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1

The 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Survey -- Two Decades  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1997 Residential Energy Consumption Survey presents two decades of changes in energy consumption related Household Characteristics

2

Two decades of internet video streaming: A retrospective view  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For over two decades, video streaming over the Internet has received a substantial amount of attention from both academia and industry. Starting from the design of transport protocols for streaming video, research interests have later shifted to the ... Keywords: HTTP streaming, P2P streaming, Video streaming, cloud computing, multicast, multimedia streaming, social media

Baochun Li, Zhi Wang, Jiangchuan Liu, Wenwu Zhu

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Two decades of hydrocarbon exploration activity in Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

During the past two decades, hydrocarbon exploration activity within Indonesia has been based on the Indonesian Energy Policy, aims of which include intensifying and expanding hydrocarbon exploration programs. Expansion into the offshore regions of the nation has resulted in the discovery of petroliferous basins. The first offshore oil production came on stream in 1971. Since then, significant achievements have been made in developing these resources. Intensified onshore exploration has resulted in additional oil fields being discovered in these more mature areas. Among the significant gas fields discovered during the past 20 years, Arun and Badak both supply major LNG projects. Oil fields have been found in the onshore areas of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java, and Irian Jaya, and in the offshore areas around West Java, Madura, Natuna, and East Kalimantan. The exploration drilling success during this time has been approximately 32%. In addition, the ratio of oil field development to these discoveries is about 54%. For technical and economic reasons, not all discoveries can be developed into oil fields. Recently, Pertamina's Research and Development Division organized the study of data contributed by Pertamina exploration, foreign contractors, and science institutes. This study reveals that 60 basins are spread throughout the onshore and offshore areas of the nation. Using PAUS (plan and analysis of uncertainty situation), a Monte Carolo simulation program, the hydrocarbon potential of each basin has been estimated. These estimates will be continually revised as more data are made available to the study, as the geology of Indonesia is better understood in terms of plate tectonic theory, and as computing techniques improve.

Suardy, A.; Taruno, J.; Simbolon, P.H.; Simbolon, B.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Two Decades of U.S. Household Trends in Energy-Intensity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This paper looks at two decades of energy–intensity trends. Energy intensity measures are often used as a measure of energy efficiency and its change over time.

5

Model Socialist Town, Two Decades Later: Contesting the Past in Nowa Huta, Poland.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work examines people’s experiences of the postsocialist transformation in Poland through the lens of memory. Since socialism’s collapse over two decades ago, Poland has… (more)

Pozniak, Kinga

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Weakening of the Kuroshio Intrusion into the South China Sea over the Past Two Decades  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inferred from the satellite and in situ hydrographic data from the 1990s and 2000s, the Kuroshio intrusion into the South China Sea (SCS) had a weakening trend over the past two decades. Associated with the weakened Kuroshio intrusion, the ...

Feng Nan; Huijie Xue; Fei Chai; Dongxiao Wang; Fei Yu; Maochong Shi; Peifang Guo; Peng Xiu

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Declination Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Declination Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name Declination Solar Place San Francisco, California Sector Solar Product San Francisco solar installation firm acquired by...

8

-OGP 04 (1) -Predicting Injectivity Decline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- OGP 04 (1) - Predicting Injectivity Decline in Water Injection Wells by Upscaling On-Site Core, resulting in injectivity decline of injection wells. Particles such as biomass, corrosion products, silt on permeability. These data were then processed, upscaled to model injection wells and, finally, history matched

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

9

Remotely sensed heat anomalies linked with Amazonian forest biomass declines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with Amazonian forest biomass declines Michael Toomey, 1 Darof aboveground living biomass (p biomass declines, Geophys. Res.

Toomey, M.; Roberts, D. A.; Still, C.; Goulden, M. L.; McFadden, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Urban Decline in Rust-Belt Cities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many Rust-Belt cities have seen almost half their populations move from inside the city borders to the surrounding suburbs and elsewhere since the 1970s. As populations shifted, neighborhoods changed—in their average income, educational profi le, and housing prices. But the shift did not happen in every neighborhood at the same rate. Recent research has uncovered some of the patterns characterizing the process. Most major Rust-Belt cities have seen their populations shrink since their heydays, and with that decline, the average income of the remaining residents has fallen as well. Cities such as Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, and Pittsburgh have each lost more than 40 percent of their populations over the last four decades. However, the losses have not been uniform across neighborhoods. Some neighborhoods have declined more rapidly than others. The uneven population decline across neighborhoods implies that the distributions of income, house prices, and human capital have also shifted within cities and the larger

Daniel Hartley

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Pemex faces up to field decline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although Mexican state oil company Pemex publishes only the most general statistics about its operations, there is indirect evidence that the nation's oil fields are in serious decline. To increase hydrocarbon production 3% a year, Pemex says it will be necessary to bring 1.6 million bopd of new production onstream over the next five years. When combined with estimated production from secondary recovery, this figure implies an annual field decline rate of 16%. The rate may even be higher for Mexico's two major oil provinces, Campeche and Reforma.

Baker, G.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On Thermodynamic and Microscopic Reversibility Abstract. Theof the University of California. On Thermodynamic andMicroscopic Reversibility Thermodynamic reversibility The

Crooks, Gavin E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Contributions of weather and fuel mix to recent declines in U.S.energy and carbon intensity  

SciTech Connect

A recent (1996-2000) acceleration of declines in energy andcarbon intensity in the U.S. remains largely unexplained. This study usesDivisia decomposition and regression to test two candidate explanations -fuel mix and weather. The Divisia method demonstrates that fuel mix doesnot explain the declines in carbon intensity. The fuel mix, both overalland for electricity generation, became slightly more carbon intensiveover the study period (though the slight trend reversed before the end ofthe period). A regression-based correction to the Divisia indices,accounting for variation in heating- and cooling-degree-days, indicatesthat warmer weather accounts for about 30 percent ofthe total declines.This leaves declines of more than 2 percent per year (and an accelerationof more than 1 percent over previous decade) remaining to beexplained.

Davis, W. Bart; Sanstad, Alan H.; Koomey, Jonathan G.

2002-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

14

Domestic oil production reversed decades-long decline in 2009 and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

While much of the increase in 2009 was associated with deepwater developments in the Federal Gulf of Mexico, the increase in 2010 was led by escalating horizontal ...

15

Our Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining Our Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining March 1, 2012 - 11:02am Addthis Image courtesy of whitehouse.gov Image courtesy of whitehouse.gov...

16

EM Occupational Injury and Illness Rates Continued to Decline...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EM Occupational Injury and Illness Rates Continued to Decline in Fiscal Year 2011 EM Occupational Injury and Illness Rates Continued to Decline in Fiscal Year 2011 February 1, 2012...

17

Quantum Operation Time Reversal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum operation, a linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix. Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic, the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the system relaxes towards equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.

Crooks, Gavin E

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Quantum Operation Time Reversal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum operation, a linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix. Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic, the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the system relaxes towards equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.

Gavin E. Crooks

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

19

NREL: Technology Deployment - Clean Cities Celebrates Two Decades...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

information about the Clean Cities 20th anniversary, read the latest issue of Clean Cities Now and visit the Clean Cities website. Learn more about NREL's support to Clean...

20

INTRODUCTION uring the past two decades the number of comput  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the production plants. l\\R RE}'ERENn;s I, Bedini. R. and Lisini, G. (1973), Computer control of milling machines. (1980). Adaptive control for the eighties. SME Technical Report M580-242. 10. Bedini, R. Lisini, G in millings. Trans. ASME, J. oj' [)vrwlI1ic Systems, Meas., and COll/rol, 108. pp. 56-64 59. Bedini. Rand

Michigan, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Decline curve derivative analysis for homogeneous and composite reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study, the rate decline and rate decline derivatives of a constant pressure well are presented for infinite, constant pressure outer boundary, and closed outer boundary homogeneous reservoirs. A rate derivative type curve is provided for these cases as well. The effects of the dimensionless reservoir exterior radius are discussed. Rate decline and rate decline derivatives of a constant pressure well in an infinite composite reservoir are also presented. For composite reservoirs, the effects of mobility ratios and discontinuity distance on both rate decline and rate decline derivatives are presented. Type curves for dimensionless wellbore flow rate derivatives for infinite composite reservoirs are provided. A new correlating group for the derivative type curve is provided, and is different than the correlating group for the rate type curve presented in the past. Finally, an analysis method that comprises type curve and derivative type curve matching to determine the dimensionless variables is proposed and demonstrated with a simulated example.

Demski, J.A.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

The Declining U.S. Equity Premium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study demonstrates U.S. equity premium declined significantly during the three decades. study calculates equity premium a variation a formula the classic Gordon stock valuation model. calculation includes bond yield, stock dividend yield, expected dividend growth rate, which this formulation change over study calculates premium several measures aggregate U.S. stock portfolio and several assumptions about bond yields stock dividends basically same result. premium averaged about percentage points during 1926--70 about percentage point that. This result is shown to reasonable by demonstrating roughly equal returns investments stocks consol bonds same duration would have earned between 1982 and 1999, years when equity premium is estimated views expressed herein those of authors and necessarily of Federal Reserve Bank Minneapolis Federal Reserve System. Historically, investors holding corporate equities have earned a premium, extra return holding equities instead of bonds, which more predictable returns. Es- timates equity premium in United States erage around 4 percentage points past centu- (Siegel 1998) around 7 percentage points 1926 period (Center Research in Security Prices). historical size of U.S. equity premium puz- economists since mid-1980s. Economists sumed size premium is primarily a measure compensation investors demand taking extra risk inherent equity investments. stan- dard asset pricing model which incorporates assump- been able account equity premium large 4 percentage points; with reasonable levels risk aversion and other standard assumptions, model pre- dicts instead a premium around 0.25 percentage point (Mehra Prescott 1985, Hansen and Jagannathan 1991). This discrepancy between data and theory come known as equity premium puzzle. puzzle some fruitful w...

Ravi Jagannathan; Ellen McGrattan; Anna Scherbina

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Energy Perspectives: United States energy imports decline while ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information ... Financial market analysis and financial data for major energy companies ... United States energy imports decline while energy exports increase.

24

Annual Production with 2 Percent Annual Growth & Decline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

It is unlikely that any single constant growth or decline rate would persist before or after the year of peak production. World oil production has sometimes ...

25

Reverse hoare logic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a novel Hoare-style logic, called Reverse Hoare Logic, which can be used to reason about state reachability of imperative programs. This enables us to give natural specifications to randomized (deterministic or nondeterministic) algorithms. ...

Edsko de Vries; Vasileios Koutavas

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Reversible and Irreversible Finestructure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various statistics of temperature profiles are examined in an attempt to distinguish irreversible structures due to mixing from reversible distortions induced by internal wave straining. Even if all the low gradient regions were the result of ...

Yves Desaubies; M. C. Gregg

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility  

SciTech Connect

The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

Crooks, Gavin E.

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

Field reversed ion rings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In typical field-reversed ion ring experiments, an intense annular ion beam is injected across a plasma-filled magnetic cusp region into a neutral gas immersed in a ramped solenoidal magnetic field. Assuming the characteristic ionization time is much shorter than the long ({ital t}{approx_gt}2{pi}/{Omega}{sub {ital i}}) beam evolution time scale, we investigate the formation of an ion ring in the background plasma followed by field reversal, using a 21/2-D hybrid, PIC code FIRE, in which the beam and background ions are treated as particles and the electrons as a massless fluid. We show that beam bunching and trapping occurs downstream in a ramped magnetic field for an appropriate set of experimental parameters. We find that a compact ion ring is formed and a large field reversal {zeta}={delta}{ital B}/{ital B}{approx_gt}1 on axis develops. We also observe significant deceleration of the ring on reflection due to the transfer of its axial momentum to the background ions, which creates favorable trapping conditions. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

Sudan, R.N.; Omelchenko, Y.A. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Supercritical fluid reverse micelle systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

of 1 ) United States Patent 5,158,704 Fulton ,   et al. October 27, 1992 Supercritical fluid reverse micelle systems

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Our Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Our Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining Our Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining Our Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining March 1, 2012 - 11:02am Addthis Image courtesy of whitehouse.gov Image courtesy of whitehouse.gov Megan Slack Deputy Director of Digital Content, White House Office of Digital Strategy What are the key facts? America's dependence on foreign oil has decreased every year since President Obama took office. We need an all-out, all-of-the-above strategy to protect Americans from high energy prices in the long run. Editor's Note: This post originally appeared on the White House Blog. America's dependence on foreign oil has gone down every single year since President Obama took office. In 2010, we imported less than 50 percent of the oil our nation consumed-the first time that's happened in 13

31

Our Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining Our Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining March 1, 2012 - 11:02am Addthis Image courtesy of whitehouse.gov Image courtesy of whitehouse.gov Megan Slack Deputy Director of Digital Content, White House Office of Digital Strategy What are the key facts? America's dependence on foreign oil has decreased every year since President Obama took office. We need an all-out, all-of-the-above strategy to protect Americans from high energy prices in the long run. Editor's Note: This post originally appeared on the White House Blog. America's dependence on foreign oil has gone down every single year since President Obama took office. In 2010, we imported less than 50 percent of the oil our nation consumed-the first time that's happened in 13

32

Integrated framework for reverse logistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although reverse logistics has been disregarded for many years, pressures from both environmental awareness and business sustainability have risen. Reverse logistical activities include return, repair and recycle products. Traditionally, since the information ... Keywords: gent-based system, information transparency, reverse logistics

Heng-Li Yang; Chen-Shu Wang

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

U.S. energy intensity projected to continue its steady decline ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

In the United States, energy intensity has been declining steadily since the early 1970s and continues to decline in EIA's long-term projection.

34

Reversible brazing process  

SciTech Connect

A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, John J. (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

AN EXPLANATION OF REVERSED SPECTRAL-LINE BISECTORS  

SciTech Connect

The long-standing puzzle of reversed-C bisectors of spectral lines is addressed with the tools of the third-signature plot and bisector mapping. The F8 supergiant {gamma} Cyg, which shows strongly reversed bisectors, is analyzed and found to have a monotonic decline in velocities with height in its photosphere, consistent with a convective overshoot region similar to what is seen for stars on the cool side of the granulation boundary. Further, a flux deficit is derived that is not unlike those for stars on the cool side of the granulation boundary, although the {gamma} Cyg flux deficit is wider and peaks at a higher velocity. The reversed-C bisector shape is caused by a combination of a steep decline in velocities with height, as shown in the third-signature plot, with a flux deficit spanning only a fraction of the red wing of the line profiles, in contrast to cooler stars where the deficit extends over most of the red wing. Apparently no unusual velocity fields or other bizarre behaviors are needed to explain the granulation boundary; it stems more simply from the continuous changes of normal convective overshoot across the HR diagram.

Gray, David F., E-mail: dfgray@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Western Ontario London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

36

Rock mass response to the decline in underground coal mining  

SciTech Connect

Geomechanical problems of mining in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Basin were studied on the basis of longterm experience gained from seismological observations. They could serve as reasonable models of rock-mass response to temporary reduction and gradual decline in mining activities and mine closure.

Holub, K. [Academy of Science in Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or phase space. In this work we con- sider the trajectory of sea ice in the ice thickness phase space. We175 Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications Geophysical Is the Trajectory of Arctic Sea Ice? Harry L. Stern and Ronald W. Lindsay Polar Science Center, Applied Physics

Lindsay, Ron

38

Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline Edited by Leif Sønderberg Petersen and Hans Larsen Risø-R-1712(EN) September 2009 Proceedings Risø International Energy Conference 2009 #12;Editors: Leif Sønderberg Petersen and Hans Larsen Title: Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak

39

Comparison of Emperical Decline Curve Analysis for Shale Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study compares four recently developed decline curve methods and the traditional Arps or Fetkovich approach. The four methods which are empirically formulated for shale and tight gas wells are: 1. Power Law Exponential Decline (PLE). 2. Stretched Exponential Decline (SEPD). 3. Duong Method. 4. Logistic Growth Model (LGM). Each method has different tuning parameters and equation forms. The main objective of this work is to determine the best method(s) in terms of Estimated Ultimate Recovery (EUR) accuracy, goodness of fit, and ease of matching. In addition, these methods are compared against each other at different production times in order to understand the effect of production time on forecasts. As a part of validation process, all methods are benchmarked against simulation. This study compares the decline methods to four simulation cases which represent the common shale declines observed in the field. Shale wells, which are completed with horizontal wells and multiple traverse highly-conductive hydraulic fractures, exhibit long transient linear flow. Based on certain models, linear flow is preceded by bilinear flow if natural fractures are present. In addition to this, linear flow is succeeded by Boundary Dominated Flow (BDF) decline when pressure wave reaches boundary. This means four declines are possible, hence four simulation cases are required for comparison. To facilitate automatic data fitting, a non-linear regression program was developed using excel VBA. The program optimizes the Least-Square (LS) objective function to find the best fit. The used optimization algorithm is the Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm (LMA) and it is used because of its robustness and ease of use. This work shows that all methods forecast different EURs and some fit certain simulation cases better than others. In addition, no method can forecast EUR accurately without reaching BDF. Using this work, engineers can choose the best method to forecast EUR after identifying the simulation case that is most analogous to their field wells. The VBA program and the matching procedure presented here can help engineers automate these methods into their forecasting sheets.

Kanfar, Mohammed Sami

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Geomagnetic Reversals: Rates, Timescales, Preferred Paths,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geomagnetic Reversals: Rates, Timescales, Preferred Paths, Statistical Models and Simulations: Geomagnetic reversals, Reversal rates, Paleointensity, Statistics of Geodynamo September 30, 2001 #12;Abstract Paleomagnetic data on geomagnetic reversals are divided into two general categories: times of occurrence

Constable, Catherine G.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Reverse Osmosis Optimization  

SciTech Connect

This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

McMordie-Stoughton, Katherine L.; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

42

Reversibility and Non-reversibility in Stochastic Chemical Kinetics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mathematical problems with mean field and local type interaction related to stochastic chemical kinetics,are considered. Our main concern various definitions of reversibility, their corollaries (Boltzmann type equations, fluctuations, Onsager relations, etc.) and emergence of irreversibility.

Malyshev, V A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

44

Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Decline curve analysis of vapor-dominated reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal Program activities at the INEEL include a review of the transient and pseudosteady state behavior of production wells in vapor-dominated systems with a focus on The Geysers field. The complicated history of development, infill drilling, injection, and declining turbine inlet pressures makes this field an ideal study area to test new techniques. The production response of a well can be divided into two distinct periods: transient flow followed by pseudo-steady state (depletion). The transient period can be analyzed using analytic equations, while the pseudo-steady state period is analyzed using empirical relationships. Yet by reviewing both periods, a great deal of insight can be gained about the well and reservoir. An example is presented where this approach is used to determine the permeability thickness product, kh, injection and production interference, and estimate the empirical Arps decline parameter b. When the production data is reinitialized (as may be required by interference effects), the kh determined from the new transient period is repeatable. This information can be used for well diagnostics, quantification of injection benefits, and the empirical estimation of remaining steam reserves.

Faulder, D.D.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Information Management for Reverse Logistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction In this chapter, we examine how Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are being used to support reverse logistics. In this respet, this chapter does not follow a quantitative approach as the rest of the book. Nonetheless, the topics covered in this section outline how ICT systems enable and support the quantitative approaches presented in other chapters of this book. Furthermore, this chapter provides a roadmap to the reader about what aspects of reverse logistics are implemented and what remains to be addressed in the future. Most ICT systems for reverse logistics have been developed to address needs in a specific sector (i.e. decision making on di#erent recovery options of returns, designing a product for optimal end of use recovery, etc.) or to cover the reverse logistics requirements of a particular company. Thus, in our attempt to present this area systematically we need to develop a framework of reference first. For that reason, we go back to the essent

Angelika Kokkinaki; Rob Zuidwijk

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Sustainable development and comprehensive capital : The post-Soviet decline of Central Asia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The general post-Soviet decline of the states of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) mirrors specific declines in the robustness of these states' stocks of financial, physical, ...

Sievers, Eric

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Are all reversible computations tidy?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has long been known that to minimise the heat emitted by a deterministic computer during it's operation it is necessary to make the computation act in a logically reversible manner\\cite{Lan61}. Such logically reversible operations require a number of auxiliary bits to be stored, maintaining a history of the computation, and which allows the initial state to be reconstructed by running the computation in reverse. These auxiliary bits are wasteful of resources and may require a dissipation of energy for them to be reused. A simple procedure due to Bennett\\cite{Ben73} allows these auxiliary bits to be "tidied", without dissipating energy, on a classical computer. All reversible classical computations can be made tidy in this way. However, this procedure depends upon a classical operation ("cloning") that cannot be generalised to quantum computers\\cite{WZ82}. Quantum computations must be logically reversible, and therefore produce auxiliary qbits during their operation. We show that there are classes of quantum computation for which Bennett's procedure cannot be implemented. For some of these computations there may exist another method for which the computation may be "tidied". However, we also show there are quantum computations for which there is no possible method for tidying the auxiliary qbits. Not all reversible quantum computations can be made "tidy". This represents a fundamental additional energy burden to quantum computations. This paper extends results in \\cite{Mar01}.

O. J. E. Maroney

2004-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

49

Reverse skyline search in uncertain databases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reverse skyline queries over uncertain databases have many important applications such as sensor data monitoring and business planning. Due to the wide existence of uncertainty in many real-world data, answering reverse skyline queries accurately and ... Keywords: Uncertain database, bichromatic reverse skyline, monochromatic reverse skyline

Xiang Lian; Lei Chen

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Reversible Simulations of Elastic Collisions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consider a system of N identical hard spherical particles moving in a d-dimensional box and undergoing elastic, possibly multi-particle, collisions. We develop a new algorithm that recovers the pre-collision state from the post-collision state of the system, across a series of consecutive collisions, \\textit{with essentially no memory overhead}. The challenge in achieving reversibility for an n-particle collision (where, in general, nN) arises from the presence of nd-d-1 degrees of freedom (arbitrary angles) during each collision, as well as from the complex geometrical constraints placed on the colliding particles. To reverse the collisions in a traditional simulation setting, all of the particular realizations of these degrees of freedom (angles) during the forward simulation must be tracked. This requires memory proportional to the number of collisions, which grows very fast with N and d, thereby severely limiting the \\textit{de facto} applicability of the scheme. This limitation is addressed here by first performing a pseudo-randomization of angles, which ensures determinism in the reverse path for any values of n and d. To address the more difficult problem of geometrical and dynamic constraints, a new approach is developed which correctly samples the constrained phase space. Upon combining the pseudo-randomization with correct phase space sampling, perfect reversibility of collisions is achieved, as illustrated for nn=2, d=3. This result enables, for the first time, reversible simulations of elastic collisions with essentially zero memory accumulation. In principle, the approach presented here could be generalized to larger values of n, which would be of definite interest for molecular dynamics simulations at high densities.

Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL; Protopopescu, Vladimir A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

U.S. energy intensity projected to continue its steady decline ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil ... Energy use in homes, ... the role of energy-intensive industries in the United States declined with continuing structural changes ...

52

Decline curve analysis in unconventional resource plays using logistic growth models.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current models used to forecast production in unconventional oil and gas formations are often not producing valid results. When traditional decline curve analysis models are… (more)

Clark, Aaron James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Reverse engineering of integrated circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

Chisholm, Gregory H. (Shorewood, IL); Eckmann, Steven T. (Colorado Springs, CO); Lain, Christopher M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Veroff, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

55

Pesticides and amphibian declines in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla) hatchlings were translocated and placed in cages in sites (~2,200 m elevation) located in Lassen, Yosemite, and Sequoia National Parks. DDE was found in 97% of Yosemite National Park samples, 84% in Sequoia National Park samples, and 15% of Lassen Volcanic National Park samples in 2001 and 2002. Total endosulfans were detected in 3% of Sequoia samples, 9% of Lassen samples and 24% of Yosemite samples. Both pesticides were detected in tadpoles and metamorphs raised at the three parks regardless of origin. Because the tadpoles were translocated post hatching, this finding indicates that the pesticides, particularly DDE, were accumulated at the site, instead of through deposition in the egg mass. Liver cells from 108 newly metamorphosed frogs were examined with flow cytometry (FCM) techniques for evaluation of chromosome breakage as measured by the half-peak coefficient of variation (HPCV) of the G1 peak. Regardless of origin, experimental groups raised at Lassen, the reference site, had significantly less chromosomal breakage (p=0.04) than metamorphs raised at the other two parks. This is the first documented evidence of DNA damage in juvenile frogs in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Cholinesterase (ChE) was measured in tadpoles collected at 28 days and in juvenile frogs collected upon metamorphosis. In 2001, ChE activity was significantly higher in animals raised at Lassen (reference site), than at the other two parks, indicating less exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. This trend was not observed in 2002, although Sequoia ChE values were consistently lower than the other two parks. Temperatures were significantly different among the three parks for both years (plevels. Survivorship to metamorphosis, days to metamorphosis, snout-vent lengths (SVL), and malformations were evaluated. Animals raised in Sequoia had shorter SVLs, took longer to metamorphose, and had lower survivorship to metamorphosis than in the other two parks (p<0.0001). Effects noted in P. regilla may be magnified in long lived ranid species. These findings may be important in evaluating the overall impact of aerially transported pesticides on declining frog populations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

Cowman, Deborah Fay

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Optimization Online - Recruiting Suppliers for Reverse Production ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2007 ... Recruiting Suppliers for Reverse Production Systems: an MDP Heuristics Approach. Wuthichai Wongthatsanekorn(wwongtha ***at*** ...

57

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #506: February 18, 2008 Declining Rate of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6: February 18, 6: February 18, 2008 Declining Rate of Highway Fatalities and Injuries is Good News for Safety and Congestion Mitigation to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #506: February 18, 2008 Declining Rate of Highway Fatalities and Injuries is Good News for Safety and Congestion Mitigation on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #506: February 18, 2008 Declining Rate of Highway Fatalities and Injuries is Good News for Safety and Congestion Mitigation on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #506: February 18, 2008 Declining Rate of Highway Fatalities and Injuries is Good News for Safety and Congestion Mitigation on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #506: February 18, 2008 Declining Rate of Highway Fatalities and Injuries is Good News for Safety

58

Two Decades of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Anatomy, Variations, Extremes, Prediction, and Overcoming Its Limitations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The zonally integrated meridional volume transport in the North Atlantic [Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC)] is described in a 19-yr-long ocean-state estimate, one consistent with a diverse global dataset. Apart from a weak ...

Carl Wunsch; Patrick Heimbach

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Two modes of Gulf Stream variability revealed in the last two decades of satellite altimeter data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly mapped sea level anomalies (MSLA) of the NW Atlantic in the region immediately downstream of the Gulf Stream (GS) separation point reveal a leading mode in which the path shifts ca.100km meridionally about a nominal latitude of 39° N, ...

M. Dolores Pérez-Hernández; Terrence M. Joyce

60

Variability in Terrestrial Carbon Sinks over Two Decades. Part III: South America, Africa, and Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seventeen years (1982–98) of net carbon flux predictions for Southern Hemisphere continents have been analyzed, based on a simulation model using satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover. The NASA Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) ...

C. Potter; S. Klooster; P. Tan; M. Steinbach; V. Kumar; V. Genovese

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

RCS has been demonstrated, over the last two decades, as an ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program was formally established following passage of the High Performance ...

62

Stability of CIS/CIGS Modules at the Outdoor Test Facility over Two Decades: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses examining the status and question of long-term stability of copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic (PV) module performance for numerous modules that are deployed in the array field, or on the roof of, the outdoor test facility (OTF) at NREL, acquired from two manufacturers.

del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S.; Kroposki, B.; Osterwald, C.; Anderberg, A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

A Look Back on Two Decades of Doppler Sodar Comparison Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is a compilation of the results obtained from various Doppler sodar comparison experiments conducted over the last 20 years. These studies have attempted to quantify the uncertainties in sodar-derived values of the horizontal wind ...

Gennaro H. Crescenti

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Medical Image Analysis: Progress over Two Decades and the Challenges Ahead  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract¿The analysis of medical images has been woven into the fabric of the Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI) community since the earliest days of these Transactions. Initially, the efforts in this area were seen as applying pattern ... Keywords: Medical imaging, medical image analysis, computer vision, image segmentation, image registration, nonrigid motion, deformable contours, image-guided surgery.

James C. Duncan; Nicholas Ayache

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Variability in Terrestrial Carbon Sinks over Two Decades. Part I: North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seventeen years (1982–98) of net carbon flux predictions from a simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover have been analyzed. The NASA–CASA model was driven by vegetation cover properties derived from the ...

C. Potter; S. Klooster; P. Tan; M. Steinbach; V. Kumar; V. Genovese

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Gravity controlled anti-reverse rotation device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gravity assisted anti-reverse rotation device for preventing reverse rotation of pumps and the like. A horizontally mounted pawl is disposed to mesh with a fixed ratchet preventing reverse rotation when the pawl is advanced into intercourse with the ratchet by a vertically mounted lever having a lumped mass. Gravitation action on the lumped mass urges the pawl into mesh with the ratchet, while centrifugal force on the lumped mass during forward, allowed rotation retracts the pawl away from the ratchet.

Dickinson, Robert J. (Shaler Township, Allegheny County, PA); Wetherill, Todd M. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

U.S. oil imports to decline with rising oil production through...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

oil imports to decline with rising oil production through 2014 The United States will need fewer oil imports over the next two years because of rising U.S. oil production. The new...

68

Design After Decline: How America Rebuilds Shrinking Cities, by Brent Ryan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. cities such as Detroit, St. Louis, Buffalo, and others.clearance strategies in Detroit, Philadelphia, and otherof economic decline, and Detroit, the central city within a

Wegmann, Jake

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

ORISE report shows number of health physics Ph.D.s declined in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORISE report shows number of health physics Ph.D.s declined in 2009 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE June 15, 2010 FY10-37 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-Health physics undergraduate degrees increased...

70

Canada Week: Canada is a declining market for U.S. coal ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Exports of U.S. coal to Canada have declined in recent years as Canada has reduced its coal-fired electric generation. U.S. coal exports to Canada totaled 3.2 million ...

71

Attribution of Declining Western U.S. Snowpack to Human Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations show snowpack has declined across much of the western United States over the period 1950–99. This reduction has important social and economic implications, as water retained in the snowpack from winter storms forms an important part ...

David W. Pierce; Tim P. Barnett; Hugo G. Hidalgo; Tapash Das; Céline Bonfils; Benjamin D. Santer; Govindasamy Bala; Michael D. Dettinger; Daniel R. Cayan; Art Mirin; Andrew W. Wood; Toru Nozawa

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

TIME REVERSAL ACOUSTIC NONCONTACT SOURCE - Energy Innovation ...  

The present invention provides a flexible noncontact source of wave energy through the use of time reversal. In the preferred embodiment a ...

73

Spatial diversity in passive time reversal communications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Song et al. : Spatial diversity in passive time reversaland J. Ritcey, “Spatial diversity equalization applied toSpatial diversity in passive time reversal communications H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

A New Series of Rate Decline Relations Based on the Diagnosis of Rate-Time Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The so-called "Arps" rate decline relations are by far the most widely used tool for assessing oil and gas reserves from rate performance. These relations (i.e., the exponential and hyperbolic decline relations) are empirical where the starting point for their derivation is given by the definitions of the "loss ratio" and the "derivative of the loss ratio", where the "loss ratio" is the ratio of rate data to derivative of rate data, and the "derivative of the loss ratio" is the "b-parameter" as defined by Arps [1945]. The primary goal of this work is the interpretation of the b-parameter continuously over time and thus the better understanding of its character. As is shown below we propose "monotonically decreasing functional forms" for the characterization of the b-parameter, in addition to the exponential and hyperbolic rate decline relations, where the b-parameter is assumed to be zero and constant, respectively. The proposed equations are as follow: b(t)=constant (Arps' hyperbolic rate-decline relation), []tbbtb10exp)(-bt= (exponential function), (power-law function), 10)(btbtb=)/(1)(10tbbtb+= (rational function). The corresponding rate decline relation for each case is obtained by solving the differential equation associated with the selected functional for the b-parameter. The next step of this procedure is to test and validate each of the rate decline relations by applying them to various numerical simulation cases (for gas), as well as for field data cases obtained from tight/shale gas reservoirs. Our results indicate that b-parameter is never constant but it changes continuously with time. The ultimate objective of this work is to establish each model as a potential analysis/diagnostic relation. Most of the proposed models yield more realistic estimations of gas reserves in comparison to the traditional Arps' rate decline relations (i.e., the hyperbolic decline) where the reserves estimates are inconsistent and over-estimated. As an example, the rational b-parameter model seems to be the most accurate model in terms of representing the character of rate data; and therefore, should yield more realistic reserves estimates. Illustrative examples are provided for better understanding of each b-parameter rate decline model. The proposed family of rate decline relations was based on the character of the b-parameter computed from the rate-time data and they can be applied to a wide range of data sets, as dictated by the character of rate data.

Boulis, Anastasios

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Iterative Time Reversal with Tunable Convergence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose and test an iterative technique for improving the temporal focusing of a time reversal mirror. A single amplification parameter is introduced to tune the convergence of the iteration. The tunable iterative technique is validated by tests on an experimental electromagnetic time reversal mirror, as well as on a novel numerical model.

Biniyam Tesfaye Taddese; Thomas M. Antonsen; Edward Ott; Steven M. Anlage

2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

76

Fuel cell system with coolant flow reversal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for cooling electrochemical fuel cell system components. Periodic reversal of the direction of flow of cooling fluid through a fuel cell stack provides greater uniformity and cell operational temperatures. Flow direction through a recirculating coolant fluid circuit is reversed through a two position valve, without requiring modulation of the pumping component.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

Matson, Dean W. (Kennewick, WA); Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Consani, Keith A. (Richland, WA)

1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

78

Are all Quasi-static Processes Reversible?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A process, carried out in a stepwise manner, becomes quasi-static when the number of intermediate steps tends to infinity. Usually, the net entropy production approaches zero under this limiting condition. Hence, such cases are termed reversible. A favorite example is the introduction of an infinite number of intermediate-temperature reservoirs in between the source and the sink for a non-isothermal heat transfer process. We analyze the situation and conclude that such quasi-static processes are not reversible. Indeed, no non-isothermal heat transfer process can ever be made reversible due to an extraneous work term.

Mukhopadhyay, Debasis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

The 1995-1996 Decline of R Coronae Borealis - High Resolution Optical Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A set of high-resolution optical spectra of RCrB acquired before, during, and after its 1995-1996 decline is discussed. All of the components reported from earlier declines are seen. This novel dataset provides new information on these components including several aspects not previously seen in declines of RCrB and other RCBs. In the latter category is the discovery that the decline's onset is marked by distortions of absorption lines of high-excitation lines, and quickly followed by emission in these and in low excitation lines. This 'photospheric trigger' implies that dust causing the decline is formed close to the star. These emission lines fade quickly. After 1995 November 2, low excitation narrow (FWHM ~12 km s-1) emission lines remain. These appear to be a permanent feature, slightly blue-shifted from the systemic velocity, and unaffected by the decline except for a late and slight decrease of flux at minimum light. The location of the warm, dense gas providing these lines is uncertain. Absorption lines unaffected by overlying sharp emission are greatly broadened, weakened, and red-shifted at the faintest magnitudes when scattered light from the star is a greater contributor than direct light transmitted through the fresh soot cloud. A few broad lines are seen at and near minimum light with approxiamately constant flux: prominent among these are the He I triplet series, Na I D, and [N II] lines. These lines are blue-shifted by about 30 km s(-1) relative to the systemic velocity with no change in velocity over the several months for whicht he lines were seen. It is suggested that these lines, especially the He I lines, arise from an accretion disk around an unseen compact companion, which may be a low-mass white dwarf. If so, R CrB is similar to the unusual post-AGB star 89 Her.

N. Kameswara Rao; David L. Lambert; Mark T. Adams; David R. Doss; Guillermo Gonzalez; Artie P. Hatzes; C. Renee James; C. M. Johns-Krull; R. Earle Luck; Gajendra Pandey; Klaus Reinsch; Jocelyn Tomkin; Vincent M. Woolf

1999-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

Energy drift in reversible time integration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy drift is commonly observed in reversible integrations of systems of molecular dynamics. We show that this drift can be modelled as a diffusion and that the typical energy error after time T is O(?T).

R I McLachlan; M Perlmutter

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film, a team from the University of Washington and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has identified separate magnetic-reversal mechanisms in the two branches of a hysteresis loop. This advance in fundamental understanding will provide new insights for developing the next generation of information storage and sensing devices where exchange bias is expected to play a critical role.

82

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Wednesday, 31 July 2013 00:00 In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

83

Low Cost Reversible fuel cell systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report summarizes a 3-phase program performed from March 2000 through September 2003 with a particular focus on Phase III. The overall program studied TMI's reversible solid oxide stack, system concepts, and potential applications. The TMI reversible (fuel cell-electrolyzer) system employs a stack of high temperature solid-oxide electrochemical cells to produce either electricity (from a fuel and air or oxygen) or hydrogen (from water and supplied electricity). An atmospheric pressure fuel cell system operates on natural gas (or other carbon-containing fuel) and air. A high-pressure reversible electrolyzer system is used to make high-pressure hydrogen and oxygen from water and when desired, operates in reverse to generate electricity from these gases.

Technology Management Inc.

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

MODIFIED BOROHYDRIDES FOR REVERSIBLE HYDROGEN STORAGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper reports the results in the effort to destabilize lithium borohydride for reversible hydrogen storage. A number of metals, metal hydrides, metal chlorides and complex hydrides were selected and evaluated as the destabilization agents for reducing dehydriding temperature and generating dehydriding-rehydriding reversibility. It is found that some additives are effective. The Raman spectroscopic analysis shows the change of B-H binding nature.

Au, Ming

2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

85

Is Tourism the Solution to Rural Decline? Evaluating the "Promise of Rural Tourism" to Close the Gap between Rhetoric and Practice.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Rural areas across the developed world have encountered economic decline due to trends of industrialisation and urbanisation (Lane, 1994). The damaging effects of the declining… (more)

Janecka, Nicola

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Fuel Cells Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings Annual Merit Review Proceedings Workshop & Meeting Proceedings

87

GEOMAGNETIC REVERSALS DRIVEN BY ABRUPT SEA LEVEL CHANGES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sea-level changes and geomagnetic reversals, then we have athe dynamo theory of the geomagnetic field is incorrect.preprint LBL-20131 Geomagnetic Reversals Driven by Abrupt

Muller, R.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Steady decline of east Asian monsoon winds, 19692000: Evidence from direct ground measurements of wind speed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steady decline of east Asian monsoon winds, 1969­2000: Evidence from direct ground measurements winter monsoon but strengthen the summer monsoon, because of stronger warming over high-latitude land with the east Asian monsoon has significantly weakened in both winter and summer in the recent three decades

Chang, Chih-Pei

89

The Development and Decline of Hawaii's Skipjack Tuna Fishery CHRISTOFER H. BOGGS and BERT S. KIKKAWA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Development and Decline of Hawaii's Skipjack Tuna Fishery CHRISTOFER H. BOGGS and BERT S. KIKKAWA Introduction Historically, the pole-and-line, live bait fishery for skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, was the largest commercial fishery in Hawaii. Annual pole-and-line landings of skipjack tuna

90

Deterministic and stochastic analyses to quantify the reliability of uncertainty estimates in production decline modeling of shale gas reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Decline curve analysis seeks to predict the future performance of oil and gas wells by fitting a mathematical function to historical production data and extrapolating… (more)

Johanson, Brent L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Church, Drama, & the Cool Hand Luke Effect: The Decline of Mainline Churches in America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1967, Warner Bros. released the film Cool Hand Luke and out of this film came one of the most famous quotes in the history of motion pictures: “What we’ve got here is a failure to communicate.” That same year marked the beginning of a slow decline in mainline Christian denominations in America, such as the United Methodist Church, despite the overall growth of Christianity. The purpose of this thesis is to present, explore, and evaluate one possible reason for this decline. Throughout American history, there is an interesting phenomenon in which the acceptance of Christian drama in America largely depended upon primary mass communication media being visual or image-centric. Therefore, this thesis hypothesizes that the decline of mainline Christian denominations can be attributed to a breakdown in communication between the church and American society as a whole; evidence of this communication breakdown can be found by simultaneously analyzing the history of advances in communication media, societal shifts along the left-brain/right-brain spectrum, and Christian drama. Due to the vastness of all that is “Christian drama,” the scope of this thesis is primarily limited to surveying the development of Christian drama in America. However, this thesis also examines the rise, evolution, and decline of the Corpus Christi York Cycle in medieval England so as to lay the groundwork for understanding the development of Christian drama in America. The decline of this immensely popular form of medieval Christian drama is one of the clearest examples of the Protestant Reformation’s effects in generating suspicions of and antagonism towards Catholicism. This suspicion would later influence the beliefs of sixteenth century Puritans and affect the creation of “American” values. The relationship between the church and theater would remain deeply antagonistic until well into the late nineteenth century. This animosity would eventually subside before the arrival of the twentieth century, particularly following the invention of film, which provided a new medium for Christian drama. The invention and diffusion of television is arguably the single greatest causative factor in the decline of mainline Christian denominations.

Purdy, Jennifer 1987-

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Using Decline Map Anlaysis (DMA) to Test Well Completion Influence on Gas Production Decline Curves in Barnett Shale (Denton, Wise, and Tarrant Counties)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increasing interest and focus on unconventional reservoirs is a result of the industry's direction toward exploring alternative energy sources. It is due to the fact that conventional reservoirs are being depleted at a fast pace. Shale gas reservoirs are a very favorable type of energy sources due to their low cost and long-lasting gas supply. In general, according to Ausubel (1996), natural gas serves as a transition stage to move from the current oil-based energy sources to future more stable and environment-friendly ones. By looking through production history in the U.S Historical Production Database, HPDI (2009), we learn that the Barnett Shale reservoir in Newark East Field has been producing since the early 90's and contributing a fraction of the U.S daily gas production. Zhao et al. (2007) estimated the Barnett Shale to be producing 1.97 Bcf/day of gas in 2007. It is considered the most productive unconventional gas shale reservoir in Texas. By 2004 and in terms of annual gas production volume, Pollastro (2007) considered the Barnett Shale as the second largest unconventional gas reservoir in the United States. Many studies have been conducted to understand better the production controls in Barnett Shale. However, this giant shale gas reservoir is still ambiguous. Some parts of this puzzle are still missing. It is not fully clear what makes the Barnett well produce high or low amounts of gas. Barnett operating companies are still trying to answer these questions. This study adds to the Barnett chain of studies. It tests the effects of the following on Barnett gas production in the core area (Denton, Wise, and Tarrant counties): * Barnett gross thickness, including the Forestburg formation that divides Barnett Shale. * Perforation footage. * Perforated zones of Barnett Shale. Instead of testing these parameters on each well production decline curve individually, this study uses a new technique to simplify this process. Decline Map Analysis (DMA) is introduced to measure the effects of these parameters on all production decline curves at the same time. Through this study, Barnett gross thickness and perforation footage are found not to have any definite effects on Barnett gas production. However, zone 3 (Top of Lower Barnett) and zone 1 (Bottom of Lower Barnett) are found to contribute to cumulative production. Zone 2 (Middle of Lower Barnett) and zone 4 (Upper Barnett), on the other hand, did not show any correlation or influence on production through their thicknesses.

Alkassim, Ibrahim

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

94

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

95

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

96

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

97

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

98

What happens when the geomagnetic field reverses?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During geomagnetic field reversals the radiation belt high-energy proton populations become depleted. Their energy spectra become softer, with the trapped particles of highest energies being lost first, and eventually recovering after a field reversal. The radiation belts rebuild in a dynamical way with the energy spectra flattening on the average during the course of many millennia, but without ever reaching complete steady state equilibrium between successive geomagnetic storm events determined by southward turnings of the IMF orientation. Considering that the entry of galactic cosmic rays and the solar energetic particles with energies above a given threshold are strongly controlled by the intensity of the northward component of the interplanetary magnetic field, we speculate that at earlier epochs when the geomagnetic dipole was reversed, the entry of these energetic particles into the geomagnetic field was facilitated when the interplanetary magnetic field was directed northward. Unlike in other compleme...

Lemaire, Joseph F

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Time reversal signal processing for communication.  

SciTech Connect

Time-reversal is a wave focusing technique that makes use of the reciprocity of wireless propagation channels. It works particularly well in a cluttered environment with associated multipath reflection. This technique uses the multipath in the environment to increase focusing ability. Time-reversal can also be used to null signals, either to reduce unintentional interference or to prevent eavesdropping. It does not require controlled geometric placement of the transmit antennas. Unlike existing techniques it can work without line-of-sight. We have explored the performance of time-reversal focusing in a variety of simulated environments. We have also developed new algorithms to simultaneously focus at a location while nulling at an eavesdropper location. We have experimentally verified these techniques in a realistic cluttered environment.

Young, Derek P.; Jacklin, Neil; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Counsil, David T.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Correlated magnetic reversal in periodic stripe patterns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The magnetization reversal in a periodic magnetic stripe array has been studied with a combination of direct and reciprocal space methods: Kerr microscopy and polarized neutron scattering. Kerr images show that during magnetization reversal over a considerable magnetic-field range a ripple domain state occurs in the stripes with magnetization components perpendicular to the stripes. Quantitative analysis of polarized neutron specular reflection, Bragg diffraction, and off-specular diffuse scattering provides a detailed picture of the mean magnetization direction in the ripple domains as well as longitudinal and transverse fluctuations, and reveals a strong correlation of those components over a number of stripes.

Theis-Broehl, Katharina; Toperverg, Boris P.; Leiner, Vincent; Westphalen, Andreas; Zabel, Hartmut; McCord, Jeffrey; Rott, Karsten; Brueckl, Hubert [Department of Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01169 Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, University Bielefeld, Universitaetsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

ORISE report shows number of health physics Ph.D.s declined in 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORISE report shows number of health physics Ph.D.s declined in 2009 ORISE report shows number of health physics Ph.D.s declined in 2009 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE June 15, 2010 FY10-37 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-Health physics undergraduate degrees increased slightly in 2009 continuing a six-year trend, but doctorate degrees reported a 40-year low, says a report recently released by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. The report also showed the number of M.S. degrees was 21 percent less than in 2008. The ORISE report, Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2009 Data, surveyed 24 academic programs with enrollment and degree data and included students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. According to the survey, a total of 154 health physics B.S., M.S. and Ph.D degrees were earned in 2009.

102

Reasons for production decline in the diatomite, Belridge oil field: a rock mechanics view  

SciTech Connect

This work summarized research conducted on diatomite cores from the Belridge oil field in Kern County. The study was undertaken to try to explain the rapid decline in oil production in diatomite wells. Characterization of the rock showed that the rock was composed principally of amorphous opaline silica diatoms with only a trace of crystoballite quartz or chert quartz. Physical properties tests showed the diatomite to be of low strength and plastic. Finally, it was established that long-term creep of diatomite into a propped fracture proceeds at a rate of approximately 6 x 10-5 in./day, a phenomenon which may be a primary cause of rapid production declines. The testing program also revealed a matrix stength for the formation of calculated 1325 PSI, a value to consider when depleting the reservoir. This also may help to explain the phase transformation of opal ct at calculated 2000 to 2500 ft depth.

Strickland, F.G.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Determination of uncertainty in reserves estimate from analysis of production decline data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysts increasingly have used probabilistic approaches to evaluate the uncertainty in reserves estimates based on a decline curve analysis. This is because the results represent statistical analysis of historical data that usually possess significant amounts of noise. Probabilistic approaches usually provide a distribution of reserves estimates with three confidence levels (P10, P50 and P90) and a corresponding 80% confidence interval. The question arises: how reliable is this 80% confidence interval? In other words, in a large set of analyses, is the true value of reserves contained within this interval 80% of the time? Our investigation indicates that it is common in practice for true values of reserves to lie outside the 80% confidence interval much more than 20% of the time using traditional statistical analyses. This indicates that uncertainty is being underestimated, often significantly. Thus, the challenge in probabilistic reserves estimation using a decline curve analysis is not only how to appropriately characterize probabilistic properties of complex production data sets, but also how to determine and then improve the reliability of the uncertainty quantifications. This thesis presents an improved methodology for probabilistic quantification of reserves estimates using a decline curve analysis and practical application of the methodology to actual individual well decline curves. The application of our proposed new method to 100 oil and gas wells demonstrates that it provides much wider 80% confidence intervals, which contain the true values approximately 80% of the time. In addition, the method yields more accurate P50 values than previously published methods. Thus, the new methodology provides more reliable probabilistic reserves estimation, which has important impacts on economic risk analysis and reservoir management.

Wang, Yuhong

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

EM Occupational Injury and Illness Rates Continued to Decline in Fiscal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Occupational Injury and Illness Rates Continued to Decline in Occupational Injury and Illness Rates Continued to Decline in Fiscal Year 2011 EM Occupational Injury and Illness Rates Continued to Decline in Fiscal Year 2011 February 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis This figure shows the downward trends of EM TRC and DART case rates for the last three fiscal years. These three years correspond to the time of substantial increase in work activities in support of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This figure shows the downward trends of EM TRC and DART case rates for the last three fiscal years. These three years correspond to the time of substantial increase in work activities in support of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. EM’s TRC and DART case cumulative rate trend lines over the past 15 quarters remain well below comparable industries’ TRC and DART Case rates. For benchmark comparison, the Construction Industry and the Waste Management & Remediation Service Industry numbers are selected to best approximate the complex-wide decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remediation, waste management and facility construction activities contracted by EM

105

Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics  

SciTech Connect

Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs.

Moretto, L.G.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Modified borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In attempt to develop lithium borohydrides as the reversible hydrogen storage materials with the high capacity, the feasibility to reduce dehydrogenation temperature of the lithium borohydride and moderate rehydrogenation condition has been explored. The commercial available lithium borohydride has been modified by ball milling with metal oxides and metal chlorides as the additives. The modified lithium borohydrides release 9 wt% hydrogen starting from 473K. The dehydrided modified lithium borohydrides absorb 7-9 wt% hydrogen at 873K and 7 MPa. The additive modification reduces dehydriding temperature from 673K to 473K and moderates rehydrogenation conditions to 923K and 15 MPa. XRD and SEM analysis discovered the formation of the intermediate compound TiB{sub 2} that may plays the key role in change the reaction path resulting the lower dehydriding temperature and reversibility. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of the oxide modified lithium borohydrides decreases gradually during hydriding-dehydriding cycling due to the lost of the boron during dehydrogenation. But, it can be prevented by selecting the suitable additive, forming intermediate boron compounds and changing the reaction path. The additives reduce dehydriding temperature and improve the reversibility, it also reduces the hydrogen storage capacity. The best compromise can be reached by optimization of the additive loading and introducing new process other than ball milling.

Au, Ming

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

107

Magnetized GRB outflow model: weak reverse shock emission and short energy transfer timescale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the absence of the bright optical flashes in most {\\it Swift} Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) afterglows can be explained, if the reverse shock region is magnetized with a $\\sigma \\sim 1$, or the emission spectrum of the electrons accelerated in the mildly magnetized ($0.1magnetized outflow is sub-relativistic, where $\\sigma$ is the ratio of the magnetic energy flux to the particle energy flux. We also find that for $\\sigma\\gg 1$, the energy transfer between the magnetized ejecta and the forward shock may be too quick to account for the shallow decline phase that is well detected in many {\\it Swift} GRB X-ray afterglows.

Yi-Zhong Fan

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

108

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VAPOR SATURATION, FLUID COMPOSITION, AND WELL DECLINE IN LARDERELLO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large body of field data from Larderello shows striking temporal correlations between decline of well flow-rate, produced gas/steam ratio, chloride concentration and produced vapor fraction. The latter is inferred from measured concentrations of non-condensible gases in samples of well fluid, using chemical phase equilibrium principles. Observed temporal changes in the vapor fractions can be interpreted in term of a ''multiple source'' model, as suggested by D'Amore and Truesdell (1979). This provides clues to the dynamics of reservoir depletion, and to the evaluation of well productivity and longevity.

D'Amore, F.; Pruess, K.

1985-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

109

High Efficiency Electrical Energy Storage Using Reversible Solid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Storage III: Materials, Systems and Applications Symposium. Presentation Title, High Efficiency Electrical Energy Storage Using Reversible ...

110

Reasons for production decline in the diatomite, Belridge oil field: a rock mechanics view  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes research conducted on diatomite cores from the Belridge oil field in Kern County, CA. The study was undertaken to explain the rapid decline in oil production in diatomite wells by investigating three of six possible reasons. Characterization of the rock indicated that the rock was composed of principally amorphous opaline silica diatoms with only a trace of crystoballite quartz or chert quartz. Physical properties tests showed the diatomite to be of very low strength and plastic. It was established that longterm creep of diatomite into a propped fracture proceeds at a rate of approximately 1.5 microns/D (1.5 ..mu..m/d), a phenomenon that may contribute to rapid production declines. Also revealed was a matrix strength for the formation of about 1,325 psi (9136 kPa), a critical value to consider when depleting the reservoir. This also may help to explain the phase transformation to Opal CT around 2,000to 2,500-ft (610- to 762-m) depth.

Strickland, F.G.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Litterfall 15N Abundance Indicates Declining Soil N Availability in a Free Air CO2-Enrichment Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: DOE Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Change in leaf litterfall d15N over time Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Litterfall 15N Abundance Indicates Declining

112

Dynamic analysis for reverse engineering and program understanding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main focus of program understanding and reverse engineering research has been on modeling the structure of a program by examining its code. This has been the result of the nature of the systems investigated and the perceived goals of the reverse ... Keywords: dynamic analysis, reverse engineering

Eleni Stroulia; Tarja Systä

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Intelligent reversible watermarking in integer wavelet domain for medical images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The prime requirement of reversible watermarking scheme is that the system should be able to restore the cover work to its original state after extracting the hidden information. Reversible watermarking approaches, therefore, have wide applications in ... Keywords: Genetic algorithm (GA), Histogram recovery, Integer wavelet transform (IWT), Medical images, Reversible watermarking

Muhammad Arsalan; Sana Ambreen Malik; Asifullah Khan

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Time Reversal in Solids (Linear and Nonlinear Elasticity): Multimedia Resources in Time Reversal  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Dynamic nonlinear elastic behavior, nonequilibrium dynamics, first observed as a curiosity in earth materials has now been observed in a great variety of solids. The primary manifestations of the behavior are characteristic wave distortion, and slow dynamics, a recovery process to equilibrium that takes place linearly with the logarithm of time, over hours to days after a wave disturbance. The link between the diverse materials that exhibit nonequilibrium dynamics appears to be the presence of soft regions, thought to be 'damage' at many scales, ranging from order 10-9 m to 10-1 m at least. The regions of soft matter may be distributed as in a rock sample, or isolated, as in a sample with a single crack [LANLhttp://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/nonlinear.shtml]. The Geophysics Group (EES-11) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has posted two or more multimedia items under each of the titles below to demonstrate aspects of their work: 1) Source Reconstruction Using Time Reversal; 2) Robustness and Efficiency of Time Reversal Acoustics in Solid Media; 3) Audio Example of Time Reversal - Speech Privacy; 4) Crack Imagining with Time Reversal - Experimental Results; 5) Time Reversal of the 2004 (M9.0) Sumatra Earthquake.

115

Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Reversible (unitized) PEM fuel cell devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Regenerative fuel cells (RFCs) are enabling for many weight-critical portable applications, since the packaged specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) of properly designed lightweight RFC systems is several-fold higher than that of the lightest weight rechargeable batteries. RFC systems can be rapidly refueled (like primary fuel cells), or can be electrically recharged (like secondary batteries) if a refueling infrastructure is not conveniently available. Higher energy capacity systems with higher performance, reduced weight, and freedom from fueling infrastructure are the features that RFCs promise for portable applications. Reversible proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, also known as unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs), or reversible regenerative fuel cells, are RFC systems which use reversible PEM cells, where each cell is capable of operating both as a fuel cell and as an electrolyzer. URFCs further economize portable device weight, volume, and complexity by combining the functions of fuel cells and electrolyzers in the same hardware, generally without any system performance or efficiency reduction. URFCs are being made in many forms, some of which are already small enough to be portable. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has worked with industrial partners to design, develop, and demonstrate high performance and high cycle life URFC systems. LLNL is also working with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in lightweight pressure vessels that are necessary for URFC systems to achieve the specific energy advantages over rechargeable batteries. Proton Energy Systems, Inc. (Proton) is concurrently developing and commercializing URFC systems (UNIGEN' product line), in addition to PEM electrolyzer systems (HOGEN' product line), and primary PEM fuel cell systems. LLNL is constructing demonstration URFC units in order to persuade potential sponsors, often in their own conference rooms, that advanced applications based on URFC s are feasible. Safety and logistics force these URFC demonstration units to be small, transportable, and easily set up, hence they already prove the viability of URFC systems for portable applications.

Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Smith, W F; Weisberg, Molter, T M

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Time reversal invariance in polarized neutron decay  

SciTech Connect

An experiment to measure the time reversal invariance violating (T-violating) triple correlation (D) in the decay of free polarized neutrons has been developed. The detector design incorporates a detector geometry that provides a significant improvement in the sensitivity over that used in the most sensitive of previous experiments. A prototype detector was tested in measurements with a cold neutron beam. Data resulting from the tests are presented. A detailed calculation of systematic effects has been performed and new diagnostic techniques that allow these effects to be measured have been developed. As the result of this work, a new experiment is under way that will improve the sensitivity to D to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} or better. With higher neutron flux a statistical sensitivity of the order 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} is ultimately expected. The decay of free polarized neutrons (n {yields} p + e + {bar v}{sub e}) is used to search for T-violation by measuring the triple correlation of the neutron spin polarization, and the electron and proton momenta ({sigma}{sub n} {center_dot} p{sub p} {times} p{sub e}). This correlation changes sign under reversal of the motion. Since final state effects in neutron decay are small, a nonzero coefficient, D, of this correlation indicates the violation of time reversal invariance. D is measured by comparing the numbers of coincidences in electron and proton detectors arranged symmetrically about a longitudinally polarized neutron beam. Particular care must be taken to eliminate residual asymmetries in the detectors or beam as these can lead to significant false effects. The Standard Model predicts negligible T-violating effects in neutron decay. Extensions to the Standard Model include new interactions some of which include CP-violating components. Some of these make first order contributions to D.

Wasserman, E.G.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Energy by reverse electrodialysis. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principles and history of converting the difference between the chemical potentials of concentrated and dilute salt solutions to useful energy by reverse electrodialysis (RED) are discussed. The potential sources of brines discussed include the brines of oil and natural gas fields, the brines from flooding of salt domes, the brines of salt lakes, seawater, and geothermal brines. Equations for predicting the performance of RED units are presented and discussed. A study of the effects of variables on power output from RED cells is given, and estimates of capital and operating costs of RED power units are detailed. (WHK)

Not Available

1978-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

119

Analysis of the Impurity Flow Reversal Experiment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments performed on the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-A) tokamak have shown that poloidally asymmetric injection of hydrogen gas can alter the inward transport of injected impurity atoms. We have compared the observed transport times and the magnitude of the flow reversal effect with a model based on the neoclassical theory of impurity transport and find that the observations are consistent with the theory. However, uncertainities in the radial profiles and the atomic rate coefficients do not permit a truly definitive test of the theory.

Burrell, K.H.; Wong, S.K.; Amano, T.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Determining Reserves in Low Permeability and Layered Reservoirs Using the Minimum Terminal Decline Rate Method: How Good are the Predictions?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the applicability of forecasting production from low permeability and layered tight gas wells using the Arps hyperbolic equation at earlier times and then switching to the exponential form of the equation at a predetermined minimum decline rate. This methodology is called the minimum terminal decline rate method. Two separate completion types have been analyzed. The first is horizontal completions with multi-stage hydraulic fractures while the second is vertical fractured wells in layered formations, completed with hydraulic fractures. For both completion types both simulated data and real world well performance histories have been evaluated using differing minimum terminal decline rates and the benefit of increasing portions of production history to make predictions. The application of the minimum terminal decline rate method to the simulated data in this study (3 percent minimum decline applied to multiple fractured horizontal wells MFHW- and 7 percent applied to vertical fractured layered wells) gave high errors for some simulations within the first two years. Once additional production data is considered in making predictions, the errors in estimated ultimate recovery and in remaining reserves is significantly reduced. This result provides a note of caution, when using the minimum decline rate method for forecasting using small quantities of production history. The evaluation of real world data using the minimum terminal decline rate method introduces other inaccuracies such as poor data quality, low data frequency, operational changes which affect the production profile and workovers / re-stimulations which require a restart of production forecasting process. Real well data for MFHW comes from the Barnett Shale completions of the type which have been widely utilized since 2004. There is insufficient production history from real wells to determine an appropriate minimum terminal decline rate. In the absence of suitable analogs for the determination of the minimum terminal decline rate it would be impossible to correctly apply this methodology. Real well data for vertical fractured layered wells from the Carthage Cotton Valley field indicate that for wells similar to Conoco operated Panola County wells a feasible decline rate is between 5 percent and 10 percent. Further if a consistent production trend and with more than 2 years of production history are used to forecast, the EUR can be predicted to within plus/minus 10 percent and remaining reserves to within plus/minus 15 percent.

McMillan, Marcia Donna

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Sources of productivity decline in US coal mining, 1972-1977  

SciTech Connect

Following a discussion of coal-mining technology, estimates of production functions for surface and underground coal mines are used to estimate mine productivity, to explain productivity differentials across mines, and to assess the importance of several assumed sources of productivity decline in the industry. While coal-mining techniques and equipment vary substantially between underground and surface mining, the effects of learning-by-doing appear to dominate the resource-exhaustion effects in both. The authors project that detrimental productivity effects of surface mining due to resource extraction will continue to be offset by learning by doing and other positive productivity effects until the year 2003. However, rapid growth of either surface or underground mining will hasten the appearance of detrimental resource-exhaustion effects. 9 references, 8 tables.

Kruvant, W.J. (General Accounting Office, Washington, DC); Moody, C.E. Jr.; Valentine, P.L.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Declining Volatility, a General Property of Disparate Systems: From Fossils, to Stocks, to the Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There may be structural principles pertaining to the general behavior of systems that lead to similarities in a variety of different contexts. Classic examples include the descriptive power of fractals, the importance of surface area to volume constraints, the universality of entropy in systems, and mathematical rules of growth and form. Documenting such overarching principles may represent a rejoinder to the Neodarwinian synthesis that emphasizes adaptation and competition. Instead, these principles could indicate the importance of constraint and structure on form and evolution. Here we document a potential example of a phenomenon suggesting congruent behavior of very different systems. We focus on the notion that universally there has been a tendency for more volatile entities to disappear from systems such that the net volatility in these systems tends to decline. We specifically focus on origination and extinction rates in the marine animal fossil record, the performance of stocks in the stock market, and...

Lieberman, Bruce S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The Stolper-Samuelson Effects of a Decline in Aggregate Consumption ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consider an economy in which various types of labor are used to produce consumption, but not all types of labor are useful for upgrading the stock of organization capital—that is, for replacing old projects with more productive new projects. When news induces consumers to want to save more, low-quality projects are destroyed across all sectors of the economy, even though the economy is set to increase its stock of new projects. Labor that can be used to create new projects becomes more expensive and labor that cannot becomes cheap. Average wages may not change at all, and the employment of workers who cannot invest in new projects will decline. If physical capital complements the inputs of these workers, investment in physical capital tends to move together with their employment. These results are derived analytically for a prototype economy that has the essential ingredients of empirically relevant equilibrium models of firm heterogeneity.

Erzo G. J. Luttmer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Bottom-up forcing and the decline of Steller sea lions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Declines of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska could be a consequence of physical oceanographic changes associated with the 1976--77 climate regime shift. Changes in ocean climate are hypothesized to have affected the quantity, quality, and accessibility of prey, which in turn may have affected the rates of birth and death of sea lions. Recent studies of the spatial and temporal variations in the ocean climate system of the North Pacific support this hypothesis. Ocean climate changes appear to have created adaptive opportunities for various species that are preyed upon by Steller sea lions at mid-trophic levels. The east--west asymmetry of the oceanic response to climate forcing after 1976-- 77 is consistent with both the temporal aspect (populations decreased after the late 1970s) and the spatial aspect of the decline (western, but not eastern, sea lion populations decreased). These broad-scale climate variations appear to be modulated by regionally sensitive biogeographic structures along the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska, which include a transition point from coastal to open-ocean conditions at Samalga Pass westward along the Aleutian Islands. These transition points delineate distinct clusterings of different combinations of prey species, which are in turn correlated with differential population sizes and trajectories of Steller sea lions. Archaeological records spanning 4000 yr further indicate that sea lion populations have experienced major shifts in abundance in the past. Shifts in ocean climate are the most parsimonious underlying explanation for the broad suite of ecosystem changes that have been observed in the North Pacific Ocean in recent decades.

Eumetopias Jubatas In; Andrew W. Trites; Arthur J. Miller; Herbert D. G. Maschner; Michael A; Steven J. Bograd; John A; Antonietta Capotondi; Kenneth O. Coyle; Emanuele Di; Bruce P. Finney; Edward J; Chester E. Grosch; Steven R; Douglas J. Neilson; Stephen R; Katherine L. Reedy-maschner; Thomas C. Royer; Franklin B; Julian X. L. Wang; Arliss J. Winship

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

The Edward Teller medal lecture: The evolution toward indirect drive and two decades of progress toward ICF ignition and burn  

SciTech Connect

A memorial lecture reviews the achievements of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the indirect drive for the inertial confinement fusion from 1972 to 1994. The main subjects have been the target physics (the laser and ion drive) in various geometries, the study of instabilities, and the gain calculations. The results allow to achieve extremely reproducible implosions at the Nova facilities. (AIP) [copyright] [ital American] [ital Institute] [ital of] [ital Physics] 1994

Lindl, J.D. (Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States) Eleventh International Workshop on Laser Interaction, Monterey California (United States))

1994-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

126

The Edward Teller medal lecture: The evolution toward Indirect Drive and two decades of progress toward ICF ignition and burn  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1972, I joined the Livermore ICF Theory and Target Design group led by John Nuckolls, shortly after publication of John`s seminal Nature article on ICF. My primary role, working with others in the target design program including Mordy Rosen, Steve Haan, and Larry Suter, has been as a target designer and theorist who utilized the LASNEX code to perform numerical experiments, which along with analysis of laboratory and underground thermonuclear experiments allowed me to develop a series of models and physical insights which have been used to set the direction and priorities of the Livermore program. I have had the good fortune of working with an outstanding team of scientists who have established LLNL as the premier ICF laboratory in the world. John Emmett and the LLNL Laser Science team were responsible for developing a series of lasers from Janus to Nova which have given LLNL unequaled facilities. George Zimmerman and the LASNEX group developed the numerical models essential for projecting future performance and requirements as well as for designing and analyzing the experiments. Bill Kruer, Bruce Langdon and others in the plasma theory group developed the fundamental understanding of laser plasma interactions which have played such an important role in ICF. And a series of experiment program leaders including Mike Campbell and Joe Kilkenny and their laser experimental teams developed the experimental techniques and diagnostic capabilities which have allowed us to c increasingly complex and sophisticated experiments.

Lindl, J.D.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Money and Its Use in Medieval Europe Two Decades On A Symposium in Honour of Peter Spufford  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1988) was the first full-scale study of the history of money, not merely Ages 5.00 Martin Allen, The Calais mint and the wool trade reconsidered 7.30 Dinner Friday 9.00 Barrie booking and payment to Laura Cousens at the Faculty of History, University of Cambridge (lc360@cam

de Gispert, Adrià

128

Reversal-free CaIIH profiles: a challenge for solar chromosphere modeling in quiet inter-network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study chromospheric emission to understand the temperature stratification in the solar chromosphere. We observed the intensity profile of the CaIIH line in a quiet Sun region close to the disk center at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. We analyze over 10^5 line profiles from inter-network regions. For comparison with the observed profiles, we synthesize spectra for a variety of model atmospheres with a non local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) radiative transfer code. A fraction of about 25% of the observed CaIIH line profiles do not show a measurable emission peak in H_{2v} and H_{2r} wavelength bands (reversal-free). All of the chosen model atmospheres with a temperature rise fail to reproduce such profiles. On the other hand, the synthetic calcium profile of a model atmosphere that has a monotonic decline of the temperature with height shows a reversal-free profile that has much lower intensities than any observed line profile. The observed reversal-free profiles indicate the existence of cool patches in the interior of chromospheric network cells, at least for short time intervals. Our finding is not only in conflict with a full-time hot chromosphere, but also with a very cool chromosphere as found in some dynamic simulations.

R. Rezaei; J. H. M. J. Bruls; W. Schmidt; C. Beck; W. Kalkofen; R. Schlichenmaier

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Reverse Auction Bidding - Multiple Group Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reverse Auction Bidding is a recently developed auction method. In this form of bidding process, the roles of the bidders and the owner are interchanged in terms of the form of the economic transaction. The owner's objective is to drive the unit rates down and the bidder's objective is to maintain an acceptable profit level. A study into Reverse Auction Bidding commenced at Texas A&M University in 2004 and continues to this time, with this the eighteenth study in the series. This study is the second multi-group study in the research. In this study, a multiple group comparison was made between different numbers of bidders, with Games One, Two and Three having three, four and ten bidders respectively. All participants were faculty and students from the Department of Construction Science. The critical requirement for the participants is that they should have no prior experience using the Reverse Auction Bidding system. The eighteen studies have concentrated on new players, with future studies planned for repeat participants. A number of the recent case studies have shown personality has an impact on the performance of the bidders. However, this work was not controlled for personality, as the research objective was to determine the impact of a different number of bidders in a game. The Keirsey Temperament Sorter test was completed by all participants so that the results could be understood in terms of personality impact on the level of return to each participant. The results showed the number of bidders has a significant impact on the individual returns confirming the earlier work on varying the number of bidders. An increase in the number of bidders was shown to lead to a more competitive economic environment, which given usual economic circumstances lead to a reduction in the number of firms interested in bidding, for the self-evident economic reasons. This work points to the need to investigate a bidding group size of five or six, which is likely to be the self-constrained upper limit in a real economic system. Some interesting observations on the personality types suggest that further work is required in this area.

Zhou, Xun

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The unique confinement properties of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) are exploited to examine physics and technical issues related to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor. This resistive-coil, steady-state, toroidal device would use a dual-media power cycle driven by a fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, and coils) with a power density and mass approaching values characteristic of pressurized-water fission rectors. A 1000-MWe(net) base case is selected from a comprehensive trade-off study to examine technological issues related to operating a high-power-density FPC. After describing the main physics and technology issues for this base-case reactor, directions for future study are suggested.

Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Hagenson, R.L.; Copenhaver, C.; Werley, K.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Small power plant reverse trade mission  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This draft report was prepared as required by Task No. 2 of the US Department of Energy, Grant No. FG07-89ID12850 Reverse Trade Mission to Acquaint International Representatives with US Power Plant and Drilling Technology'' (mission). As described in the grant proposal, this report covers the reactions of attendees toward US technology, its possible use in their countries, and an evaluation of the mission by the staff leaders. Note this is the draft report of one of two missions carried out under the same contract number. Because of the diversity of the mission subjects and the different attendees at each, a separate report for each mission has been prepared. This draft report has been sent to all mission attendees, specific persons in the US Department of Energy and Los Alamos National Lab., the California Energy Commission (CEC), and various other governmental agencies.

Not Available

1989-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

132

Direct observation of time reversal violation  

SciTech Connect

A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique opportunity for a search of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and PHI, Factories. The two quantum effects of the first decay as a filtering measurement and the transfer of information to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of 'in' and 'out' states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system.

Bernabeu, J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Valencia, and IFIC, Joint Centre Univ. Valencia-CSIC (Spain)

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

133

Aging, Fragility and Reversibility Window in Bulk Alloy Glasses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-reversing relaxation enthalpies (DHnr) at glass transitions Tg(x) in the PxGexSe1-2x ternary display wide, sharp and deep global minima (~ 0) in the 0.09 age, in contrast to aging observed for fragile glass compositions outside the window. Thermal reversibility and lack of aging seem to be paradigms of self-organization which molecular glasses share with protein structures which repetitively and reversibly change conformation near Tg and the folding temperature respectively.

S. Chakravarty; D. G. Georgiev; P. Boolchand; M. Micoulaut

2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

134

Recruiting Suppliers for Reverse Production Systems: an MDP ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Key words Recruiting, Reverse Production System, MDP Heuristics. 1. ...... It is very important to select an action wisely as this is the exploration part of the RL.

135

Search for Time Reversal Violation in Polarized Neutron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Search for Time Reversal Violation in Polarized Neutron Decay (emiT). Summary: The "emiT" experiment searches for - or will set an improved ...

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

136

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy, Mr. Everett Anderson, PROTON ON SITE Regenerative Fuel Cells for Energy Storage, Mr. Corky Mittelsteadt, Giner Electrochemical...

137

Reversible computation as a model for the quantum measurement process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One-to-one reversible automata are introduced. Their applicability to a modelling of the quantum mechanical measurement process is discussed.

Karl Svozil

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

138

Oil Markets After the Hurricanes: Reversion to the Mean or ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oil Markets After the Hurricanes: Reversion to the Mean or Return to Recent Trend? Macroeconomic Advisers Quarterly Meeting December 2005 Oil Markets After the ...

139

Reversible mechanism for spin crossover in transition-metal cyanides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the mechanisms for reversible and repeatable spin transition in a Prussian blue analog crystal, KCo[Fe(CN)[subscript 6

Kabir, Mohammad Mukul

140

Reverse osmosis desalination and reclamation : control of colloidal and biofouling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The focus of this thesis work was on the fundamentals of colloidal and biofouling in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination and reclamation. A novel sodium chloride… (more)

Chong, Tzyy Haur.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A Hard-to-Soft State Transition during A Luminosity Decline of Aquila X-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have discovered a spectral transition from the low/hard (LH) state to the high/soft (HS) state when Aquila X-1 was {\\em declining} in observations made with the {\\it Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)}. The 2--200 keV energy flux corresponding to the state transition is $1.1\\times{10}^{-9} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1}$, an order of magnitude lower than observed in the past. The 2--200 keV peak flux of the following HS state is $1.6\\times{10}^{-9} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. The relation between the luminosity of the hard-to-soft state transition and the peak luminosity of the following HS state confirms the linear relation found previously. This implies that the luminosity of the hard-to-soft state transition is not determined solely by the mass accretion rate, but appears to be determined by the peak luminosity of the soft X-ray outburst. We also found that the LH-to-HS state transition occurred at a luminosity similar to that of the corresponding HS-to-LH state transition, i.e., there is no apparent hysteresis. These results provide additional evidence that the mass in the accretion disk affects the luminosity of the hard-to-soft state transition, and that the accretion flow that powers the LH state is related to the accretion flow that powers the HS state at a later time.

Wenfei Yu; Joshua Dolence

2006-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

142

Photonic band gaps in one-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals with arbitrary magnetic declination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps and dispersion relations of one-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals composed of dielectric and magnetized plasma layers with arbitrary magnetic declination are theoretically investigated for TM polarized wave based on transfer matrix method. As TM wave propagates in one-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals, the electromagnetic wave can be divided into two modes due to the influence of Lorentz force. The equations for effective dielectric functions of such two modes are theoretically deduced, and the transfer matrix equation and dispersion relations for TM wave are calculated. The influences of relative dielectric constant, plasma collision frequency, incidence angle, plasma filling factor, the angle between external magnetic field and +z axis, external magnetic field and plasma frequency on transmission, and dispersion relation are investigated, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. From the numerical results, it has been shown that plasma collision frequency cannot change the locations of photonic band gaps for both modes, and also does not affect the reflection and transmission magnitudes. The characteristics of photonic band gaps for both modes can be obviously tuned by relative dielectric constant, incidence angle, plasma filling factor, the angle between external magnetic field and +z axis, external magnetic field and plasma frequency, respectively. These results would provide theoretical instructions for designing filters, microcavities, and fibers, etc.

Zhang Haifeng [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 (China); Liu Shaobin [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves of Southeast University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210096 (China); Kong Xiangkun [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

THE STABILITY AND REVERSIBILITY OF METALLIC BOROHYDRIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In effort to develop reversible metallic borohydrides with high hydrogen storage capacity and low dehydriding temperature, several new materials have been synthesized by modifying LiBH{sub 4} with various metal halides and hydrides. The investigation shows that the halide modification effectively reduced the dehydriding temperature through ion exchange interaction. The effective halides are TiCl{sub 3}, TiF{sub 3}, ZnF{sub 2} and AlF{sub 3}. The material LiBH{sub 4}+0.1TiF{sub 3} desorbs 3.5wt% and 8.5wt% hydrogen at 150 C and 450 C respectively. It re-absorbed 6wt% hydrogen at 500 C and 70 bar after dehydrogenation. The XRD of the rehydrided samples confirmed the formation of LiBH{sub 4}. It indicates that the materials are reversible at the conditions given. However, a number of other halides: MgF{sub 2}, MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, SrCl{sub 2} and FeCl{sub 3}, did not reduce dehydriding temperature of LiBH{sub 4} significantly. TGA-RGA analysis indicated that some halide modified lithium borohydrides such as LiBH{sub 4}+0.1ZnF{sub 2} evolved diborane during dehydrogenation, but some did not such as LiBH{sub 4}+0.1TiCl{sub 3}. The formation of diborane caused unrecoverable capacity loss resulting in irreversibility. It is suggested that the lithium borohydrides modified by the halides containing the metals that can not form metal borides with boron are likely to evolve diborane during dehydriding. It was discovered that halide modification reduces sensitivity of LiBH{sub 4}. The materials such as LiBH{sub 4}+0.1TiCl{sub 3} and LiBH{sub 4}+0.5TiCl{sub 3} can be handled in open air without visible reaction.

Au, M

2007-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

144

Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

145

BIMETALLIC LITHIUM BOROHYDRIDES TOWARD REVERSIBLE HYDROGEN STORAGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Borohydrides such as LiBH{sub 4} have been studied as candidates for hydrogen storage because of their high hydrogen contents (18.4 wt% for LiBH{sub 4}). Limited success has been made in reducing the dehydrogenation temperature by adding reactants such as metals, metal oxides and metal halides. However, full rehydrogenation has not been realized because of multi-step decomposition processes and the stable intermediate species produced. It is suggested that adding second cation in LiBH{sub 4} may reduce the binding energy of B-H. The second cation may also provide the pathway for full rehydrogenation. In this work, several bimetallic borohydrides were synthesized using wet chemistry, high pressure reactive ball milling and sintering processes. The investigation found that the thermodynamic stability was reduced, but the full rehydrogenation is still a challenge. Although our experiments show the partial reversibility of the bimetallic borohydrides, it was not sustainable during dehydriding-rehydriding cycles because of the accumulation of hydrogen inert species.

Au, M.

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

146

POLAR FIELD REVERSAL OBSERVATIONS WITH HINODE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have been monitoring yearly variation in the Sun's polar magnetic fields with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode to record their evolution and expected reversal near the solar maximum. All magnetic patches in the magnetic flux maps are automatically identified to obtain the number density and magnetic flux density as a function of the total magnetic flux per patch. The detected magnetic flux per patch ranges over four orders of magnitude (10{sup 15}-10{sup 20} Mx). The higher end of the magnetic flux in the polar regions is about one order of magnitude larger than that of the quiet Sun, and nearly that of pores. Almost all large patches ({>=}10{sup 18} Mx) have the same polarity, while smaller patches have a fair balance of both polarities. The polarity of the polar region as a whole is consequently determined only by the large magnetic concentrations. A clear decrease in the net flux of the polar region is detected in the slow rising phase of the current solar cycle. The decrease is more rapid in the north polar region than in the south. The decrease in the net flux is caused by a decrease in the number and size of the large flux concentrations as well as the appearance of patches with opposite polarity at lower latitudes. In contrast, we do not see temporal change in the magnetic flux associated with the smaller patches (<10{sup 18} Mx) and that of the horizontal magnetic fields during the years 2008-2012.

Shiota, D. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN (Institute of Physics and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsuneta, S.; Shimojo, M.; Orozco Suarez, D.; Ishikawa, R. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sako, N., E-mail: shiota@riken.jp [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

147

Assessing Accelerator-Based HPC Reverse Time Migration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil and gas companies trust Reverse Time Migration (RTM), the most advanced seismic imaging technique, with crucial decisions on drilling investments. The economic value of the oil reserves that require RTM to be localized is in the order of 10^{13} ... Keywords: Reverse time migration, accelerators, GPU, Cell/B.E., FPGA, geophysics.

Mauricio Araya-Polo; Javier Cabezas; Mauricio Hanzich; Miquel Pericas; Felix Rubio; Isaac Gelado; Muhammad Shafiq; Enric Morancho; Nacho Navarro; Eduard Ayguade; Jose Maria Cela; Mateo Valero

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Air Reverse Circulation Bit Internal Fluid Simulation Based on CFD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article instructs the work principle of the injector device and its application in the reverse-circulation sampling drilling bit. Then use the fluent fluid engineering emulator software to simulate the internal fluid territory of the injector when ... Keywords: air reverse circulation, bit, injector hole, optimization

Shuqing Hao; Hong-wei Huang; Kun Yin

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

AN EXPONENTIAL DECLINE AT THE BRIGHT END OF THE z = 6 GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a search for the most luminous star-forming galaxies at redshifts z Almost-Equal-To 6 based on Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey data. We identify a sample of 40 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) brighter than magnitude z' = 25.3 across an area of almost 4 deg{sup 2}. Sensitive spectroscopic observations of seven galaxies provide redshifts for four, of which only two have moderate to strong Ly{alpha} emission lines. All four have clear continuum breaks in their spectra. Approximately half of the LBGs are spatially resolved in 0.7 arcsec seeing images, indicating larger sizes than lower luminosity galaxies discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope, possibly due to ongoing mergers. The stacked optical and infrared photometry is consistent with a galaxy model with stellar mass {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. There is strong evidence for substantial dust reddening with a best-fit A{sub V} = 0.75 and A{sub V} > 0.48 at 2{sigma} confidence, in contrast to the typical dust-free galaxies of lower luminosity at this epoch. The spatial extent and spectral energy distribution suggest that the most luminous z Almost-Equal-To 6 galaxies are undergoing merger-induced starbursts. The luminosity function of z = 5.9 star-forming galaxies is derived. This agrees well with previous work and shows strong evidence for an exponential decline at the bright end, indicating that the feedback processes that govern the shape of the bright end are occurring effectively at this epoch.

Willott, Chris J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); McLure, Ross J.; Bruce, Victoria A. [SUPA Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Hibon, Pascale [Gemini Observatory, Gemini South, AURA/Chile, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Bielby, Richard [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Kneib, Jean-Paul; Ilbert, Olivier [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Universite Aix-Marseille, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Bonfield, David G.; Jarvis, Matt J., E-mail: chris.willott@nrc.ca [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Nonlinear Time-Reversal of Classical Waves: Experiment and Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider time-reversal of electromagnetic waves in a closed, wave-chaotic system containing a discrete, passive, harmonic-generating nonlinearity. An experimental system is constructed as a time-reversal mirror, in which excitations generated by the nonlinearity are gathered, time-reversed, transmitted, and directed exclusively to the location of the nonlinearity. Here we show that such nonlinear objects can be purely passive (as opposed to the active nonlinearities used in previous work), and develop a high-rate secure communication system based on nonlinear time-reversal. A model of the experimental system is developed, using a star-graph network of transmission lines, with one of the lines terminated by a model diode. The model simulates time-reversal of linear and nonlinear signals, demonstrates features seen in the experimental system, and supports our interpretation of the experimental results.

Matthew Frazier; Biniyam Taddese; Bo Xiao; Thomas Antonsen; Edward Ott; Steven M. Anlage

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Reversibility and Adiabatic Computation: Trading Time and Space for Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Future miniaturization and mobilization of computing devices requires energy parsimonious `adiabatic' computation. This is contingent on logical reversibility of computation. An example is the idea of quantum computations which are reversible except for the irreversible observation steps. We propose to study quantitatively the exchange of computational resources like time and space for irreversibility in computations. Reversible simulations of irreversible computations are memory intensive. Such (polynomial time) simulations are analysed here in terms of `reversible' pebble games. We show that Bennett's pebbling strategy uses least additional space for the greatest number of simulated steps. We derive a trade-off for storage space versus irreversible erasure. Next we consider reversible computation itself. An alternative proof is provided for the precise expression of the ultimate irreversibility cost of an otherwise reversible computation without restrictions on time and space use. A time-irreversibility trade-off hierarchy in the exponential time region is exhibited. Finally, extreme time-irreversibility trade-offs for reversible computations in the thoroughly unrealistic range of computable versus noncomputable time-bounds are given.

Ming Li; Paul Vitanyi

1997-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

152

Argonne CNM Highlight: Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Reverse Chemmical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Ferroelectric materials display a spontaneous electric polarization below the Curie temperature that can be reoriented, typically by applying an electric field. In this study, researchers from Argonne, Northern Illinois University, and The University of Pennsylvania have demonstrated that the chemical environment can control the polarization orientation in an ultrathin ferroelectric film. This is complementary to recent predictions that polarization can affect surface chemistry and illuminates potential applications in sublithographic patterning and electrically tunable catalysts. In situ synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements showed that high or low

153

0 It is observed in Fig. 1-9 that the rate of decline in steam temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;0 0 v) 0 0 0 0 c3 cy n 3 v) d 0 0 23 #12;It is observed in Fig. 1-9 that the rate of decline in steam the saturated two-phase temperatute) indicates the degree of superheating of the steam that took place. In the two-phase regime, the measured steam/water temperatures were uniform, generally within the estimated

Stanford University

154

Discriminative features in reversible stochastic attribute-value grammars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reversible stochastic attribute-value grammars (de Kok et al., 2011) use one model for parse disambiguation and fluency ranking. Such a model encodes preferences with respect to syntax, fluency, and appropriateness of logical forms, as weighted features. ...

Daniël de Kok

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Wind shear and buoyancy reversal at the stratocumulus top  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical experiment is designed to study the interaction at the stratocumulus top between a mean vertical shear and the buoyancy reversal due to evaporative cooling, without radiative cooling. Direct numerical simulation is used to eliminate ...

Juan Pedro Mellado; Bjorn Stevens; Heiko Schmidt

156

The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study  

SciTech Connect

This paper on titan plasma engineering contains papers on the following topics: reversed-field pinch as a fusion reactor; parametric systems studies; magnetics; burning-plasma simulations; plasma transient operations; current drive; and physics issues for compact RFP reactors.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Reversible and irreversible binding of nanoparticles to polymeric surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reversible and irreversible binding of CdSe-nanoparticles and nanorods to polymeric surfaces via a strong, multiple hydrogen bond (= Hamilton-receptor/barbituric acid) is described. Based on ROMP-copolymers, the supramolecular interaction on a thin polymer ...

Wolfgang H. Binder; Marina Lomoschitz; Robert Sachsenhofer; Gernot Friedbacher

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Reversible Record Breaking and Variability: Temperature Distributions across the Globe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on counts of record highs and lows, and employing reversibility in time, an approach to examining natural variability is proposed. The focus is on intrinsic variability; that is, variance separated from the trend in the mean. A variability ...

Amalia Anderson; Alexander Kostinski

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Vorticity and Instability during Flow Reversals on the Continental Shelf  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow reversals during relaxation of the equatorward wind on the northern California shelf are studied with observations and a simple numerical model. Data from the CODE experiment are used to document the changes in the cross-shelf profiles of ...

Uwe Send

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Average-case analysis of perfect sorting by reversals - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sep 15, 2011 ... operator acting on a signed permutation, reversing the order and ..... magnitude O(n?c) and the remaining terms have magnitude O(n?c?1).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Reversion of the Malignant Phenotype of Human Breast Cells in ...  

The Rockefeller University Press, 0021-9525/97/04/231/15 $2.00 The Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 137, Number 1, April 7, 1997 231–245 231 Reversion of the ...

162

Supernova Reverse Shocks and SiC Growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new mechanisms by which the isotopic compositions of X-type grains of presolar SiC are altered by reverse shocks in Type II supernovae. We address three epochs of reverse shocks: pressure wave from the H envelope near t = 10$^6$s; reverse shock from the presupernova wind near 10$^8-10^9$s; reverse shock from the ISM near 10$^{10}$s. Using 1-D hydrodynamics we show that the first creates a dense shell of Si and C atoms near 10$^6$s in which the SiC surely condenses. The second reverse shock causes precondensed grains to move rapidly forward through decelerated gas of different isotopic composition, during which implantation, sputtering and further condensation occur simultaneously. The third reverse shock causes only further ion implantation and sputtering, which may affect trace element isotopic compositions. Using a 25M$_{\\odot}$ supernova model we propose solutions to the following unsolved questions: where does SiC condense?; why does SiC condense in preference to graphite?; why is condensed SiC $^{28}$Si-rich?; why is O richness no obstacle to SiC condensation?; how many atoms of each isotope are impacted by a grain that condenses at time t$_0$ at radial coordinate r$_0$? These many considerations are put forward as a road map for interpreting SiC X grains found in meteorites and their meaning for supernova physics.

E. A. -N. Deneault; D. D. Clayton; A. Heger

2003-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

163

Supernova Reverse Shocks and SiC Growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new mechanisms by which the isotopic compositions of X-type grains of presolar SiC are altered by reverse shocks in Type II supernovae. We address three epochs of reverse shocks: pressure wave from the H envelope near t = 10 6 s; reverse shock from the presupernova wind near 10 8-10 9 s; reverse shock from the ISM near 10 10 s. Using 1-D hydrodynamics we show that the first creates a dense shell of Si and C atoms near 10 6 s in which the SiC surely condenses. The second reverse shock causes precondensed grains to move rapidly forward through decelerated gas of different isotopic composition, during which implantation, sputtering and further condensation occur simultaneously. The third reverse shock causes only further ion implantation and sputtering, which may affect trace element isotopic compositions. Using a 25M ? supernova model we propose solutions to the following unsolved questions: where does SiC condense?; why does SiC condense in preference to graphite?; why is condensed SiC 28 Si-rich?; why is O richness no obstacle to SiC condensation?; how many atoms of each isotope are impacted by a grain that condenses at time t0 at radial coordinate r0? These many considerations are put forward as a road map for interpreting SiC X grains found in meteorites and their meaning for supernova physics. Subject headings: —supernova remnants —dust extinction —infrared:stars —astrochemistry 1.

Ethan A. -n. Deneault; Donald D. Clayton

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Synthesis of Reversible Functions Beyond Gate Count and Quantum Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many synthesis approaches for reversible and quantum logic have been proposed so far. However, most of them generate circuits with respect to simple metrics, i.e. gate count or quantum cost. On the other hand, to physically realize reversible and quantum hardware, additional constraints exist. In this paper, we describe cost metrics beyond gate count and quantum cost that should be considered while synthesizing reversible and quantum logic for the respective target technologies. We show that the evaluation of a synthesis approach may differ if additional costs are applied. In addition, a new cost metric, namely Nearest Neighbor Cost (NNC) which is imposed by realistic physical quantum architectures, is considered in detail. We discuss how existing synthesis flows can be extended to generate optimal circuits with respect to NNC while still keeping the quantum cost small.

Robert Wille; Mehdi Saeedi; Rolf Drechsler

2010-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

165

Wind reversals in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The phenomenon of irregular cessation and subsequent reversal of the large-scale circulation in turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection is theoretically analysed. The force and thermal balance on a single plume detached from the thermal boundary layer yields a set of coupled nonlinear equations, whose dynamics is related to the Lorenz equations. For Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers in the range $10^{-2} \\leq \\Pr \\leq 10^{3}$ and $10^{7} \\leq \\Ra \\leq 10^{12}$, the model has the following features: (i) chaotic reversals may be exhibited at Ra $\\geq 10^{7}$; (ii) the Reynolds number based on the root mean square velocity scales as $\\Re_{rms} \\sim \\Ra^{[0.41 ... 0.47]}$ (depending on Pr), and as $\\Re_{rms} \\sim \\Pr^{-[0.66 ... 0.76]}$ (depending on Ra); and (iii) the mean reversal frequency follows an effective scaling law $\\omega / (\

Francisco Fontenele Araujo; S. Grossmann; D. Lohse

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

166

Combined Ideal and Kinetic Effects on Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes  

SciTech Connect

A theory of Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAEs) is developed for reversed magnetic field shear plasmas when the safety factor minimum, qmin, is at or above a rational value. The modes we study are known sometimes as either the bottom of the frequency sweep or the down sweeping RSAEs. We show that the ideal MHD theory is not compatible with the eigenmode solution in the reversed shear plasma with qmin above integer values. Corrected by special analytic FLR condition MHD dispersion of these modes nevertheless can be developed. Large radial scale part of the analytic RSAE solution can be obtained from ideal MHD and expressed in terms of the Legendre functions. The kinetic equation with FLR effects for the eigenmode is solved numerically and agrees with the analytic solutions. Properties of RSAEs and their potential implications for plasma diagnostics are discussed.

N.N. Gorelenkov, G.J. Kramer, and R. Nazikian

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

167

Response of the Wintertime Northern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation to Current and Projected Arctic Sea Ice Decline: A Numerical Study with CAM5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The wintertime Northern Hemisphere (NH) atmospheric circulation response to current (2007–12) and projected (2080–99) Arctic sea ice decline is examined with the latest version of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5). The numerical experiments ...

Yannick Peings; Gudrun Magnusdottir

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

An American Perspective on British Higher Education: The Decline of Diversity, Autonomy and Trust in Post-war British Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Perspective on British Higher Education: The Decline ofTrust in Post-war British Higher Education 1 Martin Trow TheCenter for Studies in Higher Education UC Berkeley, CA 94720

Trow, Martin A

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

C*-algebras associated with reversible extensions of logistic maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The construction of reversible extensions of dynamical systems presented in a previous paper by the author and A.V. Lebedev is enhanced, so that it applies to arbitrary mappings (not necessarily with open range). It is based on calculating the maximal ideal space of C*-algebras that extends endomorphisms to partial automorphisms via partial isometric representations, and involves a new set of 'parameters' (the role of parameters is played by chosen sets or ideals). As model examples, we give a thorough description of reversible extensions of logistic maps and a classification of systems associated with compression of unitaries generating homeomorphisms of the circle. Bibliography: 34 titles.

Kwasniewski, Bartosz K [Institute of Mathematics, University of Bialystok (Poland)

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Wideband silicon bolometers'' on the LSX field reversed configuration experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silicon photodiode detectors, which have nearly flat energy response from 1 eV to 6 keV (R. Korde and L. Randall Canfield, Proc. SPIE {bold 1140}, 126 (1989)), were used as bolometers in the field reversed theta pinch experiment LSX. Plasma escaping from the field reversed configuration is naturally diverted to the ends of the vacuum enclosure. There it affects the bolometer measurements either by direct energy deposition or by emission of low energy photons. These two particle effects can be avoided by optimizing the location of the bolometers and restricting their field of view. Good agreement is observed between the silicon bolometers and a gold foil calorimeter.

Maqueda, R.J.; Wurden, G.A. (Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, FL-10, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)); Crawford, E.A. (STI Optronics, 2755 Northup Way, Bellevue, Washington 98004 (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Energy current imaging method for time reversal in elastic media  

SciTech Connect

An energy current imaging method is presented for use in locating sources of wave energy during the back propagation stage of the time reversal process. During the back propagation phase of an ideal time reversal experiment, wave energy coalesces from all angles of incidence to recreate the source event; after the recreation, wave energy diverges in every direction. An energy current imaging method based on this convergence/divergence behavior has been developed. The energy current imaging method yields a smaller spatial distribution for source reconstruction than is possible with traditional energy imaging methods.

Anderson, Brian E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ulrich, Timothy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guyer, Robert A [UNR; Griffa, Michele [ETH ZURICH

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print Wednesday, 28 March 2007 00:00 In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very strong magnetic fields of around half a tesla (approximately one-third the field of the strongest permanent magnet) were previously thought to be necessary to accomplish this. At the ALS, a team of researchers from Germany, Belgium, and the U.S. has used time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to observe vortex motion and demonstrate the feasibility of using weak magnetic fields as low as 1.5 millitesla (mT) to reverse the direction of a vortex core. The observed switching mechanism, which can be understood within the framework of micromagnetic theory, gives insights into basic magnetization dynamics and their possible application to data storage technologies.

173

ON THE NATURE OF REVERSE COMPOSITIONALITY Over the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

entered the scene: Reverse Compositionality (RC) (e.g., Fodor,. 1998a, b; Fodor and ... search in cognitive science about concepts is wrong-headed. RC, he argues .... term doesn't resolve any issues, but merely relabels them. If Shelia's.

174

Reverse Engineering Code with IDA Pro, 1st edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If you want to master the art and science of reverse engineering code with IDA Pro for security R&D or software debugging, this is the book for you. Highly organized and sophisticated criminal entities are constantly developing more complex, obfuscated, ... Keywords: Programming, Security

IOActive

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime. 10 figs.

Honig, E.M.

1987-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

176

Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

On the steady states of weakly reversible chemical reaction networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A natural condition on the structure of the underlying chemical reaction network, namely weak reversibility, is shown to guarantee the existence of an equilibrium (steady state) in each positive stoichiometric compatibility class for the associated mass-action system. Furthermore, an index formula is given for the set of equilibria in a given stoichiometric compatibility class.

Deng, Jian; Feinberg, Martin; Nachman, Adrian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Simulating geomagnetic reversals through 2D Ising systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work 2D Ising systems were used to simulate the reversals of the Earth's magnetic field. Each spin was supposed to be a ring current in the Earth dynamo and the magnetization to be proportional to the field intensity. Given the relative success of some physical few-discs modeling of this system all the simulations were implemented in small systems. The temperature T was used as a tunning parameter. It plays the role of external perturbations. Power laws were obtained for the distribution of times between reversals. When the system size was increased the exponent of the power law asymptotically tended towards values very near -1.5, generally accepted as the right value for this phenomenon. Depending on the proximity of T and Tc the average duration of reversal period changes. In this way it is possible to establish a parallel between the model and more or less well defined periods of the reversal record. Some possible trends for future works are advanced.

Jorge O. O. Franco; Vitor H. A. Dias; Andres R. R. Papa

2006-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

179

Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The method comprises treating (e.g., derivatizing) the electrode surface with an electrochemically active material; connecting the electrode to an electrical potential; and exposing the fluid medium to the electrode surface in a manner such that the charged particles become adsorbed on the electrode surface.

Weaver, P.F.; Frank, A.J.

1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

180

Spectroscopic investigation of a reversed field pinch operated without limiters  

SciTech Connect

Spectroscopic measurements on the ZT-40M reversed field pinch (submitted to Fusion Tech.) discharge are reported. Specifically, the impurity content, Z/sub eff/, recycling behavior, ion temperature, and propagation of magnetohydrodynamic modes in the edge are addressed. The importance of the plasma--wall interaction in ZT-40M, operated without limiters, is demonstrated.

Weber, P.G.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

A Mirnov loop array for field-reversed configurations  

SciTech Connect

An array of 64 magnetic pick-up loops has been used for stability studies of large field-reversed configurations in the FRX-C/LSM device. This array proved reliable, could resolve signals of a few Gauss, and allowed the detection of several plasma instabilities. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Tuszewski, M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Using Decline Curve Analysis, Volumetric Analysis, and Bayesian Methodology to Quantify Uncertainty in Shale Gas Reserve Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Probabilistic decline curve analysis (PDCA) methods have been developed to quantify uncertainty in production forecasts and reserves estimates. However, the application of PDCA in shale gas reservoirs is relatively new. Limited work has been done on the performance of PDCA methods when the available production data are limited. In addition, PDCA methods have often been coupled with Arp’s equations, which might not be the optimum decline curve analysis model (DCA) to use, as new DCA models for shale reservoirs have been developed. Also, decline curve methods are based on production data only and do not by themselves incorporate other types of information, such as volumetric data. My research objective was to integrate volumetric information with PDCA methods and DCA models to reliably quantify the uncertainty in production forecasts from hydraulically fractured horizontal shale gas wells, regardless of the stage of depletion. In this work, hindcasts of multiple DCA models coupled to different probabilistic methods were performed to determine the reliability of the probabilistic DCA methods. In a hindcast, only a portion of the historical data is matched; predictions are made for the remainder of the historical period and compared to the actual historical production. Most of the DCA models were well calibrated visually when used with an appropriate probabilistic method, regardless of the amount of production data available to match. Volumetric assessments, used as prior information, were incorporated to further enhance the calibration of production forecasts and reserves estimates when using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) as the PDCA method and the logistic growth DCA model. The proposed combination of the MCMC PDCA method, the logistic growth DCA model, and use of volumetric data provides an integrated procedure to reliably quantify the uncertainty in production forecasts and reserves estimates in shale gas reservoirs. Reliable quantification of uncertainty should yield more reliable expected values of reserves estimates, as well as more reliable assessment of upside and downside potential. This can be particularly valuable early in the development of a play, because decisions regarding continued development are based to a large degree on production forecasts and reserves estimates for early wells in the play.

Gonzalez Jimenez, Raul 1988-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Are Returns to Education on the Decline in Venezuela and Does Mission Sucre Have a Role to Play?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anecdotal evidence points to a falling standard of living for the educated in Venezuela. During this same period, President Hugo Chávez implemented several education reforms. We focus on a major university education reform known as Mission Sucre and its potential impact on returns to university education. First, we show that returns to education decreased significantly in Venezuela from 2002 to 2008. Subsequently, we explore the impact of the program on nonprogram participants and provide evidence that a substantial part of the falling returns at the tertiary level can be linked to Mission Sucre. Our results suggest that the reform created a negative externality on students who did not participate in the program, leading to a 2.7 percentage point decline in returns to university education for non-Mission Sucre students in the 23-28 age cohort.

Naihobe Gonzalez; Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Why sequence for reverse metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for reverse metabolic for reverse metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli? Bioenergy researchers are interested in harnessing microbes to produce alcohols for fuel use because these cells are relatively easy to grow and study. The bacteria Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamucum, both of which have been used to produce alcohols, have already been sequenced and had their genomes annotated. For this project, mutants of E. coli and C. glutamucum will be sequenced to find out how to boost alcohol production in these bacteria for bioenergy use. E. coli Photo: CDC/Evangeline Sowers, Janice Carr Previous work with E. coli has shown that the bacterium can produce alcohols with five-carbon atoms. Further study of the bacterium's mutants could lead to the production of even more complex, longer-chain alcohols

185

SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSALS AND THE ROLE OF DYNAMO FAMILIES  

SciTech Connect

The variable magnetic field of the solar photosphere exhibits periodic reversals as a result of dynamo activity occurring within the solar interior. We decompose the surface field as observed by both the Wilcox Solar Observatory and the Michelson Doppler Imager into its harmonic constituents, and present the time evolution of the mode coefficients for the past three sunspot cycles. The interplay between the various modes is then interpreted from the perspective of general dynamo theory, where the coupling between the primary and secondary families of modes is found to correlate with large-scale polarity reversals for many examples of cyclic dynamos. Mean-field dynamos based on the solar parameter regime are then used to explore how such couplings may result in the various long-term trends in the surface magnetic field observed to occur in the solar case.

DeRosa, M. L. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover St. B/252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Brun, A. S. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu Universite Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hoeksema, J. T. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

186

Forward and reverse control system for induction motors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

Wright, J.T.

1987-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Compact toroid experiments: spheromaks and field-reversed configurations  

SciTech Connect

Compact toroids (CT) containing both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field spheromaks, are generated in the CTX experiment using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun, and are trapped and stably confined in an oblate flux conserver. Total configuration lifetimes are observed up to approx. 0.8 ms, consistent with classical resistive decay. The field reversed configuration (FRC) is a high beta, axisymmetric, highly prolate compact toroid, containing only poloidal magnetic field, formed in a field-reversed theta pinch. A quiescent confinement period of 30 to 90 ..mu..s with T/sub i/ approx. 200 to 500 eV and n approx. 5 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/ is terminated by an n = 2 rotational instability. The FRC is stable to MHD modes including the tilting instability.

Quinn, W.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

All-optical reversible logic gate via adiabatic population transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Toffoli gate is an essential logic element, which permits implementation of a reversible processor. It is of relevance both for classical as well as quantum logics. We propose and theoretically study all-optical implementations of three-bit and four-bit Toffoli gates by application of adiabatic population transfer techniques. For a three-bit Toffoli gate we use variants of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) processes in a $\\Lambda$-type level scheme, driven by two laser pulses at sufficiently large detunings. For the implementation of a four-bit Toffoli gate, we apply reversible adiabatic population transfer in five-level quantum systems, interacting with three laser pulses. We demonstrate correct all-optical implementation of the truth table of three-bit and four-bit Toffoli gates. Moreover, we derive conditions for adiabatic evolution of the population dynamics and robust operation of the gates.

G. Grigoryan; V. Chaltykyan; E. Gazazyan; O. Tikhova; T. Halfmann

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

189

Cell cycle-regulated manganese superoxide dismutase activity via reversible  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cycle-regulated manganese superoxide dismutase activity via reversible cycle-regulated manganese superoxide dismutase activity via reversible phosphorylation Demet Candas University of California Davis Abstract The constant stress environment that the cells live in required the development of defense systems against free radical and radiation insults. One of the major antioxidant enzymes responsible for detoxifying free radical species is manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, Sod2), which is specifically localized into the mitochondria of cells. MnSOD catalyzes the conversion of two molecules of superoxide anion into water and hydrogen peroxide, the latter of which is then further oxidized to water. The significance of the role of MnSOD activity was shown by the studies showing that the loss or deficiency of MnSOD sensitize cells to ionizing

190

ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE STORAGE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the challenges of implementing the hydrogen economy is finding a suitable solid H{sub 2} storage material. Aluminium (alane, AlH{sub 3}) hydride has been examined as a potential hydrogen storage material because of its high weight capacity, low discharge temperature, and volumetric density. Recycling the dehydride material has however precluded AlH{sub 3} from being implemented due to the large pressures required (>10{sup 5} bar H{sub 2} at 25 C) and the thermodynamic expense of chemical synthesis. A reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically using NaAlH{sub 4} in THF been successfully demonstrated. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum. To complete the cycle, the starting alanate can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride (NaH) This novel reversible cycle opens the door for alane to fuel the hydrogen economy.

Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

191

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very strong magnetic fields of around half a tesla (approximately one-third the field of the strongest permanent magnet) were previously thought to be necessary to accomplish this. At the ALS, a team of researchers from Germany, Belgium, and the U.S. has used time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to observe vortex motion and demonstrate the feasibility of using weak magnetic fields as low as 1.5 millitesla (mT) to reverse the direction of a vortex core. The observed switching mechanism, which can be understood within the framework of micromagnetic theory, gives insights into basic magnetization dynamics and their possible application to data storage technologies.

192

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very strong magnetic fields of around half a tesla (approximately one-third the field of the strongest permanent magnet) were previously thought to be necessary to accomplish this. At the ALS, a team of researchers from Germany, Belgium, and the U.S. has used time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to observe vortex motion and demonstrate the feasibility of using weak magnetic fields as low as 1.5 millitesla (mT) to reverse the direction of a vortex core. The observed switching mechanism, which can be understood within the framework of micromagnetic theory, gives insights into basic magnetization dynamics and their possible application to data storage technologies.

193

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known as a magnetic vortex. At the vortex core, the magnetization turns sharply out of the plane, pointing either up or down. Magnetic data storage based on this binary phenomenon is an intriguing concept, but it would require the ability to flip the vortex cores on demand. Because these structures are highly stable, very strong magnetic fields of around half a tesla (approximately one-third the field of the strongest permanent magnet) were previously thought to be necessary to accomplish this. At the ALS, a team of researchers from Germany, Belgium, and the U.S. has used time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to observe vortex motion and demonstrate the feasibility of using weak magnetic fields as low as 1.5 millitesla (mT) to reverse the direction of a vortex core. The observed switching mechanism, which can be understood within the framework of micromagnetic theory, gives insights into basic magnetization dynamics and their possible application to data storage technologies.

194

On the Time Reversal Invariance of Classical Electromagnetic Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

David Albert claims that classical electromagnetic theory is not time reversal invariant. He acknowledges that all physics books say that it is, but claims they are "simply wrong" because they rely on an incorrect account of how the time reversal operator acts on magnetic fields. On that account, electric fields are left intact by the operator, but magnetic fields are inverted. Albert sees no reason for the asymmetric treatment, and insists that neither field should be inverted. I argue, to the contrary, that the inversion of magnetic fields makes good sense and is, in fact, forced by elementary geometric considerations. I also suggest a way of thinking about the time reversal invariance of classical electromagnetic theory -- one that makes use of the invariant four-dimensional formulation of the theory -- that makes no reference to magnetic fields at all. It is my hope that it will be of interest in its own right, Albert aside. It has the advantage that it allows for arbitrary curvature in the background spacetime structure, and is therefore suitable for the framework of general relativity. The only assumption one needs is temporal orientability.

David B. Malament

2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

195

Design for decline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The turn of the millennium has been marked by global economic and environmental instability. Sustainability has emerged as the prevailing response to the destabilizing nature of unchecked growth and shortsighted planning; ...

Guignon, Christopher Tohru

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

An efficient approach for designing and minimizing reversible programmable logic arrays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reversible computing dissipates zero energy in terms of information loss at input and also it can detect error of circuit by keeping unique input-output mapping. In this paper, we have proposed a cost effective design of Reversible Programmable Logic ... Keywords: MUX gate, programmable logic arrays, reversible logic

Sajib Kumar Mitra; Lafifa Jamal; Mineo Kaneko; Hafiz Md. Hasan Babu

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Impact of Distant Charge Reversals within a Robust -Barrel Protein Pore Mohammad M. Mohammad  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

recordings and standard protein engineering to explore the impact of two distant charge reversals withinImpact of Distant Charge Reversals within a Robust -Barrel Protein Pore Mohammad M. Mohammad of the two distant charge reversals resulted in a large-amplitude permanent blockade of the barrel, as judged

Movileanu, Liviu

198

Reversibility, Water-Mediated Switching, and Directed Cell Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reversible switching of the complex network dynamics of proteins is mimicked in selected network glasses and compacted small carbohydrate molecules. Protein transitions occur on long time scales ~ us -ms, evocative of the exponentially large viscosities found in glass-forming supercooled liquids just above the glass transition; in searching for mechanisms for reversibly slowed "geared activation", Kauzmann was led from proteins to glasses. I show here that selected network glasses and small carbohydrate molecules can be used to model such transitions, and elucidate in particular some universal aspects of tandem repeats. The human ankyrin tandem repeat D34, with a superhelical "coiled spring" structure which has 426 residues, folds reversibly and plastically. Such molecules are too large for present transition-state numerical simulations, currently limited to ~ 100 residues solvated by ~ 3000 water molecules for times ~ ns. The transition states of D34 exhibit a surprisingly simple collective ("geared") pattern when studied by fluorescence near its center, in samples modified mutageneously along its 12 helical repeats. One can understand this "plastic" pattern by taking advantage of a symmetric 45-atom carbohydrate molecular bridge to "cross over" from proteins to inorganic network glasses. There one easily identifies gears, and can show that the collective pattern is the signature of nonlocal, water-mediated [hydro(phobic/philic)] switching. Details of the transition patterns emerge from analyzing the amino acid alpha helical repeat sequences with water-only hydrophobicity scales. Freezing and melting of monolayer water films at physiological temperatures can enable ankyrin repeats to direct cell dynamics in muscles, membranes and cytoskeletons.

J. C. Phillips

2008-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

199

Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Characterization of hydrotreating catalysts by reversed-flow gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

A flow perturbation gas chromatographic method, called reversed-flow technique, was introduced in 1980 and has been used to study the kinetics of various surface-catalyzed reactions, as well as for other physicochemical measurements. A review on the method has already been published. The new technique is based on reversing the direction of flow of the carrier gas from time to time. It uses a conventional gas chromatograph with any kind of detector, accommodating in its oven a so-called sampling cell. This consists of a sampling column and a diffusion column and is connected to the carrier gas inlet and the detector via a four-port or six-port valve. By switching the valve from one position to the other, the carrier gas is made to flow through the sampling column either from D{sub 2} to D{sub 1} or in the reversed direction. The sampling column can be filled with a catalyst whereby it plays the role of a catalytic reactor, or it filled with a usual chromatographic material acting as a conventional separation column, or it can contain both kinds of solids. Moreover, this column can be completely empty of any solid material, when it simply acts as a sampling volume to produce chromatographic signals without any separation process. The diffusion column, which was not used in the early papers, is employed either as a device for feeding catalytic or chromatographic beds with a gas diffusion stream, or as a means to study slow rate processes, normally occurring within a gas chromatographic column and usually being described as broadening factors.

Katsanos, N.A. (Univ. of Patras (Greece))

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Synthesis and magnetic reversal of bi-conical Ni nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Template synthesis in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes has been used to grow hour glass shaped nickel nanowires with a constriction in the range of tens of nanometers at the center. Anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements have been performed on a single nanowire to follow magnetization reversal of the structure. The results are explained via 3D micromagnetic simulations showing the appearance of a complex vortex state close to the constriction whose propagation depends on the angle between the cone axis and the applied field. The interest of this original growth process for spintronics is discussed.

Biziere, N. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, CEA/CNRS/Ecole Polytechnique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); CEMES-CNRS, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Lassalle Ballier, R.; Viret, M. [Service de Physique de l' Etat Condense, DSM/IRAMIS/SPEC, CEA Saclay URA CNRS 2464, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Clochard, M. C.; Wade, T. L.; Wegrowe, J. E. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, CEA/CNRS/Ecole Polytechnique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Balanzat, E. [CIMAP, Unite Mixte CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN, F-14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Reversible Mode Switching in Y coupled Terahertz Lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrically independent terahertz (THz) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are optically coupled in a Y configuration. Dual frequency, electronically switchable emission is achieved in one QCL using an aperiodic grating, designed using computer-generated hologram techniques, incorporated directly into the QCL waveguide by focussed ion beam milling. Multi-moded emission around 2.9 THz is inhibited, lasing instead occurring at switchable grating-selected frequencies of 2.88 and 2.92 THz. This photonic control and switching behaviour is selectively and reversibly transferred to the second, unmodified QCL via evanescent mode coupling, without the transfer of the inherent grating losses.

Marshall, Owen P; Khairuzzaman, Md; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

New Limit on Time-Reversal Violation in Beta Decay  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the results of an improved determination of the triple correlation DP{center_dot}(p{sub e}xp{sub v}) that can be used to limit possible time-reversal invariance in the beta decay of polarized neutrons and constrain extensions to the standard model. Our result is D=[-0.96{+-}1.89(stat){+-}1.01(sys)]x10{sup -4}. The corresponding phase between g{sub A} and g{sub V} is {phi}{sub AV}=180.013 deg. {+-}0.028 deg. (68% confidence level). This result represents the most sensitive measurement of D in nuclear {beta} decay.

Mumm, H. P. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); CENPA and Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Chupp, T. E.; Cooper, R. L.; Coulter, K. P. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48104 (United States); Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K. [Physics Department, University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Garcia, A. [CENPA and Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Jones, G. L. [Physics Department, Hamilton College, Clinton, New York 13323 (United States); Nico, J. S.; Thompson, A. K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Trull, C. A.; Wietfeldt, F. E. [Physics Department, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Wilkerson, J. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); CENPA and Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2011-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

204

The clustering of polarity reversals of the geomagnetic field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Often in nature the temporal distribution of inhomogeneous stochastic point processes can be modeled as a realization of renewal Poisson processes with a variable rate. Here we investigate one of the classical examples, namely the temporal distribution of polarity reversals of the geomagnetic field. In spite of the commonly used underlying hypothesis, we show that this process strongly departs from a Poisson statistics, the origin of this failure stemming from the presence of temporal clustering. We find that a Levy statistics is able to reproduce paleomagnetic data, thus suggesting the presence of long-range correlations in the underlying dynamo process.

V. Carbone; L. Sorriso-Valvo; A. Vecchio; F. Lepreti; P. Veltri; P. Harabaglia; I. Guerra

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

205

Parity- and Time-Reversal Tests in Nuclear Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear physics tests of parity- and time-reversal invariance have both shaped the development of the Standard Model and provided key tests of its predictions. These studies now provide vital input in the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. We give a brief review of a few key experimental and theoretical developments in the history of this sub-field of nuclear physics as well as a short outlook, focusing on weak decays, parity-violation in electron scattering, and searches for permanent electric dipole moments of the neutron and neutral atoms.

Hertzog, David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Order of magnitude time-reversible Markov chains and characterization of clustering processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce the notion of order of magnitude reversibility (OM-reversibility) in Markov chains that are parametrized by a positive parameter $\\ep$. OM-reversibility is a weaker condition than reversibility, and requires only the knowledge of order of magnitude of the transition probabilities. For an irreducible, OM-reversible Markov chain on a finite state space, we prove that the stationary distribution satisfies order of magnitude detailed balance (analog of detailed balance in reversible Markov chains). The result characterizes the states with positive probability in the limit of the stationary distribution as $\\ep \\to 0$, which finds an important application in the case of singularly perturbed Markov chains that are reducible for $\\ep=0$. We show that OM-reversibility occurs naturally in macroscopic systems, involving many interacting particles. Clustering is a common phenomenon in biological systems, in which particles or molecules aggregate at one location. We give a simple condition on the transition ...

Joshi, Badal

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

IEEE Network March/April 201140 0890-8044/11/$25.00 2011 IEEE ver the last two decades, wireless and particu-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- tion has a direct impact on cost, embodied energy only has an indirect one depending on the pricing are resulting in increased demand for energy consumption in cel- lular networks. Energy Consumption of Cellular-hour) of the total worldwide electrical energy is consumed by information and communication tech- nology (ICT) [1

Chen, Min

208

Reversible and efficient conversion between microwave and optical light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Converting low-frequency electrical signals into much higher frequency optical signals has enabled modern communications networks to leverage both the strengths of microfabricated electrical circuits and optical fiber transmission, allowing information networks to grow in size and complexity. A microwave-to-optical converter in a quantum information network could provide similar gains by linking quantum processors via low-loss optical fibers and enabling a large-scale quantum network. However, no current technology can convert low-frequency microwave signals into high-frequency optical signals while preserving their fragile quantum state. For this demanding application, a converter must provide a near-unitary transformation between different frequencies; that is, the ideal transformation is reversible, coherent, and lossless. Here we demonstrate a converter that reversibly, coherently, and efficiently links the microwave and optical portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. We use our converter to transfer classical signals between microwave and optical light with conversion efficiencies of ~10%, and achieve performance sufficient to transfer quantum states if the device were further precooled from its current 4 kelvin operating temperature to below 40 millikelvin. The converter uses a mechanically compliant membrane to interface optical light with superconducting microwave circuitry, and this unique combination of technologies may provide a way to link distant nodes of a quantum information network.

R. W. Andrews; R. W. Peterson; T. P. Purdy; K. Cicak; R. W. Simmonds; C. A. Regal; K. W. Lehnert

2013-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

209

Solvent control of crack dynamics in a reversible hydrogel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The resistance to fracture of reversible biopolymer hydrogels is an important control factor of the cutting/slicing and eating characteristics of food gels. It is also critical for their utilization in tissue engineering, for which mechanical protection of encapsulated components is needed. Its dependence on loading rate and, recently, on the density and strength of cross-links has been investigated. But no attention was paid so far to solvent nor to environment effects. Here we report a systematic study of crack dynamics in gels of gelatin in water/glycerol mixtures. We show on this model system that: (i) increasing solvent viscosity slows down cracks; (ii) soaking with solvent increases markedly gel fragility; (iii) tuning the viscosity of the (miscible) environmental liquid affects crack propagation via diffusive invasion of the crack tip vicinity. The results point toward the fact that fracture occurs by viscoplastic chain pull-out. This mechanism, as well as the related phenomenology, should be common to all reversibly cross-linked (physical) gels.

Tristan Baumberger; Christiane Caroli; David Martina

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

210

Epigenetic reversion of breast carcinoma phenotype is accompaniedby DNA sequestration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The importance of microenvironment and context in regulation of tissue-specific genes is finally well established. DNA exposure to, or sequestration from, nucleases can be used to detect differences in higher order chromatin structure in intact cells without disturbing cellular or tissue architecture. To investigate the relationship between chromatin organization and tumor phenotype, we utilized an established 3-D assay where normal and malignant human breast cells can be easily distinguished by the morphology of the structures they make (acinus-like vs tumor-like, respectively). We show that these phenotypes can be distinguished also by sensitivity to AluI digestion where the malignant cells are resistant to digestion relative to non-malignant cells. Reversion of the T4-2 breast cancer cells by either cAMP analogs, or a phospatidylinositol 3-kinase (P13K) inhibitor not only reverted the phenotype, but also the chromatin sensitivity to AluI. By using different cAMP-analogs, we show that the cAMP-induced phenotypic reversion, polarization, and shift in DNA organization act through a cAMP-dependent-protein-kinase A-coupled signaling pathway. Importantly, inhibitory antibody to fibronectin also reverted the malignant phenotype, polarized the acini, and changed chromatin sequestration. These experiments show not only that modifying the tumor microenvironment can alter the organization of tumor cells but also that architecture of the tissues and the global chromatin organization are coupled and yet highly plastic.

Sandal, Tone; Valyi-Nagy, Klara; Spencer, Virginia A.; Folberg,Robert; Bissell, Mina J.; Maniotis, Andrew J.

2006-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

211

Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor motor for at least a predetermined time in response to a condition of the control means operative to initiate a change in the operating direction of the compressor when it restarts.

Sisk, Francis J. (Washington Township, Fayette County, PA)

1980-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

212

FDD Algorithm for an AHU Reverse-Return System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) algorithm was developed for an AHU reverse-return system for air cooling. These FDD rules were generated using simulation in three steps. Cause-effect rules were established by connecting the faults and their related effects. The FDD rules were developed for the following faults: old valve, fouled return pipe, fault in the outlet air temperature sensor, fault in the temperature sensor for the inlet temperature, bad position of the sensor for pressure difference. The effects of the involved faults were observed on four system performances. The results showed that increase in both the cooling coil rate and the pump rate appear due to faults in sensors. The inaccurate measurement of the pressure difference and the fault in the control valve do not affect the AHU outlet air temperatures. Increase in both the outlet air temperature and the pump power consumption appears due to the fouled return pipes.

Djuric, N.; Novakovic, V.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Progress on the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Development of the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology Presented by: Casey Brown 19 April 2011 Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems - All Rights Reserved Versa Power Systems * Versa Power Systems is a developer of planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) * Privately held company headquartered in Littleton, Colorado, United States * SOFC development facility in Calgary, Alberta, Canada * Activities in both stationary and mobile SOFC development Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems - All Rights Reserved * Anode supported cells * Operating temperature range of 650 C to 800°C * Ferritic stainless steel sheet interconnect * Cross-flow gas delivery * Stack can be integrated into stack towers for various power applications VPS Planar SOFC Cell and Stack Anode Cathode Electrolyte

214

Reversible information-energy conversions in a quantum hybrid system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of a quantum hybrid opto-mechanical transducer in the context of information thermodynamics, and show that it provides a valuable platform to monitor information- to-energy conversions at the quantum level. An optically active emitter interacts with the electromagnetic field, that plays the role of an out-of-equilibrium heat bath. The bit of information encoded in the emitter is reversibly converted into mechanical energy stored in a nano-resonator whose displacement is measurable in time, offering direct access to the elementary work exchanged. The study of the complete thermodynamical cycle described over a full mechanical period reveals a new type of Landauer's erasure that produces, instead of costing, work. We finally show that this device can be turned into a powerful heat engine operating at Carnot efficiency.

Cyril Elouard; Maxime Richard; Alexia Auffèves

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

215

Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Reversible Guest Exchange Mechanisms in Supramolecular Host-GuestAssemblies  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic chemists have provided a wide array of supramolecular assemblies able to encapsulate guest molecules. The scope of this tutorial review focuses on supramolecular host molecules capable of reversibly encapsulating polyatomic guests. Much work has been done to determine the mechanism of guest encapsulation and guest release. This review covers common methods of monitoring and characterizing guest exchange such as NMR, UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and calorimetry and also presents representative examples of guest exchange mechanisms. The guest exchange mechanisms of hemicarcerands, cucurbiturils, hydrogen-bonded assemblies, and metal-ligand assemblies are discussed. Special attention is given to systems which exhibit constrictive binding, a motif common in supramolecular guest exchange systems.

Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Strain-induced time-reversal odd superconductivity in graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Time-reversal symmetry breaking superconductors are exotic phases of matter with fascinating properties, which are, however, encountered rather sparsely. Here we identify the possibility of realizing such a superconducting state that exhibits an $f+is$ pairing symmetry in strained graphene. Although the underlying attractive interactions need to be sufficiently strong and comparable in pristine graphene to support such pairing state, we argue that strain can be conducive for its formation even for weak interactions. We show that quantum-critical behavior near the transition is controlled by a multicritical point, characterized by various critical exponents computed here in the framework of an $\\epsilon$-expansion near four spacetime dimensions. Furthermore, a vortex in this mixed superconducting state hosts a pair of Majorana fermions supporting a quartet of insulating and superconducting orders, among which topologically nontrivial quantum spin Hall insulator. These findings suggest that strained graphene could provide a platform for the realization of exotic superconducting states of Dirac fermions.

Bitan Roy; Vladimir Juricic

2013-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

218

ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen storage is one of the challenges to be overcome for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods. The direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali metal alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

219

ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen storage is one of the greatest challenges for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods; the direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

Fewox, C; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Synthesis and optimization of multiple-valued combinational and sequential reversible circuits with don't cares  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a synthesis method for combinational multiple-valued reversible logic (MVRL) circuits is proposed. This algorithm can use the don't care values in the synthesis process to obtain the optimal circuit with respect to quantum cost. The binary ... Keywords: Multiple-valued reversible logic, Optimization, Reversible logic, Sequential reversible logic, Synthesis

Aliakbar Niknafs; Majid Mohammadi

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

STEO October 2012 - wood  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, reversing two-decade decline Burning wood as the primary heating source in U.S. households has risen over the last 10 years, reversing the decline seen in the 1980s and 1990s. About 2.6 million households out of 115 million will rely on wood as the main way to warm their homes this winter. That's up 3 percent from last year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. The West will have the most households using wood as their primary space heating fuel, followed by the Midwest, South and Northeast regions of the United States. Wood is also the second most common backup fuel, after electricity, that households across the U.S. use as a supplemental heating source. Almost half of all rural households use wood this

222

TRENDS IN AGRICULTURE PRICE DECLINES AND ANALYSIS OF THE CONDITIONALITIES IN THE DECEMBER 2008 WTO AGRICULTURE CHAIR’S TEXT SYNOPSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper begins by highlighting the frequency of price declines experienced by developing countries. It then touches on the use of the price-based Special Safeguard Provision (SSG) by developed countries. The paper then looks at the conditionalities of the WTO Agriculture Chair’s December 2008 text (TN/AG/W/4/Rev.4). These include exclusion of en route shipments from the price-based SSM coverage; the trigger and remedy, and the omission to take into account the value declines in ad valorem duties when prices drop; the cross-check; and the exclusion of preferential trade from SSM coverage. An analysis of these conditionalities is provided. Some of these clauses, if agreed upon, will severely curtail countries ’ ability to invoke the price-based SSM. In addition, once invoked, the remedies, as they are currently drafted, are not likely to be effective in shielding domestic producers from price volatilities.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

An evaluation of membrane materials for the treatment of highly concentrated suspended salt solutions in reverse osmosis and nanofiltration processes for desalination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a study to enhance and improve a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) reverse osmosis process that uses seed crystals to promote crystallization of the dissolved salts in the residual brine while it is being treated by identifying those membrane materials that are most suitable for the process. In the study, a one plate SEPA Cell module by GE Osmonics was used to determine which membranes were most susceptible to fouling and/or membrane hydrolysis. A cellulose acetate (CA), polyamide (PA) low MWCO, and PA high MWCO membrane were tested under reverse osmosis conditions. The CA and thin film (TF) membranes were also tested for nanofiltration. The cell was operated under conditions that were determined to be optimum for each membrane by the manufacturer, GE Osmonics. A high pressure, low flow, positive displacement diaphragm pump circulated the saturated calcium sulfate solution with 2 % suspended solids through the cell while the reject and permeate were recycled back to the feed, thereby preserving a saturated solution to promote crystal growth and simulate the seeded reverse osmosis process. The temperature was maintained constant by adding an ice pack to the feed vessel when necessary. The transmembrane pressure differential was maintained constant by adjusting a back pressure valve on the concentrate outlet. The results illustrate that if potable drinking water is the intended use, then the nanofiltration cellulose acetate membrane should be used. If irrigation is the desired use, then the nanofiltration thin film membrane should be used. Overall, the reverse osmosis cellulose acetate membrane was observed to outperform all membranes when all performance parameters were normalized. However, this membrane was observed to be prone to degradation in a seeded slurry and therefore its lifetime should be analyzed further. The polyamide membrane initially had a high water transport coefficient, but fouling led to its rapid decline which was attributed to the membrane’s rough and protrusive surface. A lifetime test on the thin film and cellulose acetate revealed that when operated at their maximum pressure specified by GE Osmonics for a duration of 8 hours that no decrease in rejection occurred.

Hughes, Trenton Whiting

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Magnetic Reversal of an Artificial Square Ice: Dipolar Correlation and Charge Ordering  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic reversal of an artificial square ice pattern subject to a sequence of magnetic fields applied slightly off the diagonal axis is investigated via magnetic force microscopy of the remanent states that result. Sublattice independent reversal is observed via correlated incrementally pinned flip cascades along parallel dipolar chains, as evident from analysis of vertex populations and dipolar correlation functions. Weak dipolar interactions between adjacent chains favour antialignment and give rise to weak charge ordering of 'monopole' vertices during the reversal process.

Stein A.; Morgan J.P.; Langridge S.; Marrows C.H.

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

225

DYNAMICS AND AFTERGLOW LIGHT CURVES OF GAMMA-RAY BURST BLAST WAVES WITH A LONG-LIVED REVERSE SHOCK  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We perform a detailed study on the dynamics of a relativistic blast wave with the presence of a long-lived reverse shock (RS). Although a short-lived RS has been widely considered, the RS is believed to be long-lived as a consequence of a stratification expected on the ejecta Lorentz factors. The existence of a long-lived RS causes the forward shock (FS) dynamics to deviate from a self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. Employing the ''mechanical model'' that correctly incorporates the energy conservation, we present an accurate solution for both the FS and RS dynamics. We conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. Adopting a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we keep track of an adiabatic evolution of numerous shells between the FS and RS. An evolution of the electron spectrum is also followed individually for every shell. We then find the FS and RS light curves by integrating over the entire FS and RS shocked regions, respectively. Exploring a total of 20 different ejecta stratifications, we explain in detail how a stratified ejecta affects its blast wave dynamics and afterglow light curves. We show that, while the FS light curves are not sensitive to the ejecta stratifications, the RS light curves exhibit much richer features, including steep declines, plateaus, bumps, re-brightenings, and a variety of temporal decay indices. These distinctive RS features may be observable if the RS has higher values of the microphysics parameters than the FS. We discuss possible applications of our results in understanding the gamma-ray burst afterglow data.

Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada-Las Vegas, 4505 South Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Hascoeet, Romain; Daigne, Frederic; Mochkovitch, Robert [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-CNRS, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Park, Il H., E-mail: uhm@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

226

Paramagnetic spin-up of a field reversed configuration with rotating magnetic field current drive.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A transverse Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF) can drive toroidal current and sustain the poloidal flux of a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) through the application of… (more)

Peter, Andrew Maxwell

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Heat transfer to and from a reversible thermosiphon placed in porous media.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary focus of this work is an assessment of heat transfer to and from a reversible thermosiphon imbedded in porous media. The interest in… (more)

Kekelia, Bidzina

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Delta Subsidence Reversal, Levee Failure, and Aquatic Habitat—A Cautionary Tale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for subsidence- reversal projections, and illustrate some1. Together, these projections estimate the probabilityDISCUSSION Delta Flooding Projections and Simulations The

Bates, Matthew E.; Lund, Jay R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Does phentolamine mesylate reverse soft-tissue anesthesia after 3% mepivacaine?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF CALIFORNIA Los Angeles Does phentolamine mesylate reverseABSTRACT OF THE THESIS Does phentolamine mesylate reversein which the needle does not penetrate the tissues) using

Silvera, Andreia Minasian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates of deer will be determined using radio telemetry. Changes in cougar functional (kills/unit time), aggregative (cougars/unit area), numerical (offspring/cougar), and total (predation rate) responses on deer will also be monitored using radio telemetry. The experiment will be conducted and completed over a period of 5 years. Results will be used to determine the cause and try to halt the mule deer population declines. Results will also guide deer mitigation and management in the IM and throughout the North American West.

Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the Intermountain Province of the Columbia Basin, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the subbasins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are not ranked as target species and are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated ''press'' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM subbasins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates of deer will be determined using radio telemetry. Changes in cougar functional (kills/unit time), aggregative (cougars/unit area), numerical (offspring/cougar), and total (predation rate) responses on deer will also be monitored using radio telemetry. The experiment will be conducted and completed over a period of 5 years. Results will be used to determine the cause and try to halt the mule deer population declines. Results will also guide deer mitigation and management in the IM and throughout the North American West.

Wielgus, Robert B.; Shipley, Lisa

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): preliminary engineering considerations  

SciTech Connect

The unique confinement physics of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) projects to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor that promises a significant reduction in the cost of electricity. The compact reactor also promises a factor-of-two reduction in the fraction of total cost devoted to the reactor plant equipment (i.e., fusion power core (FPC) plus support systems). In addition to operational and developmental benefits, these physically smaller systems can operate economically over a range of total power output. After giving an extended background and rationale for the compact fusion approaches, key FPC subsystems for the Compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR) are developed, designed, and integrated for a minimum-cost, 1000-MWe(net) system. Both the problems and promise of the compact, high-power-density fusion reactor are quantitatively evaluated on the basis of this conceptual design. The material presented in this report both forms a framework for a broader, more expanded conceptual design as well as suggests directions and emphases for related research and development.

Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Schnurr, N.M.; Battat, M.E.; LaBauve, R.J.; Davidson, J.W.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using reverse osmosis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis (RO) was evaluated as a treatment technology for the removal of organics from biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW) generated from an experimental biomass gasifier at Texas Tech University. Wastewaters were characteristically high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) with initial values ranging from 32,000 to 68,000 mg/1. Since RO is normally considered a complementary treatment technology, wastewaters were pretreated by biological or wet air oxidation (WAO) processes. One set of experiments were run using untreated wastewaters to compare membrane performance with those experiments using pretreated wastewaters. Experiments were run for 8 to 10 hrs using UOP's TFC-85 membrane operating at 700 psig and 18 to 20/sup 0/C. This membrane is similar to the NS-100, a membrane known for being effective in the separation of organics from solution. Separation of organics from solution was determined by COD removal. Removal percentages for biologically pretreated wastewaters averaged 98% except for one group of runs averaging 69% removal. This exception was probably due to the presence of milk solids in the feed. Use of RO on WAO pretreated wastewaters and unpretreated feeds resulted in 90% COD removal. Membrane degradation was observed when using full-strength and WAO pretreated feeds, but not when using feeds that had undergone biological pretreatment. Color removal was computed for the majority of experiments completed. Overall, 99 to 100% of the total color was removed from BGW feeds, values which coincide with those reported in the literature for other wastewaters.

Petty, S.E.; Eliason, S.D.; Laegreid, M.M.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

Stillwagon, Roy E. (Ruffsdale, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

Stillwagon, Roy E. (South Huntington Township, Huntington County, PA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation of epitaxial graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With its exceptional charge mobility, graphene holds great promise for applications in next-generation electronics. In an effort to tailor its properties and interfacial characteristics, the chemical functionalization of graphene is being actively pursued. The oxidation of graphene via the Hummers method is most widely used in current studies, although the chemical inhomogeneity and irreversibility of the resulting graphene oxide compromises its use in high-performance devices. Here, we present an alternative approach for oxidizing epitaxial graphene using atomic oxygen in ultrahigh vacuum. Atomic-resolution characterization with scanning tunnelling microscopy is quantitatively compared to density functional theory, showing that ultrahigh-vacuum oxidization results in uniform epoxy functionalization. Furthermore, this oxidation is shown to be fully reversible at temperatures as low as 260 8C using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. In this manner, ultrahigh-vacuum oxidation overcomes the limitations of Hummers-method graphene oxide, thus creating new opportunities for the study and application of chemically functionalized graphene.

Hossain, Md. Zakir [Northwestern University, Evanston; Johns, James E. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Bevan, Kirk H [ORNL; Karmel, Hunter J. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Liang, Yu Teng [Northwestern University, Evanston; Yoshimoto, Shinya [University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Mukai, Kozo [University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Koitaya, Tatanori [University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Yoshinobu, Jun [University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Kawai, Maki [University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Lear, Amanda M. [Indiana University; Kesmodel, Larry L. [Indiana University; Tait, Steven L. [Indiana University; Hersam, Mark C. [Northwestern University, Evanston

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Fault diagnosis in reversible circuits under missing-gate fault model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents a novel technique for fault detection as well as fault location in a reversible combinational circuit under the missing gate fault model. It is shown that in an (nxn) reversible circuit implemented with k-CNOT gates, addition of ...

Hafizur Rahaman; Dipak K. Kole; Debesh K. Das; Bhargab B. Bhattacharya

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Using quad smoothness to efficiently control capacity-distortion of reversible data hiding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the main uses of data hiding is to protect secret messages being transmitted on the Internet. Reversible data hiding can fully recover the original host image after extracting the secret message. It is especially suitable for applications where, ... Keywords: Capacity-distortion control, Difference expansion, Reversible data hiding, Steganography

Chi-Nan Lin; Daniel J. Buehrer; Chin-Chen Chang; Tzu-Chuen Lu

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Maximizing bichromatic reverse nearest neighbor for Lp-norm in two- and three-dimensional spaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bichromatic reverse nearest neighbor (BRNN) has been extensively studied in spatial database literature. In this paper, we study a related problem called MaxBRNN: find an optimal region that maximizes the size of BRNNs for L p ... Keywords: Indexing, Reverse nearest neighbor, Spatial databases

Raymond Chi-Wing Wong; M. Tamer Özsu; Ada Wai-Chee Fu; Philip S. Yu; Lian Liu; Yubao Liu

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Analyzing alternatives in reverse logistics for end-of-life computers: ANP and balanced scorecard approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Activities in reverse logistics activities are extensively practiced by computer hardware industries. One of the important problems faced by the top management in the computer hardware industries is the evaluation of various alternatives for end-of-life ... Keywords: Analytic network process, Balanced scorecard, Computer hardware industry, Multi-criteria decision making, Reverse logistics

V. Ravi; Ravi Shankar; M. K. Tiwari

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Symmetric extension for lifted filter banks and obstructions to reversible implementation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symmetric pre-extension is a standard approach to boundary handling for finite-length input vectors with linear phase filter banks. It works with both conventional linear implementations and the so-called reversible, or integer-to-integer, implementations ... Keywords: Filter bank, JPEG 2000, Lifting, Reversible, Symmetric extension

Brendt Wohlberg; Christopher M. Brislawn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Thermodynamics and Relativity: A Revised Interpretation of the Concepts of Reversibility and Irreversibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is generally admitted in thermodynamics that, for a given change in volume, the work done by a system is greater in conditions of reversibility than in conditions of irreversibility. If the basic conventions of physics are strictly respected, it seems that this proposition needs to be reversed. Beyond this formal aspect, the discussion consolidates the idea that thermodynamics and relativity are closely connected.

Jean-Louis Tane

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

243

Authentication of images for 3D cameras: Reversibly embedding information using intelligent approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, a reversible watermarking approach for authentication of 3D cameras based on computational intelligence is presented. Two intelligent techniques based on differential evolution (DE) and hybrid DE are employed to optimize the tradeoff between ... Keywords: 3D camera, Depth maps, Differential evolution algorithm, Integer wavelet transform, Particle swarm optimization, Reversible watermarking

Sana Ambreen Malik; Asifullah Khan; Mutawarra Hussain; Khurram Jawad; Rafiullah Chamlawi; Abdul Jalil

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Extending electronic sourcing theory: An exploratory study of electronic reverse auction outcomes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Existing electronic sourcing theory has predominantly focused on the impact of electronic reverse auctions on price savings and has proposed various factors influencing this outcome. Such price savings have been widely claimed to come at the expense ... Keywords: Electronic reverse auctions, Electronic sourcing

Isabelle Amelinckx; Steve Muylle; Annouk Lievens

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S REPLY BRIEF IN SUPPORT OF REVIEW AND REVERSAL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S REPLY BRIEF IN SUPPORT OF REVIEW AND DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S REPLY BRIEF IN SUPPORT OF REVIEW AND REVERSAL OF THE BOARD'S RULING ON THE MOTION TO WITHDRAW U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S REPLY BRIEF IN SUPPORT OF REVIEW AND REVERSAL OF THE BOARD'S RULING ON THE MOTION TO WITHDRAW U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S REPLY BRIEF IN SUPPORT OF REVIEW AND REVERSAL OF THE Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Atomic Safety and Licensing Board's (BOARD) RULING ON THE MOTION TO WITHDRAW. Brief submitted pursuant to the June 30 and July 14, 2010 Orders of the Commission's Secretary. DOE requests that the Commission review and reverse the Board's Order for the reasons stated in DOE's initial and reply briefs. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S REPLY BRIEF IN SUPPORT OF REVIEW AND REVERSAL OF THE BOARD'S RULING ON THE MOTION TO WITHDRAW

246

Technology Scaling Behavior of Optimum Reverse Body Bias for Standby Leakage Power Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate that, there is an optimum reverse body bias, unique to any technology generation, that minimizes the standby leakage power consumption of an IC design implemented in that technology. We also show: (1) the optimum reverse body bias value reduces by-2X per technology generation, and (2) the maximum achievable leakage power reduction by reverse body biasing diminishes by-4X per generation under constant field technology scaling scenario. Optimum point occurs as a result of reduction in subthreshold leakage and an increase in junction band-to-hand tunneling leakage with applied reverse bias. Therefore, new junction engineering techniques to reduce the hulk band-to-hand tunneling leakage current component across the junction are needed to preserve the effectiveness of reverse body biasing for standby leakage control in future technologies. 1.

Ali Keshavarzi; Siva Narendra; Shekhar Borkar; Charles Hawkind; Kaushik Roy; Vivek De

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Optimal Reversible Annuities to Minimize the Probability of Lifetime Ruin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We find the minimum probability of lifetime ruin of an investor who can invest in a market with a risky and a riskless asset and who can purchase a reversible life annuity. The surrender charge of a life annuity is a proportion of its value. Ruin occurs when the total of the value of the risky and riskless assets and the surrender value of the life annuity reaches zero. We find the optimal investment strategy and optimal annuity purchase and surrender strategies in two situations: (i) the value of the risky and riskless assets is allowed to be negative, with the imputed surrender value of the life annuity keeping the total positive; or (ii) the value of the risky and riskless assets is required to be non-negative. In the first case, although the individual has the flexiblity to buy or sell at any time, we find that the individual will not buy a life annuity unless she can cover all her consumption via the annuity and she will never sell her annuity. In the second case, the individual surrenders just enough annuity income to keep her total assets positive. However, in this second case, the individual’s annuity purchasing strategy depends on the size of the proportional surrender charge. When the charge is large enough, the individual will not buy a life annuity unless she can cover all her consumption, the so-called safe level. When the charge is small enough, the individual will buy a life annuity at a wealth lower than this safe level. Key words. Life annuities, retirement, optimal investment, stochastic control, freeboundary problem 1

Ting Wang; Virginia R. Young

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) fusion reactor study is a multi-institutional research effort to determine the technical feasibility and key developmental issues of an RFP fusion reactor, especially at high power density, and to determine the potential economics, operations, safety, and environmental features of high-mass-power-density fusion systems. The TITAN conceptual designs are DT burning, 1000 MWe power reactors based on the RFP confinement concept. The designs are compact, have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m{sup 2} and a mass power density of 700 kWe/tonne. The inherent characteristics of the RFP confinement concept make fusion reactors with such a high mass power density possible. Two different detailed designs have emerged: the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium design, incorporating the integrated-blanket-coil concept; and the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design with ferritic steel structure. This report contains a collection of 16 papers on the results of the TITAN study which were presented at the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology. This collection describes the TITAN research effort, and specifically the TITAN-I and TITAN-II designs, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions and recommendations. Overall, the basic conclusions are that high-mass power-density fusion reactors appear to be technically feasible even with neutron wall loadings up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}; that single-piece maintenance of the FPC is possible and advantageous; that the economics of the reactor is enhanced by its compactness; and the safety and environmental features need not to be sacrificed in high-power-density designs. The fact that two design approaches have emerged, and others may also be possible, in some sense indicates the robustness of the general findings.

Not Available

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Stretched Exponential Decline Model as a Probabilistic and Deterministic Tool for Production Forecasting and Reserve Estimation in Oil and Gas Shales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today everyone seems to agree that ultra-low permeability and shale reservoirs have become the potentials to transform North America's oil and gas industry to a new phase. Unfortunately, transient flow is of long duration (perhaps life of the well) in ultra-low permeability reservoirs, and traditional decline curve analysis (DCA) models can lead to significantly over-optimistic production forecasts without additional safeguards. Stretched Exponential decline model (SEDM) gives considerably more stabilized production forecast than traditional DCA models and in this work it is shown that it produces unchanging EUR forecasts after only two-three years of production data are available in selected reservoirs, notably the Barnett Shale. For an individual well, the SEDM model parameters, can be determined by the method of least squares in various ways, but the inherent nonlinear character of the least squares problem cannot be bypassed. To assure a unique solution to the parameter estimation problem, this work suggests a physics-based regularization approach, based on critical velocity concept. Applied to selected Barnett Shale gas wells, the suggested method leads to reliable and consistent EURs. To further understand the interaction of the different fracture properties on reservoir response and production decline curve behavior, a series of Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulations were performed. Results show that at least a 3-layer model is required to reproduce the decline behavior as captured in the published SEDM parameters for Barnett Shale. Further, DFN modeling implies a large number of parameters like fracture density and fracture length are in such a way that their effect can be compensated by the other one. The results of DFN modeling of several Barnett Shale horizontal wells, with numerous fracture stages, showed a very good agreement with the estimated SEDM model for the same wells. Estimation of P90 reserves that meet SEC criteria is required by law for all companies that raise capital in the United States. Estimation of P50 and P10 reserves that meet SPE/WPC/AAPG/SPEE Petroleum Resources Management System (PRMS) criteria is important for internal resource inventories for most companies. In this work a systematic methodology was developed to quantify the range of uncertainty in production forecast using SEDM. This methodology can be used as a probabilistic tool to quantify P90, P50, and P10 reserves and hence might provide one possible way to satisfy the various legal and technical-society-suggested criteria.

Akbarnejad Nesheli, Babak

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

The design of a controllable energy recovery device for solar powered reverse osmosis desalination with experimental validation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this thesis is to design and validate a controllable energy recovery device with application to photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis (PVRO). The energy consumption of a reverse osmosis plant depends significantly ...

Reed, Elizabeth Anne, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

The efficiency of reverse engineering in the design of the ORCA XI autonomous underwater vehicle by Rachel E. Sharples.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reverse engineering is the process of determining how a system works to aid duplication, maintenance, or redesign. Applications of reverse engineering include mechanical, electrical, software, and process systems. Although ...

Sharples, Rachel E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

American passenger train in the motor age: archival and econometric analyses of explanations for the decline in California, 1910-1941  

SciTech Connect

By analyzing the welfare consequences of passenger train service decisions in California, this dissertation addresses the question of whether the auto's eclipse of the American passenger train was in the public interest. Its thesis is that institutions supplying service failed to fully exploit passenger rail technology's welfare potential. The thesis is examined by testing the validity of four major explanations scholars have developed for the decline of the American train. Explanations are evaluated against archival and econometric analysis of primary sources. These sources focus on railroad passenger service in California, although the econometric analysis of demand examines the East Coast, as well. The study only partially unholds the thesis. Consumer choice accounted for a larger component of the decline than implied in the thesis. Most pre-auto rail demand in California was associated with rural areas; that remaining in the 1930's was mostly between large cities located close to each other and to a lesser extent those far apart. There were few such markets in California. However, after 1933 consumers increasingly demanded improved trains between large cities, and California's railroads succeeded in building a new traffic base centered on the long-distance train.

Thompson, G.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Statistical analysis of magnetic field reversals in laboratory dynamo and in paleomagnetic measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical properties of the temporal distribution of polarity reversals of the geomagnetic field are commonly assumed to be a realization of a renewal Poisson process with a variable rate. However, it has been recently shown that the polarity reversals strongly depart from a local Poisson statistics, because of temporal clustering. Such clustering arises from the presence of long-range correlations in the underlying dynamo process. Recently achieved laboratory dynamo also shows reversals. It is shown here that laboratory and paleomagnetic data are both characterized by the presence of long-range correlations.

Sorriso-Valvo, L; Bourgoin, M; Odier, P; Plihon, N; Volk, R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

255

Armored RNA as virus surrogate in a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay proficiency panel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. B. DuBois. 1998. Armored RNA technology for production ofresistant RNA controls (armored RNA) for reverse transcrip-Reserved. Vol. 44, No. 1 Armored RNA as Virus Surrogate in a

Hietala, S K; Crossley, B M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Reversible stimulus-responsive polymers for the control of the surface interfacial and nanomechanical properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surfaces with reversible stimulus-responsive properties have great potential for a wide variety of applications, such as transport, separation, and detection of biomolecules, controlled adhesion, friction, and lubrication ...

Ye, Miao, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid–solid phase transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce ...

Zheng, Ruiting

258

Time-Reversal Symmetry and Universal Conductance Fluctuations in a Driven Two-Level System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the presence of time-reversal symmetry, quantum interference gives strong corrections to the electric conductivity of disordered systems. The self-interference of an electron wavefunction traveling time-reversed paths leads to effects such as weak localization and universal conductance fluctuations. Here, we investigate the effects of broken time-reversal symmetry in a driven artificial two-level system. Using a superconducting flux qubit, we implement scattering events as multiple Landau-Zener transitions by driving the qubit periodically back and forth through an avoided crossing. Interference between different qubit trajectories give rise to a speckle pattern in the qubit transition rate, similar to the interference patterns created when coherent light is scattered off a disordered potential. Since the scattering events are imposed by the driving protocol, we can control the time-reversal symmetry of the system by making the drive waveform symmetric or asymmetric in time. We find that the fluctuations o...

Gustavsson, Simon; Oliver, William D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Numerical Uncertainties in the Simulation of Reversible Isentropic Processes and Entropy Conservation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A challenge common to weather, climate, and seasonal numerical prediction is the need to simulate accurately reversible isentropic processes in combination with appropriate determination of sources/sinks of energy and entropy. Ultimately, this ...

Donald R. Johnson; Allen J. Lenzen; Tom H. Zapotocny; Todd K. Schaack

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Detection, classification and localization of seabed objects with a virtual time reversal mirror  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The work presented in this thesis addresses the problem of the detection, classification and localization of seabed objects in shallow water environments using a time reversal approach in a bistatic configuration. The ...

Dumortier, Alexis Jean Louis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Reverse osmosis desalination in a mini renewable energy power supply system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The design, construction and testing of a reverse-osmosis (PV-RO) desalination system for fresh water shortage area is presented. The system operates from salt water or… (more)

Zhao, Yu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A reverse osmosis laboratory plant for experimenting with fault-tolerant control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A test bed for research and teaching in fault-tolerant control (FTC) systems is presented. The laboratory plant is based on an industrial reverse osmosis desalination plant equipped with standardized components, which introduces more realism and robustness ...

A. Gambier; T. Miksch; E. Badreddin

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Estimating the Evaporative Cooling Bias of an Airborne Reverse Flow Thermometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne reverse flow immersion thermometers were designed to prevent sensor wetting in cloud. Yet there is strong evidence that some wetting does occur and therefore also sensor evaporative cooling as the aircraft exits a cloud. Numerous ...

Yonggang Wang; Bart Geerts

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Cessation of the 22–25 June 2006 Coastally Trapped Wind Reversal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coastally trapped wind reversals (CTWRs) occur periodically in the marine boundary layer off the western coast of the United States and dramatically change the low-level wind regime and coastal weather. Southerly flow becomes established with the ...

David A. Rahn; Thomas R. Parish

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

The design and control of a thermal management system for a photovoltaic reverse osmosis system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a well-known process for desalinating seawater and brackish groundwater. Desalination is energy-intensive, so using photovoltaic (PV) panels to power the process is an attractive environmentally ...

Kelley, Leah C. (Leah Camille)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

The vulnerability of technical secrets to reverse engineering : implications for company policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis I will explore the controversial topic of reverse engineering, illustrating with case examples drawn from the data storage industry. I will explore intellectual property rights issues including, users' ...

Kodak, Cenkhan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Armored RNA as virus surrogate in a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay proficiency panel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

second ring test to evaluate RT-PCR detection methods. Vet.real-time, reverse transcription-PCR assays for detection ofHigh-throughput real-time RT-PCR assay to detect the exotic

Hietala, S K; Crossley, B M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Direct and Reverse Secret-Key Capacities of a Quantum Channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We define the direct and reverse secret-key capacities of a memoryless quantum channel as the optimal rates that entanglement-based quantum-key-distribution protocols can reach by using a single forward classical communication ...

Braunstein, Samuel L.

269

Plasma response to symmetry breaking perturbations in the reversed field geometry  

SciTech Connect

Field reversal does not insure closure of the reversed field geometry. The closure is critically dependent on the shape of the toroidal field B/sub 1/ Vector. The plasma diamagnetic currents are shown to establish a spacial scale for the field B/sub 1/ Vector which is lambda approximately equal to a/..sqrt beta../sub 1/ with a the plasma radius and ..beta../sub 1/ the plasma beta relative to the B/sub 1/ Vector field.

Boozer, A.H.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Direct Hydrogenation Magnesium Boride to Magnesium Borohydride: Demonstration of >11 Weight Percent Reversible Hydrogen Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We here for the first time demonstrate direct hydrogenation of magnesium boride, MgB2, to magnesium borohydride, Mg(BH4)2 at 900 bar H2-pressures and 400°C. Upon 14.8wt% hydrogen release, the end-decomposition product of Mg(BH4)2 is MgB2, thus, this is a unique reversible path here obtaining >11wt% H2 which implies promise for a fully reversible hydrogen storage material.

Severa, Godwin; Ronnebro, Ewa; Jensen, Craig M.

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

271

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Solvents for Efficient CO 2 Capture Background Post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture presents technical challenges because the flue gas is at atmospheric pressure and the CO 2 concentration is 10 to 15 volume percent, resulting in a low CO 2 partial pressure and a large volume of gas that needs to be treated. In spite of this difficulty, post-combustion CO 2 capture offers the

272

Plasma temperature determination from the total intensity of a self-reversed spectral line  

SciTech Connect

A method is introduced for determining the temperature of a high-pressure gas discharge from the total intensity of a self-reversed spectral line, if the plasma is in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The structural characteristics of the plasma are determined from observable parameters of the line on the basis of a simplified model for the light source. An application is given with the self-reversed mercury lines 5461, 4358, and 4047 A emitted from a high-pressure mercury discharge.

Karabourniotis, D.; Karras, C.; Drakakis, M.; Damelincourt, J.J.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Controlled deformation of critical truss members using magnetorheological dampers with reversed power requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A magnetorheological (MR) damper exhibits a variable damping coefficient depending on the strength of an accompanying magnetic field. A high magnetic field creates a nearly unyielding damper filled with a semi-solid fluid while no magnetic field produces an ordinary viscous damper. Presently, these dampers are being used in a variety of ways by supplying power to an electromagnet that causes stiffening of the damper. Reversing these power requirements allows development of new and innovative applications for MR dampers. For example, ephemeral deformation of critical truss members may be controlled through a reverse MR damper. The goal is to provide protection to truss structures during severe loading events. Implementation of a reverse damper for an application such as this presents two major tasks: (1) development of a control algorithm and (2) design of an MR damper with reverse power requirements. A control algorithm for dynamic response that uses fuzzy logic and neural networks is presented. A potential design for a reverse MR damper utilizing a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnets is also presented. It is further shown that design for MR dampers with reverse power requirements will be governed by minimization of detrimental effects due to creep of the damper under sustained static loading.

Dowd, Joseph A

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Reverse Computation for Rollback-based Fault Tolerance in Large Parallel Systems  

SciTech Connect

Reverse computation is presented here as an important future direction in addressing the challenge of fault tolerant execution on very large cluster platforms for parallel computing. As the scale of parallel jobs increases, traditional checkpointing approaches suffer scalability problems ranging from computational slowdowns to high congestion at the persistent stores for checkpoints. Reverse computation can overcome such problems and is also better suited for parallel computing on newer architectures with smaller, cheaper or energy-efficient memories and file systems. Initial evidence for the feasibility of reverse computation in large systems is presented with detailed performance data from a particle simulation scaling to 65,536 processor cores and 950 accelerators (GPUs). Reverse computation is observed to deliver very large gains relative to checkpointing schemes when nodes rely on their host processors/memory to tolerate faults at their accelerators. A comparison between reverse computation and checkpointing with measurements such as cache miss ratios, TLB misses and memory usage indicates that reverse computation is hard to ignore as a future alternative to be pursued in emerging architectures.

Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL; Park, Alfred J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Refinery, petrochemical plant injuries decline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Petroleum Refiners Association (NPRA) reports a 7% reduction in workplace injury and illness incidence rates for refineries in 1993, and a 21% decrease for petrochemical plants. The report summarizes data from 135 of the 162 US member refineries, and 117 of the 172 US member petrochemical plants. This paper summarizes the report findings.

Not Available

1994-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

276

Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.  

SciTech Connect

Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and mortality due to coyote predation was documented and disease was a major mortality source for foxes. The declining relative abundance of gray fox in Illinois is likely a result of a combination of factors. Assessment of habitat associations indicated that urban mesopredators, particularly coyotes and foxes, perceived the landscape as relatively homogeneous and that urban mesopredators interacted with the environment at scales larger than that accommodated by remnant habitat patches. Coyote and fox presence was found to be associated with a high degree of urban development at large and intermediate spatial scales. However, at a small spatial scale fox presence was associated with high density urban land cover whereas coyote presence was associated with urban development with increased forest cover. Urban habitats can offer a diversity of prey items and anthropogenic resources and natural land cover could offer coyotes daytime resting opportunities in urban areas where they may not be as tolerated as smaller foxes. Raccoons and opossums were found to utilize moderately developed landscapes with interspersed natural and semi-natural land covers at a large spatial scale, which may facilitate dispersal movements. At intermediate and small spatial scales, both species were found to utilize areas that were moderately developed and included forested land cover. These results indicated that raccoons and opossums used natural areas in proximity to anthropogenic resources. At a large spatial scale, skunk presence was associated with highly developed landscapes with interspersed natural and semi-natural land covers. This may indicate that skunks perceived the urban matrix as more homogeneous than raccoons or opossums. At an intermediate spatial scale skunks were associated with moderate levels of development and increased forest cover, which indicated that they might utilize natural land cover in proximity to human-dominated land cover. At the smallest spatial scale skunk presence was associated with forested land cover surrounded by a suburban matrix. Compared to raccoon

Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

System Design and New Materials for Reversible, Solid-Oxide, High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High temperature solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) offer high electrical efficiency and a potential path to large scale hydrogen production. Solid oxide technology is capable of both power generation and hydrogen production. That makes it possible for the development of a reversible solid-oxide system that can respond to market conditions to produce electricity or hydrogen on demand. New high-temperature electrolyzer cell materials are needed to enable cost-effective hydrogen production system designs based on reversible steam electrolysis. Two test methods were established for the eventual development of the reversible, durable electrode materials: the button cell test and the oxygen electrode test. The button cell test is capable of evaluating the performance and degradation of full solid oxide cells with dual atmosphere of air and hydrogen-steam. The oxygen electrode test is capable of isolating the performance and degradation of the oxygen electrode. It has higher throughput and sensitivity than the button cell test.

Ruud, J.A.

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

278

REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING STREAM-DISK IMPACT IN INTERACTING BINARIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the first results from high-energy-density laboratory astrophysics experiments that explore the hydrodynamic and radiative properties of a reverse shock relevant to a cataclysmic variable system. A reverse shock is a shock wave that develops when a freely flowing, supersonic plasma is impeded. In our experiments, performed on the Omega Laser Facility, a laser pulse is used to accelerate plasma ejecta into a vacuum. This flow is directed into an Al plate in front of which a shock forms in the rebounding plasma. The plasma flow is moving fast enough that it is shocked to high enough temperatures that radiative cooling affects the shock structure. These are the first experiments to produce a radiative reverse shock wave.

Krauland, C. M.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Huntington, C. M.; Kaczala, D. N.; Klein, S.; Sweeney, R.; Young, R. P.; Keiter, P. A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Loupias, B.; Falize, E.; Villette, B. [CEA-DAM-DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Plewa, T., E-mail: krauland@umich.edu, E-mail: rpdrake@umich.edu [Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Current driven instabilities of the kinetic shear Alfven wave: application to reversed field pinches and spheromaks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The kinetic Alfven wave is studied in a cylindrical force-free plasma with self-consistent magnetic fields. This equilibrium represents a reversed field pinch or a spheromak. The stability of the wave is found to depend on the ratio of the electron drift velocity to the Alfven velocity. This ratio varies inversely with the square root of the plasma line density. The critical line density using the Spitzer-Harm electron distribution function is found for reversed field pinches with deuterium plasmas to be approximately 2 x 10/sup 18/ m/sup -1/ and is 5 x 10/sup 17/ m/sup -1/ in spheromaks with hydrogen plasmas. The critical line density is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for reversed field pinches.

Meyerhofer, D.D.; Perkins, F.W.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

JDATATRANS for Array Obfuscation in Java Source Code to Defeat Reverse Engineering from Decompiled Codes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software obfuscation or obscuring a software is an approach to defeat the practice of reverse engineering a software for using its functionality illegally in the development of another software. Java applications are more amenable to reverse engineering and re-engineering attacks through methods such as decompilation because Java class files store the program in a semi complied form called 'byte' codes. The existing obfuscation systems obfuscate the Java class files. Obfuscated source code produce obfuscated byte codes and hence two level obfuscation (source code and byte code level) of the program makes it more resilient to reverse engineering attacks. But source code obfuscation is much more difficult due to richer set of programming constructs and the scope of the different variables used in the program and only very little progress has been made on this front. Hence programmers resort to adhoc manual ways of obscuring their program which makes it difficult for its maintenance and usability. To address thi...

Sivadasan, Praveen; Sivadasan, Naveen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Compact-Toroid fusion reactor based on the field-reversed theta pinch  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Early scoping studies based on approximate, analytic models have been extended on the basis of a dynamic plasma model and an overall systems approach to examine a Compact Toroid (CTOR) reactor embodiment that uses a Field-Reversed Theta Pinch as a plasma source. The field-reversed plasmoid would be formed and compressionally heated to ignition prior to injection into and translation through a linear burn chamber, thereby removing the high-technology plasmoid source from the hostile reactor environment. Stabilization of the field-reversed plasmoid would be provided by a passive conducting shell located outside the high-temperature blanket but within the low-field superconducting magnets and associated radiation shielding. On the basis of this batch-burn but thermally steady-state approach, a reactor concept emerges with a length below approx. 40 m that generates 300 to 400 MWe of net electrical power with a recirculating power fraction less than 0.15.

Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Reverse estimation theory, Complementality between RLD and SLD, and monotone distances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many problems in quantum information theory can be vied as interconversion between resources. In this talk, we apply this view point to state estimation theory, motivated by the following observations. First, a monotone metric takes value between SLD and RLD Fisher metric. This is quite analogous to the fact that entanglement measures are sandwiched by distillable entanglement and entanglement cost. Second, SLD add RLD are mutually complement via purification of density matrices, but its operational meaning was not clear. To find a link between these observations, we define reverse estimation problem, or simulation of quantum state family by probability distribution family, proving that RLD Fisher metric is a solution to local reverse estimation problem of quantum state family with 1-dim parameter. This result gives new proofs of some known facts and proves one new fact about monotone distances. We also investigate information geometry of RLD, and reverse estimation theory of a multi-dimensional parameter fam...

Matsumoto, K

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Reverse estimation theory, Complementality between RLD and SLD, and monotone distances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many problems in quantum information theory can be vied as interconversion between resources. In this talk, we apply this view point to state estimation theory, motivated by the following observations. First, a monotone metric takes value between SLD and RLD Fisher metric. This is quite analogous to the fact that entanglement measures are sandwiched by distillable entanglement and entanglement cost. Second, SLD add RLD are mutually complement via purification of density matrices, but its operational meaning was not clear. To find a link between these observations, we define reverse estimation problem, or simulation of quantum state family by probability distribution family, proving that RLD Fisher metric is a solution to local reverse estimation problem of quantum state family with 1-dim parameter. This result gives new proofs of some known facts and proves one new fact about monotone distances. We also investigate information geometry of RLD, and reverse estimation theory of a multi-dimensional parameter family.

Keiji Matsumoto

2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

284

Reversible and irreversible processes in dispersive/dissipative optical media: Electro-magnetic free energy and heat production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We solve the problem addressed by Landau and Lifshitz in 1958, and Oughstun and Sherman of determining the dynamical losses in a purely dissipative dielectric media. We develop concrete notions of macroscopic free energy and losses as energy which is reversible and irreversible, respectively, in the medium-field interaction. We define the reversible and irreversible energies and outline the derivation of said quantities. We examine the implications of our definition and it's auxiliary quantity, the reversal field, for the single Lorentz oscillator model of a medium. We show that for this model the reversible energy reduces to the sum of the kinetic and potential energy, as found by Loudon. We note that in general, the sum of the kinetic and potential energies is greater than the reversible energy. We show that the reversible and irreversible energy have the characteristics classically defining free energy and heat.

C. Broadbent; G. Hovhannisyan; M. Clayton; J. Peatross; S. A. Glasgow

2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

285

A reversible photoredox reaction: Electron-transfer photoreduction of. beta. -lapachone by triethylamine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Light-induced electron-transfer reactions are being studied as possible energy conversion or storage processes. One such reaction of a light-induced electron-transfer reaction and subsequent electron- and atom-transfer processes, which are at least partially reversible, is reported herein. The specific reaction studied was the photooxidation of triethylamine by excited state o-quinones. The energy stored in the overall process is modest, and the degree of reversibility is limited by the reactivity of the amine oxidation products. 33 refs.

Ci, Xiaohong; Goodman, J.L.; Whitten, D.G. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (USA)); da Silva, R.S.; Nicodem, D.E. (Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1988-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

286

Mitigating Climate Change through Energy Efficiency: Implications of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mitigating Climate Change through Energy Efficiency: Implications of Mitigating Climate Change through Energy Efficiency: Implications of China's 20 % Energy Intensity Reduction Target Speaker(s): Jiang Lin Date: March 13, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 China's rapid economic growth in the last few years has spurred a construction boom for power plants on an unprecedented scale. In 2006 alone, 102 GW of generating capacity was brought online, 90 GW of which are from coal-fired power plants. Further, energy has grown faster than GDP since 2001, reversing a two-decade trend of declining energy intensity from 19080 to 2000. The ramifications of this reversal are far-reaching for global energy market and environment. China has since set an ambitious target of reducing its energy intensity by 20% by the year 2010, with a first-year goal of 4% reduction for 2006. This presentation will discuss

287

A high-performance reversible data-hiding scheme for LZW codes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hiding a message in compression codes can reduce transmission costs and simultaneously make the transmission more secure. In this paper, we propose a high-performance, data-hiding Lempel-Ziv-Welch (HPDH-LZW) scheme, which reversibly embeds data in LZW ... Keywords: Information-hiding, LZW, Steganography

Zhi-Hui Wang, Hai-Rui Yang, Ting-Fang Cheng, Chin-Chen Chang

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Coupled evolutionary shape optimization and reverse engineering in rapid product design and prototyping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Product development in highly competitive times frequently implies very short time-to-market deadlines and product designs that need to deliver high performance at low investment and operation costs. These conflicting objectives can sometimes be accomplished ... Keywords: numerical workflow, reverse engineering, shape optimization

Damir Vu?ina; Željan Lozina; Igor Pehnec

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Time-Reversal Symmetry and Universal Conductance Fluctuations in a Driven Two-Level System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the presence of time-reversal symmetry, quantum interference gives strong corrections to the electric conductivity of disordered systems. The self-interference of an electron wavefunction traveling time-reversed paths leads to effects such as weak localization and universal conductance fluctuations. Here, we investigate the effects of broken time-reversal symmetry in a driven artificial two-level system. Using a superconducting flux qubit, we implement scattering events as multiple Landau-Zener transitions by driving the qubit periodically back and forth through an avoided crossing. Interference between different qubit trajectories give rise to a speckle pattern in the qubit transition rate, similar to the interference patterns created when coherent light is scattered off a disordered potential. Since the scattering events are imposed by the driving protocol, we can control the time-reversal symmetry of the system by making the drive waveform symmetric or asymmetric in time. We find that the fluctuations of the transition rate exhibit a sharp peak when the drive is time-symmetric, similar to universal conductance fluctuations in electronic transport through mesoscopic systems.

Simon Gustavsson; Jonas Bylander; William D. Oliver

2012-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

290

Synoptic-Scale Structure and the Character of Coastally Trapped Wind Reversals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coastally trapped wind reversals that occur along the U.S. West Coast have been described in numerous other studies. The synoptic-scale environment and the forcing of a coastally trapped Kelvin wave are highly linked in the development of these ...

Wendell A. Nuss

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Scenario analysis for reverse logistics implementation case study of the Palm Oil supply chain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work shows the potential reverse logistic flows that can be implemented in the Palm Oil supply chain, based in the waste management and the recovery flows that are obtained trough the agents that made part in the chain. In this context, the study ...

Edgar Alfonso; Diego Ferrucho; Angel Roldán; Mario Vargas; Freddy González

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Reversible Parallel Discrete Event Formulation of a TLM-Based Radio Signal Propagation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radio signal strength estimation is essential in many applications, including the design of military radio communications and industrial wireless installations. For scenarios with large or richly featured geographical volumes, parallel processing is ... Keywords: Parallel simulation, electromagnetic wave propagation, radio signal, reverse computation, time warp, transmission line matrix

Sudip K. Seal; Kalyan S. Perumalla

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

A heuristics-based approach to reverse engineering of electronic services  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the beginning of the electronic era, public administrations and enterprises have been developing services, through which citizens, businesses and customers can conduct their transactions with the offering entity. Each electronic service contains ... Keywords: Electronic services, Organizational knowledge, Reverse engineering, e-Government

C. Vassilakis; G. Lepouras; A. Katifori

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Water Electrolyzers and Reversible Fuel Cells: Status and Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen production by electrochemical water electrolysis has received great attention as an alternative technology for energy conversion and storage. The oxygen electrode has a substantial effect on the performance and durability in water electrolyzers and reversible fuel cells because of its intrinsically slow kinetics for oxygen evolution/reduction and poor durability under harsh operating environments. To improve oxygen kinetics and durability of the electrode, extensive studies for highly active and stable oxygen electrocatalyst have been performed. However, due to the thermodynamic instability of transition metals in acidic media, noble metal compounds have been primarily utilized as electrocatalysts in water electrolyzers and reversible fuel cells. For water electrolyzer applications, single noble metal oxides such as ruthenium oxide and iridium oxide have been studied, and binary or ternary metal oxides have been developed to take synergestic effects of each component. On the other hand, a variety of bifunctional electrocatalysts with a combination of monofunctional electrocatalysts such as platinum for oxygen reduction and iridium oxide for oxygen evolution for reversible fuel cell applications have been mainly proposed. Practically, supported iridium oxide-on-platinum, its reverse type, and non-precious metal-supported platinum and iridium bifunctional electrocatalysts have been developed. Recent theoretical calculations and experimental studies in terms of water electrolysis and fuel cell technology suggest effective ways to cope with current major challenges of cost and durability of oxygen electrocatalysts for technical applications.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Statistical Parameterization Expressing ENSO Variability and Reversibility in Response to CO2 Concentration Changes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The degree of reversibility in the behavior of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in response to CO2 concentration changes is examined by using an air-sea coupled climate model, Community Climate System Model version 4. The model is run under ...

Masamichi Ohba; Junichi Tsutsui; Daisuke Nohara

296

Aalborg Universitet Energy systems impacts of reverse osmosis and thermal desalination in Jordan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condensing mode plants, efficiencies for CHP and MSF are not sufficiently good to result in lower fuel usage with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO) driven by electricity and Multi Stage than RO. The Jordanian energy system is somewhat inflexible giving cause to Critical Excess Electricity

Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

297

Regular method of construction of the reversible dynamical systems and their linear extensions-Quanputers  

SciTech Connect

Quantum computers are considered as a part of the family of the reversible, linearly extended, dynamical systems-Quanputers. Original method of construction of the quanputers is given. Application of this method for finite- and infinite-dimensional systems is shown. New (de)coherence criterion is formulated.

Makhaldiani, N. V., E-mail: mnv@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Fall–Winter Current Reversals on the Texas–Louisiana Continental Shelf  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fall–winter recurrence of current reversal from westward to eastward is identified on the Texas–Louisiana continental shelf using the current-meter [Texas–Louisiana Shelf Physical Oceanography Program (LATEX-A)] and near-surface drifting buoy [...

Peter P. Chu; Leonid M. Ivanov; Oleg V. Melnichenko

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

The folding kinetics of ribonuclease Sa and a charge-reversal variant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary objective was to study the kinetics of folding of RNase Sa. Wild-type RNase Sa does not contain tryptophan. A tryptophan was substituted at residue 81 (WT*) to allow fluorescence spectroscopy to be used to monitor folding. This tryptophan mutation did not change the stability. An analysis of the folding kinetics of RNase Sa showed two folding phases, indicating the presence of an intermediate and consistent with the following mechanism: D ? I ? N. Both refolding limbs of the chevron plot (abcissa = final conc. of denaturant and ordinate = kinetic rate) had non-zero slopes suggesting that proline isomerization was not rate-limiting. The conformational stability of a charge-reversed variant, WT*(D17R), of a surface exposed residue on RNase Sa has been studied by equilibrium techniques. This mutant with a single amino acid charge reversal of a surface exposed residue resulted in decreased stability. Calculations using Coulomb?s Law suggested that favorable electrostatic interactions in the denatured state were the cause for the decreased stability for the charge-reversed variant. Folding and unfolding kinetic studies were designed and conducted to study the charge-reversal effect. Unfolding kinetics showed a 10-fold increase in the unfolding rate constant for WT*(D17R) over WT* and no difference in the rate of refolding. Kinetics experiments were also conducted at pH 3 where protonation of Asp17 (charge reversal site) would be expected to negate the observed kinetic effect. At pH 3 the kinetics of unfolding of WT* RNase Sa and the WT*(D17R) mutant were more similar. These kinetic results indicate that a single-site charge reversal lowered the free energy of the denatured state as suspected. Additionally, the results showed that the transition state was stabilized as well. These results show that a specific Coulombic interaction lowered the free energy in the denatured and transition state of the charge-reversal mutant, more than in WT*. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a favorable electrostatic interaction in the denatured state ensemble has been shown to influence the unfolding kinetics of a protein.

Trefethen, Jared M.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

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301

Model driven reverse engineering for a grassland model with design of experiments in the context of climate change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vulnerability is the degree to which human and environmental systems are likely to experience harm due to a perturbation or stress. In the study of climate change impacts on grassland, we have run various experimental plans and with a reverse engineering ... Keywords: climate change, experimental design, grassland simulations, model driven engineering, reverse engineering

Romain Lardy; Anne-Isabelle Graux; Michaël Gaurut; Gianni Bellocchi; David R. C. Hill

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Optimization of renewable power system for small scale seawater reverse osmosis desalination unit in Mrair-Gabis village, Libya  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Potential of renewable power system for small scale seawater reverse osmosis desalination unit in Mrair-Gabis village, Libya is evaluated. HOMER optimization model is used to evaluate the different possible configuration options for supplying the electrical ... Keywords: HOMER, Mrair-Gabis-Libya, power system, reverse osmosis seawater desalination

Kh. Abulqasem; M. A. Alghoul; M. N. Mohammed; Alshrif. Mustafa; Kh. Glaisa; Nowshad. Amin; A. Zaharim; K. Sopian

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

The Rise and Decline of U.S. Private Sector Investments in Energy R&D since the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents two distinct datasets that describe investments in energy research and development (R&D) by the US private sector since the mid1970s, which is when the US government began to systematically collect these data. The first dataset is based upon a broad survey of more than 20,000 firms’ industrial R&D activities. This broad survey of US industry is coordinated by the US National Science Foundation. The second dataset discussed here is a much narrower accounting of the energy R&D activities of the approximately two dozen largest US oil and gas companies conducted by the US Department of Energy’s Energy Information Agency. Even given the large disparity in the breadth and scope of these two surveys of the private sector’s support for energy R&D, both datasets tell the same story in terms of the broad outlines of the private sector’s investments in energy R&D since the mid 1970s. The broad outlines of the US private sector’s support for energy R&D since the mid 1970s is: (1) In the immediate aftermath of the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973, there is a large surge in US private sector investments in energy R&D that peaked in the period between 1980 and 1982 at approximately $3.7 billion to $6.7 billion per year (in inflation adjusted 2010 US dollars) depending upon which survey is used (2) Private sector investments in energy R&D declined from this peak until bottoming out at approximately $1.8 billion to $1 billion per year in 1999; (3) US private sector support for energy R&D has recovered somewhat over the past decade and stands at $2.2 billion to $3.4 billion. Both data sets indicate that the US private sector’s support for energy R&D has been and remains dominated by fossil energy R&D and in particular R&D related to the needs of the oil and gas industry.

Dooley, James J.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

The Effective Chiral Lagrangian From Dimension-Six Parity and Time-Reversal Violation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We classify the parity- and time-reversal-violating operators involving quark and gluon fields that have effective dimension six: the quark electric dipole moment, the quark and gluon chromo-electric dipole moments, and four four-quark operators. We construct the effective chiral Lagrangian with hadronic and electromagnetic interactions that originate from them, which serves as the basis for calculations of low-energy observables. The form of the effective interactions depends on the chiral properties of these operators. We develop a power-counting scheme and calculate within this scheme, as an example, the parity- and time-reversal-violating pion-nucleon form factor. We also discuss the electric dipole moments of the nucleon and light nuclei.

J. de Vries; E. Mereghetti; R. G. E. Timmermans; U. van Kolck

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

305

Reclamation of Cleaning Water Using Ultrafiltration and Double Pass Reverse Osmosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the production of electrodeposition primers, water is used as the primary cleaning agent. The dirty water that is generated contains residual contaminants from the primer production equipment, which requires that the water be disposed of as a hazardous waste. These contaminants are typically pigments and solvents. Because of the commitment to minimize process generated wastes, an integrated ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) system was installed to reclaim the cleaning water at the PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) Cleveland, Ohio plant. The recovered water is then reused for cleaning in the primer manufacturing process. The integrated ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system operates to reclaim 80 to 85% of the cleaning water. The system effectively removes 100% of the pigments and resins and 98% of the solvents and heavy metals. The quality of the final reclaimed water at the end of the process actually meets local sanitary water system discharge limits.

Neuman, T.; Long, G.; Tinter, M.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

On-demand generation of aqueous two-phase microdroplets with reversible phase transitions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aqueous two-phase systems contained entirely within microdroplets enable a bottom-up approach to mimicking the dynamic microcompartmentation of biomaterial that naturally occurs within the cytoplasm of cells. Here, we demonstrate the on-demand generation of femtolitre aqueous two-phase droplets within a microfluidic oil channel. Gated pressure pulses were used to generate individual, stationary two-phase microdroplets with a well-defined time zero for carrying out controlled and sequential phase transformations over time. Reversible phase transitions between single-phase, two-phase, and core-shell microgel states were obtained via evaporation-induced dehydration and on-demand water rehydration. In contrast to other microfluidic aqueous two-phase droplets, which require continuous flows and high-frequency droplet formation, our system enables the controlled isolation and reversible transformation of a single microdroplet and is expected to be useful for future studies in dynamic microcompartmentation and affinity partitioning.

Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Mruetusatorn, Prachya [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Reversible shear thickening at low shear rates of electrorheological fluids under electric fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shear thickening is a phenomenon of significant viscosity increase of colloidal suspensions. While electrorheological (ER) fluids can be turned into a solid-like material by applying an electric field, their shear strength is widely represented by the attractive electrostatic interaction between ER particles. By shearing ER fluids between two concentric cylinders, we show a reversible shear thickening of ER fluids above a low critical shear rate (electric field strength (>100 V/mm), which could be characterized by a modified Mason number. Shear thickening and electrostatic particle interaction-induced inter-particle friction forces is considered to be the real origin of the high shear strength of ER fluids, while the applied electric field controls the extent of shear thickening. The electric field-controlled reversible shear thickening has implications for high-performance ER/magnetorheological (MR) fluid design, clutch fluids with high friction forces triggered by applying local electric field, other field-responsive materials and intelligent systems.

Yu Tian; Minliang Zhang; Jile Jiang; Noshir Pesika; Hongbo Zeng; Jacob Israelachvili; Yonggang Meng; Shizhu Wen

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

308

Relationship between Thermodynamic Driving Force and One-Way Fluxes in Reversible Chemical Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical reaction systems operating in nonequilibrium open-system states arise in a great number of contexts, including the study of living organisms, in which chemical reactions, in general, are far from equilibrium. Here we introduce a theorem that relates forward and re-verse fluxes and free energy for any chemical process operating in a steady state. This rela-tionship, which is a generalization of equilibrium conditions to the case of a chemical process occurring in a nonequilibrium steady state, provides a novel equivalent definition for chemical reaction free energy. In addition, it is shown that previously unrelated theories introduced by Ussing and Hodgkin and Huxley for transport of ions across membranes, Hill for catalytic cycle fluxes, and Crooks for entropy production in microscopically reversible systems, are united in a common framework based on this relationship.

Daniel A. Beard; Hong Qian

2006-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

309

A hybrid thermochemical-electrolytic process for hydrogen production based on the Reverse Deacon Reaction.  

SciTech Connect

Development has been initiated on a three-reaction, hybrid thermochemical-electrolytic process for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. This process can be run at 500 C, making it suitable for linking to nuclear reactors that run colder than the very highest temperature gas cooled reactors. This feature also makes the materials requirements less stringent than for high temperature cycles, many of which require temperatures in the range of 800-900 C. The process consists of three reactions - two thermochemical and one electrolytic. The thermochemical reactions sum to the reverse Deacon reaction. The electrolytic step involves the electrolysis of anhydrous HCl. The estimated energy savings for this process relative to electrolysis of water are in the vicinity of 15%, due to the low energy requirements of anhydrous HCl electrolysis. Preliminary experimental results indicate that a silicalite-supported catalyst for the reverse Deacon reaction has the potential of promoting fast reaction kinetics and long-term stability of the solids.

Simpson, M. F.; Herrmann, S. D.; Boyle, B. D.; Engineering Technology

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

LINE-REVERSAL MEASUREMENTS OF EXCITATION AND ELECTRON TEMPERATURE IN A SHOCK TUBE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The spectral line-reversal method has been applied to determine population-temperatures within an (argon-calcium) plasma, generated by a reflected aerodynamic shock. The measurements have been made simultaneously on (a) normal bound-bound Ca 1 lines, (b) lines involving strongly auto-ionizing levels. The agreement of the two sets of values identifies the electron-temperature with the temperature characterizing the populations of the bound excited-states, giving improved confidence in the existence of complete ther-mal equilibrium in the reflected shock. The spectral-line reversal method has been previously applied to transitions between normal bound electronic states of neutral atoms, ions or molecules, (Gaydon and Hurle 1963; Charatis and Wilkerson 1962; Parkinson and Reeves 1964). The

W. R. S. Garton; W. H. Parkinson; E. M. Reeves

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Scalable time reversal of Raman echo quantum memory and quantum waveform conversion of light pulse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have found the new hidden symmetry of time reversal light-atom interaction in the photon echo quantum memory with Raman atomic transition. The time-reversed quantum memory provides generalized condition for ideal compression/decompression of time duration and wavelength conversion of the input light pulse. Based on a general analytical approach to this scheme, we have studied the optimal conditions of the light field compression/decompression in resonant atomic systems characterized by realistic spectral properties. The demonstrated effective quantum conversion of the light waveform and wavelength are also discussed for various possible realizations of the quantum memory scheme. The performed study promises new capabilities for fundamental study of the light-atom interaction and for deterministic quantum manipulation of the light field interested for quantum communication and quantum computing.

Moiseev, E S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to Magnesium Triborane in the Solid State Under Moderate Conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal decomposition of magnesium borohydride, Mg(BH4)2, in the solid state was studied by a combination of PCT, TGA/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Dehydrogenation of Mg(BH4)2 at 200 °C, results in the highly selective formation of magnesium triborane, Mg(B3H8)2. This process is reversible at 250 °C under 120 atm H2. Dehydrogenation at higher temperature, > 300 °C, produces a complex mixture of polyborane species. Solution phase 11B NMR spectra of the hydrolyzed decomposition products reveals the formation of the B3H8 anion, boric acid from hydrolysis of the unstable polyboranes (BnHx) (n = 3-11, x >8), and the closoborane B12H12 dianion as a minor product. A BH condensation mechanism involving metal hydride formation is proposed to explain the limited reversible hydrogen storage in magnesium borohydride.

Chong, Marina; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Jalisatgi, Satish; Jensen, Craig M.

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

313

Entropy of the Nordic electricity market: anomalous scaling, spikes, and mean-reversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electricity market is a very peculiar market due to the large variety of phenomena that can affect the spot price. However, this market still shows many typical features of other speculative (commodity) markets like, for instance, data clustering and mean reversion. We apply the diffusion entropy analysis (DEA) to the Nordic spot electricity market (Nord Pool). We study the waiting time statistics between consecutive spot price spikes and find it to show anomalous scaling characterized by a decaying power-law. The exponent observed in data follows a quite robust relationship with the one implied by the DEA analysis. We also in terms of the DEA revisit topics like clustering, mean-reversion and periodicities. We finally propose a GARCH inspired model but for the price itself. Models in the context of stochastic volatility processes appear under this scope to have a feasible description.

Perello, J; Montero, M; Palatella, L; Simonsen, I; Masoliver, Jaume; Montero, Miquel; Palatella, Luigi; Perello, Josep; Simonsen, Ingve

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Test of the Universality of Naive-time-reversal-odd Fragmentation Functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the ''spontaneous'' hyperon transverse polarization in $e^+e^-$ annihilation and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes as a test of the universality of the naive-time-reversal-odd transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions. We find that universality implies definite sign relations among various observables. This provides a unique opportunity to study initial/final state interaction effects in the fragmentation process and test the associated factorization.

Daniel Boer; Zhong-Bo Kang; Werner Vogelsang; Feng Yuan

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

315

One-dimensional thermonuclear burn computations for the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR)  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual fusion reactor designs of the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) have been based on profile-averaged zero-dimensional (point) plasma models. The plasma response/performance that has been predicted by the point plasma model is re-examined by a comprehensive one-dimensional (radial) burn code (RFPBRN) that has been developed and parametrically evaluated for the RFPR. The RFPR plasma parameters have been optimized and effects of turbulent transport and stability have been studied.

Nebel, R.A.; Miley, G.H.; Moses, R.W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Method of electric field flow fractionation wherein the polarity of the electric field is periodically reversed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation.

Stevens, Fred J. (Naperville, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Reversible Electrocatalytic Production and Oxidation of Hydrogen at Low Overpotentials by a Functional Hydrogenase Mimic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new bis(diphosphine) nickel(II) complex, [Ni(PPh2NR2)2](BF4)2, 1, (R = CH2CH2OCH3) is described. A {Delta}G{sup o} of 0.84 kcal/mol{sup -1} for hydrogen addition for this complex was calculated from the experimentally determined equilibrium constant. This complex displays reversible electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen production and oxidation at low overpotentials, a characteristic most commonly associated with hydrogenase enzymes.

Smith, Stuart E.; Yang, Jenny Y.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, Morris

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

318

Electron density and temperature profile diagnostics for C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The 9-point Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas is improved and the measured electron temperature profiles are consistent with theoretical expectations. Rayleigh scattering revealed a finite line width of the ruby laser emission, which complicates density calibration. Taking advantage of the plasma wobble motion, density profile reconstruction accuracy from the 6-chord two-color CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer data is improved.

Deng, B. H.; Kinley, J. S.; Schroeder, J. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun  

SciTech Connect

The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

Hartman, Charles W. (Alamo, CA); Shearer, James W. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

The Effectiveness of Reverse Telephon Emergency Warning Systems in the October 2007 San Diego Wildfires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Late in October, 2007, fast-moving wildfires fueled by extreme Santa Ana winds threatened residents and their properties in San Diego County, California. The impacted area also included the City of San Diego within the County s boundaries. It turns out the San Diego firestorms would be the biggest in the County's history, surpassing the devastating 2003 firestorms in intensity, duration, and impacted populations. Both San Diego County and the City of San Diego have installed telephone reverse call-down emergency warning systems. A telephone survey of 1200 households located in areas identified by emergency officials as the evacuation zones for the 2007 fires was conducted in late March and early April 2008 using a random telephone dialing process to determine if people responded to the reverse telephone warning systems calls. Findings indicate that those who received a reverse emergency warning call were much more likely to evacuate than those who did not receive a call. The telephone calls were also the most likely source of first warning.

Sorensen, John H [ORNL; Sorensen, Barbara Vogt [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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321

Climate Variability in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite data reveal a 20% decline in sea ice extent in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas in the two decades following 1973. This change is negatively correlated with surface air temperatures on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula, which ...

Stanley S. Jacobs; Josefino C. Comiso

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Statistical Analysis of the Fourth Case Study in Reverse Auction Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Participating in an auction and winning items by placing bids has been in practice since at least 500 B.C. Auctions have evolved since then and anyone can now participate in one online and buy items ranging from clothes, electronics, automobiles and homes using online auction websites, such as eBay. A Reverse Auction varies from the traditional style of Auction where items or services are won by placing successive higher bids until the auction ends. The study of Reverse Auction was first introduced to Texas A & M University in 2004 and continues today, using a SQL based web system. This current research provides a detailed statistical analysis of the fourth case study in this long running work. This fourth case study involved the participation of five bidders who had no prior experience in Reverse Auctions. A Microsoft Access database system and ASP web based user interface was developed and used to conduct these initial studies. However, due to the limited capability of the Access system to handle more than a limited number of connections or bidders, a Microsoft SQL database and web system was developed in 2006 and has been used in all subsequent studies. Case studies have involved up to ten participants. The results from the fourth case study show that a Reverse Auction can result in an increase in the average cost of the job to the owner. Also, there is evidence of game play amongst the bidders and against the purchaser that causes their profits to rise as they gain proficiency in the game. This behavior has been termed as 'tacit collision', but it is considered a byproduct of the system and not illegal behavior. This study analyzes the fourth study data to investigate if the behavior termed "tacit collusion" is evident in the bidding data. This analysis is completed by performing a detailed statistical analysis of the bidding data. Analysis of the profit percentages illustrates the different stages of the game play amongst the bidders. This game play behavior is illustrated by plotting average number of bids to the profit made by each bidder. The data clearly suggests that the players became efficient in their bidding strategy, although some bidders are more efficient than others. This observation negates the common conception that Reverse Auctions will result in lowering average costs for the owners. The individual data of bidders for bids and profit reveal why some players were able to obtain higher than average results and why the others were not. This study can be taken further by analyzing the patterns of the successful and unsuccessful players to determine what causes them to gain or lose profits.

Bhalerao, Aneesh Madhao

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Molecular Studies in Horses with SRY-Positive XY Sex Reversal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sex determination in mammals is regulated by the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY); the presence of SRY activates the male developmental pathway and suppresses the gene network necessary for female gonad development. Mutations in sex determination genes lead to various abnormal sexual phenotypes, including sex reversal syndrome in which the genetic and phenotypic sex do not match. Sex reversal syndrome has been reported in humans, mouse, and several domestic species. In horses, SRY-negative XY sex reversal syndrome has been well described and is caused by deletions on the Y chromosome. However, the molecular causes of the SRY-positive condition in horses and other mammals are not known. This research investigated five horses affected with SRY-positive XY sex reversal syndrome. Sequencing of the coding exon region of the SRY gene in the five cases showed 99-100% alignment with the sequences of normal males. Genotyping of two closely related individuals with 46 normal male controls on an equine SNP50 Beadchip identified two statistically significant SNPs in a ~16 Mb region on the long arm of horse chromosome 3 (ECA3q). The region was analyzed using Gene Ontology (GO) and Gene Relationships Across Implicated Loci (GRAIL) to select functionally relevant candidate genes for sequencing. Further analysis of the entire horse genome was done through array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which investigated possible structural rearrangements, such as copy number variants (CNVs). Deletions of olfactory receptor genes were detected on multiple chromosomes and confirmed through quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). A homozygous deletion on ECA29 in a region containing genes of the aldo-keto reductase gene family, known to play a role in interconverting sex hormones between active forms and inactive forms, was discovered in two sex reversed animals. The findings were confirmed through qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and experiments to define the specific breakpoints of the deletion through PCR have been initiated. This research represents the first systematic search in the horse genome for mutations and CNVs related to sex determination. The findings contribute to better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination in horses and other mammals, including humans.

Fang, Erica

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Int. J. of Heavy Vehicle Systems, Vol. 11, Nos 3/4, 2004 434 Towards computer-aided reverse engineering of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Int. J. of Heavy Vehicle Systems, Vol. 11, Nos 3/4, 2004 434 Towards computer-aided reverse engineering of heavy vehicle parts using laser range imaging techniques D. Page, A. Koschan, Y. Sun, Y. Zhang-aided reverse engineering (CARE), heavy vehicles, image-based modelling, reverse engineering, vehicle modelling

Abidi, Mongi A.

325

Theoretical reversed field pinch studies: Technical progress report for the period September 1, 1986-August 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report gives information on research dealing with plasma stability in a reverse-field pinch device. Analytic and numerical calculations on various stability phenomena have been performed. (JDH)

Prager, S.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

A New 4H-SiC Lateral Merged Double Schottky (LMDS) Rectifier With Excellent Forward and Reverse Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The novel characteristics of a new Schottky rectifier structure, known as the lateral merged double Schottky (LMDS) rectifier, on 4H-SiC are explored theoretically and compared with those of the compatible conventional 4H-SiC Schottky rectifiers. The anode of the proposed lateral device utilizes the trenches filled with a high barrier Schottky (HBS) metal to pinch off a low barrier Schottky (LBS) contact during reverse bias. Numerical simulation of any such SiC structure is complicated by the fact that the thermionic emission theory predicts the reverse leakage current to be orders of magnitude smaller than the measured data. We, therefore, first propose a simple empirical model for barrier height lowering to accurately estimate the reverse leakage current in a SiC Schottky contact. The accuracy of the empirical model is verified by comparing the simulated reverse leakage current with the reported experimental results on different SiC Schottky structures. Using the proposed empirical model, the two-dimensional (2-D) numerical simulations reveal that the new LMDS rectifier demonstrates about three orders of magnitude reduction in the reverse leakage current and two times higher reverse breakdown voltage when compared to the conventional lateral low barrier Schottky (LLBS) rectifier while keeping the forward voltage drop comparable to that of the conventional LLBS rectifier. A unique feature of the 4H-SiC LMDS rectifier is that it exhibits a very sharp PiN diode-like reverse blocking characteristic in spite of the fact that only Schottky junctions are used in the structure. The reasons for the improved performance of the LMDS rectifier are analyzed and design tradeoff between the forward voltage drop and the reverse leakage current is provided by varying the device parame...

Yashvir Singh And; Yashvir Singh; M. Jagadesh Kumar; Senior Member

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Theoretical study of a localized quantum spin reversal by the sequential injection of spins in a spin quantum dot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is a theoretical study of the reversal of a localized quantum spin induced by sequential injection of spins for a spin quantum dot that has a quantum spin. The system consists of ``electrode/quantum well(QW)/dot/QW/electrode" junctions, in which the left QW has an energy level of conduction electrons with only up-spin. We consider a situation in which up-spin electrons are sequentially injected from the left electrode into the dot through the QW and an exchange interaction acts between the electrons and the localized spin. To describe the sequentially injected electrons, we propose a simple method based on approximate solutions from the time-dependent Schr$\\ddot{\\rm o}$dinger equation. Using this method, it is shown that the spin reversal occurs when the right QW has energy levels of conduction electrons with only down-spin. In particular, the expression of the reversal time of a localized spin is derived and the upper and lower limits of the time are clearly expressed. This expression is expected to be useful for a rough estimation of the minimum relaxation time of the localized spin to achieve the reversal. We also obtain analytic expressions for the expectation value of the localized spin and the electrical current as a function of time. In addition, we found that a system with the non-magnetic right QW exhibits spin reversal or non-reversal depending on the exchange interaction.

Satoshi Kokado; Kazumasa Ueda; Kikuo Harigaya; Akimasa Sakuma

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

328

A reverse osmosis treatment process for produced water: optimization, process control, and renewable energy application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fresh water resources in many of the world's oil producing regions, such as western Texas, are scarce, while produced water from oil wells is plentiful, though unfit for most applications due to high salinity and other contamination. Disposing of this water is a great expense to oil producers. This research seeks to advance a technology developed to treat produced water by reverse osmosis and other means to render it suitable for agricultural or industrial use, while simultaneously reducing disposal costs. Pilot testing of the process thus far has demonstrated the technology's capability to produce good-quality water, but process optimization and control were yet to be fully addressed and are focuses of this work. Also, the use of renewable resources (wind and solar) are analyzed as potential power sources for the process, and an overview of reverse osmosis membrane fouling is presented. A computer model of the process was created using a dynamic simulator, Aspen Dynamics, to determine energy consumption of various process design alternatives, and to test control strategies. By preserving the mechanical energy of the concentrate stream of the reverse osmosis membrane, process energy requirements can be reduced several fold from that of the current configuration. Process control schemes utilizing basic feedback control methods with proportional-integral (PI) controllers are proposed, with the feasibility of the strategy for the most complex process design verified by successful dynamic simulation. A macro-driven spreadsheet was created to allow for quick and easy cost comparisons of renewable energy sources in a variety of locations. Using this tool, wind and solar costs were compared for cities in regions throughout Texas. The renewable energy resource showing the greatest potential was wind power, with the analysis showing that in windy regions such as the Texas Panhandle, wind-generated power costs are approximately equal to those generated with diesel fuel.

Mareth, Brett

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Reversal of docosahexaenoic acid deficiency in the rat brain, retina, liver, and serum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract The loss of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the retina or brain has been associated with a loss in nervoussystem function in experimental animals, as well as in human infants fed vegetable oil-based formulas. The reversibility of the loss of DHA and the compensation by an increase in the n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) was studied in young adult rats. Long-Evans rats were subjected to a very low level of n-3 fatty acids through two generations. The F2 generation, n-3-deficient animals at 7 weeks of age were provided a repletion diet containing both ?-linolenate and DHA. A separate group of F2 generation rats had been maintained on an n-3-adequate diet of the same composition. Tissues from the brain, retina, liver, and serum were collected on weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 from both groups of animals. The concentrations of DHA, DPAn-6, and other fatty acids were determined and the rate of recovery and length of time needed to complete DHA recovery were determined for each tissue. The DHA level in the brain at 1 and 2 weeks after diet reversal was only partially recovered, rising to approximately 20 % and 35%, respectively, of the n-3-adequate group level. Full recovery was not obtained until 8 weeks after initiation of the repletion diet. Although the initial rate of retinal DHA accretion was greater than that of brain DHA, the half-time for DHA recovery was only marginally greater. On the other hand, the levels of DHA in the serum and liver were approximately 90 % and 100 % replaced, respectively, within 2 weeks of diet reversal. A consideration of the total amounts and time courses of DHA repleted in the nervous system compared with the liver and circulation suggests that transport-related processes may limit the rate of DHA repletion in the retina and brain.—Moriguchi, T., J.

Toru Moriguchi; James Loewke; Megan Garrison; Janice Nicklay Catalan; Norman Salem

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Seller of spent batteries incurs CERCLA liability under appeals court reversal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reversing a lower court ruling, the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit has decided that an auto parts company that sold spent lead-acid batteries to a lead reclaimer can be held liable under CERCLA for contamination caused by battery remnants (Cattelus Development Corporation v. United States et al., Dockett Number: 93-16530). The lower court had ruled that the auto parts company was not liable because (1) the batteries still had a {open_quotes}productive use{close_quotes} when they were sold, and (2) the company had no involvement in the final disposition of the battery casings.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Orbits and reversals of a drop rolling inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the complex dynamics of a non-coalescing drop of moderate size inside a circular hydraulic jump of the same liquid formed on a horizontal disk. In this situation the drop is moving along the jump and one observes two different motions: a periodic one (it orbitates at constant speed) and an irregular one involving reversals of the orbital motion. Modeling the drop as a rigid sphere exchanging friction with liquid across a thin film of air, we recover the orbital motion and the internal rotation of the drop. This internal rotation is experimentally observed.

Alexis Duchesne; Clément Savaro; Luc Lebon; Christophe Pirat; Laurent Limat

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

332

Fast-Particle-Driven Alfvenic Modes in a Reversed Field Pinch  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alfvenic modes are observed due to neutral beam injection for the first time in a reversed field pinch plasma. Modeling of the beam deposition and slowing down shows that the velocity and radial localization are high. This allows instability drive from inverse Landau damping of a bump-on-tail in the parallel distribution function or from free energy in the fast ion density gradient. Mode switching from a lower frequency toroidal mode number n = 5 mode that scales with beam injection velocity to a higher frequency n = 4 mode with Alfvenic scaling is observed.

Koliner, J. J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Forest, C. B. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Sarff, J. S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Anderson, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Liu, D [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Nomberg, M. D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Waksman, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Lin, L. [University of California, Los Angeles; Brower, D. L. [University of California, Los Angeles; Ding, W. X. [University of California, Los Angeles; Spong, Donald A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

TREK: A Search for Time Reversal Symmetry Violation in Charged Kaon Decays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Time Reversal Experiment with Kaons (TREK) at J?PARC aims to find New Physics beyond the Standard Model by measuring the T?violating transverse polarization P T of muons in the K ?3 + decay of stopped kaons. TREK will use a high?intensity kaon beam and the upgraded apparatus of the E?246 experiment from KEK?PS. The sensitivity for P T of 10 ?4 at J?PARC is improved by a factor of 20 compared to the current E?246 limit

Michael Kohl; The TREK collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor: Design-point determination and parametric studies  

SciTech Connect

The multi-institutional TITAN study has examined the physics, technology, safety, and economics issues associated with the operation of a Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion reactor at high power density. A comprehensive system and trade study have been conducted as an integral and ongoing part of the reactor assessment. Attractive design points emerging from these parametric studies are subjected to more detailed analysis and design integration, the results of which are used to refine the parametric systems model. The design points and tradeoffs for two TITAN/RFP reactor embodiments are discussed. 14 refs.

Miller, R.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Exceptional Points in a Microwave Billiard with Time-Reversal Invariance Violation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the experimental study of an exceptional point (EP) in a dissipative microwave billiard with induced time-reversal invariance (T) violation. The associated two-state Hamiltonian is non-Hermitian and non-symmetric. It is determined experimentally on a narrow grid in a parameter plane around the EP. At the EP the size of T violation is given by the relative phase of the eigenvector components. The eigenvectors are adiabatically transported around the EP, whereupon they gather geometric phases and in addition geometric amplitudes different from unity.

B. Dietz; H. L. Harney; O. N. Kirillov; M. Miski-Oglu; A. Richter; F. Schaefer

2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

336

Neutron irradiation effects on domain wall mobility and reversibility in lead zirconate titanate thin films  

SciTech Connect

The effects of neutron-induced damage on the ferroelectric properties of thin film lead zirconate titanate (PZT) were investigated. Two sets of PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} films of varying initial quality were irradiated in a research nuclear reactor up to a maximum 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence of (5.16 {+-} 0.03) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. Changes in domain wall mobility and reversibility were characterized by polarization-electric field measurements, Rayleigh analysis, and analysis of first order reversal curves (FORC). With increasing fluence, extrinsic contributions to the small-signal permittivity diminished. Additionally, redistribution of irreversible hysterons towards higher coercive fields was observed accompanied by the formation of a secondary hysteron peak following exposure to high fluence levels. The changes are attributed to the radiation-induced formation of defect dipoles and other charged defects, which serve as effective domain wall pinning sites. Differences in damage accumulation rates with initial film quality were observed between the film sets suggesting a dominance of pre-irradiation microstructure on changes in macroscopic switching behavior.

Graham, Joseph T. [Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Electronic, Optic and Nano Materials Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Brennecka, Geoff L.; Ihlefeld, Jon F. [Electronic, Optic and Nano Materials Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Ferreira, Paulo [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78751 (United States); Small, Leo [Electronic, Optic and Nano Materials Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Duquette, David [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Apblett, Christopher [Advanced Power Sources R and D Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Landsberger, Sheldon [Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

337

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

Eckert, Charles; Liotta, Charles

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

338

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

Charles Eckert; Charles Liotta

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

339

Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

340

Reversible Parallel Discrete Event Formulation of a TLM-based Radio Signal Propagation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radio signal strength estimation is essential in many applications, including the design of military radio communications and industrial wireless installations. For scenarios with large or richly- featured geographical volumes, parallel processing is required to meet the memory and computa- tion time demands. Here, we present a scalable and efficient parallel execution of the sequential model for radio signal propagation recently developed by Nutaro et al. Starting with that model, we (a) provide a vector-based reformulation that has significantly lower computational overhead for event handling, (b) develop a parallel decomposition approach that is amenable to reversibility with minimal computational overheads, (c) present a framework for transparently mapping the conservative time-stepped model into an optimistic parallel discrete event execution, (d) present a new reversible method, along with its analysis and implementation, for inverting the vector-based event model to be executed in an optimistic parallel style of execution, and (e) present performance results from implementation on Cray XT platforms. We demonstrate scalability, with the largest runs tested on up to 127,500 cores of a Cray XT5, enabling simulation of larger scenarios and with faster execution than reported before on the radio propagation model. This also represents the first successful demonstration of the ability to efficiently map a conservative time-stepped model to an optimistic discrete-event execution.

Seal, Sudip K [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Zero-flux planes, flux reversals and diffusion paths in ternary and quaternary diffusion  

SciTech Connect

During isothermal multicomponent diffusion, interdiffusion fluxes of individual components can go to zero at zero-flux planes (ZFP) and exhibit flux reversals from one side to the other of such planes. Interdiffusion fluxes as well as the locations and compositions of ZFPs for components are determined directly from the concentration profiles of diffusion couples without the need for prior knowledge of interdiffusion coefficients. The development and identification of ZFPs is reviewed with the aid of single phase and two-phase diffusion couples investigated in the Cu-Ni-Zn system at 775/sup 0/C. ZFP locations in the diffusion zone nearly correspond to sections where the activity of a component is the same as its activity in either of the terminal alloys of a couple. Path slopes at ZFPs are uniquely dictated by the atomic mobility and thermodynamic data for the components. Discontinuous flux reversals for the components can also occur at interfaces in multiphase couples. Identification of ZFPs is also presented for diffusion in the Cu-Ni-Zn-Mn quaternary system. Analytical representation of diffusion paths for both ternary and quaternary diffusion couples is presented with the aid of characteristic path parameters.

Dayananda, M.A.

1986-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

342

Reversible zwitterionic liquids, the reaction of alkanol guanidines, alkanol amidines, and diamines with CO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide chemistry is increasingly relevant to real-world issues, thanks to global warming. Key chemistry issues currently being studied are the capture, storage, and utilization of CO2. While the relevance of capture and storage are obvious, the relevance of CO2 utilization is less clear. Although CO2 utilization is unlikely to consume significant quantities of CO2, it can be an significant strategy for the development of sustainable processes. As part of our research efforts towards CO2 utilization, some of us invented switchable solvents, meaning solvents that can switch reversibly from one version to another.1Our original version was a mixture of an amidine and an alcohol (equation 1, where B is a liquid amidine), but since then we and others have developed others such as guanidine/alcohol mixtures (equation 1, where B is a liquid guanidine),2 amidine/primary amine mixtures,3 and secondary amines (equation 2).4Switchable solvents of these types all convert from a low-polarity to a high-polarity ionic liquid form upon exposure to an atmosphere of CO2 and revert back to the low polarity form when the CO2 is removed by heat or flushing with inert gas. We also demonstrated that these switchable solvents can be used as reversible CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) for CO2 capture, and are more energy-efficient in that role than aqueous solutions of ethanolamine.

Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Ang, Trisha; Liang, Chen; Rainbolt, James E.; Yonker, Clement R.; Jessop, Philip G.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

In-situ TEM studies of magnetisation reversal processes in magnetic nanostructures.  

SciTech Connect

One of the most widely studied types of magnetic nanostructure is that used in devices based on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) or tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) phenomena. In order to understand the behavior of these materials it is important to be able to follow their magnetization reversal mechanism, and one of the techniques enabling micromagnetic studies at the sub-micron scale is transmission electron microscopy. Two techniques can be used: Lorentz transmission electron microscopy and off-axis electron holography, both of which allow the magnetic domain structure of a ferromagnetic material to be investigated dynamically in real-time with a resolution of a few nanometers. These techniques have been used in combination with in situ magnetizing experiments, to carry out qualitative and quantitative studies of magnetization reversal in a range of materials including spin-tunnel junctions, patterned thin film elements and magnetic antidot arrays. Quantitative analysis of the Lorentz TEM data has been carried out using the transport of intensity equation (TIE) approach.

Petford-Long, A. K.; Bromwich, T.; Kohn, A.; Jackson, V.; Kasama, T.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.; Ross, C. A.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Oxford; Univ. Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Line asymmetry of solar p-modes: Reversal of asymmetry in intensity power spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sense of line asymmetry of solar p-modes in the intensity power spectra is observed to be opposite of that seen in the velocity power spectra. Theoretical calculations provide a good understanding and fit to the observed velocity power spectra whereas the reverse sense of asymmetry in the intensity power spectrum has been poorly understood. We show that when turbulent eddies arrive at the top of the convection zone they give rise to an observable intensity fluctuation which is correlated with the oscillation they generate, thereby affecting the shape of the line in the p-mode power spectra and reversing the sense of asymmetry (this point was recognized by Nigam et al. and Roxburgh & Vorontsov). The addition of the correlated noise displaces the frequencies of peaks in the power spectrum. Depending on the amplitude of the noise source the shift in the position of the peak can be substantially larger than the frequency shift in the velocity power spectra. In neither case are the peak frequencies precisely equal to the eigenfrequencies of p-modes. We suggest two observations which can provide a test of the model discussed here.

Pawan Kumar; Sarbani Basu

1998-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

345

Toroidal fusion reactor design based on the reversed-field pinch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The toroidal reversed-field pinch (RFP) achieves gross equilibrium and stability with a combination of high shear and wall stabilization, rather than the imposition of tokamak-like q-constraints. Consequently, confinement is provided primarily by poloidal magnetic fields, poloidal betas as large as approximately 0.58 are obtainable, the high ohmic-heating (toroidal) current densities promise a sole means of heating a D-T plasma to ignition, and the plasma aspect ratio is not limited by stability/equilibrium constraints. A reactor-like plasma model has been developed in order to quantify and to assess the general features of a power system based upon RFP confinement. An ''operating point'' has been generated on the basis of this plasma model and a relatively detailed engineering energy balance. These results are used to generate a conceptual engineering model of the reversed-field pinch reactor (RFPR) which includes a general description of a 750 MWe power plant and the preliminary consideration of vacuum/fueling, first wall, blanket, magnet coils, iron core, and the energy storage/transfer system.

Hagenson, R.L.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Imaging Faults with Reverse-Time Migration for Geothermal Exploration at Jemez Pueblo in New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The fault zones at Jemez Pueblo may dominate the flow paths of hot water, or confine the boundaries of the geothermal reservoir. Therefore, it is crucial to image the geometry of these fault zones for geothermal exploration in the area. We use reverse-time migration with a separation imaging condition to image the faults at Jemez Pueblo. A finite-difference full-wave equation method with a perfectly-matching-layer absorbing boundary condition is used for backward propagation of seismic reflection data from receivers and forward propagation of wavefields from sources. In the imaging region, the wavefields are separated into the upgoing and downgoing waves, and leftgoing and rightgoing waves. The upgoing and downgoing waves are used to obtain the downward-looking image, and the leftgoing and rightgoing waves are used to form the left-looking image and right-looking image from sources. The left-looking and right-looking images are normally weaker than the downward-looking image because the reflections from the fault zones are much weaker than those from sedimentary layers, but these migration results contain the images of the faults. We apply our reverse-time migration with a wavefield separation imaging condition to seismic data acquired at Jemez Pueblo, and our preliminary results reveal many faults in the area.

Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albrecht, Michael [TBA Power; Kaufman, Greg [Jemez Purblo; Kelley, Shari [NM Bureau of Geology and Mineral Researces; Rehfeldt, Kenneth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Zhifu [EES-17 visitor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Field-Reversed Configuration Power Plant Critical-Issue Scoping Study  

SciTech Connect

A team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed an engineering scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis for deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core. For the engineering conceptual design of the fusion core, the project team focused on intermediate-term technology. For example, one decision was to use steele structure. The FRC systems analysis led to a fusion power plant with attractive features including modest size, cylindrical symmetry, good thermal efficiency (52%), relatively easy maintenance, and a high ratio of electric power to fusion core mass, indicating that it would have favorable economics.

Santarius, J. F.; Mogahed, E. A.; Emmert, G. A.; Khater, H. Y.; Nguyen, C. N.; Ryzhkov, S. V.; Stubna, M. D.

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE PASSIVATION OF A LA-NI-AL ALLOY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper seeks to explore some of the effects of passivating a LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} sample by air oxidation under controlled conditions. Passivation of this metal hydride alloy seems to have two distinct regimes. The first occurs with air oxidation at 80 C and 20 C. It is characterized by complete reversibility upon hydrogen readsorption, although said readsorption is hindered substantially at room temperature, requiring the material to be heated to produce the reactivation. The second regime is illustrated by 130 C air oxidation and is characterized by irreversible loss of hydrogen absorption capacity. This passivation does not hinder hydrogen readsorption into the remaining hydride material.

Shanahan, K.; Klein, J.

2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

349

Polar Kerr Effect as Probe for Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking in Unconventional Superconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The search for broken time reversal symmetry (TRSB) in unconventional superconductors intensified in the past year as more systems have been predicted to possess such a state. Following our pioneering study of TRSB states in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} using magneto-optic probes, we embarked on a systematic study of several other of these candidate systems. The primary instrument for our studies is the Sagnac magneto-optic interferometer, which we recently developed. This instrument can measure magneto-optic Faraday or Kerr effects with an unprecedented sensitivity of 10 nanoradians at temperatures as low as 100 mK. In this paper we review our recent studies of TRSB in several systems, emphasizing the study of the pseudogap state of high temperature superconductors and the inverse proximity effect in superconductor/ferromagnet proximity structures.

Kapitulnik, A.

2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

350

Reverse trade mission on the drilling and completion of geothermal wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This draft report was prepared as required by Task No. 2 of the US Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG07-89ID12850 Reverse Trade Mission to Acquaint International Representatives with US Power Plant and Drilling Technology'' (mission). As described in the grant proposal, this report covers the reactions of attendees toward US technology, its possible use in their countries, and an evaluation of the mission by the staff leaders. Note this is the draft report of one of two missions carried out under the same contract number. Because of the diversity of the mission subjects and the different attendees at each, a separate report for each mission has been prepared. This draft report has been sent to all mission attendees, specific persons in the US Department of Energy and Los Alamos National Lab., the California Energy Commission (CEC), and various other governmental agencies.

Not Available

1989-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

351

Field-Reversed Configuration Formation Scheme Utilizing a Spheromak and Solenoid Induction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation technique is described, where a spheromak transitions to a FRC with inductive current drive. The transition is accomplished only in argon and krypton plasmas, where low-n kink modes are suppressed; spheromaks with a lighter majority species, such as neon and helium, either display a terminal tilt-mode, or an n=2 kink instability, both resulting in discharge termination. The stability of argon and krypton plasmas through the transition is attributed to the rapid magnetic diffusion of the currents that drive the kink-instability. The decay of helicity during the transition is consistent with that expected from resistivity. This observation indicates a new scheme to form a FRC plasma, provided stability to low-n modes is maintained, as well as a unique situation where the FRC is a preferred state.

S.P. Gerhardt, E.V. Belova, M. Yamada, H. Ji, Y. Ren, B. McGeehan, and M. Inomoto

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

352

Device for adapting continuously variable transmissions to infinitely variable transmissions with forward-neutral-reverse capabilities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An infinitely variable transmission is capable of operating between a maximum speed in one direction and a minimum speed in an opposite direction, including a zero output angular velocity, while being supplied with energy at a constant angular velocity. Input energy is divided between a first power path carrying an orbital set of elements and a second path that includes a variable speed adjustment mechanism. The second power path also connects with the orbital set of elements in such a way as to vary the rate of angular rotation thereof. The combined effects of power from the first and second power paths are combined and delivered to an output element by the orbital element set. The transmission can be designed to operate over a preselected ratio of forward to reverse output speeds.

Wilkes, Donald F. (Albuquerque, NM); Purvis, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Graphical Analysis of PET Data Applied to Reversible and Irreversible Tracers  

SciTech Connect

Graphical analysis refers to the transformation of multiple time measurements of plasma and tissue uptake data into a linear plot, the slope of which is related to the number of available tracer binding sites. This type of analysis allows easy comparisons among experiments. No particular model structure is assumed, however it is assumed that the tracer is given by bolus injection and that both tissue uptake and the plasma concentration of unchanged tracer are monitored following tracer injection. The requirement of plasma measurements can be eliminated in some cases when a reference region is available. There are two categories of graphical methods which apply to two general types of ligands--those which bind reversibly during the scanning procedure and those which are irreversible or trapped during the time of the scanning procedure.

Logan, Jean

1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

354

Stochastic Ion Heating in a Field-reversed Configuration Geometry by Rotating Magnetic Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ion heating by application of rotating magnetic fields (RMF) to a prolate field-reversed configuration(FRC) is explored by analytical and numerical techniques. For odd-parity RMF (RMFo), perturbation analysis shows ions in figure-8 orbits gain energy at resonances of the RMFo frequency, ?R, with the figure-8 orbital frequency, ?. Since figure-8 orbits tend to gain the most energy from the RMF and are unlikely to escape in the cusp region (where most losses occur), they are optimal candidates for rapid stochastic heating, as compared to cyclotron and betatron orbits. Comparisons are made between heating caused by even- and odd-parity RMFs and between heating in currently operating and in reactor-scale FRC devices.

S.A. Cohen, A.S. Landsman, and A.H. Glasser

2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

355

Modulated active charge exchange fast ion diagnostic for the C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic technique for measuring the fast-ion energy distribution in a field-reversed configuration plasma was developed and tested on the C-2 experiment. A deuterium neutral beam modulated at 22 kHz is injected into the plasma, producing a localized charge-exchange target for the confined fast protons. The escaping fast neutrals are detected by a neutral particle analyzer. The target beam transverse size ({approx}15 cm) defines the spatial resolution of the method. The equivalent current density of the target beam is {density ({approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) that highly exceeds the background neutral density in the core of C-2. The deuterium fast-ions due to the target beam (E{approx}27 keV), are not confined in C-2 and thus make a negligible contribution to the measured signals.

Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Clary, R.; Dettrick, S. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Deichuli, P.; Kondakov, A.; Murakhtin, S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Adsorption studies of gases on Pt-Rh bimetallic catalysts by reversed-flow gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, the relatively new technique of reversed-flow gas chromatography was applied for the study of adsorption of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide on Pt-Rh bimetallic catalysts. Using suitable mathematical analysis, equations were derived by means of which rate constants for adsorption, desorption, and disproportionation reaction were calculated. From the variation of these rate constants with temperature and the nature of the catalyst (Pt content), as well as from the finding that the CO adsorption is a dissociative process, useful conclusions concerning the mechanism for the CO oxidation reaction over Pt-Rh bimetallic catalysts were extracted. The catalytic fractional conversions for the CO disproportionation reaction were found to be higher for the Pt-RH bimetallic catalysts than those for the pure Pt catalyst, indicating the presence of beneficial Pt-Rh synergism.

Gavril, D.; Koliadima, A.; Karaiskakis, G. [Univ. of Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

357

A plant kinetic study of alcoholic fermentation using reversed-flow gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The reversed-flow gas chromatographic sampling technique is used to study the kinetics of alcoholic fermentation in a factory in conjunction with measurements of suspended particles in the fermenting medium. It was found that the overall process consists of four phases which have different first-order rate constants during ethanol formation. The second phase is the slowest with its rate constant being 4.3 and 13 times smaller than that of the first and third phases, respectively. There is also a decrease of suspended particles during the second phase. These results show that there is the possibility of increasing the rate constant during this phase, thereby increasing the overall production rate of ethanol significantly and thus lowering its cost of production.

Economopoulos, N.; Athanassopoulos, N. (B.G. Spiliopoulos Distilleri S.A., Patras (Greece)); Katsanos, N.A.; Karaiskakis, G.; Agathonos, P.; Vassilakos, Ch. (Univ. of Patras (Greece))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Compact-toroid fusion reactor based on the field-reversed theta pinch: reactor scaling and optimization for CTOR  

SciTech Connect

Early scoping studies based on approximate, analytic models have been extended on the basis of a dynamic plasma model and an overall systems approach to examine a Compact Toroid (CT) reactor embodiment that uses a Field-Reversed Theta Pinch as a plasma source. The field-reversed plasmoid would be formed and compressionally heated to ignition prior to injection into and translation through a linear burn chamber, thereby removing the high-technology plasmoid source from the hostile reactor environment. Stabilization of the field-reversed plasmoid would be provided by a passive conduction shell located outside the high-temperature blanket but within the low-field superconducting magnets and associated radiation shielding. On the basis of this batch-burn but thermally steady-state approach a reactor concept emerges with a length below approx. 40 m that generates 300 to 400 MWe of net electrical power with a recirculating power fraction less than 0.15.

Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

On-chip single-copy real-time reverse-transcription PCR in isolated picoliter droplets  

SciTech Connect

The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and RNA isolation, followed by reverse transcription, and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection in the trapped droplets has been developed. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a fused silica device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter-scale droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing thermal cycling for reverse transcription and subsequent PCR amplification without droplet motion. This combination of the established real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy RNA and virions from a complex environment, and will be useful in viral discovery and gene-profiling applications.

Beer, N R; Wheeler, E; Lee-Houghton, L; Watkins, N; Nasarabadi, S; Hebert, N; Leung, P; Arnold, D; Bailey, C; Colston, B

2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

360

Reaction Mechanisms for the Limited Reversibility of Li-O2 Chemistry in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The Li-O2 chemistry in nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes and the underneath reason of its limited reversibility was exhaustively investigated. The discharge products collected from the air cathode in a Li-O2 battery at different depth of discharge (DOD) were systematically analyzed with X-ray diffraction. It is revealed that, independent of the discharge depth, lithium alkylcarbonate (either lithium propylenedicarbonate - LPDC, or lithium ethylenedicarbonate - LEDC, with other related derivatives) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) are always the main products, obviously originated from the electrolyte solvents propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC). These lithium alkylcarbonates are obviously generated from the single-electron reductive decomposition of the corresponding carbonate solvents initiated by the attack of superoxide radical anions. On the other hand, neither lithium peroxide (Li2O2) nor lithium oxide (Li2O) is detected. More significantly, from in situ gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy it is found that Li2CO3 and Li2O cannot be oxidized even when charged up to 4.6 V vs. Li/Li+, while LPDC, LEDC and Li2O2 are readily able to, with CO2 and CO released with the re-oxidation of LPDC and LEDC. It is therefore concluded that the quasi-reversibility of Li-O2 chemistry observed hitherto in an organic carbonate-based electrolyte is actually reliant on the formation of lithium alkylcarbonates through the reductive decomposition of carbonate solvents during discharge process and the subsequent oxidation of these same alkylcarbonates during charge process. It is the poor oxidizability of these alkylcarbonate species that constitutes the obstruction to an ideal rechargeable Li-O2 battery.

Xu, Wu; Xu, Kang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Hardy, John S.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Apparatus and method for controlling the rotary airlocks in a coal processing system by reversing the motor current rotating the air lock  

SciTech Connect

An improvement to a coal processing system where hard materials found in the coal may cause jamming of either inflow or outflow rotary airlocks, each driven by a reversible motor. The instantaneous current used by the motor is continually monitored and compared to a predetermined value. If an overcurrent condition occurs, indicating a jamming of the airlock, a controller means starts a "soft" reverse rotation of the motor thereby clearing the jamming. Three patterns of the motor reversal are provided.

Groombridge, Clifton E. (Hardin, MT)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Are forward designed or reverse-engineered UML diagrams more helpful for code maintenance?: a controlled experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Context: UML has been the de facto standard notation for modeling object-oriented software systems since its appearance in 1997. UML diagrams are important for maintainers of a system, especially when the software was developed by a different ... Keywords: UML diagrams, controlled experiment, reverse engineering, software maintenance, survey

Ana M. Fernández-Sáez; Michel R. V. Chaudron; Marcela Genero; Isabel Ramos

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Experiments in the ISX-B tokamak electron cyclotron heating, ripple studies, pellet fueling, impurity flow reversal and surface physics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The wide variety of experiments on the ISX-B tokamak includes electron cyclotron heating, ripple effects, hydrogen pellet fueling, impurity flow reversal mechanisms, plasma edge studies, and testing of limiter coatings. The most significant results in each of these areas are discussed.

Isler, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Catalyzed Nano-Framework Stablized High Density Reversible Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A wide range of high capacity on-board rechargeable material candidates have exhibited non-ideal behavior related to irreversible hydrogen discharge / recharge behavior, and kinetic instability or retardation. This project addresses these issues by incorporating solvated and other forms of complex metal hydrides, with an emphasis on borohydrides, into nano-scale frameworks of low density, high surface area skeleton materials to stabilize, catalyze, and control desorption product formation associated with such complex metal hydrides. A variety of framework chemistries and hydride / framework combinations were investigated to make a relatively broad assessment of the method'Â?s potential. In this project, the hydride / framework interactions were tuned to decrease desorption temperatures for highly stable compounds or increase desorption temperatures for unstable high capacity compounds, and to influence desorption product formation for improved reversibility. First principle modeling was used to explore heterogeneous catalysis of hydride reversibility by modeling H{sub 2} dissociation, hydrogen migration, and rehydrogenation. Atomic modeling also demonstrated enhanced NaTi(BH{sub 4}){sub 4} stabilization at nano-framework surfaces modified with multi-functional agents. Amine multi-functional agents were found to have more balanced interactions with nano-framework and hydride clusters than other functional groups investigated. Experimentation demonstrated that incorporation of Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} in aerogels enhanced hydride desorption kinetics. Carbon aerogels were identified as the most suitable nano-frameworks for hydride kinetic enhancement and high hydride loading. High loading of NaTi(BH{sub 4}){sub 4} ligand complex in SiO{sub 2} aerogel was achieved and hydride stability was improved with the aerogel. Although improvements of desorption kinetics was observed, the incorporation of Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} in nano-frameworks did not improve their H{sub 2} absorption due to the formation of stable alkaline earth B12H12 intermediates upon rehydrogenation. This project primarily investigated the effect of nano-framework surface chemistry on hydride properties, while the effect of pore size is the focus area of other efforts (e.g., HRL, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) etc.) within the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The projects were complementary in gaining an overall understanding of the influence of nano-frameworks on hydride behavior.

Xia Tang , Susanne M. Opalka , Daniel A. Mosher, Bruce L. Laube, Ronald J. Brown, Thomas H. Vanderspurt, Sarah Arsenault, Robert Wu, Jamie Strickler, Ewa. Ronnebro, Tim. Boyle and Joseph Cordaro

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

The Development of a Synthesis Approach for Optimal Design of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work introduces a systematic seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane network synthesis approach, based on the coordinated use of process superstructure representations and global optimization. The approach makes use of superstructure formulations that are capable of extracting a globally optimal design as a performance target, by taking into consideration desired process conditions and constraints that are typically associated with reverse osmosis systems. Thermodynamic insights are employed to develop lean network representations so that any underperforming solutions can be eliminated a priori. This essentially results in considerable improvement of the overall search speed, compared to previously reported attempts. In addition, the approach enables the extraction of structurally different design alternatives. In doing so, distinct membrane network design classes were established by partitioning the search space, based on network size and connectivity. As a result, corresponding lean superstructures were then systematically generated, which capture all structural and operational variants within each design class. The overall purpose is thus to enable the extraction of multiple distinct optimal designs, through global optimization. This mainly helps provide design engineers with a better understanding of the design space and trade-offs between performance and complexity. The approach is illustrated by means of a numerical example, and the results obtained were compared to previously related work. As anticipated, the proposed approach consistently delivered the globally optimal solutions, as well as alternative efficient design candidates attributed to different design classes, with reduced CPU times. This work further capitalizes on the developed representation, by accounting for detailed water quality information, within the SWRO desalination network optimization problem. The superstructures were modified to incorporate models that capture the performance of common membrane elements, as predicted by commercially available simulator tools, e.g. ROSA (Dow) and IMSDesign (Hydranautics). These models allow tracing of individual components throughout the system. Design decisions that are supported by superstructure optimization include network size and connectivity, flow rates, pressures, and post treatment requirements. Moreover, a detailed economic assessment capturing all the significant capital and operating costs associated in SWRO processes, including intake, pre and post treatment has also been accounted for. These modifications were then illustrated using a case study involving four seawater qualities, with salinities ranging from 35 to 45 ppt. The results highlight the dependency of optimal designs on the feed water quality involved, as well as on specified permeate requirements.

Alnouri, Sabla

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Tomographic imaging system for measuring impurity line emission in a field-reversed configuration  

SciTech Connect

A 16 chord optical tomography system has been developed and implemented in the flux coil generated-field reversed configuration (FRC). The chords are arranged in two fans of eight, which cover {approx}35% of the vessel area at the midplane. Each illuminate separate photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) which are fitted with narrow band-pass filters. In this case, filters are centered at 434.8 nm to measure emission from singly ionized argon. PMT crosstalk is negligible. Background noise due to electron radiation and H{sub {gamma}} line radiation is <10% of argon emission. The spatial resolution of the reconstruction is 1.5 cm. Argon is introduced using a puff valve and tube designed to impart the gas into the system as the FRC is forming. Reconstruction of experimental data results in time-dependent, 2D emissivity profiles of the impurity ions. Analysis of these data show radial, cross-field diffusion to be in the range of 10-10{sup 3} m{sup 2}/s during FRC equilibrium.

Roche, T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; McWilliams, R. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Bolte, N.; Garate, E.; Wessel, F. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

A reversible theory of entanglement and its relation to the second law  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the manipulation of multipartite entangled states in the limit of many copies under quantum operations that asymptotically cannot generate entanglement. As announced in [Brandao and Plenio, Nature Physics 4, 8 (2008)], and in stark contrast to the manipulation of entanglement under local operations and classical communication, the entanglement shared by two or more parties can be reversibly interconverted in this setting. The unique entanglement measure is identified as the regularized relative entropy of entanglement, which is shown to be equal to a regularized and smoothed version of the logarithmic robustness of entanglement. Here we give a rigorous proof of this result, which is fundamentally based on a certain recent extension of quantum Stein's Lemma proved in [Brandao and Plenio, Commun. Math. 295, 791 (2010)], giving the best measurement strategy for discriminating several copies of an entangled state from an arbitrary sequence of non-entangled states, with an optimal distinguishability rate equal to the regularized relative entropy of entanglement. We moreover analyse the connection of our approach to axiomatic formulations of the second law of thermodynamics.

Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Martin. B. Plenio

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

368

Reversible and irreversible spacetime thermodynamics for general Brans-Dicke theories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We derive the equations of motion for Palatini F(R) gravity by applying an entropy balance law TdS={delta}Q+{delta}N to the local Rindler wedge that can be constructed at each point of spacetime. Unlike previous results for metric F(R), there is no bulk viscosity term in the irreversible flux {delta}N. Both theories are equivalent to particular cases of Brans-Dicke scalar-tensor gravity. We show that the thermodynamical approach can be used ab initio also for this class of gravitational theories and it is able to provide both the metric and scalar equations of motion. In this case, the presence of an additional scalar degree of freedom and the requirement for it to be dynamical naturally imply a separate contribution from the scalar field to the heat flux {delta}Q. Therefore, the gravitational flux previously associated to a bulk viscosity term in metric F(R) turns out to be actually part of the reversible thermodynamics. Hence we conjecture that only the shear viscosity associated with Hartle-Hawking dissipation should be associated with irreversible thermodynamics.

Chirco, Goffredo; Eling, Christopher; Liberati, Stefano [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Passive Superconducting Flux Conservers for Rotating-Magnetic-Field-Driven Field-Reversed Configurations  

SciTech Connect

The Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) experiment employs an odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMFo) current drive and plasma heating system to form and sustain high-? plasmas. For radial confinement, an array of coaxial, internal, passive, flux-conserving (FC) rings applies magnetic pressure to the plasma while still allowing radio-frequency RMFo from external coils to reach the plasma. The 3 ms pulse duration of the present experiment is limited by the skin time (?fc) of its room-temperature copper FC rings. To explore plasma phenomena with longer characteristic times, the pulse duration of the next-generation PFRC-2 device will exceed 100 ms, necessitating FC rings with (?fc > 300 ms. In this paper we review the physics of internal, discrete, passive FCs and describe the evolution of the PFRC's FC array. We then detail new experiments that have produced higher performance FC rings that contain embedded high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. Several HTS tape winding configurations have been studied and a wide range of extended skin times, from 0.4 s to over 103 s, has been achieved. The new FC rings must carry up to 3 kA of current to balance the expected PFRC-2 plasma pressure, so the dependence of the HTS-FC critical current on the winding configuration and temperature was also studied. From these experiments, the key HTS-FC design considerations have been identified and HTS-FC rings with the desired performance characteristics have been produced.

E. Oz, C.E. Myers, M.R. Edwards, B. Berlinger, A. Brooks, and S.A. Cohen

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

370

Nonlinear tearing mode interactions and mode locking in reversed field pinches  

SciTech Connect

The nonlinear interaction of a set of tearing instabilities and plasma flow is studied in a cylindrical plasma. An analytic theory of mode locking is developed which includes the effects of the localized electromagnetic torques, plasma inertia and cross-field viscosity. The calculation is specialized for the case of mode locking on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch. In MST plasmas, a set of m = 1 tearing instabilities become phase locked and form a toroidally localized, rotating magnetic disturbance. An evolution equation for the phase velocity of this magnetic disturbance is derived which accounts for two types of electromagnetic torques. The external torques describe the interaction of the tearing modes with static magnetic perturbations located outside the plasma region. The interior torques describe the nonlinear interaction of three tearing modes which satisfy a wave number resonance condition. For conditions typical of MST, the internal torques dominate the external torques, which suggest the nonlinear interaction of tearing instabilities play a prominent role in the momentum degradation and mode locking.

Hegna, C.C.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Reversible Electron Beam Heating for Suppression of Microbunching Instabilities at Free-Electron Lasers  

SciTech Connect

The presence of microbunching instabilities due to the compression of high-brightness electron beams at existing and future x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) results in restrictions on the attainable lasing performance and renders beam imaging with optical transition radiation impossible. The instability can be suppressed by introducing additional energy spread, i.e., heating the electron beam, as demonstrated by the successful operation of the laser heater system at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The increased energy spread is typically tolerable for self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs but limits the effectiveness of advanced FEL schemes such as seeding. In this paper, we present a reversible electron beam heating system based on two transverse deflecting radio-frequency structures (TDSs) upstream and downstream of a magnetic bunch compressor chicane. The additional energy spread is introduced in the first TDS, which suppresses the microbunching instability, and then is eliminated in the second TDS. We show the feasibility of the microbunching gain suppression based on calculations and simulations including the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation. Acceptable electron beam and radio-frequency jitter are identified, and inherent options for diagnostics and on-line monitoring of the electron beam's longitudinal phase space are discussed.

Behrens, Christopher; /DESY; Huang, Zhirong; Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

Analysis of Pump-Turbine S Instability and Reverse Waterhammer Incidents in Hydropower Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydraulic systems continually experience dynamic transients or oscillations which threaten the hydroelectric plant from extreme water hammer pressures or resonance. In particular, the minimum pressure variations downstream of the turbine runner during the load rejection or other events may cause dangerous water column separation and subsequent rejoinder. Water column separation can be easily observed from the measurements of site transient tests, and has indeed caused serious historical damages to the machine and water conveyance system. Several technical issues regarding water column separation in draft tubes, including S instability of turbine characteristic curves, numerical instability and uncertainty of computer programs, are discussed here through case studies and available model and site test data. Catastrophic accidents experienced at a Kaplan turbine and in a long tailrace tunnel project, as well as other troubles detected in a more timely fashion, are revisited in order to demonstrate the severity of reverse water hammer. However, as there is no simple design solutions for such complex systems, this paper emphasizes that the design of hydraulic systems is always difficult, difficulties that are compounded when the phenomena in question are non-linear (water hammer), dynamic (involving wave interaction and complex devices of turbines, controls, and electrical systems), and non-monotonic (severity of response is seldom simply connected to severity of load as with vibrations and resonance, and the complexity of transient loads), and thus may lead to high economic and safety challenges and consequences.

Pejovic, Dr. Stanislav [University of Toronto; Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; Karney, Professor Byran W. [University of Toronto; Gajic, Prof. Aleksandar [University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Brazil-nut effect versus reverse Brazil-nut effect in a moderately dense granular fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new segregation criterion based on the inelastic Enskog kinetic equation is derived to show the transition between the Brazil-nut effect (BNE) and the reverse Brazil-nut effect (RBNE) by varying the different parameters of the system. In contrast to previous theoretical attempts the approach is not limited to the near-elastic case, takes into account the influence of both thermal gradients and gravity and applies for moderate densities. The form of the phase-diagrams for the BNE/RBNE transition depends sensitively on the value of gravity relative to the thermal gradient, so that it is possible to switch between both states for given values of the mass and size ratios, the coefficients of restitution and the solid volume fraction. In particular, the influence of collisional dissipation on segregation becomes more important when the thermal gradient dominates over gravity than in the opposite limit. The present analysis extends previous results derived in the dilute limit case and is consistent with the findings of some recent experimental results.

Vicente Garzo

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

374

Reverse-order source/drain formation with double offset spacer (RODOS) for CMOS low-power, high-speed and low-noise amplifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RODOS (Reverse-Order source/drain formation with Double Offset Spacer) was proposed for low-power, high-speed and low-noise amplifiers. Relying on simulation data, we confirmed the high feasibility of the RODOS process. It showed improved performance ... Keywords: RODOS, amplifier, high-speed, low-noise, low-power, offset spacer, reverse-order

Woo Young Choi; Jong Duk Lee; Byung-Gook Park

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

A new chance-constrained data envelopment analysis for selecting third-party reverse logistics providers in the existence of dual-role factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Outsourcing in logistics is a very significant theme and third-party reverse logistics (3PL) provider evaluation and selection has to be realized in a careful manner in order to provide the expected benefits. In this paper a new chance-constrained data ... Keywords: Third-party reverse logistics (3PL) providers

Majid Azadi; Reza Farzipoor Saen

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Removal of cadmium and chromium from a pretreated wastewater with reverse osmosis. Master's thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research project was to investigate the removals of cadmium(II) and chromium(VI) from a simulated wastewater by reverse osmosis (RO). The project was one very focused aspect of a major U.S. Navy multi-year research project aimed at achieving zero-discharge from its Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants. The effects of varied operating conditions on the performance of a thin-film composite brackish water RO membrane were investigated: feed solutions of 1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/l NaCl; 2000 mg/l NaCl at pH 5, 6 and 7; and background feed composition solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4 at four different mix ratios. The effects of temperature in the range of 20 to 36 C, and operating pressures of 400, 300 and 200 psi were also investigated. In nearly all cases metal concentrations were 10 mg/l; a 100 mg/l test was also performed. Typical RO behaviors were observed with water and solute permeation. Both water permeation and solute passage decreased with time due to membrane compaction. On the other hand, water permeation increased with applied pressure. The best rejections for the metals were obtained in feed solutions of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. A maximum rejection of 99.9 percent was observed for cadmium(II) at a feed solution mole fraction of approximately 0.95 sodium sulfate and a pH of 6. The highest chromium(VI) rejection observed was 99.1 percent at a 0.5 mole fraction of sodium sulfate and pH of 6.

Zapp, K.M.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Test of Parity-Conserving Time-Reversal Invariance Using Polarized Neutrons and Nuclear Spin Aligned Holmium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A test of parity-conserving, time-reversal non-invariance (PC TRNI) has been performed in 5.9 MeV polarized neutron transmission through nuclear spin aligned holmium. The experiment searches for the T-violating five-fold correlation via a double modulation technique - flipping the neutron spin while rotating the alignment axis of the holmium. Relative cross sections for spin-up and spin-down neutrons are found to be equal to within $1.2 \\times 10^{-5}$ (80\\% confidence). This is a two order of magnitude improvement compared to traditional detailed balance studies of time reversal, and represents the most precise test of PC TRNI in a dynamical process.

P. R. Huffman; N. R. Roberson; W. S. Wilburn; C. R. Gould; D. G. Haase; C. D. Keith; B. W. Raichle; M. L. Seely; J. R. Walston

1996-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

378

DECLINING MOUNTAIN SNOWPACK IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In western North America, snow provides crucial storage of winter precipitation, effectively transferring water from the relatively wet winter season to the typically dry summers. Manual and telemetered measurements of spring snow-pack, ...

Philip W. Mote; Alan F. Hamlet; Martyn P. Clark; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Sales of specialty incandescent bulbs decline despite ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Search EIA.gov. A-Z Index; ... like three-way bulbs and appliance bulbs, are exempted from congressionally-legislated energy efficiency standards.

380

Sales of specialty incandescent bulbs decline despite ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Biofuels: Ethanol & Biodiesel ... This effect points to broader lighting market transformation beyond the target of the original legislation, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Soil fertility decline: Definitions and assessments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In permanent agricultural systems, soil fertility is maintained through applications of manure, other organic materials, inorganic fertilizers, lime, the inclusion of legumes in the cropping systems, or a combination of

Alfred E. Hartemink

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

NETL: News Release - Slowing America's Oil Decline  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office in Tulsa, OK, selected the first six projects in its PUMP program - a new oil technology transfer initiative that stands for Preferred Upstream Management...

383

The Decline and Death of Nuclear Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

since the Cold War, nuclear power plants are being plannedthe fuel used in nuclear power plants is almost completelya mere 43% believe that more nuclear power plants should be

Melville, Jonathan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

The Decline and Death of Nuclear Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regulatory Commission (2012). NRC: Nuclear Security andRegulatory Commission (2013). NRC: New Reactors. nrc.gov.Regulatory Commission [US NRC], 2012). The NRC mandates

Melville, Jonathan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Analysis of Production Decline in Geothermal Reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Data and analysis methods were gathered from the petroleum, geothermal, and hydrological literature. The data sets examined include: Wairakei, New Zealand -141 wells; Cerro Prieto, Mexico - 18 wells; The Geysers, USA - 27 wells; Larderello, Italy - 9 wells and groups; Matsukawa and Otake, Japan - 8 wells; and Olkaria, Kenya - 1 well. The analysis methods tested were; Arps's equations, Fetkovich type curves, Slider's method for Arps, Gentry's method for Arps, Gentry's and McCray's method, other type curves, P/z vs. Q method, Coats' influence function method, and Bodvarsson's Linearized Free Surface Green's Function method. The conclusions are: (1) The exponential equation fit is satisfactory for geothermal data. (2) The hyperbolic equation should be used only if the data fit well on a hyperbolic type curve. (3) The type curve methods are useful if the data are not too scattered. They work well for vapor dominated systems and poorly for liquid dominated systems. (4) Coats' influence function method can be used even with very scattered data. (5) Bodvarsson's method is still experimental but it shows much promise as a useful tool.

Byrns, R.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Decline and Death of Nuclear Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measures founder and a nuclear reactor does fail, theafter that, the first nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1, wentword “nuclear” can be. Nuclear reactors in power plants are

Melville, Jonathan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Sample: Work for Others Agreement, Waiver Declined  

government nor any agency thereof, nor uchicago argonne, llc, nor any of their employees or officers, makes any representation or any warranty, ...

388

The Decline and Death of Nuclear Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

9. The Economist (2012). Nuclear power: The 30-year itch.Germany and France, the anti-nuclear movement has taken suchtime since the Cold War, nuclear power plants are being

Melville, Jonathan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Sales of specialty incandescent bulbs decline despite ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs. Several manufacturers offer CFL three-way bulbs to replace incandescent three-way bulbs. LEDs, ...

390

The Decline and Death of Nuclear Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Y. , & Kitazawa, K. (2012). Fukushima in review: A complexin new nuclear power stations after Fukushima. The Guardian.nuclear-power- stations-fukushima Hvistendahl, M. (2007,

Melville, Jonathan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

RATE DECLINE ANALYSIS FOR NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

differential equation gives: 1 6 porn = -&(to) (7; - 1) +P Df (A38) Differentiating Eqn. A.88, evaluating at V the matrix radius: #12;APPENDIX A. DERNATION OF SOLUTION 58 Then: & ( f ~ ) l o v g = 9( P D ~-porn). Eqns. A

Stanford University

392

The Decline and Death of Nuclear Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

politics -- today. While fossil fuels pump our atmosphereis the most-used non-fossil fuel energy source in the US,energy without resorting to fossil fuel sources. While these

Melville, Jonathan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

The Decline and Death of Nuclear Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

world-nuclear.org/info/Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle/Nuclear- Wastes/fuel sources; the fuel used in nuclear power plants isphase out both nuclear energy and fossil fuels at the same

Melville, Jonathan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION DECLINE IN GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petroleum Reservoirs. Geothermal Reservoirs IV. DATA1970, Superheating of Geothermal Steam, Proc. of the U.N.the Development & Utilization of Geothermal Resources, Pisa.

Zais, E.J.; Bodvarsson, G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Oil Price Decline Started a Year Ago  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

are generally the product of several influences. Because gasoline is refined from crude oil, of course, the price of crude is the single biggest determinant of gasoline prices....

396

ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION DECLINE IN GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimation of Primary Oil Reserves, Trans. AlME, 207 Arps,and codified work on oil reserve estimation that had beenExtrapolation and Reserve Calculation, The Oil Weekly, Sept.

Zais, E.J.; Bodvarsson, G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

The Decline and Death of Nuclear Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

their] clean energy strategy” (BC Hydro, 2010). In Japan,with clean energy and jobs. BC Hydro - For Generations.

Melville, Jonathan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 146 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Electroluminescence and Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of Reverse-Biased AlGaN/GaN Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reverse-bias stress testing has been applied to a large set of more than 50 AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, which were fabricated using the same process but with different values of the AlN mole fraction and the AlGaN barrier-layer thickness, as well as different substrates (SiC and sapphire). Two sets of devices having different defect types and densities, related to the different growth conditions and the choice of nucleation layer, were also compared. When subjected to gate drain (or gate-to-drain and source short-circuited) reverse-bias testing, all devices presented the same time-dependent failure mode, consisting of a significant increase in the gate leakage current. This failure mechanism occurred abruptly during step-stress experiments when a certain negative gate voltage, or critical voltage, was exceeded or, during constant voltage tests, at a certain time, defined as time to breakdown. Electroluminescence (EL) microscopy was systematically used to identify localized damaged areas that induced an increase of gate reverse current. This current increase was correlated with the increase of EL intensity, and significant EL emission during tests occurred only when the critical voltage was exceeded. Focused-ion-beam milling produced cross-sectional samples suitable for electron microscopy observation at the sites of failure points previously identified by EL microscopy. In highdefectivity devices, V-defects were identified that were associated with initially high gate leakage current and corresponding to EL spots already present in untreated devices. Conversely, identification of defects induced by reverse-bias testing proved to be extremely difficult, and only nanometer-size cracks or defect chains, extending vertically from the gate edges through the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction, were found. No signs of metal/semiconductor interdiffusion or extended defective areas were visible.

Cullen, David A [ORNL; Smith, David J [Arizona State University; Passaseo, Adriana [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; Tasco, Vittorianna [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; Stocco, Antonio [Universita di Padova; Meneghini, Matteo [Universita di Padova; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio [Universita di Padova; Zanoni, Enrico [Universita di Padova

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Detection of BCR-ABL Fusion mRNA Using Reverse Transcriptase Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RT-PCR is commonly used for the detection of Bcr-Abl fusion transcripts in patients diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukemia, CML. Two fusion transcripts predominate in CML, Br-Abl e13a2 and e14a2. They have developed reverse transcriptase isothermal loop-mediated amplification (RT-LAMP) assays to detect these two fusion transcripts along with the normal Bcr transcript.

Dugan, L C; Hall, S; Kohlgruber, A; Urbin, S; Torres, C; Wilson, P

2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

402

MEAN REVERSION AND MOMENTUM: ANOTHER LOOK AT THE PRICE-VOLUME CORRELATION IN THE REAL ESTATE MARKET  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on behavioral finance and economics literature, we construct a theoretical framework in which consumers of newly constructed housing units perceive prices to follow a stochastic mean reversion pattern. Given this belief and the high carrying cost maintained by real estate developers, potential buyers opt to either exercise immediately or defer the purchase. We simulate the model within a real option framework by which we show that the optimal time to wait before exercising a purchase is positively related to the price level; hence, a negative (positive) correlation between transaction volume and price level (yield) emerges. Observing data on housing prices and new construction sales in Israel for the years 1998-2007, we apply an adaptive expectation regression model to test consumers ' belief in both mean reversion and momentum price patterns. The empirical evidence shows that while consumers ’ demand pattern is simultaneously consistent with the belief in both momentum and mean reversion processes, the effect of the latter generally dominates. Moreover, while the data does not allow for testing the volume and price-level correlation, it does provide support to the positive volume-price yield correlation.

Yuval Arbel; Danny Ben-shahar; Eyal Sulganik

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Refueling and density control in the ZT-40M reversed field pinch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of pellet injection and gas puff refueling have been studied in the ZT-40M Reversed Field Pinch. Multiple deuterium pellets (less than or equal to 6 x 10/sup 19/D atoms/pellet) with velocities ranging from 300 to 700 m/sec have been injected into plasmas with n-bar/sub e/ approx.1 to 5 X 10/sup 19/m/sup -3/, I/sub phi/ approx.100 to 250 kA, T/sub e/(0) approx.150 to 300 eV and discharge durations of less than or equal to 20 msec. Photographs and an array D/sub ..cap alpha../ detectors show substantial deflection of the pellet trajectory in both the poloidal and toroidal planes, due to asymmetric ablation of the pellet by electrons streaming along field lines. To compensate for the poloidal deflection, the injector was moved up +14 cm off-axis, allowing the pellets to curve down to the midplane. In this fashion, central peaking of the pellet density deposition profile can be obtained. Both electron and ion temperatures fall in response to the density rise, such that ..beta../sub theta/(..beta../sub theta/ identical to n-bar/sub e/(T/sub e/(0) + T/sub i/)/(B/sub theta/(a))/sup 2/) remains roughly constant. Energy confinement is momentarily degraded, and typically a decrease in F (F identical to B/sub phi/(a)/(B/sub phi/)) is seen as magnetic energy is converted to plasma energy when the pellet ablates. As a result of pellet injection at I/sub phi/ = 150 kA we observe T/sub e/(0) ..cap alpha.. n-bar/sub e//sup -.9 +- .1/, while the helicity based resistivity eta/sub k/ transiently varies as n-bar/sub e//sup .7 +- .1/. While the achievement of center-peaked density profiles is possible with pellet injection, gas puffing at rates strong enough to show a 50% increase in n-bar/sub e/ over a period of 10 msec (approx.150 torr-litres/sec) leads to hollow density profiles. The refueling requirements for parameters expected in the next generation RFPs (ZTH, RFX) can be extrapolated from these data using modified tokamak pellet ablation codes.

Wurden, G.A.; Weber, P.G.; Watt, R.G.; Munson, C.P.; Cayton, T.E.; Buechl, K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Reversible Bending Fatigue Test System for Investigating Vibration Integrity of Spent Nuclear Fuel during Transportation  

SciTech Connect

Transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must meet safety requirements under normal and accident conditions as specified by federal regulations. During transportation, SNF experiences unique conditions and challenges to cladding integrity due to the vibrational and impact loading during road or rail shipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing testing capabilities that can be used to improve the understanding of the impacts on SNF integrity due to vibration loading, especially for high burn-up SNF in normal transportation operation conditions. This information can be used to meet the nuclear industry and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission needs in the area of safety and security of spent nuclear fuel storage and transport operations. The ORNL developed test system can perform reversible-bending fatigue testing to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The testing apparatus is also designed to meet the challenges of hot-cell operation, including remote installation and detachment of the SNF test specimen, in-situ test specimen deformation measurement, and implementation of a driving system suitable for use in a hot cell. The system contains a U-frame set-up equipped with uniquely designed grip rigs, to protect SNF rod and to ensure valid test results, and use of 3 specially designed LVDTs to obtain the in-situ curvature measurement. A variety of surrogate test rods have been used to develop and calibrate the test system as well as in performing a series of systematic cyclic fatigue tests. The surrogate rods include stainless steel (SS) cladding, SS cladding with cast epoxy, and SS cladding with alumina pellets inserts simulating fuel pellets. Testing to date has shown that the interface bonding between the SS cladding and the alumina pellets has a significant impact on the bending response of the test rods as well as their fatigue strength. The failure behaviors observed from tested surrogate rods provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying failure mechanisms of the SNF surrogate rod under vibration which has not been achieved previously. The newly developed device is scheduled to be installed in the hot-cell in summer 2013 to test high burnup SNF.

Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Flanagan, Michelle [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

An Advanced Reverse Osmosis Technology For Application in Nuclear Desalination Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The lack of adequate supplies of clean, safe water is a growing global problem that has reached crisis proportions in many parts of the world. It is estimated that 1.5 billion people do not have access to adequate supplies of safe water, and that as a result nearly 10,000 people die every day and thousands more suffer from a range of debilitating illnesses due to water related diseases. Included in this total is an estimated 2.2 million child deaths annually. As the world's need for additional sources of fresh water continues to grow, seawater and brackish water desalination are providing an increasingly important contribution to the solution of this problem. Because desalination is an energy intensive process, nuclear desalination provides an economically attractive and environmentally sound alternative to the burning of fossil fuels for desalination. Nevertheless, the enormity of the problem dictates that additional steps must be taken to improve the efficiency of energy utilization and reduce the cost of water production in order to reduce the financial and environmental burden to communities in need. An advanced reverse osmosis (RO) desalination technology has been developed that emphasizes a nontraditional approach to system design and operation, and makes use of a sophisticated design optimization process that can lead to highly optimized design configurations and operating regimes. The technology can be coupled with a nuclear generating station (NGS) to provide an integrated facility for the co-generation of both water and electricity. Waste heat from the NGS allows the use of 'preheated' feedwater into the RO system, improving the efficiency of the RO process and reducing the cost of water production. Because waste heat, rather than process heat, is used the desalination system can be readily coupled to any existing or advanced reactor technology with little or no impact on reactor design and operation and without introducing additional reactor safety considerations. Analyses of nuclear desalination systems employing this advanced RO technology under a variety of seawater feed conditions have consistently shown that the cost of potable water production can be reduced by as much as 15-20% relative to systems designed in a more traditional manner. Demonstration testing has been carried out using a trailer mounted system producing up to 150 m{sup 3}/d of potable water. Experimental results from the demonstration testing are behaving as expected based on the analytical performance models, validating the advanced design concept and confirming that the performance improvements indicated by the analyses can be achieved in operating systems. Further demonstration testing is planned using a 1000 m{sup 3}/d containerized system, currently under design, coupled to an existing nuclear power reactor. (authors)

Humphries, J.R.; Davies, K.; Ackert, J.A. [CANDESAL Technologies Limited, Ottawa (Canada)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 5 New Developments in Silver Ion and Reverse Phase HPLC of CLA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 5 New Developments in Silver Ion and Reverse Phase HPLC of CLA Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press   ...

407

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 7 Reversed-Phase HPLC Analysis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Its Metabolites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 7 Reversed-Phase HPLC Analysis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Its Metabolites Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press ...

408

Reduction of Solvent Effect in Reverse Phase Gradient Elution LC-ICP-MS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Quantification in liquid chromatography (LC) is becoming very important as more researchers are using LC, not as an analytical tool itself, but as a sample introduction system for other analytical instruments. The ability of LC instrumentation to quickly separate a wide variety of compounds makes it ideal for analysis of complex mixtures. For elemental speciation, LC is joined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to separate and detect metal-containing, organic compounds in complex mixtures, such as biological samples. Often, the solvent gradients required to perform complex separations will cause matrix effects within the plasma. This limits the sensitivity of the ICP-MS and the quantification methods available for use in such analyses. Traditionally, isotope dilution has been the method of choice for LC-ICP-MS quantification. The use of naturally abundant isotopes of a single element in quantification corrects for most of the effects that LC solvent gradients produce within the plasma. However, not all elements of interest in speciation studies have multiple naturally occurring isotopes; and polyatomic interferences for a given isotope can develop within the plasma, depending on the solvent matrix. This is the case for reverse phase LC separations, where increasing amounts of organic solvent are required. For such separations, an alternative to isotope dilution for quantification would be is needed. To this end, a new method was developed using the Apex-Q desolvation system (ESI, Omaha, NE) to couple LC instrumentation with an ICP-MS device. The desolvation power of the system allowed greater concentrations of methanol to be introduced to the plasma prior to destabilization than with direct methanol injection into the plasma. Studies were performed, using simulated and actual linear methanol gradients, to find analyte-internal standard (AIS) pairs whose ratio remains consistent (deviations {+-} 10%) over methanol concentration ranges of 5%-35% (simulated) and 8%-32% (actual). Quadrupole (low resolution) and sector field (high resolution) ICP-MS instrumentation were utilized in these studies. Once an AIS pair is determined, quantification studies can be performed. First, an analysis is performed by adding both elements of the AIS pair post-column while performing the gradient elution without sample injection. A comparison of the ratio of the measured intensities to the atomic ratio of the two standards is used to determine a correction factor that can be used to account for the matrix effects caused by the mobile phase. Then, organic and/or biological molecules containing one of the two elements in the AIS pair are injected into the LC column. A gradient method is used to vary the methanol-water mixture in the mobile phase and to separate out the compounds in a given sample. A standard solution of the second ion in the AIS pair is added continuously post-column. By comparing the ratio of the measured intensities to the atomic ratio of the eluting compound and internal standard, the concentration of the injected compound can be determined.

Patrick Allen Sullivan

2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

409

Comparison of zero-dimensional and one-dimensional thermonuclear burn computations for the reversed-field pinch reactor (RFPR)  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual fusion reactor designs of the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) have been based on profile-averaged zero-dimensional (point) plasma models. The plasma response/performance that has been predicted by the point plasma model is re-examined by a comprehensive one-dimensional (radial) burn code that has been developed and parametrically evaluated for the RFPR. Agreement is good between the zero-dimensional and one-dimensional models, giving more confidence in the RFPR design point reported previously from the zero-dimensional analysis.

Nebel, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Moses, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

UCAC3 PROPER MOTION SURVEY. I. DISCOVERY OF NEW PROPER MOTION STARS IN UCAC3 WITH 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} BETWEEN DECLINATIONS -90{sup 0} AND -47{sup 0}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents 442 new proper motion stellar systems in the southern sky between declinations -90{sup 0} and -47{sup 0} with 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1}. These systems constitute a 25.3% increase in new systems for the same region of the sky covered by previous SuperCOSMOS RECONS (SCR) searches that used Schmidt plates as the primary source of discovery. Among the new systems are 25 multiples, plus an additional 7 new common proper motion (CPM) companions to previously known primaries. All stars have been discovered using the third U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC3). A comparison of the UCAC3 proper motions to those from the Hipparcos, Tycho-2, Southern Proper Motion (SPM4), and SuperCOSMOS efforts is presented and shows that UCAC3 provides similar values and precision to the first three surveys. The comparison between UCAC3 and SuperCOSMOS indicates that proper motions in R.A. are systematically shifted in the SuperCOSMOS data but are consistent in decl. data, while overall showing a significantly higher scatter. Distance estimates are derived for stars having SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey B{sub J} , R{sub 59F}, and I{sub IVN} plate magnitudes and Two-Micron All Sky Survey infrared photometry. We find 15 systems estimated to be within 25 pc, including UPM 1710-5300 our closest new discovery estimated at 13.5 pc. Such new discoveries suggest that more nearby stars are yet to be found in these slower proper motion regimes, indicating that more work is needed to develop a complete map of the solar neighborhood.

Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert [U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Henry, Todd J., E-mail: finch@usno.navy.mi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Equatorial Guinea - Analysis - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration ... Equatorial Guinea's declining output is expected to reverse in 2012, ... CIA World Fact Book ...

412

Yemen - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Yemen seeks to attract more foreign investment to boost exploration efforts and reverse its declining crude oil production.

413

Study of the validity of a combined potential model using the hybrid reverse Monte Carlo method in fluoride glass system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The choice of appropriate interaction models is among the major disadvantages of conventional methods such as molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. On the other hand, the so-called reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method, based on experimental data, can be applied without any interatomic and/or intermolecular interactions. The RMC results are accompanied by artificial satellite peaks. To remedy this problem, we use an extension of the RMC algorithm, which introduces an energy penalty term into the acceptance criteria. This method is referred to as the hybrid reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC) method. The idea of this paper is to test the validity of a combined potential model of coulomb and Lennard-Jones in a fluoride glass system BaMnMF_{7} (M=Fe,V) using HRMC method. The results show a good agreement between experimental and calculated characteristics, as well as a meaningful improvement in partial pair distribution functions. We suggest that this model should be used in calculating the structural properties and in describing the average correlations between components of fluoride glass or a similar system. We also suggest that HRMC could be useful as a tool for testing the interaction potential models, as well as for conventional applications.

S. M. Mesli; M. Habchi; M. Kotbi; H. Xu

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

414

Analytical examples of reversal current, zero core current, and surface current, toroidal magnetostatic equilibria with nested flux surfaces  

SciTech Connect

We present exact analytical examples of three types of axisymmetric toroidal magnetostatic equilibria with nested flux surfaces: (1) current reversal equilibria, for which the net toroidal current switches from a negative to a positive value when moving away from the magnetic axis; these equilibria have a non-monotonic pressure profile, in accordance with Hammett et al.'s theorem stating that the pressure on the current reversal surface has to exceed the volume-averaged pressure within that surface; (2) zero core current equilibria, in which the toroidal current density vanishes inside some flux surface; and (3) surface current equilibria, constituted of an arbitrary number of nested layers inside which the plasma pressure is constant and the magnetic field force-free, with two adjacent layers being separated by a current sheet. All these configurations are obtained by shaping in an adequate way the arbitrary function which intervenes in the class of generalized isodynamic equilibria first constructed by Palumbo and recovered later on by Bishop and Taylor. A derivation of these equilibria by a method slightly different from Palumbo's is given in an Appendix.

Aly, J.-J. [AIM, Unite Mixte de Recherche CEA - UP7 - CNRS, UMR no. 7158, Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

The Effect of Alternate Defrost Strategies on the Reverse-Cycle Defrost of an Air-Source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of alternate defrost strategies on the transient performance of the air-source heat pump during the reverse-cycle defrost was investigated. Tests of a base-case heat pump configuration and defrost strategy were completed to provide a basis for performance evaluations of the alternate defrost strategies. The compressor and indoor coil fan operated continuously in the base-case defrost strategy, and the outdoor coil fan was stopped. Alternate defrost strategies utilized variations in fan and compressor operation during and after the defrost. Pre-starting of the outdoor coil fan prior to termination of the reverse-cycle defrost reduced pressure spikes commonly seen at defrost termination in the base-case defrost strategy. A strategy in which the compressor was stopped and the outdoor coil was allowed to drain of melted frost during the last three minutes of the defrost improved overall cyclic performance. Strategies which involved stopping of the indoor fan during defrost or delaying the start of the outdoor fan following defrost termination had a negative impact on defrost performance. A final strategy involved down-sizing of the heat pump compressor from 3.0 tons (36,000 btu/hr) capacity to 2.5 tons capacity. This alternate configuration had a comparable overall performance with the base-case while having a reduced frequency of required defrost periods.

Schliesing, J. S.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Atomic-resolution study of polarity reversal in GaSb grown on Si by scanning transmission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The atomic-resolved reversal of the polarity across an antiphase boundary (APB) was observed in GaSb films grown on Si by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The investigation of the interface structure at the origin of the APB reveals that coalescence of two domains with Ga-prelayer and Sb-prelayer causes the sublattice reversal. The local strain and lattice rotation distributions of the APB, attributed to the discordant bonding length at the APB with the surrounding GaSb lattice, were further studied using the geometric phase analysis technique. The crystallographic characteristics of the APBs and their interaction with other planar defects were observed with HAADF-STEM. The quantitative agreement between experimental and simulated images confirms the observed polarities in the acquired HAADF-STEM data. The self-annihilation mechanism of the APBs is addressed based on the rotation induced by anti-site bonds and APBs' faceting.

Hosseini Vajargah, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Botton, G. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Brockhouse Institute for Material Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Ghanad-Tavakoli, S. [Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kleiman, R. N.; Preston, J. S. [Brockhouse Institute for Material Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

Cycle Evaluations of Reversible Chemical Reactions for Solar Thermochemical Energy Storage in Support of Concentrating Solar Power Generation Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production and storage of thermochemical energy is a possible route to increase capacity factors and reduce the Levelized Cost of Electricity from concentrated solar power generation systems. In this paper, we present the results of cycle evaluations for various thermochemical cycles, including a well-documented ammonia closed-cycle along with open- and closed-cycle versions of hydrocarbon chemical reactions. Among the available reversible hydrocarbon chemical reactions, catalytic reforming-methanation cycles are considered; specifically, various methane-steam reforming cycles are compared to the ammonia cycle. In some cases, the production of an intermediate chemical, methanol, is also included with some benefit being realized. The best case, based on overall power generation efficiency and overall plant capacity factor, was found to be an open cycle including methane-steam reforming, using concentrated solar energy to increase the chemical energy content of the reacting stream, followed by combustion to generate heat for the heat engine.

Krishnan, Shankar; Palo, Daniel R.; Wegeng, Robert S.

2010-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

419

X-ray Diffraction Studies of Forward and Reverse Plastic Flow in Nanoscale Layers during Thermal Cycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The biaxial stress-strain response of layers within Cu/Ni nanolaminates is determined from in-plane x-ray diffraction spectra during heating/cooling. Thinner (11 nm) Cu and Ni layers with coherent, cube-on-cube interfaces reach ~1.8 GPa (Cu) and ~2.9 GPa (Ni) without yielding. Thicker (21 nm) layers with semi-coherent interfaces exhibit unusual plastic phenomena, including extraordinary plastic work hardening rates, and forward vs. reverse plastic flow with small (~10%) changes in stress, and evidence that threshold plastic stress in Ni layers is altered by preceding plastic flow in Cu layers. Line energy, pinning strength, net interfacial dislocation density and hardness are provided.

Gram, Michael D [Ohio State University, Columbus; Carpenter, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Anderson, Peter M [Ohio State University, Columbus

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Reversible wettability of electron-beam deposited indium-tin-oxide driven by ns-UV irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the most widely used semiconductor oxides in the field of organic optoelectronics, especially for the realization of anode contacts. Here the authors report on the control of the wettability properties of ITO films deposited by reactive electron beam deposition and irradiated by means of nanosecond-pulsed UV irradiation. The enhancement of the surface water wettability, with a reduction of the water contact angle larger than 50 deg., is achieved by few tens of seconds of irradiation. The analyzed photo-induced wettability change is fully reversible in agreement with a surface-defect model, and it can be exploited to realize optically transparent, conductive surfaces with controllable wetting properties for sensors and microfluidic circuits.

Persano, Luana [NNL, National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Universita del Salento, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies UNILE, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Barsanti, I-73010 Arnesano-LE (Italy); Del Carro, Pompilio [NNL, National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Universita del Salento, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Pisignano, Dario [NNL, National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Universita del Salento, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies UNILE, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Barsanti, I-73010 Arnesano-LE (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica ''Ennio De Giorgi'', Universita del Salento, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

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421

THYROID HORMONE REVERSES AGING-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL FATTY ACID OXIDATION DEFECTS AND IMPROVES THE RESPONSE TO ACUTELY INCREASED AFTERLOAD  

SciTech Connect

Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism occurs during aging in humans and mice and may contribute to development of heart failure. Aging also impairs myocardial fatty acid oxidation, causing increased reliance on flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) to maintain function. We hypothesize that the metabolic changes in aged hearts make them less tolerant to acutely increased work and that thyroid hormone reverses these defects. Methods: Studies were performed on young (Young, 4-6 months) and aged (Old, 22-24 months) C57/BL6 mice at standard (50 mmHg) and high afterload (80 mmHg). Another aged group received thyroid hormone for 3 weeks (Old-TH, high afterload only). Function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle (CAC) using perfusate with 13C labeled lactate, pyruvate, glucose and unlabeled palmitate and insulin. Results: Cardiac function was similar between Young and Old mice at standard afterload. Palmitate Fc was reduced but no individual carbohydrate contributions differed. CAC and individual substrate fluxes decreased in aged. At high afterload, -dP/dT was decreased in Old versus Young. Similar to low afterload, palmitate Fc was decreased in Old. Thyroid hormone reversed aging-induced changes in palmitate Fc and flux while significantly improving cardiac function. Conclusion: The aged heart shows diminished ability to increase cardiac work due to substrate limitations, primarily impaired fatty acid oxidation. The heart accommodates slightly by increasing efficiency through oxidation of carbohydrate substrates. Thyroid hormone supplementation in aged mice significantly improves cardiac function potentially through restoration of fatty acid oxidation.

Ledee, Dolena; Portman, Michael A.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

422

Mechanism of Thermal Reversal of the (Fulvalene)tetracarbonyldiruthenium Photoisomerization: Toward Molecular Solar-Thermal Energy Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the currently intensifying quest to harness solar energy for the powering of our planet, most efforts are centered around photoinduced generic charge separation, such as in photovoltaics, water splitting, other small molecule activation, and biologically inspired photosynthetic systems. In contrast, direct collection of heat from sunlight has received much less diversified attention, its bulk devoted to the development of concentrating solar thermal power plants, in which mirrors are used to focus the sun beam on an appropriate heat transfer material. An attractive alternative strategy would be to trap solar energy in the form of chemical bonds, ideally through the photoconversion of a suitable molecule to a higher energy isomer, which, in turn, would release the stored energy by thermal reversal. Such a system would encompass the essential elements of a rechargeable heat battery, with its inherent advantages of storage, transportability, and use on demand. The underlying concept has been explored extensively with organic molecules (such as the norbornadiene-quadricyclane cycle), often in the context of developing photoswitches. On the other hand, organometallic complexes have remained relatively obscure in this capacity, despite a number of advantages, including expanded structural tunability and generally favorable electronic absorption regimes. A highly promising organometallic system is the previously reported, robust photo-thermal fulvalene (Fv) diruthenium couple 1 {l_reversible} 2 (Scheme 1). However, although reversible and moderately efficient, lack of a full, detailed atom-scale understanding of its key conversion and storage mechanisms have limited our ability to improve on its performance or identify optimal variants, such as substituents on the Fv, ligands other than CO, and alternative metals. Here we present a theoretical investigation, in conjunction with corroborating experiments, of the mechanism for the heat releasing step of 2 {yields} 1 and its Fe (4) and Os (6) relatives. The results of the combined study has enabled a rigorous interpretation of earlier and new experimental measurements and paint a surprising picture. First-principles calculations were employed based on spin unrestricted density functional theory (DFT) with a non-empirical gradient corrected exchange-correlation functional. Ultrasoft pseudopotentials were used to describe the valence-core interactions of electrons, including scalar relativistic effects of the core. Wavefunctions and charge densities were expanded in plane waves with kinetic energies up to 25 and 200 Rydberg, respectively. Reaction pathways were delineated with the string method, as implemented within the Car-Parrinello approach. This method allows for the efficient determination of the minimum energy path (MEP) of atomistic transitions and thus also saddle points (transition states, TSs), which are the energy maxima along the MEP. All geometries were optimized until all forces on the atoms were less than 0.02 eV/{angstrom}. The calculated structures of 1 and 2 were in good agreement with their experimental counterparts.

Kanai, Y; Srinivasan, V; Meier, S K; Vollhardt, K P; Grossman, J C

2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

423

Characterization of nanostructured zirconia prepared by hydrolysis and reverse micelle synthesis by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Low temperature techniques such as hydrolysis and reverse micelle syntheses provide the opportunity to determine the relationship between the structural properties and preparation conditions of zirconia powders as well as to tailor their physicochemical properties. The authors have performed small-angle neutron and synchrotron X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) experiments to study the nucleation and organization of zirconia nanoparticles via different preparation routes. First, the formation of reverse micelles in individual and mixed solutions of (ZrOCl{sub 2}+D{sub 2}O)/AOT/C{sub 6}D{sub 5}CD{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}OH+H{sub 2}O)/AOT/C{sub 6}D{sub 5}CD{sub 3} systems at water/AOT molar ratio of 20 was characterized. Second, the aggregation of zirconia gels obtained from the reaction of the reverse micelle solutions after heat treatments was studied. Third, the nanostructure of zirconia powders prepared by the reverse micelle method is compared with the corresponding powders prepared by hydrolysis after different heat treatments.

Thiyagarajan, P.; Li, X.; Littrell, K.; Seifert, S.; Csencsits, R.; Loong, C.

1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

A two-stage stochastic and robust programming approach to strategic planning of a reverse supply network: The case of paper recycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paper is an example of a valuable material that can be recycled and recovered. In this study, a two-stage stochastic revenue-maximization model is presented to determine a long-term strategy under uncertainty for a large-scale real-world paper recycling ... Keywords: Paper recycling, Reverse supply network design, Robust programming, Stochastic programming, Uncertainty

Selin Soner Kara; Semih Onut

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Electrochemical Grafting of Naphthylmethyl Radicals to Epitaxial Graphene: A Versatile Platform to Reversibly Engineer the Band Structure and Transport Properties of Graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Kolbe electrochemical oxidation strategy has been utilized to achieve an efficient quasireversible electrochemical grafting of the alpha-naphthylmethyl functional group to graphene. The method facilitates reversible bandgap engineering in graphene and preparation of electrochemically erasable organic dielectric films. The picture shows Raman D-band maps of both systems.

Sarkar, Santanu; Haddon, Robert C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

ARCHY (Analysis and Reverse Engineering of Code Using Hierarchy and Yourdon): A tool for Fortran code maintenance and development  

SciTech Connect

Analysis and Reverse Engineering of Code Using Hierarchy and Yourdon (ARCHY) diagrams is a tool for development and maintenance of FORTRAN programs. When FORTRAN source code is read by ARCHY, it automatically creates a database that includes a data dictionary, which lists each variable, its dimensions, type, category (set, referenced, passed), module calling structure, and common block information. The database exists in an ASCII file that can be directly edited or maintained with the ARCHY database editor. The database is used by ARCHY to product structure charts and Yourdon data flow diagrams in PostScript format. ARCHY also transfers database information such as a variable definitions, module descriptions, and technical references to and from module headers. ARCHY contains several utilities for making programs more readable. It can automatically indent the body of loops and conditionals and resequence statement labels. Various language extensions are translated into FORTRAN-77 to increase code portability. ARCHY frames comment statements and groups FORMAT statements at the end of modules. It can alphabetize modules within a program, end-of-line labels can be added, and it can also change executable statements to upper or lower case. ARCHY runs under the VAX-VMS operating system and inputs from VAX-FORTRAN, IBM-FORTRAN, and CRAY FORTRAN sources files.

Aull, J.E.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Drift kinetic effects on the resistive wall mode stability-Comparison between reversed field pinches and tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The physics of kinetic effects on the resistive wall mode (RWM) stability is studied, and a comparison between reversed field pinch (RFP) and Tokamak configurations is made. The toroidal, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-kinetic hybrid stability code MARS-K, in which the drift kinetic effects are self-consistently incorporated into the MHD formulation, is upgraded with an extensive energy analysis module. In the tokamak configuration, the kinetic effect can stabilize the mode with very slow, or vanishing plasma rotation, due to the mode resonance with the toroidal precession drift of thermal trapped particles. In RFP, instead, stabilization of the RWM comes mainly from the ion acoustic Landau damping (i.e., the transit resonance of passing particles). In the high beta region, the critical flow rotation frequency required for the mode stabilization is predicted to be in the ion acoustic range. Detailed physical analyses, based on the perturbed potential energy components, have been performed to gain understanding of the stabilizing mechanism in the two different systems.

Wang, Z. R.; Guo, S. C. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom ENEA sulla fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Liu, Y. Q. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

A method of electric field flow fractionation wherein the polarity of the electric field is periodically reversed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Field flow fractionation, a method obtaining high resolution separations of organic and inorganic colloids and soluble molecules, has been known in the art for approximately twenty years. The term field flow fractionation uses the word field in a generic sense. The field may comprise an electric field, a temperature gradient, a pH gradient, gravitational sedimentation or sedimentation through the application of a centrifugal force. The field is made to act upon a flowing solution or colloidal suspension and causes segregation or fractionation of the solute molecules or colloid particles. A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation. 11 figs.

Stevens, F.J.

1990-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Upregulation of Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knockout Mice Is Reversed by Chronic Forced Ethanol Consumption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The anatomical proximity of the cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1/CB1R) and the dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), their ability to form CB1R-DRD2 heteromers, their opposing roles in locomotion, and their involvement in ethanol's reinforcing and addictive properties prompted us to study the levels and distribution of CB1R after chronic ethanol intake, in the presence and absence of DRD2. We monitored the drinking patterns and locomotor activity of Drd2+/+ and Drd2-/- mice consuming either water or a 20% (v/v) ethanol solution (forced ethanol intake) for 6 months and used the selective CB1 receptor antagonist [{sup 3}H]SR141716A to quantify CB1R levels in different brain regions with in vitro receptor autoradiography. We found that the lack of DRD2 leads to a marked upregulation (approximately 2-fold increase) of CB1R in the cerebral cortex, the caudate-putamen, and the nucleus accumbens, which was reversed by chronic ethanol intake. The results suggest that DRD2-mediated dopaminergic neurotransmission and chronic ethanol intake exert an inhibitory effect on cannabinoid receptor expression in cortical and striatal regions implicated in the reinforcing and addictive properties of ethanol.

Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Gopez, V.; Delis, F.; Michaelides, M.; Grand, D.K.; Wang, G.-J.; Kunos, G.; Volkow, N.D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

A reverse Monte Carlo method for deriving optical constants of solids from reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra  

SciTech Connect

A reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method is developed to obtain the energy loss function (ELF) and optical constants from a measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectrum by an iterative Monte Carlo (MC) simulation procedure. The method combines the simulated annealing method, i.e., a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters, surface and bulk excitation weighting factors, and band gap energy, with a conventional MC simulation of electron interaction with solids, which acts as a single step of MCMC sampling in this RMC method. To examine the reliability of this method, we have verified that the output data of the dielectric function are essentially independent of the initial values of the trial parameters, which is a basic property of a MCMC method. The optical constants derived for SiO{sub 2} in the energy loss range of 8-90 eV are in good agreement with other available data, and relevant bulk ELFs are checked by oscillator strength-sum and perfect-screening-sum rules. Our results show that the dielectric function can be obtained by the RMC method even with a wide range of initial trial parameters. The RMC method is thus a general and effective method for determining the optical properties of solids from REELS measurements.

Da, B.; Sun, Y.; Ding, Z. J. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China (China)] [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China (China); Mao, S. F. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China (China)] [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China (China); Zhang, Z. M. [Centre of Physical Experiments, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China (China)] [Centre of Physical Experiments, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China (China); Jin, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Tanuma, S. [Advanced Surface Chemical Analysis Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)] [Advanced Surface Chemical Analysis Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

431

Activation of the human nuclear xenobiotic receptor PXR by the reverse transcriptase-targeted anti-HIV drug PNU-142721  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The human pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors. PXR responds to a structurally diverse variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, and coordinates the expression of genes central to the metabolism and excretion of potentially harmful chemicals, including human therapeutics. The reverse transcriptase inhibitor PNU-142721 has been designed to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although this compound has anti-HIV activity, it was established using cell-based assays that PNU-142721 is an efficacious PXR agonist. We present here the 2.8 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the human PXR ligand-binding domain in complex with PNU-142721. PXR employs one hydrogen bond and fourteen van der Waals contacts to interact with the ligand, but allows two loops adjacent to the ligand-binding pocket to remain disordered in the structure. These observations highlight the role structural flexibility plays in PXR's promiscuous responses to xenobiotics. The crystal structure also explains why PNU-173575, a thiomethyl metabolite of PNU-142721, exhibits enhanced PXR activation relative to the unmodified compound and why PNU-142721 can also activate rat PXR. Taken together, the results presented here elucidate the structural basis for PXR activation by PNU-142721 and related chemicals.

Cheng, Yuan; Redinbo, Matthew R. (UNC)

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

432

Polymorphic single crystal {r_reversible} single crystal transition in K{sub 0.975}Rb{sub 0.025}NO{sub 3}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polymorphic transformations in K{sub 0.975}Rb{sub 0.025}NO{sub 3} single crystals have been investigated by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The equilibrium temperature between modifications II and III has been determined. It is established that the crystal growth at II {r_reversible} III polymorphic transitions is accompanied by the formation and growth of daughter-modification nuclei in the matrix crystal.

Asadov, Yu. G., E-mail: yusifasadov@rambler.ru; Nasirov, E. V. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. November 1970-October 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1970-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse-osmosis technology. Patents include systems and devices for sea water, waste water, and drinking water purification. Topics include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related published bibliography. (Contains 103 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Defect Band Luminescence Intensity Reversal as Related to Application of Anti-Reflection Coating on mc-Si PV Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photoluminescence (PL) imaging is widely used to identify defective regions within mc-Si PV cells. Recent PL imaging investigations of defect band luminescence (DBL) in mc-Si have revealed a perplexing phenomenon. Namely, the reversal of the DBL intensity in various regions of mc-Si PV material upon the application of a SiNx:H anti-reflective coating (ARC). Regions with low DBL intensity before ARC application often exhibit high DBL intensity afterwards, and the converse is also true. PL imaging alone cannot explain this effect. We have used high resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and electron beam induced current (EBIC) techniques to elucidate the origin of the DBL intensity reversal. Multiple sub-bandgap energy levels were identified that change in peak position and intensity upon the application of the ARC. Using this data, in addition to EBIC contrast information, we provide an explanation for the DBL intensity reversal based on the interaction of the detected energy levels with the SiNx:H ARC application. Multiple investigations have suggested that this is a global problem for mc-Si PV cells. Our results have the potential to provide mc-Si PV producers a pathway to increased efficiencies through defect mitigation strategies.

Guthrey, H.; Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Gorman, B.; Al-Jassim, M.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The Effect of Environmental Contaminants on Mating Dynamics and Population Viability in a Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding how anthropogenic activity impacts the health and viability of wildlife populations is one of the most important tasks of environmental biology. A key concern related to bi-products of human activity is the accumulation of environmental pollutants within aquatic environments. Pollutants such as endocrine disruptors and heavy metals have the potential to impact both human and wildlife populations in contaminated areas. While much research has focused on how these compounds impact natural selection processes, such as viability and reproduction, their effect on sexual selection processes is not as clear. The goal of this dissertation was to address how environmental contaminants impact sexual selection processes in a sex-role reversed pipefish and evaluate how these effects may impact long-term population viability. Here we show that short periods of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a synthetic estrogen result in male pipefish with female-like secondary sexual traits. While these males are capable of reproduction, exposed males are discriminated against by females in mate choice tests. In natural populations, this type of discrimination could reduce male mating opportunities, potentially reducing their reproductive success. In an additional component of this dissertation, it was discovered that pipefish populations around Mobile Bay, specifically Weeks Bay, are currently being exposed to significantly elevated levels of mercury. These populations are genetically distinct from coastal populations but moderate levels of gene flow occur among sites, and gene flow between contaminated and non-contaminated population may be influencing how environmental contaminants are impacting genetic diversity and population viability. In the case of endocrine disruptors, migration between contaminated and non-contaminated sites may negatively impact population viability. Morphological traits induced with exposure to contaminants may be maintained for extended periods of time, therefore, the effect the exposed phenotype has on mating dynamics and sexual selection could be carried to non-contaminated sites if exposed individuals move to new populations. On the other hand, immigration of individuals from non-contaminated sites into contaminated areas may help maintain genetic diversity within exposed populations. In conclusion, the work presented in this dissertation shows that the presence of environmental toxins can significantly impact sexual selection processes, which in turn can have profound effects on the viability and future evolutionary trajectory of populations. Future work in this area should not only address how these toxins impact individual fitness, but should also address how population structure may be influencing the severity of these compounds on natural populations.

Partridge, Charlyn G.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Targeted Endovascular Temporary Vessel Occlusion with a Reverse Thermosensitive Polymer for Near-Bloodless Partial Nephrectomy: Comparison to Standard Surgical Clamping Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine whether reversible blood flow interruption to a randomly chosen target region of the kidney may be achieved with the injection of a reverse thermoplastic polymer through an angiographic catheter, thereby facilitating partial nephrectomy without compromising blood flow to the remaining kidney or adding risks beyond those encountered by the use of hilar clamping. Methods: Fifteen pigs underwent partial nephrectomy after blood flow interruption by vascular cross-clamping or injection of polymer (Lumagel Trade-Mark-Sign ) into a segmental artery. Five animals were euthanized after surgery (three open and two laparoscopic resection, cross-clamping n = 2), and 10 (open resection, cross-clamping n = 4) were euthanized after 6 weeks' survival. Blood specimens were obtained periodically, and angiogram and necropsy were performed at 6 weeks. Results: Selective renal ischemia was achieved in all cases. Surgical resection time averaged 9 and 24.5 min in the open and laparoscopic groups, respectively. Estimated blood loss was negligible with the exception of one case where an accessory renal artery was originally overlooked. Reversal of the polymer to a liquid state was consistent angiographically and visually in all cases. Time to complete flow return averaged 7.4 and 2 min for polymer and clamping, respectively. Angiography at 6 weeks revealed no evidence of vascular injury. Laboratory data and necropsies revealed no differences between animals undergoing vascular clamping or polymer injection. Conclusion: Lumagel was as effective as vascular clamping in producing a near bloodless operative field for partial nephrectomy while maintaining flow to the uninvolved portion of the affected kidney.

Flacke, Sebastian, E-mail: Sebastian.Flacke@lahey.org [Lahey Clinic, Tuft University Medical School, Department of Radiology (United States); Harty, Niall J.; Laskey, Daniel H.; Moinzadeh, Alireza [Lahey Clinic, Tuft University Medical School, Department of Urology (United States); Benn, James A. [Pluromed Inc (United States); Villani, Rosanna [DaVinci Biomedical Research Products (United States); Kalra, Aarti [Lahey Clinic, Tuft University Medical School, Department of Pathology (United States); Libertino, John A.; Madras, Peter N. [Lahey Clinic, Tuft University Medical School, Department of Urology (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Overpressure prediction by mean total stress estimate using well logs for compressional environments with strike-slip or reverse faulting stress state  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting correct pore-pressure is important for drilling applications. Wellbore stability problems, kicks, or even blow-outs can be avoided with a good estimate of porepressure. Conventional pore-pressure estimation methods are based on one-dimensional compaction theory and depend on a relationship between porosity and vertical effective stress. Strike-slip or reverse faulting environments especially require a different way to determine pore-pressure, since the overburden is not the maximum stress. This study proposes a method which better accounts for the three-dimensional nature of the stress field and provides improved estimates of pore-pressure. We apply the mean total stress estimate to estimate pore-pressure. Pore pressure is then obtained by modifying Eaton�s pore-pressure equations, which require either resistivity or sonic log data. The method was tested in the Snorre Field in the Norwegian North Sea, where the field changes from strike-slip to reverse stress state. Eaton�s resistivity and sonic equations were used to predict pore-pressure in this region by replacing the vertical stress by the mean total stress estimate. Results suggest that the modified Eaton method with resistivity log data gives better results for the area than the conventional method. The ratio of maximum horizontal stress to minimum horizontal stress throughout each well should be known for best results.

Ozkale, Aslihan

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

WILL OIL PRICES DECLINE OVER THE LONG RUN? 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2008 all ECB publications feature a motif taken from the €10 banknote. This paper can be downloaded without charge from

Robert Kaufmann; Pavlos Karadeloglou; Robert Kaufmann; Pavlos Karadeloglou

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

California hydro forecast declines on dry weather - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. Total Energy.

440

Coping with the Decline in Coke Quality – Using Onsite Blending ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... coke (CPC), the blending of non-traditional cokes (NTAC's) has increased. ... Prebaked Anode from Coal - Utilization of Coal Extract as a Coke Feedstock-.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reversing two-decade decline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Production decline analysis of horizontal well in gas shale reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The major factor influencing the increase of natural gas use is the rise in its global demand. Due to the relentlessly increasing demand, there have… (more)

Adekoya, Folarin.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Groundwater decline and the preservation of property in Boston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a slow-motion disaster underway below the city of Boston. The levels of groundwater have been steadily decreasing over the past eighty years and the structural integrity of the city's older buildings is in jeopardy. ...

Shoham, Tamar

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

California hydro forecast declines on dry weather - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

California hydroelectric generators are found along different river basins, and the weather patterns can be significantly different between the two regions, ...

444

Energy Perspectives: United States energy imports decline while ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

445

Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Understanding the Decline in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration/Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement — October 2009 2 Projected reductions in CO2 emissions associated with changes in the ...

446

Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions declined in 2012 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, ... which shifted power generation from the most carbon-intensive fossil fuel ...

447

Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions declined in 2012 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions in 2012 were the lowest in the United States since 1994, at 5.3 billion metric tons of CO 2 (see figure above).

448

Large Decadal Decline of the Arctic Multiyear Ice Cover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The perennial ice area was drastically reduced to 38% of its climatological average in 2007 but recovered slightly in 2008, 2009, and 2010 with the areas being 10%, 24%, and 11% higher than in 2007, respectively. However, trends in extent and area ...

Josefino C. Comiso

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

With petroleum productio on the cusp of decline, the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the 1970s, the world economy is dependent on oil in a way that no other energy source can claim. The International Energy Agency last year published a report that pre- dicted that crude oil production entirely to projected production from cur- rently undiscovered fields. Other oil industry experts believe

Kandlikar, Satish

450

California hydro forecast declines on dry weather - Today ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium. ... Updated March 5, 2013, to reflect weather developments.

451

4, 45394570, 2007 Build-up and decline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

model parameters. In spike annealing, the dissociation of an intermediate size cluster i.e., E7,mix has. And in flash an- nealing, the dissociation of an intermediate size cluster i.e., E7,mix has lower sensitivity or lasers have become increasingly common for activating dopants and eliminating implantation-induced damage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

452

What Explains Manhattan's Declining Share of Residential Construction?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

permits issued in Manhattan, with project level detail:public housing projects permitted in Manhattan and on year.multitous projects the analogous Manhattan share plotted in

DAVIDOFF, THOMAS

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Adolescent smoking decline during California's tobacco control programme  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tobacco consumption in California. JAMA 1990;264:1570–4.Oversight Committee. Towards a tobacco free California.Sacramento: California Department of Health Services, 1991.

Pierce, J P; White, M M; Gilpin, E A

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Craig M. Jensen (Primary Contact) and Marina Chong University of Hawaii Department of Chemistry Honolulu, HI 96822 Phone: (808) 956-2769 Email: jensen@hawaii.edu DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC36-05GO15063 Project Start Date: April 1, 2005 Project End Date: September 30, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives The objective of this project is to develop a new class of reversible materials that have the potential to meet the DOE kinetic and system gravimetric storage capacity targets. During the past year, our investigations have focused on the study of novel, high hydrogen capacity, borohydrides that can

455

Reversible Hydrogen Storage using CO2 and a Proton-Switchable Iridium Catalyst in Aqueous Media under Mild Temperatures and Pressures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Green plants convert CO{sub 2} to sugar for energy storage via photosynthesis. We report a novel catalyst that uses CO{sub 2} and hydrogen to store energy in formic acid. Using a homogeneous iridium catalyst with a proton-responsive ligand, we show the first reversible and recyclable hydrogen storage system that operates under mild conditions using CO{sub 2}, formate and formic acid. This system is energy-efficient and green because it operates near ambient conditions, uses water as a solvent, produces high-pressure CO-free hydrogen, and uses pH to control hydrogen production or consumption. The extraordinary and switchable catalytic activity is attributed to the multifunctional ligand, which acts as a proton-relay and strong {pi}-donor, and is rationalized by theoretical and experimental studies.

Hull J. F.; Himeda, Y.; Wang, W.-H.; Hashiguchi, B.; Szalda, D.J.; Muckerman, J.T.; Fujita, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Reversibly Bound Chloride in the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Hormone Binding Domain: Possible Allosteric Regulation and a Conserved Structural Motif for the Chloride-binding Site  

SciTech Connect

The binding of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to its receptor requires chloride, and it is chloride concentration dependent. The extracellular domain (ECD) of the ANP receptor (ANPR) contains a chloride near the ANP-binding site, suggesting a possible regulatory role. The bound chloride, however, is completely buried in the polypeptide fold, and its functional role has remained unclear. Here, we have confirmed that chloride is necessary for ANP binding to the recombinant ECD or the full-length ANPR expressed in CHO cells. ECD without chloride (ECD(-)) did not bind ANP. Its binding activity was fully restored by bromide or chloride addition. A new X-ray structure of the bromide-bound ECD is essentially identical to that of the chloride-bound ECD. Furthermore, bromide atoms are localized at the same positions as chloride atoms both in the apo and in the ANP-bound structures, indicating exchangeable and reversible halide binding. Far-UV CD and thermal unfolding data show that ECD(-) largely retains the native structure. Sedimentation equilibrium in the absence of chloride shows that ECD(-) forms a strongly associated dimer, possibly preventing the structural rearrangement of the two monomers that is necessary for ANP binding. The primary and tertiary structures of the chloride-binding site in ANPR are highly conserved among receptor-guanylate cyclases and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The chloride-dependent ANP binding, reversible chloride binding, and the highly conserved chloride-binding site motif suggest a regulatory role for the receptor bound chloride. Chloride-dependent regulation of ANPR may operate in the kidney, modulating ANP-induced natriuresis.

Ogawa, H.; Qiu, Y; Philo, J; Arakawa, T; Ogata, C; Misono, K

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

About possibility to measure an electric dipole moment (EDM) of nuclei in the range $10^{-27} ÷10^{-32}$ $e \\cdot cm$ in experiments for search of time-reversal violating generation of magnetic and electric fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possibility to measure an electric dipole moment (EDM) of nuclei in the range $10^{-27} \\div 10^{-32}$ $e \\cdot cm$ in experiments for search of time-reversal violating generation of magnetic and electric fields is discussed.

Vladimir Baryshevsky

2004-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

458

Kinetics and thermochemistry of reversible adduct formation in the reaction of Cl( sup 2 P sub J ) with CS sub 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reversible adduct formation in the reaction of Cl({sup 2}P{sub J}) with CS{sub 2} has been observed over the temperature range 193-258 K by use of time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy to follow the decay of pulsed-laser-generated Cl({sup 2}P{sub J}) into equilibrium with CS{sub 2}Cl. Rate coefficients for CS{sub 2}Cl formation and decomposition have been determined as a function of temperature and pressure; hence, the equilibrium constant has been determined as a function of temperature. We find that the rate coefficient for CS{sub 2}Cl + O{sub 2} reaction via all channels that do not generate Cl({sup 2}P{sub J}) is <2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} at 293 K and 300-Torr total pressure and that the total rate coefficient is <2 {times} 10{sup {minus}15} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} at 230 K and 30-Torr total pressure.

Nicovich, J.M.; Shackelford, C.J.; Wine, P.H. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (USA))

1990-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

459

Lateral Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N power rectifiers with 9.7 kV reverse breakdown voltage  

SciTech Connect

Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x=0--0.25) Schottky rectifiers were fabricated in a lateral geometry employing p{sup +}-implanted guard rings and rectifying contact overlap onto an SiO{sub 2} passivation layer. The reverse breakdown voltage (V{sub B}) increased with the spacing between Schottky and ohmic metal contacts, reaching 9700 V for Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N and 6350 V for GaN, r