National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rigid foam insulation

  1. Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    Exterior rigid foam insulation at the edge of the slab foundation was a unique feature for this low-load, unoccupied test house in a hot-dry climate and may be more appropriate for climates with higher heating loads. U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team IBACOS worked with National Housing Quality Award winner Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes, Inc., to assess the performance of this feature in a single-family detached ranch house with three bedrooms and two full bathrooms constructed on a slab-on-grade foundation in Fresno, California. One challenge during installation of the system was the attachment of the butyl flashing to the open framing. To solve this constructability issue, the team added a nailer to the base of the wall to properly attach and lap the flashing. In this strategy, R-7.5, 1.5-in.-thick extruded polystyrene was installed on the exterior of the slab for a modeled savings of 4,500 Btu/h on the heating load.

  2. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  3. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, Thomas E. (Grandview, MO); Spieker, David A. (Olathe, KS)

    1985-03-19

    A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  4. Measure Guideline. Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, Hariharan; Klocke, Steve; Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders,remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  5. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, C.B.

    1984-05-18

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 A. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  6. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Charles B.

    1985-01-01

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 .ANG.. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  7. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation, Fresno, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    Exterior rigid foam insulation at the edge of the slab foundation was a unique feature for this low-load, unoccupied test house in a hot-dry climate and may be more appropriate for climates with higher heating loads. U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team IBACOS worked with National Housing Quality Award winner Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes, Inc., to assess the performance of this feature in a single-family detached ranch house with three bedrooms and two full bathrooms constructed on a slab-on-grade foundation in Fresno, California. One challenge during installation of the system was the attachment of the butyl flashing to the open framing. To solve this constructability issue, the team added a nailer to the base of the wall to properly attach and lap the flashing. In this strategy, R-7.5, 1.5-in.-thick extruded polystyrene was installed on the exterior of the slab for a modeled savings of 4,500 Btu/h on the heating load.

  8. Exterior Rigid Insulation Best Practices- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Field and lab studies by Building America teams BSC, PHI, and Northern STAR characterize the thermal, air, and vapor resistance properties of rigid foam insulation and describe best practices for their use on walls, roofs, and foundations.

  9. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wei-Yang

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  10. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Exterior Rigid Foam

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation, Fresno, California | Department of Energy Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation, Fresno, California Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation, Fresno, California Exterior rigid foam insulation at the edge of the slab foundation was a unique feature for this low-load, unoccupied test house in a hot-dry climate and maybe more appropriate for

  11. Exterior Rigid Insulation Best Practices - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exterior Rigid Insulation Best Practices - Building America Top Innovation Exterior Rigid Insulation Best Practices - Building America Top Innovation Effec guid-exterior rigid ...

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Exterior Rigid Insulation Best Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    In this Top Innovation profile, field and lab studies by BSC, PHI, and NorthernSTAR characterize the thermal, air, and vapor resistance properties of rigid foam insulation and describe best practices for their use on walls, roofs, and foundations.

  13. Panelized wall system with foam core insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan; Gaskin, Sally

    2009-10-20

    A wall system includes a plurality of wall members, the wall members having a first metal panel, a second metal panel, and an insulating core between the first panel and the second panel. At least one of the first panel and the second panel include ridge portions. The insulating core can be a foam, such as a polyurethane foam. The foam can include at least one opacifier to improve the k-factor of the foam.

  14. Modeling decomposition of rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams are used as encapsulants to isolate and support thermally sensitive components within weapon systems. When exposed to abnormal thermal environments, such as fire, the polyurethane foam decomposes to form products having a wide distribution of molecular weights and can dominate the overall thermal response of the system. Decomposing foams have either been ignored by assuming the foam is not present, or have been empirically modeled by changing physical properties, such as thermal conductivity or emissivity, based on a prescribed decomposition temperature. The hypothesis addressed in the current work is that improved predictions of polyurethane foam degradation can be realized by using a more fundamental decomposition model based on chemical structure and vapor-liquid equilibrium, rather than merely fitting the data by changing physical properties at a prescribed decomposition temperature. The polyurethane decomposition model is founded on bond breaking of the primary polymer and formation of a secondary polymer which subsequently decomposes at high temperature. The bond breaking scheme is resolved using percolation theory to describe evolving polymer fragments. The polymer fragments vaporize according to individual vapor pressures. Kinetic parameters for the model were obtained from Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) from a single nonisothermal experiment with a heating rate of 20 C/min. Model predictions compare reasonably well with a separate nonisothermal TGA weight loss experiment with a heating rate of 200 C/min.

  15. Foam insulated transfer line test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Squier, D.M.

    1994-06-01

    Miles of underground insulated piping will be installed at the Hanford site to transfer liquid waste. Significant cost savings may be realized by using pre-fabricated polyurethane foam insulated piping. Measurements were made on sections of insulated pipe to determine the insulation`s resistance to axial expansion of the pipe, the force required to compress the foam in the leg of an expansion loop and the time required for heat up and cool down of a buried piping loop. These measurements demonstrated that the peak axial force increases with the amount of adhesion between the encasement pipe and the insulation. The compressive strength of the foam is too great to accommodate the thermal growth of long straight pipe sections into the expansion loops. Mathematical models of the piping system`s thermal behavior can be refined by data from the heated piping loop.

  16. Method for making one-container rigid foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H.

    2005-04-12

    A method of making a one-container foam by dissolving a polymer in liquified gas at a pressure greater than the vapor pressure of the liquified gas and than rapidly decreasing the pressure within approximately 60 seconds to foam a foam. The foam can be rigid and also have adhesive properties. The liquified gas used is CF.sub.3 l or mixtures thereof.

  17. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Scherzinger, William M.; Hinnerichs, Terry D.; Lo, Chi S.

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  18. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO2 A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO2 ISTN ...

  19. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Double Bending Linear (10 Cantilever) Linear (10 Double Bending) Cladding Attachment ... Compression Strut Function of fastener tension and insulation compression Measured ...

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Insulating Concrete Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-10-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project investigated insulating concrete forms—rigid foam, hollow walls that are filled with concrete for highly insulated, hurricane-resistant construction.

  1. Toxicology evaluation and hazard review for non-CFC containing rigid foams BKC 44317 and last-a-foam MSL-02A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greulich, K.A.; Archuleta, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    New pour-in-place, low density, rigid polyurethane foam kits have been developed to mechanically stabilize damaged explosive ordnance. Although earlier foam systems used chlorofluorocarbons as blowing agents, the current versions rely on carbon dioxide generated by the reaction of isocynates with water. In addition, these kits were developed to manually generate small quantifies of rigid foam in the field with minimal or no protective equipment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and summarize available hazard information for the components of these rigid foam kits and to provide recommendations for personal protective equipment to be used while performing the manual combination of the components. As with most rigid foam systems, these kits consist of two parts, one a mixture of isocyanates; the other, a combination of polyols, surfactants, and amine catalysts. Once completely deployed, the rigid foam is non-toxic. The components, however, have some important health effects which must be considered when establishing handling procedures.

  2. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, Anatasia; Baker, Richard; Prahl, Duncan

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  3. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  4. Rigid Polyurethane Foam (RPF) Technology for Countermines (Sea) Program Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WOODFIN,RONALD L.; FAUCETT,DAVID L.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.; LATHAM,AMY E.; SCHMIDT,C.O.

    1999-10-01

    This Phase II report documents the results of one subtask initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of Rigid Polyurethane Foams for neutralization of mines and barriers in amphibious assault was the objective of the tasking. This phase of the program concentrated on formation of RPF in water, explosive mine simulations, and development of foam and fabric pontoons. Field experimentation was done primarily at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM between February 1996 and September 1998.

  5. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... automotive and aviation foams 15 Project Integration: We have collaborated with two commercial partners, Hoswell and Armacell International, in factory foaming trials to ...

  6. Properties of 30 lb/ft{sup 3} rigid polyurethane foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenski. E.G.; Stinebaugh, R.E.; York, A.R. II

    1997-03-01

    This report summarizes tests on five different foams. Two are manufactured at Allied Signal, two at North Carolina Foam Industries, and one at General Plastics. The tests conducted are: thermal conductivity at various temperatures, specific heat at 60{degrees}C, compressive strength at ambient and 60{degrees}C, thermogravimetric analysis to 800{degrees}C, intumescence, and char formation properties. A CHN analysis was also performed. Funding for the testing of rigid polyurethane foams originated from the AT-400A container program at Sandia National Laboratories. This testing supported the development of the AT-400A container. The AT-400A is a storage and transportation container that will be used initially at the Pantex Plant for storage of plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons.

  7. Experimental characterization of fire-induced response of rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.Y.; Gill, W.; Moore, J.W.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Reported is the result of an experimental investigation of fire-induced response of a 96 kg/m{sup 3} closed cell rigid polyurethane foam. The specimen is 0.37 m in diameter, and 152 mm thick, placed in a cylindrical test vessel. The fire condition is simulated by heating the bottom of the test vessel to 1283 K using a radiant heat source. Real-time x-ray shows that the degradation process involves the progression of a charring front into the virgin material. The charred region has a regular and graded structure consisting of a packed bubble outer layer and successive layers of thin shells. The layer-to-layer permeability appears to be poor. There are indications that gas vents laterally. The shell-like structure might be the result of lateral venting. Although the foam degradation process is quite complicated, the in-depth temperature responses in the uncharted foam appear to be consistent with steady state ablation. The measured temperature responses are well represented by the exponential distribution for steady state ablation. An estimate of the thermal diffusivity of the foam is obtained from the ablation model. The experiment is part of a more comprehensive program to develop material response models of foams and encapsulants.

  8. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with CO2 | Department of Energy A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO2 A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO2 ISTN extruded polystyrene (XPS) board produced in factory demonstration ISTN extruded polystyrene (XPS) board produced in factory demonstration Lead Performer: Industrial Science & Technology Network - Lancaster, PA DOE Funding: $400,000 Cost Share: $80,000 Project Term: 1/1/2014 -

  9. Dynamic characterization of frequency response of shock mitigation of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Kolsky compression bar experiments were conducted to characterize the shock mitigation response of a polymethylene diisocyanate (PMDI) based rigid polyurethane foam, abbreviated as PMDI foam in this study. The Kolsky bar experimental data was analyzed in the frequency domain with respect to impact energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation to perform a shock mitigation assessment on the foam material. The PMDI foam material exhibits excellent performance in both energy dissipation and acceleration attenuation, particularly for the impact frequency content over 1.5 kHz. This frequency (1.5 kHz) was observed to be independent of specimen thickness and impact speed, which may represent themore » characteristic shock mitigation frequency of the PMDI foam material under investigation. The shock mitigation characteristics of the PMDI foam material were insignificantly influenced by the specimen thickness. As a result, impact speed did have some effect.« less

  10. APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR GENERAL PURPOSE RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

    2009-02-18

    Polyurethane foam has been employed in impact limiters for large radioactive materials packagings since the early 1980's. Its consistent crush response, controllable structural properties and excellent thermal insulating characteristics have made it attractive as replacement for the widely used cane fiberboard for smaller, drum size packagings. Accordingly, polyurethane foam was chosen for the overpack material for the 9977 and 9978 packagings. The study reported here was undertaken to provide data to support the analyses performed as part of the development of the 9977 and 9978, and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

  11. Accelerated Aging of BKC 44306-10 Rigid Polyurethane Foam: FT-IR Spectroscopy, Dimensional Analysis, and Micro Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbertson, Robert D.; Patterson, Brian M.; Smith, Zachary

    2014-01-02

    An accelerated aging study of BKC 44306-10 rigid polyurethane foam was carried out. Foam samples were aged in a nitrogen atmosphere at three different temperatures: 50 °C, 65 °C, and 80 °C. Foam samples were periodically removed from the aging canisters at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 month intervals when FT-IR spectroscopy, dimensional analysis, and mechanical testing experiments were performed. Micro Computed Tomography imaging was also employed to study the morphology of the foams. Over the course of the aging study the foams the decreased in size by a magnitude of 0.001 inches per inch of foam. Micro CT showed the heterogeneous nature of the foam structure likely resulting from flow effects during the molding process. The effect of aging on the compression and tensile strength of the foam was minor and no cause for concern. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to follow the foam chemistry. However, it was difficult to draw definitive conclusions about the changes in chemical nature of the materials due to large variability throughout the samples.

  12. Measure Guideline. Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lstiburek, Joseph; Baker, Peter

    2015-04-09

    This measure guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America team Building Science Corporation, provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ in. and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: (1) fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; (2) design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and (3) construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  13. Measure Guideline: Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lstiburek, Joseph; Baker, Peter

    2015-04-01

    This measure guideline provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ inches and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  14. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Smegal, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  15. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  16. Initial and Long-Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) from 2009 to 2012 have resulted in the use of exterior rigid insulation becoming part of the prescriptive code requirements. With more jurisdictions adopting the 2012 IECC builders are going to finding themselves required to incorporate exterior insulation in the construction of their exterior wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. However, there has been a significant resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved and potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of a cladding. This research was an extension on previous research conducted by BSC in 2011, and 2012. Each year the understanding of the system discrete load component interactions, as well as impacts of environmental loading has increased. The focus of the research was to examine more closely the impacts of screw fastener bending on the total system capacity, effects of thermal expansion and contraction of materials on the compressive forces in the assembly, as well as to analyze a full years worth of cladding movement data from assemblies constructed in an exposed outdoor environment.

  17. Initial and Long-Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) from 2009 to 2012 have resulted in the use of exterior rigid insulation becoming part of the prescriptive code requirements. With more jurisdictions adopting the 2012 IECC builders will be required to incorporate exterior insulation in the construction of their exterior wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. This research was an extension on previous research conducted by Building Science Corporation in 2011, and 2012. Each year the understanding of the system discrete load component interactions, as well as impacts of environmental loading, has increased. The focus of the research was to examine more closely the impacts of screw fastener bending on the total system capacity, effects of thermal expansion and contraction of materials on the compressive forces in the assembly, as well as to analyze a full year’s worth of cladding movement data from assemblies constructed in an exposed outdoor environment.

  18. Evaluation of Experimental Parameters in the Accelerated Aging of Closed-Cell Foam Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, Therese K; Vanderlan, Michael; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2012-12-01

    The thermal conductivity of many closed-cell foam insulation products changes over time as production gases diffuse out of the cell matrix and atmospheric gases diffuse into the cells. Thin slicing has been shown to be an effective means of accelerating this process in such a way as to produce meaningful results. Efforts to produce a more prescriptive version of the ASTM C1303 standard test method led to the ruggedness test described here. This test program included the aging of full size insulation specimens for time periods of five years for direct comparison to the predicted results. Experimental parameters under investigation include: slice thickness, slice origin (at the surface or from the core of the slab), thin slice stack composition, product facings, original product thickness, product density, and product type. The test protocol has been completed and this report provides a detailed evaluation of the impact of the test parameters on the accuracy of the 5-year thermal conductivity prediction.

  19. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. This project directly investigated rain and indirectly investigated built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. In this project, Building Science Corporation investigated rain and built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

  1. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  2. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  3. Rigid polyurethane foam (RPF) technology for Countermine (Sea) Program -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodfin, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This Phase 1 report documents the results of one of the subtasks that was initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of a foam that can neutralize mines and barriers and allow the safe passage of amphibious landing craft and vehicles was the objective of this subtask of the Sea Mine Countermeasures Technology program. This phase of the program concentrated on laboratory characterization of foam properties and field experiments with prefabricated foam blocks to determine the capability of RPF to adequately carry military traffic. It also established the flammability characteristics of the material under simulated operational conditions, extended the understanding of explosive cavity formation in RPF to include surface explosions, established the tolerance to typical military fluids, and the response to bullet impact. Many of the basic analyses required to establish the operational concept are reported. The initial field experiments were conducted at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM in November 1995 through February 1996.

  4. Which Spray Foam Is Right For You?: Appropriate Applications for Open-Cell & Closed-Cell Foam Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-03

    This guideline focuses on performance benefits and the potential performance limitations of open-cell and closed-cell spray polyurethane foam.

  5. Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ratio and 13 heating seasonal pump factor Infinity Variable Speed Heat Pump with Greenspeed Intelligence; above- and below-door transfer grilles * R-8 ductwork and air handlers ...

  6. Structural insulated panels produced from recycled Expanded-Polystrene (EPS) foam scrap. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grinnell, A.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents a research project undertaken to assess the feasibility of using scrap reground expanded polystyrene (EPS) in the manufacture of structural insulated panels (SIPs) in order to save material costs and reduce the amount of EPS waste products to be disposed. The project team, managed by Steven Winter Associates, Inc., a Norwalk, Connecticut-based building systems research and consulting firm included: Thermal Foams, Inc., a Buffalo-based manufacturer of EPS products; BASF Corp., the world`s largest producer of EPS beads; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which performed thermal tests (ASTM C-518); RADCO, Inc. which performed material properties tests: density (ASTM C-303), flexural strength (ASTM C-203), tensile strength (ASTM D-1623), and transverse load test of SIPs panels (ASTM E-72). The report documents the manufacturing and testing process and concludes that there was relatively little difference in the thermal and structural characteristics under normal loading conditions of the panels tested with varying amount of regrind (from 10% - 25%) and those made with 100% virgin beads. The report recommends that additional tests be undertaken, but suggests that, based on the test results, reground EPS can be successfully used in the cores of SIPs in amounts up to 25%.

  7. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Exterior Insulation Pre- and Post-Retrofit, Syracuse, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-01

    In this study, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc., was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) to research exterior wall insulation solutions for enclosure upgrades. This case study describes the deep energy retrofit of three test homes in the Syracuse, New York area and represent these enclosure strategies: rigid foam insulation; spray foam insulation, and a control house that follows Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (HPwES) guidelines.

  8. Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherize » Insulation Insulation Spray foam insulation fills the nooks and crannies in the walls of this energy-efficient Florida home. | Photo courtesy of FSEC/IBACOS. Spray foam insulation fills the nooks and crannies in the walls of this energy-efficient Florida home. | Photo courtesy of FSEC/IBACOS. Foam core structural insulated panels are built in a factory, shipped to the jobsite, and assembled. | Photo courtesy of Michael Baechler. Foam core structural insulated panels are built in a

  9. Method and apparatus for improving the insulating properties of closed cell foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Lanciani, Arlene J.

    1991-04-23

    A filler of non-metallic, light transparent material is formed into particles or flakes and coated with opaque material and dispersed in closed cell foam to reduce overall thermal conductivity and, specifically, to reduce radiation heat transfer.

  10. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-10-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  11. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  12. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing PROJECT aPPliCaTiON Construction: Existing homes with unvented cathedralized roofs. Type: Residential Climate Zones: All TEam mEmbERs Building Science Corporation www.buildingscience.com BASF www.basf.com Dow Chemical Company www.dow.com Honeywell http://honeywell.com Icynene www.icynene.com COdE COmPliaNCE 2012 International Code Council, International Residential Code Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over

  13. Composite foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Jr., Joel M.; Nyitray, Alice M.; Wilkerson, Mark H.

    1991-01-01

    Composite foams are provided comprising a first rigid, microcellular, open-celled organic polymer foam having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 and a pore size of from about 1 micron to about 30 microns, said first foam containing a second polymer having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 or a second polymer foam having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 and a pore size of from about 0.01 microns to about 1.0 micron within the open cells of said first foam.

  14. Composite foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Jr., Joel M.; Nyitray, Alice M.; Wilkerson, Mark H.

    1990-01-01

    Composite foams are provided comprising a first rigid, microcellular, open-celled organic polymer foam having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 and a pore size of from about 1 micron to about 30 microns, said first foam containing a second polymer having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 or a second polymer foam having a density of from about 0.015 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.20 g/cm.sup.3 and a pore size of from about 0.01 microns to about 1.0 micron within the open cells of said first foam.

  15. Insulation for New Home Construction | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Articles Spray foam insulation fills the nooks and crannies in the walls of this energy-efficient Florida home. | Photo courtesy of FSECIBACOS. Insulation Adding insulation in...

  16. Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Other less common materials such as cementitious and phenolic foams and vermiculite and perlite are also available. Learn More Where to insulate in a home Insulation for new home ...

  17. Solar Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are prefabricated structural elements used to build walls, ceilings, floors, and roofs. Made of foam insulation sandwiched between two layers of ...

  18. Building America Case Study: Excavationless Exterior-Side Foundation Insulation for Existing Homes, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NorthernSTAR

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  19. A procedure for analyzing energy and global warming impacts of foam insulation in U.S. commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Yarbrough, D.W.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a procedure for evaluating the energy and global warming impacts of alternative insulation technologies for US commercial building applications. The analysis is focused on the sum of the direct contribution of greenhouse gas emissions from a system and the indirect contribution of the carbon dioxide emission resulting from the energy required to operate the system over its expected lifetime. In this paper, parametric analysis was used to calculate building related CO{sub 2} emission in two US locations. A retail mail building has been used as a model building for this analysis. For the analyzed building, minimal R-values of insulation are estimated using ASHRAE 90.1 requirements.

  20. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes Building Science Corporation’s research into spray polyurethane foams in residential roofs, performing hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs.

  1. Technology Solutions Case Study: Interior Foundation Insulation Upgrade-Madison Residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    This basement insulation project included a dimple mat conveying inbound moisture to a draintile, airtight spray polyurethane foam wall and floor insulation, and radiant floor heat installation

  2. Insulation Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... These pellets can be poured into place or mixed with cement to create a lightweight, less heat-conductive concrete. Urea-Formaldehyde Foam Insulation Material Urea-formaldehyde ...

  3. Foam shell cryogenic ICF target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darling, Dale H.

    1987-01-01

    A uniform cryogenic layer of DT fuel is maintained in a fusion target having a low density, small pore size, low Z rigid foam shell saturated with liquid DT fuel. Capillary action prevents gravitational slumping of the fuel layer. The saturated shell may be cooled to produce a solid fuel layer.

  4. Building America Technlogy Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Interior Foundation Insulation Upgrade – Madison Residence (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This basement insulation project included a dimple map conveying inbound moisture to a draintile, airtight spray polyurethane foam wall and floor insulation, and radiant floor heat installation.

  5. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Excavationless: Exterior-Side Foundation Insulation for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project describes an innovative, minimally invasive building foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home that uses hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam.

  6. Savings Project: Insulate and Air Seal Floors Over Unconditioned...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Blanket insulation Wire fasteners Tape measure Sharp utility knife Caulk and foam sealant Caulk gun Stepladder Straightedge Respirator or dust mask Eye protection Protective ...

  7. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part II. The effects of temperature and humidity on free formaldehyde, extractable formaldehyde, formaldehyde emission, and physical characteristics of the foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schutte, W.C.; Cole, R.S.; Frank, C.W.; Long, K.R.

    1981-02-01

    Results of testing with two products of urea-formaldehyde based foams are described. Results of three products have previously been reported. Methods for detection and quantitative determination of formaldehyde, design of the experimental chambers, and the procedures are described. Samples of Product D were monitored for about 29 days and samples of Product E were monitored for 60 days in chambers and results are tabulated for formaldehyde emission. Additional tests performed on the two products are: extractable formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); free formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); comparison of free formaldehyde concentration; density (high and low temperature conditions); shrinkage (high and low temperature conditions). Control panels were constructed to simulate a wall in a home and observations were made and compared with results of the experimental products.

  8. Sticky foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rand, Peter B.

    1980-01-01

    Access to a space is impeded by the generation of a sticky foam from a tacky polymeric resin and a low boiling solvent.

  9. rigid body

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rigid body - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  10. Forming foam structures with carbon foam substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Coronado, Paul R.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2012-11-06

    The invention provides foams of desired cell sizes formed from metal or ceramic materials that coat the surfaces of carbon foams which are subsequently removed. For example, metal is located over a sol-gel foam monolith. The metal is melted to produce a metal/sol-gel composition. The sol-gel foam monolith is removed, leaving a metal foam.

  11. Foam patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  12. ENHANCEMENT OF STRUCTURAL FOAM MATERIALS BY INCORPORATION OF GASIFIER SLAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olin Perry Norton; Ronald A. Palmer; W. Gene Ramsey

    2006-03-15

    As advanced gasification technology is increasingly adopted as an energy source, disposal of the resulting slag will become a problem. We have shown that gasifier slag can be incorporated into foamed glass, which is currently being manufactured as an abrasive and as an insulating material. The slag we add to foamed glass does not simply act as filler, but improves the mechanical properties of the product. Incorporation of gasifier slag can make foamed glass stronger and more abrasion resistant.

  13. Development of a Leave-in-Place Slab Edge Insulating Form System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc Hoeschele; Eric Lee

    2009-08-31

    floor heating), the most practical insulation strategy is to secure rigid foam insulation, such as Dow Styrofoam{trademark}, to the inside of the wooden slab edge forms. An alternative is to clad insulation to the perimeter of the slab after the slab has been poured and cured. In either case, the foam must have a 'termite strip' that prevents termites from creating hidden tunnels through or behind the foam on their way to the wall framing above. Frequently this termite strip is a piece of sheet metal that must be fabricated for each project. The above-grade portion of the insulation also needs to be coated for appearance and to prevent damage from construction and UV degradation. All these steps add time, complexity, and expense to the insulating process.

  14. Quantum Foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-10-24

    The laws of quantum mechanics and relativity are quite perplexing however it is when the two theories are merged that things get really confusing. This combined theory predicts that empty space isnt empty at all its a seething and bubbling cauldron of matter and antimatter particles springing into existence before disappearing back into nothingness. Scientists call this complicated state of affairs quantum foam. In this video, Fermilabs Dr. Don Lincoln discusses this mind-bending idea and sketches some of the experiments that have convinced scientists that this crazy prediction is actually true.

  15. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  16. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Sandia-Power Surety Task Force Hawaii foam analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-11-01

    The Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Power Surety Task Force was officially created in early 2008, after nearly two years of work in demand reduction and renewable energy technologies to support the Warfighter in Theater. The OSD Power Surety Task Force is tasked with identifying efficient energy solutions that support mission requirements. Spray foam insulation demonstrations were recently expanded beyond field structures to include military housing at Ft. Belvoir. Initial results to using the foam in both applications are favorable. This project will address the remaining key questions: (1) Can this technology help to reduce utility costs for the Installation Commander? (2) Is the foam cost effective? (3) What application differences in housing affect those key metrics? The critical need for energy solutions in Hawaii and the existing relationships among Sandia, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Forest City, make this location a logical choice for a foam demonstration. This project includes application and analysis of foam to a residential duplex at the Waikulu military community on Oahu, Hawaii, as well as reference to spray foam applied to a PACOM facility and additional foamed units on Maui, conducted during this project phase. This report concludes the analysis and describes the utilization of foam insulation at military housing in Hawaii and the subsequent data gathering and analysis.

  18. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  19. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  20. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  1. Bonding Low-density Nanoporous Metal Foams Using Sputtered Solder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bono, M; Cervantes, O; Akaba, C; Hamza, A; Foreman, R; Teslich, N

    2007-08-21

    could benefit from the bonding technology developed in this study, such as small-scale lightweight structural members, high-strength thermal insulating layers for electronics, and micro-scale mechanical dampers, to name but a few. Each of these applications requires one or more small metal foam components precisely bonded to a substrate. Several methods for bonding metal foam components have been developed by previous researchers. Macroscopic metal foam parts have been successfully bonded by laser welding to create T-sections and butt joints. Ultrasonic welding has been used to join aluminum sheet metal to aluminum foam for structural applications. These methods work well for bonding large foam components, but reducing these methods to a smaller length scale would be challenging. One method that has shown great potential for bonding layers of metal foams to substrates is a brazing process that uses a sputter-deposited interface material. Shirzadi et al.[9] have demonstrated bonds between stainless steel foam and a stainless steel substrate using a layer of copper-titanium filler metal that is sputtered onto the interface surfaces. The foam pieces that they bonded were approximately 10 mm in diameter and 10 mm thick with a cell size of approximately 200 {micro}m. After depositing the filler material, pressing the materials together, and heating them with an induction heater, bonds were achieved without causing significant damage to the foam. The current study also uses a sputter-deposited interface material to bond foam to a substrate. However, in contrast to previous work, the current study examines bonding microscale pieces of fragile nanoporous metal foam. In this study, a method is developed to bond a thin sheet of fragile, low-density nanoporous copper foam to an aluminum foil substrate of thickness 40 {micro}m. By sputter depositing an indium-silver alloy onto the foam and the substrate, a solder joint with a thickness of less than 2 {micro}m was achieved.

  2. Insulation Project Moves Toward Higher R-value

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Current commercially available insulation materials yield R-6 per inch or less with no major improvements in thermal performance since the 1970s. In collaboration with Firestone Building Products and NanoPore, an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) team led by Kaushik Biswas and Andre Desjarlais continues to research prototype composite foam boards with modified atmosphere insulation (MAI) cores.

  3. Mechanical Properties of a Metal Powder-Loaded Polyurethane Foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. L. Neuschwanger; L. L. Whinnery; S. H. Goods

    1999-04-01

    Quasi-static compression tests have been performed on polyurethane foam specimens. The modulus of the foam exhibited a power-law dependence with respect to density of the form: E* {proportional_to} {rho}*{sup n}, where n = 1.7. The modulus data is well described by a simple geometric model (attributed to the work of Gibson and Ashby) for closed-cell foam in which the stiffness of the foam is governed by the flexure of the cell struts and cell walls. The compressive strength of the foam is also found to follow a power-law behavior with respect to foam density. In this instance, Euler buckling is used to rationalize the density dependence. The modulus of the polyurethane foam was modified by addition of a gas atomized, spherical aluminum powder. Additions of 30 and 50 weight percent of the powder significantly increased the foam modulus. However, there were only slight increases in modulus with 5 and 10 weight percent additions of the metal powder. Strength was also slightly increased at high loading fractions of powder. This increase in modulus and strength could be predicted by combining the above geometric model with a well-known model describing the effect on modulus of a rigid dispersoid in a compliant matrix.

  4. Wall Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-10-01

    This fact sheet provides information on advanced wall framing, including insulating walls, airtight construction, and moisture control.

  5. Polyol-Based Rigid Urethane Foam Systems Kansas City Division

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    J. P. Madden, G. K. Baker, and 6. H. Smith BDX-613-531 Published September 1971 ... J. P. Madden, G. K. Baker, and C. H. Smith Published September 1971 Replacement Copy ...

  6. Foam process models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2008-09-01

    In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.

  7. Rigid indented cylindrical cathode for X-ray tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgens, Claude R.

    1985-01-01

    A cathode assembly for a vacuum tube includes a wire filament, a straight bular anode parallel to and surrounding the wire filament, and insulating spacers for rigidly fastening the filament with respect to the anode, and with one side of the anode indented or flattened such that only one portion of the anode is heated to emitting temperatures by the filament.

  8. Rigid indented cylindrical cathode for x-ray tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudgens, C.R.

    1983-06-03

    A cathode assembly for a vacuum tube includes a wire filament, a straight tubular anode parallel to and surrounding the wire filament, insulating spacers for rigidly fastening the filament with respect to the anode, and with one side of the anode indented or flattened such that only one portion of the anode is heated to emitting temperatures by the filament.

  9. Slab Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    Fact sheet for homeowners and contractors on how to insulate slab-on-grade floors and control moisture, air leakage, termites, and radon.

  10. A comparative examination of the fire performance of pipe insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babrauskas, V.

    1996-12-31

    A standard method for evaluating the fire performance of pipe insulation is not available in North America. In Europe, however, the regional standards organization NORDTEST has had available for several years now a method specifically designed for this purpose. The NORDTEST NT FIRE 036 test is a full-scale room fire test where the pipe insulation is installed along the ceiling and subjected to a gas burner fire. Four classes of performance (Class I through III, plus unrated) are used to evaluate the products. In the present work, 4 different pipe insulation products, representing the most common materials used for this purpose, have been examined according to this test. The results showed that rock wool insulation gave the best fire performance, with phenolic foam being in the least safe rated category. Synthetic foam rubber and polyethylene insulation products gave intermediate performance. 12 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Technology Solutions Case Study: Interior Foundation Insulation Upgrade-Minneapolis Residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    This interior foundation project employed several techniques to improve performance and mitigate moisture issues: dimple mat; spray polyurethane foam insulation; moisture and thermal management systems for the floor; and paperless gypsum board and steel framing.

  12. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Existing homes with vapor open wall assemblies Type: Residential Climate Zones: All PERFORMANCE DATA Insulation Ratio The R-value ratio of exterior to interior insulation (e.g., R-15 exterior insulation on R-11 cavity insulation has a ratio of 0.58). This variable controls sheathing temperature. Vapor Permeable Insulation An insulation with vapor permeance greater than five U.S. perms (e.g., rigid mineral fiber

  13. Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insulation Insulation Where to Insulate Where to Insulate Learn where to insulate in a home to save money and improve comfort. Read more Insulation Insulation Get the facts about how insulation works. Read more Moisture Control Moisture Control Learn how to control moisture in your home to improve the effectiveness of your insulation and air sealing strategies. Read more You can reduce your home's heating and cooling costs through proper insulation and air sealing techniques. These techniques

  14. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Exterior...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fresno, California Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Exterior Rigid Foam Insulation at the Edge of a Slab Foundation, Fresno, California Exterior rigid ...

  15. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H.; Clough, Roger L.; Curro, John G.; Quintana, Carlos A.; Russick, Edward M.; Shaw, Montgomery T.

    1987-01-01

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the resultant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Means for subjecting such a solvent to one-dimensional cooling are also provided. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 .mu.m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  16. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Curro, J.G.; Quintana, C.A.; Russick, E.M.; Shaw, M.T.

    1985-10-02

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the reusltant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 ..mu..m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  17. Foam encapsulated targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuckolls, John H. (Livermore, CA); Thiessen, Albert R. (Livermore, CA); Dahlbacka, Glen H. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Foam encapsulated laser-fusion targets wherein a quantity of thermonuclear fuel is embedded in low density, microcellular foam which serves as an electron conduction channel for symmetrical implosion of the fuel by illumination of the target by one or more laser beams. The fuel, such as DT, is contained within a hollow shell constructed of glass, for example, with the foam having a cell size of preferably no greater than 2 .mu.m, a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3, and external diameter of less than 200 .mu.m.

  18. DOE Tour of Zero: The Hope Landing Lot 2 by Manatee County Habitat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 of 11 Volunteers are trained to construct thermal blanket walls using insulated concrete form (ICF) construction with hollow rigid foam insulation blocks that are filled with...

  19. Rigid porous filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  20. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  1. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  2. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maienschein, Jon L.; Barry, Patrick E.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  3. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, J.D.

    1991-11-19

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 [mu]m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process. 8 figures.

  4. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  5. Surfactant monitoring by foam generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullen, Ken I.

    1997-01-01

    A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

  6. Long lasting decontamination foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  7. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  8. Tool for cutting insulation from electrical cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harless, Charles E.; Taylor, Ward G.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an efficient hand tool for precisely slitting the sheath of insulation on an electrical cable--e.g., a cable two inches in diameter--in a manner facilitating subsequent peeling or stripping of the insulation. The tool includes a rigid frame which is slidably fitted on an end section of the cable. The frame carries a rigidly affixed handle and an opposed, elongated blade-and-handle assembly. The blade-and-handle assembly is pivotally supported by a bracket which is slidably mounted on the frame for movement toward and away from the cable, thus providing an adjustment for the depth of cut. The blade-and-handle assembly is mountable to the bracket in two pivotable positions. With the assembly mounted in the first position, the tool is turned about the cable to slit the insulation circumferentially. With the assembly mounted in the second position, the tool is drawn along the cable to slit the insulation axially. When cut both circumferentially and axially, the insulation can easily be peeled from the cable.

  9. Slab edge insulating form system and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Brain E.; Barsun, Stephan K.; Bourne, Richard C.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Springer, David A.

    2009-10-06

    A method of forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising constructing a foundation frame, the frame comprising an insulating form having an opening, inserting a pocket former into the opening; placing concrete inside the foundation frame; and removing the pocket former after the placed concrete has set, wherein the concrete forms a pocket in the placed concrete that is accessible through the opening. The method may further comprise sealing the opening by placing a sealing plug or sealing material in the opening. A system for forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising a plurality of interconnected insulating forms, the insulating forms having a rigid outer member protecting and encasing an insulating material, and at least one gripping lip extending outwardly from the outer member to provide a pest barrier. At least one insulating form has an opening into which a removable pocket former is inserted. The system may also provide a tension anchor positioned in the pocket former and a tendon connected to the tension anchor.

  10. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular from which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  11. Stent with expandable foam (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Stent with expandable foam Title: Stent with expandable foam A stent for treating a physical anomaly. The stent includes a skeletal support structure ...

  12. Metal-bonded graphite foam composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Klett, James W

    2015-04-28

    A metal-bonded graphite foam composite includes a ductile metal continuous phase and a dispersed phase that includes graphite foam particles.

  13. A Study of the Energy-Saving Potential of Metal Roofs Incorporating Dynamic Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Miller, William A; Kriner, Scott; Manlove, Gary

    2013-01-01

    This article presents various metal roof configurations that were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, U.S. between 2009 and 2013, and describes their potential for reducing the attic-generated space-conditioning loads. These roofs contained different combinations of phase-change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface, and above-sheathing ventilation with standing-seam metal panels on top. These roofs were designed to be installed on existing roofs decks, or on top of asphalt shingles for retrofit construction. All the tested roofs showed the potential for substantial energy savings compared to an asphalt shingle roof, which was used as a control for comparison. The roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. The attics were built on top of a conditioned room. All attics were vented at the soffit and ridge. The test roofs and attics were instrumented with an array of thermocouples. Heat flux transducers were installed in the roof deck and attic floor (ceiling) to measure the heat flows through the roof and between the attic and conditioned space below. Temperature and heat flux data were collected during the heating, cooling and swing seasons over a three-year period. Data from previous years of testing have been published. Here, data from the latest roof configurations being tested in year three of the project are presented. All test roofs were highly effective in reducing the heat flows through the roof and ceiling, and in reducing the diurnal attic-temperature fluctuations.

  14. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.1 Building Materials/Insulation

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 U.S. Insulation Demand, by Type (Million Pounds) (1) Insulation Type 1992 2001 2006 (1) Fiberglass 2,938 55% 3,760 54% 4,085 53% Foamed Plastic 1,223 23% 1,775 25% 1,955 26% Cellulose 485 9% 665 9% 730 10% Mineral Wool 402 8% 445 6% 480 6% Other 309 6% 370 5% 395 5% Total 5,357 100% 7,015 100% 7,645 100% Note(s): 1) Projected. Source(s): National Insulation Association, www.insulation.org, Aug. 2006.

  15. CPUF - a chemical-structure-based polyurethane foam decomposition and foam response model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, Thomas H. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Thompson, Kyle Richard; Erickson, Kenneth L.; Dowding, Kevin J.; Clayton, Daniel (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Chu, Tze Yao; Hobbs, Michael L.; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-07-01

    A Chemical-structure-based PolyUrethane Foam (CPUF) decomposition model has been developed to predict the fire-induced response of rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foam-filled systems. The model, developed for the B-61 and W-80 fireset foam, is based on a cascade of bondbreaking reactions that produce CO2. Percolation theory is used to dynamically quantify polymer fragment populations of the thermally degrading foam. The partition between condensed-phase polymer fragments and gas-phase polymer fragments (i.e. vapor-liquid split) was determined using a vapor-liquid equilibrium model. The CPUF decomposition model was implemented into the finite element (FE) heat conduction codes COYOTE and CALORE, which support chemical kinetics and enclosure radiation. Elements were removed from the computational domain when the calculated solid mass fractions within the individual finite element decrease below a set criterion. Element removal, referred to as ?element death,? creates a radiation enclosure (assumed to be non-participating) as well as a decomposition front, which separates the condensed-phase encapsulant from the gas-filled enclosure. All of the chemistry parameters as well as thermophysical properties for the CPUF model were obtained from small-scale laboratory experiments. The CPUF model was evaluated by comparing predictions to measurements. The validation experiments included several thermogravimetric experiments at pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 30 bars. Larger, component-scale experiments were also used to validate the foam response model. The effects of heat flux, bulk density, orientation, embedded components, confinement and pressure were measured and compared to model predictions. Uncertainties in the model results were evaluated using a mean value approach. The measured mass loss in the TGA experiments and the measured location of the decomposition front were within the 95% prediction limit determined using the CPUF model for all of the

  16. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  17. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  18. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  19. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  20. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  1. Closed cell metal foam method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Foamed metals and metal alloys which have a closed cellular structure are prepared by heating a metal body containing entrapped inert gas uniformly distributed throughout to a temperature above the melting point of the metal and maintaining the body at this temperature a period of time sufficient to permit the entrapped gas to expand, forming individual cells within the molten metal, thus expanding and foaming the molten metal. After cell formation has reached the desired amount, the foamed molten metal body is cooled to below the melting temperature of the metal. The void area or density of the foamed metal is controlled by predetermining the amount of inert gas entrapped in the metal body and by the period of time the metal body is maintained in the molten state. This method is useful for preparing foamed metals and metal alloys from any metal or other material of which a body containing entrapped inert gas can be prepared.

  2. Method of casting pitch based foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.

    2002-01-01

    A process for producing molded pitch based foam is disclosed which minimizes cracking. The process includes forming a viscous pitch foam in a container, and then transferring the viscous pitch foam from the container into a mold. The viscous pitch foam in the mold is hardened to provide a carbon foam having a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts.

  3. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well ...

  4. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  5. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  6. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi; Griffin, John A.

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  7. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mead, Judith W.; Montoya, Orelio J.; Rand, Peter B.; Willan, Vernon O.

    1984-01-01

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO.sub.2 in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  8. Low density carbonized composite foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Fung-Ming

    1993-01-01

    A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm.sup.3 and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 .mu.m in diameter is described, and the process of making it.

  9. Low density carbonized composite foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Fung-Ming

    1991-01-01

    A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm.sup.3 and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 .mu.m in diameter is described, and the process of making it.

  10. Electrical and dielectric properties of foam injection-molded polypropylene/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ameli, A.; Nofar, M.; Saniei, M.; Hossieny, N.; Park, C. B.; Pötschke, P.

    2015-05-22

    A combination of high dielectric permittivity (ε′) and low dielectric loss (tan δ) is required for charge storage applications. In percolative systems such as conductive polymer composites, however, obtaining high ε′ and low tan δ is very challenging due to the sharp insulation-conduction transition near the threshold region. Due to the particular arrangement of conductive fillers induced by both foaming and injection molding processes, they may address this issue. Therefore, this work evaluates the application of foam injection molding process in fabricating polymer nanocomposites for energy storage. Polypropylene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PP-MWCNT) composites were prepared by melt mixing and foamed in an injection molding process. Electrical conductivity (σ), ε′ and tan δ were then characterized. Also, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) was used to investigate the carbon nanotube’s arrangement as well as cellular morphology. The results showed that foam injection-molded composites exhibited highly superior dielectric properties to those of solid counterparts. For instance, foamed samples had ε′=68.3 and tan δ =0.05 (at 1.25 vol.% MWCNT), as opposed to ε′=17.8 and tan δ=0.04 in solid samples (at 2.56 vol.% MWCNT). The results of this work reveal that high performance dielectric nanocomposites can be developed using foam injection molding technologies for charge storage applications.

  11. Explosively driven low-density foams and powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viecelli, James A.; Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.

    2010-05-04

    Hollow RX-08HD cylindrical charges were loaded with boron and PTFE, in the form of low-bulk density powders or powders dispersed in a rigid foam matrix. Each charge was initiated by a Comp B booster at one end, producing a detonation wave propagating down the length of the cylinder, crushing the foam or bulk powder and collapsing the void spaces. The PdV work done in crushing the material heated it to high temperatures, expelling it in a high velocity fluid jet. In the case of boron particles supported in foam, framing camera photos, temperature measurements, and aluminum witness plates suggest that the boron was completely vaporized by the crush wave and that the boron vapor turbulently mixed with and burned in the surrounding air. In the case of PTFE powder, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of residues recovered from fragments of a granite target slab suggest that heating was sufficient to dissociate the PTFE to carbon vapor and molecular fluorine which reacted with the quartz and aluminum silicates in the granite to form aluminum oxide and mineral fluoride compounds.

  12. Supercapacitors based on carbon foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  13. Process for making carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.

    2000-01-01

    The process obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

  14. Supercapacitors based on carbon foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1993-11-09

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m[sup 2]/g-1000 m[sup 2]/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figures.

  15. Metal-doped organic foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinde, James A.

    1982-01-01

    Organic foams having a low density and very small cell size and method for producing same in either a metal-loaded or unloaded (nonmetal loaded) form are described. Metal-doped foams are produced by soaking a polymer gel in an aqueous solution of desired metal salt, soaking the gel successively in a solvent series of decreasing polarity to remove water from the gel and replace it with a solvent of lower polarity with each successive solvent in the series being miscible with the solvents on each side and being saturated with the desired metal salt, and removing the last of the solvents from the gel to produce the desired metal-doped foam having desired density cell size, and metal loading. The unloaded or metal-doped foams can be utilized in a variety of applications requiring low density, small cell size foam. For example, rubidium-doped foam made in accordance with the invention has utility in special applications, such as in x-ray lasers.

  16. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: CDC Realty, Tucson, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This builder worked with Building Science Corporation to design HERS-54 homes with ducts in insulated attics, solar water heating, tight air sealing, and rigid foam exterior sheathing.

  17. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case study of Urbane Homes who worked with Building America research partner NAHBRC to build HERS-57 homes with rigid foam insulated slabs and foundation walls, advanced framed ...

  18. Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... steel studs Unpainted drywall Perimeter frame R-7.5 XPS rigid foam insulation w ... T: temperature Exterior sheathing 7 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov ...

  19. DOE Tour of Zero: Hickory Drive by Glastonbury Housesmith | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to track the sun, maximizing electrical power generation so it can produce enough electricity ... The continuous basement thermal blanket employs 4-inch-thick rigid foam insulation ...

  20. Insulating polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schorr, H. Peter; Fontana, Jack J.; Steinberg, Meyer

    1987-01-01

    A lightweight insulating polymer concrete formed from a lightweight closed cell aggregate and a water resistance polymeric binder.

  1. SPRAY FOAM IN ACCESSIBLE SPACES:BEST PRACTICES AND CASE STUDIES FOR RETROFIT IN MIXED-HUMID CLIMATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, Jeffrey E; Gant, Kathy

    2013-12-01

    Heating and cooling the house is one of the homeowners major expenses. Reducing these costs, saving energy, and creating a healthier, more comfortable indoor environment are good reasons to consider improving the building thermal envelope. Improvements usually consider increasing the amount of insulation, reducing the infiltration of outside air, and controlling moisture in existing buildings. This report describes the use of spray foam materials to insulate, seal, and control moisture. This discussion is limited to treating areas that are accessible. What is accessible, however, can vary depending on the type of renovation. If the building has been gutted or exterior surfaces removed, there are more options. This report will look at areas to consider for spray foam application and discuss the types of spray foams available and their uses. A number of case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of this retrofit in existing houses based on performance data.

  2. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen

    2005-03-16

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research is to lay the groundwork for more-applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media.

  3. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen

    2005-01-05

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media.

  4. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen

    2004-06-14

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media. Significant progress was made during this period on all three Tasks. Regarding Task 1, we continued comparisons of foam behavior in sandpacks with and without polymer and oil. As in our previous results, decane was moderately destabilizing to foam. Xanthan polymer did not stabilize foam in the presence of decane in this case. Rather, it appears to have destabilized foam, so that pressure gradient decreased in spite of the increase in aqueous-phase viscosity. Research on Task 2 included the first shake-down experiments with our new apparatus for gas-phase tracer tests for direct measurement of trapped-gas saturation with foam. In addition, we began to analyze CT images of gas-phase tracer in foam displacements, which offers an independent measure of trapped-gas fraction and insights into the roles of convection of tracer in flowing gas and diffusion into trapped gas. Research on Task 3 included foam generation experiments in heterogeneous sandpacks and beadpacks and modeling of discontinuous changes in state such as foam generation. The experiments found the same three regimes (coarse foam, strong foam, and intermediate regime) in heterogeneous sandpacks previously identified in homogeneous porous media. One implication is that there may be a minimum flow rate required for foam generation in even heterogeneous porous media. The dynamics in SAG foam processes in heterogeneous media are complex

  5. Insulated solar storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldighidy, S.M. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical and experimental investigation of an insulated parallelepiped, outdoor solar, water-filled storage tank of size 1 m {times} 0.5 m {times} 0.3 m, that is made from galvanized iron. The absorption coefficient of the insulating material has been determined. The effects of plastic covers and insulation thickness on the water temperature and the energy gained or lost by water are investigated. Moreover, the effects of insulation thickness on the temperature profiles of the insulating material are discussed. The results show that the absorption coefficient decreases as the insulation thickness increases. Also, it is found that the glass wool insulation of 2.5 cm thickness has the best results compared with the other thicknesses (5 cm, 7.5 cm, and 10 cm) as far as the water temperature and the energy gained by water are concerned.

  6. Structural foam-core panels in Northwest HUD-code manufactured housing: A preliminary assessment of opportunities and obstacles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durfee, D.L.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1993-07-01

    This investigation of structural foam-core panels (foam panels) in manufactured housing was initiated during the Super Good Cents (SGC) program. The SGC program limited allowable glazing area because of the relatively high thermal losses associated with most windows. Due to their superior thermal performance, foam panels appeared to be a viable option to allow increased glazing area without compromising the thermal integrity of the wall. With the inception of the Manufactured-Housing Acquisition Program (MAP), however, the focus of this study has shifted. MAP permits unlimited glazing area if expensive, super-efficient, vinyl-framed, argon-gas-filled, low-emissivity coated windows are installed. Although MAP permits unlimited glazing area, a foam panel wall could allow the use of less expensive windows, larger window area, or less insulation and still provide the required thermal performance for the building. Bonneville contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the feasibility of using foam panels in HUD-code manufactured housing. This study presents the results from a product and literature search. The potential barriers and benefits to the use of foam panels are determined from a regional survey of the HUD-code manufacturers and foam panel producers.

  7. Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam Berkeley Lab researchers mathematically describe the complex evolution and disappearance of foamy bubbles May 9, ...

  8. CFD Modeling for Lost Foam White Side

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The lost foam casting process produces clean, high-quality castings with close tolerances. The most important advantage is that no cores (with binders) are required. One challenge in lost foam...

  9. Tips: Insulation | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    open-cell. Both are typically made with polyurethane. With closed-cell foam, the high-density cells are closed and filled with a gas that helps the foam expand to fill the spaces...

  10. Test Report: Cost Effective Foundation Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; T. E. Rahl; G. A. Twitchell; R. G. Kobbe

    2003-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to demonstrate and quantify the thermal effectiveness of rigid insulation board when installed on the exterior of a buried concrete foundation wall. A heated, insulated box was constructed along one wall of an existing, unheated building to simulate the living space of a home. The crawl space beneath the living space was divided into two sections. One featured external foundation insulation, while the other side had none. 36 temperature and heat flux sensors were installed at predetermined locations to measure the temperature profile and heat flow out of the living space. The temperature profile through the foundation was then used to calculate the total heat flow out of the foundation for both cases. This experiment showed that a significant energy savings is available with exterior foundation insulation. Over the course of 3 months, the heat-loss differential between the insulated and non-insulated foundations was 4.95 kilowatt-hours per lineal foot of foundation wall, for a ratio of 3:1. For a 2200 sq. ft home with a foundation perimeter 200 ft. long, this would amount to a savings of 990 kW-hrs in just 3 months, or 330 kW-hrs per month. Extrapolating to an 8-month heating year, we would expect to save over 2640 kW-hrs per year for such a home. The savings for a basement foundation, rather than a crawlspace, would be approach twice that amount, nearing 5280 kW-hr per year. Because these data were not collected during the coldest months of the year, they are conservative, and greater savings may be expected during colder periods.

  11. Microcellular carbon foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.

    1993-05-04

    A microcellular carbon foam is characterized by a density in the range of about 30 to 1,000 mg/cm[sup 3], substantially uniform distribution of cell sizes of diameters less than 100 [mu]m with a majority of the cells being of a diameter of less than about 10 [mu]m. The foam has a well interconnected strut morphology providing open porosity, and an expanded d(002) X-ray turbostatic spacing greater than 3.50 angstroms. The precursor for the carbon foam is prepared by the phase inversion of polyacrylonitrile in a solution consisting essentially of at least one alkali metal halide and a phase inversion solvent for the polyacrylonitrile.

  12. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spear, Jonathan D

    2011-07-05

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  13. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D.; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  14. The Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards -- implications for foam panel construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.D.; Schrock, D.W.; Flintoft, S.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report reviews the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development construction code for (HUD-code) manufactured homes, Part 3280: Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (the HUD Code), to identify sections that might be relevant in determining if insulated foam core panels (or structural insulated panels, SIPs) meet the requirements of Part 3280 for use in manufactured home construction. The U.S. Department of Energy and other parties are interested in the use of SIPs in residential construction, including HUD-Code manufactured homes, because the foam panels can have a higher effective insulation value than standard stud-framed construction and use less dimensional lumber. Although SIPs have not been used in manufactured housing, they may be well suited to the factory production process used to manufacture HUD-Code homes and the fact that they require less virgin timber may reduce the effect of volatile and increasing timber prices. Part 3280 requirements for fire resistance, wind resistance, structural load strength, ventilation, transportation shock, and thermal protection are reviewed. A brief comparison is made between the HUD Code requirements and data collected from foam panel manufacturers. 8 refs.

  15. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  16. Process for epoxy foam production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celina, Mathias C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-23

    An epoxy resin mixture with at least one epoxy resin of between approximately 60 wt % and 90 wt %, a maleic anhydride of between approximately 1 wt % and approximately 30 wt %, and an imidazole catalyst of less than approximately 2 wt % where the resin mixture is formed from at least one epoxy resin with a 1-30 wt % maleic anhydride compound and an imidazole catalyst at a temperature sufficient to keep the maleic anhydride compound molten, the resin mixture reacting to form a foaming resin which can then be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form an epoxy foam.

  17. Microcellular carbon foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.

    1993-01-01

    A microcellular carbon foam characterized by a density in the range of about 30 to 1000 mg/cm.sup.3, substantially uniform distribution of cell sizes of diameters less than 100 .mu.m with a majority of the cells being of a diameter of less than about 10 .mu.m, well interconnected strut morphology providing open porosity, and an expanded d(002) X-ray turbostatic spacing greater than 3.50 angstroms. The precursor for the carbon foam is prepared by the phase inversion of polyacrylonitrile in a solution consisting essentially of at least one alkali metal halide and a phase inversion solvent for the polyacrylonitrile.

  18. Microcellular carbon foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.

    1994-01-01

    A microcellular carbon foam characterized by a density in the range of about 30 to 1000 mg/cm.sup.3, substantially uniform distribution of cell sizes of diameters less than 100 .mu.m with a majority of the cells being of a diameter of less than about 10 .mu.m, well interconnected strut morphology providing open porosity, and an expanded d(002) X-ray turbostatic spacing greater than 3.50 angstroms. The precursor for the carbon foam is prepared by the phase inversion of polyacrylonitrile in a solution consisting essentially of at least one alkali metal halide and a phase inversion solvent for the polyacrylonitrile.

  19. Microcellular carbon foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.

    1993-12-07

    A microcellular carbon foam is characterized by a density in the range of about 30 to 1000 mg/cm[sup 3], substantially uniform distribution of cell sizes of diameters less than 100 [mu]m with a majority of the cells being of a diameter of less than about 10 [mu]m, well interconnected strut morphology providing open porosity, and an expanded d(002) X-ray turbostatic spacing greater than 3.50 angstroms. The precursor for the carbon foam is prepared by the phase inversion of polyacrylonitrile in a solution consisting essentially of at least one alkali metal halide and a phase inversion solvent for the polyacrylonitrile.

  20. Superconducting Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Topological Insulators Superconducting Topological Insulators Print Wednesday, 26 January 2011 00:00 Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), discovered experimentally in 2007-2009 by a Princeton-ALS collaboration, are a promising platform for developing the next generation of electronics. Electrons within one nanometer of a TI's surface move at high speeds in a "light-like" fashion. The quantum interactions that generate these electronic states cause individual

  1. Foam Transport in Porous Media - A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhong, Lirong

    2009-11-11

    Amendment solutions with or without surfactants have been used to remove contaminants from soil. However, it has drawbacks such that the amendment solution often mobilizes the plume, and its movement is controlled by gravity and preferential flow paths. Foam is an emulsion-like, two-phase system in which gas cells are dispersed in a liquid and separated by thin liquid films called lamellae. Potential advantages of using foams in sub-surface remediation include providing better control on the volume of fluids injected, uniformity of contact, and the ability to contain the migration of contaminant laden liquids. It is expected that foam can serve as a carrier of amendments for vadose zone remediation, e.g., at the Hanford Site. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s EM-20 program, a numerical simulation capability will be added to the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) flow simulator. The primary purpose of this document is to review the modeling approaches of foam transport in porous media. However, as an aid to understanding the simulation approaches, some experiments under unsaturated conditions and the processes of foam transport are also reviewed. Foam may be formed when the surfactant concentration is above the critical micelle concentration. There are two main types of foams – the ball foam (microfoam) and the polyhedral foam. The characteristics of bulk foam are described by the properties such as foam quality, texture, stability, density, surface tension, disjoining pressure, etc. Foam has been used to flush contaminants such as metals, organics, and nonaqueous phase liquids from unsaturated soil. Ball foam, or colloidal gas aphrons, reportedly have been used for soil flushing in contaminated site remediation and was found to be more efficient than surfactant solutions on the basis of weight of contaminant removed per gram of surfactant. Experiments also indicate that the polyhedral foam can be used to enhance soil remediation. The

  2. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Tindall Homes, Columbus, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-04-01

    The builder worked with IBACOS to build 20 HERS-58 homes with R-49 mixed attic insulation, poly-iso foam in advanced framed walls, precast concrete basement walls with rigid foam, tight airsealing, and HRV

  3. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Cobblestone Homes, Midland...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    heel trusses, closed-cell spray foam over the top plates, and 15 inches of blown cellulose; a basement insulated with1-inch of rigid XPS foam on the inside and the outside of...

  4. Loose-fill insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    Whether you are increasing the insulation levels in your current home or selecting insulation for a new home, choosing the right insulation material can be challenging. Fibrous loose-fill insulations such as cellulose, fiberglass, and rock wool are options you may wish to consider. This publication will introduce you to these materials--what they are, how they are applied, how they compare with each other, and other considerations regarding their use--so that you can decide whether loose fills are right for your home.

  5. Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Ainslie T.; Marsters, Robert G.; Moreno, Dawn K.

    1984-01-01

    A microcellular low density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) which is particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 .mu.m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given; and the yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

  6. Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, A.T.

    1982-03-03

    A microcellular low-density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 ..mu..m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given. The yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

  7. Method of making a cyanate ester foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

    2014-08-05

    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Excavationless: Exterior-Side Foundation Insulation for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. This project describes an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home that uses hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  9. Gas insulated transmission line with insulators having field controlling recesses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Pederson, Bjorn O. (Chelmsford, MA)

    1984-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line having a novel insulator for supporting an inner conductor concentrically within an outer sheath. The insulator has a recess contiguous with the periphery of one of the outer and inner conductors. The recess is disposed to a depth equal to an optimum gap for the dielectric insulating fluid used for the high voltage insulation or alternately disposed to a large depth so as to reduce the field at the critical conductor/insulator interface.

  10. SPUF - a simple polyurethane foam mass loss and response model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, Michael L.; Lemmon, Gordon H.

    2003-07-01

    A Simple PolyUrethane Foam (SPUF) mass loss and response model has been developed to predict the behavior of unconfined, rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam-filled systems exposed to fire-like heat fluxes. The model, developed for the B61 and W80-0/1 fireset foam, is based on a simple two-step mass loss mechanism using distributed reaction rates. The initial reaction step assumes that the foam degrades into a primary gas and a reactive solid. The reactive solid subsequently degrades into a secondary gas. The SPUF decomposition model was implemented into the finite element (FE) heat conduction codes COYOTE [1] and CALORE [2], which support chemical kinetics and dynamic enclosure radiation using 'element death.' A discretization bias correction model was parameterized using elements with characteristic lengths ranging from 1-mm to 1-cm. Bias corrected solutions using the SPUF response model with large elements gave essentially the same results as grid independent solutions using 100-{micro}m elements. The SPUF discretization bias correction model can be used with 2D regular quadrilateral elements, 2D paved quadrilateral elements, 2D triangular elements, 3D regular hexahedral elements, 3D paved hexahedral elements, and 3D tetrahedron elements. Various effects to efficiently recalculate view factors were studied -- the element aspect ratio, the element death criterion, and a 'zombie' criterion. Most of the solutions using irregular, large elements were in agreement with the 100-{micro}m grid-independent solutions. The discretization bias correction model did not perform as well when the element aspect ratio exceeded 5:1 and the heated surface was on the shorter side of the element. For validation, SPUF predictions using various sizes and types of elements were compared to component-scale experiments of foam cylinders that were heated with lamps. The SPUF predictions of the decomposition front locations were compared to the front locations determined from real-time X

  11. Insulation Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Insulation Materials Cellulose, a fiber insulation material with a high recycled content, is blown into a home attic. | Photo courtesy of Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association. Cellulose, a fiber insulation material with a high recycled content, is blown into a home attic. | Photo courtesy of Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association. Blown-in fiberglass insulation thoroughly fills the stud cavities in this home. | Photo courtesy of Bob Hendron, NREL. Blown-in fiberglass

  12. Weak rigidity in the PPN formalism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Olmo, V.; Olivert, J.

    1987-04-01

    The influence of the concept of weakly rigid almost-thermodynamic material schemes on the classical deformations is analyzed. The methods of the PPN approximation are considered. In this formalism, the equations that characterize the weak rigidity are expressed. As a consequence of that, an increase of two orders of magnitude in the strain rate tensor is obtained.

  13. Tips: Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    blown into walls, on attic surfaces, or under floors to insulate and reduce air leakage. ... Consequently, the levels may differ from current local building codes. How Much Insulation ...

  14. Dielectric insulating polyolefin compounds and conductor products insulated therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKenzie, Jr., Burton T.; Prober, Maurice; Kiersztyn, Stanley E.

    1979-01-01

    Polyolefin compounds containing nitrile polysiloxane fluid which have improved electrical properties, and electrical conductors insulated therewith.

  15. Microcellular carbon foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.

    1994-04-05

    A microcellular carbon foam is described which is characterized by a density in the range of about 30 to 1000 mg/cm[sup 3], substantially uniform distribution of cell sizes of diameters less than 100 [mu]m with a majority of the cells being of a diameter of less than about 10 [mu]m, well interconnected strut morphology providing open porosity, and an expanded d(002) X-ray turbostatic spacing greater than 3.50 angstroms. The precursor for the carbon foam is prepared by the phase inversion of polyacrylonitrile in a solution consisting essentially of at least one alkali metal halide and a phase inversion solvent for the polyacrylonitrile.

  16. LOST FOAM CASTING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL; Currie, Kenneth [Tennessee Technological University; Abdelrahman, Mohamed [Tennessee Technological University; Vondra, Fred [Tennessee Technological University; Walford, Graham [Walford Technologies; Nolan, Dennis J [Foseco-Morval

    2007-01-01

    The lost foam casting process has been successfully used for making aluminum and cast iron thin walled castings of complex geometries. Little work has been carried out on cast magnesium alloys using the lost foam process. The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings. The plate castings were designed to investigate the mold filling characteristics of magnesium and aluminum alloys using an infrared camera. The pate castings were then characterized for porosity distribution. The window castings were made to test the castability of the alloys under lost foam conditions. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

  17. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Erik P; Tappan, Bryce; Mueller, Alex; Mihaila, Bogdan; Volz, Heather; Cardenas, Andreas; Papin, Pallas; Veauthier, Jackie; Stan, Marius

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  18. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  19. Structural Analysis of Sandwich Foam Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan; Huo, X. Sharon

    2010-04-01

    The Sandwich Panel Technologies including Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) can be used to replace the conventional wooden-frame construction method. The main purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and SGI Venture, Inc. was to design a novel high R-value type of metal sandwich panelized technology. This CRADA project report presents design concept discussion and numerical analysis results from thermal performance study of this new building envelope system. The main objective of this work was to develop a basic concept of a new generation of wall panel technologies which will have R-value over R-20 will use thermal mass to improve energy performance in cooling dominated climates and will be 100% termite resistant. The main advantages of using sandwich panels are as follows: (1) better energy saving structural panels with high and uniform overall wall R-value across the elevation that could not be achieved in traditional walls; and (2) reducing the use of raw materials or need for virgin lumber. For better utilization of these Sandwich panels, engineers need to have a thorough understanding of the actual performance of the panels and system. Detailed analysis and study on the capacities and deformation of individual panels and its assembly have to be performed to achieve that goal. The major project activity was to conduct structural analysis of the stresses, strains, load capacities, and deformations of individual sandwich components under various load cases. The analysis simulated the actual loading conditions of the regular residential building and used actual material properties of the steel facings and foam.

  20. Insulation fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    Electricity bills, oil bills, gas bills - all homeowners pay for one or more of these utilities, and wish they paid less. Often many of us do not really know how to control or reduce our utility bills. We resign ourselves to high bills because we think that is the price we have to pay for a comfortable home. We encourage our children to turn off the lights and appliances, but may not recognize the benefits of insulating the attic. This publication provides facts relative to home insulation. It discusses where to insulate, what products to use, the decision making process, installation options, and sources of additional information.

  1. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing carbon foam or a composite is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

  2. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.

    2002-01-01

    A process for producing carbon foam or a composite is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

  3. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.

    2003-12-02

    A process for producing carbon foam or a composite is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

  4. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.

    2003-12-16

    A process for producing carbon foam or a composite is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

  5. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  6. Process for preparing silicon carbide foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, LeRoy Louis; Nichols, Monte Carl; Wheeler, David Roger; Loy, Douglas Anson

    1997-01-01

    A method of preparing near net shape, monolithic, porous SiC foams is disclosed. Organosilicon precursors are used to produce polymeric gels by thermally induced phase separation, wherein, a sufficiently concentrated solution of an organosilicon polymer is cooled below its solidification temperature to form a gel. Following solvent removal from the gel, the polymer foam is pretreated in an oxygen plasma in order to raise its glass transition temperature. The pretreated foam is then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere to form a SiC foam.

  7. Process for preparing silicon carbide foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, L.L.; Nichols, M.C.; Wheeler, D.R.; Loy, D.A.

    1997-09-16

    A method of preparing near net shape, monolithic, porous SiC foams is disclosed. Organosilicon precursors are used to produce polymeric gels by thermally induced phase separation, wherein, a sufficiently concentrated solution of an organosilicon polymer is cooled below its solidification temperature to form a gel. Following solvent removal from the gel, the polymer foam is pretreated in an oxygen plasma in order to raise its glass transition temperature. The pretreated foam is then pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form a SiC foam. 9 figs.

  8. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media. The most significant progress during this period was made on Tasks 2 and 3. Research on Task 2 focused on experiments on gas trapping during liquid injection. A novel apparatus, similar to that in Kibodeaux and Rossen (1997), monitors average water saturation in a core moment-by-moment by weighing the core. Our experiments find that water saturation increases more during liquid injection than previously conjectured--in other words, less gas is trapped by liquid injection than previously thought. A number of unexpected trends in behavior were observed. It appears that these can be reconciled to previous theory of gas trapping by foam (Cheng et al., 2001) given that the experimental conditions were different from previous experiments. Results will be described in detail in the PhD dissertation of Qiang Xu, expected to be completed in early 2003. Regarding Task 3, recent laboratory research in a wide range of porous media shows that creating foam in steady flow in homogeneous media requires exceeding a minimum pressure gradient (Gauglitz et al., 2002). Data fit trends predicted by a theory in which foam generation depends on attaining sufficient {del}p to mobilize liquid lenses present before foam generation. Data show three regimes: a coarse-foam regime at low {del}p, strong foam at high {del}p, and, in between, a transient regime alternating between weaker and stronger foam. We for the first

  9. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen

    2003-01-28

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media. The most significant progress during this period was made on Tasks 2 and 3. Research on Task 2 focused on simulating the effect of gas trapping on foam mobility during foam injection and during subsequent injection of liquid. Gas trapping during liquid injection is crucial both to injectivity during liquid injection in surfactant-alternating-gas foam (SAG) projects and also provides a window into trapping mechanisms that apply during foam flow. We updated our simulator for foam (Rossen et al., 1999; Cheng et al., 2000) to account explicitly for the first time for the effects of gas trapping on gas mobility in foam and in liquid injected after foam, and for the effects of pressure gradient on gas trapping. The foam model fits steady-state foam behavior in both high- and low-quality flow regimes (Alvarez et al., 2001) and steady-state liquid mobility after foam. The simulator also fits the transition period between foam and liquid injection in laboratory corefloods qualitatively with no additional adjustable parameters. Research on Task 3 focused on foam generation in homogeneous porous media. In steady gas-liquid flow in homogeneous porous media with surfactant present, there is often observed a critical injection velocity or pressure gradient {del}{sub p}{sup min} at which foam generation occurs. Earlier research on foam generation was extended with extensive data for a variety of porous

  10. Corrosiveness of wet residential building thermal insulation---Mechanisms and evaluation of electrochemical methods for assessing corrosion behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stansbury, E.E. , Knoxville, TN )

    1991-10-01

    An evaluation has been made of the corrosiveness of selected wet residential building thermal insulation materials in contact with low carbon steel. Investigations were conducted both in wet insulations and in filtered leachates from insulations derived from thirteen cellulosic, three mineral fiber and four foam products. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements are reported from which the overall corrosion response was assessed and then the techniques of Tafel and polarization resistance analysis applied to estimate corrosion rates. Corrosion rates were also estimated electrochemically using a direct reading instrument which performs the rate calculation based on the polarization resistance principle. Direct determinations of corrosion rate were based on weight loss measurements.

  11. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?!

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    James Valles

    2010-01-08

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions. 

  12. DOE Tour of Zero: The Shore Road Project by Murphy Brothers Contractin...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    floor slab. 9 of 13 The ultra-efficient wall insulation consists of insulated concrete form (ICF) construction where rigid foam blocks have steel-reinforcing added and are...

  13. Insulator for laser housing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, D.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member. 3 figs.

  14. Superconducting Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Topological Insulators Print Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), discovered experimentally in 2007-2009 by a Princeton-ALS collaboration, are a promising platform for developing the next generation of electronics. Electrons within one nanometer of a TI's surface move at high speeds in a "light-like" fashion. The quantum interactions that generate these electronic states cause individual electrons to be spin polarized even at room temperature and to strongly

  15. Superconducting Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Topological Insulators Print Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), discovered experimentally in 2007-2009 by a Princeton-ALS collaboration, are a promising platform for developing the next generation of electronics. Electrons within one nanometer of a TI's surface move at high speeds in a "light-like" fashion. The quantum interactions that generate these electronic states cause individual electrons to be spin polarized even at room temperature and to strongly

  16. Superconducting Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Topological Insulators Print Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), discovered experimentally in 2007-2009 by a Princeton-ALS collaboration, are a promising platform for developing the next generation of electronics. Electrons within one nanometer of a TI's surface move at high speeds in a "light-like" fashion. The quantum interactions that generate these electronic states cause individual electrons to be spin polarized even at room temperature and to strongly

  17. Vacuum foil insulation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, John P.; Sabolcik, Rudolph E.; Svedberg, Robert C.

    1976-11-16

    In a multifoil thermal insulation package having a plurality of concentric cylindrical cups, means are provided for reducing heat loss from the penetration region which extends through the cups. At least one cup includes an integral skirt extending from one end of the cup to intersection with the penetration means. Assembly of the insulation package with the skirted cup is facilitated by splitting the cup to allow it to be opened up and fitted around the other cups during assembly.

  18. Superconducting Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Topological Insulators Print Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), discovered experimentally in 2007-2009 by a Princeton-ALS collaboration, are a promising platform for developing the next generation of electronics. Electrons within one nanometer of a TI's surface move at high speeds in a "light-like" fashion. The quantum interactions that generate these electronic states cause individual electrons to be spin polarized even at room temperature and to strongly

  19. Superconducting Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Topological Insulators Print Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), discovered experimentally in 2007-2009 by a Princeton-ALS collaboration, are a promising platform for developing the next generation of electronics. Electrons within one nanometer of a TI's surface move at high speeds in a "light-like" fashion. The quantum interactions that generate these electronic states cause individual electrons to be spin polarized even at room temperature and to strongly

  20. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, B.; Daniels, E.; Libera, J.A.

    1999-03-16

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam. 4 figs.

  1. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, Bassam; Daniels, Edward; Libera, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam.

  2. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM ...

  3. Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies A system for ...

  4. Ultra Low Density Amorphous Shape Memory polymer Foams. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultra Low Density Amorphous Shape Memory polymer Foams. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density Amorphous Shape Memory polymer Foams. You are accessing a ...

  5. Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies Title: Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies A system for occluding a physical anomaly. One embodiment ...

  6. Geophysical monitoring of foam used to deliver remediation treatments...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geophysical monitoring of foam used to deliver remediation treatments within the vadose zone Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geophysical monitoring of foam used to ...

  7. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media. Significant progress was made during this period on all three Tasks. Regarding Task 1, we studied the behavior of foam made without polymer, with low-molecular-weight and high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide, and with xanthan polymer in sandpacks. Results consistently showed that polymer does not stabilize foam in porous media per se. Rather, it destabilizes foam to some extent, but may increase the viscosity of water sufficiently to increase the resistance to flow in spite of the lower intrinsic stability of the foam. This is consistent with the hypothesis the motivated our study. Results also showed that polymer shifts behavior from the high-quality foam-flow regime toward the low-quality regime, consistent with our initial hypothesis. Other aspects of the experimental results were puzzling and are discussed in the text of this report. Research on Task 2 included building an apparatus for gas-phase tracer tests for direct measurement of trapped-gas saturation with foam. We also investigated the nature of the low-quality foam regime, which is thought to be controlled by gas trapping and mobilization. In both the studies of polymers and foam and separate studies of CO{sub 2} foam, we observed behavior that seems to be related to the low-quality regime, but shows unexpected trends: specifically, a decrease in pressure gradient with increasing liquid injection rate, at fixed gas injection rate

  8. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However, uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and the procedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  9. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.1 Building Materials/Insulation

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Thermal Performance of Insulation Fiberglass (2) Perlite/Vermiculite Batts (3) Loose-Fill 2.1 - 3.7 Loose-Fill Foam Boards Spray-Applied Expanded Polystyrene 3.9 - 4.4 Rock Wool (2) Polyisocyanurate/Polyurethane 5.6 - 7.0 Loose-Fill Phenolic 4.4 - 8.2 Cellulose Reflective Insulation 2 - 17 Loose-Fill Vacuum Powder Insulation 25 - 30 Spray-Applied Vacuum Insulation Panel 20 - 100 Note(s): Source(s): 3.1 - 3.7 2.9 - 3.5 1) Hr-SF-F/Btu-in. Does not include the effects of aging and settling. 2)

  10. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Rossen

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media. The most significant progress during this period was made on Tasks 1 and 3. Research on Task 1 focused on selecting and characterizing a surfactant/polymer formulation for initial experiments. The two (high-quality and low-quality) strong-foam regimes were identified from steady-state coreflood data for the formulation without polymer, for comparison with behavior with polymer. This formulation showed unconventional behavior in the low-quality regime in that pressure gradient decreases at increasing liquid injection rate. Such behavior was not seen in most previous studies of foam, but it is consistent with dense-CO{sub 2} foam data recently obtained in our laboratory. We are considering the significance of the unconventional trend in the data and proceeding with initial experiments with polymer. Research on Task 3 focused on foam generation at limited pressure gradient in sandpacks. In these experiments liquid injection rate and pressure drop across the core are held fixed, and gas injection rate responds to creation and properties of foam. Initial experiments included three permeabilities (1.2, 3.6 and 5 darcy), three surfactant concentrations (0.12, 1.2 and 2.4 wt%) and two liquid injection rates (1.29 and 2.76 ft/day). Separating experimental artifacts from physical phenomena in these experiments is difficult and an ongoing process.

  11. Method of foaming a liquid metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Albert K.; Johnson, Carl E.

    1980-01-01

    The addition of a small quantity of barium to liquid metal NaK or sodium has been found to promote foam formation and improve bubble retention in the liquid metal. A stable liquid metal foam will provide a more homogeneous liquid metal flow through the channel of a two-phase liquid metal MHD power generator to improve operating efficiency.

  12. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  13. Foam generator and viscometer apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Troy D.; Pickell, Mark B.; Volk, Leonard J.

    2004-10-26

    An apparatus and process to generate a liquid-gas-surfactant foam and to measure its viscosity and enable optical and or electronic measurements of physical properties. The process includes the steps of pumping selected and measured liquids and measured gases into a mixing cell. The mixing cell is pressurized to a desired pressure and maintained at a desired pressure. Liquids and gas are mixed in the mixing cell to produce a foam of desired consistency. The temperature of the foam in the mixing cell is controlled. Foam is delivered from the mixing cell through a viscometer under controlled pressure and temperature conditions where the viscous and physical properties of the foam are measured and observed.

  14. Method for extruding pitch based foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extruding pitch based foam is disclosed. The method includes the steps of: forming a viscous pitch foam; passing the precursor through an extrusion tube; and subjecting the precursor in said extrusion tube to a temperature gradient which varies along the length of the extrusion tube to form an extruded carbon foam. The apparatus includes an extrusion tube having a passageway communicatively connected to a chamber in which a viscous pitch foam formed in the chamber paring through the extrusion tube, and a heating mechanism in thermal communication with the tube for heating the viscous pitch foam along the length of the tube in accordance with a predetermined temperature gradient.

  15. Types of Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    which saves money. Structural Insulated Panels Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are prefabricated insulated structural elements for use in building walls, ceilings, floors,...

  16. Black Mountain Insulation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain Insulation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Mountain Insulation Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based manufacturer of sheeps wool insulation which...

  17. Types of Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Insulating Concrete Forms Insulating concrete forms (ICFs) are basically forms for poured ... Unfaced boards can then be finished with reinforced insulating cement, canvas, or ...

  18. Physical properties of residential insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Research to evaluate properties, test methods and operating environments for thermal insulations used in residences is an important part of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Insulating Materials (BTESIM) program sponsored by the US DOE. Three projects were carried out under the Insulating Materials part of BTESIM. The areas discussed are: (1) the thermal performance of mineral fiber insulating batts, (2) the design density for loose-fill insulations, and (3) the operatio of recesses light fixtures covered by loose-fill cellulosic insulation.

  19. High temperature adhesive silicone foam composition, foam generating system and method of generating foam. [For access denial

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mead, J.W.; Montoya, O.J.; Rand, P.B.; Willan, V.O.

    1983-12-21

    Access to a space is impeded by generation of a sticky foam from a silicone polymer and a low boiling solvent such as a halogenated hydrocarbon. In a preferred aspect, the formulation is polydimethylsiloxane gel mixed with F502 Freon as a solvent and blowing agent, and pressurized with CO/sub 2/ in a vessel to about 250 PSI, whereby when the vessel is opened, a sticky and solvent resistant foam is deployed. The foam is deployable, over a wide range of temperatures, adhering to wet surfaces as well as dry, is stable over long periods of time and does not propagate flame or lose adhesive properties during an externally supported burn.

  20. Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam Math of Popping Bubbles in a Foam Berkeley Lab researchers mathematically describe the complex evolution and disappearance of foamy bubbles May 9, 2013 Media Contacts: UC Berkeley: Robert Sanders, rsanders@berkeley.edu, (510) 643-6998 Berkeley Lab: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, (510) 495-2404 Written By Robert Sanders Bubble baths and soapy dishwater, the refreshing head on a beer and the luscious froth on a cappuccino. All are foams, beautiful yet ephemeral as the

  1. The physical properties of microcellular composite foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyitray, A.M.; Williams, J.M.; Onn, D.; Witek, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Applied Thermal Physics Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    Recently we reported on a method of preparing microcellular composite foams. In this procedure an open-celled polystyrene foam is prepared by the polymerization of a high-internal-phase water-in-oil emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene, surfactant, free-radial initiator and water. After drying, the cells of the polystyrene foam are then filled with other materials such as aerogel or resoles. The physical properties of these materials, e.g., surface area, density, thermal conductivity, and compressive strength will be presented. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  3. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  4. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  5. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, J.L.; Pace, M.O.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    A resinous body is placed in gas-insulated electrical apparatus to remove particulate material from the insulating gas.

  6. Uniformly dense polymeric foam body

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy

    2003-07-15

    A method for providing a uniformly dense polymer foam body having a density between about 0.013 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.5 g/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. The method utilizes a thermally expandable polymer microsphere material wherein some of the microspheres are unexpanded and some are only partially expanded. It is shown that by mixing the two types of materials in appropriate ratios to achieve the desired bulk final density, filling a mold with this mixture so as to displace all or essentially all of the internal volume of the mold, heating the mold for a predetermined interval at a temperature above about 130.degree. C., and then cooling the mold to a temperature below 80.degree. C. the molded part achieves a bulk density which varies by less then about .+-.6% everywhere throughout the part volume.

  7. Coated foams, preparation, uses and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-10-21

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tension of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  8. Carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  9. New supply for canyon fire foam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gainey, T.

    1995-01-01

    The raw water supply for the B-Plant Canyon fire foam system is being replaced. The 4 inche water supply line to the foam system is being rerouted from the 6 inches raw water line in the Pipe Gallery to the 10 inches raw water main in the Operating Gallery. This document states the acceptance criteria for the flushing and testing to be performed by the contractor.

  10. Carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1996-06-25

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc--1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m{sup 2}/g-1000 m{sup 2}/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figs.

  11. Foam Generation in Homogeneous Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Friedman, F.; Kam, S. I.; Rossen, W. R.

    2002-10-01

    In steady gas-liquid flow in homogeneous porous media with surfactant present, there is often observed a critical injection velocity or pressure gradient ?grad p min? at which ?weak? or ?coarse? foam is abruptly converted into ?strong foam,? with reduction of one to two orders of magnitude in total mobility: i.e., ?foam generation.? Earlier research on foam generation is extended here with extensive data for a variety of porous media, permeabilities, gases (N2 and C02), surfactants, and temperatures. For bead and sandpacks, ?grad p min? scales like (1/k), where k is permeability, over 2 1/2 orders of magnitude in k; for consolidated media the relation is more complex. For dense C02 foam, ?grad p min? exists but can be less than 1 psi/ft. If pressure drop, rather than flow rates, is fixed, one observes and unstable regime between stable ?strong? and ?coarse? foam regimes; in the unstable regime ?grad p? is nonuniform in space or variable in time.

  12. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  13. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  14. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  15. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  16. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  17. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, Brent T.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  18. Improved DC Gun Insulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

    2009-05-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

  19. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanecek, David L.; Pike, Chester D.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  20. Insulation Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Insulation and Energy Efficiency Information: Home Energy: The Magazine of Residential Energy Conservation Addthis Related Articles In existing homes, cellulose (here) or other...

  1. Thermal insulations using vacuum panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Burke, Melissa S.

    1991-07-16

    Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

  2. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  3. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Russick, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150 o C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  4. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  5. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

  6. Co-doped titanium oxide foam and water disinfection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jian-Ku; Wu, Pinggui; Xie, Rong-Cai

    2016-01-26

    A quaternary oxide foam, comprises an open-cell foam containing (a) a dopant metal, (b) a dopant nonmetal, (c) titanium, and (d) oxygen. The foam has the advantages of a high surface area and a low back pressure during dynamic flow applications. The inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was demonstrated in a simple photoreactor.

  7. A COMPARISON OF TWO THERMAL INSULATION AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS FOR USE IN TYPE B PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-16

    This paper presents the summary of design features and test results of two Type B Shipping Package prototype configurations comprising different insulating materials developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Energy. The materials evaluated, a closed-cell polyurethane foam and a vacuformed ceramic fiber material, were selected to provide adequate structural protection to the package containment vessel during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and to provide thermal protection during the HAC fire. Polyurethane foam has been used in shipping package designs for many years because of the stiffness it provides to the structure and because of the thermal protection it provides during fire scenarios. This comparison describes how ceramic fiber material offers an alternative to the polyurethane foam in a specific overpack design. Because of the high operating temperature ({approx}2,300 F) of the ceramic material, it allows for contents with higher heat loads to be shipped than is possible with polyurethane foam. Methods of manufacturing and design considerations using the two materials will be addressed.

  8. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  9. Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bich, George J.; Gupta, Tapan K.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

  10. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, David V.; Cash, David L.

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer. A solid thermoplastic lymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infusant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.