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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Osmosis is a phenomenon which regulates many biological ... in explaining the biological functions which depend on osmosis, but also in creating conditions for reversing it known as ‘reverse osmosis’. Reverse osmosis

Sudhakar M Rao

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Osmosis is a phenomenon which regulates many biological ... in explaining the biological functions which depend on osmosis, but also in creating conditions for reversing it known as ‘reverse osmosis’. Reverse osmosis

Sudhakar M. Rao

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

REVERSE OSMOSIS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

REVERSE OSMOSIS ... Concentration of Apple Juice by Reverse Osmosis at Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Scales ... Concentration of Apple Juice by Reverse Osmosis at Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Scales ...

S. Sourirajan; J. P. Agrawal

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter provides a survey of reverse osmosis science and technology. It begins with a ... concludes with an account of the principal current reverse osmosis applications.

H. K. Lonsdale

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment.

Polidoroff, C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Flow Relationships in Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flow Relationships in Reverse Osmosis ... Effects of Hydrolysis on Cellulose Acetate Reverse-Osmosis Transport Coefficients ... Effects of Hydrolysis on Cellulose Acetate Reverse-Osmosis Transport Coefficients ...

Ulrich Merten

1963-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Reverse Osmosis and Ultrafiltration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Economic comparisons indicate reverse osmosis to be more cost effective than distillation ... membranes, leading to a wider scope of reverse osmosis applications, including the purification of used water ... tran...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Reverse Osmosis Optimization  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Report assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. It provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption.

9

Control of residual aluminum from conventional treatment to improve reverse osmosis performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deposit Control for Reverse Osmosis Systems , Technicalon Colloidal Fouling in Reverse Osmosis and NanofiltrationSiO 2 ) Scaling for Reverse Osmosis , ASTM Designation D

Gabelich, C J; Ishida, K P; Gerringer, F W; Evangelista, R; Kalyan, M; Suffet, I H

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Thermodynamic analysis of a stand-alone reverse osmosis desalination system powered by pressure retarded osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, a methodology is developed to assess the feasibility of a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system powered by a stand-alone salinity driven pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) technology. First, the proposed hybrid RO–PRO system is analysed as a thermodynamic cycle and its feasibility is mathematically interpreted using a feasible condition (FC) number, several dimensionless operational variables and a number of constraints to represent the objective of zero brine discharge. Then, a study of the stand-alone feasibility of a hybrid seawater RO–PRO system is carried out. The results show that lower RO water recovery and higher dimensionless flow rate improve the stand-alone feasibility of the system. A subsystem, a look inside the PRO, is developed to study the applied pressure and the required membrane area to achieve the operations with optimum FC numbers. It is found that the optimum applied hydraulic pressure is inversely proportional to the dimensionless flow rate in the feasible range of stand-alone operations and more area of membrane is required by a larger FC number. Finally, a case study of a selected operation is presented based on its energy performance, and two influencing factors, the inefficiency of the components and the salinity concentration of the feed water.

Wei He; Yang Wang; Adel Sharif; Mohammad Hasan Shaheed

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Reverse Osmosis Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An empirical modeling method has been suggested for the reverse osmosis process. Least-square fitting of data to a third-order’ polynomial has resulted in the accurate modeling of Du Pont’s hollow fiber B-10 m...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bibliography of citations from the U.S. National Technical Information Service data base with 183 abstracts on membranes for reverse osmosis desalination, electro-dialysis desalination and other osmotic desa...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Colloidal fouling of reverse osmosis membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the rate of fouling of reverse osmosis membranes treating32, 127-135. fouling of reverse osmosis membranes." Buros,Colloidal fouling of reverse osmosis membranes." J. Colloid

Elimelech, Menachem

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Reverse-Osmosis Filtration Based Water Treatment and Special Water Purification for Nuclear Power Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the development and operation of specialized water treatment and water purification systems, based on the principle of reverse-osmosis filtration of water, for the operation of ... P. Ale...

V. N. Epimakhov; M. S. Oleinik; L. N. Moskvin

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Reverse Osmosis Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

16

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation efficiency of the bentonite membrane for each of the dilutions. We found that membrane efficiency decreased with increasing solute concentration and with increasing TDS. The rejection of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was greater than Cl{sup -}. This may be because the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration was much lower than the Cl{sup -} concentration in the waters tested. The cation rejection sequence varied with solute concentration and TDS. The solute rejection sequence for multi-component solutions is difficult to predict for synthetic membranes; it may not be simple for clay membranes either. The permeate flows in our experiments were 4.1 to 5.4% of the total flow. This suggests that very thin clay membranes may be useful for some separations. Work on development of a spiral-wound clay membrane module found that it is difficult to maintain compaction of the membrane if the membrane is rolled and then inserted in the outer tube. A different design was tried using a cylindrical clay membrane and this also proved difficult to assemble with adequate membrane compaction. The next step is to form the membrane in place using hydraulic pressure on a thin slurry of clay in either water or a nonpolar organic solvent such as ethanol. Technology transfer efforts included four manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals, two abstracts, and chairing a session on clays as membranes at the Clay Minerals Society annual meeting.

T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

2002-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part II: system performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work evaluates the seawater feed Reverse Osmosis (RO) preheating system process. In this respect, the basic transport equations, which describe the system elements, are used for determining the performance of the process operating parameters and for assessing the feed preheating process. A seawater membrane, FTSW30HR-380, was used to perform this study. In Part I of the work, the leading element, which governs the whole system, was studied. Also, the limitations of the leading element operating parameters were determined. In the recent work, a computer program is developed using the RO-governing process equations to obtain the system design and projection for the seawater feed preheating assessment, which enabled the determination of the whole system by solving the system elements, one by one. Also, an evaluation of the power needed for freshwater production. The RO system feed preheating is studied for feed temperatures ranging from 15°C to 45°C. The study shows that the permeate salt concentration increases as the feed temperature increases and the system salt rejection decreases. The present study concluded that the permeate productivity decreases with the increase in the feed temperature. Results also show that the product's specific power consumption is dependent on the number of elements used, and energy recovery. In the case of the maximum available number of elements, it is found that the feed temperature increases as the specific power consumption increases, with or without brine pressure energy recovery. However, in the case of a constant number of elements, seven elements, the specific power consumption decreases as the feed temperature increases.

Aly Karameldin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Properly apply reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technique used to reduce the loading of dissolved solids in solution. The popularity of RO for treating boiler feedwater is growing because of the rising cost of ion-exchange-based demineralization as well as safety concerns associated with handling acid and caustic. A properly designed and operated RO-based boiler-feedwater-treatment system can reduce the load to, and costs associated with, ion exchange demineralization. This article discusses RO feedwater quality recommendations, pretreatment techniques, and system monitoring necessary to achieve optimum RO system performance in the most cost-effective manner. Regardless of the application--whether it is the treatment of boiler feedwater, industrial wastewater, or process water--the approach to pretreatment and the other design and operating guidance offered here remains the same.

Kucera, J.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Assessment of an ultrafiltration pre-treatment system for a seawater reverse osmosis plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The seawater reverse osmosis system requires extensive pre-treatment in order to ensure reliable performance. The conventional pre-treatment system involves dosing of chemicals, which requires frequent monitoring of raw water quality, and also involves adjusting the dosage. Besides being cumbersome, there is a lot of time lag involved in carrying out these measures. This calls for pre-treatment systems based on physicochemical mechanisms. During the last few years, Ultrafiltration (UF) has emerged as a leading unit operation in order to render raw seawater compatible with reverse osmosis operations. In this context, the Desalination Division of BARC has already installed an operational UF pre-treatment system. In this paper, we examine the role of UF in the overall operations of the seawater reverse osmosis system.

S.A. Tiwari; D. Goswami; S. Prabhakar; P.K. Tewari

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Molecular dynamics simulations of osmosis and reverse osmosis in solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computer simulation studies using the method of molecular dynamics have been carried out to investigate osmosis and reverse osmosis in solutions separated by semi-permeable membranes....

S. Murad

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Sandia National Laboratories: reverse osmosis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reverse osmosis ECIS-UNM: Biomimetic Membranes for Water Purification On February 20, 2013, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Energy Efficiency, Facilities, Global Climate &...

23

Observations on Buoyant Convection in Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations on Buoyant Convection in Reverse Osmosis ... Buoyancy Effects in Dead-End Reverse Osmosis:? Visualization by Holographic Interferometry ... Buoyancy Effects in Dead-End Reverse Osmosis:? Visualization by Holographic Interferometry ...

Terry J. Hendricks; Jean F. Macquin; Forman A. Williams

1972-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Hollow-Fiber Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hollow-fiber membranes for reverse osmosis desalination are typically of the dense wall ... compact modules and further improve the economics of reverse osmosis desalination.

Mark E. Cohen; Michael A. Grable; Billy M. Riggleman

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Reverse osmosis desalination: Modeling and experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytic model for the performance of reverse osmosis desalination systems is derived. Predictions are shown to agree well with extensive measurements conducted on a commercial multistage reverse osmosis desalination unit over a broad range of operating conditions. The model allows a transparent understanding of the dependence of system performance on key design and operating variables. Identifying the characteristic flow rate and length scale of reverse osmosis systems allows a universal description of the variation of the permeate flow rate and recovery factor with the salinity flow rate and pressure of the feedwater.

Naum Fraidenraich; Olga C. Vilela; Gilmário A. Lima; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Microporous glasses for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The preparation, heat-treatment and leaching of phase separable borosilicate glasses which are of interest as possible semipermeable membranes for reverse osmosis applications are described. It is shown that ... ...

P. W. McMillan; C. E. Matthews

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Modelling Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After a brief presentation of the principal kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the theory of reverse osmosis, the present review examines various physicochemical mechanisms of the selectivity of membranes with respect to electrolyte solutions: the electrochemical mechanism, related to the charge of the pore surface; the dielectric exclusion of ions, due to image forces; and the structural mechanism, due to the change in the properties of water in fine hydrophilic pores. Methods for calculating the changes in the standard chemical potentials of ions on entering the membrane phase, and the effects of the Donnan exclusion of ions with allowance for the different charge of the membrane have been described. It has been concluded that it is appropriate to use charged membranes to separate electrolyte solutions at low concentrations. The problem of the transport of solutions through the fine pores of membranes has been formulated, taking account of the equilibrium distribution coefficients of the ions, their mobility, the charge of the membrane, and the phenomenon of concentration polarisation. Routes to the further development of the theory as applied to membranes of different types, different compositions, and solution concentrations have been discussed. The bibliography contains 84 references.

S S Dukhin; Nikolai V Churaev; V N Shilov; Viktor M Starov

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Concentrating Fruit Juices by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The difference between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration lies principally in the retention ... able to retain protein-sized molecules, whereas reverse osmosis membranes retain lower molecular weight solutes suc...

R. L. Merson; G. Paredes; D. B. Hosaka

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Optimal design of reverse osmosis module networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure of individual reverse osmosis modules, the configuration of the module network, and the operating conditions were optimized for seawater and brackish water desalination. The system model included simple mathematical equations to predict the performance of the reverse osmosis modules. The optimization problem was formulated as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization. The objective function was the annual profit for the system, consisting of the profit obtained from the permeate, capital cost for the process units, and operating costs associated with energy consumption and maintenance. Optimization of several dual-stage reverse osmosis systems were investigated and compared. It was found that optimal network designs are the ones that produce the most permeate. It may be possible to achieve economic improvements by refining current membrane module designs and their operating pressures.

Maskan, F.; Wiley, D.E.; Johnston, L.P.M.; Clements, D.J.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Watts nickel and rinse water recovery via an advanced reverse osmosis system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report summarizes the results of an eight month test program conducted at the Hewlett Packard Printed Circuit Board Production Plant, Sunnyvale, CA (H.P.) to assess the effectiveness of an advanced reverse osmosis system (AROS). The AROS unit, manufactured by Water Technologies, Inc. (WTI) of Minneapolis, MN, incorporates membrane materials and system components designed to treat metal plating rinse water and produce two product streams; (1) a concentrated metal solution suitable for the plating bath, and (2) rinse water suitable for reuse as final rinse. Waste water discharge can be virtually eliminated and significant reductions realized in the need for new plating bath solution and rinse water.

Schmidt, C.; White, I.E.; Ludwig, R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Thin film composite polyamide membrane parameters estimation for phenol-water system by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A commercial thin film composite polyamide reverse osmosis membrane is used to separate an aqueous phenol-water binary system. The separation data are analyzed using a combined film theory-solution-diffusion (CFSD) model and a combined film theory-Spiegler-Kedem (CFSK) model. In the present investigation a new phenomenon is observed: there exists a maximum in the rejection when it is plotted against the product flux through the membrane. This behavior is explained for both models. An equation for J{sub v,min}, which is the value of the product flux J{sub v} at which the rejection reaches a maximum, is derived from both models. Although the parameters for both models are consistent over the range of operating conditions, the CFSK model is more accurate for the phenol-water system.

Murthy, Z.V.P.; Gupta, S.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Boundary-Layer Effects in Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Boundary-Layer Effects in Reverse Osmosis ... In FO, water is extracted from a feed solution using the high osmotic pressure of a hypertonic solution that flows on ... ...

Ulrich Merten; H. K. Lonsdale; R. L. Riley

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Reverse Osmosis for the Separation of Organics from Aqueous Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis (RO) has proved reliable and economically ... such effluents often contain organics as solvents. Reverse osmosis is very suitable for the treatment of... Its mod...

R. Rautenbach; I. Janisch

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Biphase turbine for reverse osmosis desalination. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new hydraulic reaction turbine was designed to recover the power available in the high-pressure waste-brine stream of reverse osmosis desalination systems. A reaction turbine sized for reverse-osmosis systems producing 600 gph was built and tested. The turbine performed well driving either a variable-speed pump or an electrical generator. Measured turbine efficiency (shaft power divided by available power) was 63%, compared with a prediction of 67%. The turbine can be built with larger capacity to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of reverse osmosis desalination systems. Efficiency of larger units is predicted to lie in the range of 65 to 70%.

Limburg, P.L.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Testing of a benchscale Reverse Osmosis/Coupled Transport system for treating contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Reverse Osmosis/Coupled Transport process is a innovative means of removing radionuclides from contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site. Specifically, groundwater in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site has been contaminated with uranium, technetium, and nitrate. Investigations are proceeding to determine the most cost effective method to remove these contaminants. The process described in this paper combines three different membrane technologies (reverse osmosis, coupled transport, and nanofiltration to purify the groundwater while extracting and concentrating uranium, technetium, and nitrate into separate solutions. This separation allows for the future use of the radionuclides, if needed, and reduces the amount of waste that will need to be disposed of. This process has the potential to concentrate the contaminants into solutions with volumes in a ratio of 1/10,000 of the feed volume. This compares to traditional volume reductions of 10 to 100 for ion exchange and stand-alone reverse osmosis. The successful demonstration of this technology could result in significant savings in the overall cost of decontaminating the groundwater.

Hodgson, K.M.; Lunsford, T.R.; Panjabi, G.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Reverse osmosis treatment to remove inorganic contaminants from drinking water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the research project was to determine the removal of inorganic contaminants from drinking water using several state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membrane elements. A small 5-KGPD reverse osmosis system was utilized and five different membrane elements were studied individually with the specific inorganic contaminants added to several natural Florida ground waters. Removal data were also collected on naturally occurring substances.

Huxstep, M.R.; Sorg, T.J.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Operational analysis of an innovative wind powered reverse osmosis system installed in the Canary Islands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an operational analysis of the prototype of an innovative fully autonomous wind powered desalination system. The system consists of a wind farm, made up of two wind turbines and a flywheel, which operates in isolation from the conventional power grids and which supplies the energy needs of a group of eight reverse osmosis (RO) modules throughout the complete desalination process (from the pumping of sea water to the storage of the product water), as well as the energy requirements of the control subsystems. The analysis of the electrical and hydraulic results obtained from this prototype, installed on the island of Gran Canaria in the Canarian Archipelago, shows the technical feasibility of the system design and the automatic operational strategy programmed for it. Amongst other tasks, the automatic operational strategy controls the number of RO plants that have to be connected or disconnected at any given moment in order to match the variable wind energy supply. The results obtained thus far have not revealed any significant variation in the level of quality or average volume of the product water, nor any physical deterioration to the main components of the system as a result of the start-ups and shut-downs required as a result of the variations in the wind energy supply or oscillations of the electrical parameters of voltage and frequency. In conclusion, the system under analysis can be applied to sea water desalination, both on a small and large scale, in coastal regions with a scarcity of water for domestic and/or agricultural use but with wind energy resources.

J.A. Carta; J. González; V. Subiela

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Landfill Leachate Treatment by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Leachate from landfill sites represents a highly polluted waste water. It containes biodegradable compounds but also inorganic salts and trace recalcitrant pollutants. The reverse osmosis process with or without ...

B. Weber; F. Holz

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

On the potential of forward osmosis to energetically outperform reverse osmosis desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We provide a comparison of the theoretical and actual energy requirements of forward osmosis and reverse osmosis seawater desalination. We argue that reverse osmosis is significantly more energy efficient and that forward osmosis research efforts would best be fully oriented towards alternate applications. The underlying reason for the inefficiency of forward osmosis is the draw-dilution step, which increases the theoretical and actual energy requirements for draw regeneration. As a consequence, for a forward osmosis technology to compete with reverse osmosis, the regeneration process must be significantly more efficient than reverse osmosis. However, even considering the optimisation of the draw solution and the benefits of reduced fouling during regeneration, the efficiency of an optimal draw regeneration process and of reverse osmosis are unlikely to differ significantly, meaning the energy efficiency of direct desalination with reverse osmosis is likely to be superior.

Ronan K. McGovern; John H. Lienhard V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

The benefits of hybridising electrodialysis with reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A cost analysis reveals that hybridisation of electrodialysis with reverse osmosis is only justified if the cost of water from the reverse osmosis unit is less than 40% of that from a stand-alone electrodialysis system. In such cases the additional reverse osmosis costs justify the electrodialysis cost savings brought about by shifting salt removal to higher salinity, where current densities are higher and equipment costs lower. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that a simple hybrid configuration is more cost effective than a recirculated hybrid, a simple hybrid being one where the reverse osmosis concentrate is fed to the electrodialysis stack and the products from both units are blended, and a recirculated being one hybrid involving recirculation of the electrodialysis product back to the reverse osmosis unit. The underlying rationale is that simple hybridisation shifts salt removal away from the lowest salinity zone of operation, where salt removal is most expensive. Further shifts in the salinity at which salt is removed, brought about by recirculation, do not justify the associated increased costs of reverse osmosis.

Ronan K. McGovern; Syed M. Zubair; John H. Lienhard V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Characterization of the fouling phenomenon in reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation explores the application of a bench scale reverse osmosis test cell apparatus as a research tool. This versatile system was used to explore the response of a reverse osmosis membrane to various types of feedwaters. As a result of this research, an easy, accurate experimental method for predicting the rejection in any reverse osmosis system has been developed and demonstrated. The dissertation illustrates a simple procedure to identify if a precipitating feedwater solution will foul a reverse osmosis membrane. The research also presents evidence that suggests that the common practice of increasing feed flow rates to clean a membrane may not always be an acceptable method to revive a system. In addition to this information about the RO systems, the dissertation provides insight into the environment around the membrane surface. Statistically significant information about the nature and behavior of the membrane permeation coefficient is presented. Evidence is provided to demonstrate the negative effects on membrane performance of small amounts of grease contamination from the process equipment. Insight into the resistive nature of membranes, boundary layers, and fouling deposits is also presented. Throughout the course of this research, the relationship between concentration polarization and the permeate flux is illustrated. This is done first in the traditional terms of wall concentration, and later in terms of flow resistance. This dissertation also provides an experimental demonstration of both the detachment of a boundary layer from a membrane and the resistive nature of a precipitated fouling layer in a reverse osmosis system.

Barger, M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Reverse osmosis reverses conventional wisdom with Superfund cleanup success  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although widely recognized as the most efficient means of water purification, reverse osmosis has not been considered effective for remediating hazardous wastewater. Scaling and fouling, which can cause overruns and downtime, and require membrane replacement, have inhibited success in high-volume wastewater applications. Despite this background, a reverse osmosis technology developed in Europe recently was used successfully to treat large volumes of contaminated water at a major Superfund site in Texas. The technology's success there may increase the chances for reverse osmosis to find wider use in future cleanups and other waste treatment applications.

Collins, M. (French Ltd. Task Group, Crosby, TX (United States)); Miller, K. (Rochem Environmental Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Concentration of ultrafiltered benzylpenicillin broths by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Concentration of benzylpenicillin filtered broths purified by ultrafiltration and fermented broths clarified by ultrafiltration was carried out by reverse osmosis. This study was done using a reverse osmosis l...

A. M. A. Nabais; J. P. Cardoso

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Concentration of synfuel process condensates by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the authors will discuss the use of a novel, fouling-resistant, inside-skinned hollow-fiber membrane configuration as an energy-efficient and cost-effective alternative to conventional treatment of synfuel process condensate waters. Reverse osmosis has been used in the past only to polish condensate waters that were first treated by conventional means. In the work described in this paper, a reverse-osmosis system actually replaces traditional biotreatment of condensate waters or replaces the solvent-extraction process in the treatment train. The membranes used in this reverse-osmosis system are capable of rejecting at least 90% of the phenols as well as high percentages of other organics contained in actual process condensate waters. Furthermore, these membranes have operated for several months on synfuel condensate waters and showed no significant decrease in performance. Energy and cost estimates of a reverse-osmosis system based on such membranes will be discussed in detail, including a comparison of operating costs of this system with the operating costs of conventional treatment systems.

McCray, S.B.; Ray, R.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Characterization and biotoxicity assessment of dissolved organic matter in RO concentrate from a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) system containing organic compounds may associate with toxic risk, and its discharge might pose an environmental risk. To identify a basis for the selection of feasible technology in treating RO concentrates, the characteristics and biotoxicity of different fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in RO concentrates from an mWRRO system were investigated. The results indicated that the hydrophilic neutrals (HIN), hydrophobic acids (HOA) and hydrophobic bases (HOB) accounted for 96% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the total DOM in the RO concentrate. According to the SEC chromatograph detected at 254 nm wavelength of UV, the DOM with molecular weight (MW) 1–3 kDa accounted for the majority of the basic and neutral fractions. The fluorescence spectra of the excitation emission matrix (EEM) indicated that most aromatic proteins, humic/fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like substances existed in the fractions HOA and hydrophobic neutrals (HON). The genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate were 1795.6 ± 57.2 ?g 4-NQO L?1 and 2.19 ± 0.05 mg TAM L?1, respectively. The HIN, HOA, and HOB contributed to the genotoxicity of the RO concentrate, and the HIN was with the highest genotoxic level of 1007.9 ± 94.8 ?g 4-NQO L?1. The HOA, HON, and HIN lead to the total anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate, and HOA occupied approximately 60% of the total, which was 1.3 ± 0.17 mg TAM L?1.

Ying-Xue Sun; Yue Gao; Hong-Ying Hu; Fang Tang; Zhe Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Reverse osmosis desalination with osmotic polyelectrolyte intermediate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

degree of, '8'~STER O"' SCIENCE '!ay ISS7 Nejo? Subje". t: IiI EQICAE ENO& NEERINC REVERSE OSMOSIS DESALINATION WITH OSMOTIC POLYELECTROLYTE INTERMEDIATE A Thesis By THOMAS THEODORE McCONNELL Approved as to style and content by: airman o... , . . . . . . . . . . 91 Calculated Permeability Coefficients of Mem- branes Using Equation (42) Calculated Desalination Ratio from Equation (34) and Weight Per Cent Rejection from Equa- tion (45) for a 3. 5 Weight Per Cent Sodium Chloride Bulk Solution 92 94 Table...

McConnell, Thomas Theodore

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

47

Ethanol separation from molasses based fermentation broth by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Irradiated styrene-grafted cellulose acetate membrane was used for the separation of ethanol by reverse osmosis. Ethanol separation from molasses based fermentation broth...

J. P. Choudhury; P. Ghosh; B. K. Guha

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Structures of cellulose acetate membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies under the scanning electron microscope have shown that the cellulose acetate membranes used for reverse osmosis are high-molecular-weight condensation structures of...

I. N. Vlodavets; G. Z. Nefedova…

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Reverse osmosis for removing synthetic organics from drinking water: a cost and performance evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis for removing organic compounds from drinking water has considerable promise. Bench and pilot plant studies on actual waters have shown that several organics proposed for regulation can be removed by reverse osmosis. As membrane technology improves, rejection of more difficult to remove compounds is expected to improve. Also, smaller volumes of concentrate are expected to be produced that can be handled more cost-effectively. One major concern with the use of reverse osmosis is concentrate disposal, which may increase the overall cost of treatment and disposal. The cost of reverse osmosis is very sensitive to such factors as recovery, economies of scale, systems configuration, membrane type, and electric power cost. In certain situations, reverse osmosis is a viable treatment option that is not cost-prohibitive.

Lykins, B.W.; Clark, R.M.; Fronk, C.A.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Purication of reghting water containing a uorinated surfactant by reverse osmosis coupled to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Purication of reghting water containing a uorinated surfactant by reverse osmosis coupled. Reverse osmosis of pretreated pilot reghting water and concentrated model solutions of pretreated reghting. The concentrate from reverse osmosis could be recycled in electrocoagulation-ltration. Experimental results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Design, economic analysis and environmental considerations of mini-grid hybrid power system with reverse osmosis desalination plant for remote areas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the design process of a mini-grid hybrid power system with reverse osmosis desalination plant for remote areas, together with an economic analysis and environmental considerations for the project life cycle. It presents a design scenario for supplying electricity and fulfilling demand for clean water in remote areas by utilising renewable energy sources and a diesel generator with a reverse osmosis desalination plant as a deferrable load. The economic issues analysed are the initial capital cost needed, the fuel consumption and annual cost, the total net present cost (NPC), the cost of electricity (COE) generated by the system per kWh and the simple payback time (SPBT) for the project. The environmental considerations discussed are the amount of gas emissions, such as CO2 and NOx, as well as particulate matter released into the atmosphere. Simulations based on an actual set of conditions in a remote area in the Maldives were performed using HOMER for two conditions: before and after the Tsunami of 26th December 2004. Experimental results on the prototype 5 kVA mini-grid inverter and reverse osmosis desalination plant, rated at 5.5 kWh/day, are also presented here to verify the idea of providing power and water supplies to remote areas.

Ahmad Agus Setiawan; Yu Zhao; Chem. V. Nayar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Energy-efficient reverse osmosis desalination process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel energy-efficient reverse osmosis (EERO) process is proposed for which the retentate from single-stage reverse osmosis (SSRO) serves as the feed to a countercurrent membrane cascade with recycle (CMCR). The 3-stage EERO process employs two, whereas the 4-stage EERO process employs three stages in the CMCR. The EERO process is advantageous because of four features: (i) coupling SSRO with a CMCR; (ii) countercurrent retentate and permeate flow; (iii) permeate recycling; and (iv) retentate self-recycling owing to the use of one or more nanofiltration stages. The EERO process was compared to conventional SSRO for both processes operating at the thermodynamic limit and employing an energy-recovery device. For the same overall recovery the osmotic pressure differential is reduced by 33% and 50% relative to SSRO for the 3- and 4-stage ERRO processes, respectively. There is a critical recovery above which the EERO process also can reduce the specific energy consumption (SEC) relative to SSRO for the same recovery. For a typical seawater feed of 35 g/L the 3-stage EERO process can achieve a 75% recovery at a net SEC of 2.746 kWh/m3, an 11.0% reduction in the SEC relative to SSRO for the same recovery. The 4-stage EERO process can achieve a 75% recovery at the same net SEC as SSRO (3.086 kWh/m3). Accounting for the additional membrane area required for the EERO process increases its cost relative to that for SSRO by at most 8%. An additional benefit of the EERO process relative to SSRO is the highly concentrated retentate that reduces the brine disposal volume or can be used to greatly increase the draw potential to harvest its osmotic potential energy via the pressure-retarded osmosis process.

Tzyy Haur Chong; Siew-Leng Loo; William B. Krantz

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Modeling and optimization of hybrid wind–solar-powered reverse osmosis water desalination system in Saudi Arabia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A hybrid wind/solar powered reverse osmosis desalination system has been modeled and simulated. The results of the simulation have been used to optimize the system for the minimum cost per cubic meter of the desalinated water. The performance of the hybrid wind/solar powered RO system has been analyzed under Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, weather data for a typical year. The performance has been evaluated under a constant RO load of 1 kW for 12 h/day and 24 h/day. The simulation results revealed that the optimum system that powers a 1-kW RO system for 12 h/day that yields a minimum levelized cost of energy comprises 2 wind turbines, 40 \\{PVs\\} modules and 6 batteries and the levelized cost of energy of such system is found to be 0.624 $/kW h. On the other hand, for a load of 1-kW for 24 h/day, the optimum system consists of 6 wind turbines, 66 \\{PVs\\} modules and 16 batteries with a minimum levelized cost of energy 0.672 $/kW h. Depending on the salinity of the raw water, the energy consumption for desalination ranges between 8 and 20 kW h/m3. This means that the cost of using the proposed optimum hybrid wind/solar system for water desalination will range between $3.693/m3 and $3. 812/m3 which is less than the range reported in the literature.

Esmail M.A. Mokheimer; Ahmet Z. Sahin; Abdullah Al-Sharafi; Ahmad I. Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Development of Robust Organosilica Membranes for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development of Robust Organosilica Membranes for Reverse Osmosis ... polyamide was also reversible, in other words, the N-chlorinated intermediate could be regenerated to initial amide with the alk. ...

Rong Xu; Jinhui Wang; Masakoto Kanezashi; Tomohisa Yoshioka; Toshinori Tsuru

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

A Case Study of Reverse Osmosis Applied to the Concentration of Yeast Effluent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 1986 PCI Membrane Systems installed a reverse osmosis plant to concentrate an effluent arising from...2 of membrane area. The membrane was a thin film composite membrane designated AFC99.

Alan Merry

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

A reverse osmosis laboratory plant for experimenting with fault-tolerant control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A test bed for research and teaching in fault-tolerant control (FTC) systems is presented. The laboratory plant is based on an industrial reverse osmosis desalination plant equipped with standardized components, which introduces more realism and robustness ...

A. Gambier; T. Miksch; E. Badreddin

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the membrane systems, reverse osmosis (RO) garners the mostof vapor compression, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A comparison of ROChem reverse osmosis and spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Testing of the ROChem Disc Tube[reg sign] reverse osmosis (RO) module's performance on biologically active feed waters has been completed. Both the ROChem module (using Filmtec standard-rejection seawater membranes) and the Filmtec spiral-wound membrane module (using Filmtec high-rejection seawater membranes) were tested with stimulant solutions containing typical bacteria and metal hydroxide levels found in the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) influent. Results indicate that the ROChem module gave superior performance over the spiral-wound module. Water flux losses were reduced by over 30% for water recoveries above 40%.

Siler, J.L.

1992-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

A comparison of ROChem reverse osmosis and spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Testing of the ROChem Disc Tube{reg_sign} reverse osmosis (RO) module`s performance on biologically active feed waters has been completed. Both the ROChem module (using Filmtec standard-rejection seawater membranes) and the Filmtec spiral-wound membrane module (using Filmtec high-rejection seawater membranes) were tested with stimulant solutions containing typical bacteria and metal hydroxide levels found in the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) influent. Results indicate that the ROChem module gave superior performance over the spiral-wound module. Water flux losses were reduced by over 30% for water recoveries above 40%.

Siler, J.L.

1992-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants contained in firefighting water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title: Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants osmosis efficiently treated the water from fire extinguishment. In this work we focused on the reverse surfactants [1]. Experimental results indicated that electrocoagulation and filtration followed by reverse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

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61

Treatment of low-level radioactive waste liquid by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The processing of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) liquids that result from operation of nuclear power plants with reverse osmosis systems is not common practice. A demonstration facility is operating at Chalk River Laboratories (of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited), processing much of the LLRW liquids generated at the site from a multitude of radioactive facilities, ranging from isotope production through decontamination operations and including chemical laboratory drains. The reverse osmosis system comprises two treatment steps--spiral wound reverse osmosis followed by tubular reverse osmosis--to achieve an average volume reduction factor of 30:1 and a removal efficiency in excess of 99% for most radioactive and chemical species. The separation allows the clean effluent to be discharged without further treatment. The concentrated waste stream of 3 wt% total solids is further processed to generate a solid product. The typical lifetimes of the membranes have been nearly 4000 hours, and replacement was required based on increased pressure drops and irreversible loss of permeate flux. Four years of operating experience with the reverse osmosis system, to demonstrate its practicality and to observe and record its efficiency, maintenance requirements and effectiveness, have proven it to be viable for volume reduction and concentration of LLRW liquids generated from nuclear-power-plant operations.

Buckley, L.P.; Sen Gupta, S.K.; Slade, J.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Chalk River Labs.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

The Use of Reverse Osmosis for the Purification of Coal Gasification Liquors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory trials have been conducted at the Westfield Development Centre to assess the potential of reverse osmosis as a stage in the treatment of ... effluent suitable for sewer or estuary discharge. Reverse osmosis

A. R. Williams

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

The use of reverse osmosis water for the production of parenterals in the hospital pharmacy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Only theUnited States Pharmacopeia has included reverse osmosis as an approved process for producing ‘Water...

Drs. Ph. Jacobs

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg/l. silica, and 170 mg/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies with the stringent California drinking water standard. The paper describes water reclamation, the San Ardo process, stability, reverse osmosis membrane fouling, membranes at high pH, water quality, and costs.

Tao, F.T.; Curtice, S.; Hobbs, R.D.; Sides, J.L.; Wieser, J.D. (Texaco Inc., Bellaire, TX (United States)); Dyke, C.A.; Tuohey, D. (Texaco Inc., Beacon, NY (United States)); Pilger, P.F. (Texaco E and P Inc., Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

65

Fouling effects of tri-n-butylphosphate on reverse osmosis performance and techniques for performance recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) must be on-line by November 1988 to treat the low level activity wastes presently being discharged to the F- and H- areas' seepage basins. The three main processes of the F/H ETF are filtration, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange. Any dissolved organics present in the F/H ETF's feed have the potential to affect operation of the reverse osmosis system. Earlier studies with F/H ETF feed simulant and 70 volume percent kerosene and 30 volume percent tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) additions showed that the kerosene/TBP mixture results in partial fouling of reverse osmosis membranes. A more detailed analysis of the seepage basin feed has shown that TBP is the major dissolved organic compound. Since it is dissolved (soluble to about 400 ppM at 25{degree}C), TBP will be present in the reverse osmosis feed unless removed by a means other than filtration. Thus the fouling effect of TBP (without kerosene) on reverse osmosis performance was investigated. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Poy, F.L.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

66

Author's personal copy Unexpected new phase detected in FT30 type reverse osmosis membranes using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Unexpected new phase detected in FT30 type reverse osmosis membranes using Available online 13 July 2011 Keywords: Reverse osmosis membranes X-ray microscopy Poly phenylene diamine a b s t r a c t FT30 type thin film composite membranes used for reverse osmosis water purification

Hitchcock, Adam P.

67

Characterization of Rio Blanco retort 1 water following treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory research was initiated to evaluate the chemical, physical, and toxicological characteristics of treated and untreated Rio Blanco oil shale retort water. Wet chemical analyses, metals analyses, MICROTOX assays and particle-size analysis were performed on the wastewater before and after treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The reverse osmosis system successfully removed dissolved solids and organics from the wastewater. Based on MICROTOX tests, the water was much less toxic after treatment by reverse osmosis. 8 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Kocornik, D.J.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Reverse osmosis separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reverse osmosis process has been found to be effective for the separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents in a uranium metal plant. Pilot-plant-scale experiments were conducted using cellulosic membranes in a plate module system and actual plant effluents containing more than about 40,000 ppm of ammonium and nitrate species and having radiocontaminants corresponding to specific activities of about 10[sup [minus]3] Ci/m[sup 3] beta/gamma emitters. The results indicated that more than 95% by volume of the treated effluents were within disposal limits, while the remaining contained the concentrate, which can be treated for possible containment. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Prabhakar, S.; Misra, B.M.; Roy, S.B.; Meghal, A.M.; Mukherjee, T.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Molecular dynamics study of a polymeric reverse osmosis membrane.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the properties of an atomic model of an aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membrane. The monomers forming the polymeric membrane are cross-linked progressively on the basis of a heuristic distance criterion during MD simulations until the system interconnectivity reaches completion. Equilibrium MD simulations of the hydrated membrane are then used to determine the density and diffusivity of water within the membrane. Given a 3 MPa pressure differential and a 0.125 {micro}m width membrane, the simulated water flux is calculated to be 1.4 x 10{sup -6} m/s, which is in fair agreement with an experimental flux measurement of 7.7 x 10{sup -6} m/s.

Harder, E.; Walters, D. E.; Bodnar, Y. D.; Faibish, R. S.; Roux, B. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (Univ. of Chicago); (Rosalind Franklin Univ. of Medicine and Science)

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

Removal of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Removal of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes Yu and brackish water reverse osmosis BWRO membranes was evaluated using a bench-scale cross-flow filtration; Osmosis. Introduction The occurrence of nitrosamines in drinking water and their sources Fleming et al

Huang, Ching-Hua

71

Studies on the reverse osmosis treatment of uranyl nitrate solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aqueous effluent generated in uranium processing, particularly in the nuclear fuel fabrication step, contains mainly uranium nitrate. This requires treatment before discharge into the environment to meet stringent standards. This paper presents the performance of cellulose acetate membranes with regard to rejection of uranium under reverse osmotic conditions for feed concentrations up to 200 mg/l of uranium, which corresponds to the levels normally prevalent in the effluents. The use of additives like the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium sulfate for the improvement of reverse osmosis performance of the above membranes was also investigated. In the light of the experimental results, the suitability of reverse osmosis for the decontamination of uranium effluents is discussed.

Prabhakar, S.; Panicker, S.T.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, P.S. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Treatment of produced waters by electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two oil field produced waters and one coal bed methane produced water from Wyoming were treated with electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis. All three produced waters would require treatment to meet the new Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requirements for effluent discharge into a class III or IV stream. The removal of radium 226 and oil and grease was the primary focus of the study. Radium 226 and oil and grease were removed from the produced waters with electrocoagulation. The best removal of radium 226 (>84%) was achieved with use of a non-sacrificial anode (titanium). The best removal of oil and grease (>93%) was achieved using a sacrificial anode (aluminum). By comparison, reverse osmosis removed up to 87% of the total dissolved solids and up to 95% of the radium 226.

Tuggle, K.; Humenick, M.; Barker, F.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

High solute rejecting membranes for reverse osmosis: Polyetheramide hydrazide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis of benzhydrazide polymers and determination of reverse osmosis properties of their membranes were reported earlier. Their performance was not adequate for seawater desalination or for high radioactive decontamination factors (DF). The same hydrazide polymers modified by incorporation of additional monomers with ether linkages were synthesized by low temperature polycondensation of freshly prepared m-amino benzhydrazide, p-amino benzhydrazide, and 4,4{prime}-diamino diphenyl ether, with isophthaloyl chloride and terephthaloyl chloride in dimethyl acetamide solvent. A series of film-forming polymers prepared by altering the molar ratios of the reacting monomers were characterized in terms of percent moisture regain, inherent viscosity, solubility parameters, and interfacial sorption characteristics. Asymmetric membranes prepared from these polymer samples were characterized in terms of the pure water permeability constant and the solute transport parameter, and were tested for their reverse osmosis performance. An optimum mole ratio of reaching monomers has been identified for the synthesis of polymer and the resulting membrane offered the best performance for reverse osmosis (salt rejection as high as 99.4% for 3.5% sodium chloride solution). The incorporation of aromatic ether linkages in the polyamide benzhydrazide polymeric chains appears to alter the polar and nonpolar character of the bulk polymer, and also the membrane solution interface characteristics, resulting in enhanced solute separation. These membranes appear to be potential candidates for single-stage seawater desalination and also for a variety of industrial effluent treatment applications for significantly high DF radioactive effluent treatment.

Bindal, R.C.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, M.P.S. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the U. S. Patent data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 135 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Natural Convection in a Horizontal Non-Flow-Through Reverse-Osmosis Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Features of the mass transfer in a horizontal non-flow-through reverse-osmosis cell are considered. It is concluded that...

N. B. Kirichenko

76

Removal of Emerging Contaminants in Water Treatment by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The general rules established in abundant studies on removal of conventional pollutants from waters by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration were reconsidered in this contribution...

Branko Kunst; Krešimir Košuti?

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Recycling nickel electroplating rinse waters by low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis systems were each evaluated (on a pilot scale) on their respective ability to process rinse water collected from a nickel electroplating operation. Each system offered advantages under specific operating conditions. The low temperature evaporation system was best suited to processing solutions with relatively high (greater than 4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentrations. The reverse osmosis system was best adapted to conditions where the feed solution had a relatively low (less than4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentration. In electroplating operations where relatively dilute rinse water solutions must be concentrated to levels acceptable for replacement in the plating bath, a combination of the two technologies might provide the best process alternative.

Lindsey, T.C.; Randall, P.M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Fast reverse osmosis using boron nitride and carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate reverse osmosis through commonly used polymeric and advanced inorganic nanotube based semipermeable membranes by performing nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations indicate that there is a significantly higher water flux through boron-nitride nanotube (BNNT) and carbon nanotube(CNT) compared to a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) pore and a slightly higher water flux through BNNT as compared to CNT. The calculated permeation coefficient is in reasonable agreement with the theoretical single-file “hopping” model. Potential of mean force analysis indicates that the irregular nature of PMMA pore surface can cause significant localized energy barriers inside the pore thereby reducing the water flux.

M. E. Suk; A. V. Raghunathan; N. R. Aluru

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

A comparison of reverse osmosis membrane cleaning methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Testing was conducted at TNX to evaluate the reverse osmosis (RO) cleaning methods in use at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The present ETF membrane cleaning protocol involves a low-pressure-no-permeation method using NAOH. This work has examined the effectiveness of the present ETF method, due to the lack of improvement following the cleanings sometimes observed. This study has evaluated both low pressure (15--20 psi with no permeation) and high pressure (200 psi with permeation) cleaning methods with sequential cleanings using NAOH and Filmtec Alkaline Cleaner. The importance of the cleaning sequence with these two chemicals was also examined.

Siler, J.L.

1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

80

The design of a controllable energy recovery device for solar powered reverse osmosis desalination with experimental validation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this thesis is to design and validate a controllable energy recovery device with application to photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis (PVRO). The energy consumption of a reverse osmosis plant depends significantly ...

Reed, Elizabeth Anne, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Some Results Bearing on the Value of Improvements of Membranes for Reverse Osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This analysis evaluates the potential economic benefits that could result from the improvements in the permeability of membranes for reverse osmosis. The discussion provides a simple model of the operation of a reverse osmosis plant. It examines the change in the operation that might result from improvements in the membrane and computes the cost of water as a function of the membrane permeability.

Lamont, A

2006-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

82

Cross flow filtration for radwaste applications reverse osmosis demonstration case studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Today`s radwaste economic and regulatory scenarios signify the importance in the improvement of operational practices to reduce generator liabilities. This action is largely due to the rising cost dealing with burial sites and the imposed waste volume restriction. To control the economical burdens associated with waste burial and to comply with stricter environmental regulations, NPP`s are attempting to modify their radwaste system(s) design and operating philosophy by placing a major emphasis on waste volume reduction and processing techniques. The utilization of reverse osmosis technology as a means for treatment of process and wastewater streams in the nuclear power industry has been investigated for many years. This paper will outline reverse osmosis theory and highlight performance data for process and waste stream purification applications. Case studies performed at 5 nuclear plants have been outlined. The demonstrations were performed on a widely variety of process stream for both a PWR and BWR application. The data provided by the pilot systems, the equipment design, and the economical impact a reverse osmosis unit will have on producing treated (high purity) are as follows.

Malkmus, D. [VECTRA Technologies, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Adsorption of small organic solutes from beet distillery condensates on reverse-osmosis membranes: consequences on the process performances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Adsorption of small organic solutes from beet distillery condensates on reverse-osmosis membranes 93 50 95. Fax: +33 (0)1 69 93 50 44. E-mail: claire.fargues@agroparistech.fr Abstract Reverse osmosis of Membrane Science 446 (2013) 132-144" DOI : 10.1016/j.memsci.2013.05.051 #12;2 Keywords: reverse osmosis

Boyer, Edmond

84

Forward osmosis dialysate production using spiral-wound reverse-osmosis membrane elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Presented here is an analysis of a method by which a spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) membrane element may be used in forward osmosis (FO) mode to produce dialysate fluid for medical treatment. In this method, dialysate is produced from the draw-side of an FO process by carefully controlling the output concentration, managing the accumulation of salt in the closed, feed-side membrane envelope and using osmotic backwashing to recover the membrane. The analysis shows that a high-quality, spiral-wound, polyamide 4040 RO membrane element may be used to produce un-buffered dialysate when supplied with brackish groundwater and dialysate concentrate. Production is possible for a short period before the membrane needs to be osmotically backwashed to remove accumulated salt. By alternating between production and backwashing cycles, a pair of high-quality 4040 elements may produce dialysate at a rate high enough to enable continuous haemodialysis treatment. The low-cost, compact nature of standard RO elements makes them suitable for water and energy-efficient FO applications. The method proposed here exploits the features of standard RO elements to enable their application in Australian desert regions, where water supplies are slightly brackish and where rates of kidney failure and dialysis treatment are relatively high.

M.C. Smith; K.J. Reynolds

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Reverse osmosis module successfully treats landfill leachate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By law, modern landfills are to be constructed with double liners to prevent contaminants from leaching into surface and ground water. Despite this design feature, however, both hazardous and non-hazardous compounds do leach from the waste disposed in landfills. The resulting contaminated water, or leachate, must be collected and treated. Rochem Environmental, Inc. (Houston, Texas) has developed a new membrane process, known as the Disc Tube{trademark} system, to remove a variety of contaminants from landfill leachate. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Development of mobile, on-site engine coolant recycling utilizing reverse-osmosis technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the history of the development of self-contained, mobile, high-volume, engine coolant recycling by reverse osmosis (R/O). It explains the motivations, created by government regulatory agencies, to minimize the liability of waste generators who produce waste engine coolant by providing an engine coolant recycling service at the customer`s location. Recycling the used engine coolant at the point of origin minimizes the generators` exposure to documentation requirements, liability, and financial burdens by greatly reducing the volume of used coolant that must be hauled from the generator`s property. It describes the inherent difficulties of recycling such a highly contaminated, inconsistent input stream, such as used engine coolant, by reverse osmosis. The paper reports how the difficulties were addressed, and documents the state of the art in mobile R/O technology. Reverse osmosis provides a purified intermediate fluid that is reinhibited for use in automotive cooling systems. The paper offers a review of experiences in various automotive applications, including light-duty, medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles operating on many types of fuel. The authors conclude that mobile embodiments of R/O coolant recycling technology provide finished coolants that perform equivalently to new coolants as demonstrated by their ability to protect vehicles from freezing, corrosion damage, and other cooling system related problems.

Kughn, W. [Toxguard Fluid Technologies, Irvine, CA (United States). CEO; Eaton, E.R. [Penray Companies, Inc., Elk Grove Village, IL (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

A reverse osmosis treatment process for produced water: optimization, process control, and renewable energy application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resources (wind and solar) are analyzed as potential power sources for the process, and an overview of reverse osmosis membrane fouling is presented. A computer model of the process was created using a dynamic simulator, Aspen Dynamics, to determine energy...

Mareth, Brett

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

89

Water purification of nitrates by low-pressure reverse osmosis method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper has investigated possibilities and basic regularities of water purification of nitrates by low pressure reverse osmosis. The negative influence of chlorides and sulfates ... made on expediency of using ...

V. V. Goncharuk; V. O. Osipenko…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Removal of organic and inorganic compounds from landfill leachate using reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objective of this work was to evaluate an effectiveness of removing organic and inorganic pollutants from landfill leachate in a long-term reverse osmosis (RO) study. Investigations were carried out...4 ...

I. A. Talalaj

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

The heat resistance of bacterial spores due to their partial dehydration by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability of bacterial spores to withstand heat is known to be associated with a lowering of their water content. This partial dehydration is considered to be produced by reverse osmosis, with the pressure bein...

John E. Algie

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Reclamation of Cleaning Water Using Ultrafiltration and Double Pass Reverse Osmosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Because of the commitment to minimize process generated wastes, an integrated ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) system was installed to reclaim the cleaning water at the PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) Cleveland, Ohio plant. The recovered water... 590 590 590 600 595 600 590 INLET TORO PSIG 550 590 590 590 600 595 600 590 PSIG 540 580 580 580 595 590 590 585 INTO RO-CIP INTO UF-CIP Temperature Conductivity GPM GPM 2.0 8.5 2.0 6.0 2.0 6.0 1.0 6.0 1.8 5.5 1.9 5...

Neuman, T.; Long, G.; Tinter, M.

93

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 146 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Model-Based Diagnosis and Prognosis of a Water Recycling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by 60%. The WRS is mainly comprised of a forward osmosis (FO) system and a reverse osmosis (RO) system

Roychoudhury, Indranil

96

Reverse osmosis concentrate treatment by a PAC countercurrent four-stage adsorption/MF hybrid process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, in order to reduce the impact of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) on the receiving body of water and/or improve the recovery rate of reverse osmosis (RO) system by reusing the treated ROC as a feeding, a powdered activated carbon (PAC) countercurrent four-stage adsorption/MF hybrid process was developed for organic removal from ROC. The process could achieve good organic removal at lower PAC consumption. For dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal efficiency of 70.0%, the PAC dose was 21.6% less than that in countercurrent two-stage adsorption and 50.9% less than that in single-stage adsorption. The calculation method for correlating removal efficiency and PAC dose was deduced and validated. The validation result showed that the relative error between the average experimental DOC removal efficiency and the calculated one was less than 5% throughout the experiment, exhibiting good accuracy for the calculation method. Compared with countercurrent two-stage adsorption, the membrane fouling in the new process could be mitigated to a certain extent. The total number of sub-cycles in a cycle (n) influenced the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the total volume of the reactors. Results showed that the HRT increased as n increased.

Xiaozhu Wei; Ping Gu; Guanghui Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant with energy recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the performance of a RO (reverse osmosis) desalination plant at different seawater salinity values. An energy recovery Pelton turbine is integrated with the desalination plant. Thermodynamic analysis, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, as well as a thermo-based economic analysis is performed for the proposed system. The effects of the system components irreversibilities on the economics and cost of product water are parametrically studied through the thermoeconomic analysis. The exergy analysis shows that large irreversibilities occur in the high pressure pump and in the RO module. Both thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of the overall system are investigated under different operating parameters. For the base case; the system achieves an exergy efficiency of 5.82%. The product cost is estimated to be 2.451 $/m3 and 54.2 $/MJ when source water with salinity of 35,000 ppm is fed to the system.

Rami Salah El-Emam; Ibrahim Dincer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Molecular Characterization of the Bacterial Communities in the Different Compartments of a Full-Scale Reverse-Osmosis Water Purification Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Full-Scale Reverse-Osmosis Water Purification Plant Published ahead of print...reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane water purification plant were analyzed by molecular...full-scale membrane-based water purification processes was examined using...

L. A. Bereschenko; G. H. J. Heilig; M. M. Nederlof; M. C. M. van Loosdrecht; A. J. M. Stams; G. J. W. Euverink

2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

99

An Ultrasonic Meter to Characterize Degree of Fouling and Cleaning in Reverse Osmosis Filters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of prognostic capabilities that predict the condition and remaining service life for key industrial systems has the potential to significantly impact performance and the economics of operation for both current and next generation plants. This paper describes an on?line real?time ultrasonic meter that can be used to monitor both fouling and cleaning in reverse osmosis filters. It provides a measure for the degree of fouling. A suit of ultrasonic transducers is mounted to operate through the filter?housing wall on a pilot?scale service water system. A “Degree of Fouling” index is given during both fouling and cleaning for the filters during operation for processing of saline solutions (simulated sea and brackish waters) and solids contamination. The fouling index is transmitted to a central computer where it is integrated in a system level prognostic algorithm.

M. Morra; L. J. Bond; G. R. Golcar

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Solar powered desalination system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

17 1.2.4 Reverse Osmosis…………………………………………………19 1.345 Chapter 2: Reverse Osmosis System…………………………………………………….46 2.1 Reverse Osmosis System Set Up…………………………………………….46 2.2

Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 7, Performance evaluation of the 600-gph reverse osmosis water purification unit (ROWPU): Reverse osmosis (RO) components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary purpose of this work is to ascertain whether the performance of the current 600-gph reverse osmosis water-purification unit (ROWPU) is adequate to meet the water-quality standards recommended in Volume 4 of this study. A secondary objective is to review the design of the treatment units used in the ROWPU, as well as the prescribed mode of operation, and to make constructive recommendations. Reverse osmosis (hyperfiltration) is a complicated water-treatment process that is not described easily with a few process parameters. Furthermore, published literature on the type of membrane currently used in the ROWPU was scarce. Therefore, we required a mathematical model that could be used to extrapolate existing information to different operating conditions. It was successful for seawater and single-salt solutions, but it proved to be unsuccessful for just any mix of salts that might be encountered in nature. 99 refs., 69 figs., 60 tabs.

Marinas, B.J.; Ungun, Z.; Selleck, R.E.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Integration of reverse osmosis and membrane crystallization for sodium sulphate recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Reverse osmosis and membrane crystallization are evaluated in this work as stand-alone and integrated technologies for the recovery of Na2SO4 from aqueous solutions. When SO2 is removed from flue gases by absorption in an aqueous solution and reacts with NaOH, a reusable product (i.e., Na2SO4) of industrial interest can be obtained. For stand-alone reverse osmosis, the effect of the concentration of the feed solution and pressure is studied. For membrane crystallization, the influence of the concentration and flow rate of the feed and osmotic solutions on the process performance has been determined. The characterization of the obtained crystals shows that Na2SO4·10H2O is obtained. From the experimental results, the potential for integration of reverse osmosis and membrane crystallization is simulated. It was concluded that using a reverse osmosis unit prior to the membrane crystallization unit minimizes the total membrane area in comparison with the stand-alone processes.

Wenqi Li; Bart Van der Bruggen; Patricia Luis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Extension of the evaluation of reverse osmosis for SRC-I wastewater. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis (R.O.) is an integral part of the zero discharge option for the proposed SRC-I Demonstration Plant. The original laboratory treatability testing program for reverse osmosis failed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this process, due to problems with membrane fouling and deterioration. In that study (1), a high pressure (800 psi) polyether urea membrane for sea water and a low pressure (400 psi) cellulose diacetate membrane for brackish water failed to maintain reasonable TDS rejection rates during flat cell tests. The problem was particularly severe for the high pressure membrane. At the end of the original study, testing was continued on two additional low pressure membranes. One of these was a cellulose diacetate triacetate blend. The other was a new polyaramid membrane, which had only recently become commercially available. This report documents the results of all of the reverse osmosis laboratory tests. The wastewaters used in this study were effluents from bench scale, two-stage bioreactors, followed by tertiary treatment consisting of coagulation, softening, filtration, and granular activated carbon. The investigative program consisted of both immersion and flat cell tests. The results show tht the SRC-I wastewaters are difficult to treat by reverse osmosis with polyether urea or cellulose acetate membranes, and membrane failure was common. However, the new polyaramid membrane was found to be satisfactory when tested with a dephenolated feed stream. After over 1500 hours of continuous flat cell testing, it exhibited a TDS rejection rate of 95%. Based on these preliminary results, reverse osmosis does appear to be a technically feasible approach to achieve zero discharge, assuming the feed stream is dephenolated.

Not Available

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Removal of radionuclides in drinking water by membrane treatment using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis reversal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A pilot plant had been built to test the behaviour of ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis reversal (EDR) in order to improve the quality of the water supplied to Barcelona metropolitan area from the Llobregat River. This paper presents results from two studies to reduce natural radioactivity. The results from the pilot plant with four different scenarios were used to design the full-scale treatment plant built (SJD WTP). The samples taken at different steps of the treatment were analysed to determine gross alpha, gross beta and uranium activity. The results obtained revealed a significant improvement in the radiological water quality provided by both membrane techniques (RO and EDR showed removal rates higher than 60%). However, UF did not show any significant removal capacity for gross alpha, gross beta or uranium activities. RO was better at reducing the radiological parameters studied and this treatment was selected and applied at the full scale treatment plant. The RO treatment used at the SJD WTP reduced the concentration of both gross alpha and gross beta activities and also produced water of high quality with an average removal of 95% for gross alpha activity and almost 93% for gross beta activity at the treatment plant.

M. Montańa; A. Camacho; I. Serrano; R. Devesa; L. Matia; I. Vallés

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Reverse osmosis performance with solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were conducted to determine whether the reverse osmosis (RO) units at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River could be made to process solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). It was desired to test whether operation at a feed pH other than neutral would improve performance. Test results are discussed in this report and indicate that little improvement in the water flux can be expected at other pH values.

Siler, J.L.

1991-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

106

Recycling of oleochemical wastewater for boiler feed water using reverse osmosis membranes — A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently, awareness of water conservation has increased worldwide due to water scarcity. Wastewater recycling appears to be attractive for water conservation. This paper addresses a case study of oleochemical wastewater treatment using an advanced process that comprises ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Prior to the membrane process, the oleochemical effluent was first treated using a biological treatment system that was installed by the factory owner. The quantity and quality of the permeate stream of the membrane system were then periodically monitored over 43 days. The results showed that the system functioned effectively in reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD), hardness content and the amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). However, the system started to deteriorate after 15 days of operation. Membrane biofouling was suspected to have occurred in the RO membrane. Nevertheless, the fouling problem could be resolved by chemically cleaning the RO membrane using a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution every 3–5 days. Despite of the fact that data set for a longer period is needed to provide a more comprehensive study on the biofouling mechanism of membrane, this study somehow reflects a real-life problem of the application of RO membrane in the water recycling industry in Malaysia.

Chai Hoon Koo; Abdul Wahab Mohammad; Fatihah Suja'

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Fouling of ceramic filters and thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes by inorganic and bacteriological constituents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two significant problems have been identified during the first three years of operating the Savannah River Site Effluent Treatment Facility. These problems encompass two of the facility`s major processing areas: the microfiltration and reverse osmosis steps. The microfilters (crossflow ceramic filters {minus}0.2{mu} nominal pore size) have been prone to pluggage problems. The presence of bacteria and bacteria byproducts in the microfilter feed, along with small quantities of colloidal iron, silica, and aluminum, results in a filter foulant that rapidly deteriorates filter performance and is difficult to remove by chemical cleaning. Processing rates through the filters have dropped from the design flow rate of 300 gpm after cleaning to 60 gpm within minutes. The combination of bacteria (from internal sources) and low concentrations of inorganic species resulted in substantial reductions in the reverse osmosis system performance. The salt rejection has been found to decrease from 99+% to 97%, along with a 50% loss in throughput, within a few hours of cleaning. Experimental work has led to implementation of several changes to plant operation and to planned upgrades of existing equipment. It has been shown that biological control in the influent is necessary to achieve design flowrates. Experiments have also shown that the filter performance can be optimized by the use of efficient filter backpulsing and the addition of aluminum nitrate (15 to 30 mg/L Al{sup 3+}) to the filter feed. The aluminum nitrate assists by controlling adsorption of colloidal inorganic precipitates and biological contaminants. In addition, improved cleaning procedures have been identified for the reverse osmosis units. This paper provides a summary of the plant problems and the experimental work that has been completed to understand and correct these problems.

Siler, J.L.; Poirier, M.R.; McCabe, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Fouling of ceramic filters and thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes by inorganic and bacteriological constituents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two significant problems have been identified during the first three years of operating the Savannah River Site Effluent Treatment Facility. These problems encompass two of the facility's major processing areas: the microfiltration and reverse osmosis steps. The microfilters (crossflow ceramic filters {minus}0.2{mu} nominal pore size) have been prone to pluggage problems. The presence of bacteria and bacteria byproducts in the microfilter feed, along with small quantities of colloidal iron, silica, and aluminum, results in a filter foulant that rapidly deteriorates filter performance and is difficult to remove by chemical cleaning. Processing rates through the filters have dropped from the design flow rate of 300 gpm after cleaning to 60 gpm within minutes. The combination of bacteria (from internal sources) and low concentrations of inorganic species resulted in substantial reductions in the reverse osmosis system performance. The salt rejection has been found to decrease from 99+% to 97%, along with a 50% loss in throughput, within a few hours of cleaning. Experimental work has led to implementation of several changes to plant operation and to planned upgrades of existing equipment. It has been shown that biological control in the influent is necessary to achieve design flowrates. Experiments have also shown that the filter performance can be optimized by the use of efficient filter backpulsing and the addition of aluminum nitrate (15 to 30 mg/L Al{sup 3+}) to the filter feed. The aluminum nitrate assists by controlling adsorption of colloidal inorganic precipitates and biological contaminants. In addition, improved cleaning procedures have been identified for the reverse osmosis units. This paper provides a summary of the plant problems and the experimental work that has been completed to understand and correct these problems.

Siler, J.L.; Poirier, M.R.; McCabe, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. November 1970-October 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1970-October 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse-osmosis technology. Patents include systems and devices for sea water, waste water, and drinking water purification. Topics include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related published bibliography. (Contains 103 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Final Report: Computer Simulation of Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis in Structured Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular simulation methods were developed as part of this project to increase our fundamental understanding of membrane based separation systems. Our simulations clarified for example that steric (size) effects had a significant impact on the desalination membranes. Previously it was thought the separation was entirely driven by coulombic force (attractive/repulsive forces at the membrane surfaces). Steric effects played an important role, because salt ions in brackish water are never present alone, but are strongly hydrated which effectively increases their size, and makes it impossible to enter a membrane, while the smaller water molecules can enter more readily. Membrane surface effects did play a role in increasing the flux of water, but not in the separation itself. In addition we also developed simulation methods to study ion exchange, gas separations, and pervaporation. The methods developed were used to once again increase our fundamental understanding of these separation processes. For example our studies showed that when the separation factor of gases in membranes can be significantly affected by the presence of another gas, it is generally because the separation mechanism has changed. For example in the case of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, in their pure state the separation factor is determined by diffusion, while in mixtures it is influenced more by adsorption in the membrane (zeolite in our case) Finally we developed a new technique using the NMR chemical shift to determine intermolecular interactions for mixtures. For polar-nonpolar systems such as Xe dissolved in water we were able to significantly improve the accuracy of gas solubilities, which are very sensitive to the cross interaction between water and Xe.

Sohail Murad

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

111

Design of a photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plant in off-grid operation for desalination of brackish water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plants in off-grid operation constitute a promising system technology for meeting a part of the water requirements in regions without dependable water supply and electric grid system power supply. This paper presents a new procedure for optimum system design configuration. The goal is to provide the cheapest possible water supply while fulfilling all regional and technical boundary conditions. The starting point of the procedure is a rough design based on a load duration curve. Subsequent time sequence simulations which image the system behavior completely, permit checking of various plant variants for compliance with the boundary conditions. Objective mutual comparisons of the plant variants are possible, also taking the system costs into consideration. The possibilities of the developed procedure are demonstrated taking a village supply in Northeast Brazil as example.

Broeker, C.; Carvalho, P.C.M.; Menne, K.; Ortjohann, E.; Temme, L.; Voss, J. [Univ. Paderborn (Germany). Elektrische Energieversorgung

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Separation of organic pollutants by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes: Mathematical models and experimental verification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Predictive reverse osmosis (RO) models have been well-developed for many systems. However, the applications to dilute organic-water systems require the modification of transport models and the understanding of solute-polymer interactions. Studies with various substituted, nonionized phenolic compounds showed that these could cause substantial membrane water flux drop, even in dilute solutions with negligible osmotic pressure. Further, the organics could significantly adsorb on the cross-linked aromatic polyamide active layer. In some cases, even concentrations as low as 0.2 mM, 2,4-dinitrophenol (solution in particle-free, double-distilled water) can cause as much as a 70% flux drop with an aromatic polyamide membrane. Two models are presented in this paper: a modified steady-state solution diffusion model and an unsteady-state diffusion adsorption model which are able to predict flux and permeate concentrations from a single RO experiment. Further, the development of these models allows for the understanding of the mechanisms of organic-membrane interactions. For instance, it has been proposed that increased adsorption inherently leads to an increase in flux drop. However, the authors have found, on one hand, that due to specific interactions with membrane water transport groups, chloro-, and nitro-substituted phenols cause significant flux drops. On the other hand, benzene had a high physical adsorption but caused negligible flux drop. The results were further extended to nanofiltration experiments with an aromatic pollutant containing two types of charge groups. The adsorption and separation results are explained according to an ionization model.

Williams, M.E.; Hestekin, J.A.; Smothers, C.N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part I: leading element performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the seawater reverse osmosis preheating process, and presents a parametric study of the process. The basic transport equations describing the leading element are exhibited and appraised. The leading element, which governs the whole system performance, is studied and analysed. The incorporated and investigated operating parameters are the feed pressure and the temperature for different feed salt concentrations. In addition, different feed flow rates, effects on permeate flux and permeator salt rejection, together with the permeator recovery, are studied. A seawater membrane of a well-known data, for instance FT30SW380HR, is used to perform the study. The membrane water permeability coefficient Kw is determined and correlated. Furthermore, the membrane salt permeability coefficient Ks from the manufacturer system analysis program (ROSA) is given and discussed. The transport governing equations are programmed in a way that facilitates the achievement of a realistic parametric study. The results showed that the permeate flux increases significantly as the feed pressure increases. Also, it increases significantly as the feed salt concentration decreases, and also as the feed temperature and pressure increase. Meanwhile, the permeator salt rejection increases significantly as the feed pressure increases, and decreases significantly as the feed temperature increases. The study of the leading element of the array showed that there are constraints that must be considered, such as maximum membrane flux, maximum applied feed pressure, maximum feed flow rate and maximum feed temperature. Therefore, to attain the maximum membrane flux, the applied feed pressure must be lowered when the feed temperature is increased. In the case where the feed temperature is increased from 18°C to 45°C, a pressure saving of between 7% and 26% is achieved, according to the feed salt concentration and feed flow rate.

Aly Karameldin; Mahmoud S. Saadawy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Modeling of reverse osmosis in the presence of strong solute-membrane affinity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modeling of reverse osmosis in the presence of strong solute-membrane affinity has always been a challenge due to the complexity of the solute-solvent-membrane interactions and the resultant effect on membrane performance. Most transport models, including all models treating membranes as nonporous and those based on irreversible thermodynamics, are unable to describe or to predict all of the phenomena associated with this case. Recently, the modified surface force-pore flow model has been derived and used to describe the performance of reverse osmosis membranes for solutes which are rejected from the membrane. In the present work, this model is extended to a more general form which can describe the solute-membrane affinity case. For illustration, the extended model, with five adjustable parameters, is used to describe the performance for cellulose acetate membranes and dilute aqueous solutions of toluene, cumene, and p-chlorophenol (data from literature). The model is reasonably consistent with the data. Simulation results of the extended model are also shown.

Mehdizadeh, H.; Dickson, J.M. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Treatment of effluents arising from a material characterization laboratory, using chemical precipitation and reverse osmosis processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Owing to the restrictions imposed by the Regulations, mainly in the field of effluent release into a water body, it`s necessary to use a set of technologies that will help meeting the standards established by these regulations. Taking into account what was exposed above, a process for treating the effluents arising from a Material Characterization Laboratory, that will characterize nuclear materials is proposed in this paper. The process proposed uses chemical precipitation for removing chemicals which can be removed by this means (Chromium, Calcium and Sulfate for instance), and reverse osmosis process to purify the filtrate from precipitation process. The reverse osmosis process is used to remove dissolved chemicals (Nitrates and Chlorides). A synthetic solution with a COD of 8000 mg/l was used to simulate the treatment process. After treatment was finished, a purified stream, which represents 90 % of the intake stream have presented a COD of less then 10 mg/l, showing that this process can be utilized to minimize the impact caused to the environment. The characterization of all streams involved in the treatment process as well as the process description is presented in this paper.

Bello, S.M.G.; Mierzwa, J.C. [Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The pretreatment with enhanced coagulation and a UF membrane for seawater desalination with reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The application of reverse osmosis (RO) for desalination process has increased rapidly with the construction of large RO plants. Although there have been considerable improvements in membrane materials and operation experience, the fouling of membranes is a significant problem up to the present. There have been many instances of fouling of RO membranes caused by the presence of iron and silica. Biomineralization is usually believed to be caused by microorganisms metabolizing at iron and silica present. Its formation process was studied and described first in the present work, then the enhanced coagulation with Fe(VI) and UF membrane treatment process for pretreatment of reverse osmosis for desalination has been investigated in a laboratory for 3–4 months. The main aim is to reduce the feed water pollution, such as turbidity, iron, silica and aglae, microbial contamination in order to control biofouling and mineralization on the membrane surface. The results showed that the biomineralization formation process is the adsorption of organism and the biosorption of inorganics onto the organic matrix. The pretreatment results show that turbidity is less than 0.5 NTU, iron concentration never exceeds 0.2 mg/l, silicon concentration must not exceed 0.1 mg/l; and the removal rate of aglae and microbial is more than 98%.

Wei Ma; Yaqian Zhao; Lu Wang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains a minimum of 245 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Cost and Energy Savings Using an Optimal Design of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Pretreatment for Dilute Bioethanol Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost and Energy Savings Using an Optimal Design of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Pretreatment for Dilute Bioethanol Purification ... All equipment costs and sizing are modeled using the correlations from Seider et al.(52) while the RO membrane cost is from Baker and Lokhandwala. ...

Pakkapol Kanchanalai; Ryan P. Lively; Matthew J. Realff; Yoshiaki Kawajiri

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

120

Isotope and Ion Selectivity in Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Geochemical Tracers for Man-made Freshwater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A systematic measurement of ions and 2H/1H, 7Li/6Li, 11B/10B, 18O/16O, and 87Sr/86Sr isotopes in feed-waters, permeates, and brines from commercial reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants in Israel (Ashkelon, Eilat, and Nitzana) and Cyprus (Larnaca) reveals distinctive geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of fresh water generated from desalination of seawater (SWRO) and brackish water (BWRO). ... The specific geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of SWRO provide a unique tool for tracing “man-made” fresh water as an emerging recharge component of natural water resources. ... O and H isotopes were determined by dual inlet and continuous flow mass spectrometry following gas–water equilibration (analytical uncertainties ±0.8‰ for ?2H and ±0.1‰ for ?18O). ...

Wolfram Kloppmann; Avner Vengosh; Catherine Guerrot; Romain Millot; Irena Pankratov

2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The removal of an endocrine disrupting compound, bisphenol A (BPA), from model solutions by selected nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. The commercially available membranes NF 90, NF 270, XLE BWRO, BW 30 (Dow FilmTech), CE BWRO and AD SWRO (GE Osmonics) were used to compare their performances for BPA removal. The water permeability coefficients, rejection of BPA and permeate flux values were calculated for all membranes used. No significant changes in their BPA removal were observed for all tight polyamide based NF and RO membranes tested except for loose NF 270 membrane. The polyamide based membranes exhibited much better performance than cellulose acetate membrane for BPA removal. Almost a complete rejection (?98%) for BPA was obtained with three polyamide based RO membranes (BW 30, XLE BWRO and AD SWRO). But cellulose acetate based CE BWRO membrane offered a low and variable (10–40%) rejection for BPA.

Suna Yüksel; Nalan Kabay; Mithat Yüksel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The corrosion performance of nickel-based alloys in a reverse osmosis plant utilizing seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four nickel-based alloys, UNS N06625, UNS N08825, UNS N10276, and UNS N05500, were evaluated in terms of their corrosion performance in a seawater reverse osmosis plant using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP) and linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements. Slight changes in the EIS spectra were observed for UNS N06625, UNSN10276 and UNS N05500 at low frequencies. However, UNS N08825 EIS spectra exhibited more changes than the other alloys at low frequencies. The OCP of UNS N10276 was more noble than the other alloys under the same conditions. The LPR measurements indicated that UNS N10276 and UNS N05500 exhibited lower corrosion rates than UNS NO6625 and UNS N08825.

Al-Hashem, A.; Carew, J.; Al-Odwani, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Materials Application Dept.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

123

Reverse osmosis performance of modified polyvinyl alcohol thin-film composite membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Membrane separation characteristics in the nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) regions of the filtration spectrum are governed by a complex combination of both steric hindrance and surface force interactions. NF and RO membranes having surface charges show unusual selectivity behavior not predicted on the basis of physical pore size alone. Hence, practical characterizations should employ techniques to gain insight on membrane function. In this work, the separation characteristics of an anionically charged modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin-film composite membrane under different operating pressures were investigated. A qualitative measurement of the surface force interactions between solutes and membrane polymer was conducted using liquid chromatography technique. An attempt was also made to study the chlorine resistance of the composite membrane.

Lang, K.; Chowdhury, G.; Matsuura, T.; Sourirajan, S. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Technical evaluation of a small-scale reverse osmosis desalination unit for domestic water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tunisian standards for drinking water tolerate a maximum Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) of 1.5 g/L. The domestic water presents usually a salinity greater than 0.5 g/L. In the last few years, several small capacity reverse osmosis desalination prototypes have been marketed. They are used to desalinate brackish water with TDS lower than 1.5 g/L. The performances of such type of RO units with respect to the Tunisia tap waters are needed. A technico-economical evaluation of small-scale (100 L/day) reverse osmosis desalination unit has been studied. Water pre-treatment is composed of three filtration operations. Water is pumped through the RO membrane with maximum pressure of 6 bars. Before use, the desalinated water is treated with UV light. The salinity and the temperature of the tested domestic water are located respectively between 0.5 and 1.3 g/L and between 12 and 29°C. The pre-treatment allows eliminating all the suspension matters, as the turbidity and the Solid Density Index are reduced to zero FTU and surrounding one unit respectively. No chemicals are used in the pre-treatment, so membrane scaling can not be avoided if reject water presents a high scaling power. The supersaturation relative to calcium carbonate and gypsum were estimated for reject water. Their values indicate that the tested waters have no risk to scale the RO membrane. The recovery rate of the RO unit was evaluated vs. different operating conditions such as applied pressure, raw water TDS and water temperature. The small capacity unit was able to deliver a treated water of a 100 mg/L TDS with a conversion rate ranging between 25 and 37%. The water treatment cost was evaluated at 0.01 €/L which is roughly the tenth of that of bottled table water.

H. Elfil; A. Hamed; A. Hannachi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Osmosis with active solutes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite much current interest in active matter, little is known about osmosis in active systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how active solutes perturb osmotic steady states. We find that solute activity increases the osmotic pressure, and can also expel solvent from the solution - i.e. cause reverse osmosis. The latter effect cannot be described by an effective temperature, but can be reproduced by mapping the active solution onto a passive one with the same degree of local structuring as the passive solvent component. Our results provide a basic framework for understanding active osmosis, and suggest that activity-induced structuring of the passive component may play a key role in the physics of active-passive mixtures.

Thomas W. Lion; Rosalind J. Allen

2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

126

Osmosis with active solutes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite much current interest in active matter, little is known about osmosis in active systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how active solutes perturb osmotic steady states. We find that solute activity increases the osmotic pressure, and can also expel solvent from the solution - i.e. cause reverse osmosis. The latter effect cannot be described by an effective temperature, but can be reproduced by mapping the active solution onto a passive one with the same degree of local structuring as the passive solvent component. Our results provide a basic framework for understanding active osmosis, and suggest that activity-induced structuring of the passive component may play a key role in the physics of active-passive mixtures.

Lion, Thomas W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Performance of a 5 kWe Solar-only Organic Rankine Unit Coupled to a Reverse Osmosis Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems are one of the most promising energy conversion technologies available for remote areas and low temperature energy sources. An ORC system works like a conventional Rankine cycle but it uses an organic compound as working fluid, instead of water. A small ORC unit coupled with a solar thermal energy system could be used to convert solar thermal energy into electricity in remote areas, offering an alternative to Photovoltaic (PV) systems to provide the energy required by desalination applications like reverse osmosis (RO). In this work an analysis of the performance of a specific solar desalination ORC system at part load operation is presented, in order to understand its behavior from a thermodynamic perspective and be able to predict the total water production with changing operation conditions. The results showed that water production is around 1.2 m3/h, and it is stable during day and night thanks to the thermal storage and only under bad irradiance circumstances the production would stop.

M. Ibarra; A. Rovira; D.C. Alarcón-Padilla; G. Zaragoza; J. Blanco

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Planning and Design of Desalination Plants Effluent Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant. ”salinity in Seawater Reverse Osmosis." Desalination & Waterfrom Seawater Reverse Osmosis Brine by Electrodialysis:

Maalouf, Sami

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Vacancy profile in reverse osmosis membranes studied by positron annihilation lifetime measurements and molecular dynamics simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The positron annihilation technique using a slow positron beam can be used for the study of the vacancy profiles in typical reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. In this study, the vacancy profile in the polyamide membrane that exhibits a high permselectivity between ions and water was studied using the positron annihilation technique and molecular dynamics simulations. Ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetimes in the surface region of the membranes were evaluated by using a slow positron beam. The diffusion behavior of Na+ and water in the polyamides was simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) methods using the TSUBAME2 supercomputer at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and discussed with the vacancy profile probed by the o-Ps. The results suggested that the large hydration size of Na+ compared to the vacancy size in the polyamides contributes to the increased diffusivity selectivity of water/Na+ that is related to the NaCl desalination performance of the membrane. Both the hydration size of the ions and the vacancy size appeared to be significant parameters to discuss the diffusivity selectivity of water/ions in typical polyamide membranes.

A Shimazu; H Goto; T Shintani; M Hirose; R Suzuki; Y Kobayashi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Effect of silica on the properties of cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, a series of cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol-600 membranes, with varying ratios were prepared by 2-stage phase inversion protocol. The permeation properties were studied by subjecting membranes in indigenously fabricated reverse osmosis plant. After optimization of different CA/PEG ratios, the membrane with highest salt rejection capacity was selected and modified with varying amount of silica. The Modified membranes were characterized for their permeation properties, hydrophilicity, compositional analysis, thermal stability, mechanical strength and morphological studies. Silica significantly influenced the permeation performance of composite membrane. The flux enhanced from 0.35 to 2.46 L/h m2 along with an 11.41% relative increase in salt rejection. The hydrophilicity was significantly enhanced by the addition of silica. In FTIR spectra, the broadening of the peak around 3500 cm? 1 and emergence of peak at 950 cm? 1 specified the incorporation of silica particles. The thermal analysis indicated the relative increase in degradation temperature (Tmax) and glass transition temperature (Tg) for CPS-5 membrane. The mechanical stability of the modified membranes, increased initially, but declined with further addition of silica. The results indicated that the incorporation of SiO2 content in the casting solution improved the fouling resistance of the membranes.

Adnan Ahmad; Sidra Waheed; Shahzad Maqsood Khan; Sabad e-Gul; Muhammad Shafiq; Muhammad Farooq; Khairuddin Sanaullah; Tahir Jamil

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Treatment of model inland brackish groundwater reverse osmosis concentrate with electrodialysis — Part III: Sensitivity to composition and hydraulic recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of electrodialysis performance to variations in voltage application and membrane type when treating brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) concentrate waste, which typically exceeds multiple salt solubility limits. Synthetic BWRO concentrates from Arizona, Texas, and Florida of 7890–18,600 mg/L total dissolved solids were prepared with 6–10 mg/L of poly-phosphonate antiscalants. Experimentation was performed using a laboratory-scale electrodialyzer a nominal transfer area of 64 cm2 per membrane. Flow, pressure, conductivity, temperature, and pH were measured continuously, and periodic process samples were analyzed for anion and cation concentrations. The three BWRO concentrates were successfully treated with stack voltage applications of 1.0–1.5 V/cell-pair with initial current densities of 200–600 A/m2 and final salinity removal ratios up to 98%. This paper shows consistent specific energy consumption (approximately 0.03 kWh/m3 per Volt/cell-pair applied per meq/L separated) for electrodialysis treatment for several concentrates across a range of salinity and composition. Successive electrodialysis treatment recovered more than 78% of BWRO concentrate without precipitation, corresponding to calcite and dolomite saturation ratios of 15. These results demonstrate that electrodialysis processes can effectively minimize concentrate waste from BWRO processes, with simulated system recoveries up to 95%.

W. Shane Walker; Younggy Kim; Desmond F. Lawler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Percent yield of reverse osmosis (RO) treatment Percent ROfacilities, such as reverse osmosis reject water from UPWsystems may employ reverse osmosis or reverse osmosis and

Zhang, Teresa Weirui

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

A Remote Absorption Process for Disposal of Evaporate and Reverse Osmosis Concentrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many commercial nuclear plants and DOE facilities generate secondary waste streams consisting of evaporator bottoms and reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. Since liquids are not permitted in disposal facilities, these waste streams must be converted to dry solids, either by evaporation to dried solids or by solidification to liquid-free solids. Evaporation of the liquid wastes reduces their volume, but requires costly energy and capital equipment. In some cases, concentration of the contaminants during drying can cause the waste to exceed Class A waste for nuclear utilities or exceed DOE transuranic limits. This means that disposal costs will be increased, or that, when the Barnwell, SC disposal site closes to waste outside of the Atlantic Compact in July 2008, the waste will be precluded from disposal for the foreseeable future). Solidification with cement agents requires less energy and equipment than drying, but results in a volume increase of 50-100%. The doubling or tripling of waste weight, along with the increased volume, sharply increases shipping and disposal costs. Confronted with these unattractive alternatives, Diversified Technologies Services (DTS), in conjunction with selected nuclear utilities and D and D operations at Rocky Flats, undertook an exploratory effort to convert this liquid wastewater to a solid without using cement. This would avoid the bulking effect of cement, and permit the waste to be disposed of the Energy Solutions facility in Utah as well as some DOE facilities. To address the need for an attractive alternative to drying and cement solidification, a test program was developed using a polymer absorbent media to convert the concentrate streams to a liquid-free waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of the pertinent burial sites. Two approaches for mixing the polymer with the liquid were tested: mechanical mixing and in-situ incorporation. As part of this test program, a process control program (PCP) was developed that is 100% scalable from a concentrate test sample as small as 50 grams to full-scale processing of 100 cubic foot containers or larger. In summary: The absorption process offers utilities a viable and less costly alternative to on-site drying or solidification of concentrates. The absorption process can be completed by site personnel or by a vendor as a turnkey service. The process is suitable for multiple types of waste, including RO and evaporator concentrates, sludges, and other difficult to process waters and wet solids. (author)

Brunsell, D.A. [Diversified Technologies Services, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Combining reverse osmosis and ion-exchange allows beet distillery condensates to be recycled as fermentable dilution water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Combinations of physical purification processes, i.e. anion-exchange, adsorption, and reverse osmosis were evaluated and compared with single ones for their ability to remove target inhibitory compounds from distillery condensates with the purpose of reusing condensates as fermentation water. Performances of the treatments were evaluated through analyses of residual target compounds and batch and continuous fermentation experiments. Reverse osmosis on BW30 membrane (Dow Chemical) at 25 bar transmembrane pressure and volume reduction ratio (VRR) = 8 followed by anion-exchange (weak Amberlite FPA 51 resin, Dow) was the most efficient process to decrease all inhibitory target compounds (formic, acetic, propanoic, butanoic acids and 2-phenethyl alcohol) present in a distillery condensate below their detection or quantification limit. Water recovery was 87.5%. Such treated condensate proved convenient for reuse as fermentation water. Fermentation tests run in a multistage device exhibited yeast viability and ethanol production performances (concentration and global productivity) equivalent to the blank for a final ethanol concentration of 80 g L? 1 close to practical value encountered in distilleries.

Marie-Laure Lameloise; Marjorie Gavach; Marielle Bouix; Claire Fargues

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Biofouling of reverse-osmosis membranes under different shear rates during tertiary wastewater desalination: Microbial community composition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We investigated the influence of feed-water shear rate during reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination on biofouling with respect to microbial community composition developed on the membrane surface. The RO membrane biofilm's microbial community profile was elucidated during desalination of tertiary wastewater effluent in a flat-sheet lab-scale system operated under high (555.6 s?1), medium (370.4 s?1), or low (185.2 s?1) shear rates, corresponding to average velocities of 27.8, 18.5, and 9.3 cm s?1, respectively. Bacterial diversity was highest when medium shear was applied (Shannon–Weaver diversity index H' = 4.30 ± 0.04) compared to RO-membrane biofilm developed under lower and higher shear rates (H? = 3.80 ± 0.26 and H? = 3.42 ± 0.38, respectively). At the medium shear rate, RO-membrane biofilms were dominated by Betaproteobacteria, whereas under lower and higher shear rates, the biofilms were dominated by Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria, and the latter biofilms also contained Deltaproteobacteria. Bacterial abundance on the RO membrane was higher at low and medium shear rates compared to the high shear rate: 8.97 × 108 ± 1.03 × 103, 4.70 × 108 ± 1.70 × 103 and 5.72 × 106 ± 2.09 × 103 copy number per cm2, respectively. Interestingly, at the high shear rate, the RO-membrane biofilm's bacterial community consisted mainly of populations known to excrete high amounts of extracellular polymeric substances. Our results suggest that the RO-membrane biofilm's community composition, structure and abundance differ in accordance with applied shear rate. These results shed new light on the biofouling phenomenon and are important for further development of antibiofouling strategies for RO membranes.

Ashraf Al Ashhab; Osnat Gillor; Moshe Herzberg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 7087 Forward osmosis: Principles, applications, and recent developments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for reverse osmosis applications, the interests in engineered applications of osmosis has been spurred; Direct osmosis; Desalination; Reverse osmosis; Pressure-retarded osmosis Contents 1. IntroductionJournal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 70­87 Review Forward osmosis: Principles, applications

142

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes. January 1980-January 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Jan 92  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes and reverse osmosis to treat wastes. Ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Wastewater treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (Contains 63 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Treatment of model inland brackish groundwater reverse osmosis concentrate with electrodialysis — Part II: Sensitivity to voltage application and membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of electrodialysis performance to variations in voltage application and membranes when treating brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate waste. Synthetic BWRO concentrates from Arizona and Texas of 7890–14,800 mg/L total dissolved solids were prepared with poly-phosphonate antiscalants. Experimentation was performed using a laboratory-scale electrodialyzer with two sets of membranes (AMV-CMV and PCSA-PCSK) with a nominal transfer area of 64 cm2 per membrane. Flow, pressure, conductivity, temperature, and pH were measured continuously, and periodic samples were analyzed for specific anion and cation concentrations. The BWRO concentrates were successfully treated with stack voltage applications of 0.5–1.5 V/cell-pair for salinity removal ratios up to 99% with current density less than 500 A/m2. This paper highlights that (1) the specific energy consumption was proportional to the applied voltage and equivalent concentration separated (i.e., approximately 0.03 kW h/m3 per Volt/cell-pair applied per meq/L separated); (2) lower voltage applications decreased the relative separation rate of sulfate compared to chloride; and (3) water transport by electro-osmosis was independent of voltage application or resulting current densities, while it is affected by the ion exchange membranes.

W. Shane Walker; Younggy Kim; Desmond F. Lawler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Reverse osmosis removal of organic compounds II. Opportunity poisons and nerve agent hydrolysates. Technical report, June 1990-December 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis (RO) rejection of acetic acid, fluoro-, chloro- and bromoacetic acids and hydrazine was investigated in a pilot scale (3 gpm) test unit; RO rejection of methylphosphonic acid and ethyl, isopropyl and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acids (nerve agent hydrolysates) was investigated in a bench scale (6 L/hr) test unit. Rejection of acetic acid derivatives was found to be pH and pKa dependent; molecular weight was not a factor for total acids, but rejection was inversely related to molecular weight for free (undissociated) acids. Rejection of all methylphosphonates exceeded 99 percent at pH 3 to 10 and was not pH dependent. Rejection of hydrazine sulfate (a surrogate for UDMH) was no better than 90 percent at pH 7.

Burrows, W.D.; Sincero, A.P.; Schmidt, M.O.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

The need for a novel method for achieving zero effluent-discharge status for ethanol distilleries: spentwash colour removal by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sustained industrial scale production of ethanol in India is dependent on the earliest possible implementation of zero effluent discharge. High pollution parameters of effluent made it commercially impossible. An urgent need for developing a method to attain a zero discharge status for distilleries was essential. The presently tried and tested methods had limitations for conclusive disposal of spentwash effluent. Application of Reverse Osmosis was tried. However, only Rochem's DT Reverse Osmosis configuration was effective. It reduced the effluent volume. The reduced volume effluent could be conclusively composted. It also enabled recovery of reuse-quality colorless water to the extent of 50% of original volume of effluent. This technique succeeded in achieving commercially viable means for zero-discharge.

Harshvardhan Madhusudan Modak; Prayas Kamlesh Goel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. November 1976-October 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for November 1976-October 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 294 citations, 13 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: industrial. January 1976-June 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1976-June 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 281 citations, 35 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: industrial. January 1976-June 1988 (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for January 1976-June 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Wastewater treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 246 citations, 26 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Poly(vinyl alcohol) gel sublayers for reverse osmosis membranes. I. Insolubilization by acid-catalyzed dehydration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both flat-sheet and tubular composite reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were prepared by depositing aqueous solutions of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and a dehydration catalyst on asymmetric poly(arylether sulfone) (PES) substrate membranes. The PVA coatings were insolubilized by heat treatment to create stable hydrophilic gel-layer membranes. The influence of variables such as PVA concentration, catalyst concentration, curing time, and curing temperature was investigated. It was shown that a simple manipulation of one or two variables could lead to membranes with widely differing salt retention and water permeability characteristics. The insolubilized PVA coatings were intended to serve as hydrophilic gel sublayers on which ultra thin salt-retention barriers could ultimately be formed by interfacial polycondensation. For this purpose, high-flux gel layers were required, whereas salt-retention capabilities were not regarded as important. However, the promising salt retentions obtained as 2 MPa (up to 85% NaCl retention and 92% MgSO[sub 4] retention) showed that some of these PES-PVA composite membranes could function as medium-retention, medium-flux RO membranes, even in the absence of an interfacially formed salt-retention barrier.

Immelman, E.; Sanderson, R.D.; Jacobs, E.P.; Van Reenan, A.J. (Univ. of Stellenbosch, (South Africa). Inst. of Polymer Science)

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

150

Treatment of model inland brackish groundwater reverse osmosis concentrate with electrodialysis—Part I: sensitivity to superficial velocity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of electrodialysis performance to variations in hydraulic flow when treating brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) concentrate waste. A synthetic BWRO concentrate from Arizona of 7890 mg/L total dissolved solids was prepared with poly-phosphonate antiscalants, and desalinated with a laboratory-scale electrodialyzer with 10 cell-pairs and a transfer area of 64 cm2 per membrane. Flow, pressure, conductivity, temperature, and pH were measured continuously, and periodic process samples were analyzed by ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry for anion and cation concentrations, respectively. The BWRO concentrate was successfully treated with a stack voltage application of 1.0 V/cell-pair and current densities less than 280 A/m2 for salinity removal ratios up to 99% (without precipitation). The superficial velocities were controlled in a range of 1.2 to 4.8 cm/s, which corresponded to Reynolds numbers of 10 to 40. This paper shows the polarization parameter (ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 A/m2 per meq/L) as a function of Reynolds number and removal ratio, and, at maximum sensitivity, the polarization parameter was proportional to Reynolds number raised to the 0.132 power.

W. Shane Walker; Younggy Kim; Desmond F. Lawler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Time reversal communication system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

Candy, James V. (Danville, CA); Meyer, Alan W. (Danville, CA)

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

152

Development of a new feed channel spacer for reverse osmosis elements. Phase 2 final report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During Phase 1, computer modeling techniques were used as the prime instrument of evaluation of designs for a new feed channel spacer to replace the 30 mil thick standard mesh (Vexar) spacer currently used in ROWPU [Reverse Osmosis Water Processing Unit] spiral-wound elements. A hemispherical peg model, based on a Bed of Nails concept developed in Phase 1, was selected for prototype production of spiral-wound elements for field testing. Evaluation in the See-Thru test cell to observe pressure drops through the spacer, feed mixing patterns and ease of cleaning fouled membrane samples showed considerable benefit over Vexar. This design would be suitable for production by roll embossing (or rotary punching) methods instead of expensive injection molding techniques. A 10{1/2} inch die set was fabricated to prove this concept using a 12 ton press brake. Due to a number of factors, however, the equipment did not work as anticipated and numerous modifications are currently in progress. This work will continue at no cost to the government until completed. A seawater test system has been constructed for field testing of various commercially available feed channel spacers for comparison with the Vexar spacer.

Milstead, C.E.; Riley, R.L.

1998-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

153

Using microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse Maha Mehanna,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the middle chamber, the MDC also has characteristics of a reverse electrodialysis (RED) processUsing microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse osmosis Maha Mehanna the energy efficiency of a downstream reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system. We investigated here the use

154

On-Site Pilot Study - Removal of Uranium, Radium-226 and Arsenic from Impacted Leachate by Reverse Osmosis - 13155  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conestoga-Rovers and Associates (CRA-LTD) performed an on-site pilot study at the Welcome Waste Management Facility in Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the effectiveness of a unique leachate treatment process for the removal of radioactive contaminants from leachate impacted by low-level radioactive waste. Results from the study also provided the parameters needed for the design of the CRA-LTD full scale leachate treatment process design. The final effluent water quality discharged from the process to meet the local surface water discharge criteria. A statistical software package was utilized to obtain the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the results from design of experiment applied to determine the effect of the evaluated factors on the measured responses. The factors considered in the study were: percent of reverse osmosis permeate water recovery, influent coagulant dosage, and influent total dissolved solids (TDS) dosage. The measured responses evaluated were: operating time, average specific flux, and rejection of radioactive contaminants along with other elements. The ANOVA for the design of experiment results revealed that the operating time is affected by the percent water recovery to be achieved and the flocculant dosage over the range studied. The average specific flux and rejection for the radioactive contaminants were not affected by the factors evaluated over the range studied. The 3 month long on-site pilot testing on the impacted leachate revealed that the CRA-LTD leachate treatment process was robust and produced an effluent water quality that met the surface water discharge criteria mandated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and the local municipality. (authors)

McMurray, Allan; Everest, Chris; Rilling, Ken [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Dr, Waterloo, ON (Canada)] [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Dr, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Vandergaast, Gary [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON (Canada); LaMonica, David [RoChem Membrane Systems Inc., 430 30th Street, Hermosa Beach, CA (United States)] [RoChem Membrane Systems Inc., 430 30th Street, Hermosa Beach, CA (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Planning and Design of Desalination Plants Effluent Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from Seawater Reverse Osmosis Brine by Electrodialysis:reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination, electrodialysis (ED) asReverse Osmosis 14 2.2.2. Electrodialysis .

Maalouf, Sami

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Low Molecular Weight Organic Contaminants in Advanced Treatment: Occurrence, Treatment and Implications to Desalination and Water Reuse Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cutoff of 200 Da for reverse osmosis membranes [Bellona etthe efficacy of reverse osmosis technology to remove odordecreased the cost of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and

Agus, Eva

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Dynamics of reverse osmosis in a standalone cogenerative nuclear reactor (Part I: reactivity changes)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study considers the dynamic behaviour of the pressurised water reactor safety features, represented by the integrity of the fuel cladding, under some transient cases. A cosine-shaped heating through the fuel is taken with the corresponding coolant lumps, to simulate realistic cases encountered in nuclear reactors. A mathematical model was developed for the Westinghouse 3411 MWth pressurised water reactor, as an example of a familiar design with predominantly published data design. The model consists of two parts. The first part is concerned with the dynamics of the primary side of the reactor, which is described in this paper. The second part is concerned with the secondary side of the plant, which is described elsewhere in this issue. To study the dynamics of the reactor, a model of 17 lumped parameters was used, consisting of first-order differential equations deduced from the first principles considering six groups of delayed neutrons. A computer program was developed using the Runge-Kutta method to solve these equations and to predict the behaviour of the state variables with time. Two case studies were considered as examples for normal transients. The first case study, which represents Part 1 of this study, considers the effect of primary side transient on the system as the reactivity changes. Reactor reactivity changes, including movements of the reactor control rods, which are taken as an example for the effect of the reactor primary side conditions. These reactivity changes vary from 0.0005 up to 0.003, both for positive and negative reactivity. The results of the developed model, which describe the dynamic response of the reactor primary circuit, have been analysed and verified with the relevant models. These results indicate that the reactor components and the integrity of the fuel cladding were attained during different step changes of reactivity.

Aly Karameldin; M.M. Shamloul; M.R. Shaalan; M.H. Esawy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Dynamics of reverse osmosis in a standalone cogenerative nuclear reactor (Part II: load changes)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coupling of desalination units with nuclear power plants has been studied in the present work â?? in this respect, the dynamic behaviour of the pressurised water reactor safety features, represented by the integrity of the fuel cladding, under some transient cases caused by secondary circuit load changes. A cosine-shaped heating through the reactor fuel is taken with its corresponding coolant lumps, to simulate realistic cases encountered in nuclear reactors. As an example, the mathematical model for the Westinghouse 3411 MWth pressurised water reactor, a familiar design with widely published design data was developed. The model consists of two parts; the first one is concerned with the dynamics of the primary side of the reactor; and the second, with the secondary side of the plant. To study the dynamics of the reactor, a 17-lumped parameters model was used. This is a first-order differential equation deduced from the first principles considering six groups of delayed neutrons. A computer program was developed using the Runge-Kutta method to solve these equations and to predict the behaviour of the state variables with time. Two case studies were considered as examples for normal transients. The developed model, which describes the dynamic response of the reactor, primary circuit and secondary circuit, has been analysed and verified with the relevant models. The first case, represented in Part 1 of this study, is concerned with the effect of changes of primary side transient reactivity, including the movement of the reactor control rods. The second one, represented in Part 2 of this study, considers the effect of the secondary side transient reactivity, as the load changes, on the system behaviour. As an example for the secondary side transient, load perturbations, such as load variations in standalone RO desalination units, are selected to study the effect of changing the secondary side conditions on the plant behaviour. The results showed that the reactor components and the fuel matrix should not be affected, and the fuel-cladding integrity is maintained within the safe limits, in all scram cases of RO desalination units coupled with nuclear power plants in the case of either a planned shutdown or an accidental shutdown.

Aly Karameldin; M.M. Shamloul; M.R. Shaalan; M.H. Esawy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Sustainable reverse osmosis desalination.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The need for fresh water is growing rapidly with the growth in population and increase in industrial demands. The natural resources are no longer able… (more)

Moridpour, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Treatment of municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate using UVC-LED/H2O2 with and without coagulation pre-treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The potential of a prototype batch reactor using ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UVC-LEDs) which emit at 255 nm in conjunction with H2O2 for the treatment of a highly saline (electrical conductivity ?22 mS/cm; DOC 32–37.5 mg/L) municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate was investigated. Mineralization of organic content (measured as DOC) was low (22%) due to the low fluence rate (0.14 mW/cm2), however, a large reduction in colour (94%) and A254 (75%) occurred after delivering a UV fluence of 48 × 103 mJ/cm2 at the original pH of 8.3. Fairly similar results were obtained at pH 7, but the reduction of DOC increased at lower pH with 38% and 36% achieved at pH 4 and 5, respectively. Similar trends were observed for colour and A254 reduction. These results, in conjunction with excitation–emission matrix spectra, biological dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) assay and apparent molecular size distribution, demonstrated that the prototype system led to the breakdown of the chromophore bonds and thus changes in the molecular structure, and degradation of high molecular weight (MW) compounds to low MW compounds. Coagulation (1.5 and 3 mmol L?1 Al3+ at pH 5) led to a significant reduction of DOC (34–38%), colour (50–66%) and A254 (47–54%), and subsequent UVC/H2O2 treatment led to further reduction in these parameters. For a target DOC reduction of 15 mg/L, the EE/O was 15 kWh/m3 when coagulation was used as pre-treatment to the UVC/H2O2 treatment (UV fluence 36 × 103 mJ/cm2) and it reduced to less than half after biological treatment (as BDOC assay). This study demonstrated the potential of UV-LEDs as an alternative UV source for degrading the organic matter in ROC using advanced oxidation.

M. Umar; F.A. Roddick; L. Fan; O. Autin; B. Jefferson

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on boron levels. Reverse osmosis (through cellulose acetate)treated by one or more reverse- osmosis cycles. Hmvever, it

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients ... Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to produce renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. ... Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and reverse electrodialysis (RED) are emerging membrane-based technologies that can convert chemical energy in salinity gradients to useful work. ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Alberto Tiraferri; William A. Phillip; Jessica D. Schiffman; Laura A. Hoover; Yu Chang Kim; Menachem Elimelech

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

164

How solute size and charge influence osmosis James Cannon,, Daejoong Kim, Shigeo Maruyama, and Junichiro Shiomi,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This is particularly the case for applications such as desalination, where membrane-based reverse-osmosis methods haveHow solute size and charge influence osmosis James Cannon,, Daejoong Kim, Shigeo Maruyama@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; shiomi@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract Osmosis is fundamental to many processes, such as in the function

Maruyama, Shigeo

165

A Comprehensive Bench-and Pilot-Scale Investigation of Trace Or-ganic Compound Rejection by Forward Osmosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sea- water desalination, multi-barrier protection of drinking water, reduction in reverse osmosis seawater on the way to a seawater reverse osmosis pro- cess. The rejection of wastewater constituents by Forward Osmosis SUPPORTING INFORMATION Nathan T. Hancock1 , Pei Xu1 , Dean M. Heil1 , Christopher Bellona2

166

Gel deswelling under reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When a swollen gel is pressed into contact with a semipermeable membrane the solvent is squeezed out at the interface and the gel deswells. The rate at which the gel far from the interface advances is found to be proportional to [(P 0?E)/f t]1/2 where P 0 is the applied pressure E the longitudinal elastic modulus of the gel f the friction coefficient between the solvent and polymer and t the elapsed time. Satisfactory agreement is found between the experimental macroscopic values of E obtained in this way for polyacrylamide gels at two concentrations and the microscopic values of E obtained from inelastic light scattering.

A. M. Hecht; E. Geissler

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Autonomous control and membrane maintenance optimization of photovoltaic reverse osmosis systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The supply of clean water in remote and off-grid areas has been a major global challenge for humanity. Over 780 million people lack access to clean water [1]. However, a significant fraction of these people have access to ...

Bhujle, Aditya Sarvanand

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Hybrid electrodialysis reverse osmosis system design and its optimization for treatment of highly saline brines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The demand is rising for desalination technologies to treat highly saline brines arising from hydraulic fracturing processes and inland desalination. Interest is growing in the use of electrical desalination technologies ...

McGovern, Ronan Killian

169

Review on modelling and control of desalination system using reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dissolved salts in seawater or brackish water are reduced to a potable level through separation techniques, like, distillation, multiple effect vapor compression, evaporation, or by membrane processes such as ele...

S. Sobana; Rames C. Panda

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Development of an integrated reverse engineering system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of a customised reverse engineering system in which a 3D digitiser (MicroScribe-3DX) has been integrated with a computer-aided design (CAD) system (Pro/ENGINEER). The application programme written in C language enables a real-time input from the digitiser to Pro/ENGINEER. Two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) were used: the MicroScribe-3D Software Development Kit (SDK) and Pro/TOOLKIT. The former allows the user to develop an integrated system through intuitive and high-level function calls to the digitiser. The latter enables a user to customise a Pro/ENGINEER environment. This system offers an intuitive and user-friendly means for reverse engineering. It also helps to shorten the whole reverse engineering process. This is because the digitised data can be displayed and edited in real time, so that early identification and exclusion of the undesired and incorrect data are made possible.

X.W. Xu; L. Song

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

The San Diego Foundation Regional Focus 2050 Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional Growth Forecast Reverse Osmosis Reactive organicenergy demand.   Reverse osmosis (RO) systems do not 

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Continuous countercurrent membrane column for the separation of solute/solvent and solvent/solvent systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reverse osmosis membrane process or hybrid membrane - complementary separator process for producing enriched product or waste streams from concentrated and dilute feed streams for both solvent/solvent and solute/solvent systems is described.

Nerad, Bruce A. (Longmont, CO); Krantz, William B. (Boulder, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from saline wastewater in bioelectrochemical systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in physical and chemical separation processes such as ion-exchange, electrodialysis, or reverse osmosis [1

174

Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration – nanofiltration / reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating ...

Richards, B.S.; Capăo, D.P.S.; Schäfer, Andrea

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This review focuses on the present status of forward osmosis (FO) niches in two main areas: seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Specific applications for desalination and impaired-quality water treatment and reuse are described, as well as the benefits, advantages, challenges, costs and knowledge gaps on FO hybrid systems are discussed. FO can play a role as a bridge to integrate upstream and downstream water treatment processes, to reduce the energy consumption of the entire desalination or water recovery and reuse processes, thus achieving a sustainable solution for the water-energy nexus. FO hybrid membrane systems showed to have advantages over traditional membrane process like high pressure reverse osmosis and nanofiltration for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v) higher overall sustainability of the desalination and wastewater treatment process. Nevertheless, major challenges make FO systems not yet a commercially viable technology, the most critical being the development of a high flux membrane, capable of maintaining an elevated salt rejection and a reduced internal concentration polarization effect, and the availability of appropriate draw solutions (cost effective and non-toxic), which can be recirculated via an efficient recovery process. This review article highlights the features of hybrid FO systems and specifically provides the state-of-the-art applications in the water industry in a novel classification and based on the latest developments toward scaling up these systems.

R. Valladares Linares; Z. Li; S. Sarp; Sz.S. Bucs; G. Amy; J.S. Vrouwenvelder

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Installation of Reverse Osmosis Unit Reduces Refinery Energy Consumption: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Petroleum Technical Case Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This case study is the latest in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. The case studies document the activities, savings, and lessons learned on these projects.

U.S. Department of Energy

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

177

Optimization algorithm for reverse osmosis desalination economics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work an optimization algorithm for the calculation of water unit cost from various RO candidate schemes was developed. Such an algorithm may be used for evaluation purposes when many RO candidate schemes are taken into account. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on an example in which six RO candidate schemes are examined.

Andreas Poullikkas

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Gel deswelling under reverse osmosis. II  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Previous observations of the rate of deswelling z 0 of polyacrylamide gels under the influence of an externally applied pressure P showed that z 0 2 is proportional to P. This behavior was interpreted as indicating the formation of a concentrated layer of gel at the deswelling surface favored by an attractive potential between the gel and the membrane. In this article optical measurements of the concentration gradient profile of a series of gels undergoing deswelling are reported. From these curves it is shown that for small degrees of deswelling the collective diffusion constant D varies with concentration as c 0.5 but increases more strongly with concentration at large degrees of deswelling. The zeroth and first moments of these curves are in good agreement with the calculated concentration increment induced by the external pressure and the observed rate of deswelling of the gel respectively. It is concluded that there is no evidence of a distinct controlling layer at the interface between the gel and the membrane and the observed linearity between z 0 2 and P is the consequence of the nonscaling behavior of D in the equation of motion.

E. Geissler; A. M. Hecht

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Borosilicate Microporous Glasses for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The characteristics of microporous borosilicate glasses are described. Glasses with an optimum pore distribution are recommended for production and application.

S. L. Zakharov

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Industrial Waste Treatment Opportunities for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since the beginning of our industrial economy, an abundant supply of clean water has been a major factor in the choice of plant locations. In many instances in the past, industry has used water from our rivers...

J. G. Mahoney; M. E. Rowley; L. E. West

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, each indicating asubjected to reverse osmosis filtration, microfiltration,processing industry are reverse osmosis systems and ultra-

Brush, Adrian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Ultrafiltration/Reverse Osmosis System at AutomotiveUltrafiltration/reverse osmosis for wastewater cleaningUltrafiltration/reverse osmosis (UF/RO) for wastewater

Galitsky, Christina

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processing industry are reverse osmosis systems and ultra-ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis has been used for applepassed through a reverse osmosis membrane and an ultra-

Masanet, Eric

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

A Critical Analysis of Technological Innovation and Economic Development in Southern California's Urban Water Reuse And Recycling Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional Innovation System Reverse Osmosis Small Businessclaims the largest reverse osmosis desalination plant in thetechniques such as reverse osmosis, and improving filtration

Pilip-Florea, Shadrach Jay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, each indicating asubjected to reverse osmosis filtration, microfiltration,processing industry are reverse osmosis systems and ultra-

Brush, Adrian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Reverse Ecology: From Systems to Environments and Back  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 15 Reverse Ecology: From Systems to Environments and Back Roie Levy and Elhanan Borenstein the environments in which they evolved and are adapted to. Re- verse Ecology--an emerging new frontier's ecology. The Reverse Ecology framework facilitates the translation of high-throughput genomic data

Borenstein, Elhanan

187

Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hoods Pump System Motors Reverse Osmosis Storage Fan SystemMixers Fume Hoods Reverse Osmosis Transport System Packing

McKane, Aimee T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Osmosis Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Osmosis Capital Osmosis Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name Osmosis Capital Place London, United Kingdom Zip EC4M 9DN Sector Carbon Product An investment firm seeking low carbon economy opportunity investments through its Osmosis Capital Fund. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

189

Design of an Energy Recovery Concept for a Small-scale Renewable-driven Reverse Osmosis Desalination System:.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The desalination industry has grown exponentially the last four decades as countries seek solutions to water scarcity caused by population growth, climate change, pollution and… (more)

Michas, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Materials and System Issues with Reversible SOFC | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Lessons Learned from...

191

Parity and Time-Reversal Violation in Atomic Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studying the violation of parity and time-reversal invariance in atomic systems has proven to be a very effective means for testing the electroweak theory at low energy and searching for physics beyond it. Recent developments in both atomic theory and experimental methods have led to the ability to make extremely precise theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of these effects. Such studies are complementary to direct high-energy searches, and can be performed for just a fraction of the cost. We review the recent progress in the field of parity and time-reversal violation in atoms, molecules, and nuclei, and examine the implications for physics beyond the Standard Model, with an emphasis on possible areas for development in the near future.

Roberts, B M; Flambaum, V V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Innovative wastewater treatment using reversing anaerobic upflow system (RAUS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anaerobic processes are widely popular in the treatment of a variety of industrial wastewaters since the development of such high rate treatment processes like upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic filter, and the fluidized-bed process. In order to devise a low cost/high technology system so that it would provide an economical solution to environmentally sound pollution control, the Reversing Anaerobic Upflow System (RAUS) was developed. The system consists of two anaerobic reactors connected to each other. At the beginning, one reactor is fed upwards with wastewater while the other acts as a settling tank. After a set interval of time, the flow is reversed such that the second reactor is fed with wastewater and the first one acts as the settler. This particular feeding pattern had shown improved settling characteristics and granulation of methanogenic biomass from research carried out at the Hannover University with different wastewaters. The biological reaction vessels to which wastewater is introduced intermittently functions basically as a sludge blanket type reactor although the costly integrated settling devices present in a typical UASB system are avoided. The RAUS combines three principle reactor configurations: (1) conventional with sludge recycling; (2) fill and draw or sequential batch, inflow maintained constant during feeding; (3) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket. A pilot scale RAUS was operated for 400 days using distillery wastewater consisting of molasses slop and bottle washing water mixed in the ratio 1:1. This paper discusses the results of pilot scale experiments.

Basu, S.K. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Environmental Engineering Div.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

at Proton Energy Presentation by Everett Anderson, PROTON ON SITE, at the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop, April 19, 2011 revfcwkshpanderson.pdf More Documents &...

194

SWITCHABLE POLARITY SOLVENTS AS DRAW SOLUTES FOR FORWARD OSMOSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Switchable polarity solvents (SPS), mixtures of carbon dioxide, water, and tertiary amines, are presented as viable forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes allowing a novel SPS FO process. In this study substantial osmotic strengths of SPS are measured with freezing point osmometry and were demonstrated to induce competitive ?uxes at high salt concentrations on a laboratory-scale FO unit utilizing a ?at sheet cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane. Under the experimental conditions the SPS degrades the CTA membrane; however experiments with polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes display stability towards SPS. Once the draw is diluted the major fraction of the switchable polarity solvent can be mechanically separated from the puri?ed water after polar to nonpolar phase shift induced by introduction of 1 atm carbon dioxide to 1 atm of air or nitrogen with mild heating. Trace amounts of SPS can be removed from the separated water with RO in a process that avoids solution concentration polarization. The separated nonpolar phase can be regenerated to a full strength draw and recycled with the re-addition of 1 atm of carbon dioxide.

Frederick F. Stewart; Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Cathy Rae

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

The effect of wind speed fluctuations on the performance of a wind-powered membrane system for brackish water desalination   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A wind-powered reverse osmosis membrane (wind-membrane) system without energy storage was tested using synthetic brackish water (2750 and 5500 mg/L NaCl) over a range of simulated wind speeds under both steady-state and ...

Park, Gavin L.; Schäfer, Andrea; Richards, Bryce S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Synthesis of Reverse Osmosis Membranes by Plasma Polymerization of Allylamine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...probably cause the larger micropores to...and perhaps plasma formed membranes...and gas dynamic plasma conditions, a...time, humidity, atmosphere, and curing temperature...FEBRUARY 1973 Plasma polymerization...to as a motor area, the precentral...conceivable that a large number of organic...

John R. Hollahan; Theodore Wydeven

1973-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

197

Synthesis of Reverse Osmosis Membranes by Plasma Polymerization of Allylamine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ex-perimental technique of plasma polym-erization...CHCH2NH2, after plasma polym-erization in a high-frequency (1 3.56 Mhz) discharge at-0...energy from the radio-frequency (RF) gen-erator...conditions for plasma polymeriza-tion-power...

John R. Hollahan; Theodore Wydeven

1973-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

198

Concentration polarization in cross-flow reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dimensionless governing equation was formulated for a cross-flow RO process in which the local variation of concentration polarization was rigorously considered. It was shown in this formulation that the cross-flow RO process could be fully characterized with a single dimensionless parameter. The coupling between permeate flux and concentration polarization was properly solved and a closed-form analytical solution was obtained. This analytical solution enabled the authors to conveniently investigate concentration polarization in the RO process. The significance of local variation of concentration polarization was demonstrated, and the operations of RO under various conditions were simulated and investigated with the newly developed model.

Song, L.; Yu, S. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong). School of Engineering] [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong). School of Engineering

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Manufacture of Khoa, an Indian Milk Product, by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of synthetic membranes in the food and dairy industry is rapidly increasing around the world [1], To date, the major applications on a world-wide basis is the use of ultrafiltration for fractionating chee...

Dharam Pal; Munir Cheryan

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The influence of charged surfactants upon reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cationic as well as anionic surfactants influence the transport properties of cellulose acetate membranes. The rejection of the surfactants is decreased when electrolytes are added to the solution and can reac...

E. Hinke; D. Laslop; E. Staude

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Dynamic characterization of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An original method has been proposed to determine the dynamic permeability of membranes. Experiments were run under different operating conditions (various transmembrane pressures, membranes, concentrations, and solutes), and the experimental data were processed using this dynamic permeability model. The results show that permeability defined in this manner reflects the differences in the membrane behavior from pure water to a solution or from one solution to another. With dynamic permeability data, membrane condition can also be evaluated after use without the need to run experiments with pure water.

Lebrun, R.E.; Xu, Y. [Univ. du Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada). Dept. du Genie Chimique

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The Pace of Change in Seawater Desalination by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For many years desalination was regarded as a process the application of which was, on the whole, restricted to the Middle East and a few island communities around the world where rainfall or collection areas ...

Ian Lomax

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Reverse Osmosis: Application to Potato-Starch Factory Waste Effluents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the major problems of our country, and most others, is pollution of the water supplies. In this paper, we hope to describe for you a specific pollution problem of great importance, a possible means of alle...

W. L. Porter; J. Siciliano; S. Krulick; E. G. Heisler

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Recent Studies on Grafting Polyelectrolytes to Membranes for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The grafting of polyelectrolytes to polymer films leads to considerable increases in their water sorption and changes in their water permeability and salt rejection properties. Cellulose acetate polyvinyl chlorid...

V. Stannett; H. B. Hopfenberg; F. Kimura-Yeh…

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Mass transport corrected Tafel analysis for electrochemically reversible systems of complex stoichiometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A general expression which allows Tafel analysis of electrochemically reversible systems of the form mA±e??nB at hydrodynamic electrodes such as the rotating disk or wall-tube is presented.

Oleksiy V. Klymenko; Richard G. Compton

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Reverse Computation for Rollback-based Fault Tolerance in Large Parallel Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reverse computation is presented here as an important future direction in addressing the challenge of fault tolerant execution on very large cluster platforms for parallel computing. As the scale of parallel jobs increases, traditional checkpointing approaches suffer scalability problems ranging from computational slowdowns to high congestion at the persistent stores for checkpoints. Reverse computation can overcome such problems and is also better suited for parallel computing on newer architectures with smaller, cheaper or energy-efficient memories and file systems. Initial evidence for the feasibility of reverse computation in large systems is presented with detailed performance data from a particle simulation scaling to 65,536 processor cores and 950 accelerators (GPUs). Reverse computation is observed to deliver very large gains relative to checkpointing schemes when nodes rely on their host processors/memory to tolerate faults at their accelerators. A comparison between reverse computation and checkpointing with measurements such as cache miss ratios, TLB misses and memory usage indicates that reverse computation is hard to ignore as a future alternative to be pursued in emerging architectures.

Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL; Park, Alfred J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Reverse Engineered MPC for Tracking with Systems That Become Uncertain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-constrained uncertain linear time invariant systems,” Int. J. Control, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 120–130, 2014. [14] G. Betti, M. Farina, and R. Scattolini, “A robust MPC algorithm for offset-free tracking of constant reference signals,” IEEE Trans. Automat. Control, vol. 58...

Hartley, Edward N.; Maciejowski, Jan M.

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

208

Forward osmosis :a new approach to water purification and desalination.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fresh, potable water is an essential human need and thus looming water shortages threaten the world's peace and prosperity. Waste water, brackish water, and seawater have great potential to fill the coming requirements. Unfortunately, the ability to exploit these resources is currently limited in many parts of the world by both the cost of the energy and the investment in equipment required for purification/desalination. Forward (or direct) osmosis is an emerging process for dewatering aqueous streams that might one day help resolve this problem. In FO, water from one solution selectively passes through a membrane to a second solution based solely on the difference in the chemical potential (concentration) of the two solutions. The process is spontaneous, and can be accomplished with very little energy expenditure. Thus, FO can be used, in effect, to exchange one solute for a different solute, specifically chosen for its chemical or physical properties. For desalination applications, the salts in the feed stream could be exchanged for an osmotic agent specifically chosen for its ease of removal, e.g. by precipitation. This report summarizes work performed at Sandia National Laboratories in the area of FO and reviews the status of the technology for desalination applications. At its current state of development, FO will not replace reverse osmosis (RO) as the most favored desalination technology, particularly for routine waters. However, a future role for FO is not out of the question. The ability to treat waters with high solids content or fouling potential is particularly attractive. Although our analysis indicates that FO is not cost effective as a pretreatment for conventional BWRO, water scarcity will likely drive societies to recover potable water from increasingly marginal resources, for example gray water and then sewage. In this context, FO may be an attractive pretreatment alternative. To move the technology forward, continued improvement and optimization of membranes is recommended. The identification of optimal osmotic agents for different applications is also suggested as it is clear that the space of potential agents and recovery processes has not been fully explored.

Miller, James Edward; Evans, Lindsey R.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Forward with Osmosis: Emerging Applications for Greater Sustainability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Forward with Osmosis: Emerging Applications for Greater Sustainability ... Menachem Elimelech is the Roberto Goizueta Professor of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at Yale University and a World Class University Professor at Korea University in Seoul, Korea. ...

Laura A. Hoover; William A. Phillip; Alberto Tiraferri; Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

210

Experimental investigation of induced-charge electro-osmosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the general phenomenon of induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO), nonlinear electro-osmotic slip generated when an electric field acts on its own induced charge around a polarizable surface, in the context of ...

Levitan, Jeremy Asher, 1977-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

212

Development of a Reverse Logistics Performance Measurement System for a Battery Manufacturer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this contribution, the case of a leading Lead Acid Battery manufacturer in India is studied with respect to the essential reverse logistics operations of the company, due to the statutory requirements regarding toxic components in the product. The critical parameters are ascertained by a methodology interviews with the company's management and further consolidated using the taxonomy as suggested by the Balanced Scorecard approach. Then, a performance measurement system vis-ŕ-vis the industry benchmark, over a sustained period, is proposed, using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process.

Milind Bansia; Jayson K. Varkey; Saurabh Agrawal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

18   2.3.2  Reverse  Osmosis  46   4.2.1  Reverse  Osmosis  Relative  Humidity Reverse  Osmosis SERC  Reliability  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Environmental Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University, 1989 Selected Recent Publications "Reverse Osmosis Biofilm Dispersal by Osmotic Back Retarded Osmosis Energy Production from Natural Salinity Gradients." Environmental Science & Technology, 2013. "A Forward Osmosis-Membrane Distillation Hybrid Process for Direct Sewer Mining: System

Elimelech, Menachem

215

Reverse power management in a wind diesel system with a battery energy storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The subject of this paper is to present the modeling of a Wind Diesel Hybrid System (WDHS) comprising a Diesel Generator (DG), a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG), the consumer Load, a Ni–Cd Battery based Energy Storage System (BESS) and a Distributed Control System (DCS). All the models of the previously mentioned components are presented and the performance of the WDHS is tested through simulation. Simulation results with graphs for frequency and voltage of the isolated power system, active powers generated/absorbed by the different elements and the battery voltage/current/state of charge are presented for negative load and wind speed steps. The negative load step reduces the load consumed power to a level less than the WTG produced power, so that to balance active powers a negative DG power is needed (DG reverse power). As the DG speed governor cannot control system frequency in a DG reserve power situation, it is shown how the DCS orders the BESS to load artificially the system until the DG power falls in a positive power interval. The negative wind step decreases the WTG produced power, returning the power system to a situation where the needed DG power returns to positive, so that the BESS is not needed to load the system.

R. Sebastián

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Reverse engineering and identification in systems biology: strategies, perspectives and challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...general reverse engineering problem, which...33,34]. The history of statistics reveals...departments (a detailed history is given in [35...common reverse engineering approaches can...that these reverse engineering problems are extremely...Noble [232], the history of science contains...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Analysis of Pump-Turbine S Instability and Reverse Waterhammer Incidents in Hydropower Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydraulic systems continually experience dynamic transients or oscillations which threaten the hydroelectric plant from extreme water hammer pressures or resonance. In particular, the minimum pressure variations downstream of the turbine runner during the load rejection or other events may cause dangerous water column separation and subsequent rejoinder. Water column separation can be easily observed from the measurements of site transient tests, and has indeed caused serious historical damages to the machine and water conveyance system. Several technical issues regarding water column separation in draft tubes, including S instability of turbine characteristic curves, numerical instability and uncertainty of computer programs, are discussed here through case studies and available model and site test data. Catastrophic accidents experienced at a Kaplan turbine and in a long tailrace tunnel project, as well as other troubles detected in a more timely fashion, are revisited in order to demonstrate the severity of reverse water hammer. However, as there is no simple design solutions for such complex systems, this paper emphasizes that the design of hydraulic systems is always difficult, difficulties that are compounded when the phenomena in question are non-linear (water hammer), dynamic (involving wave interaction and complex devices of turbines, controls, and electrical systems), and non-monotonic (severity of response is seldom simply connected to severity of load as with vibrations and resonance, and the complexity of transient loads), and thus may lead to high economic and safety challenges and consequences.

Pejovic, Dr. Stanislav [University of Toronto] [University of Toronto; Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL] [ORNL; Karney, Professor Byran W. [University of Toronto] [University of Toronto; Gajic, Prof. Aleksandar [University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia] [University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Thermodynamic Modeling of a Membrane Dehumidification System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by various industries: microfiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis [1]. In addition to these well established and common processes, two additional processes are increasingly being applied by industry: pervaporation and gas... of anion and cation exchange membranes. Electrodialysis is also commonly used in desalination processes and in the food industry [5]. Pervaporation is similar to both reverse osmosis and gas separation (discussed in the next section). Pervaporation...

Bynum, John 1983-

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

219

Energy Conversion from Salinity Gradients by Forward Osmosis–Electrokinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy Conversion from Salinity Gradients by Forward Osmosis–Electrokinetics ... Through the use of a salinity gradient, a suction force is created to induce a hydrodynamic flow in the FO submodule based on the principle of FO. ... Kiviat, F. E.Energy Recovery from Saline Water by Means of Electrochemical Cells Science 1976, 194, 719– 720 ...

Yanmei Jiao; Chun Yang; Yuejun Kang

2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

220

Analysis of system performance losses due to the reversing valve for a heat pump using R-410a  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A traditional reversing valve enables a heat pump to operate in the heating mode or cooling mode by switching the refrigerant flow path through the indoor and outdoor coils, thereby changing the functions of the two heat exchangers. However, the presence of a reversing valve causes additional pressure drops and undesired heat exchange. The objective of this research was to measure the overall effects of a reversing valve on a 3-ton heat pump system using R-401a and make comparisons to the same valve's performance with R-22 as the refrigerant. The experiments included tests of under- and over-sized valves at the same test conditions. Also, the effects of pressure drops and of heat transfer combined with mass leakage on system and compressor performance were analyzed. It was found that the use of a larger (oversized) reversing valve to reduce pressure drops provided only limited performance gains. Also, changing refrigerant from R-22 to R-410a resulted in an increase in mass leakage but did not significantly change the effect that the reversing valve had on the system COP.

Fang, W.; Nutter, D.W.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Demonstrate an advanced water treatment and reuse process in a single hybrid system that combines forward osmosis with membrane distillation to achieve greater efficiency and increased water reuse.

222

Osmosis, colligative properties, entropy, free energy and the chemical potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A diffusive model of osmosis is presented that explains currently available experimental data. It makes predictions that distinguish it from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis, some of which have already been confirmed experimentally and others have yet to be tested. It also provides a simple kinetic explanation of Raoult's law and the colligative properties of dilute aqueous solutions. The diffusive model explains that when a water molecule jumps from low to high osmolarity at equilibrium, the free energy change is zero because the work done pressurizing the water molecule is balanced by the entropy of mixing. It also explains that equal chemical potentials are required for particle exchange equilibrium in analogy with the familiar requirement of equal temperatures at thermal equilibrium.

Peter Hugo Nelson

2014-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

223

The integration of water vane pump and hydraulic vane motor for a small desalination system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An integration of water vane pump and hydraulic vane motor was introduced in small reverse osmosis (RO) system, in which the hydraulic vane motor was used as energy recovery device. The hydraulic performance and energy consumption of one combination of pump and hydraulic motor were investigated under different operation conditions. This type of integration pump reduces energy cost and simplifies the system setup, thus it could be an alternative choice for small RO desalination system. Our results demonstrated that the improvement of volumetric efficiencies of the pump and the hydraulic motor was the main factor to increase the prototype pump performance.

Yong Lu; Yuanyang Zhao; Gaoxuan Bu; Pengcheng Shu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Reversible Bending Fatigue Test System for Investigating Vibration Integrity of Spent Nuclear Fuel during Transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must meet safety requirements under normal and accident conditions as specified by federal regulations. During transportation, SNF experiences unique conditions and challenges to cladding integrity due to the vibrational and impact loading during road or rail shipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing testing capabilities that can be used to improve the understanding of the impacts on SNF integrity due to vibration loading, especially for high burn-up SNF in normal transportation operation conditions. This information can be used to meet the nuclear industry and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission needs in the area of safety and security of spent nuclear fuel storage and transport operations. The ORNL developed test system can perform reversible-bending fatigue testing to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The testing apparatus is also designed to meet the challenges of hot-cell operation, including remote installation and detachment of the SNF test specimen, in-situ test specimen deformation measurement, and implementation of a driving system suitable for use in a hot cell. The system contains a U-frame set-up equipped with uniquely designed grip rigs, to protect SNF rod and to ensure valid test results, and use of 3 specially designed LVDTs to obtain the in-situ curvature measurement. A variety of surrogate test rods have been used to develop and calibrate the test system as well as in performing a series of systematic cyclic fatigue tests. The surrogate rods include stainless steel (SS) cladding, SS cladding with cast epoxy, and SS cladding with alumina pellets inserts simulating fuel pellets. Testing to date has shown that the interface bonding between the SS cladding and the alumina pellets has a significant impact on the bending response of the test rods as well as their fatigue strength. The failure behaviors observed from tested surrogate rods provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying failure mechanisms of the SNF surrogate rod under vibration which has not been achieved previously. The newly developed device is scheduled to be installed in the hot-cell in summer 2013 to test high burnup SNF.

Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL] [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL] [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL] [ORNL; Flanagan, Michelle [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Osmotically-assisted desalination method and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for osmotically assisted desalination include using a pressurized concentrate from a pressure desalination process to pressurize a feed to the desalination process. The depressurized concentrate thereby produced is used as a draw solution for a pressure-retarded osmosis process. The pressure-retarded osmosis unit produces a pressurized draw solution stream that is used to pressurize another feed to the desalination process. In one example, the feed to the pressure-retarded osmosis process is impaired water.

Achilli, Andrea; Childress, Amy E.; Cath, Tzahi Y.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

226

Apparatus and method for controlling the rotary airlocks in a coal processing system by reversing the motor current rotating the air lock  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement to a coal processing system where hard materials found in the coal may cause jamming of either inflow or outflow rotary airlocks, each driven by a reversible motor. The instantaneous current used by the motor is continually monitored and compared to a predetermined value. If an overcurrent condition occurs, indicating a jamming of the airlock, a controller means starts a "soft" reverse rotation of the motor thereby clearing the jamming. Three patterns of the motor reversal are provided.

Groombridge, Clifton E. (Hardin, MT)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Effects of trace metals on diatom export products from the euphotic zone and significance for biogeochemical cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Combined Electrodialysis/Reverse Osmosis. Aquaticby combined electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, most of

Richter, Daniel J.

228

A Near-term Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Weinert, Jonathan X.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

A Near-Term Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Weinert, Jonathan X.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

An Assessment of the Near-Term Costs of Hydrogen Refueling Stations and Station Components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen dispenser Water Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Lipman, Timothy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

An Assessment of the Near-Term Costs of Hydrogen Refueling Stations and Station Components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Lipman, T E; Weinert, Jonathan X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Regional variation of formation water chemistry and diagenesis reaction in underpressured system: example from Shiwu depression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solid (TDS) content ranges from 1000 to 7600 mg/l and increases with depth. In this halite-free basin or reverse chemical osmosis (Graf, 1982), halite and potash salt dissolution (Hanor, 1987), evaporatively

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

233

Elemental, Isotopic, and Spectroscopic Assessment of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Matter Sampled with a Portable Reverse Osmosis System A L E X A N D R E O U E L L E T , D R A G O S H C manuscript received December 26, 2007. Accepted January 8, 2008. Portable reverse osmosis (RO) systems implies the rinsing of the reverse osmosis system with a solution of dilute Na

Long, Bernard

234

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Exxon Research and Engineering. System design final report, Volume 1. Design description seawater feed (System A)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of a solar powered water desalination system is presented. Design data including insolation and climate of the Yanbu, Saudi Arabia site are included. Two solar desalination designs were developed including: (1) a conceptual baseline plant powered by a solar central receiver-heliostat field, and (2) a pilot plant that demonstrates and evaluates the design features of the baseline plant. The desalination process involves a hybrid reverse osmosis/multiple effect distillation process. The performance and economics of the design plants are analyzed. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Advanced, Energy-Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Demonstrate an advanced water treatment and reuse process in a single hybrid system that combines forward osmosis with membrane distillation to achieve greater efficiency and increased water reuse.

236

Development of a reverse osmosis/electrodialysis process to concentrate natural organic matter.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Disinfection in water treatment has been used to protect public health for over 100 years. Disinfectants are added to inactivate pathogens in the drinking water… (more)

Smith, Bryan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Improving recovery in reverse osmosis desalination of inland brackish groundwaters via electrodialysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??As freshwater resources are limited and stressed, and as the cost of conventional drinking water treatment continues to increase, interest in the development of non-traditional… (more)

Walker, William Shane, 1981-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Renewable energy powered membrane technology: Salt and inorganic contaminant removal by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fluctuating energy and pH on retention of dissolved contaminants from real Australian groundwaters using a solar (photovoltaic) powered ultrafiltration – ...

Richards, Laura A.; Richards, Bryce S.; Schäfer, Andrea

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

The Development of a Synthesis Approach for Optimal Design of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the developed representation, by accounting for detailed water quality information, within the SWRO desalination network optimization problem. The superstructures were modified to incorporate models that capture the performance of common membrane elements...

Alnouri, Sabla

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

240

Evaluation of Cleaning Strategies for Removal of Biofilms from Reverse-Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Some variability in cleaning efficiencies between the LC and HC membranes...appeared to be cleaned with higher efficiency in nearly all cases. This variability...procedure for potable water and swimming pools. J. Am. Water Works Assoc...

C. Whittaker; H. Ridgway; B. H. Olson

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes for the improvement of must quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When the vintage is poor, different must concentration techniques are used for overcoming grape compositional deficiency, such as evaporative or freeze concentration, and membrane processes. The membrane filtrati...

Sandra Pati; Domenico La Notte…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Pretreatment of Oil Field and Mine Waste Waters for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a brine treatment process for the Morcinek mine near the city of Katowice in Upper Silesia in Poland. The process was developed jointly by Aquatech Services, Inc. (Aquatech) and the Lawren...

W. L. Bourcier; H. Brandt; J. H. Tait

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

The use of reverse osmosis technology for water treatment in power engineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of operation of DVS-M/150 installations for a total output of 150 m3/h (ZAO NPK Mediana-Fil’tr) at the Water Treatment Department of the Novocherkassk Thermal Power Plant (NchGRES) are presented, and ...

A. N. Samodurov; S. E. Lysenko; S. L. Gromov; A. A. Panteleev…

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Ab initio calculation of the structure of acetate cellulose membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The elementary unit of the monoacetate cellulose membrane in lithium, sodium, and potassium chloride solutions was simulated with the Gaussian-98 program package. The results are used for qualitative explanation ...

E. V. Butyrskaya; V. A. Shaposhnik; A. A. Reznikov

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Water permeability of nanoporous graphene at realistic pressures for reverse osmosis desalination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoporous graphene (NPG) shows tremendous promise as an ultra-permeable membrane for water desalination thanks to its atomic thickness and precise sieving properties. However, a significant gap exists in the literature ...

Cohen-Tanugi, David

246

Control of residual aluminum from conventional treatment to improve reverse osmosis performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005. The Role of Dissolved Aluminum in Silica Chemistry forDraft Public Health Goal for Aluminum in Drinking Water .1994. Control of Residual Aluminum in Filtered Water . AWWA,

Gabelich, C J; Ishida, K P; Gerringer, F W; Evangelista, R; Kalyan, M; Suffet, I H

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-driven desalination with reverse osmosis: the state of the art Andrea Ghermandi*, Rami Messalem Ben-Gurion University; accepted in revised form 17 June 2009 abstract Solar-driven reverse osmosis desalination can potentially experimental and design systems worldwide. Our results show that photovoltaic-powered reverse osmosis is techni

Messalem, Rami

248

Performance Limiting Effects in Power Generation from Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to utilize the free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for clean and renewable power generation. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the performance limiting phenomena in ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

249

Thermodynamic and Energy Efficiency Analysis of Power Generation from Natural Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Gibbs free energy of mixing dissipated when fresh river water flows into the sea can be harnessed for sustainable power generation. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is one of the methods proposed to generate power from natural salinity gradients. In ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

250

Solco International Ltd formerly Solar Energy Systems | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

International Ltd formerly Solar Energy Systems International Ltd formerly Solar Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name Solco International Ltd (formerly Solar Energy Systems) Place Welshpool, Western Australia, Australia Zip 6016 Sector Solar Product Solar techology company specialising in solar powered energy systems, pumps and reverse osmosis water purification systems. References Solco International Ltd (formerly Solar Energy Systems)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Solco International Ltd (formerly Solar Energy Systems) is a company located in Welshpool, Western Australia, Australia . References ↑ "Solco International Ltd (formerly Solar Energy Systems)" Retrieved from

251

Evaluation of flow fields on bubble removal and system performance in an ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis stack  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reverse electrodialysis stack Marta C. Hatzell a , Bruce E. Logan b,n a Department of Mechanical form 11 June 2013 Accepted 15 June 2013 Available online 21 June 2013 Keywords: Reverse electrodialysis solution for energy generation in reverse electrodialysis (RED) stacks. However, operating RED stacks

252

Influence of Natural Organic Matter Fouling and Osmotic Backwash on Pressure Retarded Osmosis Energy Production from Natural Salinity Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Influence of Natural Organic Matter Fouling and Osmotic Backwash on Pressure Retarded Osmosis Energy Production from Natural Salinity Gradients ... Therefore, SRNOM fouling of porous support in PRO detrimentally constrains the ability of the membrane to convert salinity gradient energy into useful work. ... Other unique areas of forward osmosis research include pressure-retarded osmosis for generation of electricity from saline and fresh water and implantable osmotic pumps for controlled drug release. ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

253

1 Removal of Trace Organic Chemicals and Performance of a Novel 2 Hybrid Ultrafiltration-Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

diluted during the process. A reverse osmosis (RO) system is then used to 16 reconcentrate the diluted DS, additional 46 treatment processes such as nanofiltration (NF) or reverse 47 osmosis (RO),3-7 activated carbon from municipal wastewater. The UFO-MBR 10 system uses both ultrafiltration (UF) and forward osmosis (FO

254

Forward and reverse combustion gasification of coal with production of high-quality syngas in a simulated pilot system for in situ gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This research focused on the feasibility and stability of applying the forward and reverse combustion approach to the in situ gasification of lignite and bituminous coal with oxygen or oxygen–steam mixtures as gasification agents, especially reverse combustion gasification. A high-quality syngas (H2 and CO) could be obtained using the reverse combustion gasification technique combined with forward combustion gasification in a pilot system for in situ gasification. The gasification time was extended more than 25% using the reverse combustion approach. The controlling conditions for reverse combustion gasification were obtained by comparing and analyzing experimental data. The results show the relationship between the inject gas flow within certain limits and velocity of the gasification flame was linear during reverse combustion. The underground conditions of the coal seam and strata were simulated in a pilot-scale underground gasifier during experiments. The combustion gasification of coal was carried out experimentally for over 5 days. The average effective content (H2 and CO) of syngas was in the range of 60–70%, meeting the requirement of synthesis gas. The optimal ranges of gasifying lignite and bituminous coal were found to be 1.5–2.0 and 1.3–1.75, respectively. The product gas flow was proportional to oxygen blast. These are expected to provide useful guidance on practical underground coal gasification operations and to give experimental evidence in support of theory.

Yong Cui; Jie Liang; Zhangqing Wang; Xiaochun Zhang; Chenzi Fan; Dongyu Liang; Xuan Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Design of stand-alone brackish water desalination wind energy system for Jordan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 100 underground water wells drilled in Jordan are known to have brackish water with total desolved solids (TDS) over 1500 ppm but not greater than 4000 ppm. The world standard for potable water limits the TDS count to 500 ppm in addition to being free from live microorganisms or dangerous mineral and organic substances. A reverse osmosis desalination scheme powered by a stand-alone wind energy converter (WEC) is proposed to produce fresh water water from wells located in potentially high-wind sites. The purpose of this study if to present the main design parameters and economic estimates of a wind-assisted RO system using a diesel engine as the baseline energy source and an electric wind turbine for the wind energy source. It is found that brackish water pumping and desalinating using WECs costs 0.67 to 1.16 JD/m[sup 3] (JD = Jordanian Dinar, 1US$ = 0.68 JD), which is less than using conventional diesel engines especially in remote areas. In addition, the wind-reverse osmosis system becomes more economically feasible for higher annual production rates or in good wind regimes.

Habali, S.M.; Saleh, I.A.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Aged black carbon in marine sediments and sinking particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combining reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for more com-using coupled reverse osmosis–electrodialysis, Geochim.and POC. Reverse osmosis coupled to electrodialysis (RO/ED)

Coppola, Alysha I; Ziolkowski, Lori A; Masiello, Caroline A; Druffel, Ellen R. M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metal recovery from reverse osmosis concentrate. Journal ofnanofil- tration and reverse osmosis membranes. Journal ofrecovery [%] Assumed cost reverse osmosis [$/m 3 permeate

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Distillation and by Reverse Osmosis - Trends Towards theReliabilityFirst Corporation Reverse Osmosis Steam Assistedwater through reverse osmosis (30). While saline water can

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Oceanographic Considerations for Desalination Plants in Southern California Coastal Waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

construct and operate a reverse osmosis (R.O. ) desalinationand filtered through reverse osmosis membranes to produceseawater produced by the reverse osmosis process (brine)

Jenkins, Scott A; Wasyl, Joseph

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from ion exchange, reverse osmosis, filtration and otherStripping Ion Exchange Reverse Osmosis Chemical TreatmentElectrolytic Oxidation Reverse Osmosis tJl trafi 1 tration

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

An Analysis of Near-Term Hydrogen Vehicle Rollout Scenarios for Southern California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterhydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Nicholas, Michael A; Ogden, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Membrane Desalination of Agricultural Drainage Water: Water Recovery Enhancement and Brine Minimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R.J. Petersen, Composite Reverse-Osmosis and NanofiltrationPilot-scale testing of reverse osmosis using conventionalY. Cohen, High- Recovery Reverse Osmosis Using Intermediate

Cohen, Yoram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Use of bioassays to assess the water quality of wastewater treatment plants for the occurrence of estrogens and androgens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposed to reconstituted reverse osmosis water (Control) andprocesses included reverse osmosis, filtration/chlorinationbeen treated with reverse osmosis. Our results also suggest

Schlenk, Daniel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Biomimicry using Nano-Engineered Enhanced Condensing Surfaces for Sustainable Fresh Water Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flash distillation (MSF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The 2009flash distillation and reverse osmosis are shown in TableStage Flash Distillation Reverse Osmosis Typical unit size [

Al-Beaini, Sara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

use of membranes. In reverse osmosis (RO) the pre-filteredsemi-permeable membrane. Reverse osmosis and other membranecleaned by means of reverse osmosis. In collaboration with a

Neelis, Maarten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Self-Assembled Materials as Novel Nanotechnology-Enabled Ultrafiltration Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on polyamide composite reverse osmosis membrane properties,1997, 124, H. Hachisuka, K. Ikeda, Reverse osmosis compositemembrane and reverse osmosis treatment method for water

Pendergast, MaryTheresa Monahan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2001. Installation of Reverse Osmosis Unit Reduces Refineryuse of membranes. In reverse osmosis (RO), the pre-filteredsemi- permeable membrane. Reverse osmosis and other membrane

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis membranes, as well asion exchange, reverse osmosis, and ammonia stripping.Metcalf & Eddy Inc. 2003). Reverse osmosis occurs when water

Lekov, Alex

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

(Ir)reversibility in dense granular systems driven by oscillating forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use computer simulations to study highly dense systems of granular particles that are driven by oscillating forces. We implement different dissipation mechanisms that are used to extract the injected energy. In particular, the action of a simple local Stokes' drag is compared with non-linear and history-dependent frictional forces that act either between particle pairs or between particles and an external container wall. The Stokes' drag leads to particle motion that is periodic with the driving force, even at high densities around close packing where particles undergo frequent collisions. With the introduction of inter-particle frictional forces this "interacting absorbing state" is destroyed and particles start to diffuse around. By reducing the density of the material we go through another transition to a "non-interacting" absorbing state, where particles independently follow the force-induced oscillations without collisions. In the system with particle-wall frictional interactions this transition has signs of a discontinuous phase transition. It is accompanied by a diverging relaxation time, but not by a vanishing order parameter, which rather jumps to zero at the transition.

Ronny Moebius; Claus Heussinger

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

270

Climate change as a confounding factor in reversibility of acidification: RAIN and CLIMEX projects Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(3), 477486 (2001) EGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate change as a confounding factor in reversibility of acidification: RAIN and CLIMEX projects to the roofed structure and a climate change manipulation (CLIMEX project) was superimposed on the clean rain 477 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(3), 477­486 (2001) © EGS Climate change as a confounding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

271

Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

2011-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

272

Reverse-Engineering Banks' Financial Strength Ratings Using ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dec 27, 2006 ... reverse-engineering a superior bank rating system, which turns out to ...... sector (

mal92

2009-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

273

Reversed Doppler effect under reflection from a shock electromagnetic wave  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility of observing the reversed Doppler effect in an electrodynamic system of coupled transmission...

A. M. Belyantsev; A. B. Kozyrev

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Characterization of ion selective membranes for application in reverse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterization of ion selective membranes for application in reverse electrodialysis systems I would have imagined when I started. i #12;Abstract Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a renewable

Kjelstrup, Signe

275

Comparative study of power and water cogeneration systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of three combined systems using reverse osmosis to produce drinkable water and a Rankine cycle which produces mechanical power have been analyzed and compared. The RO subsystem incorporates a power recovery unit (a hydraulic turbine in the first two cases and a pressure exchange unit in the third case). The coupling between the RO and Rankine subsystems is only mechanical in the first case (the Rankine cycle provides mechanical power to the pumps of the RO subsystem), while in the two other cases the coupling is both mechanical and thermal (the heat rejected by the condenser of the Rankine cycle is transferred to the seawater). The minimum values of the Rankine cycle mass ratio for the three systems and the maximum operating temperature for the two last systems have been established. Energy and exergy efficiencies are also compared for identical entering parameters.

N. Bouzayani; N. Galanis; J. Orfi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

6 Isotope Composition of Organic Matter in Seawater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................................109 6.4.3 Reverse Osmosis/Electrodialysis Method

Guo, Laodong

277

Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Reverse-Micelle Formation in the Partitioning of Trivalent f-Element Cations by Biphasic Systems Containing a Tetraalkyldiglycolamide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conditions for reverse-micelle formation were studied for solutions of tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide (TODGA) in alkane diluents equilibrated with aqueous solutions of nitric or hydrochloric acids in the presence and absence of Nd3+. Small-angle neutron ...

Mark P. Jensen; Tsuyoshi Yaita; Renato Chiarizia

2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

279

GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION NEEDS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION IN CRYSTALLINE AND ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS SYMPOSIUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or, commercially, reverse osmosis. This occurs where adifferential is the result. The reverse of osmosis is called

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Artificial Cellulosomes and Arsenic Cleanup: From Single Cell Programming to Synthetic Yeast Consortium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adsorption, and reverse osmosis (Kartinen and Martin, 1995;exchange, adsorption, and reverse osmosis (DeMarco et al. ,

Tsai, Shen-Long

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Electron energy spectra, fluxes, and day-night asymmetries of boron-8 solar neutrinos from the 391-day salt phase sno data set  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Following desalination by reverse osmosis and water puri?not be removed by the reverse osmosis method, as that would

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Effects of trace metals on diatom export products from the euphotic zone and significance for biogeochemical cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrodialysis/Reverse Osmosis. Aquatic Geochemistry, 16(electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, most of which is in the

Richter, Daniel J.

283

300 GPM Solids Removal System A True Replacement for Back Flushable Powdered Filter Systems - 13607  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EnergySolutions Solids Removal System (SRS) utilizes stainless steel cross-flow ultra-filtration (XUF) technology which allows it to reliably remove suspended solids greater than one (1) micron from liquid radwaste streams. The SRS is designed as a pre-treatment step for solids separation prior to processing through other technologies such as Ion Exchange Resin (IER) and/or Reverse Osmosis (RO), etc. Utilizing this pre-treatment approach ensures successful production of reactor grade water while 1) decreasing the amount of radioactive water being discharged to the environment; and 2) decreasing the amount of radioactive waste that must ultimately be disposed of due to the elimination of spent powdered filter media. (authors)

Ping, Mark R.; Lewis, Mark [EnergySolutions, Suite 100, Center Point II, 100 Center Point Circle, Columbia, SC 29210 (United States)] [EnergySolutions, Suite 100, Center Point II, 100 Center Point Circle, Columbia, SC 29210 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Toward Resource Recovery from Wastewater: Extraction of Phosphorus from Digested Sludge Using a Hybrid Forward Osmosis–Membrane Distillation Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Toward Resource Recovery from Wastewater: Extraction of Phosphorus from Digested Sludge Using a Hybrid Forward Osmosis–Membrane Distillation Process ... † Strategic Water Infrastructure Laboratory, School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia ...

Ming Xie; Long D. Nghiem; William E. Price; Menachem Elimelech

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

285

ADVANCED MATERIALS Membranes for Clean Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and security. Polymer-based membrane separation technologies based on reverse osmosis, forward osmosis active layer used in reverse osmosis membranes, interfacial polymerization of trimesoyl chloride (TMC

286

Investigation into economical desalination using optimized hybrid renewable energy system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the use of hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs) in Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination. Mathematical model aided with a newly developed computer program for sizing (HRES) components. The study evaluates the individual and total expenses needed as well as the amount of excess renewable energy production. An optimization program was developed to select the best (HRES) combination that can produce desalinated water in a relatively economic cost. It demonstrates an investigated optimization approach based on minimization of the excess energy. It presents the impact of the considered optimization technique on the unit cost of energy and consequently unit cost of desalinated water. Unit production costs of both energy and desalinated water for two existing small and medium (RO) plants powered with conventional electricity grid are compared with the generated electricity from optimized (HRES). Cost sensitivity evaluation for (HRES) components to estimate the most economical price of (HRES) for desalination is presented.

A. Hossam-Eldin; A.M. El-Nashar; A. Ismaiel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Solar Driven Adsorption Desalination System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Desalination is one of the most traditional processes to generate potable water. With the rise in demand for potable water and paucity of fresh water resources, this process has gained special importance. Conventional thermal desalination processes involves evaporative methods such as multi-stage flash and solar distils, which are found to be energy intensive, whereas reverse osmosis based systems have high operating and maintenance costs. The present work describes the Adsorption Desalination (AD) system, which is an emerging process of thermal desalination cum refrigeration capable of utilizing low grade heat easily obtainable from even non-concentrating type solar collectors. The system employs a combination of flash evaporation and thermal compression to generate cooling and desalinated water. The current study analyses the system dynamics of a 4-bed single stage silica-gel plus water based AD system. A lumped model is developed using conservation of energy and mass coupled with the kinetics of adsorption/desorption process. The constitutive equations for the system components viz. evaporator, adsorber and condenser, are solved and the performance of the system is evaluated for a single stage AD system at various condenser temperatures and cycle times to determine optimum operating conditions required for desalination and cooling.

S. Mitra; K. Srinivasan; P. Kumar; S.S. Murthy; P. Dutta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Chapter 8 - Solar Desalination Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chapter 8 deals with solar desalination systems. The chapter initially analyzes the relation of water and energy as well as water demand and consumption and the relation of energy and desalination. Subsequently, the various desalination processes are described starting with a general exergy analysis of desalination systems and thermal desalination processes. This is followed by a review of the direct and indirect desalination systems. The typical direct system is the solar still and the analysis includes classification of solar distillation systems, performance of solar stills, and general comments on solar distillation. Indirect collection systems presented include the multistage flash process, the multiple-effect boiling process, the vapor compression process, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. These are described technologically and the system design equations are given. The chapter includes also a review of the renewable energy desalination systems and examines solar thermal energy, solar ponds, solar photovoltaic, wind power, hybrid solar PV–wind power, and geothermal energy. Finally, the parameters to consider in the selection of a desalination process are examined.

Soteris A. Kalogirou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Bioluminescence-Based Method for Measuring Assimilable Organic Carbon in Pretreatment Water for Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...bioluminescence-based assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test was developed for determining the...luminescence and is nutritionally robust. AOC was measured in both a pilot plant and a...treatment. This article presents a marine AOC test for determining the biological growth...

Lauren A. Weinrich; Orren D. Schneider; Mark W. LeChevallier

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

290

Microbial fouling of reverse-osmosis membranes used in advanced wastewater treatment technology: chemical, bacteriological, and ultrastructural analyses.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Science report. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 72:41-49...filter procedure for potable water and swimming pools. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 71:402-405...sewage effluent: the effect of recovery. Water Res. 11:379-385...

H F Ridgway; A Kelly; C Justice; B H Olson

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Experiments and modeling of multilayered coatings and membranes : application to thermal barrier coatings and reverse osmosis membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I developed a novel methodology for characterizing interfacial delamination of thermal barrier coatings. The proposed methodology involves novel experiments-plus numerical simulations in order to determine ...

Luk-Cyr, Jacques

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

The corrosion performance of high chromium stainless steels and titanium alloys at a reverse osmosis plant in Arabian Gulf seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate the corrosion performance of four high chromium stainless steels and Grade 2 titanium in flowing Arabian Gulf natural seawater. The EIS provided information concerning the changes to the interfacial impedance as a function of exposure time for these alloys. The impedance spectra for all the alloys showed slight changes at the low frequency region over the exposure period. The open-circuit potentials (OCP) of these alloys were also monitored as a function of exposure time. The stainless steel alloys exhibited slight fluctuation in potential around the initial exposure potential. However, Grade 2 titanium initial potential was more active and then gradually shifted towards the noble direction. The linear polarization resistance (LPR) method indicated that Grade 2 titanium exhibited the lowest corrosion rate with respect to the stainless steel alloys. The results of the EIS analysis and OCP indicated that Grade 2 titanium performed better than the four high chromium stainless steel alloys.

Al-Odwani, A.; Al-Tabatabaei, M.; Carew, J.; Al-Hashem, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Analysis of the tensioning force of the drainage material during fabrication of a roll type reverse osmosis module  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A procedure is proposed for determination of forces and stresses during winding of the drainage material during fabrication of a roll module from conditions of stability, strength, and stiffness of the dischar...

V. I. Kochetov; S. I. Lazarev; V. Yu. Popov

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Technical and economic feasibility of membrane technology. Fourth technical progress report, June 17-September 16, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress is reported on the investigation of the potential application of reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and electrodialysis to the system of solids concentration in beet sugar process streams. During this period, emphasis was put on running reverse osmosis tests with a new prototype machine to select the most suitable membranes for the concentrating of sugar solutions. An economic analysis of using reverse osmosis in a factory producing 10/sup 6/ gal/day of thin juice is discussed. (DMC)

Sandre, A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Progress on the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Casey Brown, Versa Power Systems, at the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop, April 19, 2011

296

Microbial desalination cells for energy production and desalination Younggy Kim 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exoelectrogenic microorganisms Microbial fuel cells Electrodialysis Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are a new a thermodynamically reversible pro- cess at 50% water recovery [3­5]. The most energy efficient systems for seawater.elsevier.com/locate/desal #12;plants using reverse osmosis (RO) [3,5]. It is thought that further ad- vances in reverse osmosis

297

Reversible logic for supercomputing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is about making reversible logic a reality for supercomputing. Reversible logic offers a way to exceed certain basic limits on the performance of computers, yet a powerful case will have to be made to justify its substantial development expense. ... Keywords: applications modeling, climate change global warming, computer architecture, quantum dot cellular automata, reversible logic, supercomputing

Erik P. DeBenedictis

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Capacitive deionization system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new capacitive deionization system (CDI) removes ions, contaminants impurities from water and other aqueous process streams, and further selectively places the removed ions back into solution during regeneration. It provides a separation process that does not utilize chemical regeneration processes, and thus significantly reduces or completely eliminates secondary wastes associated with the operation of ion exchange resins. In the CDI, electrolyte flows in open channels formed between adjacent electrodes, and consequently the pressure drop is much lower than conventional separation processes. The fluid flow can be gravity fed through these open channels, and does not require membranes. This feature represents a significant advantage over the conventional reverse osmosis systems which include water permeable cellulose acetate membranes, and over the electrodialysis systems which require expensive and exotic ion exchange membranes. The CDI is adaptable for use in a wide variety of commercial applications, including domestic water softening, industrial water softening, waste water purification, sea water desalination, treatment of nuclear and aqueous wastes, treatment of boiler water in nuclear and fossil power plants, production of high-purity water for semiconductor processing, and removal of salt from water for agricultural irrigation. CDI accomplishes this removal of impurities by a variety of mechanisms, but predominantly by electrostatic removal of organic and inorganic ions from water or any other dielectric solvent.

Richardson, J. H., LLNL

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Synthesis of reversible sequential elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To construct a reversible sequential circuit, reversible sequential elements are required. This work presents novel designs of reversible sequential elements such as the D latch, JK latch, and T latch. Based on these reversible latches, we construct ... Keywords: Reversible logic, sequential circuits, sequential elements

Min-Lun Chuang; Chun-Yao Wang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Highly Robust Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) Hollow Fiber Membranes with High Power Densities for Renewable Salinity-Gradient Energy Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) Salinity-gradient energy (i.e., osmotic power) generated from the mixing of solutions with different salinities via pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) represents a high potential source of renewable energy. ... Thorsen, T.; Holt, T.The potential for power production from salinity gradients by pressure retarded osmosis J. Membr. ... When using saline water as the feed soln., the efficiency of the osmotic pressure decreases with increasing feed concn. ...

Gang Han; Peng Wang; Tai-Shung Chung

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

303

All Skate, Now Reverse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

All Skate, Now Reverse is a memoir that consists of personal narratives that are set in or are about my growing up in Nebraska. It is about life and its defining moments, and the collection summons up childhood epiphanies ...

Glover, Angela l.

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

304

A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Reversible collisionless magnetic reconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reversible magnetic reconnection is demonstrated for the first time by means of gyrokinetic numerical simulations of a collisionless magnetized plasma. Growth of a current-driven instability in a sheared magnetic field is accompanied by magnetic reconnection due to electron inertia effects. Following the instability growth, the collisionless reconnection is accelerated with development of a cross-shaped structure of current density, and then all field lines are reconnected. The fully reconnected state is followed by the secondary reconnection resulting in a weakly turbulent state. A time-reversed simulation starting from the turbulent state manifests that the collisionless reconnection process proceeds inversely leading to the initial state. During the reversed reconnection, the kinetic energy is reconverted into the original magnetic field energy. In order to understand the stability of reversed process, an external perturbation is added to the fully reconnected state, and it is found that the accelerated reconnection is reversible when the deviation of the E × B streamlines due to the perturbation is comparable with or smaller than a current layer width.

Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

MHK Technologies/OMI Combined Energy System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

OMI Combined Energy System OMI Combined Energy System < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage OMI Combined Energy System.png Technology Profile Primary Organization Ocean Motion International LLC OMI Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber - Submerged Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 1 3 Discovery Concept Def Early Stage Dev Design Engineering Technology Description The Combined Energy System CES consists of four sub system components a seawater wave pump a hydro turbine electric generator a reverse osmosis filtration unit and an electrolysis hydrogen generation unit The CES is designed to operate on a large offshore platform which is essentially a modified version of a standard modular offshore drilling unit The system produces potable water electricity and hydrogen which is delivered to shore through service piping and cabling The OMI WavePump is technically described as a mass displacement wave energy conversion device The patented seawater pump and heart of the CES is an innovative design which uses a small number of simple moving components for minimal maintenance and wear The hydro turbine electric generator is driven by the output of multiple WavePumps which provide a constant flow of high volume high pressure seawater

307

Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film, a team from the University of Washington and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has identified separate magnetic-reversal mechanisms in the two branches of a hysteresis loop. This advance in fundamental understanding will provide new insights for developing the next generation of information storage and sensing devices where exchange bias is expected to play a critical role.

308

A Water Conservation Scenario for the Residential and Industrial Sectors in California: Potential Saveings of Water and Related Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for re-use Filter x Reverse osmosis Flocculent Counter flowEvaporation recovery c) Reverse osmosis [45r] pg 77 pg 100through ion exchange or reverse osmosis units to remove the

Benenson, P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tract C-a Tract C-b Reverse osmosis Amortized capital andadsorption, and reverse osmosis. Salts in the leachate wouldWastewater Reclamation by Reverse Osmosis," JWPCF, 21, No.

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Antiadhesive and Antibacterial Coatings for Biofouling Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new concept for reverse osmosis membranes. J Membrane SciA new concept for reverse osmosis membranes. J Membrane SciM. C. , Biofouling in reverse osmosis membranes for seawater

Marambio Jones, Catalina Stephanie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Patterns and Etiologies of Diarrheal Illness Among Two Key Immunocompromised Populations: HIV-Infected and Elderly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of faucet mounted and reverse osmosis filters was higherUnder the sink filter Reverse osmosis filter Other Don’tAn under-sink model A reverse osmosis unit 4 {LABEL SINK}

Saha, Sona Rhiju

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Are there signs of acidification reversal in freshwaters of the low mountain ranges in Germany? Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(3), 367378 (2001) EGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Are there signs of acidification reversal in freshwaters of the low mountain ranges in Germany? 367 in freshwaters of the low mountain ranges in Germany? C. Alewell1 , M. Armbruster2 , J. Bittersohl3 , C.D. Evans4 of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth, Germany 2 Institute of Soil Science, Technical University of Dresden, D-01735

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Reverse Coherent Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

Raúl García-Patrón; Stefano Pirandola; Seth Lloyd; Jeffrey H. Shapiro

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

314

A Study of Novel Hexavalent Phosphazene Salts as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two novel multi-valent salts based on phosphazene chemistry have been synthesized and characterized as forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes. Commercially obtained hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene was reacted with the sodium salt of 4-ethylhydroxybenzoate to yield hexa(4-ethylcarboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene. Hydrolysis, followed by and neutralization with NaOH or LiOH, of the resulting acidic moieties yielded water soluble sodium and lithium phosphazene salts, respectively. Degrees of dissociation were determined through osmometry over the range of 0.05-0.5 m, giving degrees of 3.08-4.95 per mole, suggesting a high osmotic potential. The Li salt was found to be more ionized in solution than the sodium salt, and this was reflected in FO experiments where the Li salt gave higher initial fluxes (~ 7 L/m2h) as compared to the sodium salt (~6 L/m2h) at identical 0.07 m draw solution concentrations at 30 °C. Longer term experiments revealed no detectable degradation of the salts; however some hydrolysis of the cellulose acetate membrane was observed, presumably due to the pH of the phosphazene salt draw solution (pH = ~8).

Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Thermodynamics and Kinetics of CO2 Adsorption on Dehydrated Palladium/Cobalt-Based Cyanogels:? A Highly Selective, Fully Reversible System for CO2 Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aerogel versus xerogel structures have a profound effect on the thermodynamics and kinetics of CO2 adsorption. ... The selective adsorption of CO2 by the cyanogels can be harnessed practically in at least two principal ways:? by using the cyanogels as reservoirs for trapping CO2 reversibly and by constructing filters having an embedded layer of the gels. ... The water of gelation was eliminated by smearing out the gel on filter paper and drying it overnight in an oven at 95 °C. ...

Rahul S. Deshpande; Stefanie L. Sharp-Goldman; Andrew B. Bocarsly

2002-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

316

Direct Analysis of Reversed-Phase HPTLC Separated Tryptic Protein Digests using a Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe/ESI-MS System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sampling, ionization and detection of tryptic peptides separated in one-dimension on reversed phase HPTLC plates was performed using liquid microjunction surface sampling probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Tryptic digests of five proteins (cytochrome c., myoglobin, beta-casein, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin) were spotted on reversed phase HPTLC RP-8 F254s and HPTLC RP-18 F254s plates. The plates were then developed using 70/30 methanol/water with 0.1 M ammonium acetate. A dual purpose extraction/electrospray solution containing 70/30/0.1 water/methanol/formic acid was infused through the sampling probe during analysis of the developed lanes. Both full scan mass spectra and data dependent tandem mass spectra were acquired for each development lane to detect and verify the peptide distributions. Data dependent tandem mass spectra provided both protein identification and sequence coverage information. Highest sequence coverages were achieved for cytochrome c. and myoglobin (62.5% and 58.3%, respectively) on reversed phase RP-8 plates. While the tryptic peptides were separated enough for identification, the peptide bands did show some overlap with most peptides located in the lower half of the development lane. Proteins whose peptides were more separated gave higher sequence coverage. Larger proteins such as beta-casein and BSA which were spotted in lower relative amounts gave much lower sequence coverage than the smaller proteins.

Emory, Joshua F [ORNL; Walworth, Matthew J [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Schulz, Michael [Merck Research Laboratories; Minarik, susanne [Merck Research Laboratories

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Sustained Self-Reversal in the Reversed-Field Pinch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spontaneous reversal of the toroidal field in a reversed-field pinch as a result of low-? (small J?J?) resisitive kink mode activity is investigated with use of a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics code. Helical and three-dimensional steady reversed states are obtained. In three dimensions quasisteady fluctuating states are observed above a critical value of the pinch parameter ?.

A. Y. Aydemir and D. C. Barnes

1984-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

318

Design of Water Filter for Third World Countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research &Responsibilities Sections Written Reverse osmosis filter research Acknowledgements Slow sand.2 Reverse Osmosis Filters 12.0 Recommendations _______________ Jingwen Wang #12;- 4 - Table of Contents List

Sun, Yu

319

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop The National Renewable Energy Laboratory hosted a workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art of reversible fuel...

320

Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Exxon Research and Engineering. System design final report, Volume 2. Appendices baseline plant design details seawater feed (System A)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The details of the design of a conceptual baseline solar desalination plant are provided. Yanbu, Saudi Arabia is the site for the plant. Details are defined for several of the plant subsystems including: energy storage, energy delivery, reverse osmosis/multiple effect distillation, water storage, waste disposal, backup power generation, controls and instrumentation, data acquisition, and facilities and enclosures subsystems. The plant equipment is listed and process flow diagrams are included. Cost estimates and economic analyses of the plant are documented. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Reversed Doppler Effect in Photonic Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonrelativistic reversed Doppler shifts have never been observed in nature and have only been speculated to occur in pathological systems with simultaneously negative effective permittivity and permeability. This Letter presents a different, new physical phenomenon that leads to a nonrelativistic reversed Doppler shift in light. It arises when light is reflected from a moving shock wave propagating through a photonic crystal. In addition to reflection of a single frequency, multiple discrete reflected frequencies or a 10 GHz periodic modulation can also be observed when a single carrier frequency of wavelength 1????m is incident.

Evan J. Reed; Marin Solja?i?; John D. Joannopoulos

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

323

Reversal bending fatigue testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

324

Technical details regarding the design, the construction and the operation of seawater pumped storage systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents important technical details for the design, construction and operation of seawater pumped storage systems (S-PSS). S-PSS co-operating with wind parks, features as the most promising technology towards maximizing Renewable Energy penetration in insular systems with low annual rainfalls. This article summarises the fundamental points of integrated studies of S-PSS, from the feasibility study to the precise positioning of the systems' components and the selection of the main equipment. Special issues regarding the use of seawater from the PSS (pumped storage system), such as the use of materials for the construction of the penstock, the construction of the upper reservoir, placing the pump station and the hydro power plant on the coast and the selection of pump and hydro-turbine models are presented thoroughly. Indicative results are presented from two S-PSS of small and medium size. The study proves that current technology enables the secure use of seawater in PSS. The electricity surplus from Wind Powered Pumped Storage Systems (WP-PSS) can also be exploited in reverse osmosis desalination plants for producing potable water. Seawater can be pumped directly from the sea, thus construction of a lower reservoir is avoided, compensating higher costs arising from the use of corrosion-resistant materials for certain components.

Dimitris Al. Katsaprakakis; Dimitris G. Christakis; Ioannis Stefanakis; Petros Spanos; Nikos Stefanakis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Reverse slapper detonator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

Weingart, Richard C. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

An Analysis of the Economic and Financial Life-Cycle Costs of Reverse-Osmosis Desalination in South Texas: A Case Study of the Southmost Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Desalination provides a supply alternative for potable water for many communities, along with possible defenses against security threats potentially affecting clean water supplies. The economic and financial life-cycle costs associated with building...

Sturdivant, A.; Rister, M.; Rogers, C.; Lacewell, R.; Norris, J.; Leal, J.; Garza, J.; Adams, J.

327

The characteristics of cobalt or copper salt-coordinated poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-2,4-diamino-6-vinyl-s-triazine) membrane for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-2,4-diamino-6-vinyl-s-triazine) membranes in which a part of pyridine rings was coordinated with cobalt or copper salt, considerably enhanced salt rejection without appreciable reductio...

Eizo Oikawa; Yoshiji Honda; Yuji Sawada

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

First-Principles Prediction of Thermodynamically Reversible Hydrogen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

First-Principles Prediction of Thermodynamically Reversible Hydrogen Storage Reactions in the Li-Mg-Ca-B-H system Home Author: V. Ozolins, E. H. Majzoub, C. Wolverton Year: 2009...

329

Linear multistep methods for integrating reversible differential equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper studies multistep methods for the integration of reversible dynamical systems, with particular emphasis on the planar Kepler problem. It has previously been shown by Cano & Sanz-Serna that reversible linear multisteps for first-order differential equations are generally unstable. Here, we report on a subset of these methods -- the zero-growth methods -- that evade these instabilities. We provide an algorithm for identifying these rare methods. We find and study all zero-growth, reversible multisteps with six or fewer steps. This select group includes two well-known second-order multisteps (the trapezoidal and explicit midpoint methods), as well as three new fourth-order multisteps -- one of which is explicit. Variable timesteps can be readily implemented without spoiling the reversibility. Tests on Keplerian orbits show that these new reversible multisteps work well on orbits with low or moderate eccentricity, although at least 100 steps/radian are required for stability.

Wyn Evans; Scott Tremaine

1999-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

330

Microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical-production cell for acid and alkali production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical-production cell for acid and alkali production Xiuping Accepted 7 March 2013 Available online 15 March 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Reverse electrodialysis Bioenergy A new type of bioelectrochemical system, called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical

331

Study, by neutron small angle scattering, of addition of an electrolyte to reversed micellar solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L-455 Study, by neutron small angle scattering, of addition of an electrolyte to reversed micellar the size of reversed micelles of the ternary system Aerosol OT-n-heptane-water by small angle neutron, highly soluble in hydro- carbon substances, which may give reversed micelles in the presence of water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOR REDUCING BIODIESEL FACILITY WATER CONSUMPTION AND WASTEWATER DISCHARGE JULY 2013 CEC5002013018 for the Integrated System for Reducing Biodiesel Facility Water Consumption and Wastewater Discharge project a combination of distillation, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis technologies, for treating and recycling

333

Desalination is here. In the arid southwest, from Texas to California, as well as in Florida and a few other states, the demand for freshwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to approximately 80% in conventional reverse osmosis (RO) systems, meaning that 20% of the water requires disposal then available for further RO treatment, and (ii) the direct application of electrodialysis to RO concentrate

Kamat, Vineet R.

334

Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a solar-assisted pilot plant in the Arava Valley in Israel. It is argued that the proposed system would. Keywords: Brackish water; Irrigation; Nanofiltration; Reverse osmosis; Solar desalination 1. Agriculture

Messalem, Rami

335

Reversible micromachining locator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

Reverse logistics network design for spent batteries: a simulation study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

End of life (EOL) product management, which encompasses reuse, remanufacturing and materials recycling, requires a structured reverse logistic network in order to collect products efficiently at the end of their life cycle. This work describes modelling and simulation of reverse logistics network design for collection of spent batteries for Sangrur District of North India. To compare different order assignment, a simulation model of forward and reverse logistics networks has been developed. Several simulation experiments have been designed to analyse impact of the system design factors on the operational performance of the reverse logistics system. The simulation results show that the model presented in this paper calculates the battery collection cost, transfer time, transfer cost, and resource utilisation in a predictable manner. Moreover, it provides a tool to understand how the system behaves by carrying out 'what-if' assessments and to identify which parameters are most important for more detailed analysis.

Arvind Jayant; Pardeep Gupta; S.K. Garg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

I P I P I P P I P I I PI P I  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.V.Tokarchuk Abstract. Hydrodynamics of an electrolyte solution transport through a reverse osmosis membrane

339

Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to Magnesium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to Magnesium Triborane in the Solid State Under Moderate Conditions. Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to...

340

Desalting seawater and brackish waters: 1981 cost update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fourth in a series of desalting cost update reports. Cost data are reported for desalting seawater by various distillation systems and by reverse osmosis. Costs of desalting four brackish waters, representative of those found in the United States by both reverse osmosis and electrodialysis are also given. Cost data are presented parametrically as a function of energy cost and plant size. The cost of desalting seawater by distillation has increased by 40% during the past two years, while desalting by reverse osmosis has increased by about 36% during the same period. Brackish water desalting by reverse osmosis has only increased by about 12%, and brackish water desalting by electrodialysis is up by 40%. Again, the continued increase in energy costs has had a major impact on all desalination systems.

Reed, S.A.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

E-Print Network 3.0 - aot reverse micelles Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the size of reversed micelles of the ternary system Aerosol OT-n-heptane-water by small angle neutron... , highly soluble in hydro- carbon substances, which may give...

342

The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis (Matson and Harris 1979). With the exception of the high lime softening process, these technologies 3 are very expensive and have many operating problems. The unit price of water treatment... with reverse osmosis is about three times the price of lime softening (You et al. 1999). The conventional lime soda process is used in cooling water systems to minimize or eliminate scale formation by removing calcium and magnesium hardness...

Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

343

What's In My Water?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for long-term use; some precious stones of cancer and damage to exchange, reverse osmosis, 0.5 ppm for short-term use. such as emeralds and bones and lungs. distillation or electrodialysis. Livestock: Current limit not established. aquamarine. Found... from refineries system disorders. or electrodialysis. Water Standards have been set for other or runoff from landfills HgCl 3 - :Anion exchange, forms of mercury (HgCl 3 - or organic and croplands. reverse osmosis, distillation or mercury complexes...

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

344

Two-pion production in the {delta}{delta} region: Is the ABC-effect the result of a resonance in the pn{r_reversible}{delta}{delta} system?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ABC effect--a puzzling low-mass enhancement in the {pi}{pi} invariant mass spectrum--is known from inclusive measurements of two-pion production in nuclear fusion reactions. Exclusive measurements conducted at CELSIUS-WASA for the fusion reactions leading to d and {sup 3}He in the final state reveal the ABC effect to be of scalar-isoscalar nature and to be associated with the formation of a resonance in the pn{r_reversible}{delta}{delta} systems in the intermediate state. The differential distributions for the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} channels can be well described, if a quasi-bound state within the {delta}{delta} system is assumed, which gives rise to a resonance structure in the total cross section. This ansatz is capable of describing all differential cross sections including the results of previous inclusive measurements on {sup 4}He as well as the energy dependence of the total cross sections.

Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Khakimova, O.; Kren, F.; Pricking, A.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G. J. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2007-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

345

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), or ionelectrodialysis is also much more sensitive to dissolved organics than reverse

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Development of low level liquid waste treatment systems: April-September 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pilot plant reverse osmosis system was demonstrated to be effective in removing large percentages of cobalt-60, iodine-125, and a mixture of cesium-137, cobalt-60, and iodine-125 from two types of aqueous streams. The effectiveness of three membrane porosities, 0, 50, and 97% salt rejection, were explored with each isotope. The 97% salt rejection membrane was the most effective in each experiment. Removals as high as 97.5% of the cobalt, 92.9% of the iodine and 95.1% of the combined isotopes were achieved. The effect of possibly interfering factors on the adsorbence of cobalt-60 and iodine-129 on selected ion exchange resins were investigated. The factors thought to affect cobalt-60 adsorption were (OH/sup -/), (NH/sub 4//sup +/), and (SO/sub 3//sup =/). None of the seven factors investigated had any effect on iodine-129 adsorption. Cesium-137 was removed from a 4600-gal aqueous waste containing a large amount of sodium hydroxide by treatment with sodium tetraphenyl boron. The cesium concentration of the supernatant portion was reduced from 570 to 4 counts/min/ml.

Williams, M.K.; Colvin, C.M.; Bond, W.H.

1982-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

347

16 IDA JournAl | Fourth QuArter 2010 www.IDADesAl.org Treatment Innovations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

areas are turning to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, the energy require- ments can be a large to a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant, the energy demand of desalination is reduced, and two tight and technically feasible across a broad range of operating conditions. Forward Osmosis­Reverse Osmosis Process

348

Reaction Mechanisms in the Li3AlH6/LiBH4 and Al/LiBH4 Systems for Reversible Hydrogen Storage. Part 1: H capacity and Role of Al  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium-based complex hydrides, including lithium aluminum hydrides (LiAlH4, Li3AlH6) and lithium borohydride (LiBH4), are some of the most attractive materials for hydrogen storage due to their high hydrogen contents. In the present work, we investigated the hydrogen storage properties of combined systems of Li3AlH6-LiBH4 and Al-LiBH4, both of which exhibit favorable hydrogen storage properties owing to the formation of AlB2 during dehydrogenation. TGA data showed that TiCl3-doped Li3AlH6/2LiBH4 and 0.5Al/LiBH4 release ~ 8.8 and ~ 8.4 wt.% H2, respectively, with ~ 3.8 and ~ 5.8 wt.% release after rehydrogenation of the dehydrogenation product. XRD results identified LiH and AlB2 phases in the dehydrogenated products, which has suggested a mechanism by which Al contributes to the remarkable improvement of the reversible storage properties of LiBH4 in terms of the temperature and pressure for H2 release/uptake.

Choi, Young Joon; Lu, Jun; Sohn, Hong Yong; Fang, Zhigang Zak

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

349

Synthesis and Optimization of Reversible Circuits for Homogeneous Boolean Functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Homogenous Boolean function is an essential part of any cryptographic system. The ability to construct an optimized reversible circuits for homogeneous Boolean functions might arise the possibility of building cryptographic system on novel computing paradigms such as quantum computers. This paper shows a factorization algorithm to synthesize such circuits.

Ahmed Younes

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

350

Reversal modes in magnetic nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The magnetic switching of ferromagnetic nanotubes is investigated as a function of their geometry. Two independent methods are used: Numerical simulations and analytical calculations. It is found that for long tubes the reversal of magnetization is achieved by two mechanism: The propagation of a transverse or a vortex domain wall depending on the internal and external radii of the tube.

P. Landeros; S. Allende; J. Escrig; E. Salcedo; D. Altbir; E. E. Vogel

2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

351

Reverse engineering the human brain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Thompson Reverse engineering the human brain Vincent Walsh Department of Experimental...can be used to temporarily prevent the brain from carrying out some of its normal functions...outline some of the advances in understanding brain function made by using TMS, and, in particular...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Cosmological Significance of Time Reversal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... reversal at nearly the same time, that time being coincident with the occurrence of the Schwarzschild singularity, that is, the point at which the limiting radius, R = GM/ ... increases it would seem that a phenomenon not dissimilar to the spherical gravitational collapse of Schwarzschild will inevitably commence. This phenomenon depends on the relative velocity, and thus the position ...

KARY MULLIS

1968-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

353

C*-algebras associated with reversible extensions of logistic maps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The construction of reversible extensions of dynamical systems presented in a previous paper by the author and A.V. Lebedev is enhanced, so that it applies to arbitrary mappings (not necessarily with open range). It is based on calculating the maximal ideal space of C*-algebras that extends endomorphisms to partial automorphisms via partial isometric representations, and involves a new set of 'parameters' (the role of parameters is played by chosen sets or ideals). As model examples, we give a thorough description of reversible extensions of logistic maps and a classification of systems associated with compression of unitaries generating homeomorphisms of the circle. Bibliography: 34 titles.

Kwasniewski, Bartosz K [Institute of Mathematics, University of Bialystok (Poland)

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Materials and System Issues with Reversible SOFC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impacts ­ Air pollution · Limited Resources ­ Oil · National security ­ Gas · Heating vs. power generation Byproduct + Anode Cathode ElectrolyteO= FLUX Air O2 H2O H2 e- e- Load O2 Depleted Air Solid Oxide Fuel Cell layer stability ­ Oxygen electrode delamination ­ Electrolyte stability ­ Chromium migration ­ Seal

355

Materials and System Issues with Reversible SOFC  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

& Economy * Environment - Climate Change * CO 2 mitigation - Habitat Impacts - Air pollution * Limited Resources - Oil * National security - Gas * Heating vs. power...

356

APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the plant capacity factor has been increasing, with a recent one-month high of 49%. If a plant capacity factor of 70% can be achieved with the present equipment, the cost of electricity would drop to $2.39 per kg of hydrogen. In this report, the power conversion (76.7%), cell stack (53.1%), and reverse osmosis system (7.14%) efficiencies are also calculated, as is the water cost per kg of hydrogen produced ($0.10 per kg). The monitoring system has identified several areas having the potential to lower costs, including using an reverse osmosis system with a higher efficiency, improving the electrolysis power conversion efficiency, and using air cooling to replace some or all chiller cooling. These activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory for the AVTA, which is part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Reversals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the fall of 1996, a few months before Jim Hall made the case against the Boeing 737 in his long letter to the...

Gerry Byrne

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Reverse engineering of integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

Chisholm, Gregory H. (Shorewood, IL); Eckmann, Steven T. (Colorado Springs, CO); Lain, Christopher M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Veroff, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

360

The Carlson-Simpson Lemma in Reverse Mathematics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6.3 Reverse Mathematicswords . . . . . 1.4 Reverse Mathematics diagrams Miller-1.1 Reverse Mathematics . . . . . . 1.2 The Dual Ramsey

Erhard, Julia Christina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Summary and presentations from the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop held April 19,...

362

Supporting Information Reversible and Persistent Electrical Bistability in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S1 Supporting Information Reversible and Persistent Electrical Bistability in Single-Crystals of a Self-Assembled -Conjugated Tetraaryl System: A Sub-Micron Scale Electrical Characterization Shay Tal1 N(Bu)4 + PF6 - ; scan rate=0.125 - 3Vs-1 ; reference electrode=Ag/AgNO3; working and counter

Gunawardena, Jeremy

363

A Multidomain Model for Ionic Electrodiffusion and Osmosis with an Application to Cortical Spreading Depression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic electrodiffusion and osmotic water flow are central processes in many physiological systems. We formulate a system of partial differential equations that governs ion movement and water flow in biological tissue. A salient feature of this model is that it satisfies a free energy identity, ensuring the thermodynamic consistency of the model. A numerical scheme is developed for the model in one spatial dimension and is applied to a model of cortical spreading depression, a propagating breakdown of ionic and cell volume homeostasis in the brain.

Yoichiro Mori

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

364

Thermodynamics and Relativity: A Revised Interpretation of the Concepts of Reversibility and Irreversibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is generally admitted in thermodynamics that, for a given change in volume, the work done by a system is greater in conditions of reversibility than in conditions of irreversibility. If the basic conventions of physics are strictly respected, it seems that this proposition needs to be reversed. Beyond this formal aspect, the discussion consolidates the idea that thermodynamics and relativity are closely connected.

Jean-Louis Tane

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-barrier protection of drinking water, reduction in reverse osmosis membrane fouling due to impurities in impaired, such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF), are capable of rejecting most dissolved constituents 2010 Accepted 29 June 2010 Available online 5 August 2010 Keywords: Osmosis Forward osmosis Osmotic

366

Dynamic simulation of a reverse Brayton refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test refrigerator based on the modified Reverse Brayton cycle has been developed in the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently. To study the behaviors of this test refrigerator, a dynamic simulation has been carried out. The numerical model comprises the typical components of the test refrigerator: compressor, valves, heat exchangers, expander and heater. This simulator is based on the oriented-object approach and each component is represented by a set of differential and algebraic equations. The control system of the test refrigerator is also simulated, which can be used to optimize the control strategies. This paper describes all the models and shows the simulation results. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental data are also presented. Experimental validation on the test refrigerator gives satisfactory results.

Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Lei, L. L.; Tang, J. C. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 China and Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

367

Direct observation of time reversal violation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique opportunity for a search of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and PHI, Factories. The two quantum effects of the first decay as a filtering measurement and the transfer of information to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of 'in' and 'out' states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system.

Bernabeu, J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Valencia, and IFIC, Joint Centre Univ. Valencia-CSIC (Spain)

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

368

An overview of time?reversal acoustics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time?reversal invariance is a very powerful concept in physics. In the field of acoustics where time reversal invariance occurs time?reversal experiments may be achieved simply with arrays of transmit?receive transducers allowing an incident wave field to be sampled recorded time?reversed and re?emitted. Time reversal mirrors (TRMs) may be used to study random media and chaotic reverberating structures. Common to these complex media is a remarkable robustness exemplified by observations that the more complex the medium between the probe source and the TRM the sharper the focus. TRMs open the way to new signal processings that interest imaging detection telecommunications and therapy. Time reversal mirrors have plenty of applications including ultrasonic therapy and medical imaging non destructive testing telecommunications underwater acoustics seismology sound control home automation. An overview of these fields will be presented.

Mathias Fink

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Radiative reverse shock laser experiments relevant to accretion processes in cataclysmic variables  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss the production of radiative reverse shocks in experiments at the Omega-60 laser facility. The ability of this high-intensity laser to impart large energy densities on micron-thin foils makes it feasible to create supersonic plasma flows. Obtaining a radiative reverse shock in the laboratory requires a sufficiently fast flow (?100 km/s) of a material whose opacity is large enough to produce energetically significant emission from experimentally achievable shocked layers. The reverse shock forms in the flow once it is impeded. This paper presents the first radiographic data of normal incidence, reverse shockwaves. These experiments are primarily motivated by the contribution of radiative reverse shock waves to the evolving dynamics of the cataclysmic variable (CV) system in which they reside. We show similarity properties to suggest that the experimental production of radiative reserve shocks in the laboratory may be scalable to such astrophysical systems.

Krauland, C. M.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Sweeney, R.; Grosskopf, M.; Klein, S.; Gillespie, R.; Keiter, P. A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Loupias, B.; Falize, E. [CEA-DAM-DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA-DAM-DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

Not Available

1981-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Nonidentified Kikuchi lines with reverse contrast  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron diffraction patterns of silicon in transmission with contrast reversal from bright to dark for an unidentified Kikuchi line along its length have been obtained. The contrast reversal of an unidentified line is explained within the elementary mechanism of Kikuchi pattern formation taking into account the Kikuchi electron double diffraction.

Karakhanyan, K. R., E-mail: kkarakhanyan@yandex.ru [Yerevan State University (Armenia)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reversibility of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), i.e. that they could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser1 REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1 , Søren Højgaard Jensen1,2 , Anne Hauch1,3 , Ib Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø National Laboratory

373

Control solids in cooling water to cut makeup requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pilot program demonstrates effectiveness of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis in increasing the cycles of concentration of recirculating-water systems. The team performed its study with the help of the Department of Interior's mobile demineralization treatment system, which houses both a reverse-osmosis and an electrodialysis desalting system. Their results indicate that both systems can produce product water of higher quality than makeup water drawn from the Colorado River. Capital cost of a full-scale treatment system with 75% product-water recovery is estimated at $3.6 million. Annual operating cost would be about $822,000.

Osantowski, R.; Kane, J.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Economic and energetic analysis of capturing CO2 from ambient air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...captured). When analyzing the economics of climate...9 Desalination, reverse osmosis...ethanol distillation and desalination...CO2; and 1.5% N2). Desalination, reverse osmosis. Description...

Kurt Zenz House; Antonio C. Baclig; Manya Ranjan; Ernst A. van Nierop; Jennifer Wilcox; Howard J. Herzog

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

This journal is c the Owner Societies 2012 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Cite this: DOI: 10.1039/c2cp42121f  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technologies. Currently, reverse osmosis (RO), multistage flash distillation (MSF), and electrodialysis (ED recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method

Santiago, Juan G.

376

ORNL 2012-G00208/tcc UT-B ID 201002406  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at pretreatment conditions compared to reverse osmosis membranes that are limited to low temperature processing/ chemicals · Less prone to fouling than reverse osmosis membranes Potential Applications · Biomass

Pennycook, Steve

377

Evaluation of Membrane Processes for Reducing Total Dissolved Solids Discharged to the Truckee River  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for endangered species. Reverse osmosis RO and nanofiltration NF , in conjunction with ultrafiltration UF also have to be removed from the effluent in order to maintain their TMDLs. Reverse osmosis RO

378

26 Maple Syrup Digest THE "JONES RULE OF 86" REVISITED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the present day when concentration by reverse osmosis is common, and the value and difference in sap (or enough. Given our increasingly powerful Reverse Osmosis machines, the resultant high concentrate sugar

Hayden, Nancy J.

379

Membrane Scientist Los Angeles, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and working hands on to ensure quality and commercial viability of reverse osmosis products including hand cast and commercial reverse osmosis membrane testing and synthesis, prototype membrane testing and new

Alpay, S. Pamir

380

Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 1986, 25,1027-1030 1027 Conclusions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, DC, 1968; Applied Mathematics Se- ries, Vol. 55; p 238. Ohya, H.; Sourirajan, S. Reverse Osmosis. Sourirajan, S. Reverse Osmosis; Logos: London, 1970. Received for reuiew September 11, 1985 Accepted May 16

Kirschvink, Joseph L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ion beam analysis of materials for water purification: Partitioning of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reverse osmosis membranes Xijing Zhang1, David G. Cahill1, Orlando Coronell2 and Benito J. Mariñas2. 1 reverse osmosis membrane, Dow Liquid Separations Conventional wisdom is

Braun, Paul

382

FM 4-20.158 TO 13C7-7-61  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..........................................................................................v Chapter 1 Rigging 600-Gallons Per Hour (GPH) Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU) on a 20-Foot-3 Preparing Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU) ...................... 1-11 Lifting

US Army Corps of Engineers

383

Water Treatment using Electrocoagulation Ritika Mohan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reverse Osmosis (HEROTM). Semiconductor industrial waste water amounts to approximately 105 ­ 106 gal of brine amounting to almost 103 104 gal/day water. The difference between conventional Reverse Osmosis

Fay, Noah

384

Le Lait (1984), 64, 143-162 Aspect nergtique du relvement par osmose  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Summary ENERGETIC CONSIDERATION ABOUT THE CONCENTRATION WITH REVERSE OSMOSIS OF «PIQUETTES» BEFORE DISTILLATION ft is possible ta concentrate «piquettes» by reverse osmosis, before the distillation

Boyer, Edmond

385

Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown disposal. Membrane treatment (nanofiltration or reverse osmosis) can be employed to reduce TDS and sulfate concentrations to acceptable levels for reuse of the blowdown in the cooling systems as makeup water.

Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-INL-12-016.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

No.: DOE-ID-INL-12-016 No.: DOE-ID-INL-12-016 SECTION A. Project Title: Reverse Osmosis System Removal SECTION B. Project Description: The project will remove a reverse osmosis water treatment system (FU-HA-101) from TAN 681 room 182. The system is out-of-service, with no intent of future use. Work will involve removal of the reverse osmosis system, and associated plumbing/piping and electrical lines and conduit. The project will clear the area of obstacles and tripping hazards associated with unused/unnecessary equipment and utilities. SECTION C. Environmental Aspects / Potential Sources of Impact: Generating and Managing Waste: Project activities will result in generation of an estimated 90 cubic ft. of low-level radioactive waste. Wastes will be characterized and dispositioned through Waste Generator Services. Reuse and recycling of materials will be practiced

387

Reversible chemisorption on highly dispersed Ru catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen and carbon monoxide adsorptions have been studied by static gas volumetric measurement on a range of highly dispersed Y-zeolite-supported ruthenium catalysts prepared by ion exchange. At ambient temperature, the absorption isotherms indicated two distinct types of adsorption - reversible (composed of both physisorption and weak chemisorption) and irreversible (strongly chemisorbed). The catalysts were highly dispersed and had average particle diameters ranging from 0.9 to 1.6 nm. Reversible hydrogen chemisorption was found to be a function of average particle diameter and dispersion. On the other hand, reversible carbon monoxide chemisorption seemed to be mainly due to interaction with the support.

Yang, C.H.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Durability Evaluation of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental investigation on the performance and durability of single solid oxide cells (SOCs) is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory. Reversible operation of SOCs includes electricity generation in the fuel cell mode and hydrogen generation in the electrolysis mode. Degradation is a more significant issue when operating SOCs in the electrolysis mode. In order to understand and mitigate the degradation issues in high temperature electrolysis, single SOCs with different configurations from several manufacturers have been evaluated for initial performance and long-term durability. A new test apparatus for single cell and small stack tests has been developed for this purpose. Cells were obtained from four industrial partners. Cells from Ceramatec Inc. and Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI) showed improved durability in electrolysis mode compared to previous stack tests. Cells from Saint Gobain Advanced Materials Inc. (St. Gobain) and SOFCPower Inc. demonstrated stable performance in the fuel cell mode, but rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode, especially at high current density. Electrolyte-electrode delamination was found to have a significant impact on degradation in some cases. Enhanced bonding between electrolyte and electrode and modification of the electrode microstructure helped to mitigate degradation. Polarization scans and AC impedance measurements were performed during the tests to characterize cell performance and degradation.

Xiaoyu Zhang; James E. O'Brien; Robert C. O'Brien; Gregory K. Housley

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Molar Mass, Surface Tension, and Droplet Growth Kinetics of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, thus enabling direct characterization of marine DOM. K¨ohler Theory Analysis

Nenes, Athanasios

390

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reverse osmosis (RO) (46% of global capacity), multi-stage flash (MSF) (36% of global capacity), electrodialysis (

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Climatic Change (2009) 97:409437 DOI 10.1007/s10584-009-9626-y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-gallon pump-price to cover irrigation costs, using reverse osmosis (RO), desalinated, sea water. Such mature

392

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Wednesday, 31 July 2013 00:00 In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

393

Subsurface imaging with reverse vertical seismic profiles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents imaging results from a 3D reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) dataset measured at a hydrocarbon bearing pinnacle reef in northern Michigan. The study presented many challenges in seismic data ...

Krasovec, Mary L. (Mary Lee), 1972-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

How to reverse-engineer quality rankings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A good or bad product quality rating can make or break an organization. However, the notion of “quality” is often defined by an independent rating ... step in this process is to “reverse-engineer” a rating compan...

Allison Chang; Cynthia Rudin; Michael Cavaretta; Robert Thomas…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Single Antenna Time Reversal of Guided Waves in Pipelines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The volatile nature of natural gas makes it extremely important to ensure that distribution pipelines remain free from defects as leakage can result in explosions. Many current methods for testing buried pipelines rely on periodic excavation of a section of pipe and attachment of large acoustic or magneto-restrictive sensors. These systems while reliable suffer from a high cost-per-test ratio. Our group hopes to reduce the power constraints of such a detection system in order to allow for permanent installations that monitor the pipelines continuously. We propose to use Time Reversal a signal processing technique in order to achieve this improvement. This paper will focus on the modes generated by various acoustic probing signals and the echoes received with and without Time Reversal. We argue that TR will be most beneficial when there are several dispersive modes present a scenario avoided in conventional techniques. We will present simulation results for the analysis of wave modes in a cylindrical pipe before and after Time Reversal using PZFlex.

Nicholas O'Donoughue; Joel Harley; Jose M. Moura; Yuanwei Jin; Irving Oppenheim; Yujie Ying; Joseph States; James Garrett; Lucio Soibelman

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversible Fuel Cells Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings Annual Merit Review Proceedings Workshop & Meeting Proceedings

397

Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries. Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable magnesium...

398

Discrimination reversal learning in yearling horses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DISCRIMINATION REVERSAL LEARNING IN YEARLING HORSES A Thesis by JEANNA CHASTAIN FISKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976... Major Subjects Animal Science DISCRIMINATION REVERSAL LEARNING IN YEARLING HORSES A Thesis by JEANNA CHASTAIN FISKE Approved as to style and content by& Chai an o Committee ad oi epartment Member Nem er December 1976 ABSTRACT Discrimination...

Fiske, Jeanna Chastain

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Cell cycle-regulated manganese superoxide dismutase activity via reversible  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cycle-regulated manganese superoxide dismutase activity via reversible cycle-regulated manganese superoxide dismutase activity via reversible phosphorylation Demet Candas University of California Davis Abstract The constant stress environment that the cells live in required the development of defense systems against free radical and radiation insults. One of the major antioxidant enzymes responsible for detoxifying free radical species is manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, Sod2), which is specifically localized into the mitochondria of cells. MnSOD catalyzes the conversion of two molecules of superoxide anion into water and hydrogen peroxide, the latter of which is then further oxidized to water. The significance of the role of MnSOD activity was shown by the studies showing that the loss or deficiency of MnSOD sensitize cells to ionizing

400

Path following with backtracking based on fuzzy controllers for forward and reverse driving  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

considers a gearshift. Since fuzzy logic is a good intuitive technique for the control of nonlinear systemsPath following with backtracking based on fuzzy controllers for forward and reverse driving J vehicle guidance system based on fuzzy logic systems to re- solve unexpected road situations. A fuzzy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Where Does My Water Come From? The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) the water wars of the 1970s and 2) the construction of the largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO Springs have brackish groundwater reverse osmosis plants; and Dunedin and Clearwater have groundwater reverse osmosis plants. Tampa Bay Water's sources vary throughout the year and current source

Jawitz, James W.

402

Part II: Short Answer Questions. Write a brief, but complete answer to each question, confining your answer to the space provided.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will not be removed by reverse osmosis? Reverse osmosis purifies water by passing it through a membrane. Any small to these hard minerals and prevent them from binding to the soap molecules. (8) 3. Both distillation and reverse osmosis are processes that will produce highly purified, but not absolutely pure water. (a) What types

Viola, Ronald

403

Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scale study of chlorination-induced transport property changes of a seawater reverse osmosis membrane of a seawater reverse osmosis membrane Axel Ettori a,b,c , Emmanuelle Gaudichet-Maurin c , Pierre Aimar a, BP 76, 78603 Maisons-Laffitte cedex, France H I G H L I G H T S A 4" spiral wound reverse osmosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.22 µm. Seawater, reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate collected from a wastewater reclamation plant for the treatment of saline water and wastewater such as thermal distillation and reverse osmosis [2,3]. MD has several advantages compared to conventional thermal distillation and reverse osmosis processes [3

405

Page 5Working Together We Can . . .Volume 9, Issue 9 Marana Pilot Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the results of innovative tech- niques aimed at lowering the cost of Reverse Osmosis and mitigating its in the Northwest Tucson area are considering treat- ing CAP water with reverse osmosis (RO) to reduce TDS reverse osmosis with very low TDS, but the remaining 15% is left with a salt concentration 1/10th

Fay, Noah

406

Proceedings of the ASME 2012 10th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels July 8-12, 2012, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and efforts have focused on the improvement of membrane-based desalination methods such as reverse osmosis or various membranes and includes reverse osmosis (RO) and membrane electro dialysis [2,6,7]. Thermally based) [2-4]. Of all these methods, reverse osmosis and multistage flash distillation ar

Hidrovo, Carlos H.

407

Murdoch University Dixon Road, Rockingham  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These research themes comprise: pre-treatment, reverse osmosis desalting, novel desalting Evaluation of non-chemical pulsed power technology as an antifouling pre- treatment for reverse osmosis-treatment process for reverse osmosis desalination Prof. Linda Zou, University of South Australia

408

July/August 2006, Vol. 61, No. 4 171 ngested inorganic arsenic (InAs) causes cancer of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

domestic wells commonly use reverse osmosis (RO) water filtration units to reduce arsenic con- centrations of 351 homes in Churchill County, NV, (the same area where our study took Reverse Osmosis Filter Use water generally do not apply to private domestic wells. Reverse osmosis (RO) units commonly are used

California at Berkeley, University of

409

BOREHOLE PRECONDITIONING OF GEOTHERMAL WELLS FOR ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BOREHOLE PRECONDITIONING OF GEOTHERMAL WELLS FOR ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM BOREHOLE PRECONDITIONING OF GEOTHERMAL WELLS FOR ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM RESERVOIR DEVELOPMENT Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: BOREHOLE PRECONDITIONING OF GEOTHERMAL WELLS FOR ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM RESERVOIR DEVELOPMENT Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Thermal stimulation can be utilized to precondition a well to optimize fracturing and production during Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) reservoir development. A finite element model was developed for the fully coupled processes consisting of: thermoporoelastic deformation, hydraulic conduction, thermal osmosis, heat conduction, pressure thermal effect, and the interconvertibility of mechanical and thermal energy. The model has

410

Resources on Water Efficiency | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Efficiency » Resources on Water Efficiency Water Efficiency » Resources on Water Efficiency Resources on Water Efficiency October 8, 2013 - 10:03am Addthis Many helpful resources about water efficiency are available. Also see Contacts. Federal Resources Reverse Osmosis Optimization Technology Evaluation: -This FEMP technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis systems to increase system performance and water efficiency. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers (Full Report): Comprehensive document assessing side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers (Fact

411

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

412

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

413

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

414

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

415

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

416

Solid-State NMR Molecular Dynamics Characterization of aHighly Chlorine-Resistant Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Random Copolymer Blended with Poly(ethylene glycol) Oligomers for Reverse Osmosis Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(3) However, PAs show a critical weakness to chlorine (e.g., NaOCl) that is added as an oxidizing biocide to remove microorganisms that accumulate on the membrane surface, blocking water flux. ... (6, 10, 11) Hence, BPS-20K, a relatively low DS material, was considered as an alternative RO membrane material owing to its excellent NaCl separation property being similar to that of commercial PA (>99%). ...

Chang Hyun Lee; Justin Spano; James E. McGrath; Joseph Cook; Benny D. Freeman; Sungsool Wi

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

417

Progress on the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Development of the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology Presented by: Casey Brown 19 April 2011 Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems - All Rights Reserved Versa Power Systems * Versa Power Systems is a developer of planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) * Privately held company headquartered in Littleton, Colorado, United States * SOFC development facility in Calgary, Alberta, Canada * Activities in both stationary and mobile SOFC development Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems - All Rights Reserved * Anode supported cells * Operating temperature range of 650 C to 800°C * Ferritic stainless steel sheet interconnect * Cross-flow gas delivery * Stack can be integrated into stack towers for various power applications VPS Planar SOFC Cell and Stack Anode Cathode Electrolyte

418

Federal Energy Management Program Report Template  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis Optimization Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program By Pacific Northwest National Laboratory K. L McMordie Stoughton, X. Duan, and E.M. Wendel August 2013 Contacts Will Lintner, P.E., CEM Federal Energy Management Program U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave. SW Washington, DC 20585-0121 Phone: (202) 586-3120 E-mail: william.lintner@ee.doe.gov Kate McMordie Stoughton Pacific Northwest National Laboratory P.O. Box 999 Richland, WA Phone: (888) 375-7665 E-mail: kate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov Cover photo: Reverse osmosis system at Sandia National Laboratories. i Acknowledgements The authors of this report would like to thank the following individuals that provided support to

419

Tokamak Equilibria with Reversed Current Density  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations of nearly zero toroidal current in the central region of tokamaks (the “current hole”) raises the question of the existence of toroidal equilibria with very low or reversed current in the core. The solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium equation with hollow toroidal current density profile including negative current density in the plasma center are investigated. Solutions of the corresponding eigenvalue problem provide simple examples of such equilibrium configurations. More realistic equilibria with toroidal current density reversal are computed using a new equilibrium problem formulation and computational algorithm which do not assume nested magnetic surfaces.

A. A. Martynov; S. Yu. Medvedev; L. Villard

2003-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

420

Reversible Bending Fatigue Testing on Zry-4 Surrogate Rods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Testing high-burnup spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presents many challenges in areas such as specimen preparation, specimen installation, mechanical loading, load control, measurements, data acquisition, and specimen disposal because these tasks are complicated by the radioactivity of the test specimens. Research and comparison studies conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) resulted in a new concept in 2010 for a U-frame testing setup on which to perform hot-cell reversible bending fatigue testing. Subsequently, the three-dimensional finite element analysis and the engineering design of components were completed. In 2013 the ORNL team finalized the upgrade of the U-frame testing setup and the integration of the U-frame setup into a Bose dual linear motor test bench to develop a cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT). A final check was conducted on the CIRFT test system in August 2013, and the CIRFT was installed in the hot cell in September 2013 to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The fatigue responses of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding and the role of pellet pellet and pellet clad interactions are critical to SNF vibration integrity, but such data are not available due to the unavailability of an effective testing system. While the deployment of the developed CIRFT test system in a hot cell will provide the opportunity to generate the data, the use of a surrogate rod has proven quite effective in identifying the underlying deformation mechanism of an SNF composite rod under an equivalent loading condition. This paper presents the experimental results of using surrogate rods under CIRFT reversible cyclic loading. Specifically, monotonic and cyclic bending tests were conducted on surrogate rods made of a Zry-4 tube and alumina pellet inserts, both with and without an epoxy bond.

Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

An Explanation for Beta's Mean-reversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the designation as an UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR Approved by Research Advisor: Dr. Dennis Jansen May 2014 Major: Economics TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................. 8 1 ABSTRACT An Explanation for Beta’s Mean Reversion. (May 2014) Connor Matthew Bodkin Department of Economics Texas A&M University Research Advisor: Dr. Dennis Jansen Department of Economics This study aims to improve upon...

Bodkin, Connor Matthew

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

422

Mitochondrial modulation: reversible phosphorylation takes center stage?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 billion years, mitochondria have evolved from oxygen-scavenging bacterial symbionts into pri- mary controlMitochondrial modulation: reversible phosphorylation takes center stage? David J. Pagliarini1 and Center for Human Genetics Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA In the past 1

Pagliarini, David J.

423

Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) is a pressurized heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor that began operation at 40 MW. The reactor was subsequently upgraded to 60 MW and operated at that level for several years. The reactor undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Questions which were raised about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal transition led to a reactor shutdown and subsequent resumption of operation at a reduced power of 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these questions is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW. Direct use of the experimental results and an understanding of the governing phenomenology supports this conclusion.

Cheng, L.Y.; Tichler, P.R.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Reversing entanglement change by a weak measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 82, 052323 (2010) Reversing entanglement change by a weak measurement Qingqing Sun,1,* M. Al-Amri,2 Luiz Davidovich,3 and M. Suhail Zubairy1 1Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering, Texas A...

Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Davidovich, Luiz; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

A 13.3 MGD seawater RO desalination plant for Yanbu Industrial City  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the major design criteria and features for the 13.3 million gallons per day (MGD) seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant that is currently under construction in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah, Yanbu Industrial City, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The seawater RO plant is made up of six trains of about 2.2 MGD capacity each. The plant consists of five major systems: seawater supply, seawater pretreatment, high pressure pumping, RO modules, and permeate posttreatment. The paper also discusses technical issues and parameters associated with the plant design, and advances made in the seawater reverse osmosis desalination technology.

Akili D. Khawaji; Ibrahim K. Kutubkhanah; Jong-Mihn Wie

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Wind tunnel balances from the pre-war...rather than the mass of spray which...desalination plant (van Hoof...tonnes and a plant rating of 150kW...material for mass production...anti-fouling treatments. For ships...housing spray plant producing an...osmosis in wastewater reuse and seawater...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

A REVERSE SHOCK IN GRB 130427A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present extensive radio and millimeter observations of the unusually bright GRB 130427A at z = 0.340, spanning 0.67-12 days after the burst. We combine these data with detailed multi-band UV, optical, NIR, and Swift X-ray observations and find that the broadband afterglow emission is composed of distinct reverse shock and forward shock contributions. The reverse shock emission dominates in the radio/millimeter and at ?< 0.1 days in the UV/optical/NIR, while the forward shock emission dominates in the X-rays and at ?> 0.1 days in the UV/optical/NIR. We further find that the optical and X-ray data require a wind circumburst environment, pointing to a massive star progenitor. Using the combined forward and reverse shock emission, we find that the parameters of the burst include an isotropic kinetic energy of E{sub K,{sub iso}} ? 2 × 10{sup 53} erg, a mass loss rate of M-dot ?3×10{sup -8} M{sub ?} yr{sup –1} (for a wind velocity of 1000 km s{sup –1}), and a Lorentz factor at the deceleration time of ?(200 s) ? 130. Due to the low density and large isotropic energy, the absence of a jet break to ?15 days places only a weak constraint on the opening angle, ?{sub j} ?> 2.°5, and therefore a total energy of E{sub ?} + E{sub K} ?> 1.2 × 10{sup 51} erg, similar to other gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The reverse shock emission is detectable in this burst due to the low circumburst density, which leads to a slow cooling shock. We speculate that this property is required for the detectability of reverse shocks in radio and millimeter bands. Following on GRB 130427A as a benchmark event, observations of future GRBs with the exquisite sensitivity of the Very Large Array and ALMA, coupled with detailed modeling of the reverse and forward shock contributions, will test this hypothesis.

Laskar, T.; Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chakraborti, S.; Lunnan, R.; Chornock, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chandra, P. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Ray, A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

428

On Reverse Engineering in the Cognitive and Brain Andreas Schierwagen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On Reverse Engineering in the Cognitive and Brain Sciences Andreas Schierwagen Institute #12;On Reverse Engineering in the Cognitive and Brain Sciences Andreas Schierwagen Institute research initiatives try to utilize the operational principles of organisms and brains to develop

Schierwagen, Andreas

429

Published: August 12, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 8483 dx.doi.org/10.1021/es201654k |Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 84838490  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as microfiltration (MF), reverse osmosis (RO), and ultraviolet irradiation with advanced oxidation processes (UV for desalination processes such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) to protect the membranes from-Scale Investigation of Trace Organic Compounds Rejection by Forward Osmosis Nathan T. Hancock, Pei Xu, Dean M. Heil

430

Effects of draw solutions and membrane conditions on electricity generation and water flux in osmotic microbial fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

membrane processes such as microfil- tration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis con. Such a water movement does not require external energy input like that in reverse osmosis; thus, FO is a low Keywords: Forward osmosis Osmotic microbial fuel cell Wastewater treatment Water flux Draw solution a b

431

0011-9164/09/$ See front matter 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Desalination 239 (2009) 1021  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the diluted DS is treated in a reverse osmosis (RO) unit; the by-product is a reconcentrated DS for reuse. For potable reuse (e.g., indirect reuse through aquifer recharge), advanced treat- ment [e.g., reverse osmosis) 10­21 The forward osmosis membrane bioreactor: A low fouling alternative to MBR processes Andrea

432

Sakhalin reversal tops C. I. S. action  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that the outlook for joint ventures in the former U.S.S.R. has been badly muddied by Russia's reversal on one of the biggest investment opportunities: development off Sakhalin Island. Russia's Supreme Council has suspended award of a feasibility study of development of oil and gas reserves off Sakhalin to a combine of Marathon Oil Co., McDermott International, and Mitsui and Co., (MMM). Development project cost is pegged at $9 - 10 billion.

Not Available

1992-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

433

Reversible Guest Exchange Mechanisms in Supramolecular Host-GuestAssemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthetic chemists have provided a wide array of supramolecular assemblies able to encapsulate guest molecules. The scope of this tutorial review focuses on supramolecular host molecules capable of reversibly encapsulating polyatomic guests. Much work has been done to determine the mechanism of guest encapsulation and guest release. This review covers common methods of monitoring and characterizing guest exchange such as NMR, UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and calorimetry and also presents representative examples of guest exchange mechanisms. The guest exchange mechanisms of hemicarcerands, cucurbiturils, hydrogen-bonded assemblies, and metal-ligand assemblies are discussed. Special attention is given to systems which exhibit constrictive binding, a motif common in supramolecular guest exchange systems.

Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Transition fields during geomagnetic reversals and their geodynamic significance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...show that for certain reversals, a path midway between the two preferred paths (i...show that for certain reversals, a path midway between the two preferred paths (i...show that for certain reversals, a path midway between the two preferred paths (i...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The Testing of Geomagnetic Reversal Models: Recent Developments [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

20 August 1982 research-article The Testing of Geomagnetic Reversal Models: Recent...data are most useful with regard to the testing of geomagnetic reversal models. First...English illus. United Kingdom 1985 The testing of geomagnetic reversal models; recent...

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Reverse Audio Engineering: Model-Based Inversion of Dynamic Range  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Reverse Audio Engineering: Model-Based Inversion of Dynamic Range Compression Stanislaw Gorlow, Graduate Student Member, IEEE and Joshua D. Reiss, Member, IEEE Abstract--Reverse audio engineering so far, reverse audio engineering. I. INTRODUCTION SOUND or audio engineering is an established discipline

437

Time Reversal in Solids (Linear and Nonlinear Elasticity): Multimedia Resources in Time Reversal  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Dynamic nonlinear elastic behavior, nonequilibrium dynamics, first observed as a curiosity in earth materials has now been observed in a great variety of solids. The primary manifestations of the behavior are characteristic wave distortion, and slow dynamics, a recovery process to equilibrium that takes place linearly with the logarithm of time, over hours to days after a wave disturbance. The link between the diverse materials that exhibit nonequilibrium dynamics appears to be the presence of soft regions, thought to be 'damage' at many scales, ranging from order 10-9 m to 10-1 m at least. The regions of soft matter may be distributed as in a rock sample, or isolated, as in a sample with a single crack [LANLhttp://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/nonlinear.shtml]. The Geophysics Group (EES-11) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has posted two or more multimedia items under each of the titles below to demonstrate aspects of their work: 1) Source Reconstruction Using Time Reversal; 2) Robustness and Efficiency of Time Reversal Acoustics in Solid Media; 3) Audio Example of Time Reversal - Speech Privacy; 4) Crack Imagining with Time Reversal - Experimental Results; 5) Time Reversal of the 2004 (M9.0) Sumatra Earthquake.

438

Steady and Transient Characteristics of Catalytic Flow Reverse Reactor Integrated with Central Heat Exchanger  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most projects among them employ thermal flow-reversal oxidizers. ... Methane is oxidized into CO2 and water, and its global warming potential is reduced by 87%. ... The regenerative combustion can achieve theoretically an autothermal run of system, even if methane in air is 0.2% v/v. ...

Sheng Wang; Diannan Gao; Shudong Wang

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

439

Rational Design of a Reversible pH-Responsive Switch for Peptide Self-Assembly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rational Design of a Reversible pH-Responsive Switch for Peptide Self-Assembly Yuri Zimenkov interwound R-helices, has inspired the design of synthetic peptide systems that self-assemble be coupled to supramolecular structure to re-create the self-assembly behavior that is characteristic

Breedveld, Victor

440

Enhancement of Time-Reversal Subwavelength Wireless Transmission Using Pulse Shaping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel time-reversal subwavelength transmission technique, based on pulse shaping circuits (PSCs), is proposed. Compared to previously reported approaches, this technique removes the need for complex or electrically large electromagnetic structures by generating channel diversity via pulse shaping instead of angular spectrum transformation. Moreover, the pulse shaping circuits (PSCs) are based on Radio Analog Signal Processing (R-ASP), and therefore do not suffer from the well-known issues of digital signal processing in ultrafast regimes. The proposed PSC time-reversal systems is mathematically shown to offer high channel discrimination under appropriate PSC design conditions, and is experimentally demonstrated for the case of two receivers.

Ding, Shuai; Zou, Lianfeng; Wang, Bingzhong; Caloz, Christophe

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ/MBR/RO system may be a feasible alternative to current methods for produced water treatment and disposal.

Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING STREAM-DISK IMPACT IN INTERACTING BINARIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the first results from high-energy-density laboratory astrophysics experiments that explore the hydrodynamic and radiative properties of a reverse shock relevant to a cataclysmic variable system. A reverse shock is a shock wave that develops when a freely flowing, supersonic plasma is impeded. In our experiments, performed on the Omega Laser Facility, a laser pulse is used to accelerate plasma ejecta into a vacuum. This flow is directed into an Al plate in front of which a shock forms in the rebounding plasma. The plasma flow is moving fast enough that it is shocked to high enough temperatures that radiative cooling affects the shock structure. These are the first experiments to produce a radiative reverse shock wave.

Krauland, C. M.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Huntington, C. M.; Kaczala, D. N.; Klein, S.; Sweeney, R.; Young, R. P.; Keiter, P. A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Loupias, B.; Falize, E.; Villette, B. [CEA-DAM-DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Plewa, T., E-mail: krauland@umich.edu, E-mail: rpdrake@umich.edu [Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Compact-Toroid Fusion Reactor (CTOR) based on the Field-Reversed Theta Pinch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scoping studies of a translating Compact Torus Reactor (CTOR) have been made on the basis of a dynamic plasma model and an overall systems approach. This CTOR embodiment uses a Field-Reversed Theta Pinch as a plasma source. The field-reversed plasmoid would be formed and compressionally heated to ignition prior to injection into and translation through a linear burn chamber, thereby removing the high-technology plamoid source from the hostile reactor environment. Stabilization of the field-reversed plasmoid would be provided by a passive conducting shell located outside the high-temperature blanket but within the low-field superconducting magnets and associated radition shielding. On the basis of this batch-burn but thermally steady-state approach, a reactor concept emerges with a length below approx. 40 m that generates 300 to 400 MWe of net electrical power with a recirculating power fraction less than 0.15.

Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Reverse Doppler effect of magnons with negative group velocity scattered from a moving Bragg grating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the reverse Doppler effect when magnons with negative group velocity are reflected off a moving Bragg grating. This grating, which represents a moving magnonic crystal, is created in an yttrium-iron-garnet film by the periodic strain induced by a traveling surface acoustic wave. As reflection occurs from a crystal rather than from a single reflecting surface, the wave number of the scattered wave is strictly determined by a momentum conservation law. Magnons scattered from the approaching (receding) magnonic crystal are found to be shifted down (up) in frequency. This result, together with an earlier report of reverse Doppler shift from moving sources [D. D. Stancil et al., Phys. Rev. B, 74, 060404(R) (2006)], establishes that the reverse Doppler effect is a universal phenomenon in systems with negative group velocity and not restricted to left-handed materials.

A. V. Chumak; P. Dhagat; A. Jander; A. A. Serga; B. Hillebrands

2010-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

445

Advanced precoat filtration and competitive processes for water purification. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An advanced precoat filtration process system is introduced. Also presented and discussed are major competitive processes for water purification, such as conventional precoat filtration, conventional physical-chemical process, lime softening, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, activated alumina, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, electrodialysis, and packed aeration column.

Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

1989-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

446

Membrane magic  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Kansas Power and Light Co.'s La Cyne generating station has found success with membrane filtration water pretreatment technology. The article recounts the process followed in late 2004 to install a Pall Aria 4 microfilter in Unit 1 makeup water system at the plant to produce cleaner water for reverse osmosis feed. 2 figs., 2 photos.

Buecker, B. [Kansas City Power and Light Co. (United States)

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

A reverse counterfactual analysis of causation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to justly acknowledge. Particular thanks go to: Knut Nygaard, for pizza and weights in Boston; Julian Hendrix for cat-sitting, house-sitting and wife-sitting while I was at Harvard; Richard Lloyd Morgan, for listening; Jackie Solomon and Maria Whelan... , Schaffer 2007. 4Collins, Hall and Paul say that a divide-and-conquer methodology is acceptable, given how tough the analysis of causation is (Collins et al. 2004, 38–39). 1.5. THINKING ABOUT THE REVERSE COUNTERFACTUAL 13 the difference between e occurring...

Broadbent, Alex

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

448

Steady State Thermoelectric Field-Reversed Configurations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that the cross-field thermoelectric force of magnetized plasmas can maintain field-reversed configurations against resistive diffusion, resulting in a steady state device attractive for thermonuclear fusion. If a peaked radial temperature profile is maintained, the thermoelectric force is in the opposite direction to the usual resistive friction, thus maintaining the field configuration. The field maintenance is tantamount to dynamo action, operating even in two dimensions. We show that a steady state device can be made by simply heating the O-point: no external electric fields or particle sources are needed. The feasibility of this scheme for fusion is discussed.

A. B. Hassam; R. M. Kulsrud; R. J. Goldston; H. Ji; M. Yamada

1999-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

449

Kinetic Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is an innovative confinement approach that offers a unique fusion reactor potential because of its compact and simple geometry, translation properties, and high plasma beta. One of the most important issues is FRC stability with respect to low-n (toroidal mode number) MHD modes. There is a clear discrepancy between the predictions of standard MHD theory that many modes should be unstable on the MHD time scale, and the observed macroscopic resilience of FRCs in experiments.

E.V. Belova; R.C. Davidson; H. Ji; and M. Yamada

2002-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

450

Global Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New computational results are presented which provide a theoretical basis for the stability of the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is a compact toroid with negligible toroidal field in which the plasma is confined by a poloidal magnetic field associated with toroidal diamagnetic current. Although many MHD modes are predicted to be unstable, FRCs have been produced successfully by several formation techniques and show surprising macroscopic resilience. In order to understand this discrepancy, we have developed a new 3D nonlinear hybrid code (kinetic ions and fluid electrons), M3D-B, which is used to study the role of kinetic effects on the n = 1 tilt and higher n modes in the FRC. Our simulations show that there is a reduction in the tilt mode growth rate in the kinetic regime, but no absolute stabilization has been found for s bar less than or approximately equal to 1, where s bar is the approximate number of ion gyroradii between the field null and the separatrix. However, at low values of s bar, the instabilities saturate nonlinearly through a combination of a lengthening of the initial equilibrium and a modification of the ion distribution function. These saturated states persist for many Alfven times, maintaining field reversal.

E.V. Belova; S.C. Jardin; H. Ji; R.M. Kulsrud; W. Park; M. Yamada

2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

Novel 4-Way Refrigerant Reversing Valve for Heat Pumps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is nearing completion. Since the last progress report (November, 1999), all experimental tests have been completed. Preliminary analysis shows the refrigerant pressure drops through the reversing valve were reduced by an average of about 60{percent}, when compared to traditional reversing valves. Also, the prototype reversing valve reduced the overall coefficient of performance (COP) by an average of only 0.45{percent}.

Darin W. Nutter

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

452

Conservation of Information: Reverse engineering dark social systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As an example, the DOE Hanford site and its consensus CAB inconsensus decisions by the Hanford CAB in Washington Statefor action; e.g. , at Hanford, scientific facts are not

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

FDD Algorithm for an AHU Reverse-Return System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- effect rules for fault diagnosis, five operation faults were tested. Finally, the cause-effect rules for these ESL-IC-08-10-51 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008... located across the riser taps at the most remote AHU, the one marked in Figure 1. ESL-IC-08-10-51 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 ?' 'rr ..Ll.~ .' ~>~f...

Djuric, N.; Novakovic, V.

454

Conservation of Information: Reverse engineering dark social systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

new perspective on innovation and social change. D. Lane, G.social evolution by emphasizing the self-organization that leads to optimal fitness, adaptive renewal, an emphasis on innovation,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Time-Reversal Symmetry in Non-Hermitian Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......6) with ab = diag(-1, -1, 1, 1, 1). Expanding G by its generators Mab (a, b = 1, 2, , 5), we find (Mab )ceed + (Mab )dece = 0, (Mab )cc = 0, (A.7) where we use the convention in which the repeating indices are summed. These......

Masatoshi Sato; Kazuki Hasebe; Kenta Esaki; Mahito Kohmoto

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Conservation of Information: Reverse engineering dark social systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Körding, K. (2007). "Decision theory: What “should” thesocial facts, game theory justifies decisions based on pre-Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk."

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Low Cost, High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Subsystem PV Array H2 Storage High Voltage DC Bus DC AC Power Natural Gas High Pressure H2 Water Oxygen Air--10001000 Slide 7 Approach - Cell Configuration Seal Alloy Separator Cathode Distribution Layer Electrolyte Anode Distribution layer Seal · Radial Flow · Diffusional · Small Diameter #12;May 19 , 2003 Technology Management

458

Control of magnetization reversal in oriented strontium ferrite thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oriented Strontium Ferrite films with the c axis orientation were deposited with varying oxygen partial pressure on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. The angle dependent magnetic hysteresis, remanent coercivity, and temperature dependent coercivity had been employed to understand the magnetization reversal of these films. It was found that the Strontium Ferrite thin film grown at lower (higher) oxygen partial pressure shows Stoner-Wohlfarth type (Kondorsky like) reversal. The relative importance of pinning and nucleation processes during magnetization reversal is used to explain the type of the magnetization reversal with different oxygen partial pressure during growth.

Roy, Debangsu, E-mail: debangsu@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Anil Kumar, P. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

459

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known...

460

Reversible mechanism for spin crossover in transition-metal cyanides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the mechanisms for reversible and repeatable spin transition in a Prussian blue analog crystal, KCo[Fe(CN)[subscript 6

Kabir, Mohammad Mukul

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of Singlet Oxygen Generation Previous Next List Jihye Park, Dawei Feng, Shuai Yuan and Hong-Cai Zhou, Angew. Chem. Int....

462

Reverse audio engineering for active listening and other applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This work deals with the problem of reverse audio engineering for active listening. The format under consideration corresponds to the audio CD. The musical content… (more)

Gorlow, Stasnislaw

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): preliminary engineering considerations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The unique confinement physics of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) projects to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor that promises a significant reduction in the cost of electricity. The compact reactor also promises a factor-of-two reduction in the fraction of total cost devoted to the reactor plant equipment (i.e., fusion power core (FPC) plus support systems). In addition to operational and developmental benefits, these physically smaller systems can operate economically over a range of total power output. After giving an extended background and rationale for the compact fusion approaches, key FPC subsystems for the Compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR) are developed, designed, and integrated for a minimum-cost, 1000-MWe(net) system. Both the problems and promise of the compact, high-power-density fusion reactor are quantitatively evaluated on the basis of this conceptual design. The material presented in this report both forms a framework for a broader, more expanded conceptual design as well as suggests directions and emphases for related research and development.

Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Schnurr, N.M.; Battat, M.E.; LaBauve, R.J.; Davidson, J.W.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Laser remanufacturing based on the integration of reverse engineering and laser cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser remanufacturing has been used as an approach to refurbish or to improve the surface quality of high-priced parts. However, most of the existing systems lack measuring and modelling functions, which results in the uncertainty of the quality of end products. This paper presents a three-dimensional Laser Remanufacturing System (LRS) based on the integration of reverse engineering and laser cladding. A coaxial powder feeding system is developed to meet the requirement of three-dimensional laser cladding. Meanwhile, the geometric and mechanical properties of metal parts of layers fabricated by LRS are explored. In addition, the principal, advantages and applications of the LRS system are described.

Liangliang Nan; Weijun Liu; Kai Zhang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Production of Novel Ebola Virus-Like Particles from cDNAs: an Alternative to Ebola Virus Generation by Reverse Genetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Microbiology ARTICLE REPLICATION Production of Novel Ebola Virus-Like Particles from cDNAs: an Alternative to Ebola Virus Generation by Reverse Genetics Shinji...plasmid-based system for generating infectious Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), which contain...

Shinji Watanabe; Tokiko Watanabe; Takeshi Noda; Ayato Takada; Heinz Feldmann; Luke D. Jasenosky; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Tests of time reversal in neutron?nucleus scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments to test time?reversal invariance are discussed. The experiments are based on observables constructed from the momentum and spin vectors of epithermal neutrons and from the spin of an aligned or polarized target. It is shown that the proposed tests are detailed balance tests of time?reversal invariance. The status of the experiments is briefly reviewed.

J. David Bowman

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.

Bredemann, Michael V

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

468

Hydrogenation of Magnesium Nickel Boride for Reversible Hydrogen Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of Magnesium Nickel Boride for Reversible Hydrogen Storage ... Use of hydrogen for transportation applications requires materials that not only store hydrogen at high density but that can operate reversibly at temperatures and pressures below approximately 100 °C and 10 bar, respectively. ... This composition is based on assuming the following complete hydrogenation reaction:which stores 2.6 wt % hydrogen. ...

Wen Li; John J. Vajo; Robert W. Cumberland; Ping Liu; Son-Jong Hwang; Chul Kim; Robert C. Bowman, Jr.

2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

469

Synthesis of the Optimal 4-bit Reversible Circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal synthesis of reversible functions is a non-trivial problem. One of the major limiting factors in computing such circuits is the sheer number of reversible functions. Even restricting synthesis to 4-bit reversible functions results in a huge search space (16!~2^44 functions). The output of such a search alone, counting only the space required to list Toffoli gates for every function, would require over 100 terabytes of storage. In this paper, we present an algorithm that synthesizes an optimal circuit for any 4-bit reversible specification. We employ several techniques to make the problem tractable. We report results from several experiments, including synthesis of random 4-bit permutations, optimal synthesis of all 4-bit linear reversible circuits, synthesis of existing benchmark functions, and distribution of optimal circuits. Our results have important implications for the design and optimization of quantum circuits, testing circuit synthesis heuristics, and performing experiments in the area of quantum information processing.

Oleg Golubitsky; Sean M. Falconer; Dmitri Maslov

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

470

BIMETALLIC LITHIUM BOROHYDRIDES TOWARD REVERSIBLE HYDROGEN STORAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Borohydrides such as LiBH{sub 4} have been studied as candidates for hydrogen storage because of their high hydrogen contents (18.4 wt% for LiBH{sub 4}). Limited success has been made in reducing the dehydrogenation temperature by adding reactants such as metals, metal oxides and metal halides. However, full rehydrogenation has not been realized because of multi-step decomposition processes and the stable intermediate species produced. It is suggested that adding second cation in LiBH{sub 4} may reduce the binding energy of B-H. The second cation may also provide the pathway for full rehydrogenation. In this work, several bimetallic borohydrides were synthesized using wet chemistry, high pressure reactive ball milling and sintering processes. The investigation found that the thermodynamic stability was reduced, but the full rehydrogenation is still a challenge. Although our experiments show the partial reversibility of the bimetallic borohydrides, it was not sustainable during dehydriding-rehydriding cycles because of the accumulation of hydrogen inert species.

Au, M.

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

471

Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

472

POLAR FIELD REVERSAL OBSERVATIONS WITH HINODE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have been monitoring yearly variation in the Sun's polar magnetic fields with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode to record their evolution and expected reversal near the solar maximum. All magnetic patches in the magnetic flux maps are automatically identified to obtain the number density and magnetic flux density as a function of the total magnetic flux per patch. The detected magnetic flux per patch ranges over four orders of magnitude (10{sup 15}-10{sup 20} Mx). The higher end of the magnetic flux in the polar regions is about one order of magnitude larger than that of the quiet Sun, and nearly that of pores. Almost all large patches ({>=}10{sup 18} Mx) have the same polarity, while smaller patches have a fair balance of both polarities. The polarity of the polar region as a whole is consequently determined only by the large magnetic concentrations. A clear decrease in the net flux of the polar region is detected in the slow rising phase of the current solar cycle. The decrease is more rapid in the north polar region than in the south. The decrease in the net flux is caused by a decrease in the number and size of the large flux concentrations as well as the appearance of patches with opposite polarity at lower latitudes. In contrast, we do not see temporal change in the magnetic flux associated with the smaller patches (<10{sup 18} Mx) and that of the horizontal magnetic fields during the years 2008-2012.

Shiota, D. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN (Institute of Physics and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsuneta, S.; Shimojo, M.; Orozco Suarez, D.; Ishikawa, R. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sako, N., E-mail: shiota@riken.jp [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

473

Electron density and temperature profile diagnostics for C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 9-point Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas is improved and the measured electron temperature profiles are consistent with theoretical expectations. Rayleigh scattering revealed a finite line width of the ruby laser emission, which complicates density calibration. Taking advantage of the plasma wobble motion, density profile reconstruction accuracy from the 6-chord two-color CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer data is improved.

Deng, B. H.; Kinley, J. S.; Schroeder, J. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

474

Final report for the field-reversed configuration power plant critical-issue scoping study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research in which a team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed a scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis of deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core.

Santarius, John F.; Mogahed, Elsayed A.; Emmert, Gilbert A.; Khater, Hesham Y.; Nguyen, Canh N.; Ryzhkov, Sergei V.; Stubna, Michael D.; Steinhauer, Loren C.; Miley, George H.

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Ultralong quantum optical storage using reversible inhomogeneous spin ensembles with an optical locking method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel method of multi-bit quantum optical data storage is presented, where the storage time can be lengthened far beyond the spin phase-decay time in a reversible spin inhomogeneous system excited by consecutive resonant Raman optical data pulses. The ultralong storage time is obtained by an optical population locking mechanism of modified rephasing process. This gives potentials to quantum repeaters utilizing quantum memories for long distance quantum communications, in which ultralong storage time plays a major role.

Byoung S. Ham

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

476

Argonne CNM Highlight: Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Reverse Chemmical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Ferroelectric materials display a spontaneous electric polarization below the Curie temperature that can be reoriented, typically by applying an electric field. In this study, researchers from Argonne, Northern Illinois University, and The University of Pennsylvania have demonstrated that the chemical environment can control the polarization orientation in an ultrathin ferroelectric film. This is complementary to recent predictions that polarization can affect surface chemistry and illuminates potential applications in sublithographic patterning and electrically tunable catalysts. In situ synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements showed that high or low

477

Tokamak equilibria with toroidal current reversal: properties and computational issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several properties of axisymmetric plasma equilibria with toroidal-current reversal (TCR) are discussed using some unifying concepts from catastrophe theory. Namely, those of structural stability of functions near critical points, singularity unfolding by small perturbations, and model parameter-space division by bifurcation sets are found to be of particular usefulness. Magnetic configurations displaying, simultaneously, TCR and nested flux surfaces are thence shown to be necessarily degenerate and structurally unstable, meaning that they are easily transformed into non-nested ones by small perturbations in the model parameter set. This should lead to a new paradigm when discussing TCR equilibria, as most of present knowledge relies mainly on the properties of nested solutions, which is expected to favor the study of the broader class of non-nested configurations that recently attracted a considerable discussion in the fusion community. In addition, it is also shown how TCR imposes some constraints on plasma profiles, and how these may be dealt with computationally while keeping the ability to manipulate the shape of the inner island system.

Rodrigues, Paulo; Bizarro, Joao P. S. [Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Associacao Euratom-IST, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

478

Iowa's first electrodialysis reversal water treatment plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 1979 the City of Washington was notified by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) that the City was in violation of the radium standard for drinking water. The City of Washington authorized an engineering study to determine the most cost-effective and practical way to remove radium and, at the same time, improve overall water quality. Several possible treatment alternatives were evaluated. It was finally decided to utilize electrodialysis reversal (EDR). Washington obtains its water from three deep wells ranging in capacity from 600–780 gpm. The untreated water withdrawn from the wells first passes through the EDR units. There are three EDR units, each able to produce 285 gpm of finished water. In the future, another EDR unit can be easily added to the other three units, since the new plant was built and plumbed for an additional EDR unit if water demand increased. The Jordan aquifer supply is adequate for current and future needs. The average daily water usage in 1993 was 818,000 gal/d. In order to meet peak flows, it is possible to bypass the EDR units with part of the untreated water and then blend treated and untreated water. The treated water meets IDNR standards of 5.0 pC/L. After the EDR units, the water flows through an aerator where odor-causing gases and carbon dioxide are removed. Aeration reduces the amount of caustic soda and chlorine used in the finished water. The hydrogen sulfide gas leaves the water as it passes through the aerator, and this loss of gas creates less chlorine demand. Total and free chlorine residuals are now detected in every water main of the town, whereas before, the residuals would not be detected in certain area of Washington. Phosphates have been cut back from 7 pounds per day to one pound per day. Better water quality is now being achieved with fewer chemicals added to the finished water. Washington's water treatment plant is the first municipal EDR plant in the State of Iowa and one of the largest municipal installations in the United States.

John Hays

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas. Reversible Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen...

480

Reverse Auction Bidding- A Study of Industry Professionals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

study. (Professional Paper), TAMU, College Station. Smeltzer, L. R., & Carr, A. S. (2003). Electronic reverse auctions: Promises, risks and conditions for success. Industrial Marketing Management, 32(6), 481-488 Thompson, J., & Knoll, H...

Piper, Robert

2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse osmosis system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Hydrogen production in a reversible flow filtration combustion reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The noncatalytic process of syngas production by means of partial oxidation of ... by air oxygen in a reversible flow filtration combustion reactor has been investigated experimentally. We have ... providing the ...

Yu. M. Dmitrenko; P. A. Klevan

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Global confinement and discrete dynamo activity in the MST reversed...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

confinement and discrete dynamo activity in the MST reversed-field pinch* S. Hokin,+ A. Almagri, S. Assadi, J. Beckstead, G. Chartas, N. Cracker, M. Cudzinovic, D. Den Hat-tog, FL...

483

Improving reverse logistics processes using item-level product life cycle management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sustainability is a key issue for companies offering products and services on the global market. The ever-increasing worldwide demand for raw materials in combination with the rising costs for materials and energy challenges companies to make their products, processes and services more sustainable. More and more customers are demanding sustainable products and services due to their increased awareness about environmental protection. By providing access to data, information and knowledge about products and services the concept of product life cycle management (PLM) can be applied to reverse logistics processes to improve sustainability. The term PLM and, therefore, the functionality of existing PLM systems must be considered as quite different. This paper introduces the concept of item-level PLM. It investigates the requirements that item-level PLM systems must fulfil in order to support sustainability in reverse logistics processes in an appropriate manner. Existing item-level PLM solutions are then investigated according to their suitability in the field of reverse logistics.

Carl Hans; Karl A. Hribernik; Klaus-Dieter Thoben

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Synthesis of Reversible Functions Using Various Gate Libraries and Design Specifications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This dissertation is devoted to efficient automated logic synthesis of reversible circuits using various gate types and initial specifications. These Reversible circuits are of… (more)

Alhagi, Nouraddin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Journal Article: Real-time sub-Ĺngstrom imaging of reversible...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

imaging of reversible and irreversible conformations in rhodium catalysts and graphene Citation Details Title: Real-time sub-ngstrom imaging of reversible and...

486

E-Print Network 3.0 - analogue reverse transcriptase Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0 Summary: of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase by d4TTP: an Equivalent Incorporation... (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT), there is little detailed...

487

Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...

488

CDMA2000 REVERSE-LINK SIMULATION MODEL DESIGN AND EVLUATION H. Gharavi, R. Wyatt-Millington, and F. Chin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CDMA2000 REVERSE-LINK SIMULATION MODEL DESIGN AND EVLUATION H. Gharavi, R. Wyatt 20899-8920 Abstract This paper presents the design and implementation of a simulation model for the cdma link simulation models for the cdma2000 in collaboration with Cadence design Systems Inc, we have now

489

Reverse and flick: Hybrid locomotion in bacteria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many bacteria are motile. They use one or more helical flagella as propellers, rotating them like the corkscrew on a wine bottle opener. Despite the limited morphological repertoire of the propulsive system, radically ...

Stocker, Roman

490

Property:Power Transfer Method | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

then sent ashore via a subsea pipeline. Onshore the fluid passes through a standard hydroelectric turbine to generate zero-emission electricity andor through a reverse osmosis...

491

Preserving the legacy: Physical treatment technologies (Ptl0201). Audiovisual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Survey includes deep, dual bed, and belt filters; baghouses; centrifuges; distillation; reverse osmosis; microfiltration; flocculation; evaporation and settling ponds; air stripping; electrostatic precipitation; and adsorption.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

492

Author's personal copy Journal of Membrane Science 331 (2009) 3139  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

triacetate; ED, electrodialysis; EDR, electrodialysis reversal; EMWD, Eastern Municipal Water District; FO concen- trated feed solutions. In the current study, two reverse osmosis (RO) brine streams with total is operating two reverse osmosis (RO) desalination facilities and designing a third. The groundwater is blended

493

Local Wettability Reversal during Steady-State Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the effect of local wettability reversal on remobilizing immobile fluid clusters in steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. We consider a two dimensional network model for porous medium and introduce a wettability alteration mechanism. A qualitative change in the steady state flow patterns, destabilizing the percolating and trapped clusters, is observed as the system wettability is varied. When capillary forces are strong a finite wettability alteration is necessary to move the system from single-phase to two-phase flow regime. For the case of both phases being mobile we find a linear relationship between fractional flow and wettability alteration.

Sinha, Santanu; Řdegĺrden, Torgeir Bryge; Skjetne, Erik; Hansen, Alex; 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.037303

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (the CAMERE process)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CAMERE process (carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction) was developed and evaluated. The reverse-water-gas-shift reactor and the methanol synthesis reactor were serially aligned to form methanol from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. Carbon dioxide was converted to CO and water by the reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (RWReaction) to remove water before methanol was synthesized. With the elimination of water by RWReaction, the purge gas volume was minimized as the recycle gas volume decreased. Because of the minimum purge gas loss by the pretreatment of RWReactor, the overall methanol yield increased up to 89% from 69%. An active and stable catalyst with the composition of Cu/ZnO/ZrO{sub 2}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5:3:1:1) was developed. The system was optimized and compared with the commercial methanol synthesis processes from natural gas and coal.

Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H.; Uhm, S.J. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.] [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.; Moon, I. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Rozovskii, A.Y.; Lin, G.I. [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Optimization of membrane stack configuration for efficient hydrogen production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells coupled  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of membrane stack configuration for efficient hydrogen production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis 2013 Keywords: Microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell Ammonium bicarbonate Hydrogen reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack into the MEC, which was called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis

496

REVERSIBLE HYDROGEN STORAGE IN A LiBH{sub 4}-C{sub 60} NANOCOMPOSITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reversible hydrogen storage in a LiBH{sub 4}:C{sub 60} nanocomposite (70:30 wt. %) synthesized by solvent-assisted mixing has been demonstrated. During the solvent-assisted mixing and nanocomposite formation, a chemical reaction occurs in which the C{sub 60} cages are significantly modified by polymerization as well as by hydrogenation (fullerane formation) in the presence of LiBH{sub 4}. We have determined that two distinct hydrogen desorption events are observed upon rehydrogenation of the material, which are attributed to the reversible formation of a fullerane (C{sub 60}H{sub x}) as well as a LiBH4 species. This system is unique in that the carbon species (C{sub 60}) actively participates in the hydrogen storage process which differs from the common practice of melt infiltration of high surface area carbon materials with LiBH{sub 4} (nanoconfinment effect). This nanocomposite demonstrated good reversible hydrogen storage properties as well as the ability to absorb hydrogen under mild conditions (pressures as low as 10 bar H{sub 2} or temperatures as low as 150?C). The nanocomposite was characterized by TGA-RGA, DSC, XRD, LDI-TOF-MS, FTIR, 1H NMR, and APPI MS.

Teprovich, J.; Zidan, R.; Peters, B.; Wheeler, J.

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

497

Deterministic Ratchets, Circle Maps, and Current Reversals R. Salgado-Garcia,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- rameters such as ``current quantization,'' current reversal, and devil's staircase phenomena [6,7]. Though

Aldana, Maximino

498

Characterization of aircraft noise during thrust reverser engagement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Airport noise impact on communities has been an area of considerable study. However it has been determined that thrust reverser engagement is an area requiring further research. This paper presents findings on thrust reverser from a noise study done at Washington?Dulles International Airport (IAD) in October of 2004. Previous studies have found that high levels of acoustic energy in commercial aircraft during takeoff are contained below 300 Hz [Sharp Ben H. Guovich Yuri A. and Albee William W. ‘‘Status of Low?Frequency Aircraft Noise Research and Mitigation ’’ Wyle Report WR 01?21 San Francisco September 2001]. Preliminary analysis of thrust reverser signatures indicates similar findings. A categorization of aircraft noise during thrust reverser engagement is given and looks at factors that may affect the noise characteristics. Some of these factors include: plane type engine type and thrust ratings. In addition a brief analysis of frequency weightings of the Equivalent Sound Level (Leq) and Sound Exposure Level (SEL) metrics and their application to thrust reverser noise is discussed. [Work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Performance of cholesterol oxidase sequestered within reverse micelles formed in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report the first results on an enzyme-induced reaction within the water core of reverse micelles that have been formed in supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}). By using a perfluoropolyether ammonium carboxylate (PFPE) surfactant, the authors form reverse micelles in scCO{sub 2} with water cores and the authors show that the oxidation of cholesterol by cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The results of their experiments also show that (1) the optimum ChOx activity occurs when the molar ratio of H{sub 2}O-to-PFPE (R) exceeds {approximately}12, (2) the rate constant describing the conversion of the ChOx-cholesterol complex to product ({kappa}{sub cat,app}) is similar to values reported using reverse micelle systems formed in liquid alkanes, (3) the equilibrium constant that describes the ChOx-cholesterol complex dissociation (K{sub m,app}) is optimal at high R values, (4) the best-case K{sub m,app} is {approximately}2-fold better than the value reported using reverse micelles formed in liquid alkanes, (5) there is little change in the ChOx {kappa}{sub cat,app} and K{sub m,app} as the authors adjust the CO{sub 2} pressure between 100 and 260 bar, and (6) the ChOx was active within the PFPE water pool for at least 5 h; however, after 8 or more hours within the PFPE water pool, ChOx became temporarily inactive.

Kane, M.A.; Baker, G.A.; Pandey, S.; Bright, F.V.

2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

500

Wind reversals in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The phenomenon of irregular cessation and subsequent reversal of the large-scale circulation in turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection is theoretically analysed. The force and thermal balance on a single plume detached from the thermal boundary layer yields a set of coupled nonlinear equations, whose dynamics is related to the Lorenz equations. For Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers in the range $10^{-2} \\leq \\Pr \\leq 10^{3}$ and $10^{7} \\leq \\Ra \\leq 10^{12}$, the model has the following features: (i) chaotic reversals may be exhibited at Ra $\\geq 10^{7}$; (ii) the Reynolds number based on the root mean square velocity scales as $\\Re_{rms} \\sim \\Ra^{[0.41 ... 0.47]}$ (depending on Pr), and as $\\Re_{rms} \\sim \\Pr^{-[0.66 ... 0.76]}$ (depending on Ra); and (iii) the mean reversal frequency follows an effective scaling law $\\omega / (\

Francisco Fontenele Araujo; S. Grossmann; D. Lohse

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z