risk that CO? will leak into shallow aquifers and contaminate potable water; and risk that sequestered CO? will leak into the atmosphere. This report examines these risks by using information on the risks associated with analogue activities such as CO2 based enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. We have developed a new analysis of pipeline risk based on Bayesian statistical analysis. Bayesian theory probabilities may describe states of partial knowledge, even perhaps those related to non-repeatable events. The Bayesian approach enables both utilizing existing data and at the same time having the capability to adsorb new information thus to lower uncertainty in our understanding of complex systems. Incident rates for both natural gas and CO2 pipelines have been widely used in papers and reports on risk of CO2 pipelines as proxies for the individual risk created by such pipelines. Published risk studies of CO2 pipelines suggest that the individual risk associated with CO2 pipelines is between 10-3 and 10-4, which reflects risk levels approaching those of mountain climbing, which many would find unacceptably high. This report concludes, based on a careful analysis of natural gas pipeline failures, suggests that the individual risk of CO2 pipelines is likely in the range of 10-6 to 10-7, a risk range considered in the acceptable to negligible range in most countries. If, as is commonly thought, pipelines represent the highest risk component of CCS outside of the capture plant, then this conclusion suggests that most (if not all) previous quantitative- risk assessments of components of CCS may be orders of magnitude to high. The potential lethality of unexpected CO2 releases from pipelines or wells are arguably the highest risk aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), carbon capture, and storage (CCS). Assertions in the CCS literature, that CO2 levels of 10% for ten minutes, or 20 to 30% for a few minutes are lethal to humans, are not supported by the available evidence. The results of published experiments with animals exposed to CO2, from mice to monkeys, at both normal and depleted oxygen levels, suggest that lethal levels of CO2 toxicity are in the range 50 to 60%. These experiments demonstrate that CO2 does not kill by asphyxia, but rather is toxic at high concentrations. It is concluded that quantitative risk assessments of CCS have overestimated the risk of fatalities by using values of lethality a factor two to six lower than the values estimated in this paper. In many dispersion models of CO2 releases from pipelines, no fatalities would be predicted if appropriate levels of lethality for CO2 had been used in the analysis.

Duncan, Ian

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

How information resources are used by state agencies in risk assessment applications - Illinois  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Illinois (Illinois EPA) has programs in water, air, and land pollution and water supplies paralleling those of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The organization is part of a tripartite arrangement in which the Pollution Control Board is the judicial arm, the Department of Energy and Natural Resources is the research arm, and the Illinois EPA is the enforcement arm. Other state agencies are also concerned with various aspects of the environment and may do risk assessments for chemicals. Although there are various risk assessment activities, both formal and informal, in our agency and in others, this paper will discuss only recent initiatives in water quality criteria.

Olson, C.S.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

186

Transportation System Risk Assessment (TSRA) bounding release model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transportation System Risk Assessments (TSRAs) document the compliance of proposed shipments of nuclear components with applicable federal regulations as well as the associated risks involved. If a relatively simple bounding analysis can show that the consequences resulting from a worst case scenario are acceptably low, a more time intensive and costly risk analysis can be avoided. Therefore, a bounding release FORTRAN model has been developed to determine the consequences of a worst case non-criticality transportation accident. The consequences of three conservative bounding accidents are determined by the model: (1) direct radiation exposure, (2) airborne release of radiological and/or hazardous solid material, and (3) release of radiological and/or hazardous solid material into a waterway and subsequent uptake by an individual through drinking water. Program output includes the direct radiation exposure (mrem), maximum downwind concentration (mg/m{sup 3}), radiation dose (mrem) received as a result of the postulated airborne release of radiological material, intake (mg) due to inhalation, radiation dose (mrem) received by an individual resulting from a release of radiological material into a waterway and uptake into drinking water, and uptake (mg) due to ingestion. This report documents the methodologies and correlations used in the numerical model to perform the bounding consequence calculations.

Anderson, J.C.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Guidance manual for health risk assessment of chemically contaminated seafood. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report was written to assist in the evaluation and interpretation of the human health risks associated with chemical contaminate levels in seafood. High concentrations of toxic chemicals have been found in sediments and marine organisms in parts of Puget Sound. Since heavy consumption of contaminated seafood may pose a substantial human health risk, it's important that assessments of the risk associated with seafood consumption be conducted in a consistent, acceptable manner. The report provides an overview of risk assessment, and describes hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Guidance is provided on presentation and interpretation of results.

Pastorok, R.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Determining error bounds for hypothesis tests in risk assessment: a research agenda  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......in their relative political, economic or social...HYPOTHESIS TESTS IN RISK ASSESSMENT 19 may...HYPOTHESIS TESTS IN RISK ASSESSMENT 23 themselves...democracy theorists in political science have noted...democracy current in political theory (Bessette...At present, risk decision thresholds......

Peter McBurney; Simon Parsons

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Environmental prediction, risk assessment and extreme events: adaptation strategies for the developing world  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Environmental prediction, risk assessment and extreme...community through hedging, insurance and/or government support...perhaps accelerants of political unrest [3,4]. At...twenty-first century to assess risk of future floods and...2. Determining the risk of an extreme event In...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Bayesian Model Averaging in Proportional Hazard Models: Assessing the Risk of a Stroke  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bayesian Model Averaging in Proportional Hazard Models: Assessing the Risk of a Stroke Chris T In the context of the Cardiovascular Health Study, a comprehensive investigation into the risk factors for stroke of assessing who is at high risk for stroke. 1 Introduction Stroke is the third leading cause of death among

Volinsky, Chris

191

GIS-BASED URBAN SEISMIC RISK ASSESSMENT USING RISK.IITB Ravi Sinha, K.S.P. Aditya and Achin Gupta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GIS-BASED URBAN SEISMIC RISK ASSESSMENT USING RISK.IITB Ravi Sinha, K.S.P. Aditya and Achin Gupta GIS-based system for seismic risk assessment, namely RISK.iitb, has been described. RISK Using GIS", M.Tech. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Gupta, Vinay Kumar

192

WM2014 Conference- Building the Community of Practice for Performance and Risk Assessment in Support of Risk-Informed Environmental Management Decisions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

WM2014 Conference - Building the Community of Practice for Performance and Risk Assessment in Support of Risk-Informed Environmental Management Decisions - 14575

193

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. Volume I is a description of the components and methodologies used in the risk assessment and provides a summary of the major results from the three components of the assessment.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Ecological risk assessment: An amalgam of populist politics and science-based technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States is embroiled in a contentious political debate over the merits, capabilities, and manipulation of Risk Assessments as part of environmental regulation and management. Much of the debate focuses on the scientific basis of risk assessment as if SCIENCE were the dominant force in the process. But is that assumption valid? The science community continues to improve methods and procedures to characterize exposure and predict consequences. Guidelines for developing exposure models, fate and transport mechanisms, data management systems, and statistical tools are emerging in many professional arenas. These efforts can advance the technical features of risk assessment and will increase the likelihood of getting more uniform and consistent analyses but will the products be relevant? Confusion over social values and compromises of scientific principles can easily confound the risk assessment process in ways that diminish the quality of risk estimates and frustrate risk communication. This paper will examine the parallels between risk assessment and the scientific process to illustrate the boundaries of the scientific-technical aspects of the risk assessment process. Key risk assessment issues including exposure assumptions, assessment (safety) factors, deterministic models, and ecological paradigms will be evaluated against Judge Overton`s criteria of science. Clearly identifying what parts are science versus what parts are political/social constructs should, in the long run, improve risk assessment, management, and communication.

Kapustka, L.A.; Fairbrother, A.; Williams, B.A.; Bennett, R.S. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Assessing the Risk of Arsenic Ingestion | Advanced Photon Source  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

An Electronic Dance of Spins and Orbits An Electronic Dance of Spins and Orbits How a Virus Prepares to Infect Cells Magnetic Switching under Pressure Revealing the Secrets of Chemical Bath Deposition DNA Repair Protein Caught in the Act of Molecular Theft Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Assessing the Risk of Arsenic Ingestion DECEMBER 17, 2010 Bookmark and Share Mineralogy, percent arsenic bioaccessibility and total arsenic concentration of samples from Nova Scotia mine tailings. Detailed mineralogical analyses of individual samples revealed up to seven arsenic species in individual samples (six shown here as major arsenic phases). Results of a physiologically based extraction test are for the < 150 µm

197

Probabilistic risk assessment of N Reactor using NUREG-1150 methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Level III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a US Department of Energy (DOE) Category A production reactor. The main contractor is Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The PRA methodology developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in support of the NUREG-1150 (Reference 1) effort were used for this analysis. N Reactor is a graphite-moderated pressurized water reactor designed by General Electric. The dual-purpose 4000 MWt nuclear plant is located within the Hanford Site in the south-central part of the State of Washington. In addition to producing special materials for the DOE, N Reactor generates 860 MWe for the Washington Public Power Supply System. The reactor has been operated successfully and safely since 1963, and was put into standby status in 1988 due to the changing need in special nuclear material. 3 refs., 4 tabs.

Wang, O.S.; Baxter, J.T.; Coles, G.A.; Powers, T.B.; Zentner, M.D.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Applications of the EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11), a Department of Energy (DOE) Category A research reactor, has recently been completed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and has been performed with close collaboration between PRA analysts and engineering and operations staff. A product of this Involvement of plant personnel has been a excellent acceptance of the PRA as a tool, which has already resulted In a variety of applications of the EBR-11 PRA. The EBR-11 has been used in support of plant hardware and procedure modifications and In new system design work. A new application in support of the refueling safety analysis will be completed in the near future.

Roglans, J.: Ragland, W.A.; Hill, D.J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Applications of the EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11), a Department of Energy (DOE) Category A research reactor, has recently been completed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and has been performed with close collaboration between PRA analysts and engineering and operations staff. A product of this Involvement of plant personnel has been a excellent acceptance of the PRA as a tool, which has already resulted In a variety of applications of the EBR-11 PRA. The EBR-11 has been used in support of plant hardware and procedure modifications and In new system design work. A new application in support of the refueling safety analysis will be completed in the near future.

Roglans, J.: Ragland, W.A.; Hill, D.J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 6. Screening ecological risk assessment (SERA). Draft report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. The Screening Ecological Risk Assessment (SERA) is an analysis of the potential significance of risks to ecological receptors (e.g., plants, fish, wildlife) from exposure to facility emissions. The SERA was performed using conservative assumptions and approaches to determine if a further, more refined analysis is warranted. Volume VI describes in detail the methods used in the SERA and reports the results of the SERA in terms of site-specific risks to ecological receptors.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

202

Risk assessment framework for geologic carbon sequestration sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a simple and transparent approach for assessing CO{sub 2} and brine leakage risk associated with CO{sub 2} injection at geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. The approach, called the Certification Framework (CF), is based on the concept of effective trapping, which takes into account both the probability of leakage from the storage formation and impacts of leakage. The effective trapping concept acknowledges that GCS can be safe and effective even if some CO{sub 2} and brine were to escape from the storage formation provided the impact of such leakage is below agreed-upon limits. The CF uses deterministic process models to calculate expected well- and fault-related leakage fluxes and concentrations. These in turn quantify the impacts under a given leakage scenario to so-called 'compartments,' which comprise collections of vulnerable entities. The probabilistic part of the calculated risk comes from the likelihood of (1) the intersections of injected CO{sub 2} and related pressure perturbations with well or fault leakage pathways, and (2) intersections of leakage pathways with compartments. Two innovative approaches for predicting leakage likelihood, namely (1) fault statistics, and (2) fuzzy rules for fault and fracture intersection probability, are highlighted here.

Oldenburg, C.; Jordan, P.; Zhang, Y.; Nicot, J.-P.; Bryant, S.L.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Guidance Manual for Conducting Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments at the INEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents reference material for conducting screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERAs)for the waste area groups (WAGs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included in this document are discussions of the objectives of and processes for conducting SLERAs. The Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment framework is closely followed. Guidance for site characterization, stressor characterization, ecological effects, pathways of contaminant migration, the conceptual site model, assessment endpoints, measurement endpoints, analysis guidance, and risk characterization are included.

R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; R. C. Morris

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Risk assessment of gaseous emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: case study Rafah landfill, Palestine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article describes the risk assessment of gaseous emissions from the municipal solid waste at Rafah landfill, Palestine. In this study, Gas-Sim model was used to quantify the gaseous emissions from the landfill and the Land-Gem model was used to verify the results. Risk assessment of both carcinogens and non-carcinogens were performed. Two scenarios were conducted namely with plant uptake and without plant uptake. The scenario with plant uptake revealed that the risk to residents is acceptable for non-carcinogens (risk value 0.45 > 1.0), while the risk to residents is not acceptable for carcinogens (risk value 2.69 × 10?6 risk to residents is acceptable for non-carcinogens (risk value 0.42 > 1.0), while the risk to residents is acceptable for carcinogens (risk value 2.855 × 10?7 > 10?6).

Ahmad A. Foul; Mazen Abualtayef; Basel Qrenawi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing risk perceptions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Global Change (HDGC) Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 36 Frey, H.C., and B. Hubbell, "A Risk-based Assessment And Management Framework For Multipollutant Air...

206

Speaking the Truth in Maritime Risk Assessment Several major risk studies have been performed in recent years in the maritime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Speaking the Truth in Maritime Risk Assessment Abstract Several major risk studies have been accidents in maritime transportation. The consequences of these accidents ranged from severe environmental questions of how to prevent such accidents in the future and how to mitigate their consequences

van Dorp, Johan René

207

Historical Relationship Between Performance Assessment for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Other Types of Risk Assessment in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed to the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built upon methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty and the tools used to evaluate it.

RECHARD,ROBERT P.

2000-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

208

Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Process for Designing and Conducting Ecological Risk Assessments, Appendix C and D, June, 1997  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE ON LITERATURE SEARCH SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE ON LITERATURE SEARCH APPENDIX C SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE ON LITERATURE SEARCH A literature search is conducted to obtain information on contaminants of concern, their potential ecological effects, and species of concern. This appendix is separated into two sections; Section C-1 describes the information necessary for the literature review portion of an ecological risk assessment. Topics include information for exposure profiles, bioavailability or bioconcentration factors for various compounds, life-history information for the species of concern or the surrogate species, and an ecological effects profile. Section C-2 lists information sources and techniques for a literature search and review. Topics include a discussion of how to select key words on which to base a search

209

U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process.

Suter, G.W. II

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality M. Valari(1), L (food, water etc.) -Population exposure: [c] x dt -Health data & air pollution health effects Health risk assessment #12;Pollutants concentrations [c] Population exposure [c] x dt Air pollution health

Menut, Laurent

212

COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF CONTAMINATED FLUVIAL SEDIMENTS EROSION RISK AND ECOLOGICAL HAZARD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF CONTAMINATED FLUVIAL SEDIMENTS ­ EROSION RISK AND ECOLOGICAL HAZARD assessment of contaminated aquatic sediments has to consider both sediment hydraulics and ecology. Since layers of contaminated sediments are often buried under less polluted deposits, the risk of erosion

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

213

EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Cancer classification issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Issues presented are related to classification of weight of evidence in cancer risk assessments. The focus in this paper is on lines of evidence used in constructing a conclusion about potential human carcinogenicity. The paper also discusses issues that are mistakenly addressed as classification issues but are really part of the risk assessment process. 2 figs.

Wiltse, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Step kinnection: a hybrid clinical test for fall risk assessment in older adults  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe Step Kinnection, an interactive step training system for the elderly that incorporates mechanisms to simultaneously perform a hybrid clinical test for fall risk assessment. The interactivity demonstration includes a simple ... Keywords: elderly, fall risk assessment, kinect, reaction time test, stepping performance

Jaime Andres Garcia; Yusuf Pisan; Chek Tien Tan; Karla Felix Navarro

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Peer Review of the ESR Health Risk Assessment on Dung Beetles 31 October 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Peer Review of the ESR Health Risk Assessment on Dung Beetles 31 October 2013 General In general terms, the confidential peer reviewers (drawn from universities and CRIs) considered the ESR public findings of the ESR review (pg 94 of their risk assessment) were not supported by the peer reviewers

Sun, Jing

217

A comparative risk assessment of genetically engineered, mutagenic, and conventional wheat production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

production systems Robert K.D. Peterson* & Leslie M. Shama Agricultural and Biological Risk Assessment engineered, mutagenic, and conventional wheat production systems. Replacement of traditional herbicides with different wheat production systems in the US and Canada using the risk assessment paradigm. Specifically, we

Peterson, Robert K. D.

218

Assessing Climate Risks: Extremes in the "A process-based rapprochement to the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-frequency variability of extreme wind events 24Ch. Welker #12;r Ch. Welker Swiss storms vs. cyclone frequencyAssessing Climate Risks: Extremes in the Alps "A process-based rapprochement to the future" Olivia #12;Assessing Climate Risks: Extremes in the Alps Many thanks go to: H. Davies, P. Froidevaux, P

Richner, Heinz

219

Current Directions in the Practice of Environmental Risk Assessment in the United Kingdom  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmental risk assessment, where applied to these situations, must be able to inform and improve regulatory and business decisions on how best to manage risks from environmental hazards. ... The handling of “risk” by governments and their agencies has moved up the political agenda in the last 10 years. ... The Environment Agency and DEFRA have put significant investment into understanding environmental extremes. ...

Simon J. Pollard; Roger Yearsley; Nick Reynard; Ian C. Meadowcroft; Raquel Duarte-Davidson; Susan L. Duerden

2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

220

Needs assessment activity report: April 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of a US Department of Energy Headquarters task (DOE-HQ), the Packaging Operations and Development Group within Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has assessed the packaging needs of many DOE sites. These assessments have involved site visits and meetings with personnel involved with transportation and packaging of hazardous materials. By March 1995, 20 DOE facilities had been visited. As a result, these sites been informed of some of the packaging activities that DOE has sponsored and is sponsoring, have been apprised of the affects of upcoming changes to transportation regulations, have discussed their short-term packaging needs, and have shared unique packaging they have developed which may be of use to other DOE facilities. Program successes include discovery of a need for a reusable Type A liquid sample packaging and its development within another DOE task, establishing communications pathways between DOE sites that have similar transportation and packaging needs, and starting to establish a centralized packaging clearinghouse that will coordinate DOE Complex needs and improve the cost-effectiveness of transportation and packaging activities.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Comparative pathophysiology, toxicology, and human cancer risk assessment of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In humans, hibernoma is a very rare, benign neoplasm of brown adipose tissue (BAT) that typically occurs at subcutaneous locations and is successfully treated by surgical excision. No single cause has been accepted to explain these very rare human tumors. In contrast, spontaneous hibernoma in rats is rare, often malignant, usually occurs in the thoracic or abdominal cavity, and metastases are common. In recent years, there has been an increased incidence of spontaneous hibernomas in rat carcinogenicity studies, but overall the occurrence remains relatively low and highly variable across studies. There have only been four reported examples of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma in rat carcinogenicity studies. These include phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist; varenicline, a nicotine partial agonist; tofacitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor; and hydromorphone, an opiod analgesic. Potential non-genotoxic mechanisms that may contribute to the pathogenesis of BAT activation/proliferation and/or subsequent hibernoma development in rats include: (1) physiological stimuli, (2) sympathetic stimulation, (3) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonism, and/or (4) interference or inhibition of JAK/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling. The evaluation of an apparent increase of hibernoma in rats from 2-year carcinogenicity studies of novel pharmaceutical therapeutics and its relevance to human safety risk assessment is complex. One should consider: the genotoxicity of the test article, dose/exposure and safety margins, and pathophysiologic and morphologic differences and similarities of hibernoma between rats and humans. Hibernomas observed to date in carcinogenicity studies of pharmaceutical agents do not appear to be relevant for human risk at therapeutic dosages. - Highlights: • Highly variable incidence of spontaneous hibernoma in carcinogenicity studies • Recent increase in the spontaneous incidence of hibernomas in Sprague–Dawley rats • Pharmaceutical-related hibernoma has been observed in rats, but not in humans. • Pathophysiologic and morphologic differences of hibernoma between rats and 7 humans. • Hibernomas are unlikely to be relevant to human risk assessment.

Radi, Zaher, E-mail: zaher.radi@pfizer.com [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety R and D, 1 Burtt Rd., Andover, MA 01810 (United States); Bartholomew, Phillip, E-mail: phillip.m.bartholomew@pfizer.com [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety R and D, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Elwell, Michael, E-mail: michael.elwell@covance.com [Covance Laboratories, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Vogel, W. Mark, E-mail: w.mark.vogel@pfizer.com [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety R and D, 1 Burtt Rd., Andover, MA 01810 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Building damage risk assessment on mining terrains in Poland with GIS application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the paper was to present an approach to building damage risk assessment on mining induced areas. The presented method was developed in Poland and then adopted in the other European countries. The method shown is based on a comparison between buildings strength and terrain deformation. Prediction principles of the mining terrain deformation and terrain categorization were described in the paper. Moreover a point method for a building strength to mining impact evaluation was discussed. It should be emphasized that the presented method is optimal for densely build-up areas. The authors proposed supporting actually applied method by GIS analyses. As a case study a densely build-up area influenced by an underground mining exploitation of one of the biggest Polish coal mines has been chosen. The application of the presented method supported by GIS on chosen area enables more automated assessment of building damage caused by mining activity. The procedure outlined in this paper may also be satisfactorily applied in the other counties which cope with the problem of building damage risk assessment optimization.

A. Malinowska; R. Hejmanowski

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Mutuality and solidarity: assessing risks and sharing losses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...allow a better specification of risks for life assurance than was...cases the mathematics of the risk are simple. For example, with...of the disease and would be acceptable for life insurance at normal...premium rates. Whether those at risk would consider the information...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Imagining flood futures: risk assessment and management in practice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...consequences. risk management|risk analysis|flooding|simulacra...we have come to deem as more acceptable than others in predicting the...how do they become deemed as acceptable and, crucially, what effect...science, public policy and risk management in order to make...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

From Chemical Risk Assessment to Environmental Quality Management: The Challenge for Soil Protection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the 1960s there was considerable investment in wastewater treatment, and 1965 saw the first explicit national policy for water pollution prevention and control. ... Rothstein, H.; Irving, P.; Walden, T.; Yearsley, R. The risks of risk-based regulation: Insights from the environmental policy domain Environ. ... Risk assessment tools used in soil quality assessment include both political and scientific elements, which are often interwoven. ...

James Bone; Martin Head; David T. Jones; Declan Barraclough; Michael Archer; Catherine Scheib; Dee Flight; Paul Eggleton; Nikolaos Voulvoulis

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

226

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 5. Human health risk assessment (HHRA): Evaluation of potential risks from multipathway exposure to emissions. Draft report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) portion of the WTI Risk Assessment involves the integration of information about the facility with site-specific data for the surrounding region and population to characterize the potential human health risks due to emissions from the facility. The estimation of human health risks is comprised of the following general steps: (1) identification of substances of potential concern; (2) estimation of the nature and magnitude of chemical releases from the WTI facility; (3) prediction of the atmospheric transport of the emitted contaminants; (4) determination of the types of adverse effects associated with exposure to the substances of potential concern (referred to as hazard identification), and the relationship between the level of exposure and the severity of any health effect (referred to as dose-response assessment); (5) estimation of the magnitude of exposure (referred to as exposure assessment); and (6) characterization of the health risks associated with exposure (referred to as risk characterization).

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

NREL: International Activities - Biomass Resource Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Resource Assessment Map showing annual productivity of marginal lands in APEC economies. Biomass resource assessments quantify the existing or potential biomass material in...

228

Level III probabilistic risk assessment for N Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document, Volume 3; provide Appendices D and E of this report. The information provided is consequence analysis and risk analysis supporting information respectively. (FL)

Camp, A.L.; Kunsman, D.M.; Miller, L.A.; Sprung, J.L.; Wheeler, T.A.; Wyss, G.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

symptoms? ___ NO If YES, check all that apply. Persistent cough for more than 3 weeks ___ Yes Unexplained weight loss ___ Yes Productive cough with bloody sputum ___ Yes Exposure Risks

Buehrer, R. Michael

230

Insights for Quantitative Risk Assessment of Combined Cycle Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Traditional techniques of risk analysis have been fitted for the application to combined cycle power plants and the results of several...

Gabriele Ballocco; Andrea Carpignano…

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

RISK ANALYSIS AND QUANTITATIVE RISK MANAGEMENT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Risk analysis is a decision-oriented process consisting of risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication. Risk analysis is a formalized scientifically based approach recognized by the World Trade Organization as the tool to address food safety issues and which shall found food safety regulation. Risk analysis is designed to meet specified goals for risk management activities, which should be related to the acceptable level of protection deemed appropriate in a country. Quantitative risk management can be based on relevant risk-based metrics, such as food safety objectives and Performance Objectives. The article addresses the elements and steps involved in risk analysis as currently recommended.

C. Heggum

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 1. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents: Introduction and Summary of Results; Facility Background; Facility Emissions; Atmospheric Dispersion and Deposition Modeling of Emissions; Human Health Risk Assessment; Screening Ecological Risk Assessment; Accident Analysis; Additional Analysis in Response to Peer Review Recommendations; References.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Microdosemeter instrument (MIDN) for assessing risk in space  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......dose, radiation quality and regulatory risk. This group is developing...impossible to measure. RESEARCH PLAN The proposed research consists...Navy and DoD Space Experiments Review Boards for a potential flight...dose, radiation quality and regulatory risk. This group is developing......

V. L. Pisacane; Q. E. Dolecek; H. Malak; F. A. Cucinotta; M. Zaider; A. B. Rosenfeld; A. Rusek; M. Sivertz; J. F. Dicello

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I. Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part D, Standardized Planning, Reporting, and Review of Superfund Risk Assessments)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Publication 9285.7-01D Publication 9285.7-01D January 1998 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part D, Standardized Planning, Reporting, and Review of Superfund Risk Assessments) Interim Office of Emergency and Remedial Response U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 20460 Revision No. 0 ii January 1998 NOTICE This document provides guidance to EPA staff. The guidance is designed to communicate National policy on the planning, reporting and review of Superfund risk assessments. The document does not, however, substitute for EPA's statutes or regulations, nor is it a regulation itself. Thus, it cannot impose legally-binding requirements on EPA, States, or the regulated community, and may not apply to a particular situation based upon

235

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 2. Introduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents: Overview; Facility Background; Risk Assessment History at WTI; Peer Review Comments and Key Assumptions; and References.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

List of Topics for Interagency Performance & Risk Assessment Community of Practice (P&RA CoP) Discussion  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

List of Topics for Interagency Performance & Risk Assessment Community of Practice (P&RA CoP) Discussion

237

DOE Standard on Development and Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in DOE  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Standard on Development and Use of Probabilistic Risk Standard on Development and Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in DOE Nuclear Safety Applications (draft), December 2010 DOE Standard on Development and Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in DOE Nuclear Safety Applications (draft), December 2010 There have been significant developments with regard to the risk assessment and risk informed decision making, as it applies to nuclear and other safety areas, since the Department of Energy (DOE) developed its approach to managing nuclear safety. The developments and associated technical insights may be of use to DOE in its efforts to continuously improve safety performance at its nuclear facilities. The Department has taken several actions to provide an infrastructure for providing appropriate controls and

238

Risk Assessment Revision for 40 CFR Part 61 Subpart W  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tailings Task 4 ­ Detailed Risk Estimates Prepared by: S. Cohen & Associates 1608 Spring Hill Road, Suite: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N ..............................................................................................1 1.1 Dose Calculation Methodology

239

Transportation risk assessment for the US Department of Energy Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future management of radioactive and hazardous waste at the facilities of the DOE complex. The alternatives involve facilities to be used for treatment, storage, and disposal of various wastes generated from DOE`s environmental restoration activities and waste management operation. Included in the evaluation are six types of waste (five types of radioactive waste plus hazardous waste), 49 sites, and numerous cases associated with each different alternative for waste management. In general, the alternatives are evaluated independently for each type of waste and reflect decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches. Transportation of waste materials is an integral component of the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The estimated impact on human health that is associated with various waste transportation activities is an important element leading to a complete appraisal of the alternatives. The transportation risk assessment performed for the EM PEIS is designed to ensure -- through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions -- that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful and consistent.

Chen, S.Y.; Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; Lazaro, M.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Modeling toxic endpoints for improving human health risk assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or equivalent toxicological potency in which case they are not considered ?sufficiently? similar. Currently, this method is only useful for inhalation 4 routes of exposure because epidemiological data for human oral and dermal exposures are not yet... available. Consequently, it is only feasible to use in cases where inhalation risk will be the dominant contributor to the overall risk estimates. This method is not considered a viable option for mixtures that have originated from unknown sources...

Bruce, Erica Dawn

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A Framework for Considering Social, Political and Economic Factors in Risk Assessments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The importance of making accurate risk assessments has grown during the past several decades. The rapid-paced introduction of new technologies and their unprecedented influence over the health and safety of so...

Judith Kildow

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Understanding Population and Individual Risk Assessment: The Case of Polychlorinated Biphenyls  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...University Medical Center, 3800 Reservoir...Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC...population-risk assessment process intended...Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists A1-Confirmed...

Peter G. Shields

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

A Model for Fuzzy Logic Assessment of Real Estate Investment Risks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Assessing the real estate investment risks is a major issue for the responsible management and the sustainable regional development. The paper proposes a fuzzy logic model for complex estimation of the real estate

Plamena Zlateva; Dimiter Velev…

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Integrating Electricity Subsector Failure Scenarios into a Risk Assessment Methodology (December 2013)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This technical update provides guidance to utilities on developing and implementing a risk assessment process using the failure scenarios developed by the National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR) program.

245

Risk-Based Technology Assessment for Capital Equipment Acquisition Decisions in Small Firms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hospital’s technology assessment decision are used to find the risk of the medical technology using the computational architecture developed. Widely-available, no-cost software tools are employed. Results of the health care example suggest...

Merriweather, Samuel P.

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

246

Waste management health risk assessment: A case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated risk assessment study has been performed in an area within 5 km from a landfill that accepts non hazardous waste. The risk assessment was based on measured emissions and maximum chronic population exposure, for both children and adults, to contaminated air, some foods and soil. The toxic effects assessed were limited to the main known carcinogenic compounds emitted from landfills coming both from landfill gas torch combustion (e.g., dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and from diffusive emissions (vinyl chloride monomer, VCM). Risk assessment has been performed both for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results indicate that cancer and non-cancer effects risk (hazard index, HI) are largely below the values accepted from the main international agencies (e.g., WHO, US EPA) and national legislation ( and ).

Davoli, E., E-mail: enrico.davoli@marionegri.i [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Fattore, E.; Paiano, V.; Colombo, A.; Palmiotto, M. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Rossi, A.N.; Il Grande, M. [Progress S.r.l., Via Nicola A. Porpora 147, 20131 Milano (Italy); Fanelli, R. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

A quantitative assessment of nuclear weapons proliferation risk utilizing probabilistic methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comparative quantitative assessment is made of the nuclear weapons proliferation risk between various nuclear reactor/fuel cycle concepts using a probabilistic method. The work presented details quantified proliferation ...

Sentell, Dennis Shannon, 1971-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

A model-based fuzzy set-OWA approach for integrated air pollution risk assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a fuzzy set—ordered weighted averaging (FSOWA) approach for the integrated health risk assessment associated with multiple air pollution factors and evaluation criteria. A number of ... the sa...

Baozhen Wang; Zhi Chen

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I-Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part C, Risk Evaluation of Remedial Alternatives)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

C, Risk C, Risk Evaluation of Remedial Alternatives) Interim United States Office of Research and EPA/540/R-92/003 Environmental Protection Development December 1991 Agency Washington, DC 20460 EPA/540/R-92/004 Publication 9285.7-01 C December 1991 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part C, Risk Evaluation of Remedial Alternatives) Interim Office of Emergency and Remedial Response U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 20460 Printed on Recycled Paper NOTICE The policies set out in [his document are intended solely as guidance; they are not final U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) actions. These policies are not intended, nor can they be relied upon, to create any rights enforceable by any party in litigation with the United States. EPA officials may

250

Assessment of transportation risk for the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management programmatic environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future management of radioactive and hazardous waste at the facilities of the DOE complex. The alternatives involve facilities to be used for treatment, storage, and disposal of various wastes generated from DOE environmental restoration activities and waste management operations. The evaluation includes five types of waste (four types of radioactive waste plus hazardous waste), 49 sites, and numerous cases associated with each alternative for waste management. In general, the alternatives are evaluated independently for each type of waste and reflect decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches. Transportation of waste materials is an integral component of the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The estimated impact on human health that is associated with various waste transportation activities is an important component of a complete appraisal of the alternatives. The transportation risk assessment performed for the EM PEIS is designed to ensure through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful and consistent. Among other tasks, Argonne National Laboratory is providing technical assistance to the EM PEIS on transportation risk assessment. The objective is to perform a human health risk assessment for each type of waste relative to the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The transportation risk assessed is part of the overall impacts being analyzed for the EM PEIS to determine the safest, most environmentally and economically sound manner in which to satisfy requirements for waste management in the coming decades.

Chen, S.Y.; Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; Lazaro, M.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK B188 Summary of methods proposed for risk informing the design and regulation of future nuclear power plants. All elements of the historical design and regulation process are preserved, but the methods proposed for new plants use probabilistic risk assessment methods as the primary decision making tool.

Ritterbusch, Stanley; Golay, Michael; Duran, Felicia; Galyean, William; Gupta, Abhinav; Dimitrijevic, Vesna; Malsch, Marty

2003-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

252

Risk–benefit assessment in medical research—critical review and open questions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......profile of the established standard of care (by satisfying...formulate and pursue a life plan based on a conception...profile of the established standard of care (i.e. these...2001) Institutional review board assessment of risks...the daily life risks standard from the definition of......

Annette Rid; David Wendler

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Assessment of Inundation Risk from Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge in Northeastern Coastal National Parks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment of Inundation Risk from Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge in Northeastern Coastal National of inundation risk from sea level rise and storm surge in northeastern coastal national parks. Journal of Coastal Research, 00(0), 000­000. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. Sea level rise and an increase

Wang, Y.Q. "Yeqiao"

254

Automation to Support Risk Assessment and Management at DHS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

DHS is pursuing a portfolio of research and development projects known as the Threat Assessment Portfolio, conducting a range of cross-cutting analytic automation research to address...

Dennis, Stephen

255

Climate uncertainty and implications for U.S. state-level risk assessment through 2050.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decisions for climate policy will need to take place in advance of climate science resolving all relevant uncertainties. Further, if the concern of policy is to reduce risk, then the best-estimate of climate change impacts may not be so important as the currently understood uncertainty associated with realizable conditions having high consequence. This study focuses on one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change - precipitation - to understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and the near-term justification for interventions to mitigate the course of climate change. We show that the mean risk of damage to the economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of one trillion dollars over the next 40 years, with employment impacts of nearly 7 million labor-years. At a 1% exceedance-probability, the impact is over twice the mean-risk value. Impacts at the level of individual U.S. states are then typically in the multiple tens of billions dollar range with employment losses exceeding hundreds of thousands of labor-years. We used results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 4 (AR4) climate-model ensemble as the referent for climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, mapped the simulated weather hydrologically to the county level for determining the physical consequence to economic activity at the state level, and then performed a detailed, seventy-industry, analysis of economic impact among the interacting lower-48 states. We determined industry GDP and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effect on personal income, and the consequences for the U.S. trade balance.

Loose, Verne W.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions.

Gasper, K.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

257

Appendix F Human Health Risk Assessment Document Number Q0029500 Appendix F  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Human Health Risk Assessment Human Health Risk Assessment Document Number Q0029500 Appendix F This appendix presents the detailed calculations used to estimate risks to human health. It includes the exposure factors, equations, abbreviations, assumptions, and references. Separate spreadsheets for ground water ingestion for the near-term and 20-year assumptio~ls have also been provided. The following spreadsheets are included in this appendix: Overview (Exposure Factors, Equations, Abbreviations, and COPCs) .......................... F-3 * Contaminant Concentrations-Near-Tern1 Ground Water Concentrations .................... F-6 Toxicity Factors ...................................... .. ............................................................ F-8 * Lower Montezuma'creek Exposure Scenario-Reasonable Maximurn Exposure ...... F-10

258

ARAMIS: An integrated risk assessment methodology for SEVESO Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, SEVESO, land use planning, risk reduction, safety barriers, safety culture, safety management the needs of various stakeholders concerned by the safety of industrial plants. ARAMIS is divided into six, published in "2. International Conference on safety and environment in process industry (CISAP-2), Naples

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

259

The Ranavirus Project Assessing the risk of introducing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ecological consequences Establishment in ecosystem Economic consequences Entrance into fish / frog farm · Acknowledgements #12;7/16/2011 2 3 The RANA-project · Risk Assesment of New and emerging systemic i id i l di f E of Ranaviruses, Minneapolis July 2011Symposium of Ranaviruses, Minneapolis July 2011 Interaction with wilddlife

Gray, Matthew

260

Model for quantitative risk assessment on naturally ventilated metering-regulation stations for natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper presents a model for quantitative risk assessment on metering stations and metering-regulation stations for natural gas with natural ventilation. The model enables the assessment of risk for people who live in the vicinity of these stations and complements the existing models for risk assessment on natural gas pipelines. It is based on risk assessment methods suggested in relevant guides, recommendations and standards. Explosion and jet fire are considered as major hazardous events and are modelled according to analytical models and empirical data. Local or other accessible databases are used for modelling of event frequencies and ignition probabilities. A case study on a sample station is carried out. For each hazardous event, fault tree and event tree analysis is performed. Results show influence of each hazardous event on the whole risk relative to the distance from the hazardous source. Ventilation is found to be a significant factor in determination of risk magnitude; its influence on individual risk is presented in a quantitative way. The model should be of use for pipeline operators as well as for environmental- and urban planners.

Tom Bajcar; Franc Cimerman; Brane Širok

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Actuarial risk assessment of expected fatalities attributable to carbon capture and storage in 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Actuarial risk assessment of expected fatalities attributable to carbon capture and storage in 2050-00487175,version2-10Feb2011 #12;1. Introduction Carbon capture and storage (CCS) involves capturing the CO2 is assessed integrating all steps of the CCS chain: additional coal production, coal transportation, carbon

262

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 206 Risk assessment of biogas exposure in kitchens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 206 Risk assessment of biogas exposure in kitchens C to pollutants while using biogas for cooking was assessed following the methodology described by the US - National Research Council. Information of hazardous compounds and compositions of several biogas types were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

Radiation Risk Assessment at CERCLA Sites, Q&A, December 1999  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AGENCY AGENCY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460 MEMORANDUM SUBJECT: Dis diation Risk Assessment Q & A's Final Guidance FROM: medial Response (OERR) . mergency Response Indoor Air (ORIA) Office of Air and Radiation I TO: Addressees PURPOSE The purpose of this memorandum is to transmit to you a final guidance document entitled: "Radiation Risk Assessment At CERCLA Sites: Q & A." The guidance provides answers to several common questions about radiation risk assessments at CERCLA sites. It should be especially useful to Remedial Project Managers (RPMs), On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs), and risk assessors.' BACKGROUND The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued guidance entitled "Establishment of Cleanup Levels for CERCLA Levels for CERCLA Sites with Radioactive Contamination"

264

Reflections on new directions for risk assessment of environmental chemical mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently risk assessment of chemicals tackles them as single substances affecting individual health endpoints. In reality, human exposure occurs to mixtures of chemicals, as they are present in the environment and consumer products. Combining the information from environmental fate analysis, epidemiological data and toxicokinetic/dynamic models helps estimate internal exposure. Coupling these data with gene and protein expression profiles as signatures of exposure to classes of toxicants to derive biologically-based dose-response estimates may open the way towards adopting a biological connectivity approach to risk assessment. This work gives examples of applications of this approach on combined exposure to mixtures of volatile organic chemicals and estimation of body burden from chronic exposure to mixtures of chemicals and of the associated health risk. Conclusions are drawn as to the future scientific developments that will meet the requirements of integrated health risk assessment to protect public health from environmental and consumption-related stressors.

D. Sarigiannis; A. Gotti; G. Cimino Reale; E. Marafante

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Conclusions of the Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Characterization and Risk Assessment Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rationale for the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Characterization and Risk Assessment Program and its results and applications have been examined in the previous 13 articles of this special issue. This paper summarizes the results and discusses its successes and lessons learned. The robust data from the Capstone DU Aerosol Study have provided a sound basis for assessing the inhalation exposure to DU aerosols and the dose and risk to personnel in combat vehicles at the time of perforation and to those entering immediately after perforation. The Human Health Risk Assessment provided a technically sound process for evaluating chemical and radiological doses and risks from DU aerosol exposure using well-accepted biokinetic and dosimetric models innovatively applied. An independent review of the study process and results is summarized, and recommendations for possible avenues of future study by the authors and by other major reviews of DU health hazards are provided.

Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Guilmette, Raymond A.

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

266

Health-risk assessment of chemical contamination in Puget Sound seafood. Final report 1985-1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides resource management and health agencies with a general indication of the magnitude of potential human health risks associated with consumption of recreationally harvested seafoods from Puget Sound. Data collection and evaluation focused on a variety of metal and organic contaminants in fish, shellfish and edible seaweeds from 22 locations in the Sound. EPA risk assessment techniques were used to characterize risks to average and high consumer groups for both carcinogens and noncarcinogens. Theoretical risks associated with consumption of both average and high quantities of Puget Sound seafood appear to be comparable to or substantially less than those for fish and shellfish from other locations in the United States.

Williams, L.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 8. Additional analysis in response to peer review recommendations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents: Introduction; Combustion Engineering; Air Dispersion and Deposition Modeling; Accident Analysis; Exposure Assessment; Toxicology; and Ecological Risk Assessment.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Assessing Risk in Costing High-energy Accelerators: from Existing Projects to the Future Linear Collider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-energy accelerators are large projects funded by public money, developed over the years and constructed via major industrial contracts both in advanced technology and in more conventional domains such as civil engineering and infrastructure, for which they often constitute one-of markets. Assessing their cost, as well as the risk and uncertainty associated with this assessment is therefore an essential part of project preparation and a justified requirement by the funding agencies. Stemming from the experience with large circular colliders at CERN, LEP and LHC, as well as with the Main Injector, the Tevatron Collider Experiments and Accelerator Upgrades, and the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab, we discuss sources of cost variance and derive cost risk assessment methods applicable to the future linear collider, through its two technical approaches for ILC and CLIC. We also address disparities in cost risk assessment imposed by regional differences in regulations, procedures and practices.

Lebrun, Philippe

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

How information resources are used by federal agencies in risk assessment application: Rapporteur summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application of information available for risk assessment from the federal perspective is described. Different federal agencies conduct varying degrees of hazard evaluation, and some also generate empirical data. The role of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry in hazard assessments of potential public health impacts of Superfund sites includes identification of the 275 most significant substances. ATSDR is responsible for preparing toxicological profiles. ATSDR also identifies data gaps and needs critical to adequately assessing human health impacts.

Fenner-Crisp, P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

ABSTRACT: The Prince William Sound (PWS) risk assessment was a joint project of Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rensselaer Polytechnic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adverse consequences (accidents). The PWS risk assessment did not attempt to determine an "acceptable. The determination of acceptable risk will be a product of the stakeholder's use of the PWS analysisABSTRACT: The Prince William Sound (PWS) risk assessment was a joint project of Det Norske Veritas

van Dorp, Johan René

271

EPa`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Exposure issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three major issues to be dealt with over the next ten years in the exposure assessment field are: consistency in terminology, the impact of computer technology on the choice of data and modeling, and conceptual issues such as the use of time-weighted averages.

Callahan, M.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem ({plus_minus}2.4) to 0.04 mrem ({plus_minus}0.13) and translate to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments to about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site.

Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

1994-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

273

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 5. Human health risk assessment; evaluation of potential risks from multipathway exposure to emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report provide estimates of: (1) individual risks based on central tendency exposure; (2) individual risks based on maximum environmental concentrations; (3) risks to highly exposed or susceptible subgroups of the population (e.g., subsistence farmers and school children); (4) risks associated with specific activities that may result in elevated exposures (e.g., subsistence fishermen and deer hunters); and (5) population risk. This approach allows for the estimation of risks to specific segments of the population taking into consideration activity patterns, number of individuals, and actual locations of individuals in these subgroups with respect to the facility. The fate and transport modeling of emissions from the facility to estimate exposures to identified subgroups is described.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Baseline risk assessment for exposure to contaminants at the St. Louis Site, St. Louis, Missouri  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The St. Louis Site comprises three noncontiguous areas in and near St. Louis, Missouri: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLAPS), and the Latty Avenue Properties. The main site of the Latty Avenue Properties includes the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and the Futura Coatings property, which are located at 9200 Latty Avenue. Contamination at the St. Louis Site is the result of uranium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1970s. Uranium processing took place at the SLDS from 1942 through 1957. From the 1940s through the 1960s, SLAPS was used as a storage area for residues from the manufacturing operations at SLDS. The materials stored at SLAPS were bought by Continental Mining and Milling Company of Chicago, Illinois, in 1966, and moved to the HISS/Futura Coatings property at 9200 Latty Avenue. Vicinity properties became contaminated as a result of transport and movement of the contaminated material among SLDS, SLAPS, and the 9200 Latty Avenue property. This contamination led to the SLAPS, HISS, and Futura Coatings properties being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the St. Louis Site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The primary goal of FUSRAP is the elimination of potential hazards to human health and the environment at former Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites so that, to the extent possible, these properties can be released for use without restrictions. To determine and establish cleanup goals for the St. Louis Site, DOE is currently preparing a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS). This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is a component of the process; it addresses potential risk to human health and the environment associated wi

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others] [and others

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Development of risk-assessment methodology for municipal-sludge landfilling. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. The sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution and marketing programs, landfilling, incineration and ocean disposal. These reports provide methods for evaluating potential health and environmental risks from toxic chemicals that may be present in sludge. The document addresses risks from chemicals associated with landfilling of municipal sludge. These proposed risk assessment procedures are designed as tools to assist in the development of regulations for sludge management practices. The criteria may address management practices (such as site design or process control specifications), limits on sludge disposal rates or limits on toxic chemical concentrations in the sludge.

Not Available

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Multimedia transport and risk assessment of organophosphate pesticides and a case study in the northern San Joaquin Valley of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multimedia transport and risk assessment of organophosphate pesticides and a case study) pesticides in the northern San Joaquin Valley of California. Chemical concentrations in environmental media guidelines for cumulative risk analysis. Uncertainty in the human exposure parame- ters was included

Zhang, Minghua

278

Brief Report: Assessment of Early Sensory Processing in Infants at High-Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study assessed sensory processing differences between 24-month infants at high-risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), each with an older sibling with ASD, and low-risk infants with no family history of A...

Tamara Germani; Lonnie Zwaigenbaum…

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Lessons learned: Needs for improving human health risk assessment at USDOE Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Realistic health risk assessments were performed in a pilot study of three U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. These assessments, covering a broad spectrum of data and methods, were used to identify needs for improving future health risk assessments at USDOE sites. Topics receiving specific recommendations for additional research include: choice of distributions for Monte Carlo simulation; estimation of risk reduction; analysis of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Database on food and nutrient intakes; investigations on effects of food processing on contaminant levels; background food and environmental concentrations of contaminants; method for handling exposures to groundwater plumes, methods for analyzing less than lifetime exposure to carcinogens; and improvement of bioaccumulation factors.

Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

ANDROS: A code for Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ANDROS (Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection) is a computer code written to compute doses and health effects from atmospheric releases of radionuclides. ANDROS has been designed as an integral part of the CRRIS (Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System). ANDROS reads air concentrations and environmental concentrations of radionuclides to produce tables of specified doses and health effects to selected organs via selected pathways (e.g., ingestion or air immersion). The calculation may be done for an individual at a specific location or for the population of the whole assessment grid. The user may request tables of specific effects for every assessment grid location. Along with the radionuclide concentrations, the code requires radionuclide decay data, dose and risk factors, and location-specific data, all of which are available within the CRRIS. This document is a user manual for ANDROS and presents the methodology used in this code.

Begovich, C.L.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Application of probabilistic safety assessment models to risk-based inspection of piping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From the beginning, one of the most useful applications of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is its use in evaluating the risk importance of changes to plant design, operations, or other plant conditions. Risk importance measures the impact of a change on the risk. Risk is defined as a combination of the likelihood of failure and consequence of the failure. The consequence can be safety system unavailability, core melt frequency, early release, or various other consequence measures. The goal in this PSA application is to evaluate the risk importance of an ISI process, as applied to plant piping systems. Two approaches can be taken in this evaluation: Current PSA Approach or the Blended Approach. Both are discussed here.

Chapman, J.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Data validation and risk assessment -- some pitfalls when evaluating VOC measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data validation, as described in Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols under the Contract Laboratory Program (CLP), yields false confidence in the data and drives up costs while providing little benefit (Korte and Brown 1992). Commonly, these data are then used to perform a risk assessment. Much of the published guidance for risk assessments in and arid soils is inadequate because it does not take into account vapor migration due to density-driven flow (Korte and others 1992). Investigations into both of these problems have been performed by personnel of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and are described in this presentation.

Korte, N.; Kearl, P.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Risk assessment of toxic pollutants from fossil fuel power plants: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development and application of a methodology for assessing the control costs and chronic health risks of toxic pollutant emissions from coal-fired electric power plants. The approach emphasizes surface water discharges and pollution, but incorporates emissions to air, water, soil, and groundwater and transfers of pollutants between these media. The components of the general framework include (1) pollutant emission characterization, (2) environmental transport and fate analysis, (3) population exposure calculation, and (4) quantitative health risk assessment. The report provides a basic overview of the approach, discusses each component in detail, and describes its application to an hypothetical, simplified case study. 234 refs., 32 figs., 32 tabs.

Bolten, J.G.; Morrison, P.F.; Solomon, K.A.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conflict in Yugoslavia has been a source of great concern for the neighboring countries, about the radiological and toxic hazard posed by the alleged presence of depleted uranium in NATO weapons. In the present study a worst-case scenario is assumed mainly to assess the risk for Greece and other neighboring countries of Yugoslavia at similar distances . The risk of the weapons currently in use is proved to be negligible at distances greater than 100 Km. For shorter distances classified data of weapons composition are needed to obtain a reliable assessment.

Liolios, T E

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Effect of Direct-to-Consumer Genomewide Profiling to Assess Disease Risk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...still unknown. Direct-to-consumer genomic risk testing recently attracted national attention when one company that offers such testing, Pathway Genomics, announced it would sell its DNA saliva kits at Walgreen stores nationwide. This announcement led the Food and Drug Administration to consider whether... Direct-to-consumer genomewide profiling to assess disease risk provides information about a person's genetic risk of 20 to 40 common polygenic diseases. The tests simultaneously genotype approximately 500,000 variant bases of a person's DNA. Consumers can ...

Bloss C.S.Schork N.J.Topol E.J.

2011-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

286

DOE-NE Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment: FY12 Plans Update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation provides background information on FY12 plans for the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment program. Program plans, organization, and individual project elements are described. Research objectives are: (1) Develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors; (2) Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy; (3) Develop Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycles; and (4) Understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism - Goal is to enable the use of risk information to inform NE R&D program planning.

Sadasivan, Pratap [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

287

South African farm workers' interpretation of risk assessment data expressed as pictograms on pesticide labels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pesticide companies and regulators in developing countries use the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) recommended pictograms on pesticide labels to communicate risk information based on toxicological and environmental risk assessment data. The pesticide label not only is often the only access people have to pesticide risk information, but also in many countries is a legally binding document. As a result of the crucial role pesticide labels play in protecting health and the environment and as a legal instrument, pictograms are used to overcome literacy challenges in transmitting pesticide risk information. Yet, this risk communication tool is often prone to misinterpretations of the risk information which results in hazardous exposures to pesticides for farm workers and end-users generally. In this paper, results are presented from a study with 115 farm workers on commercial vineyards in the Western Cape, South Africa, assessing their interpretations of 10 commonly used pictograms. A standardized questionnaire based on four commonly used pesticide labels was administered. Overall, 50% or more of the study farm workers had misleading, incorrect and critically confused interpretations of the label pictograms. Interpretations often reflected farm workers' social and cultural frames of reference rather than the technically intended risk information. For example, the pictogram indicating a pesticide's toxicity requires boots must be worn, evoked interpretations of 'dangerous to pedestrians' and 'don't walk through pesticides'. Furthermore, there was a gender variation in pictogram comprehension whereby males generally had more correct interpretations than females. This is a result both of a lack of training for women who are assumed to not work with pesticides, as well as a lack of pictograms relevant for female exposures. These findings challenge the viability of the United Nations current initiative to globally harmonize pictograms used on all chemical labels under the new Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). Particularly as the GHS pictograms were not piloted prior to adoption of the system and represent complex risk assessment data such as chronic hazards. Public health and pesticide policy, backed by relevant research, need to address developing applicable and effective pesticide risk communication tools, particularly for developing country populations. Merely providing risk assessment derived information in a pictogram does not ensure that an end-user will interpret the message as intended and be able to make risk decisions which mitigate risks from exposures to pesticides or chemicals in general.

Rother, Hanna-Andrea [Occupational and Environmental Health Research Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town (South Africa)], E-mail: andrea.rother@uct.ac.za

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

N reactor level III probabilistic risk assessment using NUREG-1150 methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that in the late 1980s, a level III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was performed for the N Reactor, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford site in Washington State. The PRA objectives were to assess the risks to the public and to the Hanford on-site workers posed by the operation of the N Reactor, to compare those risks to proposed DOE nuclear safety guidelines, and to identify risk-reduction changes to the plant. State-of-the-art methodology was employed based largely on the methods developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of the NUREG-1150 study of five commercial nuclear power plants. The structure of the probabilistic models allowed complex interactions and dependencies between systems to be explicitly considered. Latin hypercube sampling techniques were used to develop uncertainty distribution for the risks associated with postulated core damage events initiated by fire, seismic, and internal events as well as the overall combined risk. The risk results show that the N Reactor meets the proposed DOE nuclear safety guidelines and compares favorably to the commercial nuclear power plants considered in the NUREG-1150 analysis.

Wang, O.S.; Coles, G.A.; Kelly, J.E.; Powers, T.B.; Rainey, T.E.; Zentner, M.D. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)); Wyss, G.D.; Kunsman, D.M.; Miller, L.A.; Wheeler, T.A.; Sprung, J.L.; Camp, A.L. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (US))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with the Baseline Risk Assessment for the 716-A Motor Shops Seepage Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment of the 716-A Motor Shops Seepage Basin.

Palmer, E.

1997-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

291

RAVEN and Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Software overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

RAVEN is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. The initial development was aimed to provide dynamic risk analysis capabilities to the Thermo-Hydraulic code RELAP-7 [], currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory. Although the initial goal has been fully accomplished, RAVEN is now a multi-purpose probabilistic and uncertainty quantification platform, capable to agnostically communicate with any system code. This agnosticism has been employed by providing Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). These interfaces are used to allow RAVEN to interact with any code as long as all the parameters that need to be perturbed are accessible by inputs files or via python interfaces. RAVEN is capable to investigate the system response, investigating the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. The paper presents an overview of the software capabilities and their implementation schemes followed by some application examples.

Andrea Alfonsi; Cristian Rabiti; Diego Mandelli; Joshua Cogliati; Robert Kinoshita; Antonio Naviglio

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Initial Activation Assessment for ARIES Compact Stellarator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ­ Activity ­ Decay Heat · Address waste-related issues: ­ Waste Disposal Rating ­ Breakdown of Class A and Class C waste ­ Any cleared materials? Objectives #12;Breeder Multiplier Structure FW/Blanket Shield VV) 1h 1d 1w 1y SiC B-I FS WC SiC B-II #12;Decay Heat · SiC decay heat drops sharply after shutdown

California at San Diego, University of

293

Work plan for conducting an ecological risk assessment at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland, and activities at the Edgewood Area since World War II have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. The J-Field site was used to destroy chemical agents and munitions by open burning and open detonation. This work plan presents the approach proposed to conduct an ecological risk assessment (ERA) as part of the RI/FS program at J-Field. This work plan identifies the locations and types of field studies proposed for each area of concern (AOC), the laboratory studies proposed to evaluate toxicity of media, and the methodology to be used in estimating doses to ecological receptors and discusses the approach that will be used to estimate and evaluate ecological risks at J-Field. Eight AOCs have been identified at J-Field, and the proposed ERA is designed to evaluate the potential for adverse impacts to ecological receptors from contaminated media at each AOC, as well as over the entire J-Field site. The proposed ERA approach consists of three major phases, incorporating field and laboratory studies as well as modeling. Phase 1 includes biotic surveys of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, biological tissue sampling and analysis, and media toxicity testing at each AOC and appropriate reference locations. Phase 2 includes definitive toxicity testing of media from areas of known or suspected contamination or of media for which the Phase 1 results indicate toxicity or adverse ecological effects. In Phase 3, the uptake models initially developed in Phase 2 will be finalized, and contaminant dose to each receptor from all complete pathways will be estimated.

Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.] [and others

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Report on the US EPA technical workshop on WTI incinerator risk assessment issues. Held in Washington, DC on January 11, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents information and materials from a peer review workshop organized by EPA`s Risk Assessment Forum for Region 5 and the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The subject of the peer review was a draft document prepared by Region 5 assessing risk at an incinerator operated by Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) in East Liverpool, Ohio. This report summarizes the discussions that took place at the peer review workshop. The report opens with an overview of the workshop and a history of EPA`s WTI incinerator risk assessment activities (section 1), then presents the chairperson`s summary (section 2) and the five work group chairs` summaries (section 3). The body of the report ends with highlights of the peer reviewers` preliminary comments and of the comments offered by workshop observers (section 4).

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ? Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ? Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ? Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ? Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Field studies of wildlife at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA): Relevance to risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field studies of wildlife at contaminated sites can provide information about past and present effects, but are limited in spatial and temporal resolution. They cannot be used to predict future risks without utilizing risk assessment methodologies, including exposure-response relationships. RMA is unusual among Superfund sites in that its large size permits the existence of diverse wildlife populations in peripheral areas, despite high levels of contamination in central areas. Risk assessments conducted at RMA predict steep gradients in severity of effects from high in the central areas to low in peripheral areas. The population effects of such gradients will vary among species, depending on their exposure ranges and dispersal behavior. Effects on survival or reproduction in core areas may be partly or wholly offset by immigration from peripheral or offsite areas. Most field studies of wildlife populations at RMA have been conducted at scales inappropriate for ecological risk characterization, and have not been integrated with information on patterns of contamination or exposure. Hence, they do not provide much useful information to complement or modify the results of risk assessments. More focused field studies are needed to provide useful information on wildlife effects before and after remediation.

Nisbet, I.C.T. [I.C.T. Nisbet and Co., Inc., N. Falmouth, MA (United States); Swain, W.R. [ECO Logic, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Star, I. [GeoTrans, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Donaldson Active Regeneration PM System  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Modeling - FEA * Failure Mode Analysis & Life Prediction - Reliability Analysis * FMEA, Fault Tree Analysis, Risk Assessment, etc. Active System Durability & Reliability...

298

Actuarial risk assessment of expected fatalities attributable to carbon capture and storage in 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Actuarial risk assessment of expected fatalities attributable to carbon capture and storage : 10.1016/j.ijggc.2011.07.004 #12;2 1. Introduction Carbon capture and storage (CCS) involves capturing of carbon and the cost of capture. From the engineering, psychological or climatic point of view, one

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Gas Migration from Closed Coal Mines to the Surface RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AND PREVENTION MEANS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas Migration from Closed Coal Mines to the Surface RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AND PREVENTION to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species Philip B and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, PO Box 173120, Bozeman, MT 59717-3120, USA Summary 1. Biofuel. However, concerns have been raised on the invasiveness of biofuel feedstocks. Estimating invasion

Peterson, Robert K. D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Risk Assessment of Scramjet Unstart Using Adjoint-Based Sampling Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risk Assessment of Scramjet Unstart Using Adjoint-Based Sampling Methods Qiqi Wang Massachusetts it to approximate the unstart probability of a supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engine under changes for approximately 10 s in 2004. The X-43 waspoweredby asupersonic combustionramjet (scramjet) engine, in which air

Alonso, Juan J.

302

Risk Assessment of Scramjet Unstart Using Adjoint-Based Sampling Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risk Assessment of Scramjet Unstart Using Adjoint-Based Sampling Methods Qiqi Wang Massachusetts in a SCRamjet engine under uncertain conditions that are characterized by various Gaussian and non (SCRamjet) engine, in which air at supersonic speed is mixed with hydrogen in the combustion chamber

Wang, Qiqi

303

New report assesses offshore wind technology challenges and potential risks and benefits.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New report assesses offshore wind technology challenges and potential risks and benefits of the offshore wind energy industry, Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States. It provides a broad understanding of the offshore wind resource, and details the associated technology challenges, econom- ics

304

Uncertainty in Octanol?Water Partition Coefficient:? Implications for Risk Assessment and Remedial Costs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

U. S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4201; USGS:? Reston, VA, 2001. ... (37)?Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment for the Hudson River Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study; U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Prepared by Menzie-Cura & Associates and TAMS Consultants, Inc. July, 1999. ...

Igor Linkov; Michael R. Ames; Edmund A. C. Crouch; F. Kyle Satterstrom

2005-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

305

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or moisture density gages may get into wastewater and be carried to a treatment plant. Other scenarios might include a terrorist deliberately putting a dispersible radioactive material into wastewater. Alternatively, a botched terrorism preparation of an RDD may result in radioactive material entering wastewater without anyone's knowledge. Drinking water supplies may also be contaminated, with the result that some or most of the radioactivity ends up in wastewater.

Strom, Daniel J.

2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

307

Human health risk assessment for off-shore media at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A human health risk assessment for off-shore media was performed at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine. The purpose was to determine whether any potential human health risks could be posed by exposures to the estuary. Included in the study were the evaluations of potential risks existing from human exposures to surface water and sediment, as well as potential risks posed by ingestion of various species of fish and shellfish which are caught commercially and recreationally in the estuary. Three species were chosen for study. They were lobsters, mussels, and flounder. The USEPA prescribed protocols for performing human health risk assessments under CERCLA and RCRA were followed to estimate risks associated with ingestion of these species caught in the lower estuary, in the vicinity of the Shipyard. USEPA required the evaluation of two potential seafood ingestion scenarios recreational fishermen and subsistence fishermen. The results indicated that the USEPA risk target of 10{sup {minus}6} for carcinogens or the hazard index of one was exceeded in at least one species for the subsistence ingestion scenario for some inorganics and organic compounds. Based on these results, it was necessary to propose Media Protection Standards in the biota, which would represent the USEPA target risk level for carcinogens and noncarcinogens, as potential cleanup targets. In performing this task, a review of regional background levels for these chemicals found in biota throughout the Great Bay Estuarine System, at locations removed from the Shipyard, was performed. Also examined were regional Maine data from the NOAA Mussel Watch Program. Biota concentrations near the Shipyard were found to be within the range of biota concentrations for most of these chemicals throughout the region, suggesting possible multiple, non-point sources for the contaminants found in seafood throughout the region.

Mahoney, E. [Eileen Mahoney Associates, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

The Dempster-Schafer Theory of Belief Functions for Managing Uncertainties: An Introduction and Fraud Risk Assessment Illustration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

where management fraud risk is assessed to be high. In addition, we discuss whether audit planning is better served by an integrated audit/fraud risk assessment as now suggested in SAS 107 (AICPA 2006a, see also ASA 200 in AUASB 2007) or by the approach...

Srivastava, Rajendra P.; Mock, Theodore J.; Gao, Lei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

DOE safety goals comparison using NUREG-1150 PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) methodology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A full-scope Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) including external events has been performed for N Reactor, a US Department of Energy (DOE) Category A production reactor. This four-year, multi-million dollar task was a joint effort by Westinghouse Hanford Company, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Technical lead in external events and NUREG-1150 methodology was provided by SNL. SAIC led the effort in the Level 1 analysis for the internally initiated events. Westinghouse Hanford supported the task in many key areas, such as data collection and interpretation, accident progression, system interaction, human factor analyses, expert elicitation, peers review, etc. The main objective of this Level 3 PRA are to assess the risks to the public and onsite workers posed by the operation of N Reactor, to identify modifications to the plant that could reduce the overall risk, and to compare those risks to the proposed DOE and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) quantitative safety goals. This paper presents the methodology adopted by Westinghouse Hanford and SNL for estimating individual health risks, and the comparison of the N Reactor results and DOE quantitative nuclear safety guidelines. This paper is devoted to DOE quantitative safety guidelines interpretation and comparison; the NRC safety objectives are also presented in order to compare N Reactor results to commercial nuclear power plants included in the NUREG-1150 study. 7 refs., 7 tabs.

Wang., O.S.; Zentner, M.D.; Rainey, T.E.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Probabilistic risk assessment of the N Reactor using NUREG-1150 methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A level-III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for N Reactor, a US Department of Energy (DOE) reactor located on the Hanford site in Washington state. The methods developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in support of the NUREG-1150 effort were adapted for the analysis. The objectives of the study are to assess the risks to the public (off-site) and to workers at colocated DOE facilities (on-site) posed by the operation of N reactor, compare those risks to proposed DOE safety guidelines and NRC safety goals, and identify changes to the plant for safety enhancement. This summary is based on results from internally initiated events only. Off-site risk resulted from externally initiated events and on-site risk will be reported at a later date. The entire study is based on best-estimate inputs except that a number of areas, such as source term inventory and progression of metal/water reaction, apply conservative assumptions.

Wang, O.S.; Coles, G.A.; Zentner, M.D.; Powers, T.B.; Baxter, J.T.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Urban form and long-term fuel supply decline: A method to investigate the peak oil risks to essential activities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The issue of a peak in world oil supply has become a mainstream concern over the past several years. The petroleum geology models of post-peak oil production indicate supply declines from 1.5% to 6% per year. Travel requires fuel energy, but current transportation planning models do not include the impacts of constrained fuel supply on private travel demand. This research presents a method to assess the risk to activities due to a constrained fuel supply relative to projected unconstrained travel demand. The method assesses the probability of different levels of fuel supply over a given planning horizon, then calculates impact due to the energy supply not meeting the planning expectations. A new travel demand metric which characterizes trips as essential, necessary, and optional to wellbeing is used in the calculation. A case study explores four different urban forms developed from different future growth options for the urban development strategy of Christchurch, New Zealand to 2041. Probable fuel supply availability was calculated, and the risk to transport activities in the 2041 transport model was assessed. The results showed all the urban forms had significantly reduced trip numbers and lower energy mode distributions from the current planning projections, but the risk to activities differed among the planning options. Density is clearly one of the mitigating factors, but density alone does not provide a solution to reduced energy demand. The method clearly shows how risk to participation in activities is lower for an urban form which has a high degree of human powered and public transport access to multiple options between residential and commercial/industrial/service destinations. This analysis has led to new thinking about adaptation and reorganization of urban forms as a strategy for energy demand reduction rather than just densification.

Susan Krumdieck; Shannon Page; André Dantas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Assessment of ecological risks in weed biocontrol: Input from retrospective ecological analyses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prediction of the outcomes of natural enemy introductions remains the most fundamental challenge in biological control. Quantitative retrospective analyses of ongoing biocontrol projects provide a systematic strategy to evaluate and further develop ecological risk assessment. In this review, we highlight a crucial assumption underlying a continued reliance on the host specificity paradigm as a quantitative prediction of ecological risk, summarize the status of our retrospective analyses of nontarget effects of two weevils used against exotic thistles in North America, and discuss our prospective assessment of risk to a federally listed, threatened species (Cirsium pitcheri) based on those studies. Our analyses quantify the fact that host range and preference from host specificity tests are not sufficient to predict ecological impact if the introduced natural enemy is not strictly monophagous. The implicit assumption when such use is made of the host specificity data in risk assessment is that population impacts are proportional to relative preference and performance, the key components of host specificity. However, in concert with shifting awareness in the field, our studies demonstrate that the environment influences and can alter host use and population growth, leading to higher than expected direct impacts on the less preferred native host species at several spatial scales. Further, we have found that straightforward, easily anticipated indirect effects, on intraguild foragers as well as on the less preferred native host plant species, can be both widespread and significant. We conclude that intensive retrospective ecological studies provide some guidance for the quantitative prospective studies needed to assess candidate biological control agent dynamics and impacts and, so, contribute to improved rigor in the evaluation of total ecological risk to native species.

Svata M. Louda; Tatyana A. Rand; F. Leland Russell; Amy E. Arnett

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Development of exposure scenarios for CERCLA risk assessments at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA) is performed to determine if there are any potential risks to human health and the environment from waste unit at SRS. The SRS has numerous waste units to evaluate in the RFMU and CMS/FS programs and, in order to provide a consistent approach, four standard exposure scenarios were developed for exposure assessments to be used in human health risk assessments. The standard exposure scenarios are divided into two temporal categories: (a) Current Land Use in the BRA, and (b) Future Land Use in the RERA. The Current Land Use scenarios consist of the evaluation of human health risk for Industrial Exposure (of a worker not involved in waste unit characterization or remediation), a Trespasser, a hypothetical current On-site Resident, and an Off-site Resident. The Future Land Use scenario considers exposure to an On-site Resident following termination of institutional control in the absence of any remedial action (No Action Alternative), as well as evaluating potential remedial alternatives against the four scenarios from the BRA. A critical facet in the development of a BRA or RERA is the scoping of exposure scenarios that reflect actual conditions at a waste unit, rather than using factors such as EPA Standard Default Exposure Scenarios (OSWER Directive 9285.6-03) that are based on upper-bound exposures that tend to reflect worst case conditions. The use of site-specific information for developing risk assessment exposure scenarios will result in a more realistic estimate of Reasonable Maximum Exposure for SRS waste units.

Nix, D.W.; Immel, J.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Phifer, M.A. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Development of exposure scenarios for CERCLA risk assessments at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA) is performed to determine if there are any potential risks to human health and the environment from waste unit at SRS. The SRS has numerous waste units to evaluate in the RFMU and CMS/FS programs and, in order to provide a consistent approach, four standard exposure scenarios were developed for exposure assessments to be used in human health risk assessments. The standard exposure scenarios are divided into two temporal categories: (a) Current Land Use in the BRA, and (b) Future Land Use in the RERA. The Current Land Use scenarios consist of the evaluation of human health risk for Industrial Exposure (of a worker not involved in waste unit characterization or remediation), a Trespasser, a hypothetical current On-site Resident, and an Off-site Resident. The Future Land Use scenario considers exposure to an On-site Resident following termination of institutional control in the absence of any remedial action (No Action Alternative), as well as evaluating potential remedial alternatives against the four scenarios from the BRA. A critical facet in the development of a BRA or RERA is the scoping of exposure scenarios that reflect actual conditions at a waste unit, rather than using factors such as EPA Standard Default Exposure Scenarios (OSWER Directive 9285.6-03) that are based on upper-bound exposures that tend to reflect worst case conditions. The use of site-specific information for developing risk assessment exposure scenarios will result in a more realistic estimate of Reasonable Maximum Exposure for SRS waste units.

Nix, D.W.; Immel, J.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Phifer, M.A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

315

D and D alternatives risk assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the Level 3 Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Alternatives Risk Assessment (DARA) performed on Building 3515 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of the risk evaluation process is to provide risk information necessary to assist decision making for Environmental Restoration (ER) Program D and D facilities. This risk information is developed in the baseline risk assessment (BRA) and in the DARA. The BRA provides risk information necessary for determining whether or not a facility represents an unacceptable risk and requires remediation. In addition, the BRA also provides an estimation of the risks associated with the no-action alternative for use in the DARA. The objective of this Level 3 DARA is to evaluate and document the potential risks to human health, human safety, and the environment associated with the proposed remedial action at Building 3515. A Level 3 assessment is the least rigorous type of DARA. The decision to conduct a Level 3 DARA was based on the fact that characterization data from the facility are limited, and currently only one remedial alternative (complete dismantlement) is being evaluated in addition to the no-action alternative. The results of the DARA along with cost and engineering information may be used by project managers in making decisions regarding the final disposition of Building 3515. This Level 3 assessment meets the requirements of the streamlined risk assessment necessary for an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA).

Robers, S.K. [DASKR Ltd. (United States); Golden, K.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM Summary of Assessment -Tick Box  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the hands or body YES/NO. Electrical Hazards Is electrical equipment, other than tested 240V portable the heat capacity of samples of copper to check the calibration of the measuring system. Once or respiratory/ear protection required. 6. The aim of the Assessment is to satisfy Regulation 3 of "The

Hampshire, Damian

317

Phase 1 data summary report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health risk and ecological risk screening assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels in fish, sediment, and water from the CR/WBR; (2) determine the in the range of contaminant concentrations present river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants.

Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Longman, R.C.; McGinn, C.W.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.; Williams, L.F.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

NATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT PARTNERSHIP (NRAP) NETL Team Technical Coordinator: Grant Bromhal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT PARTNERSHIP (NRAP) NETL Team Technical Coordinator: Grant Bromhal NATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT PARTNERSHIP (NRAP) NETL Team Technical Coordinator: Grant Bromhal Name Project Role Affiliation University Project Title Dzombak, David A PI CMU Acid Gas Interactions w ith Seal Materials under Geologic Sequestration Conditions Nakles, David V CO-PI CMU Small, Mitchell J CO-PI CMU Siriw ardane, Hema J PI WVU Develop Second Generation ROMs for Release and Transport through Seals Mohaghegh, Shahab PI WVU Develop Second Generation ROMs for Reservoir Behavior Mohaghegh, Shahab PI WVU Develop Third Generation ROMs for Reservoir Behavior Siriw ardane, Hema J PI WVU Develop Third Generation ROMs for Release and Transport through Seals Li, Li PI PSU Brunet, Jean-Patrick Researcher PSU Karpyn, Zuleima T PI PSU Cao, Peilin Grad Student PSU Karamalidis, Athanasios PI

319

Appendices and Risk Assessment Spreadsheet Version No. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Links to related documents referenced within the Engineering Manual: Links to related documents referenced within the Engineering Manual: Appendices and Risk Assessment Spreadsheet Version No. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual 07/10 Overview i Engineering at Fermilab 4 ii Purpose and Scope 5 iii Responsibilities 7 Fermilab Engineering Process 1 Requirements and Specifications 9 2 Engineering Risk Assessment 10 3 Requirements and Specifications Review 17 4 System Design 18 5 Engineering Design Review 21 6 Procurement and Implementation 23 7 Testing and Validation 26 8 Release to Operations 28 9 Final Documentation 29 Closing Thoughts 31 Appendices 33 Table of Contents Overview Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Page No. Version No. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual

320

Approach to proliferation risk assessment based on multiple objective analysis framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The approach to the assessment of proliferation risk using the methods of multi-criteria decision making and multi-objective optimization is presented. The approach allows the taking into account of the specifics features of the national nuclear infrastructure, and possible proliferation strategies (motivations, intentions, and capabilities). 3 examples of applying the approach are shown. First, the approach has been used to evaluate the attractiveness of HEU (high enriched uranium)production scenarios at a clandestine enrichment facility using centrifuge enrichment technology. Secondly, the approach has been applied to assess the attractiveness of scenarios for undeclared production of plutonium or HEU by theft of materials circulating in nuclear fuel cycle facilities and thermal reactors. Thirdly, the approach has been used to perform a comparative analysis of the structures of developing nuclear power systems based on different types of nuclear fuel cycles, the analysis being based on indicators of proliferation risk.

Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhI (Russian Federation); Studgorodok 1, Obninsk, Kaluga region, 249030 (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

An Updated Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment, as AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results on augmenting an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors that integrate real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors. Methods to propagate uncertainty through the enhanced risk monitor are evaluated. Available data to quantify the level of uncertainty and the POF of key components are examined for their relevance, and a status update of this data evaluation is described. Finally, we describe potential targets for developing new risk metrics that may be useful for studying trade-offs for economic operation while maintaining adequate safety margins.

Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Coles, Garill A.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Ivans, William J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

2014-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

324

Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e disposal of contaminated waste. The results of this evaluation will be presented in a subsequent corrective action decision document.

DOE /NV

2001-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

325

Training Graduate and Undergraduate Students in Simulation and Risk Assessment for Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) and injecting it into deep underground formations for storage (carbon capture and underground storage, or CCUS) is one way of reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Gas or aqueous-phase leakage may occur due to transport via faults and fractures, through faulty well bores, or through leaky confining materials. Contaminants of concern include aqueous salts and dissolved solids, gaseous or aqueous-phase organic contaminants, and acidic gas or aqueous-phase fluids that can liberate metals from aquifer minerals. Understanding the mechanisms and parameters that can contribute to leakage of the CO2 and the ultimate impact on shallow water aquifers that overlie injection formations is an important step in evaluating the efficacy and risks associated with long-term CO2 storage. Three students were supported on the grant Training Graduate and Undergraduate Students in Simulation and Risk Assessment for Carbon Sequestration. These three students each examined a different aspect of simulation and risk assessment related to carbon dioxide sequestration and the potential impacts of CO2 leakage. Two performed numerical simulation studies, one to assess leakage rates as a function of fault and deep reservoir parameters and one to develop a method for quantitative risk assessment in the event of a CO2 leak and subsequent changes in groundwater chemistry. A third student performed an experimental evaluation of the potential for metal release from sandstone aquifers under simulated leakage conditions. This study has resulted in two student first-authored published papers {Siirila, 2012 #560}{Kirsch, 2014 #770} and one currently in preparation {Menke, In prep. #809}.

McCray, John

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

326

Implications of recent ICRP recommendations for risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and cleanup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted a new set of recommendations in November 1990 which were issued at ICRP Publication No. 60 in March 1991. These recommendations incorporate new radiobiological information and outline a comprehensive system of radiological protection. This paper evaluates the implications of these new recommendations vis a vis risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites.

Devgun, J.S.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Implications of recent ICRP recommendations for risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and cleanup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted a new set of recommendations in November 1990 which were issued at ICRP Publication No. 60 in March 1991. These recommendations incorporate new radiobiological information and outline a comprehensive system of radiological protection. This paper evaluates the implications of these new recommendations vis a vis risk assessments for radioactive waste disposal and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites.

Devgun, J.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Development of Simplified Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model for Seismic Initiating Event  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT This paper discusses a simplified method to evaluate seismic risk using a methodology built on dividing the seismic intensity spectrum into multiple discrete bins. The seismic probabilistic risk assessment model uses Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) full power Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) model as the starting point for development. The seismic PRA models are integrated with their respective internal events at-power SPAR model. This is accomplished by combining the modified system fault trees from the full power SPAR model with seismic event tree logic. The peak ground acceleration is divided into five bins. The g-value for each bin is estimated using the geometric mean of lower and upper values of that particular bin and the associated frequency for each bin is estimated by taking the difference between upper and lower values of that bin. The component’s fragilities are calculated for each bin using the plant data, if available, or generic values of median peak ground acceleration and uncertainty values for the components. For human reliability analysis (HRA), the SPAR HRA (SPAR-H) method is used which requires the analysts to complete relatively straight forward worksheets that include the performance shaping factors (PSFs). The results are then used to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs) of interest. This work is expected to improve the NRC’s ability to include seismic hazards in risk assessments for operational events in support of the reactor oversight program (e.g., significance determination process).

S. Khericha; R. Buell; S. Sancaktar; M. Gonzalez; F. Ferrante

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Hybrid data mining-regression for infrastructure risk assessment based on zero-inflated data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Infrastructure disaster risk assessment seeks to estimate the probability of a given customer or area losing service during a disaster, sometimes in conjunction with estimating the duration of each outage. This is often done on the basis of past data about the effects of similar events impacting the same or similar systems. In many situations this past performance data from infrastructure systems is zero-inflated; it has more zeros than can be appropriately modeled with standard probability distributions. The data are also often non-linear and exhibit threshold effects due to the complexities of infrastructure system performance. Standard zero-inflated statistical models such as zero-inflated Poisson and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models do not adequately capture these complexities. In this paper we develop a novel method that is a hybrid classification tree/regression method for complex, zero-inflated data sets. We investigate its predictive accuracy based on a large number of simulated data sets and then demonstrate its practical usefulness with an application to hurricane power outage risk assessment for a large utility based on actual data from the utility. While formulated for infrastructure disaster risk assessment, this method is promising for data-driven analysis for other situations with zero-inflated, complex data exhibiting response thresholds.

S.D. Guikema; S.M. Quiring

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Analytical Sciences Div.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Effect of radon dose on cleanup criteria and using RESRAD for chemical risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy has used RESRAD, a pathway analysis program developed at Argonne National Laboratory, in conjunction with the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle to develop site-specific residual radioactive material guidelines (cleanup criteria) for many sites. This study examines the effects of the radon pathway, recently added to the RESRAD program, on the calculation of uranium, radium, and thorium cleanup criteria. The results show that the derived uranium guidelines will not be affected by the radon ingrowth considerations. The effect of radon on radium and thorium generic guidelines is more significant, but the model does indicate that at the generic soil limits used for radium and thorium the indoor radon decay product concentrations would be below the 0.02 working level standard. This study also examines the feasibility of applying RESRAD to chemical risk assessment. The results show that RESRAD can perform risk assessment of toxic chemicals after simple modifications. Expansion of the RESRAD database to include chemical compounds will increase its capability to handle chemical risk assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

Yu, C.; Cheng, J.-J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Wallo, A. III (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors: Final Scientific/Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project entitled, “Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors”, was conducted as a DOE NERI project collaboration between Texas A&M University and The Ohio State University between March 2006 and June 2009. The overall goal of the proposed project was to develop practical approaches and tools by which dynamic reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used to augment the uncertainty quantification process in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and PRA applications for Generation IV reactors. This report is the Final Scientific/Technical Report summarizing the project.

Vierow, Karen; Aldemir, Tunc

2009-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

333

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 6. Screening ecological risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Screening Ecological Risk Assessment (SERA) includes an evaluation of available biotic information from the site vicinity to provide a preliminary description of potential ecological receptors (e.g., rare, threatened and endangered species; migratory birds; and important game species), and important ecological habitats (e.g., wetland areas). A conceptual site model is developed that describe show stressors associated with the WTI facility might affect the ecological components in the surrounding environment through the development and evaluation of specific ecological endpoints. Finally, an estimate of the potential for current and/or future adverse impacts to the biotic component of the environment is provided, based on the integration of potential exposures of ecological receptors to WTI emissions and toxicological threshold values.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Spatial variability-based corrosion risk assessment and strategy of repair and maintenance for RC structures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A corrosion risk assessment model (CRAM) of reinforced concrete structures subjected to marine environment is presented. The spatial variability of parameters, which are decisive for the durability performance, is modelled probabilistically in terms of sample statistics, which may be assessed by testing of existing structures. The result of the chloride profile test is suggested to update the input model parameters for future structural condition prediction. The requirements to the service life performance are formulated in terms of the probability that the structure will be in a certain condition class after a given service time. Further, it is demonstrated how optimal strategies for repair and maintenance of concrete structure subject to chloride ingress can be determined on the basis of corrosion risk classes. The present method to plan optimal repair strategy is illustrated by an assessment case. For structures with large concrete surface exposed to chloride-laden environment, both spatial and temporal characteristics of deterioration are suggested to consider in condition assessment based on field inspection.

Xiao-Zhou Wang; Wei-Liang Jin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Comprehensive, Quantitative Risk Assessment of CO{sub 2} Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Quantitative Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (QFMEA) was developed to conduct comprehensive, quantitative risk assessments on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and sequestration or use in deep saline aquifers, enhanced oil recovery operations, or enhanced coal bed methane operations. The model identifies and characterizes potential risks; identifies the likely failure modes, causes, effects and methods of detection; lists possible risk prevention and risk mitigation steps; estimates potential damage recovery costs, mitigation costs and costs savings resulting from mitigation; and ranks (prioritizes) risks according to the probability of failure, the severity of failure, the difficulty of early failure detection and the potential for fatalities. The QFMEA model generates the necessary information needed for effective project risk management. Diverse project information can be integrated into a concise, common format that allows comprehensive, quantitative analysis, by a cross-functional team of experts, to determine: What can possibly go wrong? How much will damage recovery cost? How can it be prevented or mitigated? What is the cost savings or benefit of prevention or mitigation? Which risks should be given highest priority for resolution? The QFMEA model can be tailored to specific projects and is applicable to new projects as well as mature projects. The model can be revised and updated as new information comes available. It accepts input from multiple sources, such as literature searches, site characterization, field data, computer simulations, analogues, process influence diagrams, probability density functions, financial analysis models, cost factors, and heuristic best practices manuals, and converts the information into a standardized format in an Excel spreadsheet. Process influence diagrams, geologic models, financial models, cost factors and an insurance schedule were developed to support the QFMEA model. Comprehensive, quantitative risk assessments were conducted on three (3) sites using the QFMEA model: (1) SACROC Northern Platform CO{sub 2}-EOR Site in the Permian Basin, Scurry County, TX, (2) Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-ECBM Site in the San Juan Basin, San Juan County, NM, and (3) Farnsworth Unit CO{sub 2}-EOR Site in the Anadarko Basin, Ochiltree County, TX. The sites were sufficiently different from each other to test the robustness of the QFMEA model.

Lepinski, James

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

336

Rapid Quantification of Viable Campylobacter Bacteria on Chicken Carcasses, Using Real-Time PCR and Propidium Monoazide Treatment, as a Tool for Quantitative Risk Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...bacteria are applicable as tools for risk assessment and assurance of food...rapid detection and as a tool for quantitative risk assessment of food-borne thermotolerant...monoazide treatment, as a tool for quantitative risk assessment. | A number of intervention...

M. H. Josefsen; C. Löfström; T. B. Hansen; L. S. Christensen; J. E. Olsen; J. Hoorfar

2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

337

Cautious Risk-Takers: Investor Preferences and Demand for Active Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cautious Risk-Takers: Investor Preferences and Demand for Active Management Valery Polkovnichenko and Demand for Active Management Abstract Actively managed mutual funds have distinct return distributions from the equally important side of investor demand. We take funds returns as given and use them

O'Toole, Alice J.

338

An approach for assessing engineering risk from shale gas wells in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In response to a series of “energy crises” in the 1970s, the United States government began investigating the potential of unconventional, domestic sources of energy to offset imported oil. Hydraulic fracturing applied to vertical tight sand and coal bed methane wells achieved some degree of success during a period of high energy prices in the early 1980s, but shale gas remained largely untapped until the late 1990s with the application of directional drilling, a mature technology adapted from deepwater offshore platforms that allowed horizontal wells to penetrate kilometers of organic-rich shale, and staged hydraulic fracturing, which created high permeability flowpaths from the horizontal wells into a much greater volume of the target formations than previous completion methods. These new engineering techniques opened up vast unconventional natural gas and oil reserves, but also raised concerns about potential environmental impacts. These include short-term and long-term impacts to air and water quality from rig operations, potential migration of gas, fluids and chemicals through the ground, and effects on small watersheds and landscapes from roads, pads and other surface structures. Engineering risk assessment commonly uses integrated assessment models (IAMs), which define sources of risk from features, events and processes. The risk from each system element is assessed using high-fidelity models. Output from these is simplified into reduced-order models, so that a large, integrated site performance assessment can be run using the IAM. The technique has been applied to engineered systems in geologic settings for sequestering carbon dioxide, and it is also applicable to shale gas, albeit with some modifications of the various system elements. Preliminary findings indicate that shale gas well drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques are generally safe when properly applied. Incident reports recorded by state environmental agencies suggest that human error resulting from the disregard of prescribed practices is the greatest cause of environmental incidents. This can only be addressed through education, regulations and enforcement.

Daniel J. Soeder; Shikha Sharma; Natalie Pekney; Leslie Hopkinson; Robert Dilmore; Barbara Kutchko; Brian Stewart; Kimberly Carter; Alexandra Hakala; Rosemary Capo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity as risk predictors of future atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Physical fitness and activity status are well-documented risk predictors of cardiovascular and total mortality. The purpose of this article is to show how cardiorespiratory fitness predicts atherosclerotic car...

Jari A. Laukkanen MD; Sudhir Kurl MD…

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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341

Parametric modeling of transitioning cyclone’s wind fields for risk assessment studies in the western North Pacific  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Probabilistic risk assessment systems for tropical cyclone hazard rely on large ensembles of model simulations to characterize cyclones tracks, intensities and the extent of the associated damaging winds. Given computational costs the wind field ...

T. Loridan; S. Khare; E. Scherer; M. Dixon; E. Bellone

342

QUANTITATIVE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTING FROM GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION OF AN ABANDONED OPEN FIELD CHEMICAL WASTE BURNING SITE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantitative human health risk assessment was performed for the evaluation of health threat resulting from the chemical contamination of the soil and groundwater in the area of the former open field pharmaceutica...

GYULA DURA; SANDOR SZOBOSZLAI; BALAZS KRISZT…

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Assessment of Risk in a Production System with the Use of the FMEA Analysis and Linguistic Variables  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper describes a method for analysing and assessing the risk in production systems. A process of ore transportation process with the use of a belt conveyor was used as an example. Ishikawa diagram was used t...

Anna Burduk

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Evolving Adjustments to External (Gamma) Slope Factors for CERCLA Risk and Dose Assessments - 12290  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To model the external exposure pathway in risk and dose assessments of radioactive contamination at Superfund sites, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses slope factors (SFs), also known as risk coefficients, and dose conversion factors (DCFs). Without any adjustment these external radiation exposure pathways effectively assumes that an individual is exposed to a source geometry that is effectively an infinite slab. The concept of an 'infinite slab' means that the thickness of the contaminated zone and its aerial extent are so large that it behaves as if it were infinite in its physical dimensions. EPA has been making increasingly complex adjustments to account for the extent of the contamination and its corresponding radiation field to provide more accurate risk and dose assessment modeling when using its calculators. In most instances, the more accurate modeling results derived from these gamma adjustments are less conservative. The notable exception are for some radionuclides in rooms with contaminated walls, ceiling, and floors, and the receptor is in location of the room with the highest amount of radiation exposure, usually the corner of small rooms and the center of large conference rooms. (authors)

Walker, Stuart [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Automating Risk Assessments of Hazardous Material Shipments for Transportation Routes and Mode Selection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The METEOR project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully addresses the difficult problem in risk assessment analyses of combining the results from bounding deterministic simulation results with probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment techniques. This paper describes a software suite designed to perform sensitivity and cost/benefit analyses on selected transportation routes and vehicles to minimize risk associated with the shipment of hazardous materials. METEOR uses Monte Carlo techniques to estimate the probability of an accidental release of a hazardous substance along a proposed transportation route. A METEOR user selects the mode of transportation, origin and destination points, and charts the route using interactive graphics. Inputs to METEOR (many selections built in) include crash rates for the specific aircraft, soil/rock type and population densities over the proposed route, and bounding limits for potential accident types (velocity, temperature, etc.). New vehicle, materials, and location data are added when available. If the risk estimates are unacceptable, the risks associated with alternate transportation modes or routes can be quickly evaluated and compared. Systematic optimizing methods will provide the user with the route and vehicle selection identified with the lowest risk of hazardous material release. The effects of a selected range of potential accidents such as vehicle impact, fire, fuel explosions, excessive containment pressure, flooding, etc. are evaluated primarily using hydrocodes capable of accurately simulating the material response of critical containment components. Bounding conditions that represent credible accidents (i.e; for an impact event, velocity, orientations, and soil conditions) are used as input parameters to the hydrocode models yielding correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. The Monte Carlo algorithms use random number generators to make selections at the various decision points such as; crash, location, etc. For each pass through the routines, when a crash is randomly selected, crash parameters are then used to determine if failure has occurred using either external look up tables, correlations functions from deterministic calculations, or built in data libraries. The effectiveness of the software was recently demonstrated in safety analyses of the transportation of radioisotope systems for the US Dept. of Energy. These methods are readily adaptable to estimating risks associated with a variety of hazardous shipments such as spent nuclear fuel, explosives, and chemicals.

Barbara H. Dolphin; William D. RIchins; Stephen R. Novascone

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

An Approach to Overseas Iron Ore Investment Risk Assessment Based on Fuzzy Neural Network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The iron ore investment overseas influenced by a variety of risk factors including geological reserves risk, market risk, the risk of the investment environment, political and legal risks, and etc. Based on the t...

Li Guo; Caiwu Lu; Zhen Yang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Risk assessment of drain valve failure in the K-West basin south loadout pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The drain valve located in the bottom of the K-West Basin South Loadout Pit (SLOP) could provide an additional leak path from the K Basins if the drain valve were damaged during construction, installation, or operation of the cask loading system. For the K-West Basin SLOP the immersion pail support structure (IPSS) has already been installed, but the immersion pail has not been installed in the IPSS. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the risk of damaging the drain valve during the remaining installation activities or operation of the cask loading system. Valve damage, as used in this analysis, does not necessarily imply large amounts of the water will be released quickly from the basin, rather valve damage implies that the valve's integrity has been compromised. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where best engineering judgement is used to represent each variable in the analysis. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution. The uncertainty is propagated through the analysis by Monte Carlo convolution techniques. The corresponding results are developed as a probability distribution and the risk is expressed in terms of the corresponding complementary cumulative distribution function (''risk curve''). The total risk is the area under the ''risk curve''. The risk of potentially dropping a cask into or on the IPSS and damaging the drain valve is approximately 1 x 10{sup -4} to 2 x 10{sup -5} per year. The risk of objects falling behind the IPSS and damaging the valve is 3 x 10{sup -2} to 6 x 10{sup -3} per year. Both risks are expressed as drain value failure frequencies. The risk of objects falling behind the IPSS and damaging the valve can be significantly reduced by an impact limiter and/or installing a gating or plate over the area bounded by the back of the IPSS and the wall of the SLOP. With either of these actions there is a 90 percent confidence that the frequency of drain valve failure would be less than 1 x 10{sup -6} per year.

MORGAN, R.G.

1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

348

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 2. Introduction. Draft report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume provides a description of the facility, and its location and setting in the three-state area of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia; an overview of previous risk assessments conducted by U.S. EPA for this site, including the preliminary assessment of inhalation exposure and the screening-level risk analyses of indirect exposure; and a summary of comments provided by the Peer Review Panel on the Project Plan.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Baseline risk assessment of the perched water system at the INEL test reactor area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A baseline health risk assessment (HRA) was prepared to evaluate potential risks to human health and the environment posed by the Perched Water System (PWS) at the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The PWS has been designated Operable Unit 2-12, one of the 13 operable units identified at TRA. During the period from 1962 to 1990, a total of 6770 million gal of water were discharged from the TRA to unlined surface ponds. Wastewater discharged to the surface ponds at TRA percolates downward through the surficial alluvium and the underlying basalt bedrock. A resulting shallow perched water zone has formed at the interface between the surficial sediments and the underlying basalt. Further downward movement of groundwater is again impeded by a low-permeability layer of silt, clay, and sand encountered at a depth of [approximately]150 ft. The deep perched water zone occurs on top of this low-permeability interbed. An evaluation was made as to whether potential risks for the PWS could justify implementing a remedial action. The risk evaluation consisted of two parts, the human health evaluation and the ecological evaluation.

Gordon, J.W.; Sinton, P.O. (Dames Moore, Denver, CO (United States)); Jensen, N. (DOE, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); McCormick, S. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

DOE Standard on Development and Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in DOE Nuclear Safety Applications (draft), December 2010  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

There have been significant developments with regard to the risk assessment and risk informed decision making, as it applies to nuclear and other safety areas, since the Department of Energy (DOE) developed its approach to managing nuclear safety. The developments and associated technical insights may be of use to DOE in its efforts to continuously improve safety performance at its nuclear facilities.

351

Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-4-2012_Integration of Spatial Data to Support Risk and Impact Assessments_20121221.docx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integration of Spatial Data to Support Integration of Spatial Data to Support Risk and Impact Assessments for Deep and Ultra-deepwater Hydrocarbon Activities in the Gulf of Mexico 21 December 2012 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-4-2012 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name,

352

Risk assessment of turbine rotor failure using probabilistic ultrasonic non-destructive evaluations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study presents a method and application of risk assessment methodology for turbine rotor fatigue failure using probabilistic ultrasonic nondestructive evaluations. A rigorous probabilistic modeling for ultrasonic flaw sizing is developed by incorporating the model-assisted probability of detection, and the probability density function (PDF) of the actual flaw size is derived. Two general scenarios, namely the ultrasonic inspection with an identified flaw indication and the ultrasonic inspection without flaw indication, are considered in the derivation. To perform estimations for fatigue reliability and remaining useful life, uncertainties from ultrasonic flaw sizing and fatigue model parameters are systematically included and quantified. The model parameter PDF is estimated using Bayesian parameter estimation and actual fatigue testing data. The overall method is demonstrated using a realistic application of steam turbine rotor, and the risk analysis under given safety criteria is provided to support maintenance planning.

Guan, Xuefei; Zhang, Jingdan; Zhou, S. Kevin [Siemens Corporation, Corporate Technology, 755 College Rd. E., Princeton NJ 08540 (United States); Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed A. [Siemens Energy Inc., 841 Old Frankstown Road, Pittsburgh PA 15239 (United States)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

353

Method of assessing a lipid-related health risk based on ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA); Krauss, Ronald M. (Berkeley, CA); Blanche, Patricia J. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

354

Discrete Fracture Network Models for Risk Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A software package called DFNModeler has been developed to assess the potential risks associated with carbon sequestration in coal. Natural fractures provide the principal conduits for fluid flow in coal-bearing strata, and these fractures present the most tangible risks for the leakage of injected carbon dioxide. The objectives of this study were to develop discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling tools for risk assessment and to use these tools to assess risks in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama, where coal-bearing strata have high potential for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. DFNModeler provides a user-friendly interface for the construction, visualization, and analysis of DFN models. DFNModeler employs an OpenGL graphics engine that enables real-time manipulation of DFN models. Analytical capabilities in DFNModeler include display of structural and hydrologic parameters, compartmentalization analysis, and fluid pathways analysis. DFN models can be exported to third-party software packages for flow modeling. DFN models were constructed to simulate fracturing in coal-bearing strata of the upper Pottsville Formation in the Black Warrior Basin. Outcrops and wireline cores were used to characterize fracture systems, which include joint systems, cleat systems, and fault-related shear fractures. DFN models were constructed to simulate jointing, cleating, faulting, and hydraulic fracturing. Analysis of DFN models indicates that strata-bound jointing compartmentalizes the Pottsville hydrologic system and helps protect shallow aquifers from injection operations at reservoir depth. Analysis of fault zones, however, suggests that faulting can facilitate cross-formational flow. For this reason, faults should be avoided when siting injection wells. DFN-based flow models constructed in TOUGH2 indicate that fracture aperture and connectivity are critical variables affecting the leakage of injected CO{sub 2} from coal. Highly transmissive joints near an injection well have potential to divert a large percentage of an injected CO{sub 2} stream away from a target coal seam. However, the strata-bound nature of Pottsville fracture systems is a natural factor that mitigates the risk of long-range leakage and surface seepage. Flow models indicate that cross-formational flow in strata-bound joint networks is low and is dissipated by about an order of magnitude at each successive bedding contact. These models help confirm that strata-bound joint networks are self-compartmentalizing and that the thick successions of interbedded shale and sandstone separating the Pottsville coal zones are confining units that protect shallow aquifers from injection operations at reservoir depth. DFN models are powerful tools for the simulation and analysis of fracture networks and can play an important role in the assessment of risks associated with carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Importantly, the stochastic nature DFN models dictates that they cannot be used to precisely reproduce reservoir conditions in a specific field area. Rather, these models are most useful for simulating the fundamental geometric and statistical properties of fracture networks. Because the specifics of fracture architecture in a given area can be uncertain, multiple realizations of DFN models and DFN-based flow models can help define variability that may be encountered during field operations. Using this type of approach, modelers can inform the risk assessment process by characterizing the types and variability of fracture architecture that may exist in geologic carbon sinks containing natural fractures.

Jack Pashin; Guohai Jin; Chunmiao Zheng; Song Chen; Marcella McIntyre

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG&G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort.

Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1990-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

356

Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis to set requirements on the waste form and the facility design that will protect the long-term public health and safety and protect the environment.

Mann, F.M.

1998-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

357

Including Pathogen Risk in Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Management. 2. Quantitative Comparison of Pathogen Risk to Other Impacts on Human Health  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. ... Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. ... This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. ...

Sara Heimersson; Robin Harder; Gregory M. Peters; Magdalena Svanström

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

358

Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

Elcock, D.

1998-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

359

DOE Standard, Department of Energy Standard for Control and Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessments  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE STD-xxxx-xx DOE STD-xxxx-xx December 2010 DOE STANDARD DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF PROBABILISTIC RISK ASSESSMENTS IN DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY APPLICATIONS FOR INTERIM USE AND COMMENT U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This draft, December 2010, prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Assistance, has not been approved and is subject to modification. Project No. SAFT-0132 NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE AREA SAFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-xxxx-xx i TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION PAGE Foreword ........................................................................................................................................... i

360

DOE Standard, Department of Energy Standard for Control and Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessments  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE STD-xxxx-xx DOE STD-xxxx-xx December 2010 DOE STANDARD DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF PROBABILISTIC RISK ASSESSMENTS IN DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY APPLICATIONS FOR INTERIM USE AND COMMENT U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This draft, December 2010, prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Assistance, has not been approved and is subject to modification. Project No. SAFT-0132 NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE AREA SAFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-xxxx-xx i TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION PAGE Foreword ........................................................................................................................................... i

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361

Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in southwestern Nevada, about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. A series of tests was conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s at or near the NTS to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of {sup 239,24O}Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Additionally, underground tests of nuclear weapons devices have been conducted at the NTS since late 1962; ground water beneath the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides produced by these tests. These two important problems have been selected for assessment. Regarding the plutonium contamination, because the residual {sup 239}Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), these sites could represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, three basic exposure scenarios were defined that could bring individuals in contact with {sup 239,24O}Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility -- all located at a test site. The predicted cancer risks for the resident farmer were more than a factor of three times higher than the suburban resident at the median risk level, and about a factor of ten greater than the reference worker at a commercial facility. At 100 y from the present, the 5, 50, and 95th percentile risks for the resident farmer at the most contaminated site were 4 x 10{sup {minus}6}, 6 x 10{sup {minus}5}, and 5 x 10{sup {minus}4}, respectively. For the assessment of Pu in surface soil, the principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

Daniels, J.I. [ed.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Straume, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Andricevic, R.; Jacobson, R.L. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Water Resources Center; Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in southwestern Nevada, about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. A series of tests was conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s at or near the NTS to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of [sup 239,24O]Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Additionally, underground tests of nuclear weapons devices have been conducted at the NTS since late 1962; ground water beneath the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides produced by these tests. These two important problems have been selected for assessment. Regarding the plutonium contamination, because the residual [sup 239]Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), these sites could represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, three basic exposure scenarios were defined that could bring individuals in contact with [sup 239,24O]Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility -- all located at a test site. The predicted cancer risks for the resident farmer were more than a factor of three times higher than the suburban resident at the median risk level, and about a factor of ten greater than the reference worker at a commercial facility. At 100 y from the present, the 5, 50, and 95th percentile risks for the resident farmer at the most contaminated site were 4 x 10[sup [minus]6], 6 x 10[sup [minus]5], and 5 x 10[sup [minus]4], respectively. For the assessment of Pu in surface soil, the principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

Daniels, J.I. (ed.)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Risks of Risk Decisions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...manuscript. 17. B. Fischhoff, P. Slovic, S. Lichtenstein, S. Read, B. Combs, Policy Sci...Perspectives on Benefit-Risk Decision Making...20. P. Slovic, B. Fischhoff, S. Lichtenstein, in So-cietal Risk Assessment: How Safe...

Chauncey Starr; Chris Whipple

1980-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

364

Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

1988-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

365

New approach to risk assessment of central neurotoxicity induced by 1-bromopropane using animal models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1-Bromopropane (1-BP) induces central as well as peripheral neurotoxicity in workers. We have reported the dysfunction of feedback inhibition (i.e. disinhibition) in the rat hippocampus following exposure to 1-BP at concentrations of 1500 and 700 ppm. For risk assessment, we studied disinhibition of the CA1 region and the dentate gyrus in hippocampal slices obtained from control and 1-BP-exposed (200 and 400 ppm) rats, and determined the bromide concentration in the brain. Granule cell disinhibition was observed after inhalation exposure to 400 ppm 1-BP for 8 or 12 weeks, suggesting that the dentate gyrus was more sensitive than the CA1 region to 1-BP exposure. The lowest observed adverse effect level and the no observed adverse effect level of 1-BP inhalation for disinhibition were 400 and 200 ppm, respectively. The concentration of bromides in the brain increased from 2.9 ± 1.5 to 85.0 ± 25.4 ?g/g-wet brain at week 4 of 400 ppm inhalation, and no further increase was observed even when the exposure period was extended for up to 12 weeks. The relationship between total dose (ppm-h) and the exposure concentration of 1-BP was investigated at different exposure concentrations. Disinhibition and death by inhalation depended on the total dose, and their occurrence appeared earlier as the exposure concentration increased. The results demonstrated a novel model for risk assessment of central neurotoxicity induced by 1-BP inhalation.

Yukiko Fueta; Toru Ishidao; Susumu Ueno; Yasuhiro Yoshida; Naoki Kunugita; Hajime Hori

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

367

Nuclear Risk Assessment for the Mars 2020 Mission Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the summer of 2020, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch a spacecraft as part of the Mars 2020 mission. One option for the rover on the proposed spacecraft uses a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) to provide continuous electrical and thermal power for the mission. An alternative option being considered is a set of solar panels for electrical power with up to 80 Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for local component heating. Both the MMRTG and the LWRHUs use radioactive plutonium dioxide. NASA is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act. The EIS will include information on the risks of mission accidents to the general public and on-site workers at the launch complex. This Nuclear Risk Assessment (NRA) addresses the responses of the MMRTG or LWRHU options to potential accident and abort conditions during the launch opportunity for the Mars 2020 mission and the associated consequences. This information provides the technical basis for the radiological risks of both options for the EIS.

None

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Focused risk assessment: Mound Plant, Miami-Erie Canal Operable Unit 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1969, an underground waste line at Mound Plant ruptured and released plutonium-238 in a dilute nitric acid solution to the surrounding soils. Most of the acid was neutralized by the native soils. The plutonium, which in a neutral solution is tightly sorbed onto clay particles, remained within the spill area. During remediation, a severe storm eroded some of the contaminated soil. Fine grained plutonium-contaminated clay particles were carried away through the natural drainage courses to the remnants of the Miami-Erie Canal adjacent to Mound Plant, and then into the Great Miami River. This focused risk assessment considers exposure pathways relevant to site conditions, including incidental ingestion of contaminated soils, ingestion of drinking water and fish, and inhalation of resuspended soils and sediments. For each potential exposure pathway, a simplified conceptual model and exposure scenarios have been used to develop conservative estimates of potential radiation dose equivalents and health risks. The conservatism of the dose and risk estimates provides a substantive margin of safety in assuring that the public health is protected.

Rogers, D.R.; Dunning, D.F.

1994-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

369

Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

Elcock, D.

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

370

Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Management Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: • Risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other end states) • Risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities • Comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs • Ranking of programs or activities by risk • Ranking of wastes/materials by risk • Evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress • Integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

Eide, Steven Arvid; Nitschke, Robert Leon

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Ecological risk assessments for protected migratory birds and marine species at Midway Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In June 1997, the US Navy plans to close its Naval Air Facility on Sand Island and transfer the atoll to the US Fish and Wildlife Service for use as a National Wildlife Refuge. Midway provides breeding and feeding habitat for migratory seabirds, terrestrial and marine mammals, sea turtles and other reptiles, and a variety of reef fishes and invertebrates. As part of the base closure and transfer process, 36 sites of potential environmental concern were identified on Sand and Eastern islands. These sites include landfills and uncontrolled disposal areas, hazardous materials storage areas, abandoned transformers, sewer outfalls, and other potential hazardous waste sites. Potential contaminants include pesticides, PAHs, PCBs, and heavy metals. A screening ecological risk assessment was performed at each site with a goal of determining whether contaminants could pose any current or future risks to protected migratory bird or marine mammal wildlife species. Specific exposure pathways investigated were dermal and inhalation routes for ground-nesting and burrowing seabirds; incidental soil ingestion for shore birds; consumption for monk seals and sea turtles. Exposure analysis involved sediment and soil chemistry, marine invertebrate tissue chemistry, bioassays (bioavailability), and food web modeling. Effects analysis involved benthic infauna community analysis, acute and chronic invertebrate sediment bioassays, and extensive literature reviews. Risk characterization used both toxicity quotient methods and weight-of-evidence analysis. Because work by other investigators suggests that birds and perhaps marine wildlife acquire significant contaminant loads while feeding away from the atoll, on-atoll risk investigations had to consider whether atoll sites made significant marginal contributions to existing contaminant loads, particularly with respect to PCBs.

Scatolini, S.; Hope, B.; Lees, D.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

372

Study of Risk Assessment Programs at Federal Agencies and Commercial Industry Related to the Conduct or Regulation of High Hazard Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the Department of Energy (DOE) Implementation Plan (IP) for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board's Recommendation 2009-1, the DOE committed to studying the use of quantitative risk assessment methodologies at government agencies and industry. This study consisted of document reviews and interviews of senior management and risk assessment staff at six organizations. Data were collected and analyzed on risk assessment applications, risk assessment tools, and controls and infrastructure supporting the correct usage of risk assessment and risk management tools. The study found that the agencies were in different degrees of maturity in the use of risk assessment to support the analysis of high hazard operations and to support decisions related to these operations. Agencies did not share a simple, 'one size fits all' approach to tools, controls, and infrastructure needs. The agencies recognized that flexibility was warranted to allow use of risk assessment tools in a manner that is commensurate with the complexity of the application. The study also found that, even with the lack of some data, agencies application of the risk analysis structured approach could provide useful insights such as potential system vulnerabilities. This study, in combination with a companion study of risk assessment programs in the DOE Offices involved in high hazard operations, is being used to determine the nature and type of controls and infrastructure needed to support risk assessments at the DOE.

Bari, R.; Rosenbloom, S.; O'Brien, J.

2011-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

373

Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of {sup 239,240}Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual {sup 239} Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with {sup 239,240}Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Transportation radiological risk assessment for the programmatic environmental impact statement: An overview of methodologies, assumptions, and input parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future configuration of radioactive waste management at its network of facilities. Because the transportation of radioactive waste is an integral component of the management alternatives being considered, the estimated human health risks associated with both routine and accident transportation conditions must be assessed to allow a complete appraisal of the alternatives. This paper provides an overview of the technical approach being used to assess the radiological risks from the transportation of radioactive wastes. The approach presented employs the RADTRAN 4 computer code to estimate the collective population risk during routine and accident transportation conditions. Supplemental analyses are conducted using the RISKIND computer code to address areas of specific concern to individuals or population subgroups. RISKIND is used for estimating routine doses to maximally exposed individuals and for assessing the consequences of the most severe credible transportation accidents. The transportation risk assessment is designed to ensure -- through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions -- that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful. This is accomplished by uniformly applying common input parameters and assumptions to each waste type for all alternatives. The approach presented can be applied to all radioactive waste types and provides a consistent and comprehensive evaluation of transportation-related risk.

Monette, F.; Biwer, B.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.Y.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

A workshop on developing risk assessment methods for medical use of radioactive material. Volume 2: Supporting documents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A workshop was held at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, August 16--18, 1994 on the topic of risk assessment on medical devices that use radioactive isotopes. Its purpose was to review past efforts to develop a risk assessment methodology to evaluate these devices, and to develop a program plan and a scoping document for future methodology development. This report contains presentation material and a transcript of the workshop. Participants included experts in the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, risk assessment, human-error analysis, and human factors. Staff from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) associated with the regulation of medical uses of radioactive materials and with research into risk-assessment methods participated in the workshop. The workshop participants concurred in NRC`s intended use of risk assessment as an important technology in the development of regulations for the medical use of radioactive material and encouraged the NRC to proceed rapidly with a pilot study. Specific recommendations are included in the executive summary and the body of this report.

Tortorelli, J.P. [ed.] [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Physical Activity and the Risk of Breast Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hours in the preceding year was also graded on a four-point scale. A grade of 1 was assigned to those whose work was mostly sedentary; a grade of 2 to those whose job involved a lot of walking; a grade of 3 to those whose job required a lot of lifting and walking; and a grade of 4 to those engaged in... Vigorous physical training1–5 and even moderate exercise6–9 can interrupt the menstrual cycle, perhaps by suppressing the pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone.10,11 This effect of physical activity may lower a woman's cumulative exposure to ...

Thune I.Brenn T.Lund E.Gaard M.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

ARCO moves to spark U. S. activity, spread risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that one US major oil company has taken the offensive to combat tightness of drilling capital in the US and the overseas flight of interest in elephant hunting. ARCO Oil and Gas Co., with substantial acreage and seismic data covering most of the US Lower 48 states, s communicating with a broad audience to try to make activity happen on its properties. ARCO is looking to bring others in on its prospects, hawk seismic data, and take deals from others. On some acreage that internal funds are not available to evaluate, ARCO was offering 100% farmounts.

Petzet, G.A.

1992-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

378

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 1. Executive summary. Draft report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. Volume I is a description of the components and methodologies used in the risk assessment and provides a summary of the major results from the three components of the assessment.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Nuclear fuel cycle risk assessment: survey and computer compilation of risk-related literature. [Once-through Cycle and Plutonium Recycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated the Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. Both the once-through cycle and plutonium recycle are being considered. A previous report generated by this program defines and describes fuel cycle facilities, or elements, considered in the program. This report, the second from the program, describes the survey and computer compilation of fuel cycle risk-related literature. Sources of available information on the design, safety, and risk associated with the defined set of fuel cycle elements were searched and documents obtained were catalogued and characterized with respect to fuel cycle elements and specific risk/safety information. Both US and foreign surveys were conducted. Battelle's computer-based BASIS information management system was used to facilitate the establishment of the literature compilation. A complete listing of the literature compilation and several useful indexes are included. Future updates of the literature compilation will be published periodically. 760 annotated citations are included.

Yates, K.R.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rudolph, A.W.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 7. Accident analysis; selection and assessment of potential release scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this part of the assessment, several accident scenarios are identified that could result in significant releases of chemicals into the environment. These scenarios include ruptures of storage tanks, large magnitude on-site spills, mixing of incompatible wastes, and off-site releases caused by tranpsortation accidents. In evaluating these scenarios, both probability and consequence are assessed, so that likelihood of occurrence is coupled with magnitude of effect in characterizing short term risks.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ecological risk assessment of elemental pollution in sediment from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eleven (11) surface sediment samples were collected from Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques were applied for the determinations metal contents and their distributions in sediment samples. The results shown that Arsenic (As) concentrations are enriched at all sampling stations except for station TAR 09, with enrichment factor (EF) values ranged from 1.1 to 7.2. The elements such as Cd, Cr, Sb and U showed enrichment at a few stations and other elements (Cr, Cu, Pb, Th, Zn) shown as background levels in all stations. Degrees of contamination in this study were calculated base on concentrations of six elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). TAR 11 station can be categorized as very high degree of contamination with degree of contamination value of 43.2. TAR 07 station can be categorized as a considerable degree of contamination (contamination value of 16.9). Six stations (TAR 01, 03, 04, 05, 06, 08, 10) showed moderate degree of contamination, with contamination values ranging from 8.0 to 16.0. TAR 02 and TAR 09 stations showed low degree of contaminations (< 8.0). TAR 11 showed very high ecological risk index (R{sub I}) with RI value is 916. TAR 07 and TAR 10 showed moderate ecological risk index with R{sub I} value 263 and 213, respectively. Other stations showed low ecological risk with RI values ranging from 42.3 to 117 (< 150). Very high ecological risk index could give an adverse effect to the benthic organism. The data obtained from the enrichment factor, degree of contamination and ecological risk index provided vital information, which can be used for future comparison. Information from the present study will be useful to the relevant government agencies and authorities in preparing preventive action to control direct discharge of heavy metals from industries, agro-base activities and domestic waste to the rivers and the sea.

Elias, Md Suhaimi; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Siong, Wee Boon; Sanuri, Ezwiza [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

382

A review of plutonium environmental data with a bibliography for use in risk assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plutonium fueled radioisotopic heat sources find space, terrestrial, and undersea applications to generate electrical power. Such systems under postulated accident conditions could release radioactivity into the environment resulting in risks to the general population in the form of radiological doses and associated health effects. The evaluation of the radiological impact of postulated scenarios involving releases of activity into the environment includes identification of postulated accident release modes, including the probability of release and the release location; source term definition, including the activity of each radionuclide released and the corresponding chemical form and particle size distribution; analysis of the environmental behavior of the released radioactivity to determine the concentrations in environmental media (air, soil, and water) as a function of time; and analysis of the interaction between the environmental concentrations and man, leading to ingestion, inhalation, and external doses through each environmental exposure pathway. 443 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Bartram, B.W.; Wilkinson, M.J.

1983-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual Supplemental Guidance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1-921314 1-921314 OSWER DIRECTIVE: 9285.6-03 March 25, 1991 RISK ASSESSMENT GUIDANCE FOR SUPERFUND VOLUME I: HUMAN HEALTH EVALUATION MANUAL SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE "STANDARD DEFAULT EXPOSURE FACTORS" INTERIM FINAL Office of Emergency and Remedial Response Toxics Integration Branch U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C. 20460 (202)475-9486 REPRODUCED BY U.S.DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460 MAR 25 1991 S O L I D W A S T E A N D E M E R G E N C Y R E S P O N S E O F F I C E O F OSWER Directive 9285.6-03 MEMORANDUM SUBJECT: FROM: Human Health Evaluation Manual, Supplemental Guidance: TO: Director, Waste Management Division, Regions I, IV, V, & VII Director, Emergency & Remedial Response Division,

384

BASELINE RISK ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION AT THE URAN~UM MILL TAILINGS  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

I~:-:ii*.i: i,<;.;.-;_r- --:-:ir-- I~:-:ii*.i: i,<;.;.-;_r- --:-:ir-- - . . - -. . - . . - , -, . , , , - - - - . BASELINE RISK ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION AT THE URAN~UM MILL TAILINGS SITE NEAR RIVERTON, WYOMING I i I I I Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Albuquerque, New Mexico September 1995 INTENDED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE This report has been reproduced from the best available copy. Avai and microfiche Number of pages in this report: 166 DOE and DOE contractors can obtain copies of this report from: Office of Scientific and Technical information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (61 5) 576-8401 This report is publicly available from: National Technical information Service Department of Commerce 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 (703) 487-4650 DOEIAL162350-65

385

Application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques during design phase for dry storage casks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Canisters containing the Three Mile Island (TMI) spent fuel and debris are being stored in a storage pool at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In order to store these canisters in dry storage casks, a system is being designed to remove entrained water from the canisters. The conceptual design for this drying process was evaluated in respect to the occurrence of a nuclear criticality. The system design was evaluated to address the mechanical failure of the components. Also, human interfaces with the equipment were assessed. The integration of these two facets resulted in a model that was quantified to calculate the occurrence frequency of a nuclear criticality. Changes to design, administrative guidelines, and procedures were recommended so that an acceptable level of risk based on nuclear criticality occurrence frequency could be achieved. 1 ref., 2 figs.

Hallbert, B.P.; Satterwhite, D.G.; Meale, B.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from consuming aquatic food resources from chemically contaminated water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from contaminated waters must confront the problems of long latency and rarity of the end point (cancer). The latency problem makes determination of diet history more difficult, while the low frequency of cancer as an end point reduces the statistical power of the study. These factors are discussed in relation to the study designs most commonly employed in epidemiology. It is suggested that the use of biomarkers for persistent chemicals may be useful to mitigate the difficulty of determining exposure, while the use of more prevalent and timely end points, such as carcinogen-DNA adducts or oncogene proteins, may make the latency and rarity problems more tractable.

Ozonoff, D. (Boston Univ. School of Public Health, MA (United States)); Longnecker, M.P. (UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site`s radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials.

Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Technical Exchange Meeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During FY13, the INL developed an advanced SMR PRA framework which has been described in the report Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Technical Framework Specification, INL/EXT-13-28974 (April 2013). In this framework, the various areas are considered: Probabilistic models to provide information specific to advanced SMRs Representation of specific SMR design issues such as having co-located modules and passive safety features Use of modern open-source and readily available analysis methods Internal and external events resulting in impacts to safety All-hazards considerations Methods to support the identification of design vulnerabilities Mechanistic and probabilistic data needs to support modeling and tools In order to describe this framework more fully and obtain feedback on the proposed approaches, the INL hosted a technical exchange meeting during August 2013. This report describes the outcomes of that meeting.

Curtis Smith

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Integrated Assessment of Risk and Sustainability in the Context of Regulatory Decision Making  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Singh et al.(37) developed a comprehensive overview of composite indices that have been used for sustainability evaluation, and identified 12 separate categories: (1) innovation, knowledge, and technology indices (e.g., Summary Innovation Index); (2) development indices (e.g., Human Development index); (3) market- and economy-based indices (e.g., Composite Leading Indicators); (4) ecosystem-based indices (e.g., Sustainability Performance Index); (5) composite sustainability performance indicators for industries (e.g., Composite Sustainable Development Index); (6) investment, ratings, and asset management indices (e.g., Dow Jones Sustainability Group Indices); (7) Product-Based Indices (e.g., Life Cycle index); (8) sustainability indices for cities (e.g., Urban Sustainability index); (9) environmental indices for policies, nations, and regions (e.g., Environmental Sustainability Index); (10) environmental indices for cities (e.g., Eco-Indicator 99); (11) energy-based indices (e.g., Sustainability Assessment Tool for Energy System); and (12) social and quality of life indices (e.g., Physical Quality of Life Index). ... And risk management (Phase III) would entail consideration of relevant social norms and values, ethical and moral issues, economic costs and benefits, legal constraints, political realities, and technical and scientific information necessary to select a sustainable course of action, instead of focusing exclusively on how to minimize risks to human health and environmental quality as is presently the case with the conventional RA–RM paradigm. ...

Ken Sexton; Stephen H. Linder

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

390

Polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal tropical ecosystems: Distribution, fate and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) though banned still find use in most developing countries including Ghana. PCB congener residues in sediments in the coastal regions of Ghana were determined. Sediment samples (n=80) were collected between June 2008 and March 2009, extracted by the continuous soxhlet extraction using (1:1) hexane-acetone mixture for 24 h and analyzed with a CP 3800 gas chromatogram equipped with {sup 65}Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and a mixed PCBs standard of the ICES 7 as marker, after clean-up. Validation of the efficiency and precision of the extraction and analytical methods were done by extracting samples spiked with 2 ppm ICES PCB standard and a certified reference material 1941b for marine sediments from NIST, USA, and analyzed alongside the samples. Total PCBs detected in sediments during the dry and wet seasons were, respectively, 127 and 112 {mu}g/kg dry weight (dw), with a mean concentration of 120 {mu}g/kg (dw). The composition of PCB homologues in the sediments were dominated by tri-, penta- and tetra-PCBs. There was no correlation between organic carbon (OC) of the sediments and total PCBs content. Risk assessments conducted on the levels indicated that PCB levels in sediments along the coastal region of Ghana poses no significant health risk to humans.

Dodoo, D.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Essumang, D.K., E-mail: kofiessumang@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Jonathan, J.W.A.; Bentum, J.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Risk assessment of loss of structural integrity of a floating production platform due to gross errors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the last years The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, as well as Statoil, has put increased focus on how gross errors related to structural integrity are influencing the safety of offshore installations. Also, the loss of the P36, a floating platform outside Brazil in 2001, emphasised the importance to control gross errors in large projects. On this basis, a work to assess the risk of loss of the structural integrity of the Kristin platform, during operation, due to failure from gross errors was initiated. The Kristin platform is a permanently moored ring-pontoon semi-submersible production unit planned to be placed in the south-west part of Haltenbanken area in the North Sea in 2005. The water depth at the site is approximately 315 m. The objective of this work was to quantify the risk contribution from gross errors related to structural integrity and to pinpoint the most critical items that may govern the probability of gross error for the Kristin platform. Some of the main findings from this work are presented in this paper.

Inge Lotsberg; Odd Olufsen; Gunnar Solland; Jan Inge Dalane; Sverre Haver

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Multi-State Physics Models of Aging Passive Components in Probabilistic Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multi-state Markov modeling has proved to be a promising approach to estimating the reliability of passive components - particularly metallic pipe components - in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). These models consider the progressive degradation of a component through a series of observable discrete states, such as detectable flaw, leak and rupture. Service data then generally provides the basis for estimating the state transition rates. Research in materials science is producing a growing understanding of the physical phenomena that govern the aging degradation of passive pipe components. As a result, there is an emerging opportunity to incorporate these insights into PRA. This paper describes research conducted under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Pathway of the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. A state transition model is described that addresses aging behavior associated with stress corrosion cracking in ASME Class 1 dissimilar metal welds – a component type relevant to LOCA analysis. The state transition rate estimates are based on physics models of weld degradation rather than service data. The resultant model is found to be non-Markov in that the transition rates are time-inhomogeneous and stochastic. Numerical solutions to the model provide insight into the effect of aging on component reliability.

Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Layton, Robert F.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

2011-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

393

Expert judgment in assessing radwaste risks: What Nevadans should know about Yucca Mountain; [Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For phenomena characterized by accurate and largely complete data, quantitative risk assessment (QRA) provides extraordinarily valuable and objective information. However, with phenomena for which the data, models, or probabilities are incomplete or uncertain, QRA may be less useful and more questionable, because its conclusions are typically empirically and theoretically underdetermined. In the face of empirical or theoretical underdetermination, scientists often are forced to make a number of methodological value judgments and inferences about how to estimate and evaluate the associated risks. The purpose of this project is to evaluate instances of methodological value judgments and invalid or imprecise inferences that have occurred in the QRA done for the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste facility. We shall show (1) that questionable methodological value judgments and inferences have occurred in some Yucca Mountain QRA`S; (2) that questionable judgments and inferences, similar to those in the Yucca Mountain studies, have occurred in previous QRA`s done for other radiation-related facilities and have likely caused earlier QRA`s to err in specific ways; and (3) that, because the value judgments and problems associated with some Yucca Mountain QRA`s include repetitions of similar difficulties in earlier studies, therefore the QRA conclusions of some Yucca Mountain analyses are, at best, uncertain.

Shrader-Frechette, K. [University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Depleted uranium risk assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground using data from environmental monitoring and site characterization. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the third risk assessment completed for the depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing range at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), Indiana, for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation command. Jefferson Proving Ground was closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act and the testing mission was moved to Yuma Proving Ground. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This report integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.

Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Bayesian-lopa methodology for risk assessment of an LNG importation terminal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

instead. By the combination of Bayesian estimation and LOPA procedures, the Bayesian-LOPA methodology was developed and was applied to an LNG importation terminal. The found risk values were compared to the tolerable risk criteria to make risk decisions...

Yun, Geun-Woong

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Risk Assessment and Management for Interconnected and Interactive Critical Flood Defense Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Houben, R.J. (1998) Acceptable risk as a basis for design,the design engineer? Acceptable risk refers to the level ofWho should define acceptable and tolerable risk level: the

Hamedifar, Hamed

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Model Components of the Certification Framework for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of that leakage event. Acceptable risks from CO 2 or brinewhether the leakage risk is acceptable. If the CLR is above

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing carcinogenic risks Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(mg... ) exists for carcinogens, units for carcinogens are set in terms of risk factors. Acceptable risk levels... for carcinogens range ... Source: Pint, Bruce A. - Materials...

399

Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

Auletta, A.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

An Experimental Examination of the Effects of Fraud Specialist and Audit Mindsets on Fraud Risk Assessments and on the Development of Fraud-Related Problem Representations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Fraud risk assessment is an important audit process that has a direct impact on the effectiveness of auditors' fraud detection in an audit. However, prior… (more)

Chui, Lawrence

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part B, Development of Risk-based Preliminary Remediation Goals)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

B, B, Development of Risk-based Preliminary Remediation Goals) Interim United States Office of Research and EPA/540/R-92/003 Environmental Protection Development December 1991 Agency Washington, DC 20460 EPA/540/R-92/003 Publication 9285.7-01 B December 1991 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part B, Development of Risk-based Preliminary Remediation Goals) Interim Office of Emergency and Remedial Response U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 20460 Printed on Recycled Paper N O T I C E The policies set out in this document are intended solely as guidance; they are not final U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) actions. These policies are not intended, nor can they be relied upon, to create any rights enforceable by any party in litigation with the United States. EPA officials may

402

Use of hazard assessments to support risk-based decision making in the US Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship (SS-21) Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the nuclear explosive hazard assessment activities performed to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Stockpile Stewardship (SS-21) Integrated Safety or ``Seamless Safety`` program. Past practice within the DOE Complex dictated the use of a significant number of post-design/ fabrication safety reviews to analyze the safety associated with operations on nuclear explosives and to answer safety questions. These practices have focused on reviewing-in or auditing-in safety vs incorporating safety in the design process. SS-21 was proposed by the DOE as an avenue to develop a program to ``integrate established, recognized, verifiable safety criteria into the process at the design stage rather than continuing the reliance on reviews, evaluations and audits.`` The cornerstone of the SS-21 design process is the hazard assessment, which is performed concurrently with process and tooling design. The hazard assessment is used as the key management tool to guide overall risk management associated with the nuclear explosive activity through supporting risk-based decisions made with respect to process design.

Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Rainbolt, M.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Obesity, High Energy Intake, Lack of Physical Activity, and the Risk of Kidney Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Article Research Articles Obesity, High Energy Intake, Lack of Physical Activity, and...controls to assess the effect of obesity, energy intake, and recreational physical activity...by age, whereas the effect of excess energy intake was stronger among older people...

Sai Yi Pan; Marie DesMeules; Howard Morrison; Shi Wu Wen

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

EMC Based Risk Assessment System and Empirical Analysis of BIPV Projects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper was based on the general theory of EMC and risk management, by analyzing the risk in the construction and operation of solar energy construction projects, proposed a risk evaluation index system for solar energy construction projects. Then ... Keywords: BIPV(Building Integrated Photovoltaics), EMC(Energy Management Contracting), risk

Yi Liu; Xu Zhang; Min Ma

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

No-threshold dose-response curves for nongenotoxic chemicals: Findings and applications for risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We tested the hypothesis that no threshold exists when estradiol acts through the same mechanism as an active endogenous estrogen. A Michaelis-Menten (MM) equation accounting for response saturation, background effects, and endogenous estrogen level fit a turtle sex-reversal data set with no threshold and estimated the endogenous dose. Additionally, 31 diverse literature dose-response data sets were analyzed by adding a term for nonhormonal background; good fits were obtained but endogenous dose estimations were not significant due to low resolving power. No thresholds were observed. Data sets were plotted using a normalized MM equation; all 178 data points were accommodated on a single graph. Response rates from {approx}1% to >95% were well fit. The findings contradict the threshold assumption and low-dose safety. Calculating risk and assuming additivity of effects from multiple chemicals acting through the same mechanism rather than assuming a safe dose for nonthresholded curves is appropriate.

Sheehan, Daniel M. [Daniel M. Sheehan and Associates, 1422 Scott St., Little Rock, AR 72202 (United States)]. E-mail: dansheeh@swbell.net

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Final Report for the ZERT Project: Basic Science of Retention Issues, Risk Assessment & Measurement, Monitoring and Verification for Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ZERT has made major contributions to five main areas of sequestration science: improvement of computational tools; measurement and monitoring techniques to verify storage and track migration of CO{sub 2}; development of a comprehensive performance and risk assessment framework; fundamental geophysical, geochemical and hydrological investigations of CO{sub 2} storage; and investigate innovative, bio-based mitigation strategies.

Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Lageson, David; Melick, Jesse; Gardner, Mike; Dobeck, Laura; Repasky, Kevin; Shaw, Joseph; Bajura, Richard; McGrail, B Peter; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Wagoner, Jeff; Pawar, Rajesh

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

Using Event Based Data to Assess Vehicle Pedestrian Crash Risk in the Absence of All-Red  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Event Based Data to Assess Vehicle Pedestrian Crash Risk in the Absence of All-Red Phase decision making at a signalized intersection? Ă? How effective is the signal timing (particularly "All-Red lane.) #12;4 4 Ă?Data analyzed between 10:30 am to 5 pm. Ă?Typical Yellow duration = 3 secs, All-Red

Minnesota, University of

408

Final report on the use of the modular-logic-nomenclature approach for the N-reactor probabilistic risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The N-Reactor probabilistic risk assessment adaption of the modular logic approach for fault tree modeling has led to the update of the master logic diagram (MLD) nomenclature to conform with a standard modular-logic-model-nomeclature format. This report describes the MLD nomenclature system and provides a listing of the updated MLD label codes, along with the original codes.

NONE

1986-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

409

Human health-risk assessment for municipal-sludge disposal: benefits of alternative regulatory options. Draft report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses numerical criteria for the reuse and disposal of municipal sewage sludge and evaluates reductions in human health risks or benefits derived from controlling sludge-disposal practices. Quantitative aggregate risk estimates are projected for 31 contaminants for each of the key sludge-management practices: incineration; monofilling; land application (food chain and non-food chain); and distribution and marketing. The study utilizes state-of-the-art fate, transport, and exposure methodologies in predicting environmental concentrations. The analysis evaluates a number of human-exposure routes including dietary, drinking water, and inhalation pathways. The analysis couples this information with national and local populations exposed along with the Agency's most recent health-effects data in assessing risks. A methodology for quantitatively assessing non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to lead is introduced.

Not Available

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

SU?E?T?240: Risk Assessment for Stereotactic Intracranial Radiosurgery (SRS) in Brazil Using FMEA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this work is develop a study capable of help the radiotherapy centers to apply a quality management program based on a process analysis methods with the application of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: This (FMEA) methodology has been tested initially in two radiotherapy centers both of which perform SRS with a linear accelerator Novalis using a 6 MV of photon beam.The FMEA method allows documenting potential failure modes determining its effects identifying causes of failures developing plans documenting team concurrence and actions taken.The FMEA method determines a value to the risk probability number (RPN) for each potential cause of failure using the product of three categories: O the probability that a specific cause will Results in a failure mode; S the severity of the effects resulting from a specific failure mode; D the probability that the failure mode will be detected. Results: This work presents preliminary results and shows that the most failures are somewhat related of the human factors issues. It have been already found values 38 sub process and it was identified 59 different potential failure modes and 140 potential causes of failure. Among the potential cause of failure mode 40 7% can be considered an error associated to human factors issues. The larger value for RPN was 432 and the lower was 12. Conclusion: Although FMEA contains a very subjective component it is a useful and simple tool for prospective risk assessment with respect to patient care. This work is still in development but it is already possible to conclude that some conditions for operating are indispensable to achieving a high quality in patient care such as: adequate training clear procedures clear level of the responsibility.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Activity Stream - Mapping and Assessment of the United States...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the extra "catalog" to the dataset Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource 8 days ago Jay Huggins updated the dataset Mapping and Assessment of...

413

Socio-Technical Approaches to Risk Assessment in National Critical Infrastructures Deregulation has created new market pressures for innovation across many national infrastructures.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Socio-Technical Approaches to Risk Assessment in National Critical Infrastructures Deregulation has on socio-technical issues in risk assessment in infrastructure systems. For instance, Chozos presents upon vertical integration. The same companies that generated the power were also, typically

Johnson, Chris

414

Assessment of motivation and interest in outdoor recreation activities facilitated by a campus recreation center.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This study assessed the motivation and interest in outdoor recreation activities as facilitated by a campus recreation center. The sample consisted of college students… (more)

Rayburn, Pamela J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Status of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) activities in the Nordic Region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The status of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) activities in the Nordic Region (period ... the most important ones. All aspects of LCA methodology are used: 90% use impact...

Ole J. Hanssen

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

External event Probabilistic Risk Assessment for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a high performance isotope production and research reactor which has been in operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1965. In late 1986 the reactor was shut down as a result of discovery of unexpected neutron embrittlement of the reactor vessel. In January of 1988 a level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) (excluding external events) was published as part of the response to the many reviews that followed the shutdown and for use by ORNL to prioritize action items intended to upgrade the safety of the reactor. A conservative estimate of the core damage frequency initiated by internal events for HFIR was 3.11 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. In June 1989 a draft external events initiated PRA was published. The dominant contributions from external events came from seismic, wind, and fires. The overall external event contribution to core damage frequency is about 50% of the internal event initiated contribution and is dominated by seismic events.

Flanagan, G.F.; Johnson, D.H.; Buttemer, D.; Perla, H.F.; Chien, S.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Extreme rainfall, vulnerability and risk: a continental-scale assessment for South America  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...variables to analyse the impact of floods as a water security issue...define the ultimate state of flood-related risk, today and...Understanding the economics of flood risk reduction: a preliminary analysis. Boulder, CO: Institute for Social...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

risk from surface CO2 seeps. Data were elicited from Googas (17), a web-based catalogue of degassing

Haszeldine, Stuart

419

Spatial distribution and risk assessment of radionuclides in soils around a coal-fired power plant: A case study from the city of Baoji, China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal burning may enhance human exposure to the natural radionuclides that occur around coal-fired power plants (CFPP). In this study, the spatial distribution and hazard assessment of radionuclides found in soils around a CFPP were investigated using statistics, geostatistics, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in soils range from 12.54 to 40.18, 38.02 to 72.55, and 498.02 to 1126.98 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Ordinary kriging was carried out to map the spatial patterns of radionuclides, and disjunctive kriging was used to quantify the probability of radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}) higher than the threshold. The maps show that the spatial variability of the natural radionuclide concentrations in soils was apparent. The results of this study could provide valuable information for risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision support.

Dai, L.J.; Wei, H.Y.; Wang, L.Q. [Shaanxi Normal University, Xian (China)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Spatial distribution and risk assessment of radionuclides in soils around a coal-fired power plant: A case study from the city of Baoji, China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal burning may enhance human exposure to the natural radionuclides that occur around coal-fired power plants (CFPP). In this study, the spatial distribution and hazard assessment of radionuclides found in soils around a CFPP were investigated using statistics, geostatistics, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in soils range from 12.54 to 40.18, 38.02 to 72.55, and 498.02 to 1126.98 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Ordinary kriging was carried out to map the spatial patterns of radionuclides, and disjunctive kriging was used to quantify the probability of radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}) higher than the threshold. The maps show that the spatial variability of the natural radionuclide concentrations in soils was apparent. The results of this study could provide valuable information for risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision support.

Dai Lijun [College of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, 199 South Chang'an Road, Xi'an 710062 (China); Wei Haiyan [College of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, 199 South Chang'an Road, Xi'an 710062 (China)]. E-mail: yuxidlj@stu.snnu.edu.cn; Wang Lingqing [College of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, 199 South Chang'an Road, Xi'an 710062 (China)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Probabilistic risk assessment and nuclear waste transportation: A case study of the use of RADTRAN in the 1986 Environmental Assessment for Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analysis of the risks of transporting irradiated nuclear fuel to a federal repository, Appendix A of the DOE Environmental Assessment for Yucca Mountain (DOE84), is based on the RADTRAN model and input parameters. The RADTRAN computer code calculates the radiation exposures and health effects under normal or incident-free transport, and over all credible accident conditions. The RADTRAN model also calculates the economic consequences of transportation accidents, though these costs were not included in the Department`s Environmental Assessment for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository.

Resnikoff, M. [Radioactive Waste Management Associates, New York, NY (United States)

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Actuarial risk assessment. The loss of recognition of the individual offender  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......selecting groups in high-risk and low-risk offenders. As such...a tough-on-crime political environment during the...the knowledge of future political reappointment interviews...from the guidelines a risk to reap- pointment by......

Rasmus H. Wandall

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Multiscale modelling and nonlinear finite element analysis as clinical tools for the assessment of fracture risk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...accurately predict fracture risk they must also account for age...monitoring the long-term fracture risk of-patients. 6. The multiscale...approach to predict fracture risk is to combine accurate loading...resolving bone microstructure in acceptable amounts of time and computer...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Alzheimer's patient activity assessment using different sensors Carlos Fernando Crispim-Junior1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

activity assessment for the estimation of older people performance in instrumental activities of daily trials on the evaluation of older people motor functions2-3 . The patients wore a chest or wrist sensor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

425

Maintenance Plan for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The plan for maintaining the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (PA) is described. The plan includes expected work on PA reviews and revisions, waste reports, monitoring, other operational activities, etc.

MANN, F.M.

2000-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

426

Environmental prediction, risk assessment and extreme events: adaptation strategies for the developing world  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...floods-[24]. Assessment of economic value...IPCC) fourth assessment report (AR4...period: the pre-industrial period, the twentieth...Beijing Climate Center Climate Model...Flood Forecasts Assessment 2008: community...infobycountry/ 27 Center for International...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Feasibility Assessment for the Development of Training Activities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

35 Analysis Feasibility Assessment 10_0630 Page 1 of 6 35 Analysis Feasibility Assessment 10_0630 Page 1 of 6 EOTA - Business Form Document Title: Analysis Feasibility Assessment Document Number: ISDF-035 Rev. 10_0630 Document Owner: Vickie Pleau Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: ISDP-010, Course/Analysis Initiation Process Notify of Changes: MGT, ISD Referenced Document(s): EOTA Contract DE-AT52-07NA26901 ISDF-035 Analysis Feasibility Assessment 10_0630 Page 2 of 6 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change 10_0630 Initial Release ISDF-035 Analysis Feasibility Assessment 10_0630 Page 3 of 6 Feasibility Assessment for the Analysis

428

Obesity, High Energy Intake, Lack of Physical Activity, and the Risk of Kidney Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...modification of energy intake and physical...information on education, average family income over...activity, alcohol consumption, diet (69-item...Assessment of obesity and energy intake Participants...per session, on average, they participated...gardening or yard work, home exercise or exercise...

Sai Yi Pan; Marie DesMeules; Howard Morrison; and Shi Wu Wen

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Draft  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

E-Print Network 3.0 - assess radiological risk Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Medicine 7 TRAINING & QUALIFICATIONS PROGRAM OFFICE Summary: and the policies and procedures in place to minimize their risk. Radiological Worker 1 Training is...

432

PRA In Design: Increasing Confidence in Pre-operational Assessments of Risks (Results of a Joint NASA/ NRC Workshop)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In late 2009, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) jointly organized a workshop to discuss technical issues associated with application of risk assessments to early phases of system design. The workshop, which was coordinated by the Idaho National Laboratory, involved invited presentations from a number of PRA experts in the aerospace and nuclear fields and subsequent discussion to address the following questions: (a) What technical issues limit decision-makers’ confidence in PRA results, especially at a preoperational phase of the system life cycle? (b) What is being done to address these issues? (c) What more can be done? The workshop resulted in participant observations and suggestions on several technical issues, including the pursuit of non-traditional approaches to risk assessment and the verification and validation of risk models. The workshop participants also identified several important non-technical issues, including risk communication with decision makers, and the integration of PRA into the overall design process.

Robert Youngblood

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Health risk assessment for the Building 3001 Storage Canal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This human health risk assessment has been prepared for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The objectives of this risk assessment are to evaluate the alternatives for interim closure of the Building 3001 Storage Canal and to identify the potential health risk from an existing leak in the canal. The Building 3001 Storage Canal connects Buildings 3001 and 3019. The volume of water in the canal is monitored and kept constant at about 62,000 gal. The primary contaminants of the canal water are the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 90}Sr; a layer of sediment on the canal floor also contains radionuclides and metals. The prime medium of contaminant transport has been identified as groundwater. The primary route for occupational exposure at the canal is external exposure to gamma radiation from the canal water and the walls of the canal. Similarly, the primary exposure route at the 3042 sump is external exposure to gamma radiation from the groundwater and the walls of the sump. Based on the exposure rates in the radiation work permits (Appendix C) and assuming conservative occupational work periods, the annual radiation dose to workers is considerably less than the relevant dose limits. The potential risk to the public using the Clinch River was determined for three significant exposure pathways: ingestion of drinking water; ingestion of contaminated fish; and external exposure to contaminated sediments on the shoreline, the dominant exposure pathway.

Chidambariah, V.; White, R.K.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

DOE's New Checklist Helps Plants Assess Energy Management Activities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE developed the Strategic Energy Management Checklist to help manufacturing facilities conduct a high-level assessment of their energy management practices and identify opportunities to achieve greater energy savings.

435

Assessing Cancer Risk in China from ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane Emitted from Chinese and Indian Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The contribution of fresh use of lindane in India to the cancer risk in China was almost 1 order of magnitude higher than that of the reemission of ?-HCH from Indian soils. ... Hence, we assumed that the cancer risk at each model grid point resulted from local contamination of ?-HCH in the atmosphere, water, soil, and food. ...

Yue Xu; Chongguo Tian; Jianmin Ma; Xiaoping Wang; Jun Li; Jianhui Tang; Yingjun Chen; Wei Qin; Gan Zhang

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

436

N Reactor external events probabilistic risk assessment using NUREG-1150 methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the first full-scope Level-III PRA completed for the DOE Category A reactor using the updated NUREG-1150 methods. The comparisons to the quantitative NRC safety objectives and DOE nuclear safety guidelines also set analytical precedent for DOE production reactors. Generally speaking, the risks of operating N Reactor are low because of a combination of factors such as low power density, large confinement volume, effective redundant scram systems and core cooling systems, remote location, etc. This work has been a major effort to evaluate the N Reactor risk using state-of-the-art PRA technology. It is believed that this PRA has resulted in realistic, or slightly conservative, results (as opposed to unduly conservative or nonconservative results). The study concluded that the risk to the public and to nearby DOE workers from the operation of N Reactor is very low. This analysis also found that N Reactor meets all the quantitative NRC safety objectives and DOE nuclear safety guidelines, and is generally as safe as, or safer than most commercial reactors in terms of societal and individual risks. The calculated risk to Hanford onsite workers is comparable to public risk from commercial reactors in the NUREG-1150 study. As a result of these low-risk estimates, only a small effort has been devoted to identifying significant risk reduction alternatives. 22 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

Wang, O.S.; Baxter, J.T.; Coles, G.A.; Zentner, M.D.; Powers, T.B.; Collard, L.B.; Rainey, T.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Non-Mandatory Appendix C to 1910.900: Physical Work Activities and Conditions and the Ergonomic Risk Factors that may be Present.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-Mandatory Appendix C to §1910.900: Physical Work Activities and Conditions and the Ergonomic Risk Factors that may be Present. PHYSICAL WORK ACTIVITIES AND CONDITIONS ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS ACTIVITIES AND CONDITIONS ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS THAT MAY BE PRESENT (10) Workstation edges or objects press

Choobineh, Fred

438

Risk Characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The last step of the risk assessment process, risk characterization, combines the results of the toxicity and exposure assessment to arrive at a risk estimate. The results of the toxicity assessment vary depending on whether the substance is identified as a carcinogen or a noncarcinogen. In the former case, the risk characterization provides an estimate of the incidence of cancer; e.g., additional cases per one million exposed individuals. In the latter, the characterization describes whether or not the risk exceeds an acceptable threshold.

M.A. Kamrin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 7. Accident analysis: Selection and assessment of potential release scenarios. Draft report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. The Accident Analysis is an evaluation of the likelihood of occurrence and resulting consequences from several general classes of accidents that could potentially occur during operation of the facility. The Accident Analysis also evaluates the effectiveness of existing mitigation measures in reducing off-site impacts. Volume VII describes in detail the methods used to conduct the Accident Analysis and reports the results of evaluations of likelihood and consequence for the selected accident scenarios.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

DISSELKAMP RS

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "risk assessment activities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS.

Biwer, B.M.; Monette, F.A.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Tsunami Assessment for Risk Management at Nuclear Power Facilities in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study focuses on evaluation of the maximum and minimum water levels caused by tsunamis as risk factors for operation and management at nuclear power facilities along the coastal area of Japan. Tsunami...

Ken Yanagisawa; Fumihiko Imamura…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Tsunami Assessment for Risk Management at Nuclear Power Facilities in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study focuses on evaluation of the maximum and minimum water levels caused by tsunamis as risk factors for operation and management at nuclear power facilities along the coastal area of Japan. Tsunami...

Ken Yanagisawa; Fumihiko Imamura; Tsutomu Sakakiyama…

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

An Information Systems Security Risk Assessment Model Under Dempster- Schafer Theory of Belief Functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study develops an alternative methodology for the risk analysis of information systems security (ISS), an evidential reasoning approach under the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions. The approach has the ...

Sun, Lili; Srivastava, Rajendra P.; Mock, Theodore J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Development and Implementation of a Statistical Risk Assessment Method for New Aircraft Performance at XYZ Corporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At XYZ Corporation (XYZ), the standard method of creating aircraft performance guarantees does not incorporate engineering risk or uncertainty. Since performance guarantees are a contractual agreement to the customer, the customer is not obligated...

Schroeder, Christopher R.

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

446

Risk assessment of groundwater contamination from hydraulic fracturing fluid spills in Pennsylvania  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast-paced growth in natural gas production in the Marcellus Shale has fueled intense debate over the risk of groundwater contamination from hydraulic fracturing and the shale gas extraction process at large. While several ...

Fletcher, Sarah Marie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Risk assessment involving the land disposal of animal waste on Central Texas dairies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with nutrient disposal on two central Texas dairies. Risks were identified by using producer and researcher knowledge to create graphic representations of the disposal systems. These representations, known as event and fault trees, were used in conjunction...

Lee, Thomas Chadwick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z