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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Osmosis is a phenomenon which regulates many biological ... in explaining the biological functions which depend on osmosis, but also in creating conditions for reversing it known as ‘reverse osmosis’. Reverse osmosis

Sudhakar M Rao

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Osmosis is a phenomenon which regulates many biological ... in explaining the biological functions which depend on osmosis, but also in creating conditions for reversing it known as ‘reverse osmosis’. Reverse osmosis

Sudhakar M. Rao

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

REVERSE OSMOSIS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

REVERSE OSMOSIS ... Concentration of Apple Juice by Reverse Osmosis at Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Scales ... Concentration of Apple Juice by Reverse Osmosis at Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Scales ...

S. Sourirajan; J. P. Agrawal

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter provides a survey of reverse osmosis science and technology. It begins with a ... concludes with an account of the principal current reverse osmosis applications.

H. K. Lonsdale

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Flow Relationships in Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flow Relationships in Reverse Osmosis ... Effects of Hydrolysis on Cellulose Acetate Reverse-Osmosis Transport Coefficients ... Effects of Hydrolysis on Cellulose Acetate Reverse-Osmosis Transport Coefficients ...

Ulrich Merten

1963-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Reverse Osmosis and Ultrafiltration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Economic comparisons indicate reverse osmosis to be more cost effective than distillation ... membranes, leading to a wider scope of reverse osmosis applications, including the purification of used water ... tran...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Reverse Osmosis Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An empirical modeling method has been suggested for the reverse osmosis process. Least-square fitting of data to a third-order’ polynomial has resulted in the accurate modeling of Du Pont’s hollow fiber B-10 m...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bibliography of citations from the U.S. National Technical Information Service data base with 183 abstracts on membranes for reverse osmosis desalination, electro-dialysis desalination and other osmotic desa...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Colloidal fouling of reverse osmosis membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the rate of fouling of reverse osmosis membranes treating32, 127-135. fouling of reverse osmosis membranes." Buros,Colloidal fouling of reverse osmosis membranes." J. Colloid

Elimelech, Menachem

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Reverse Osmosis Optimization  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Report assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. It provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption.

11

Molecular dynamics simulations of osmosis and reverse osmosis in solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computer simulation studies using the method of molecular dynamics have been carried out to investigate osmosis and reverse osmosis in solutions separated by semi-permeable membranes....

S. Murad

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Sandia National Laboratories: reverse osmosis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reverse osmosis ECIS-UNM: Biomimetic Membranes for Water Purification On February 20, 2013, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Energy Efficiency, Facilities, Global Climate &...

13

Observations on Buoyant Convection in Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations on Buoyant Convection in Reverse Osmosis ... Buoyancy Effects in Dead-End Reverse Osmosis:? Visualization by Holographic Interferometry ... Buoyancy Effects in Dead-End Reverse Osmosis:? Visualization by Holographic Interferometry ...

Terry J. Hendricks; Jean F. Macquin; Forman A. Williams

1972-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Hollow-Fiber Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hollow-fiber membranes for reverse osmosis desalination are typically of the dense wall ... compact modules and further improve the economics of reverse osmosis desalination.

Mark E. Cohen; Michael A. Grable; Billy M. Riggleman

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

A Remote Absorption Process for Disposal of Evaporate and Reverse Osmosis Concentrates  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial nuclear plants and DOE facilities generate secondary waste streams consisting of evaporator bottoms and reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. Since liquids are not permitted in disposal facilities, these waste streams must be converted to dry solids, either by evaporation to dried solids or by solidification to liquid-free solids. Evaporation of the liquid wastes reduces their volume, but requires costly energy and capital equipment. In some cases, concentration of the contaminants during drying can cause the waste to exceed Class A waste for nuclear utilities or exceed DOE transuranic limits. This means that disposal costs will be increased, or that, when the Barnwell, SC disposal site closes to waste outside of the Atlantic Compact in July 2008, the waste will be precluded from disposal for the foreseeable future). Solidification with cement agents requires less energy and equipment than drying, but results in a volume increase of 50-100%. The doubling or tripling of waste weight, along with the increased volume, sharply increases shipping and disposal costs. Confronted with these unattractive alternatives, Diversified Technologies Services (DTS), in conjunction with selected nuclear utilities and D and D operations at Rocky Flats, undertook an exploratory effort to convert this liquid wastewater to a solid without using cement. This would avoid the bulking effect of cement, and permit the waste to be disposed of the Energy Solutions facility in Utah as well as some DOE facilities. To address the need for an attractive alternative to drying and cement solidification, a test program was developed using a polymer absorbent media to convert the concentrate streams to a liquid-free waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of the pertinent burial sites. Two approaches for mixing the polymer with the liquid were tested: mechanical mixing and in-situ incorporation. As part of this test program, a process control program (PCP) was developed that is 100% scalable from a concentrate test sample as small as 50 grams to full-scale processing of 100 cubic foot containers or larger. In summary: The absorption process offers utilities a viable and less costly alternative to on-site drying or solidification of concentrates. The absorption process can be completed by site personnel or by a vendor as a turnkey service. The process is suitable for multiple types of waste, including RO and evaporator concentrates, sludges, and other difficult to process waters and wet solids. (author)

Brunsell, D.A. [Diversified Technologies Services, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Reverse Osmosis Optimization  

SciTech Connect

This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

17

Properly apply reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technique used to reduce the loading of dissolved solids in solution. The popularity of RO for treating boiler feedwater is growing because of the rising cost of ion-exchange-based demineralization as well as safety concerns associated with handling acid and caustic. A properly designed and operated RO-based boiler-feedwater-treatment system can reduce the load to, and costs associated with, ion exchange demineralization. This article discusses RO feedwater quality recommendations, pretreatment techniques, and system monitoring necessary to achieve optimum RO system performance in the most cost-effective manner. Regardless of the application--whether it is the treatment of boiler feedwater, industrial wastewater, or process water--the approach to pretreatment and the other design and operating guidance offered here remains the same.

Kucera, J.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Microporous glasses for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The preparation, heat-treatment and leaching of phase separable borosilicate glasses which are of interest as possible semipermeable membranes for reverse osmosis applications are described. It is shown that ... ...

P. W. McMillan; C. E. Matthews

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Modelling Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After a brief presentation of the principal kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the theory of reverse osmosis, the present review examines various physicochemical mechanisms of the selectivity of membranes with respect to electrolyte solutions: the electrochemical mechanism, related to the charge of the pore surface; the dielectric exclusion of ions, due to image forces; and the structural mechanism, due to the change in the properties of water in fine hydrophilic pores. Methods for calculating the changes in the standard chemical potentials of ions on entering the membrane phase, and the effects of the Donnan exclusion of ions with allowance for the different charge of the membrane have been described. It has been concluded that it is appropriate to use charged membranes to separate electrolyte solutions at low concentrations. The problem of the transport of solutions through the fine pores of membranes has been formulated, taking account of the equilibrium distribution coefficients of the ions, their mobility, the charge of the membrane, and the phenomenon of concentration polarisation. Routes to the further development of the theory as applied to membranes of different types, different compositions, and solution concentrations have been discussed. The bibliography contains 84 references.

S S Dukhin; Nikolai V Churaev; V N Shilov; Viktor M Starov

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Concentrating Fruit Juices by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The difference between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration lies principally in the retention ... able to retain protein-sized molecules, whereas reverse osmosis membranes retain lower molecular weight solutes suc...

R. L. Merson; G. Paredes; D. B. Hosaka

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Boundary-Layer Effects in Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Boundary-Layer Effects in Reverse Osmosis ... In FO, water is extracted from a feed solution using the high osmotic pressure of a hypertonic solution that flows on ... ...

Ulrich Merten; H. K. Lonsdale; R. L. Riley

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Reverse Osmosis for the Separation of Organics from Aqueous Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis (RO) has proved reliable and economically ... such effluents often contain organics as solvents. Reverse osmosis is very suitable for the treatment of... Its mod...

R. Rautenbach; I. Janisch

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Reverse osmosis desalination: Modeling and experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytic model for the performance of reverse osmosis desalination systems is derived. Predictions are shown to agree well with extensive measurements conducted on a commercial multistage reverse osmosis desalination unit over a broad range of operating conditions. The model allows a transparent understanding of the dependence of system performance on key design and operating variables. Identifying the characteristic flow rate and length scale of reverse osmosis systems allows a universal description of the variation of the permeate flow rate and recovery factor with the salinity flow rate and pressure of the feedwater.

Naum Fraidenraich; Olga C. Vilela; Gilmário A. Lima; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Landfill Leachate Treatment by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Leachate from landfill sites represents a highly polluted waste water. It containes biodegradable compounds but also inorganic salts and trace recalcitrant pollutants. The reverse osmosis process with or without ...

B. Weber; F. Holz

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Control of residual aluminum from conventional treatment to improve reverse osmosis performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deposit Control for Reverse Osmosis Systems , Technicalon Colloidal Fouling in Reverse Osmosis and NanofiltrationSiO 2 ) Scaling for Reverse Osmosis , ASTM Designation D

Gabelich, C J; Ishida, K P; Gerringer, F W; Evangelista, R; Kalyan, M; Suffet, I H

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

On the potential of forward osmosis to energetically outperform reverse osmosis desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We provide a comparison of the theoretical and actual energy requirements of forward osmosis and reverse osmosis seawater desalination. We argue that reverse osmosis is significantly more energy efficient and that forward osmosis research efforts would best be fully oriented towards alternate applications. The underlying reason for the inefficiency of forward osmosis is the draw-dilution step, which increases the theoretical and actual energy requirements for draw regeneration. As a consequence, for a forward osmosis technology to compete with reverse osmosis, the regeneration process must be significantly more efficient than reverse osmosis. However, even considering the optimisation of the draw solution and the benefits of reduced fouling during regeneration, the efficiency of an optimal draw regeneration process and of reverse osmosis are unlikely to differ significantly, meaning the energy efficiency of direct desalination with reverse osmosis is likely to be superior.

Ronan K. McGovern; John H. Lienhard V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Reverse osmosis reverses conventional wisdom with Superfund cleanup success  

SciTech Connect

Although widely recognized as the most efficient means of water purification, reverse osmosis has not been considered effective for remediating hazardous wastewater. Scaling and fouling, which can cause overruns and downtime, and require membrane replacement, have inhibited success in high-volume wastewater applications. Despite this background, a reverse osmosis technology developed in Europe recently was used successfully to treat large volumes of contaminated water at a major Superfund site in Texas. The technology's success there may increase the chances for reverse osmosis to find wider use in future cleanups and other waste treatment applications.

Collins, M. (French Ltd. Task Group, Crosby, TX (United States)); Miller, K. (Rochem Environmental Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Concentration of ultrafiltered benzylpenicillin broths by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Concentration of benzylpenicillin filtered broths purified by ultrafiltration and fermented broths clarified by ultrafiltration was carried out by reverse osmosis. This study was done using a reverse osmosis l...

A. M. A. Nabais; J. P. Cardoso

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Optimal design of reverse osmosis module networks  

SciTech Connect

The structure of individual reverse osmosis modules, the configuration of the module network, and the operating conditions were optimized for seawater and brackish water desalination. The system model included simple mathematical equations to predict the performance of the reverse osmosis modules. The optimization problem was formulated as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization. The objective function was the annual profit for the system, consisting of the profit obtained from the permeate, capital cost for the process units, and operating costs associated with energy consumption and maintenance. Optimization of several dual-stage reverse osmosis systems were investigated and compared. It was found that optimal network designs are the ones that produce the most permeate. It may be possible to achieve economic improvements by refining current membrane module designs and their operating pressures.

Maskan, F.; Wiley, D.E.; Johnston, L.P.M.; Clements, D.J.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Reverse osmosis desalination with osmotic polyelectrolyte intermediate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

degree of, '8'~STER O"' SCIENCE '!ay ISS7 Nejo? Subje". t: IiI EQICAE ENO& NEERINC REVERSE OSMOSIS DESALINATION WITH OSMOTIC POLYELECTROLYTE INTERMEDIATE A Thesis By THOMAS THEODORE McCONNELL Approved as to style and content by: airman o... , . . . . . . . . . . 91 Calculated Permeability Coefficients of Mem- branes Using Equation (42) Calculated Desalination Ratio from Equation (34) and Weight Per Cent Rejection from Equa- tion (45) for a 3. 5 Weight Per Cent Sodium Chloride Bulk Solution 92 94 Table...

McConnell, Thomas Theodore

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

31

Ethanol separation from molasses based fermentation broth by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Irradiated styrene-grafted cellulose acetate membrane was used for the separation of ethanol by reverse osmosis. Ethanol separation from molasses based fermentation broth...

J. P. Choudhury; P. Ghosh; B. K. Guha

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Structures of cellulose acetate membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies under the scanning electron microscope have shown that the cellulose acetate membranes used for reverse osmosis are high-molecular-weight condensation structures of...

I. N. Vlodavets; G. Z. Nefedova…

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Purication of reghting water containing a uorinated surfactant by reverse osmosis coupled to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Purication of reghting water containing a uorinated surfactant by reverse osmosis coupled. Reverse osmosis of pretreated pilot reghting water and concentrated model solutions of pretreated reghting. The concentrate from reverse osmosis could be recycled in electrocoagulation-ltration. Experimental results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

Energy-efficient reverse osmosis desalination process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel energy-efficient reverse osmosis (EERO) process is proposed for which the retentate from single-stage reverse osmosis (SSRO) serves as the feed to a countercurrent membrane cascade with recycle (CMCR). The 3-stage EERO process employs two, whereas the 4-stage EERO process employs three stages in the CMCR. The EERO process is advantageous because of four features: (i) coupling SSRO with a CMCR; (ii) countercurrent retentate and permeate flow; (iii) permeate recycling; and (iv) retentate self-recycling owing to the use of one or more nanofiltration stages. The EERO process was compared to conventional SSRO for both processes operating at the thermodynamic limit and employing an energy-recovery device. For the same overall recovery the osmotic pressure differential is reduced by 33% and 50% relative to SSRO for the 3- and 4-stage ERRO processes, respectively. There is a critical recovery above which the EERO process also can reduce the specific energy consumption (SEC) relative to SSRO for the same recovery. For a typical seawater feed of 35 g/L the 3-stage EERO process can achieve a 75% recovery at a net SEC of 2.746 kWh/m3, an 11.0% reduction in the SEC relative to SSRO for the same recovery. The 4-stage EERO process can achieve a 75% recovery at the same net SEC as SSRO (3.086 kWh/m3). Accounting for the additional membrane area required for the EERO process increases its cost relative to that for SSRO by at most 8%. An additional benefit of the EERO process relative to SSRO is the highly concentrated retentate that reduces the brine disposal volume or can be used to greatly increase the draw potential to harvest its osmotic potential energy via the pressure-retarded osmosis process.

Tzyy Haur Chong; Siew-Leng Loo; William B. Krantz

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment.

Polidoroff, C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Development of Robust Organosilica Membranes for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development of Robust Organosilica Membranes for Reverse Osmosis ... polyamide was also reversible, in other words, the N-chlorinated intermediate could be regenerated to initial amide with the alk. ...

Rong Xu; Jinhui Wang; Masakoto Kanezashi; Tomohisa Yoshioka; Toshinori Tsuru

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

Biphase turbine for reverse osmosis desalination. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new hydraulic reaction turbine was designed to recover the power available in the high-pressure waste-brine stream of reverse osmosis desalination systems. A reaction turbine sized for reverse-osmosis systems producing 600 gph was built and tested. The turbine performed well driving either a variable-speed pump or an electrical generator. Measured turbine efficiency (shaft power divided by available power) was 63%, compared with a prediction of 67%. The turbine can be built with larger capacity to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of reverse osmosis desalination systems. Efficiency of larger units is predicted to lie in the range of 65 to 70%.

Limburg, P.L.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Reverse osmosis treatment to remove inorganic contaminants from drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research project was to determine the removal of inorganic contaminants from drinking water using several state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membrane elements. A small 5-KGPD reverse osmosis system was utilized and five different membrane elements were studied individually with the specific inorganic contaminants added to several natural Florida ground waters. Removal data were also collected on naturally occurring substances.

Huxstep, M.R.; Sorg, T.J.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

The benefits of hybridising electrodialysis with reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A cost analysis reveals that hybridisation of electrodialysis with reverse osmosis is only justified if the cost of water from the reverse osmosis unit is less than 40% of that from a stand-alone electrodialysis system. In such cases the additional reverse osmosis costs justify the electrodialysis cost savings brought about by shifting salt removal to higher salinity, where current densities are higher and equipment costs lower. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that a simple hybrid configuration is more cost effective than a recirculated hybrid, a simple hybrid being one where the reverse osmosis concentrate is fed to the electrodialysis stack and the products from both units are blended, and a recirculated being one hybrid involving recirculation of the electrodialysis product back to the reverse osmosis unit. The underlying rationale is that simple hybridisation shifts salt removal away from the lowest salinity zone of operation, where salt removal is most expensive. Further shifts in the salinity at which salt is removed, brought about by recirculation, do not justify the associated increased costs of reverse osmosis.

Ronan K. McGovern; Syed M. Zubair; John H. Lienhard V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

A comparison of ROChem reverse osmosis and spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules  

SciTech Connect

Testing of the ROChem Disc Tube[reg sign] reverse osmosis (RO) module's performance on biologically active feed waters has been completed. Both the ROChem module (using Filmtec standard-rejection seawater membranes) and the Filmtec spiral-wound membrane module (using Filmtec high-rejection seawater membranes) were tested with stimulant solutions containing typical bacteria and metal hydroxide levels found in the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) influent. Results indicate that the ROChem module gave superior performance over the spiral-wound module. Water flux losses were reduced by over 30% for water recoveries above 40%.

Siler, J.L.

1992-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

A comparison of ROChem reverse osmosis and spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules  

SciTech Connect

Testing of the ROChem Disc Tube{reg_sign} reverse osmosis (RO) module`s performance on biologically active feed waters has been completed. Both the ROChem module (using Filmtec standard-rejection seawater membranes) and the Filmtec spiral-wound membrane module (using Filmtec high-rejection seawater membranes) were tested with stimulant solutions containing typical bacteria and metal hydroxide levels found in the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) influent. Results indicate that the ROChem module gave superior performance over the spiral-wound module. Water flux losses were reduced by over 30% for water recoveries above 40%.

Siler, J.L.

1992-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants contained in firefighting water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants osmosis efficiently treated the water from fire extinguishment. In this work we focused on the reverse surfactants [1]. Experimental results indicated that electrocoagulation and filtration followed by reverse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

Characterization of the fouling phenomenon in reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation explores the application of a bench scale reverse osmosis test cell apparatus as a research tool. This versatile system was used to explore the response of a reverse osmosis membrane to various types of feedwaters. As a result of this research, an easy, accurate experimental method for predicting the rejection in any reverse osmosis system has been developed and demonstrated. The dissertation illustrates a simple procedure to identify if a precipitating feedwater solution will foul a reverse osmosis membrane. The research also presents evidence that suggests that the common practice of increasing feed flow rates to clean a membrane may not always be an acceptable method to revive a system. In addition to this information about the RO systems, the dissertation provides insight into the environment around the membrane surface. Statistically significant information about the nature and behavior of the membrane permeation coefficient is presented. Evidence is provided to demonstrate the negative effects on membrane performance of small amounts of grease contamination from the process equipment. Insight into the resistive nature of membranes, boundary layers, and fouling deposits is also presented. Throughout the course of this research, the relationship between concentration polarization and the permeate flux is illustrated. This is done first in the traditional terms of wall concentration, and later in terms of flow resistance. This dissertation also provides an experimental demonstration of both the detachment of a boundary layer from a membrane and the resistive nature of a precipitated fouling layer in a reverse osmosis system.

Barger, M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

The Use of Reverse Osmosis for the Purification of Coal Gasification Liquors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory trials have been conducted at the Westfield Development Centre to assess the potential of reverse osmosis as a stage in the treatment of ... effluent suitable for sewer or estuary discharge. Reverse osmosis

A. R. Williams

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

The use of reverse osmosis water for the production of parenterals in the hospital pharmacy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Only theUnited States Pharmacopeia has included reverse osmosis as an approved process for producing ‘Water...

Drs. Ph. Jacobs

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg/l. silica, and 170 mg/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies with the stringent California drinking water standard. The paper describes water reclamation, the San Ardo process, stability, reverse osmosis membrane fouling, membranes at high pH, water quality, and costs.

Tao, F.T.; Curtice, S.; Hobbs, R.D.; Sides, J.L.; Wieser, J.D. (Texaco Inc., Bellaire, TX (United States)); Dyke, C.A.; Tuohey, D. (Texaco Inc., Beacon, NY (United States)); Pilger, P.F. (Texaco E and P Inc., Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

47

Author's personal copy Unexpected new phase detected in FT30 type reverse osmosis membranes using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author's personal copy Unexpected new phase detected in FT30 type reverse osmosis membranes using Available online 13 July 2011 Keywords: Reverse osmosis membranes X-ray microscopy Poly phenylene diamine a b s t r a c t FT30 type thin film composite membranes used for reverse osmosis water purification

Hitchcock, Adam P.

48

Integration of reverse osmosis and membrane crystallization for sodium sulphate recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Reverse osmosis and membrane crystallization are evaluated in this work as stand-alone and integrated technologies for the recovery of Na2SO4 from aqueous solutions. When SO2 is removed from flue gases by absorption in an aqueous solution and reacts with NaOH, a reusable product (i.e., Na2SO4) of industrial interest can be obtained. For stand-alone reverse osmosis, the effect of the concentration of the feed solution and pressure is studied. For membrane crystallization, the influence of the concentration and flow rate of the feed and osmotic solutions on the process performance has been determined. The characterization of the obtained crystals shows that Na2SO4·10H2O is obtained. From the experimental results, the potential for integration of reverse osmosis and membrane crystallization is simulated. It was concluded that using a reverse osmosis unit prior to the membrane crystallization unit minimizes the total membrane area in comparison with the stand-alone processes.

Wenqi Li; Bart Van der Bruggen; Patricia Luis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Concentration of synfuel process condensates by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors will discuss the use of a novel, fouling-resistant, inside-skinned hollow-fiber membrane configuration as an energy-efficient and cost-effective alternative to conventional treatment of synfuel process condensate waters. Reverse osmosis has been used in the past only to polish condensate waters that were first treated by conventional means. In the work described in this paper, a reverse-osmosis system actually replaces traditional biotreatment of condensate waters or replaces the solvent-extraction process in the treatment train. The membranes used in this reverse-osmosis system are capable of rejecting at least 90% of the phenols as well as high percentages of other organics contained in actual process condensate waters. Furthermore, these membranes have operated for several months on synfuel condensate waters and showed no significant decrease in performance. Energy and cost estimates of a reverse-osmosis system based on such membranes will be discussed in detail, including a comparison of operating costs of this system with the operating costs of conventional treatment systems.

McCray, S.B.; Ray, R.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Removal of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Removal of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes Yu and brackish water reverse osmosis BWRO membranes was evaluated using a bench-scale cross-flow filtration; Osmosis. Introduction The occurrence of nitrosamines in drinking water and their sources Fleming et al

Huang, Ching-Hua

51

Studies on the reverse osmosis treatment of uranyl nitrate solution  

SciTech Connect

The aqueous effluent generated in uranium processing, particularly in the nuclear fuel fabrication step, contains mainly uranium nitrate. This requires treatment before discharge into the environment to meet stringent standards. This paper presents the performance of cellulose acetate membranes with regard to rejection of uranium under reverse osmotic conditions for feed concentrations up to 200 mg/l of uranium, which corresponds to the levels normally prevalent in the effluents. The use of additives like the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium sulfate for the improvement of reverse osmosis performance of the above membranes was also investigated. In the light of the experimental results, the suitability of reverse osmosis for the decontamination of uranium effluents is discussed.

Prabhakar, S.; Panicker, S.T.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, P.S. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Treatment of produced waters by electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Two oil field produced waters and one coal bed methane produced water from Wyoming were treated with electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis. All three produced waters would require treatment to meet the new Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requirements for effluent discharge into a class III or IV stream. The removal of radium 226 and oil and grease was the primary focus of the study. Radium 226 and oil and grease were removed from the produced waters with electrocoagulation. The best removal of radium 226 (>84%) was achieved with use of a non-sacrificial anode (titanium). The best removal of oil and grease (>93%) was achieved using a sacrificial anode (aluminum). By comparison, reverse osmosis removed up to 87% of the total dissolved solids and up to 95% of the radium 226.

Tuggle, K.; Humenick, M.; Barker, F.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

High solute rejecting membranes for reverse osmosis: Polyetheramide hydrazide  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of benzhydrazide polymers and determination of reverse osmosis properties of their membranes were reported earlier. Their performance was not adequate for seawater desalination or for high radioactive decontamination factors (DF). The same hydrazide polymers modified by incorporation of additional monomers with ether linkages were synthesized by low temperature polycondensation of freshly prepared m-amino benzhydrazide, p-amino benzhydrazide, and 4,4{prime}-diamino diphenyl ether, with isophthaloyl chloride and terephthaloyl chloride in dimethyl acetamide solvent. A series of film-forming polymers prepared by altering the molar ratios of the reacting monomers were characterized in terms of percent moisture regain, inherent viscosity, solubility parameters, and interfacial sorption characteristics. Asymmetric membranes prepared from these polymer samples were characterized in terms of the pure water permeability constant and the solute transport parameter, and were tested for their reverse osmosis performance. An optimum mole ratio of reaching monomers has been identified for the synthesis of polymer and the resulting membrane offered the best performance for reverse osmosis (salt rejection as high as 99.4% for 3.5% sodium chloride solution). The incorporation of aromatic ether linkages in the polyamide benzhydrazide polymeric chains appears to alter the polar and nonpolar character of the bulk polymer, and also the membrane solution interface characteristics, resulting in enhanced solute separation. These membranes appear to be potential candidates for single-stage seawater desalination and also for a variety of industrial effluent treatment applications for significantly high DF radioactive effluent treatment.

Bindal, R.C.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, M.P.S. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Natural Convection in a Horizontal Non-Flow-Through Reverse-Osmosis Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Features of the mass transfer in a horizontal non-flow-through reverse-osmosis cell are considered. It is concluded that...

N. B. Kirichenko

55

Removal of Emerging Contaminants in Water Treatment by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The general rules established in abundant studies on removal of conventional pollutants from waters by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration were reconsidered in this contribution...

Branko Kunst; Krešimir Košuti?

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Fast reverse osmosis using boron nitride and carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate reverse osmosis through commonly used polymeric and advanced inorganic nanotube based semipermeable membranes by performing nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations indicate that there is a significantly higher water flux through boron-nitride nanotube (BNNT) and carbon nanotube(CNT) compared to a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) pore and a slightly higher water flux through BNNT as compared to CNT. The calculated permeation coefficient is in reasonable agreement with the theoretical single-file “hopping” model. Potential of mean force analysis indicates that the irregular nature of PMMA pore surface can cause significant localized energy barriers inside the pore thereby reducing the water flux.

M. E. Suk; A. V. Raghunathan; N. R. Aluru

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

A comparison of reverse osmosis membrane cleaning methods  

SciTech Connect

Testing was conducted at TNX to evaluate the reverse osmosis (RO) cleaning methods in use at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The present ETF membrane cleaning protocol involves a low-pressure-no-permeation method using NAOH. This work has examined the effectiveness of the present ETF method, due to the lack of improvement following the cleanings sometimes observed. This study has evaluated both low pressure (15--20 psi with no permeation) and high pressure (200 psi with permeation) cleaning methods with sequential cleanings using NAOH and Filmtec Alkaline Cleaner. The importance of the cleaning sequence with these two chemicals was also examined.

Siler, J.L.

1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

58

The design of a controllable energy recovery device for solar powered reverse osmosis desalination with experimental validation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this thesis is to design and validate a controllable energy recovery device with application to photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis (PVRO). The energy consumption of a reverse osmosis plant depends significantly ...

Reed, Elizabeth Anne, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Some Results Bearing on the Value of Improvements of Membranes for Reverse Osmosis  

SciTech Connect

This analysis evaluates the potential economic benefits that could result from the improvements in the permeability of membranes for reverse osmosis. The discussion provides a simple model of the operation of a reverse osmosis plant. It examines the change in the operation that might result from improvements in the membrane and computes the cost of water as a function of the membrane permeability.

Lamont, A

2006-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

60

Reverse osmosis for removing synthetic organics from drinking water: a cost and performance evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis for removing organic compounds from drinking water has considerable promise. Bench and pilot plant studies on actual waters have shown that several organics proposed for regulation can be removed by reverse osmosis. As membrane technology improves, rejection of more difficult to remove compounds is expected to improve. Also, smaller volumes of concentrate are expected to be produced that can be handled more cost-effectively. One major concern with the use of reverse osmosis is concentrate disposal, which may increase the overall cost of treatment and disposal. The cost of reverse osmosis is very sensitive to such factors as recovery, economies of scale, systems configuration, membrane type, and electric power cost. In certain situations, reverse osmosis is a viable treatment option that is not cost-prohibitive.

Lykins, B.W.; Clark, R.M.; Fronk, C.A.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Adsorption of small organic solutes from beet distillery condensates on reverse-osmosis membranes: consequences on the process performances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Adsorption of small organic solutes from beet distillery condensates on reverse-osmosis membranes 93 50 95. Fax: +33 (0)1 69 93 50 44. E-mail: claire.fargues@agroparistech.fr Abstract Reverse osmosis of Membrane Science 446 (2013) 132-144" DOI : 10.1016/j.memsci.2013.05.051 #12;2 Keywords: reverse osmosis

Boyer, Edmond

62

Forward osmosis dialysate production using spiral-wound reverse-osmosis membrane elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Presented here is an analysis of a method by which a spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) membrane element may be used in forward osmosis (FO) mode to produce dialysate fluid for medical treatment. In this method, dialysate is produced from the draw-side of an FO process by carefully controlling the output concentration, managing the accumulation of salt in the closed, feed-side membrane envelope and using osmotic backwashing to recover the membrane. The analysis shows that a high-quality, spiral-wound, polyamide 4040 RO membrane element may be used to produce un-buffered dialysate when supplied with brackish groundwater and dialysate concentrate. Production is possible for a short period before the membrane needs to be osmotically backwashed to remove accumulated salt. By alternating between production and backwashing cycles, a pair of high-quality 4040 elements may produce dialysate at a rate high enough to enable continuous haemodialysis treatment. The low-cost, compact nature of standard RO elements makes them suitable for water and energy-efficient FO applications. The method proposed here exploits the features of standard RO elements to enable their application in Australian desert regions, where water supplies are slightly brackish and where rates of kidney failure and dialysis treatment are relatively high.

M.C. Smith; K.J. Reynolds

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Thermodynamic analysis of a stand-alone reverse osmosis desalination system powered by pressure retarded osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, a methodology is developed to assess the feasibility of a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system powered by a stand-alone salinity driven pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) technology. First, the proposed hybrid RO–PRO system is analysed as a thermodynamic cycle and its feasibility is mathematically interpreted using a feasible condition (FC) number, several dimensionless operational variables and a number of constraints to represent the objective of zero brine discharge. Then, a study of the stand-alone feasibility of a hybrid seawater RO–PRO system is carried out. The results show that lower RO water recovery and higher dimensionless flow rate improve the stand-alone feasibility of the system. A subsystem, a look inside the PRO, is developed to study the applied pressure and the required membrane area to achieve the operations with optimum FC numbers. It is found that the optimum applied hydraulic pressure is inversely proportional to the dimensionless flow rate in the feasible range of stand-alone operations and more area of membrane is required by a larger FC number. Finally, a case study of a selected operation is presented based on its energy performance, and two influencing factors, the inefficiency of the components and the salinity concentration of the feed water.

Wei He; Yang Wang; Adel Sharif; Mohammad Hasan Shaheed

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters  

SciTech Connect

Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Reverse osmosis separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents  

SciTech Connect

A reverse osmosis process has been found to be effective for the separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents in a uranium metal plant. Pilot-plant-scale experiments were conducted using cellulosic membranes in a plate module system and actual plant effluents containing more than about 40,000 ppm of ammonium and nitrate species and having radiocontaminants corresponding to specific activities of about 10[sup [minus]3] Ci/m[sup 3] beta/gamma emitters. The results indicated that more than 95% by volume of the treated effluents were within disposal limits, while the remaining contained the concentrate, which can be treated for possible containment. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Prabhakar, S.; Misra, B.M.; Roy, S.B.; Meghal, A.M.; Mukherjee, T.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Molecular dynamics study of a polymeric reverse osmosis membrane.  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the properties of an atomic model of an aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membrane. The monomers forming the polymeric membrane are cross-linked progressively on the basis of a heuristic distance criterion during MD simulations until the system interconnectivity reaches completion. Equilibrium MD simulations of the hydrated membrane are then used to determine the density and diffusivity of water within the membrane. Given a 3 MPa pressure differential and a 0.125 {micro}m width membrane, the simulated water flux is calculated to be 1.4 x 10{sup -6} m/s, which is in fair agreement with an experimental flux measurement of 7.7 x 10{sup -6} m/s.

Harder, E.; Walters, D. E.; Bodnar, Y. D.; Faibish, R. S.; Roux, B. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (Univ. of Chicago); (Rosalind Franklin Univ. of Medicine and Science)

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

67

A reverse osmosis treatment process for produced water: optimization, process control, and renewable energy application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resources (wind and solar) are analyzed as potential power sources for the process, and an overview of reverse osmosis membrane fouling is presented. A computer model of the process was created using a dynamic simulator, Aspen Dynamics, to determine energy...

Mareth, Brett

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

68

Water purification of nitrates by low-pressure reverse osmosis method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper has investigated possibilities and basic regularities of water purification of nitrates by low pressure reverse osmosis. The negative influence of chlorides and sulfates ... made on expediency of using ...

V. V. Goncharuk; V. O. Osipenko…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

A Case Study of Reverse Osmosis Applied to the Concentration of Yeast Effluent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 1986 PCI Membrane Systems installed a reverse osmosis plant to concentrate an effluent arising from...2 of membrane area. The membrane was a thin film composite membrane designated AFC99.

Alan Merry

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

A reverse osmosis laboratory plant for experimenting with fault-tolerant control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A test bed for research and teaching in fault-tolerant control (FTC) systems is presented. The laboratory plant is based on an industrial reverse osmosis desalination plant equipped with standardized components, which introduces more realism and robustness ...

A. Gambier; T. Miksch; E. Badreddin

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Removal of organic and inorganic compounds from landfill leachate using reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objective of this work was to evaluate an effectiveness of removing organic and inorganic pollutants from landfill leachate in a long-term reverse osmosis (RO) study. Investigations were carried out...4 ...

I. A. Talalaj

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The heat resistance of bacterial spores due to their partial dehydration by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability of bacterial spores to withstand heat is known to be associated with a lowering of their water content. This partial dehydration is considered to be produced by reverse osmosis, with the pressure bein...

John E. Algie

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Reverse-Osmosis Filtration Based Water Treatment and Special Water Purification for Nuclear Power Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the development and operation of specialized water treatment and water purification systems, based on the principle of reverse-osmosis filtration of water, for the operation of ... P. Ale...

V. N. Epimakhov; M. S. Oleinik; L. N. Moskvin

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation efficiency of the bentonite membrane for each of the dilutions. We found that membrane efficiency decreased with increasing solute concentration and with increasing TDS. The rejection of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was greater than Cl{sup -}. This may be because the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration was much lower than the Cl{sup -} concentration in the waters tested. The cation rejection sequence varied with solute concentration and TDS. The solute rejection sequence for multi-component solutions is difficult to predict for synthetic membranes; it may not be simple for clay membranes either. The permeate flows in our experiments were 4.1 to 5.4% of the total flow. This suggests that very thin clay membranes may be useful for some separations. Work on development of a spiral-wound clay membrane module found that it is difficult to maintain compaction of the membrane if the membrane is rolled and then inserted in the outer tube. A different design was tried using a cylindrical clay membrane and this also proved difficult to assemble with adequate membrane compaction. The next step is to form the membrane in place using hydraulic pressure on a thin slurry of clay in either water or a nonpolar organic solvent such as ethanol. Technology transfer efforts included four manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals, two abstracts, and chairing a session on clays as membranes at the Clay Minerals Society annual meeting.

T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

2002-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Treatment of low-level radioactive waste liquid by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

The processing of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) liquids that result from operation of nuclear power plants with reverse osmosis systems is not common practice. A demonstration facility is operating at Chalk River Laboratories (of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited), processing much of the LLRW liquids generated at the site from a multitude of radioactive facilities, ranging from isotope production through decontamination operations and including chemical laboratory drains. The reverse osmosis system comprises two treatment steps--spiral wound reverse osmosis followed by tubular reverse osmosis--to achieve an average volume reduction factor of 30:1 and a removal efficiency in excess of 99% for most radioactive and chemical species. The separation allows the clean effluent to be discharged without further treatment. The concentrated waste stream of 3 wt% total solids is further processed to generate a solid product. The typical lifetimes of the membranes have been nearly 4000 hours, and replacement was required based on increased pressure drops and irreversible loss of permeate flux. Four years of operating experience with the reverse osmosis system, to demonstrate its practicality and to observe and record its efficiency, maintenance requirements and effectiveness, have proven it to be viable for volume reduction and concentration of LLRW liquids generated from nuclear-power-plant operations.

Buckley, L.P.; Sen Gupta, S.K.; Slade, J.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Chalk River Labs.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

Fouling effects of tri-n-butylphosphate on reverse osmosis performance and techniques for performance recovery  

SciTech Connect

The F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) must be on-line by November 1988 to treat the low level activity wastes presently being discharged to the F- and H- areas' seepage basins. The three main processes of the F/H ETF are filtration, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange. Any dissolved organics present in the F/H ETF's feed have the potential to affect operation of the reverse osmosis system. Earlier studies with F/H ETF feed simulant and 70 volume percent kerosene and 30 volume percent tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) additions showed that the kerosene/TBP mixture results in partial fouling of reverse osmosis membranes. A more detailed analysis of the seepage basin feed has shown that TBP is the major dissolved organic compound. Since it is dissolved (soluble to about 400 ppM at 25{degree}C), TBP will be present in the reverse osmosis feed unless removed by a means other than filtration. Thus the fouling effect of TBP (without kerosene) on reverse osmosis performance was investigated. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Poy, F.L.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

77

Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part II: system performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work evaluates the seawater feed Reverse Osmosis (RO) preheating system process. In this respect, the basic transport equations, which describe the system elements, are used for determining the performance of the process operating parameters and for assessing the feed preheating process. A seawater membrane, FTSW30HR-380, was used to perform this study. In Part I of the work, the leading element, which governs the whole system, was studied. Also, the limitations of the leading element operating parameters were determined. In the recent work, a computer program is developed using the RO-governing process equations to obtain the system design and projection for the seawater feed preheating assessment, which enabled the determination of the whole system by solving the system elements, one by one. Also, an evaluation of the power needed for freshwater production. The RO system feed preheating is studied for feed temperatures ranging from 15°C to 45°C. The study shows that the permeate salt concentration increases as the feed temperature increases and the system salt rejection decreases. The present study concluded that the permeate productivity decreases with the increase in the feed temperature. Results also show that the product's specific power consumption is dependent on the number of elements used, and energy recovery. In the case of the maximum available number of elements, it is found that the feed temperature increases as the specific power consumption increases, with or without brine pressure energy recovery. However, in the case of a constant number of elements, seven elements, the specific power consumption decreases as the feed temperature increases.

Aly Karameldin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Molecular Characterization of the Bacterial Communities in the Different Compartments of a Full-Scale Reverse-Osmosis Water Purification Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Full-Scale Reverse-Osmosis Water Purification Plant Published ahead of print...reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane water purification plant were analyzed by molecular...full-scale membrane-based water purification processes was examined using...

L. A. Bereschenko; G. H. J. Heilig; M. M. Nederlof; M. C. M. van Loosdrecht; A. J. M. Stams; G. J. W. Euverink

2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

79

Assessment of an ultrafiltration pre-treatment system for a seawater reverse osmosis plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The seawater reverse osmosis system requires extensive pre-treatment in order to ensure reliable performance. The conventional pre-treatment system involves dosing of chemicals, which requires frequent monitoring of raw water quality, and also involves adjusting the dosage. Besides being cumbersome, there is a lot of time lag involved in carrying out these measures. This calls for pre-treatment systems based on physicochemical mechanisms. During the last few years, Ultrafiltration (UF) has emerged as a leading unit operation in order to render raw seawater compatible with reverse osmosis operations. In this context, the Desalination Division of BARC has already installed an operational UF pre-treatment system. In this paper, we examine the role of UF in the overall operations of the seawater reverse osmosis system.

S.A. Tiwari; D. Goswami; S. Prabhakar; P.K. Tewari

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 7, Performance evaluation of the 600-gph reverse osmosis water purification unit (ROWPU): Reverse osmosis (RO) components  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this work is to ascertain whether the performance of the current 600-gph reverse osmosis water-purification unit (ROWPU) is adequate to meet the water-quality standards recommended in Volume 4 of this study. A secondary objective is to review the design of the treatment units used in the ROWPU, as well as the prescribed mode of operation, and to make constructive recommendations. Reverse osmosis (hyperfiltration) is a complicated water-treatment process that is not described easily with a few process parameters. Furthermore, published literature on the type of membrane currently used in the ROWPU was scarce. Therefore, we required a mathematical model that could be used to extrapolate existing information to different operating conditions. It was successful for seawater and single-salt solutions, but it proved to be unsuccessful for just any mix of salts that might be encountered in nature. 99 refs., 69 figs., 60 tabs.

Marinas, B.J.; Ungun, Z.; Selleck, R.E.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Extension of the evaluation of reverse osmosis for SRC-I wastewater. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis (R.O.) is an integral part of the zero discharge option for the proposed SRC-I Demonstration Plant. The original laboratory treatability testing program for reverse osmosis failed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this process, due to problems with membrane fouling and deterioration. In that study (1), a high pressure (800 psi) polyether urea membrane for sea water and a low pressure (400 psi) cellulose diacetate membrane for brackish water failed to maintain reasonable TDS rejection rates during flat cell tests. The problem was particularly severe for the high pressure membrane. At the end of the original study, testing was continued on two additional low pressure membranes. One of these was a cellulose diacetate triacetate blend. The other was a new polyaramid membrane, which had only recently become commercially available. This report documents the results of all of the reverse osmosis laboratory tests. The wastewaters used in this study were effluents from bench scale, two-stage bioreactors, followed by tertiary treatment consisting of coagulation, softening, filtration, and granular activated carbon. The investigative program consisted of both immersion and flat cell tests. The results show tht the SRC-I wastewaters are difficult to treat by reverse osmosis with polyether urea or cellulose acetate membranes, and membrane failure was common. However, the new polyaramid membrane was found to be satisfactory when tested with a dephenolated feed stream. After over 1500 hours of continuous flat cell testing, it exhibited a TDS rejection rate of 95%. Based on these preliminary results, reverse osmosis does appear to be a technically feasible approach to achieve zero discharge, assuming the feed stream is dephenolated.

Not Available

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Characterization of Rio Blanco retort 1 water following treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory research was initiated to evaluate the chemical, physical, and toxicological characteristics of treated and untreated Rio Blanco oil shale retort water. Wet chemical analyses, metals analyses, MICROTOX assays and particle-size analysis were performed on the wastewater before and after treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The reverse osmosis system successfully removed dissolved solids and organics from the wastewater. Based on MICROTOX tests, the water was much less toxic after treatment by reverse osmosis. 8 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Kocornik, D.J.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Removal of radionuclides in drinking water by membrane treatment using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis reversal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A pilot plant had been built to test the behaviour of ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis reversal (EDR) in order to improve the quality of the water supplied to Barcelona metropolitan area from the Llobregat River. This paper presents results from two studies to reduce natural radioactivity. The results from the pilot plant with four different scenarios were used to design the full-scale treatment plant built (SJD WTP). The samples taken at different steps of the treatment were analysed to determine gross alpha, gross beta and uranium activity. The results obtained revealed a significant improvement in the radiological water quality provided by both membrane techniques (RO and EDR showed removal rates higher than 60%). However, UF did not show any significant removal capacity for gross alpha, gross beta or uranium activities. RO was better at reducing the radiological parameters studied and this treatment was selected and applied at the full scale treatment plant. The RO treatment used at the SJD WTP reduced the concentration of both gross alpha and gross beta activities and also produced water of high quality with an average removal of 95% for gross alpha activity and almost 93% for gross beta activity at the treatment plant.

M. Montańa; A. Camacho; I. Serrano; R. Devesa; L. Matia; I. Vallés

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Recycling nickel electroplating rinse waters by low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis systems were each evaluated (on a pilot scale) on their respective ability to process rinse water collected from a nickel electroplating operation. Each system offered advantages under specific operating conditions. The low temperature evaporation system was best suited to processing solutions with relatively high (greater than 4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentrations. The reverse osmosis system was best adapted to conditions where the feed solution had a relatively low (less than4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentration. In electroplating operations where relatively dilute rinse water solutions must be concentrated to levels acceptable for replacement in the plating bath, a combination of the two technologies might provide the best process alternative.

Lindsey, T.C.; Randall, P.M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the U. S. Patent data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 135 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Reverse osmosis performance with solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted to determine whether the reverse osmosis (RO) units at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River could be made to process solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). It was desired to test whether operation at a feed pH other than neutral would improve performance. Test results are discussed in this report and indicate that little improvement in the water flux can be expected at other pH values.

Siler, J.L.

1991-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

88

Development of mobile, on-site engine coolant recycling utilizing reverse-osmosis technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the history of the development of self-contained, mobile, high-volume, engine coolant recycling by reverse osmosis (R/O). It explains the motivations, created by government regulatory agencies, to minimize the liability of waste generators who produce waste engine coolant by providing an engine coolant recycling service at the customer`s location. Recycling the used engine coolant at the point of origin minimizes the generators` exposure to documentation requirements, liability, and financial burdens by greatly reducing the volume of used coolant that must be hauled from the generator`s property. It describes the inherent difficulties of recycling such a highly contaminated, inconsistent input stream, such as used engine coolant, by reverse osmosis. The paper reports how the difficulties were addressed, and documents the state of the art in mobile R/O technology. Reverse osmosis provides a purified intermediate fluid that is reinhibited for use in automotive cooling systems. The paper offers a review of experiences in various automotive applications, including light-duty, medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles operating on many types of fuel. The authors conclude that mobile embodiments of R/O coolant recycling technology provide finished coolants that perform equivalently to new coolants as demonstrated by their ability to protect vehicles from freezing, corrosion damage, and other cooling system related problems.

Kughn, W. [Toxguard Fluid Technologies, Irvine, CA (United States). CEO; Eaton, E.R. [Penray Companies, Inc., Elk Grove Village, IL (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Cross flow filtration for radwaste applications reverse osmosis demonstration case studies  

SciTech Connect

Today`s radwaste economic and regulatory scenarios signify the importance in the improvement of operational practices to reduce generator liabilities. This action is largely due to the rising cost dealing with burial sites and the imposed waste volume restriction. To control the economical burdens associated with waste burial and to comply with stricter environmental regulations, NPP`s are attempting to modify their radwaste system(s) design and operating philosophy by placing a major emphasis on waste volume reduction and processing techniques. The utilization of reverse osmosis technology as a means for treatment of process and wastewater streams in the nuclear power industry has been investigated for many years. This paper will outline reverse osmosis theory and highlight performance data for process and waste stream purification applications. Case studies performed at 5 nuclear plants have been outlined. The demonstrations were performed on a widely variety of process stream for both a PWR and BWR application. The data provided by the pilot systems, the equipment design, and the economical impact a reverse osmosis unit will have on producing treated (high purity) are as follows.

Malkmus, D. [VECTRA Technologies, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Testing of a benchscale Reverse Osmosis/Coupled Transport system for treating contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The Reverse Osmosis/Coupled Transport process is a innovative means of removing radionuclides from contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site. Specifically, groundwater in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site has been contaminated with uranium, technetium, and nitrate. Investigations are proceeding to determine the most cost effective method to remove these contaminants. The process described in this paper combines three different membrane technologies (reverse osmosis, coupled transport, and nanofiltration to purify the groundwater while extracting and concentrating uranium, technetium, and nitrate into separate solutions. This separation allows for the future use of the radionuclides, if needed, and reduces the amount of waste that will need to be disposed of. This process has the potential to concentrate the contaminants into solutions with volumes in a ratio of 1/10,000 of the feed volume. This compares to traditional volume reductions of 10 to 100 for ion exchange and stand-alone reverse osmosis. The successful demonstration of this technology could result in significant savings in the overall cost of decontaminating the groundwater.

Hodgson, K.M.; Lunsford, T.R.; Panjabi, G.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Watts nickel and rinse water recovery via an advanced reverse osmosis system  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes the results of an eight month test program conducted at the Hewlett Packard Printed Circuit Board Production Plant, Sunnyvale, CA (H.P.) to assess the effectiveness of an advanced reverse osmosis system (AROS). The AROS unit, manufactured by Water Technologies, Inc. (WTI) of Minneapolis, MN, incorporates membrane materials and system components designed to treat metal plating rinse water and produce two product streams; (1) a concentrated metal solution suitable for the plating bath, and (2) rinse water suitable for reuse as final rinse. Waste water discharge can be virtually eliminated and significant reductions realized in the need for new plating bath solution and rinse water.

Schmidt, C.; White, I.E.; Ludwig, R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Reclamation of Cleaning Water Using Ultrafiltration and Double Pass Reverse Osmosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Because of the commitment to minimize process generated wastes, an integrated ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) system was installed to reclaim the cleaning water at the PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) Cleveland, Ohio plant. The recovered water... 590 590 590 600 595 600 590 INLET TORO PSIG 550 590 590 590 600 595 600 590 PSIG 540 580 580 580 595 590 590 585 INTO RO-CIP INTO UF-CIP Temperature Conductivity GPM GPM 2.0 8.5 2.0 6.0 2.0 6.0 1.0 6.0 1.8 5.5 1.9 5...

Neuman, T.; Long, G.; Tinter, M.

93

Reverse osmosis concentrate treatment by a PAC countercurrent four-stage adsorption/MF hybrid process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, in order to reduce the impact of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) on the receiving body of water and/or improve the recovery rate of reverse osmosis (RO) system by reusing the treated ROC as a feeding, a powdered activated carbon (PAC) countercurrent four-stage adsorption/MF hybrid process was developed for organic removal from ROC. The process could achieve good organic removal at lower PAC consumption. For dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal efficiency of 70.0%, the PAC dose was 21.6% less than that in countercurrent two-stage adsorption and 50.9% less than that in single-stage adsorption. The calculation method for correlating removal efficiency and PAC dose was deduced and validated. The validation result showed that the relative error between the average experimental DOC removal efficiency and the calculated one was less than 5% throughout the experiment, exhibiting good accuracy for the calculation method. Compared with countercurrent two-stage adsorption, the membrane fouling in the new process could be mitigated to a certain extent. The total number of sub-cycles in a cycle (n) influenced the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the total volume of the reactors. Results showed that the HRT increased as n increased.

Xiaozhu Wei; Ping Gu; Guanghui Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Modeling of reverse osmosis in the presence of strong solute-membrane affinity  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of reverse osmosis in the presence of strong solute-membrane affinity has always been a challenge due to the complexity of the solute-solvent-membrane interactions and the resultant effect on membrane performance. Most transport models, including all models treating membranes as nonporous and those based on irreversible thermodynamics, are unable to describe or to predict all of the phenomena associated with this case. Recently, the modified surface force-pore flow model has been derived and used to describe the performance of reverse osmosis membranes for solutes which are rejected from the membrane. In the present work, this model is extended to a more general form which can describe the solute-membrane affinity case. For illustration, the extended model, with five adjustable parameters, is used to describe the performance for cellulose acetate membranes and dilute aqueous solutions of toluene, cumene, and p-chlorophenol (data from literature). The model is reasonably consistent with the data. Simulation results of the extended model are also shown.

Mehdizadeh, H.; Dickson, J.M. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Treatment of effluents arising from a material characterization laboratory, using chemical precipitation and reverse osmosis processes  

SciTech Connect

Owing to the restrictions imposed by the Regulations, mainly in the field of effluent release into a water body, it`s necessary to use a set of technologies that will help meeting the standards established by these regulations. Taking into account what was exposed above, a process for treating the effluents arising from a Material Characterization Laboratory, that will characterize nuclear materials is proposed in this paper. The process proposed uses chemical precipitation for removing chemicals which can be removed by this means (Chromium, Calcium and Sulfate for instance), and reverse osmosis process to purify the filtrate from precipitation process. The reverse osmosis process is used to remove dissolved chemicals (Nitrates and Chlorides). A synthetic solution with a COD of 8000 mg/l was used to simulate the treatment process. After treatment was finished, a purified stream, which represents 90 % of the intake stream have presented a COD of less then 10 mg/l, showing that this process can be utilized to minimize the impact caused to the environment. The characterization of all streams involved in the treatment process as well as the process description is presented in this paper.

Bello, S.M.G.; Mierzwa, J.C. [Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

The pretreatment with enhanced coagulation and a UF membrane for seawater desalination with reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The application of reverse osmosis (RO) for desalination process has increased rapidly with the construction of large RO plants. Although there have been considerable improvements in membrane materials and operation experience, the fouling of membranes is a significant problem up to the present. There have been many instances of fouling of RO membranes caused by the presence of iron and silica. Biomineralization is usually believed to be caused by microorganisms metabolizing at iron and silica present. Its formation process was studied and described first in the present work, then the enhanced coagulation with Fe(VI) and UF membrane treatment process for pretreatment of reverse osmosis for desalination has been investigated in a laboratory for 3–4 months. The main aim is to reduce the feed water pollution, such as turbidity, iron, silica and aglae, microbial contamination in order to control biofouling and mineralization on the membrane surface. The results showed that the biomineralization formation process is the adsorption of organism and the biosorption of inorganics onto the organic matrix. The pretreatment results show that turbidity is less than 0.5 NTU, iron concentration never exceeds 0.2 mg/l, silicon concentration must not exceed 0.1 mg/l; and the removal rate of aglae and microbial is more than 98%.

Wei Ma; Yaqian Zhao; Lu Wang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains a minimum of 245 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Cost and Energy Savings Using an Optimal Design of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Pretreatment for Dilute Bioethanol Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost and Energy Savings Using an Optimal Design of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Pretreatment for Dilute Bioethanol Purification ... All equipment costs and sizing are modeled using the correlations from Seider et al.(52) while the RO membrane cost is from Baker and Lokhandwala. ...

Pakkapol Kanchanalai; Ryan P. Lively; Matthew J. Realff; Yoshiaki Kawajiri

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

100

Isotope and Ion Selectivity in Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Geochemical Tracers for Man-made Freshwater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A systematic measurement of ions and 2H/1H, 7Li/6Li, 11B/10B, 18O/16O, and 87Sr/86Sr isotopes in feed-waters, permeates, and brines from commercial reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants in Israel (Ashkelon, Eilat, and Nitzana) and Cyprus (Larnaca) reveals distinctive geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of fresh water generated from desalination of seawater (SWRO) and brackish water (BWRO). ... The specific geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of SWRO provide a unique tool for tracing “man-made” fresh water as an emerging recharge component of natural water resources. ... O and H isotopes were determined by dual inlet and continuous flow mass spectrometry following gas–water equilibration (analytical uncertainties ±0.8‰ for ?2H and ±0.1‰ for ?18O). ...

Wolfram Kloppmann; Avner Vengosh; Catherine Guerrot; Romain Millot; Irena Pankratov

2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant with energy recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the performance of a RO (reverse osmosis) desalination plant at different seawater salinity values. An energy recovery Pelton turbine is integrated with the desalination plant. Thermodynamic analysis, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, as well as a thermo-based economic analysis is performed for the proposed system. The effects of the system components irreversibilities on the economics and cost of product water are parametrically studied through the thermoeconomic analysis. The exergy analysis shows that large irreversibilities occur in the high pressure pump and in the RO module. Both thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of the overall system are investigated under different operating parameters. For the base case; the system achieves an exergy efficiency of 5.82%. The product cost is estimated to be 2.451 $/m3 and 54.2 $/MJ when source water with salinity of 35,000 ppm is fed to the system.

Rami Salah El-Emam; Ibrahim Dincer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The removal of an endocrine disrupting compound, bisphenol A (BPA), from model solutions by selected nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. The commercially available membranes NF 90, NF 270, XLE BWRO, BW 30 (Dow FilmTech), CE BWRO and AD SWRO (GE Osmonics) were used to compare their performances for BPA removal. The water permeability coefficients, rejection of BPA and permeate flux values were calculated for all membranes used. No significant changes in their BPA removal were observed for all tight polyamide based NF and RO membranes tested except for loose NF 270 membrane. The polyamide based membranes exhibited much better performance than cellulose acetate membrane for BPA removal. Almost a complete rejection (?98%) for BPA was obtained with three polyamide based RO membranes (BW 30, XLE BWRO and AD SWRO). But cellulose acetate based CE BWRO membrane offered a low and variable (10–40%) rejection for BPA.

Suna Yüksel; Nalan Kabay; Mithat Yüksel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Thin film composite polyamide membrane parameters estimation for phenol-water system by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

A commercial thin film composite polyamide reverse osmosis membrane is used to separate an aqueous phenol-water binary system. The separation data are analyzed using a combined film theory-solution-diffusion (CFSD) model and a combined film theory-Spiegler-Kedem (CFSK) model. In the present investigation a new phenomenon is observed: there exists a maximum in the rejection when it is plotted against the product flux through the membrane. This behavior is explained for both models. An equation for J{sub v,min}, which is the value of the product flux J{sub v} at which the rejection reaches a maximum, is derived from both models. Although the parameters for both models are consistent over the range of operating conditions, the CFSK model is more accurate for the phenol-water system.

Murthy, Z.V.P.; Gupta, S.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

An Ultrasonic Meter to Characterize Degree of Fouling and Cleaning in Reverse Osmosis Filters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of prognostic capabilities that predict the condition and remaining service life for key industrial systems has the potential to significantly impact performance and the economics of operation for both current and next generation plants. This paper describes an on?line real?time ultrasonic meter that can be used to monitor both fouling and cleaning in reverse osmosis filters. It provides a measure for the degree of fouling. A suit of ultrasonic transducers is mounted to operate through the filter?housing wall on a pilot?scale service water system. A “Degree of Fouling” index is given during both fouling and cleaning for the filters during operation for processing of saline solutions (simulated sea and brackish waters) and solids contamination. The fouling index is transmitted to a central computer where it is integrated in a system level prognostic algorithm.

M. Morra; L. J. Bond; G. R. Golcar

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

The corrosion performance of nickel-based alloys in a reverse osmosis plant utilizing seawater  

SciTech Connect

Four nickel-based alloys, UNS N06625, UNS N08825, UNS N10276, and UNS N05500, were evaluated in terms of their corrosion performance in a seawater reverse osmosis plant using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP) and linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements. Slight changes in the EIS spectra were observed for UNS N06625, UNSN10276 and UNS N05500 at low frequencies. However, UNS N08825 EIS spectra exhibited more changes than the other alloys at low frequencies. The OCP of UNS N10276 was more noble than the other alloys under the same conditions. The LPR measurements indicated that UNS N10276 and UNS N05500 exhibited lower corrosion rates than UNS NO6625 and UNS N08825.

Al-Hashem, A.; Carew, J.; Al-Odwani, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Materials Application Dept.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

Reverse osmosis performance of modified polyvinyl alcohol thin-film composite membranes  

SciTech Connect

Membrane separation characteristics in the nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) regions of the filtration spectrum are governed by a complex combination of both steric hindrance and surface force interactions. NF and RO membranes having surface charges show unusual selectivity behavior not predicted on the basis of physical pore size alone. Hence, practical characterizations should employ techniques to gain insight on membrane function. In this work, the separation characteristics of an anionically charged modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin-film composite membrane under different operating pressures were investigated. A qualitative measurement of the surface force interactions between solutes and membrane polymer was conducted using liquid chromatography technique. An attempt was also made to study the chlorine resistance of the composite membrane.

Lang, K.; Chowdhury, G.; Matsuura, T.; Sourirajan, S. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Technical evaluation of a small-scale reverse osmosis desalination unit for domestic water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tunisian standards for drinking water tolerate a maximum Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) of 1.5 g/L. The domestic water presents usually a salinity greater than 0.5 g/L. In the last few years, several small capacity reverse osmosis desalination prototypes have been marketed. They are used to desalinate brackish water with TDS lower than 1.5 g/L. The performances of such type of RO units with respect to the Tunisia tap waters are needed. A technico-economical evaluation of small-scale (100 L/day) reverse osmosis desalination unit has been studied. Water pre-treatment is composed of three filtration operations. Water is pumped through the RO membrane with maximum pressure of 6 bars. Before use, the desalinated water is treated with UV light. The salinity and the temperature of the tested domestic water are located respectively between 0.5 and 1.3 g/L and between 12 and 29°C. The pre-treatment allows eliminating all the suspension matters, as the turbidity and the Solid Density Index are reduced to zero FTU and surrounding one unit respectively. No chemicals are used in the pre-treatment, so membrane scaling can not be avoided if reject water presents a high scaling power. The supersaturation relative to calcium carbonate and gypsum were estimated for reject water. Their values indicate that the tested waters have no risk to scale the RO membrane. The recovery rate of the RO unit was evaluated vs. different operating conditions such as applied pressure, raw water TDS and water temperature. The small capacity unit was able to deliver a treated water of a 100 mg/L TDS with a conversion rate ranging between 25 and 37%. The water treatment cost was evaluated at 0.01 €/L which is roughly the tenth of that of bottled table water.

H. Elfil; A. Hamed; A. Hannachi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 146 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Recycling of oleochemical wastewater for boiler feed water using reverse osmosis membranes — A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently, awareness of water conservation has increased worldwide due to water scarcity. Wastewater recycling appears to be attractive for water conservation. This paper addresses a case study of oleochemical wastewater treatment using an advanced process that comprises ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Prior to the membrane process, the oleochemical effluent was first treated using a biological treatment system that was installed by the factory owner. The quantity and quality of the permeate stream of the membrane system were then periodically monitored over 43 days. The results showed that the system functioned effectively in reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD), hardness content and the amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). However, the system started to deteriorate after 15 days of operation. Membrane biofouling was suspected to have occurred in the RO membrane. Nevertheless, the fouling problem could be resolved by chemically cleaning the RO membrane using a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution every 3–5 days. Despite of the fact that data set for a longer period is needed to provide a more comprehensive study on the biofouling mechanism of membrane, this study somehow reflects a real-life problem of the application of RO membrane in the water recycling industry in Malaysia.

Chai Hoon Koo; Abdul Wahab Mohammad; Fatihah Suja'

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Vacancy profile in reverse osmosis membranes studied by positron annihilation lifetime measurements and molecular dynamics simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The positron annihilation technique using a slow positron beam can be used for the study of the vacancy profiles in typical reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. In this study, the vacancy profile in the polyamide membrane that exhibits a high permselectivity between ions and water was studied using the positron annihilation technique and molecular dynamics simulations. Ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetimes in the surface region of the membranes were evaluated by using a slow positron beam. The diffusion behavior of Na+ and water in the polyamides was simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) methods using the TSUBAME2 supercomputer at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and discussed with the vacancy profile probed by the o-Ps. The results suggested that the large hydration size of Na+ compared to the vacancy size in the polyamides contributes to the increased diffusivity selectivity of water/Na+ that is related to the NaCl desalination performance of the membrane. Both the hydration size of the ions and the vacancy size appeared to be significant parameters to discuss the diffusivity selectivity of water/ions in typical polyamide membranes.

A Shimazu; H Goto; T Shintani; M Hirose; R Suzuki; Y Kobayashi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Effect of silica on the properties of cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, a series of cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol-600 membranes, with varying ratios were prepared by 2-stage phase inversion protocol. The permeation properties were studied by subjecting membranes in indigenously fabricated reverse osmosis plant. After optimization of different CA/PEG ratios, the membrane with highest salt rejection capacity was selected and modified with varying amount of silica. The Modified membranes were characterized for their permeation properties, hydrophilicity, compositional analysis, thermal stability, mechanical strength and morphological studies. Silica significantly influenced the permeation performance of composite membrane. The flux enhanced from 0.35 to 2.46 L/h m2 along with an 11.41% relative increase in salt rejection. The hydrophilicity was significantly enhanced by the addition of silica. In FTIR spectra, the broadening of the peak around 3500 cm? 1 and emergence of peak at 950 cm? 1 specified the incorporation of silica particles. The thermal analysis indicated the relative increase in degradation temperature (Tmax) and glass transition temperature (Tg) for CPS-5 membrane. The mechanical stability of the modified membranes, increased initially, but declined with further addition of silica. The results indicated that the incorporation of SiO2 content in the casting solution improved the fouling resistance of the membranes.

Adnan Ahmad; Sidra Waheed; Shahzad Maqsood Khan; Sabad e-Gul; Muhammad Shafiq; Muhammad Farooq; Khairuddin Sanaullah; Tahir Jamil

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Separation of organic pollutants by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes: Mathematical models and experimental verification  

SciTech Connect

Predictive reverse osmosis (RO) models have been well-developed for many systems. However, the applications to dilute organic-water systems require the modification of transport models and the understanding of solute-polymer interactions. Studies with various substituted, nonionized phenolic compounds showed that these could cause substantial membrane water flux drop, even in dilute solutions with negligible osmotic pressure. Further, the organics could significantly adsorb on the cross-linked aromatic polyamide active layer. In some cases, even concentrations as low as 0.2 mM, 2,4-dinitrophenol (solution in particle-free, double-distilled water) can cause as much as a 70% flux drop with an aromatic polyamide membrane. Two models are presented in this paper: a modified steady-state solution diffusion model and an unsteady-state diffusion adsorption model which are able to predict flux and permeate concentrations from a single RO experiment. Further, the development of these models allows for the understanding of the mechanisms of organic-membrane interactions. For instance, it has been proposed that increased adsorption inherently leads to an increase in flux drop. However, the authors have found, on one hand, that due to specific interactions with membrane water transport groups, chloro-, and nitro-substituted phenols cause significant flux drops. On the other hand, benzene had a high physical adsorption but caused negligible flux drop. The results were further extended to nanofiltration experiments with an aromatic pollutant containing two types of charge groups. The adsorption and separation results are explained according to an ionization model.

Williams, M.E.; Hestekin, J.A.; Smothers, C.N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part I: leading element performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the seawater reverse osmosis preheating process, and presents a parametric study of the process. The basic transport equations describing the leading element are exhibited and appraised. The leading element, which governs the whole system performance, is studied and analysed. The incorporated and investigated operating parameters are the feed pressure and the temperature for different feed salt concentrations. In addition, different feed flow rates, effects on permeate flux and permeator salt rejection, together with the permeator recovery, are studied. A seawater membrane of a well-known data, for instance FT30SW380HR, is used to perform the study. The membrane water permeability coefficient Kw is determined and correlated. Furthermore, the membrane salt permeability coefficient Ks from the manufacturer system analysis program (ROSA) is given and discussed. The transport governing equations are programmed in a way that facilitates the achievement of a realistic parametric study. The results showed that the permeate flux increases significantly as the feed pressure increases. Also, it increases significantly as the feed salt concentration decreases, and also as the feed temperature and pressure increase. Meanwhile, the permeator salt rejection increases significantly as the feed pressure increases, and decreases significantly as the feed temperature increases. The study of the leading element of the array showed that there are constraints that must be considered, such as maximum membrane flux, maximum applied feed pressure, maximum feed flow rate and maximum feed temperature. Therefore, to attain the maximum membrane flux, the applied feed pressure must be lowered when the feed temperature is increased. In the case where the feed temperature is increased from 18°C to 45°C, a pressure saving of between 7% and 26% is achieved, according to the feed salt concentration and feed flow rate.

Aly Karameldin; Mahmoud S. Saadawy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Operational analysis of an innovative wind powered reverse osmosis system installed in the Canary Islands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an operational analysis of the prototype of an innovative fully autonomous wind powered desalination system. The system consists of a wind farm, made up of two wind turbines and a flywheel, which operates in isolation from the conventional power grids and which supplies the energy needs of a group of eight reverse osmosis (RO) modules throughout the complete desalination process (from the pumping of sea water to the storage of the product water), as well as the energy requirements of the control subsystems. The analysis of the electrical and hydraulic results obtained from this prototype, installed on the island of Gran Canaria in the Canarian Archipelago, shows the technical feasibility of the system design and the automatic operational strategy programmed for it. Amongst other tasks, the automatic operational strategy controls the number of RO plants that have to be connected or disconnected at any given moment in order to match the variable wind energy supply. The results obtained thus far have not revealed any significant variation in the level of quality or average volume of the product water, nor any physical deterioration to the main components of the system as a result of the start-ups and shut-downs required as a result of the variations in the wind energy supply or oscillations of the electrical parameters of voltage and frequency. In conclusion, the system under analysis can be applied to sea water desalination, both on a small and large scale, in coastal regions with a scarcity of water for domestic and/or agricultural use but with wind energy resources.

J.A. Carta; J. González; V. Subiela

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Fouling of ceramic filters and thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes by inorganic and bacteriological constituents  

SciTech Connect

Two significant problems have been identified during the first three years of operating the Savannah River Site Effluent Treatment Facility. These problems encompass two of the facility`s major processing areas: the microfiltration and reverse osmosis steps. The microfilters (crossflow ceramic filters {minus}0.2{mu} nominal pore size) have been prone to pluggage problems. The presence of bacteria and bacteria byproducts in the microfilter feed, along with small quantities of colloidal iron, silica, and aluminum, results in a filter foulant that rapidly deteriorates filter performance and is difficult to remove by chemical cleaning. Processing rates through the filters have dropped from the design flow rate of 300 gpm after cleaning to 60 gpm within minutes. The combination of bacteria (from internal sources) and low concentrations of inorganic species resulted in substantial reductions in the reverse osmosis system performance. The salt rejection has been found to decrease from 99+% to 97%, along with a 50% loss in throughput, within a few hours of cleaning. Experimental work has led to implementation of several changes to plant operation and to planned upgrades of existing equipment. It has been shown that biological control in the influent is necessary to achieve design flowrates. Experiments have also shown that the filter performance can be optimized by the use of efficient filter backpulsing and the addition of aluminum nitrate (15 to 30 mg/L Al{sup 3+}) to the filter feed. The aluminum nitrate assists by controlling adsorption of colloidal inorganic precipitates and biological contaminants. In addition, improved cleaning procedures have been identified for the reverse osmosis units. This paper provides a summary of the plant problems and the experimental work that has been completed to understand and correct these problems.

Siler, J.L.; Poirier, M.R.; McCabe, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Fouling of ceramic filters and thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes by inorganic and bacteriological constituents  

SciTech Connect

Two significant problems have been identified during the first three years of operating the Savannah River Site Effluent Treatment Facility. These problems encompass two of the facility's major processing areas: the microfiltration and reverse osmosis steps. The microfilters (crossflow ceramic filters {minus}0.2{mu} nominal pore size) have been prone to pluggage problems. The presence of bacteria and bacteria byproducts in the microfilter feed, along with small quantities of colloidal iron, silica, and aluminum, results in a filter foulant that rapidly deteriorates filter performance and is difficult to remove by chemical cleaning. Processing rates through the filters have dropped from the design flow rate of 300 gpm after cleaning to 60 gpm within minutes. The combination of bacteria (from internal sources) and low concentrations of inorganic species resulted in substantial reductions in the reverse osmosis system performance. The salt rejection has been found to decrease from 99+% to 97%, along with a 50% loss in throughput, within a few hours of cleaning. Experimental work has led to implementation of several changes to plant operation and to planned upgrades of existing equipment. It has been shown that biological control in the influent is necessary to achieve design flowrates. Experiments have also shown that the filter performance can be optimized by the use of efficient filter backpulsing and the addition of aluminum nitrate (15 to 30 mg/L Al{sup 3+}) to the filter feed. The aluminum nitrate assists by controlling adsorption of colloidal inorganic precipitates and biological contaminants. In addition, improved cleaning procedures have been identified for the reverse osmosis units. This paper provides a summary of the plant problems and the experimental work that has been completed to understand and correct these problems.

Siler, J.L.; Poirier, M.R.; McCabe, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Combining reverse osmosis and ion-exchange allows beet distillery condensates to be recycled as fermentable dilution water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Combinations of physical purification processes, i.e. anion-exchange, adsorption, and reverse osmosis were evaluated and compared with single ones for their ability to remove target inhibitory compounds from distillery condensates with the purpose of reusing condensates as fermentation water. Performances of the treatments were evaluated through analyses of residual target compounds and batch and continuous fermentation experiments. Reverse osmosis on BW30 membrane (Dow Chemical) at 25 bar transmembrane pressure and volume reduction ratio (VRR) = 8 followed by anion-exchange (weak Amberlite FPA 51 resin, Dow) was the most efficient process to decrease all inhibitory target compounds (formic, acetic, propanoic, butanoic acids and 2-phenethyl alcohol) present in a distillery condensate below their detection or quantification limit. Water recovery was 87.5%. Such treated condensate proved convenient for reuse as fermentation water. Fermentation tests run in a multistage device exhibited yeast viability and ethanol production performances (concentration and global productivity) equivalent to the blank for a final ethanol concentration of 80 g L? 1 close to practical value encountered in distilleries.

Marie-Laure Lameloise; Marjorie Gavach; Marielle Bouix; Claire Fargues

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 7087 Forward osmosis: Principles, applications, and recent developments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for reverse osmosis applications, the interests in engineered applications of osmosis has been spurred; Direct osmosis; Desalination; Reverse osmosis; Pressure-retarded osmosis Contents 1. IntroductionJournal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 70­87 Review Forward osmosis: Principles, applications

125

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes. January 1980-January 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Jan 92  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes and reverse osmosis to treat wastes. Ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Wastewater treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (Contains 63 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Treatment of model inland brackish groundwater reverse osmosis concentrate with electrodialysis — Part II: Sensitivity to voltage application and membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of electrodialysis performance to variations in voltage application and membranes when treating brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate waste. Synthetic BWRO concentrates from Arizona and Texas of 7890–14,800 mg/L total dissolved solids were prepared with poly-phosphonate antiscalants. Experimentation was performed using a laboratory-scale electrodialyzer with two sets of membranes (AMV-CMV and PCSA-PCSK) with a nominal transfer area of 64 cm2 per membrane. Flow, pressure, conductivity, temperature, and pH were measured continuously, and periodic samples were analyzed for specific anion and cation concentrations. The BWRO concentrates were successfully treated with stack voltage applications of 0.5–1.5 V/cell-pair for salinity removal ratios up to 99% with current density less than 500 A/m2. This paper highlights that (1) the specific energy consumption was proportional to the applied voltage and equivalent concentration separated (i.e., approximately 0.03 kW h/m3 per Volt/cell-pair applied per meq/L separated); (2) lower voltage applications decreased the relative separation rate of sulfate compared to chloride; and (3) water transport by electro-osmosis was independent of voltage application or resulting current densities, while it is affected by the ion exchange membranes.

W. Shane Walker; Younggy Kim; Desmond F. Lawler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Reverse osmosis removal of organic compounds II. Opportunity poisons and nerve agent hydrolysates. Technical report, June 1990-December 1994  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis (RO) rejection of acetic acid, fluoro-, chloro- and bromoacetic acids and hydrazine was investigated in a pilot scale (3 gpm) test unit; RO rejection of methylphosphonic acid and ethyl, isopropyl and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acids (nerve agent hydrolysates) was investigated in a bench scale (6 L/hr) test unit. Rejection of acetic acid derivatives was found to be pH and pKa dependent; molecular weight was not a factor for total acids, but rejection was inversely related to molecular weight for free (undissociated) acids. Rejection of all methylphosphonates exceeded 99 percent at pH 3 to 10 and was not pH dependent. Rejection of hydrazine sulfate (a surrogate for UDMH) was no better than 90 percent at pH 7.

Burrows, W.D.; Sincero, A.P.; Schmidt, M.O.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Design of a photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plant in off-grid operation for desalination of brackish water  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plants in off-grid operation constitute a promising system technology for meeting a part of the water requirements in regions without dependable water supply and electric grid system power supply. This paper presents a new procedure for optimum system design configuration. The goal is to provide the cheapest possible water supply while fulfilling all regional and technical boundary conditions. The starting point of the procedure is a rough design based on a load duration curve. Subsequent time sequence simulations which image the system behavior completely, permit checking of various plant variants for compliance with the boundary conditions. Objective mutual comparisons of the plant variants are possible, also taking the system costs into consideration. The possibilities of the developed procedure are demonstrated taking a village supply in Northeast Brazil as example.

Broeker, C.; Carvalho, P.C.M.; Menne, K.; Ortjohann, E.; Temme, L.; Voss, J. [Univ. Paderborn (Germany). Elektrische Energieversorgung

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

Characterization and biotoxicity assessment of dissolved organic matter in RO concentrate from a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) system containing organic compounds may associate with toxic risk, and its discharge might pose an environmental risk. To identify a basis for the selection of feasible technology in treating RO concentrates, the characteristics and biotoxicity of different fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in RO concentrates from an mWRRO system were investigated. The results indicated that the hydrophilic neutrals (HIN), hydrophobic acids (HOA) and hydrophobic bases (HOB) accounted for 96% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the total DOM in the RO concentrate. According to the SEC chromatograph detected at 254 nm wavelength of UV, the DOM with molecular weight (MW) 1–3 kDa accounted for the majority of the basic and neutral fractions. The fluorescence spectra of the excitation emission matrix (EEM) indicated that most aromatic proteins, humic/fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like substances existed in the fractions HOA and hydrophobic neutrals (HON). The genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate were 1795.6 ± 57.2 ?g 4-NQO L?1 and 2.19 ± 0.05 mg TAM L?1, respectively. The HIN, HOA, and HOB contributed to the genotoxicity of the RO concentrate, and the HIN was with the highest genotoxic level of 1007.9 ± 94.8 ?g 4-NQO L?1. The HOA, HON, and HIN lead to the total anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate, and HOA occupied approximately 60% of the total, which was 1.3 ± 0.17 mg TAM L?1.

Ying-Xue Sun; Yue Gao; Hong-Ying Hu; Fang Tang; Zhe Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

The need for a novel method for achieving zero effluent-discharge status for ethanol distilleries: spentwash colour removal by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sustained industrial scale production of ethanol in India is dependent on the earliest possible implementation of zero effluent discharge. High pollution parameters of effluent made it commercially impossible. An urgent need for developing a method to attain a zero discharge status for distilleries was essential. The presently tried and tested methods had limitations for conclusive disposal of spentwash effluent. Application of Reverse Osmosis was tried. However, only Rochem's DT Reverse Osmosis configuration was effective. It reduced the effluent volume. The reduced volume effluent could be conclusively composted. It also enabled recovery of reuse-quality colorless water to the extent of 50% of original volume of effluent. This technique succeeded in achieving commercially viable means for zero-discharge.

Harshvardhan Madhusudan Modak; Prayas Kamlesh Goel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. November 1976-October 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for November 1976-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 294 citations, 13 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: industrial. January 1976-June 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1976-June 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 281 citations, 35 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: industrial. January 1976-June 1988 (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for January 1976-June 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Wastewater treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 246 citations, 26 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. November 1970-October 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1970-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse-osmosis technology. Patents include systems and devices for sea water, waste water, and drinking water purification. Topics include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related published bibliography. (Contains 103 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Design, economic analysis and environmental considerations of mini-grid hybrid power system with reverse osmosis desalination plant for remote areas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the design process of a mini-grid hybrid power system with reverse osmosis desalination plant for remote areas, together with an economic analysis and environmental considerations for the project life cycle. It presents a design scenario for supplying electricity and fulfilling demand for clean water in remote areas by utilising renewable energy sources and a diesel generator with a reverse osmosis desalination plant as a deferrable load. The economic issues analysed are the initial capital cost needed, the fuel consumption and annual cost, the total net present cost (NPC), the cost of electricity (COE) generated by the system per kWh and the simple payback time (SPBT) for the project. The environmental considerations discussed are the amount of gas emissions, such as CO2 and NOx, as well as particulate matter released into the atmosphere. Simulations based on an actual set of conditions in a remote area in the Maldives were performed using HOMER for two conditions: before and after the Tsunami of 26th December 2004. Experimental results on the prototype 5 kVA mini-grid inverter and reverse osmosis desalination plant, rated at 5.5 kWh/day, are also presented here to verify the idea of providing power and water supplies to remote areas.

Ahmad Agus Setiawan; Yu Zhao; Chem. V. Nayar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Poly(vinyl alcohol) gel sublayers for reverse osmosis membranes. I. Insolubilization by acid-catalyzed dehydration  

SciTech Connect

Both flat-sheet and tubular composite reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were prepared by depositing aqueous solutions of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and a dehydration catalyst on asymmetric poly(arylether sulfone) (PES) substrate membranes. The PVA coatings were insolubilized by heat treatment to create stable hydrophilic gel-layer membranes. The influence of variables such as PVA concentration, catalyst concentration, curing time, and curing temperature was investigated. It was shown that a simple manipulation of one or two variables could lead to membranes with widely differing salt retention and water permeability characteristics. The insolubilized PVA coatings were intended to serve as hydrophilic gel sublayers on which ultra thin salt-retention barriers could ultimately be formed by interfacial polycondensation. For this purpose, high-flux gel layers were required, whereas salt-retention capabilities were not regarded as important. However, the promising salt retentions obtained as 2 MPa (up to 85% NaCl retention and 92% MgSO[sub 4] retention) showed that some of these PES-PVA composite membranes could function as medium-retention, medium-flux RO membranes, even in the absence of an interfacially formed salt-retention barrier.

Immelman, E.; Sanderson, R.D.; Jacobs, E.P.; Van Reenan, A.J. (Univ. of Stellenbosch, (South Africa). Inst. of Polymer Science)

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

137

Treatment of model inland brackish groundwater reverse osmosis concentrate with electrodialysis — Part III: Sensitivity to composition and hydraulic recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of electrodialysis performance to variations in voltage application and membrane type when treating brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) concentrate waste, which typically exceeds multiple salt solubility limits. Synthetic BWRO concentrates from Arizona, Texas, and Florida of 7890–18,600 mg/L total dissolved solids were prepared with 6–10 mg/L of poly-phosphonate antiscalants. Experimentation was performed using a laboratory-scale electrodialyzer a nominal transfer area of 64 cm2 per membrane. Flow, pressure, conductivity, temperature, and pH were measured continuously, and periodic process samples were analyzed for anion and cation concentrations. The three BWRO concentrates were successfully treated with stack voltage applications of 1.0–1.5 V/cell-pair with initial current densities of 200–600 A/m2 and final salinity removal ratios up to 98%. This paper shows consistent specific energy consumption (approximately 0.03 kWh/m3 per Volt/cell-pair applied per meq/L separated) for electrodialysis treatment for several concentrates across a range of salinity and composition. Successive electrodialysis treatment recovered more than 78% of BWRO concentrate without precipitation, corresponding to calcite and dolomite saturation ratios of 15. These results demonstrate that electrodialysis processes can effectively minimize concentrate waste from BWRO processes, with simulated system recoveries up to 95%.

W. Shane Walker; Younggy Kim; Desmond F. Lawler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Treatment of model inland brackish groundwater reverse osmosis concentrate with electrodialysis—Part I: sensitivity to superficial velocity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of electrodialysis performance to variations in hydraulic flow when treating brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) concentrate waste. A synthetic BWRO concentrate from Arizona of 7890 mg/L total dissolved solids was prepared with poly-phosphonate antiscalants, and desalinated with a laboratory-scale electrodialyzer with 10 cell-pairs and a transfer area of 64 cm2 per membrane. Flow, pressure, conductivity, temperature, and pH were measured continuously, and periodic process samples were analyzed by ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry for anion and cation concentrations, respectively. The BWRO concentrate was successfully treated with a stack voltage application of 1.0 V/cell-pair and current densities less than 280 A/m2 for salinity removal ratios up to 99% (without precipitation). The superficial velocities were controlled in a range of 1.2 to 4.8 cm/s, which corresponded to Reynolds numbers of 10 to 40. This paper shows the polarization parameter (ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 A/m2 per meq/L) as a function of Reynolds number and removal ratio, and, at maximum sensitivity, the polarization parameter was proportional to Reynolds number raised to the 0.132 power.

W. Shane Walker; Younggy Kim; Desmond F. Lawler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Performance of a 5 kWe Solar-only Organic Rankine Unit Coupled to a Reverse Osmosis Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems are one of the most promising energy conversion technologies available for remote areas and low temperature energy sources. An ORC system works like a conventional Rankine cycle but it uses an organic compound as working fluid, instead of water. A small ORC unit coupled with a solar thermal energy system could be used to convert solar thermal energy into electricity in remote areas, offering an alternative to Photovoltaic (PV) systems to provide the energy required by desalination applications like reverse osmosis (RO). In this work an analysis of the performance of a specific solar desalination ORC system at part load operation is presented, in order to understand its behavior from a thermodynamic perspective and be able to predict the total water production with changing operation conditions. The results showed that water production is around 1.2 m3/h, and it is stable during day and night thanks to the thermal storage and only under bad irradiance circumstances the production would stop.

M. Ibarra; A. Rovira; D.C. Alarcón-Padilla; G. Zaragoza; J. Blanco

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Modeling and optimization of hybrid wind–solar-powered reverse osmosis water desalination system in Saudi Arabia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A hybrid wind/solar powered reverse osmosis desalination system has been modeled and simulated. The results of the simulation have been used to optimize the system for the minimum cost per cubic meter of the desalinated water. The performance of the hybrid wind/solar powered RO system has been analyzed under Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, weather data for a typical year. The performance has been evaluated under a constant RO load of 1 kW for 12 h/day and 24 h/day. The simulation results revealed that the optimum system that powers a 1-kW RO system for 12 h/day that yields a minimum levelized cost of energy comprises 2 wind turbines, 40 \\{PVs\\} modules and 6 batteries and the levelized cost of energy of such system is found to be 0.624 $/kW h. On the other hand, for a load of 1-kW for 24 h/day, the optimum system consists of 6 wind turbines, 66 \\{PVs\\} modules and 16 batteries with a minimum levelized cost of energy 0.672 $/kW h. Depending on the salinity of the raw water, the energy consumption for desalination ranges between 8 and 20 kW h/m3. This means that the cost of using the proposed optimum hybrid wind/solar system for water desalination will range between $3.693/m3 and $3. 812/m3 which is less than the range reported in the literature.

Esmail M.A. Mokheimer; Ahmet Z. Sahin; Abdullah Al-Sharafi; Ahmad I. Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Biofouling of reverse-osmosis membranes under different shear rates during tertiary wastewater desalination: Microbial community composition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We investigated the influence of feed-water shear rate during reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination on biofouling with respect to microbial community composition developed on the membrane surface. The RO membrane biofilm's microbial community profile was elucidated during desalination of tertiary wastewater effluent in a flat-sheet lab-scale system operated under high (555.6 s?1), medium (370.4 s?1), or low (185.2 s?1) shear rates, corresponding to average velocities of 27.8, 18.5, and 9.3 cm s?1, respectively. Bacterial diversity was highest when medium shear was applied (Shannon–Weaver diversity index H' = 4.30 ± 0.04) compared to RO-membrane biofilm developed under lower and higher shear rates (H? = 3.80 ± 0.26 and H? = 3.42 ± 0.38, respectively). At the medium shear rate, RO-membrane biofilms were dominated by Betaproteobacteria, whereas under lower and higher shear rates, the biofilms were dominated by Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria, and the latter biofilms also contained Deltaproteobacteria. Bacterial abundance on the RO membrane was higher at low and medium shear rates compared to the high shear rate: 8.97 × 108 ± 1.03 × 103, 4.70 × 108 ± 1.70 × 103 and 5.72 × 106 ± 2.09 × 103 copy number per cm2, respectively. Interestingly, at the high shear rate, the RO-membrane biofilm's bacterial community consisted mainly of populations known to excrete high amounts of extracellular polymeric substances. Our results suggest that the RO-membrane biofilm's community composition, structure and abundance differ in accordance with applied shear rate. These results shed new light on the biofouling phenomenon and are important for further development of antibiofouling strategies for RO membranes.

Ashraf Al Ashhab; Osnat Gillor; Moshe Herzberg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

On-Site Pilot Study - Removal of Uranium, Radium-226 and Arsenic from Impacted Leachate by Reverse Osmosis - 13155  

SciTech Connect

Conestoga-Rovers and Associates (CRA-LTD) performed an on-site pilot study at the Welcome Waste Management Facility in Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the effectiveness of a unique leachate treatment process for the removal of radioactive contaminants from leachate impacted by low-level radioactive waste. Results from the study also provided the parameters needed for the design of the CRA-LTD full scale leachate treatment process design. The final effluent water quality discharged from the process to meet the local surface water discharge criteria. A statistical software package was utilized to obtain the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the results from design of experiment applied to determine the effect of the evaluated factors on the measured responses. The factors considered in the study were: percent of reverse osmosis permeate water recovery, influent coagulant dosage, and influent total dissolved solids (TDS) dosage. The measured responses evaluated were: operating time, average specific flux, and rejection of radioactive contaminants along with other elements. The ANOVA for the design of experiment results revealed that the operating time is affected by the percent water recovery to be achieved and the flocculant dosage over the range studied. The average specific flux and rejection for the radioactive contaminants were not affected by the factors evaluated over the range studied. The 3 month long on-site pilot testing on the impacted leachate revealed that the CRA-LTD leachate treatment process was robust and produced an effluent water quality that met the surface water discharge criteria mandated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and the local municipality. (authors)

McMurray, Allan; Everest, Chris; Rilling, Ken [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Dr, Waterloo, ON (Canada)] [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Dr, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Vandergaast, Gary [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON (Canada); LaMonica, David [RoChem Membrane Systems Inc., 430 30th Street, Hermosa Beach, CA (United States)] [RoChem Membrane Systems Inc., 430 30th Street, Hermosa Beach, CA (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Osmosis with active solutes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite much current interest in active matter, little is known about osmosis in active systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how active solutes perturb osmotic steady states. We find that solute activity increases the osmotic pressure, and can also expel solvent from the solution - i.e. cause reverse osmosis. The latter effect cannot be described by an effective temperature, but can be reproduced by mapping the active solution onto a passive one with the same degree of local structuring as the passive solvent component. Our results provide a basic framework for understanding active osmosis, and suggest that activity-induced structuring of the passive component may play a key role in the physics of active-passive mixtures.

Thomas W. Lion; Rosalind J. Allen

2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

145

Osmosis with active solutes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite much current interest in active matter, little is known about osmosis in active systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how active solutes perturb osmotic steady states. We find that solute activity increases the osmotic pressure, and can also expel solvent from the solution - i.e. cause reverse osmosis. The latter effect cannot be described by an effective temperature, but can be reproduced by mapping the active solution onto a passive one with the same degree of local structuring as the passive solvent component. Our results provide a basic framework for understanding active osmosis, and suggest that activity-induced structuring of the passive component may play a key role in the physics of active-passive mixtures.

Lion, Thomas W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Sustainable reverse osmosis desalination.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The need for fresh water is growing rapidly with the growth in population and increase in industrial demands. The natural resources are no longer able… (more)

Moridpour, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Development of a new feed channel spacer for reverse osmosis elements. Phase 2 final report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

During Phase 1, computer modeling techniques were used as the prime instrument of evaluation of designs for a new feed channel spacer to replace the 30 mil thick standard mesh (Vexar) spacer currently used in ROWPU [Reverse Osmosis Water Processing Unit] spiral-wound elements. A hemispherical peg model, based on a Bed of Nails concept developed in Phase 1, was selected for prototype production of spiral-wound elements for field testing. Evaluation in the See-Thru test cell to observe pressure drops through the spacer, feed mixing patterns and ease of cleaning fouled membrane samples showed considerable benefit over Vexar. This design would be suitable for production by roll embossing (or rotary punching) methods instead of expensive injection molding techniques. A 10{1/2} inch die set was fabricated to prove this concept using a 12 ton press brake. Due to a number of factors, however, the equipment did not work as anticipated and numerous modifications are currently in progress. This work will continue at no cost to the government until completed. A seawater test system has been constructed for field testing of various commercially available feed channel spacers for comparison with the Vexar spacer.

Milstead, C.E.; Riley, R.L.

1998-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

148

Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients ... Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to produce renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. ... Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and reverse electrodialysis (RED) are emerging membrane-based technologies that can convert chemical energy in salinity gradients to useful work. ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Alberto Tiraferri; William A. Phillip; Jessica D. Schiffman; Laura A. Hoover; Yu Chang Kim; Menachem Elimelech

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

149

How solute size and charge influence osmosis James Cannon,, Daejoong Kim, Shigeo Maruyama, and Junichiro Shiomi,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This is particularly the case for applications such as desalination, where membrane-based reverse-osmosis methods haveHow solute size and charge influence osmosis James Cannon,, Daejoong Kim, Shigeo Maruyama@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; shiomi@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract Osmosis is fundamental to many processes, such as in the function

Maruyama, Shigeo

150

A Comprehensive Bench-and Pilot-Scale Investigation of Trace Or-ganic Compound Rejection by Forward Osmosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sea- water desalination, multi-barrier protection of drinking water, reduction in reverse osmosis seawater on the way to a seawater reverse osmosis pro- cess. The rejection of wastewater constituents by Forward Osmosis SUPPORTING INFORMATION Nathan T. Hancock1 , Pei Xu1 , Dean M. Heil1 , Christopher Bellona2

151

Treatment of municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate using UVC-LED/H2O2 with and without coagulation pre-treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The potential of a prototype batch reactor using ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UVC-LEDs) which emit at 255 nm in conjunction with H2O2 for the treatment of a highly saline (electrical conductivity ?22 mS/cm; DOC 32–37.5 mg/L) municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate was investigated. Mineralization of organic content (measured as DOC) was low (22%) due to the low fluence rate (0.14 mW/cm2), however, a large reduction in colour (94%) and A254 (75%) occurred after delivering a UV fluence of 48 × 103 mJ/cm2 at the original pH of 8.3. Fairly similar results were obtained at pH 7, but the reduction of DOC increased at lower pH with 38% and 36% achieved at pH 4 and 5, respectively. Similar trends were observed for colour and A254 reduction. These results, in conjunction with excitation–emission matrix spectra, biological dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) assay and apparent molecular size distribution, demonstrated that the prototype system led to the breakdown of the chromophore bonds and thus changes in the molecular structure, and degradation of high molecular weight (MW) compounds to low MW compounds. Coagulation (1.5 and 3 mmol L?1 Al3+ at pH 5) led to a significant reduction of DOC (34–38%), colour (50–66%) and A254 (47–54%), and subsequent UVC/H2O2 treatment led to further reduction in these parameters. For a target DOC reduction of 15 mg/L, the EE/O was 15 kWh/m3 when coagulation was used as pre-treatment to the UVC/H2O2 treatment (UV fluence 36 × 103 mJ/cm2) and it reduced to less than half after biological treatment (as BDOC assay). This study demonstrated the potential of UV-LEDs as an alternative UV source for degrading the organic matter in ROC using advanced oxidation.

M. Umar; F.A. Roddick; L. Fan; O. Autin; B. Jefferson

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Gel deswelling under reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When a swollen gel is pressed into contact with a semipermeable membrane the solvent is squeezed out at the interface and the gel deswells. The rate at which the gel far from the interface advances is found to be proportional to [(P 0?E)/f t]1/2 where P 0 is the applied pressure E the longitudinal elastic modulus of the gel f the friction coefficient between the solvent and polymer and t the elapsed time. Satisfactory agreement is found between the experimental macroscopic values of E obtained in this way for polyacrylamide gels at two concentrations and the microscopic values of E obtained from inelastic light scattering.

A. M. Hecht; E. Geissler

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Optimization algorithm for reverse osmosis desalination economics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work an optimization algorithm for the calculation of water unit cost from various RO candidate schemes was developed. Such an algorithm may be used for evaluation purposes when many RO candidate schemes are taken into account. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on an example in which six RO candidate schemes are examined.

Andreas Poullikkas

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Gel deswelling under reverse osmosis. II  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Previous observations of the rate of deswelling z 0 of polyacrylamide gels under the influence of an externally applied pressure P showed that z 0 2 is proportional to P. This behavior was interpreted as indicating the formation of a concentrated layer of gel at the deswelling surface favored by an attractive potential between the gel and the membrane. In this article optical measurements of the concentration gradient profile of a series of gels undergoing deswelling are reported. From these curves it is shown that for small degrees of deswelling the collective diffusion constant D varies with concentration as c 0.5 but increases more strongly with concentration at large degrees of deswelling. The zeroth and first moments of these curves are in good agreement with the calculated concentration increment induced by the external pressure and the observed rate of deswelling of the gel respectively. It is concluded that there is no evidence of a distinct controlling layer at the interface between the gel and the membrane and the observed linearity between z 0 2 and P is the consequence of the nonscaling behavior of D in the equation of motion.

E. Geissler; A. M. Hecht

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Borosilicate Microporous Glasses for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The characteristics of microporous borosilicate glasses are described. Glasses with an optimum pore distribution are recommended for production and application.

S. L. Zakharov

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Industrial Waste Treatment Opportunities for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since the beginning of our industrial economy, an abundant supply of clean water has been a major factor in the choice of plant locations. In many instances in the past, industry has used water from our rivers...

J. G. Mahoney; M. E. Rowley; L. E. West

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Reverse osmosis module successfully treats landfill leachate  

SciTech Connect

By law, modern landfills are to be constructed with double liners to prevent contaminants from leaching into surface and ground water. Despite this design feature, however, both hazardous and non-hazardous compounds do leach from the waste disposed in landfills. The resulting contaminated water, or leachate, must be collected and treated. Rochem Environmental, Inc. (Houston, Texas) has developed a new membrane process, known as the Disc Tube{trademark} system, to remove a variety of contaminants from landfill leachate. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Osmosis Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Osmosis Capital Osmosis Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name Osmosis Capital Place London, United Kingdom Zip EC4M 9DN Sector Carbon Product An investment firm seeking low carbon economy opportunity investments through its Osmosis Capital Fund. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

159

Using microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse Maha Mehanna,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the middle chamber, the MDC also has characteristics of a reverse electrodialysis (RED) processUsing microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse osmosis Maha Mehanna the energy efficiency of a downstream reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system. We investigated here the use

160

Femtosecond all-optical parallel logic gates based on tunable saturable to reverse saturable absorption in graphene-oxide thin films  

SciTech Connect

A detailed theoretical analysis of ultrafast transition from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) has been presented in graphene-oxide thin films with femtosecond laser pulses at 800?nm. Increase in pulse intensity leads to switching from SA to RSA with increased contrast due to two-photon absorption induced excited-state absorption. Theoretical results are in good agreement with reported experimental results. Interestingly, it is also shown that increase in concentration results in RSA to SA transition. The switching has been optimized to design parallel all-optical femtosecond NOT, AND, OR, XOR, and the universal NAND and NOR logic gates.

Roy, Sukhdev, E-mail: sukhdevroy@dei.ac.in; Yadav, Chandresh [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra 282 005 (India)] [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra 282 005 (India)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Maskless direct laser writing with visible light: Breaking through the optical resolving limit with cooperative manipulations of nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the resolving limit of maskless direct laser writing is overcome by cooperative manipulation from nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion, where the nonlinear reverse saturation absorption can induce the formation of below diffraction-limited energy absorption spot, and the thermal diffusion manipulation can make the heat quantity at the central region of energy absorption spot propagate along the thin film thickness direction. The temperature at the central region of energy absorption spot transiently reaches up to melting point and realizes nanolithography. The sample “glass substrate/AgInSbTe” is prepared, where AgInSbTe is taken as nonlinear reverse saturation absorption thin film. The below diffraction-limited energy absorption spot is simulated theoretically and verified experimentally by near-field spot scanning method. The “glass substrate/Al/AgInSbTe” sample is prepared, where the Al is used as thermal conductive layer to manipulate the thermal diffusion channel because the thermal diffusivity coefficient of Al is much larger than that of AgInSbTe. The direct laser writing is conducted by a setup with a laser wavelength of 650?nm and a converging lens of NA=0.85, the lithographic marks with a size of about 100?nm are obtained, and the size is only about 1/10 the incident focused spot. The experimental results indicate that the cooperative manipulation from nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion is a good method to realize nanolithography in maskless direct laser writing with visible light.

Wei, Jingsong, E-mail: weijingsong@siom.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Rui [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

162

SWITCHABLE POLARITY SOLVENTS AS DRAW SOLUTES FOR FORWARD OSMOSIS  

SciTech Connect

Switchable polarity solvents (SPS), mixtures of carbon dioxide, water, and tertiary amines, are presented as viable forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes allowing a novel SPS FO process. In this study substantial osmotic strengths of SPS are measured with freezing point osmometry and were demonstrated to induce competitive ?uxes at high salt concentrations on a laboratory-scale FO unit utilizing a ?at sheet cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane. Under the experimental conditions the SPS degrades the CTA membrane; however experiments with polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes display stability towards SPS. Once the draw is diluted the major fraction of the switchable polarity solvent can be mechanically separated from the puri?ed water after polar to nonpolar phase shift induced by introduction of 1 atm carbon dioxide to 1 atm of air or nitrogen with mild heating. Trace amounts of SPS can be removed from the separated water with RO in a process that avoids solution concentration polarization. The separated nonpolar phase can be regenerated to a full strength draw and recycled with the re-addition of 1 atm of carbon dioxide.

Frederick F. Stewart; Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Cathy Rae

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Final Report: Computer Simulation of Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis in Structured Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Molecular simulation methods were developed as part of this project to increase our fundamental understanding of membrane based separation systems. Our simulations clarified for example that steric (size) effects had a significant impact on the desalination membranes. Previously it was thought the separation was entirely driven by coulombic force (attractive/repulsive forces at the membrane surfaces). Steric effects played an important role, because salt ions in brackish water are never present alone, but are strongly hydrated which effectively increases their size, and makes it impossible to enter a membrane, while the smaller water molecules can enter more readily. Membrane surface effects did play a role in increasing the flux of water, but not in the separation itself. In addition we also developed simulation methods to study ion exchange, gas separations, and pervaporation. The methods developed were used to once again increase our fundamental understanding of these separation processes. For example our studies showed that when the separation factor of gases in membranes can be significantly affected by the presence of another gas, it is generally because the separation mechanism has changed. For example in the case of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, in their pure state the separation factor is determined by diffusion, while in mixtures it is influenced more by adsorption in the membrane (zeolite in our case) Finally we developed a new technique using the NMR chemical shift to determine intermolecular interactions for mixtures. For polar-nonpolar systems such as Xe dissolved in water we were able to significantly improve the accuracy of gas solubilities, which are very sensitive to the cross interaction between water and Xe.

Sohail Murad

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

164

Synthesis of Reverse Osmosis Membranes by Plasma Polymerization of Allylamine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...probably cause the larger micropores to...and perhaps plasma formed membranes...and gas dynamic plasma conditions, a...time, humidity, atmosphere, and curing temperature...FEBRUARY 1973 Plasma polymerization...to as a motor area, the precentral...conceivable that a large number of organic...

John R. Hollahan; Theodore Wydeven

1973-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

165

Synthesis of Reverse Osmosis Membranes by Plasma Polymerization of Allylamine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ex-perimental technique of plasma polym-erization...CHCH2NH2, after plasma polym-erization in a high-frequency (1 3.56 Mhz) discharge at-0...energy from the radio-frequency (RF) gen-erator...conditions for plasma polymeriza-tion-power...

John R. Hollahan; Theodore Wydeven

1973-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

166

Concentration polarization in cross-flow reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

A dimensionless governing equation was formulated for a cross-flow RO process in which the local variation of concentration polarization was rigorously considered. It was shown in this formulation that the cross-flow RO process could be fully characterized with a single dimensionless parameter. The coupling between permeate flux and concentration polarization was properly solved and a closed-form analytical solution was obtained. This analytical solution enabled the authors to conveniently investigate concentration polarization in the RO process. The significance of local variation of concentration polarization was demonstrated, and the operations of RO under various conditions were simulated and investigated with the newly developed model.

Song, L.; Yu, S. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong). School of Engineering] [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong). School of Engineering

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Manufacture of Khoa, an Indian Milk Product, by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of synthetic membranes in the food and dairy industry is rapidly increasing around the world [1], To date, the major applications on a world-wide basis is the use of ultrafiltration for fractionating chee...

Dharam Pal; Munir Cheryan

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The influence of charged surfactants upon reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cationic as well as anionic surfactants influence the transport properties of cellulose acetate membranes. The rejection of the surfactants is decreased when electrolytes are added to the solution and can reac...

E. Hinke; D. Laslop; E. Staude

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Dynamic characterization of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes  

SciTech Connect

An original method has been proposed to determine the dynamic permeability of membranes. Experiments were run under different operating conditions (various transmembrane pressures, membranes, concentrations, and solutes), and the experimental data were processed using this dynamic permeability model. The results show that permeability defined in this manner reflects the differences in the membrane behavior from pure water to a solution or from one solution to another. With dynamic permeability data, membrane condition can also be evaluated after use without the need to run experiments with pure water.

Lebrun, R.E.; Xu, Y. [Univ. du Quebec, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada). Dept. du Genie Chimique

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

The Pace of Change in Seawater Desalination by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For many years desalination was regarded as a process the application of which was, on the whole, restricted to the Middle East and a few island communities around the world where rainfall or collection areas ...

Ian Lomax

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Reverse Osmosis: Application to Potato-Starch Factory Waste Effluents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the major problems of our country, and most others, is pollution of the water supplies. In this paper, we hope to describe for you a specific pollution problem of great importance, a possible means of alle...

W. L. Porter; J. Siciliano; S. Krulick; E. G. Heisler

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Recent Studies on Grafting Polyelectrolytes to Membranes for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The grafting of polyelectrolytes to polymer films leads to considerable increases in their water sorption and changes in their water permeability and salt rejection properties. Cellulose acetate polyvinyl chlorid...

V. Stannett; H. B. Hopfenberg; F. Kimura-Yeh…

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This review focuses on the present status of forward osmosis (FO) niches in two main areas: seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Specific applications for desalination and impaired-quality water treatment and reuse are described, as well as the benefits, advantages, challenges, costs and knowledge gaps on FO hybrid systems are discussed. FO can play a role as a bridge to integrate upstream and downstream water treatment processes, to reduce the energy consumption of the entire desalination or water recovery and reuse processes, thus achieving a sustainable solution for the water-energy nexus. FO hybrid membrane systems showed to have advantages over traditional membrane process like high pressure reverse osmosis and nanofiltration for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v) higher overall sustainability of the desalination and wastewater treatment process. Nevertheless, major challenges make FO systems not yet a commercially viable technology, the most critical being the development of a high flux membrane, capable of maintaining an elevated salt rejection and a reduced internal concentration polarization effect, and the availability of appropriate draw solutions (cost effective and non-toxic), which can be recirculated via an efficient recovery process. This review article highlights the features of hybrid FO systems and specifically provides the state-of-the-art applications in the water industry in a novel classification and based on the latest developments toward scaling up these systems.

R. Valladares Linares; Z. Li; S. Sarp; Sz.S. Bucs; G. Amy; J.S. Vrouwenvelder

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Forward osmosis :a new approach to water purification and desalination.  

SciTech Connect

Fresh, potable water is an essential human need and thus looming water shortages threaten the world's peace and prosperity. Waste water, brackish water, and seawater have great potential to fill the coming requirements. Unfortunately, the ability to exploit these resources is currently limited in many parts of the world by both the cost of the energy and the investment in equipment required for purification/desalination. Forward (or direct) osmosis is an emerging process for dewatering aqueous streams that might one day help resolve this problem. In FO, water from one solution selectively passes through a membrane to a second solution based solely on the difference in the chemical potential (concentration) of the two solutions. The process is spontaneous, and can be accomplished with very little energy expenditure. Thus, FO can be used, in effect, to exchange one solute for a different solute, specifically chosen for its chemical or physical properties. For desalination applications, the salts in the feed stream could be exchanged for an osmotic agent specifically chosen for its ease of removal, e.g. by precipitation. This report summarizes work performed at Sandia National Laboratories in the area of FO and reviews the status of the technology for desalination applications. At its current state of development, FO will not replace reverse osmosis (RO) as the most favored desalination technology, particularly for routine waters. However, a future role for FO is not out of the question. The ability to treat waters with high solids content or fouling potential is particularly attractive. Although our analysis indicates that FO is not cost effective as a pretreatment for conventional BWRO, water scarcity will likely drive societies to recover potable water from increasingly marginal resources, for example gray water and then sewage. In this context, FO may be an attractive pretreatment alternative. To move the technology forward, continued improvement and optimization of membranes is recommended. The identification of optimal osmotic agents for different applications is also suggested as it is clear that the space of potential agents and recovery processes has not been fully explored.

Miller, James Edward; Evans, Lindsey R.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Forward with Osmosis: Emerging Applications for Greater Sustainability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Forward with Osmosis: Emerging Applications for Greater Sustainability ... Menachem Elimelech is the Roberto Goizueta Professor of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at Yale University and a World Class University Professor at Korea University in Seoul, Korea. ...

Laura A. Hoover; William A. Phillip; Alberto Tiraferri; Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

176

Experimental investigation of induced-charge electro-osmosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the general phenomenon of induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO), nonlinear electro-osmotic slip generated when an electric field acts on its own induced charge around a polarizable surface, in the context of ...

Levitan, Jeremy Asher, 1977-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Planning and Design of Desalination Plants Effluent Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant. ”salinity in Seawater Reverse Osmosis." Desalination & Waterfrom Seawater Reverse Osmosis Brine by Electrodialysis:

Maalouf, Sami

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

18   2.3.2  Reverse  Osmosis  46   4.2.1  Reverse  Osmosis  Relative  Humidity Reverse  Osmosis SERC  Reliability  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Percent yield of reverse osmosis (RO) treatment Percent ROfacilities, such as reverse osmosis reject water from UPWsystems may employ reverse osmosis or reverse osmosis and

Zhang, Teresa Weirui

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Energy Conversion from Salinity Gradients by Forward Osmosis–Electrokinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy Conversion from Salinity Gradients by Forward Osmosis–Electrokinetics ... Through the use of a salinity gradient, a suction force is created to induce a hydrodynamic flow in the FO submodule based on the principle of FO. ... Kiviat, F. E.Energy Recovery from Saline Water by Means of Electrochemical Cells Science 1976, 194, 719– 720 ...

Yanmei Jiao; Chun Yang; Yuejun Kang

2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Reverse Monte Carlo analysis of the local order in liquid Ge{sub 0.15}Te{sub 0.85} alloys combining neutron scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The structure of liquid Ge{sub 0.15}Te{sub 0.85} alloys that exhibit a density anomaly between 633 K and 733 K at ambient pressure was investigated using x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Ge K edge. Using a reverse Monte Carlo method to combine the present results with neutron scattering data, we show that the volume contraction is associated with an increase of the first neighbor coordination number around both Ge and Te by about one atom. The coordination number of Ge increases from 3{+-}0.3 to 4.1{+-}0.3. These results support an interpretation of the density anomaly in terms of the same Peierls-like distortion mechanism acting in the liquid state and in the neighboring (pure Te and GeTe compound) phases.

Coulet, Marie-Vanessa; Testemale, Denis; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Gaspard, Jean-Pierre; Bichara, Christophe [Laboratoire TECSEN, UMR 6122, CNRS-Universite Paul Cezanne, Campus de St Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); SNBL/ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, Boite Postale 220, 38043, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire de Cristallographie, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, Boite Postale 166, 38043 Grenoble (France) and European Synchroton Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, Boite Postale 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Physique de la Matiere Condensee, B5, Universite de Liege, B4000 Sart-Tilman (Belgium); Centre de Recherches en Matiere Condensee et Nanosciences-CNRS, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, F13288 Marseille (France)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Osmosis, colligative properties, entropy, free energy and the chemical potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A diffusive model of osmosis is presented that explains currently available experimental data. It makes predictions that distinguish it from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis, some of which have already been confirmed experimentally and others have yet to be tested. It also provides a simple kinetic explanation of Raoult's law and the colligative properties of dilute aqueous solutions. The diffusive model explains that when a water molecule jumps from low to high osmolarity at equilibrium, the free energy change is zero because the work done pressurizing the water molecule is balanced by the entropy of mixing. It also explains that equal chemical potentials are required for particle exchange equilibrium in analogy with the familiar requirement of equal temperatures at thermal equilibrium.

Peter Hugo Nelson

2014-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

183

Effects of trace metals on diatom export products from the euphotic zone and significance for biogeochemical cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Combined Electrodialysis/Reverse Osmosis. Aquaticby combined electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, most of

Richter, Daniel J.

184

A Near-term Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Weinert, Jonathan X.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

A Near-Term Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Weinert, Jonathan X.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

The San Diego Foundation Regional Focus 2050 Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regional Growth Forecast Reverse Osmosis Reactive organicenergy demand.   Reverse osmosis (RO) systems do not 

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the membrane systems, reverse osmosis (RO) garners the mostof vapor compression, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

An Assessment of the Near-Term Costs of Hydrogen Refueling Stations and Station Components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen dispenser Water Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Lipman, Timothy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

An Assessment of the Near-Term Costs of Hydrogen Refueling Stations and Station Components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Lipman, T E; Weinert, Jonathan X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Development of a reverse osmosis/electrodialysis process to concentrate natural organic matter.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Disinfection in water treatment has been used to protect public health for over 100 years. Disinfectants are added to inactivate pathogens in the drinking water… (more)

Smith, Bryan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Improving recovery in reverse osmosis desalination of inland brackish groundwaters via electrodialysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As freshwater resources are limited and stressed, and as the cost of conventional drinking water treatment continues to increase, interest in the development of non-traditional… (more)

Walker, William Shane, 1981-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Renewable energy powered membrane technology: Salt and inorganic contaminant removal by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis   

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fluctuating energy and pH on retention of dissolved contaminants from real Australian groundwaters using a solar (photovoltaic) powered ultrafiltration – ...

Richards, Laura A.; Richards, Bryce S.; Schäfer, Andrea

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

The Development of a Synthesis Approach for Optimal Design of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the developed representation, by accounting for detailed water quality information, within the SWRO desalination network optimization problem. The superstructures were modified to incorporate models that capture the performance of common membrane elements...

Alnouri, Sabla

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

194

Autonomous control and membrane maintenance optimization of photovoltaic reverse osmosis systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supply of clean water in remote and off-grid areas has been a major global challenge for humanity. Over 780 million people lack access to clean water [1]. However, a significant fraction of these people have access to ...

Bhujle, Aditya Sarvanand

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Evaluation of Cleaning Strategies for Removal of Biofilms from Reverse-Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Some variability in cleaning efficiencies between the LC and HC membranes...appeared to be cleaned with higher efficiency in nearly all cases. This variability...procedure for potable water and swimming pools. J. Am. Water Works Assoc...

C. Whittaker; H. Ridgway; B. H. Olson

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Hybrid electrodialysis reverse osmosis system design and its optimization for treatment of highly saline brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The demand is rising for desalination technologies to treat highly saline brines arising from hydraulic fracturing processes and inland desalination. Interest is growing in the use of electrical desalination technologies ...

McGovern, Ronan Killian

197

Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes for the improvement of must quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When the vintage is poor, different must concentration techniques are used for overcoming grape compositional deficiency, such as evaporative or freeze concentration, and membrane processes. The membrane filtrati...

Sandra Pati; Domenico La Notte…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Pretreatment of Oil Field and Mine Waste Waters for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a brine treatment process for the Morcinek mine near the city of Katowice in Upper Silesia in Poland. The process was developed jointly by Aquatech Services, Inc. (Aquatech) and the Lawren...

W. L. Bourcier; H. Brandt; J. H. Tait

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Review on modelling and control of desalination system using reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dissolved salts in seawater or brackish water are reduced to a potable level through separation techniques, like, distillation, multiple effect vapor compression, evaporation, or by membrane processes such as ele...

S. Sobana; Rames C. Panda

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Dynamics of reverse osmosis in a standalone cogenerative nuclear reactor (Part I: reactivity changes)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study considers the dynamic behaviour of the pressurised water reactor safety features, represented by the integrity of the fuel cladding, under some transient cases. A cosine-shaped heating through the fuel is taken with the corresponding coolant lumps, to simulate realistic cases encountered in nuclear reactors. A mathematical model was developed for the Westinghouse 3411 MWth pressurised water reactor, as an example of a familiar design with predominantly published data design. The model consists of two parts. The first part is concerned with the dynamics of the primary side of the reactor, which is described in this paper. The second part is concerned with the secondary side of the plant, which is described elsewhere in this issue. To study the dynamics of the reactor, a model of 17 lumped parameters was used, consisting of first-order differential equations deduced from the first principles considering six groups of delayed neutrons. A computer program was developed using the Runge-Kutta method to solve these equations and to predict the behaviour of the state variables with time. Two case studies were considered as examples for normal transients. The first case study, which represents Part 1 of this study, considers the effect of primary side transient on the system as the reactivity changes. Reactor reactivity changes, including movements of the reactor control rods, which are taken as an example for the effect of the reactor primary side conditions. These reactivity changes vary from 0.0005 up to 0.003, both for positive and negative reactivity. The results of the developed model, which describe the dynamic response of the reactor primary circuit, have been analysed and verified with the relevant models. These results indicate that the reactor components and the integrity of the fuel cladding were attained during different step changes of reactivity.

Aly Karameldin; M.M. Shamloul; M.R. Shaalan; M.H. Esawy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The use of reverse osmosis technology for water treatment in power engineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of operation of DVS-M/150 installations for a total output of 150 m3/h (ZAO NPK Mediana-Fil’tr) at the Water Treatment Department of the Novocherkassk Thermal Power Plant (NchGRES) are presented, and ...

A. N. Samodurov; S. E. Lysenko; S. L. Gromov; A. A. Panteleev…

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Ab initio calculation of the structure of acetate cellulose membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The elementary unit of the monoacetate cellulose membrane in lithium, sodium, and potassium chloride solutions was simulated with the Gaussian-98 program package. The results are used for qualitative explanation ...

E. V. Butyrskaya; V. A. Shaposhnik; A. A. Reznikov

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Dynamics of reverse osmosis in a standalone cogenerative nuclear reactor (Part II: load changes)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coupling of desalination units with nuclear power plants has been studied in the present work â?? in this respect, the dynamic behaviour of the pressurised water reactor safety features, represented by the integrity of the fuel cladding, under some transient cases caused by secondary circuit load changes. A cosine-shaped heating through the reactor fuel is taken with its corresponding coolant lumps, to simulate realistic cases encountered in nuclear reactors. As an example, the mathematical model for the Westinghouse 3411 MWth pressurised water reactor, a familiar design with widely published design data was developed. The model consists of two parts; the first one is concerned with the dynamics of the primary side of the reactor; and the second, with the secondary side of the plant. To study the dynamics of the reactor, a 17-lumped parameters model was used. This is a first-order differential equation deduced from the first principles considering six groups of delayed neutrons. A computer program was developed using the Runge-Kutta method to solve these equations and to predict the behaviour of the state variables with time. Two case studies were considered as examples for normal transients. The developed model, which describes the dynamic response of the reactor, primary circuit and secondary circuit, has been analysed and verified with the relevant models. The first case, represented in Part 1 of this study, is concerned with the effect of changes of primary side transient reactivity, including the movement of the reactor control rods. The second one, represented in Part 2 of this study, considers the effect of the secondary side transient reactivity, as the load changes, on the system behaviour. As an example for the secondary side transient, load perturbations, such as load variations in standalone RO desalination units, are selected to study the effect of changing the secondary side conditions on the plant behaviour. The results showed that the reactor components and the fuel matrix should not be affected, and the fuel-cladding integrity is maintained within the safe limits, in all scram cases of RO desalination units coupled with nuclear power plants in the case of either a planned shutdown or an accidental shutdown.

Aly Karameldin; M.M. Shamloul; M.R. Shaalan; M.H. Esawy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Water permeability of nanoporous graphene at realistic pressures for reverse osmosis desalination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoporous graphene (NPG) shows tremendous promise as an ultra-permeable membrane for water desalination thanks to its atomic thickness and precise sieving properties. However, a significant gap exists in the literature ...

Cohen-Tanugi, David

205

Control of residual aluminum from conventional treatment to improve reverse osmosis performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2005. The Role of Dissolved Aluminum in Silica Chemistry forDraft Public Health Goal for Aluminum in Drinking Water .1994. Control of Residual Aluminum in Filtered Water . AWWA,

Gabelich, C J; Ishida, K P; Gerringer, F W; Evangelista, R; Kalyan, M; Suffet, I H

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Performance Limiting Effects in Power Generation from Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to utilize the free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for clean and renewable power generation. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the performance limiting phenomena in ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

207

Thermodynamic and Energy Efficiency Analysis of Power Generation from Natural Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Gibbs free energy of mixing dissipated when fresh river water flows into the sea can be harnessed for sustainable power generation. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is one of the methods proposed to generate power from natural salinity gradients. In ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

208

Influence of Natural Organic Matter Fouling and Osmotic Backwash on Pressure Retarded Osmosis Energy Production from Natural Salinity Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Influence of Natural Organic Matter Fouling and Osmotic Backwash on Pressure Retarded Osmosis Energy Production from Natural Salinity Gradients ... Therefore, SRNOM fouling of porous support in PRO detrimentally constrains the ability of the membrane to convert salinity gradient energy into useful work. ... Other unique areas of forward osmosis research include pressure-retarded osmosis for generation of electricity from saline and fresh water and implantable osmotic pumps for controlled drug release. ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

209

Absorption Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:11am Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption coolers available that work on the same principal, but are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. These are also called gas-fired coolers. How Absorption Heat Pumps Work Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

210

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

211

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

212

Aged black carbon in marine sediments and sinking particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combining reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for more com-using coupled reverse osmosis–electrodialysis, Geochim.and POC. Reverse osmosis coupled to electrodialysis (RO/ED)

Coppola, Alysha I; Ziolkowski, Lori A; Masiello, Caroline A; Druffel, Ellen R. M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Planning and Design of Desalination Plants Effluent Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Seawater Reverse Osmosis Brine by Electrodialysis:reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination, electrodialysis (ED) asReverse Osmosis 14 2.2.2. Electrodialysis .

Maalouf, Sami

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Low Molecular Weight Organic Contaminants in Advanced Treatment: Occurrence, Treatment and Implications to Desalination and Water Reuse Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cutoff of 200 Da for reverse osmosis membranes [Bellona etthe efficacy of reverse osmosis technology to remove odordecreased the cost of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and

Agus, Eva

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, each indicating asubjected to reverse osmosis filtration, microfiltration,processing industry are reverse osmosis systems and ultra-

Brush, Adrian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal recovery from reverse osmosis concentrate. Journal ofnanofil- tration and reverse osmosis membranes. Journal ofrecovery [%] Assumed cost reverse osmosis [$/m 3 permeate

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by Distillation and by Reverse Osmosis - Trends Towards theReliabilityFirst Corporation Reverse Osmosis Steam Assistedwater through reverse osmosis (30). While saline water can

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Oceanographic Considerations for Desalination Plants in Southern California Coastal Waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

construct and operate a reverse osmosis (R.O. ) desalinationand filtered through reverse osmosis membranes to produceseawater produced by the reverse osmosis process (brine)

Jenkins, Scott A; Wasyl, Joseph

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from ion exchange, reverse osmosis, filtration and otherStripping Ion Exchange Reverse Osmosis Chemical TreatmentElectrolytic Oxidation Reverse Osmosis tJl trafi 1 tration

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

An Analysis of Near-Term Hydrogen Vehicle Rollout Scenarios for Southern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterAlkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer waterhydrogen dispenser Reverse osmosis and deionizer water

Nicholas, Michael A; Ogden, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Ultrafiltration/Reverse Osmosis System at AutomotiveUltrafiltration/reverse osmosis for wastewater cleaningUltrafiltration/reverse osmosis (UF/RO) for wastewater

Galitsky, Christina

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

processing industry are reverse osmosis systems and ultra-ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis has been used for applepassed through a reverse osmosis membrane and an ultra-

Masanet, Eric

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Membrane Desalination of Agricultural Drainage Water: Water Recovery Enhancement and Brine Minimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.J. Petersen, Composite Reverse-Osmosis and NanofiltrationPilot-scale testing of reverse osmosis using conventionalY. Cohen, High- Recovery Reverse Osmosis Using Intermediate

Cohen, Yoram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Use of bioassays to assess the water quality of wastewater treatment plants for the occurrence of estrogens and androgens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exposed to reconstituted reverse osmosis water (Control) andprocesses included reverse osmosis, filtration/chlorinationbeen treated with reverse osmosis. Our results also suggest

Schlenk, Daniel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Biomimicry using Nano-Engineered Enhanced Condensing Surfaces for Sustainable Fresh Water Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flash distillation (MSF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The 2009flash distillation and reverse osmosis are shown in TableStage Flash Distillation Reverse Osmosis Typical unit size [

Al-Beaini, Sara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

A Critical Analysis of Technological Innovation and Economic Development in Southern California's Urban Water Reuse And Recycling Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regional Innovation System Reverse Osmosis Small Businessclaims the largest reverse osmosis desalination plant in thetechniques such as reverse osmosis, and improving filtration

Pilip-Florea, Shadrach Jay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

use of membranes. In reverse osmosis (RO) the pre-filteredsemi-permeable membrane. Reverse osmosis and other membranecleaned by means of reverse osmosis. In collaboration with a

Neelis, Maarten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Self-Assembled Materials as Novel Nanotechnology-Enabled Ultrafiltration Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on polyamide composite reverse osmosis membrane properties,1997, 124, H. Hachisuka, K. Ikeda, Reverse osmosis compositemembrane and reverse osmosis treatment method for water

Pendergast, MaryTheresa Monahan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, each indicating asubjected to reverse osmosis filtration, microfiltration,processing industry are reverse osmosis systems and ultra-

Brush, Adrian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2001. Installation of Reverse Osmosis Unit Reduces Refineryuse of membranes. In reverse osmosis (RO), the pre-filteredsemi- permeable membrane. Reverse osmosis and other membrane

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis membranes, as well asion exchange, reverse osmosis, and ammonia stripping.Metcalf & Eddy Inc. 2003). Reverse osmosis occurs when water

Lekov, Alex

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

6 Isotope Composition of Organic Matter in Seawater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

................................................................................109 6.4.3 Reverse Osmosis/Electrodialysis Method

Guo, Laodong

233

Reversible chemisorption on highly dispersed Ru catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen and carbon monoxide adsorptions have been studied by static gas volumetric measurement on a range of highly dispersed Y-zeolite-supported ruthenium catalysts prepared by ion exchange. At ambient temperature, the absorption isotherms indicated two distinct types of adsorption - reversible (composed of both physisorption and weak chemisorption) and irreversible (strongly chemisorbed). The catalysts were highly dispersed and had average particle diameters ranging from 0.9 to 1.6 nm. Reversible hydrogen chemisorption was found to be a function of average particle diameter and dispersion. On the other hand, reversible carbon monoxide chemisorption seemed to be mainly due to interaction with the support.

Yang, C.H.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION NEEDS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION IN CRYSTALLINE AND ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS SYMPOSIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or, commercially, reverse osmosis. This occurs where adifferential is the result. The reverse of osmosis is called

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hoods Pump System Motors Reverse Osmosis Storage Fan SystemMixers Fume Hoods Reverse Osmosis Transport System Packing

McKane, Aimee T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Artificial Cellulosomes and Arsenic Cleanup: From Single Cell Programming to Synthetic Yeast Consortium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

adsorption, and reverse osmosis (Kartinen and Martin, 1995;exchange, adsorption, and reverse osmosis (DeMarco et al. ,

Tsai, Shen-Long

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on boron levels. Reverse osmosis (through cellulose acetate)treated by one or more reverse- osmosis cycles. Hmvever, it

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Electron energy spectra, fluxes, and day-night asymmetries of boron-8 solar neutrinos from the 391-day salt phase sno data set  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Following desalination by reverse osmosis and water puri?not be removed by the reverse osmosis method, as that would

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Effects of trace metals on diatom export products from the euphotic zone and significance for biogeochemical cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrodialysis/Reverse Osmosis. Aquatic Geochemistry, 16(electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, most of which is in the

Richter, Daniel J.

240

Toward Resource Recovery from Wastewater: Extraction of Phosphorus from Digested Sludge Using a Hybrid Forward Osmosis–Membrane Distillation Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Toward Resource Recovery from Wastewater: Extraction of Phosphorus from Digested Sludge Using a Hybrid Forward Osmosis–Membrane Distillation Process ... † Strategic Water Infrastructure Laboratory, School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia ...

Ming Xie; Long D. Nghiem; William E. Price; Menachem Elimelech

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

ADVANCED MATERIALS Membranes for Clean Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and security. Polymer-based membrane separation technologies based on reverse osmosis, forward osmosis active layer used in reverse osmosis membranes, interfacial polymerization of trimesoyl chloride (TMC

242

Root Absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Root Absorption Root Absorption Name: Carolyn Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: MY Neice is doing a science fair project on plants. More specifically she needs to know if you water your flowering plants with colored water, does the flower change colors and if so, why? Replies: Dear Carolyn, Dyeing flowers works best on cut stems in water: http://youth.net/nsrc/sci/sci032.html#anchor598182 Title: The Effect Of Color On The Speed Of Dyeing Flowers Some rooted plants can change flower color by altering the soil pH: http://www.cahe.nmsu.edu/pubs/yard/1996/120996.html Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach This sounds like a good question for a science project. I think she should do the project first and get some data and then try to answer the question herself. If she can't figure it out, then she should look for some help.

243

Iron Absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Absorption Iron Absorption Name: Mary Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I wrote before to Steve and got a answer back. I would like more information. The cirmcustances were that I first had anaemia and then I went for a gastroscopy. The results of which were I had insufficient acid been produced in the stomach. I was told that acid was nessary for the absorbion of iron and it was because of this that I became anaemic. I was told to eat plently of red meat not too many vegetables. Is there any other information you can give me? Replies: It is very difficult to say for sure without seeing you chart and I am not your doctor. But it sounds to me like you are deficient in the vitamin B12. In your stomach you have 3 basic types of cells. One is called chief cells which secrete the precursor of the enzyme pepsin which begins the breakdown of protein. Another is called the parietal cells which secrete your stomach acid and a substance called intrinsic factor. Now-switch to your bone marrow which is where your red blood cells are made. In order for your red blood cells to mature in the bone marrow, vitamin B12 is necessary. B12 can only be obtained from animal food sources such as meat, milk and eggs. Unfortunately, B12 cannot be absorbed in the stomach without intrinsic factor. If there is sufficient B12 present in the diet, it can be stored in the liver. If you aren't eating enough animal sources your B12 will be taken from your liver until you run out. You could also be deficient in intrinsic factor. So while the outcome is anemia (not enough red blood cells) the problem could be from a few different things. Follow your doctor's recommendations and eat more sources of B12

244

Bioluminescence-Based Method for Measuring Assimilable Organic Carbon in Pretreatment Water for Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...bioluminescence-based assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test was developed for determining the...luminescence and is nutritionally robust. AOC was measured in both a pilot plant and a...treatment. This article presents a marine AOC test for determining the biological growth...

Lauren A. Weinrich; Orren D. Schneider; Mark W. LeChevallier

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

245

Microbial fouling of reverse-osmosis membranes used in advanced wastewater treatment technology: chemical, bacteriological, and ultrastructural analyses.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Science report. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 72:41-49...filter procedure for potable water and swimming pools. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 71:402-405...sewage effluent: the effect of recovery. Water Res. 11:379-385...

H F Ridgway; A Kelly; C Justice; B H Olson

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Design of an Energy Recovery Concept for a Small-scale Renewable-driven Reverse Osmosis Desalination System:.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The desalination industry has grown exponentially the last four decades as countries seek solutions to water scarcity caused by population growth, climate change, pollution and… (more)

Michas, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Experiments and modeling of multilayered coatings and membranes : application to thermal barrier coatings and reverse osmosis membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I developed a novel methodology for characterizing interfacial delamination of thermal barrier coatings. The proposed methodology involves novel experiments-plus numerical simulations in order to determine ...

Luk-Cyr, Jacques

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

The corrosion performance of high chromium stainless steels and titanium alloys at a reverse osmosis plant in Arabian Gulf seawater  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate the corrosion performance of four high chromium stainless steels and Grade 2 titanium in flowing Arabian Gulf natural seawater. The EIS provided information concerning the changes to the interfacial impedance as a function of exposure time for these alloys. The impedance spectra for all the alloys showed slight changes at the low frequency region over the exposure period. The open-circuit potentials (OCP) of these alloys were also monitored as a function of exposure time. The stainless steel alloys exhibited slight fluctuation in potential around the initial exposure potential. However, Grade 2 titanium initial potential was more active and then gradually shifted towards the noble direction. The linear polarization resistance (LPR) method indicated that Grade 2 titanium exhibited the lowest corrosion rate with respect to the stainless steel alloys. The results of the EIS analysis and OCP indicated that Grade 2 titanium performed better than the four high chromium stainless steel alloys.

Al-Odwani, A.; Al-Tabatabaei, M.; Carew, J.; Al-Hashem, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Analysis of the tensioning force of the drainage material during fabrication of a roll type reverse osmosis module  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A procedure is proposed for determination of forces and stresses during winding of the drainage material during fabrication of a roll module from conditions of stability, strength, and stiffness of the dischar...

V. I. Kochetov; S. I. Lazarev; V. Yu. Popov

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Reversible logic for supercomputing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is about making reversible logic a reality for supercomputing. Reversible logic offers a way to exceed certain basic limits on the performance of computers, yet a powerful case will have to be made to justify its substantial development expense. ... Keywords: applications modeling, climate change global warming, computer architecture, quantum dot cellular automata, reversible logic, supercomputing

Erik P. DeBenedictis

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Moments of Absorption.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Moments of Absorption explores the conceptual and visual themes that are presented in my MFA thesis exhibition. The research looks into the absorption of the… (more)

Kaufman, Sarah K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Oral Drug Absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

properties ? membrane permeability ? metabolic stability ? enzyme inhibition or induction ? protein binding ? transporter affinity ?. Chemical Optimization DDS technology 4 Strategy of Drug Delivery Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion Improve of drug... absorption absorption enhancement controlled releasecontrolled release new administration route Drug targeting to the tissue to the cell to the organelle Dr. Shinji Yamashita (Setsunan University) Issue: Oral Drug Absorption Dr. Valentino J. Stella...

Yamashita, Shinji

2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

253

Model-Based Diagnosis and Prognosis of a Water Recycling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by 60%. The WRS is mainly comprised of a forward osmosis (FO) system and a reverse osmosis (RO) system

Roychoudhury, Indranil

254

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

256

Synthesis of reversible sequential elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To construct a reversible sequential circuit, reversible sequential elements are required. This work presents novel designs of reversible sequential elements such as the D latch, JK latch, and T latch. Based on these reversible latches, we construct ... Keywords: Reversible logic, sequential circuits, sequential elements

Min-Lun Chuang; Chun-Yao Wang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Highly Robust Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) Hollow Fiber Membranes with High Power Densities for Renewable Salinity-Gradient Energy Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) Salinity-gradient energy (i.e., osmotic power) generated from the mixing of solutions with different salinities via pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) represents a high potential source of renewable energy. ... Thorsen, T.; Holt, T.The potential for power production from salinity gradients by pressure retarded osmosis J. Membr. ... When using saline water as the feed soln., the efficiency of the osmotic pressure decreases with increasing feed concn. ...

Gang Han; Peng Wang; Tai-Shung Chung

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

258

HII Absorption Bill Erickson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HII Absorption Bill Erickson November 10, 2006 It would make all of the drift curve simulations.8 dB above the data. One reason for this might be HII absorption which is not modeled in simulations. There are a number of ways that one might try to estimate the absorption. One might use optical maps of HII

Ellingson, Steven W.

259

Transient Absorption Spectroscopy with Isolated Attosecond Pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

viii Attosecond transient absorption instrument. . . . . .5.2.2 AbsorptionTransient absorption spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bell, Marie Justine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

All Skate, Now Reverse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All Skate, Now Reverse is a memoir that consists of personal narratives that are set in or are about my growing up in Nebraska. It is about life and its defining moments, and the collection summons up childhood epiphanies ...

Glover, Angela l.

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis  

SciTech Connect

The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Reversible collisionless magnetic reconnection  

SciTech Connect

Reversible magnetic reconnection is demonstrated for the first time by means of gyrokinetic numerical simulations of a collisionless magnetized plasma. Growth of a current-driven instability in a sheared magnetic field is accompanied by magnetic reconnection due to electron inertia effects. Following the instability growth, the collisionless reconnection is accelerated with development of a cross-shaped structure of current density, and then all field lines are reconnected. The fully reconnected state is followed by the secondary reconnection resulting in a weakly turbulent state. A time-reversed simulation starting from the turbulent state manifests that the collisionless reconnection process proceeds inversely leading to the initial state. During the reversed reconnection, the kinetic energy is reconverted into the original magnetic field energy. In order to understand the stability of reversed process, an external perturbation is added to the fully reconnected state, and it is found that the accelerated reconnection is reversible when the deviation of the E × B streamlines due to the perturbation is comparable with or smaller than a current layer width.

Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Solar powered desalination system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

17 1.2.4 Reverse Osmosis…………………………………………………19 1.345 Chapter 2: Reverse Osmosis System…………………………………………………….46 2.1 Reverse Osmosis System Set Up…………………………………………….46 2.2

Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

A Water Conservation Scenario for the Residential and Industrial Sectors in California: Potential Saveings of Water and Related Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for re-use Filter x Reverse osmosis Flocculent Counter flowEvaporation recovery c) Reverse osmosis [45r] pg 77 pg 100through ion exchange or reverse osmosis units to remove the

Benenson, P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tract C-a Tract C-b Reverse osmosis Amortized capital andadsorption, and reverse osmosis. Salts in the leachate wouldWastewater Reclamation by Reverse Osmosis," JWPCF, 21, No.

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Antiadhesive and Antibacterial Coatings for Biofouling Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new concept for reverse osmosis membranes. J Membrane SciA new concept for reverse osmosis membranes. J Membrane SciM. C. , Biofouling in reverse osmosis membranes for seawater

Marambio Jones, Catalina Stephanie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Patterns and Etiologies of Diarrheal Illness Among Two Key Immunocompromised Populations: HIV-Infected and Elderly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of faucet mounted and reverse osmosis filters was higherUnder the sink filter Reverse osmosis filter Other Don’tAn under-sink model A reverse osmosis unit 4 {LABEL SINK}

Saha, Sona Rhiju

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Time reversal communication system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

Candy, James V. (Danville, CA); Meyer, Alan W. (Danville, CA)

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

269

Reverse Coherent Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

Raúl García-Patrón; Stefano Pirandola; Seth Lloyd; Jeffrey H. Shapiro

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

270

A Study of Novel Hexavalent Phosphazene Salts as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Two novel multi-valent salts based on phosphazene chemistry have been synthesized and characterized as forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes. Commercially obtained hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene was reacted with the sodium salt of 4-ethylhydroxybenzoate to yield hexa(4-ethylcarboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene. Hydrolysis, followed by and neutralization with NaOH or LiOH, of the resulting acidic moieties yielded water soluble sodium and lithium phosphazene salts, respectively. Degrees of dissociation were determined through osmometry over the range of 0.05-0.5 m, giving degrees of 3.08-4.95 per mole, suggesting a high osmotic potential. The Li salt was found to be more ionized in solution than the sodium salt, and this was reflected in FO experiments where the Li salt gave higher initial fluxes (~ 7 L/m2h) as compared to the sodium salt (~6 L/m2h) at identical 0.07 m draw solution concentrations at 30 °C. Longer term experiments revealed no detectable degradation of the salts; however some hydrolysis of the cellulose acetate membrane was observed, presumably due to the pH of the phosphazene salt draw solution (pH = ~8).

Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Sustained Self-Reversal in the Reversed-Field Pinch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spontaneous reversal of the toroidal field in a reversed-field pinch as a result of low-? (small J?J?) resisitive kink mode activity is investigated with use of a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics code. Helical and three-dimensional steady reversed states are obtained. In three dimensions quasisteady fluctuating states are observed above a critical value of the pinch parameter ?.

A. Y. Aydemir and D. C. Barnes

1984-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

272

Design of Water Filter for Third World Countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research &Responsibilities Sections Written Reverse osmosis filter research Acknowledgements Slow sand.2 Reverse Osmosis Filters 12.0 Recommendations _______________ Jingwen Wang #12;- 4 - Table of Contents List

Sun, Yu

273

X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

009-9473-8 REVIEW X-ray absorption spectroscopy Junko Yano Ćand application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, bothX-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

type: Review X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Junko Yano andPhotosystem II; XAS, X-ray absorption spectroscopy; EXAFS,X-ray absorption fine structure; EPR, electron paramagnetic

Yano, Junko

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

absorption absorption ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol absorption The process in which radiation energy is retained by aerosols. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) PSAP : Particle Soot Absorption Photometer PASS : Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer External Instruments OMI : Ozone Monitoring Instrument

276

Solar selective absorption coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

277

Solar selective absorption coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

279

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop The National Renewable Energy Laboratory hosted a workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art of reversible fuel...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Reversal bending fatigue testing  

SciTech Connect

Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

282

Multiphoton Absorption and Coherence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the probability for multiphoton absorption processes induced by both laser and thermal light acting on an atomic system. When the thermal radiation, suitably filtered, has the same frequency spectrum and the same total energy as the laser packet, we find that the ratio between the relative probabilities for s-photon absorption can be expressed by (4?)-12(s-1)s!s12(?c?)s-1, where ? is the time during which the atomic system is illuminated by thermal radiation with coherence time ?c. This shows that multiphoton absorption processes depend on the statistical properties of the incident light, and that the probability induced by the laser packet is certainly greater than that induced by the thermal light if s

S. Carusotto; G. Fornaca; E. Polacco

1968-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

283

Reverse slapper detonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

Weingart, Richard C. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

An Analysis of the Economic and Financial Life-Cycle Costs of Reverse-Osmosis Desalination in South Texas: A Case Study of the Southmost Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desalination provides a supply alternative for potable water for many communities, along with possible defenses against security threats potentially affecting clean water supplies. The economic and financial life-cycle costs associated with building...

Sturdivant, A.; Rister, M.; Rogers, C.; Lacewell, R.; Norris, J.; Leal, J.; Garza, J.; Adams, J.

285

Installation of Reverse Osmosis Unit Reduces Refinery Energy Consumption: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Petroleum Technical Case Study  

SciTech Connect

This case study is the latest in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. The case studies document the activities, savings, and lessons learned on these projects.

U.S. Department of Energy

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

286

The characteristics of cobalt or copper salt-coordinated poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-2,4-diamino-6-vinyl-s-triazine) membrane for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-2,4-diamino-6-vinyl-s-triazine) membranes in which a part of pyridine rings was coordinated with cobalt or copper salt, considerably enhanced salt rejection without appreciable reductio...

Eizo Oikawa; Yoshiji Honda; Yuji Sawada

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

2011-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

288

Reversible micromachining locator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

Optical absorption in amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

The role that disorder plays in shaping the form of the optical absorption spectrum of hydrogenated amorphous silicon is investigated. Disorder leads to a redistribution of states, which both reduces the Tauc gap and broadens the absorption tail. The observed relationship between the Tauc gap and the breadth of the absorption tail is thus explained.

O`Leary, S.K.; Zukotynski, S.; Perz, J.M.; Sidhu, L.S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPLICATIONS OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPYthe Zeeman effect to atomic absorption spectroscopy has beenthe Zeeman effect on atomic absorption spectrometry has been

Koizumi, Hideaki

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Moisture absorption modeling using design of experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moisture Absorption Modeling Using Design of Experimentssurface pro?les of moisture absorption for the two laminatetheir amounts of moisture absorption are different. The

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-established technique for simultaneous local geometric and electronic structure...

293

Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from saline wastewater in bioelectrochemical systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in physical and chemical separation processes such as ion-exchange, electrodialysis, or reverse osmosis [1

295

I P I P I P P I P I I PI P I  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.V.Tokarchuk Abstract. Hydrodynamics of an electrolyte solution transport through a reverse osmosis membrane

296

Antiproton Absorption in Nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the analysis of experimental data on forward antiproton production on nuclei. The calculations are done in the framework of a folding model which takes properly into account both incoherent direct proton-nucleon and cascade pion-nucleon antiproton production processes as well as internal nucleon momentum distribution. The effective antiproton-nucleon cross section in nuclear matter and the imaginary part of the antiproton nuclear optical potential are estimated to be 25-45 mb and -(38-56) MeV at normal nuclear matter density, respectively. The results of the performed analysis evidence for the decreasing of antiproton absorption in the nuclear medium.

Yu. T. Kiselev; E. Ya. Paryev

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

297

Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to Magnesium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to Magnesium Triborane in the Solid State Under Moderate Conditions. Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to...

299

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

300

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2009-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

302

Ultrasonic absorption in liquid mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, It is obvious that much moxe experimental dates both absorption snd thermalv is needed before this theory can be substantiated Purpose of the Investigation Ths present research was undertaken to investigate thoroughly ths absorption in mixtuxws of ethanol... Agricultural and lheohaaioal College of %nas ia partial fulfi&went of tbs aequtreaante for the daggse of ~t %53 ~or Sub)eot Pllgedss Table of Contents Ii Beokgxeund snd Theory Absorption in Pure Liqu1ds 8, Absorpt1on in Idquid Bixtures XI Purpose...

Davis, James Madison

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

303

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), or ionelectrodialysis is also much more sensitive to dissolved organics than reverse

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

16 IDA JournAl | Fourth QuArter 2010 www.IDADesAl.org Treatment Innovations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

areas are turning to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, the energy require- ments can be a large to a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant, the energy demand of desalination is reduced, and two tight and technically feasible across a broad range of operating conditions. Forward Osmosis­Reverse Osmosis Process

305

Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

306

Eta absorption by mesons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the $[SU(3)_{\\mathrm{L}} \\times SU(3)_{\\mathrm{R}}]_{\\mathrm{global}% }\\times [SU(3)_V]_{\\mathrm{local}}$ chiral Lagrangian with hidden local symmetry, we evaluate the cross sections for the absorption of eta meson ($% \\eta$) by pion ($\\pi$), rho ($\\rho$), omega ($\\omega$), kaon ($K$), and kaon star ($K^*$) in the tree-level approximation. With empirical masses and coupling constants as well as reasonable values for the cutoff parameter in the form factors at interaction vertices, we find that most cross sections are less than 1 mb, except the reactions $\\rho\\eta\\to K\\bar K^*(\\bar KK^*)$, $\\omega\\eta\\to K\\bar K^*(\\bar KK^*)$, $K^*\\eta\\to\\rho K$, and $K^*\\eta\\to\\omega K$, which are a few mb, and the reactions $\\pi\\eta\\to K\\bar K$ and $K\\eta\\to\\pi K$, which are more than 10 mb. Including these reactions in a kinetic model based on a schematic hydrodynamic description of relativistic heavy ion collisions, we find that the abundance of eta mesons likely reaches chemical equilibrium with other hadrons in nuclear collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

W. Liu; C. M. Ko; L. W. Chen

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

307

Environmental Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University, 1989 Selected Recent Publications "Reverse Osmosis Biofilm Dispersal by Osmotic Back Retarded Osmosis Energy Production from Natural Salinity Gradients." Environmental Science & Technology, 2013. "A Forward Osmosis-Membrane Distillation Hybrid Process for Direct Sewer Mining: System

Elimelech, Menachem

308

Reversal modes in magnetic nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The magnetic switching of ferromagnetic nanotubes is investigated as a function of their geometry. Two independent methods are used: Numerical simulations and analytical calculations. It is found that for long tubes the reversal of magnetization is achieved by two mechanism: The propagation of a transverse or a vortex domain wall depending on the internal and external radii of the tube.

P. Landeros; S. Allende; J. Escrig; E. Salcedo; D. Altbir; E. E. Vogel

2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

309

Reverse engineering the human brain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Thompson Reverse engineering the human brain Vincent Walsh Department of Experimental...can be used to temporarily prevent the brain from carrying out some of its normal functions...outline some of the advances in understanding brain function made by using TMS, and, in particular...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Cosmological Significance of Time Reversal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... reversal at nearly the same time, that time being coincident with the occurrence of the Schwarzschild singularity, that is, the point at which the limiting radius, R = GM/ ... increases it would seem that a phenomenon not dissimilar to the spherical gravitational collapse of Schwarzschild will inevitably commence. This phenomenon depends on the relative velocity, and thus the position ...

KARY MULLIS

1968-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

311

Absorption properties of identical atoms  

SciTech Connect

Emission rates and other optical properties of multi-particle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas. -- Highlights: •The absorption rates of a pair of identical atoms in product and (anti)symmetrized states are different. •The modifications of the optical properties are essentially determined by the overlapping between the atoms. •The absorption properties differ, in some cases, for bosons and fermions.

Sancho, Pedro, E-mail: psanchos@aemet.es

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

The rediscovery of absorption chillers  

SciTech Connect

Absorption chillers are back - and for two very good reasons: they are environmentally sound and, in many cases, economically attractive. One factor fueling this resurgence is the outlook for natural gas, the energy source of most absorption systems. Deregulation has spurred exploration, and forecasts indicate an abundant supply and relatively low prices through 2050. Threats of global warming and depletion of the ozone layer also are forces driving the absorption chiller market. Being a good corporate citizen today means minimizing or eliminating the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the basis of many refrigerants used in mechanical chillers. Even as chemical and chiller manufacturers alike work to develop substitute refrigerants, the perfect alternative has yet to be found. Absorption units are free of these problems, a benefit that appeals to many people.

Katzel, J.

1992-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

313

Radiative muon absorption in oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The photon spectrum from radiative absorption of negative muons in O16 has been measured with a high-resolution pair spectrometer. The integrated branching ratio for photons with energies greater than 57 MeV relative to the total muon absorption rate is (3.8±0.4)×10-5. The data are consistent with nuclear model calculations for a value of the induced pseudoscalar coupling in O16 of gP/gA=13.5±1.5.

A. Frischknecht; M. Döbeli; W. Stehling; G. Strassner; P. Truöl; J. C. Alder; C. Joseph; J. F. Loude; J. P. Perroud; D. Ruegger; M. T. Tran; H. Panke

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Modeling of Powder Absorption in Additive Manufacturing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated optical absorption by a powder of metal spheres, via ray-trace calculations. The absorptivity significantly exceeds that for normal incidence, because of multiple...

Boley, Charles; Khairallah, Saad; Rubenchik, Alexander M

315

Reversals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the fall of 1996, a few months before Jim Hall made the case against the Boeing 737 in his long letter to the...

Gerry Byrne

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Reverse engineering of integrated circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

Chisholm, Gregory H. (Shorewood, IL); Eckmann, Steven T. (Colorado Springs, CO); Lain, Christopher M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Veroff, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings  

SciTech Connect

We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

318

Nonlinear bleaching, absorption, and scattering of 532-nm-irradiated plasmonic nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Single-pulse irradiation of Au and Ag suspensions of nanospheres and nanodisks with 532-nm 4-ns pulses has identified complex optical nonlinearities while minimizing material damage. For all materials tested, we observe competition between saturable absorption (SA) and reverse SA (RSA), with RSA behavior dominating for intensities above {approx}50 MW/cm{sup 2}. Due to reduced laser damage in single-pulse experiments, the observed intrinsic nonlinear absorption coefficients are the highest reported to date for Au nanoparticles. We find size dependence to the nonlinear absorption enhancement for Au nanoparticles, peaking in magnitude for 80-nm nanospheres and falling off at larger sizes. The nonlinear absorption coefficients for Au and Ag spheres are comparable in magnitude. On the other hand, the nonlinear absorption for Ag disks, when corrected for volume fraction, is several times higher. These trends in nonlinear absorption are correlated to local electric field enhancement through quasi-static mean-field theory. Through variable size aperture measurements, we also separate nonlinear scattering from nonlinear absorption. For all materials tested, we find that nonlinear scattering is highly directional and that its magnitude is comparable to that of nonlinear absorption. These results indicate methods to improve the efficacy of plasmonic nanoparticles as optical limiters in pulsed laser systems.

Liberman, V.; Sworin, M.; Kingsborough, R. P.; Geurtsen, G. P.; Rothschild, M. [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

319

The Carlson-Simpson Lemma in Reverse Mathematics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6.3 Reverse Mathematicswords . . . . . 1.4 Reverse Mathematics diagrams Miller-1.1 Reverse Mathematics . . . . . . 1.2 The Dual Ramsey

Erhard, Julia Christina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Summary and presentations from the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop held April 19,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Absorption media for irreversibly gettering thionyl chloride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thionyl chloride is a hazardous and reactive chemical used as the liquid cathode in commercial primary batteries. Contrary to previous thinking, ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon (Calgon Corporation) reversibly absorbs thionyl chloride. Thus, several candidate materials were examined as irreversible getters for thionyl chloride. The capacity, rate and effect of temperature were also explored. A wide variety of likely materials were investigated through screening experiments focusing on the degree of heat generated by the reaction as well as the material absorption capacity and irreversibility, in order to help narrow the group of possible getter choices. More thorough, quantitative measurements were performed on promising materials. The best performing getter was a mixture of ZnO and ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. In this example, the ZnO reacts with thionyl chloride to form ZnCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2. The SO.sub.2 is then irreversibly gettered by ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. This combination of ZnO and carbon has a high capacity, is irreversible and functions effectively above -20.degree. C.

Buffleben, George (Tracy, CA); Goods, Steven H. (Livermore, CA); Shepodd, Timothy (Livermore, CA); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program or Field Office: Advanced Research Projects Agency - Program or Field Office: Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy Proiect Title: 0289-1628 Battelle - Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Reverse Absorption Osmosis Cycle Location: Ohio Proposed Action or Project Description: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Funding will support laboratory and bench scale research and development on a novel reverse osmosis process for use in commercial cooling applications. The proposed work is consistent with the goal of BEETIT: the development of energy efficient cooling technologies and air conditioners for buildings, to save energy and reduce GHG emissions. Proposed work consists entirely of RD&D and proof-of-concept work to be completed in Battelle's Thermal Sciences Laboratory in Columbus, Ohio.

323

CX-004923: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

23: Categorical Exclusion Determination 23: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004923: Categorical Exclusion Determination Battelle-Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Reverse Absorption Osmosis Cycle CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/04/2010 Location(s): Columbus, Ohio Office(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy Funding will support laboratory and bench scale research and development on a novel reverse osmosis process for use in commercial cooling applications. The proposed work is consistent with the goal of Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices: the development of energy efficient cooling technologies and air conditioners for buildings, to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Proposed work consists entirely of research, development, and demonstration and proof-of-concept work to be

324

NETL: Pressure Swing Absorption Device  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Project No.: DE-FE0001323 New Jersey Institute of Technology is developing an advanced pressure swing absorption-based (PSAB) device via laboratory-based experiments. The device will be used to accomplish a cyclic process to process low temperature post-shift-reactor synthesis gas resulting from the gasification process into purified hydrogen at high pressure for use by the combustion turbine of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. The overall goal of the proposed work is to develop an advanced PSAB device and cyclic process for use in a coal-fired IGCC plant to produce purified hydrogen at high pressure and a highly purified CO2 stream suitable for use or sequestration.

325

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-barrier protection of drinking water, reduction in reverse osmosis membrane fouling due to impurities in impaired, such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF), are capable of rejecting most dissolved constituents 2010 Accepted 29 June 2010 Available online 5 August 2010 Keywords: Osmosis Forward osmosis Osmotic

326

Saturable absorption and 'slow light'  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantitative evaluation of some recent 'slow light' experiments based on coherent population oscillations (CPO) shows that they can be more simply interpreted as saturable absorption phenomena. Therefore they do not provide an unambiguous demonstration of 'slow light'. Indeed a limiting condition on the spectral bandwidth is not generally satisfied, such that the requirements for burning a narrow spectral hole in the homogeneously broadened absorption line are not met. Some definitive tests of 'slow light' phenomena are suggested, derived from analysis of phase shift and pulse delay for a saturable absorber

Adrian C Selden

2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

327

Transient Xray absorption features in GRBs 1 Transient XRay Absorption in GRBs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

due to photoelectric absorption or other atomic processes.) The transient nature of the absorptionTransient X­ray absorption features in GRBs 1 Transient X­Ray Absorption in GRBs and its Abstract The recent detection of a transient absorption feature in the prompt emission of GRB 990705 has

Boettcher, Markus

328

Interferometric tunability of the absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an interferometric setup that permits to tune the quantity of radiation absorbed by an object illuminated by a fixed light source. The method can be used to selectively irradiate portions of an object based on their transmissivities or to accurately estimate the transmissivities from rough absorption measurements.

Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

329

An overview of time?reversal acoustics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time?reversal invariance is a very powerful concept in physics. In the field of acoustics where time reversal invariance occurs time?reversal experiments may be achieved simply with arrays of transmit?receive transducers allowing an incident wave field to be sampled recorded time?reversed and re?emitted. Time reversal mirrors (TRMs) may be used to study random media and chaotic reverberating structures. Common to these complex media is a remarkable robustness exemplified by observations that the more complex the medium between the probe source and the TRM the sharper the focus. TRMs open the way to new signal processings that interest imaging detection telecommunications and therapy. Time reversal mirrors have plenty of applications including ultrasonic therapy and medical imaging non destructive testing telecommunications underwater acoustics seismology sound control home automation. An overview of these fields will be presented.

Mathias Fink

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Absorption properties of identical atoms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emission rates and other optical properties of multiparticle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas.

Pedro Sancho

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Photodetector with enhanced light absorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

Kane, James (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Phosphate Absorption and Utilization by Barley  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SINCE the processes of absorption and translocation are closely ... of absorption and translocation are closely interrelated in the intact plant, the nutrient content of roots is both determined by the ...

1953-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

333

DNA Concentration By UV Spectrophotometry Measure Absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DNA Concentration By UV Spectrophotometry Measure Absorption: 1. Dilute DNA to 0.5 to 50 µg 2. Measure absorption at 260 nm (A260). Start by zeroing instrument with TE buffer or dH2O alone

Aris, John P.

334

GAX absorption cycle design process  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an absorption system design process that relies on computer simulations that are validated by experimental findings. An ammonia-water absorption heat pump cycle at 3 refrigeration tons (RT) and chillers at 3.3 RT and 5 RT (10.5 kW, 11.6 kW, and 17.6 kW) were initially modeled and then built and tested. The experimental results were used to calibrate both the cycle simulation and the component simulations, yielding computer design routines that could accurately predict component and cycle performance. Each system was a generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) cycle, and all were sized for residential and light commercial use, where very little absorption equipment is currently used. The specific findings of the 5 RT (17.6 kW) chiller are presented. Modeling incorporated a heat loss from the gas-fired generator and pressure drops in both the evaporator and absorber. Simulation results and experimental findings agreed closely and validated the modeling method and simulation software.

Priedeman, D.K.; Christensen, R.N.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Purge needs in absorption chillers  

SciTech Connect

Absorption chillers are regaining a significant share of large tonnage chiller sales, such as they had 20 years ago. Gas-fired chillers are now available that have a base energy (ultimate fuel usage) consumption rate per ton comparable to that in electric units. Effective purging in an absorption chiller is an absolute necessity to achieve the low chilled water temperature needed for dehumidification and to fully benefit from the energy savings offered by double-effect cycles. Although the purge system is usually not shown on the typical cycle schematic, its proper functioning is a key requirement for satisfactory machine operation. This article discusses the effect of noncondensible (N/C) gases on the absorption cooling process and the basics of purge systems. In addition, the article discusses the rationale for the important design step of selecting the location of the N/C probe, and discusses purge systems applicable to the direct-fired, double-effect machines now entering the marketplace.

Murray, J.G. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Nonidentified Kikuchi lines with reverse contrast  

SciTech Connect

Electron diffraction patterns of silicon in transmission with contrast reversal from bright to dark for an unidentified Kikuchi line along its length have been obtained. The contrast reversal of an unidentified line is explained within the elementary mechanism of Kikuchi pattern formation taking into account the Kikuchi electron double diffraction.

Karakhanyan, K. R., E-mail: kkarakhanyan@yandex.ru [Yerevan State University (Armenia)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reversibility of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), i.e. that they could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser1 REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1 , Søren Højgaard Jensen1,2 , Anne Hauch1,3 , Ib Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø National Laboratory

338

ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS OF EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY WITH ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS OF EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY WITH ABSORPTION L. Hajdu and R. Tijdeman Abstract of emission tomography with absorption, con- sider a ray (such as light or X-ray) transmitting through #1; e #22;x ; where #22; #21; 0 denotes the absorption coeĂ?cient of the material, and x is the length

Tijdeman, Robert

339

Absorption Coefficients and Impedance Daniel A. Russell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Absorption Coefficients and Impedance Daniel A. Russell Science and Mathematics Department will measure the absorption coefficients and acoustic impedance of samples of acoustic absorbing materials material is responsible for almost 50% of sound absorption inside an automobile). The reverberation time

Russell, Daniel A.

340

Discriminant Absorption Feature Learning for Material Classification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Discriminant Absorption Feature Learning for Material Classification Zhouyu Fu, Antonio Robles in spectral imaging by combining the use of invariant spectral absorption features and statistical machine learning techniques. Our method hinges in the relevance of spectral absorption features for material

Robles-Kelly, Antonio

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Enhanced Absorption Induced by a Metallic Nanoshell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhanced Absorption Induced by a Metallic Nanoshell Roi Baer* Department of Physical Chemistry ABSTRACT Nanoshells have been previously shown to have tunable absorption frequencies that are dependent on the ratio of their inner and outer radii. Inspired by this, we ask: can a nanoshell increase the absorption

Baer, Roi

342

LIMITING ABSORPTION PRINCIPLE FOR SINGULARLY PERTURBED OPERATORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LIMITING ABSORPTION PRINCIPLE FOR SINGULARLY PERTURBED OPERATORS WALTER RENGER Abstract. Given an operator H 1 for which a limiting absorption principle holds, we study operators H 2 which are produced that (except for possibly a discrete set of eigenvalues) a limiting absorption principle holds for H 2 . We

343

Absorption cross section in Lifshitz black hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the absorption cross section of a minimally coupled scalar in the Lifshitz black hole obtained from the new massive gravity. The absorption cross section reduces to the horizon area in the low energy and massless limit of s-wave mode propagation, indicating that the Lifshitz black hole also satisfies the universality of low energy absorption cross section for black holes.

Taeyoon Moon; Yun Soo Myung

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

344

Original article Improvement of zinc intestinal absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article Improvement of zinc intestinal absorption and reduction of zinc/iron interaction of caseins, improves its absorption and could prevent inhibition by other nutrients such as iron (Fe). The absorption of Zn (100 Ilmol/L) bound to the 1-25 CN ((3-CN(1-25)) of (3-casein, or as ZnS04 was studied using

Boyer, Edmond

345

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2/9/07 1 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules The Outskirts of Structural Biology 9, 07] This is a tutorial about the use of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in biology, RG; Eisenberger, P; Kincaid, BM "X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules" Annu. Rev

Scott, Robert A.

346

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

9/6/09 1 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules The Outskirts of Structural Biology 6, 09] This is a tutorial about the use of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in biology, RG; Eisenberger, P; Kincaid, BM "X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules" Annu. Rev

Scott, Robert A.

347

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films Title X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-50574 Year of Publication 2002 Authors Richardson, Thomas J., Baker Farangis, Jonathan L. Slack, Ponnusamy Nachimuthu, Rupert C. C. Perera, Nobumichi Tamura, and Michael D. Rubin Journal Journal of Alloys and Compounds Volume 356-357 Start Page 204 Pagination 204-207 Date Published 08/2003 Keywords A. hydrogen storage materials, NEXAFS, thin film s; C. EXAFS, x-ray diffraction Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large changes in both reflectance and transmittance on exposure to hydrogen gas. Changes in electronic structure and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic in situ transmission mode X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Mg K-edge and Ni, Co, and Ti L-edge spectra reflect both reversible and irreversible changes in the metal environments. A significant shift in the nickel L absorption edge shows it to be an active participant in hydride formation. The effect on cobalt and titanium is much less dramatic, suggesting that these metals act primarily as catalysts for formation of magnesium hydride.

348

Energy absorption behaviors of nanoporous materials functionalized (NMF) liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

investigating high-performance energy absorption materials,investigating high-performance energy absorption materials,high energy absorption efficiency of nanoporous materials

Kim, Tae Wan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Salicylate Toxicity from Ingestion and Continued Dermal Absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of salicylate dermal absorption and toxicity. REFERENCESand Continued Dermal Absorption Rachel L. Chin, MD*, Kent R.bases in the percutaneous absorption of salicylates II. J

Chin, Rachel L; Olson, Kent R; Dempsey, Delia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

SENSITIVE OPTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE BY RESONANCE ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monoxide by Resonance Absorption Robert Gerlach and Nabil M.MONOXIDE BY RESONANCE ABSORPTION Robert Gerlach and Nabil M.the context of atmospheric absorption. The carbon monoxide

Gerlach, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Absorption of Foliar-Applied Nitrogen by Cotton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wax, and nitrogen-15 absorption. Crop Science 37:807-811.water- deficit stress, and the absorption of foliar-appliedgrowth favorable for N absorption and translocation. Four

Oosterhuis, Derrick M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Energy absorption behaviors of nanoporous materials functionalized (NMF) liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a nanoporous energy absorption system by using chemicalSurani, and Y. Qiao, "Energy absorption of nanoporous silicaSAN DIEGO Energy Absorption Behaviors of Nanoporous

Kim, Tae Wan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 1/114 Emission and Absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 1/114 Emission and Absorption 1 Motivation and the jet. #12;High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 2/114 HST optical image of 3C273 Note: Emission and Absorption 3/114 Set of 3 images of the jet of 3C273. Left: HST Middle: Chandra X-ray Right

Bicknell, Geoff

354

Economic and energetic analysis of capturing CO2 from ambient air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...captured). When analyzing the economics of climate...9 Desalination, reverse osmosis...ethanol distillation and desalination...CO2; and 1.5% N2). Desalination, reverse osmosis. Description...

Kurt Zenz House; Antonio C. Baclig; Manya Ranjan; Ernst A. van Nierop; Jennifer Wilcox; Howard J. Herzog

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

This journal is c the Owner Societies 2012 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Cite this: DOI: 10.1039/c2cp42121f  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies. Currently, reverse osmosis (RO), multistage flash distillation (MSF), and electrodialysis (ED recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method

Santiago, Juan G.

356

ORNL 2012-G00208/tcc UT-B ID 201002406  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at pretreatment conditions compared to reverse osmosis membranes that are limited to low temperature processing/ chemicals · Less prone to fouling than reverse osmosis membranes Potential Applications · Biomass

Pennycook, Steve

357

Evaluation of Membrane Processes for Reducing Total Dissolved Solids Discharged to the Truckee River  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for endangered species. Reverse osmosis RO and nanofiltration NF , in conjunction with ultrafiltration UF also have to be removed from the effluent in order to maintain their TMDLs. Reverse osmosis RO

358

26 Maple Syrup Digest THE "JONES RULE OF 86" REVISITED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the present day when concentration by reverse osmosis is common, and the value and difference in sap (or enough. Given our increasingly powerful Reverse Osmosis machines, the resultant high concentrate sugar

Hayden, Nancy J.

359

Membrane Scientist Los Angeles, CA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and working hands on to ensure quality and commercial viability of reverse osmosis products including hand cast and commercial reverse osmosis membrane testing and synthesis, prototype membrane testing and new

Alpay, S. Pamir

360

Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 1986, 25,1027-1030 1027 Conclusions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, DC, 1968; Applied Mathematics Se- ries, Vol. 55; p 238. Ohya, H.; Sourirajan, S. Reverse Osmosis. Sourirajan, S. Reverse Osmosis; Logos: London, 1970. Received for reuiew September 11, 1985 Accepted May 16

Kirschvink, Joseph L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Ion beam analysis of materials for water purification: Partitioning of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reverse osmosis membranes Xijing Zhang1, David G. Cahill1, Orlando Coronell2 and Benito J. Mariñas2. 1 reverse osmosis membrane, Dow Liquid Separations Conventional wisdom is

Braun, Paul

362

FM 4-20.158 TO 13C7-7-61  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

..........................................................................................v Chapter 1 Rigging 600-Gallons Per Hour (GPH) Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU) on a 20-Foot-3 Preparing Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU) ...................... 1-11 Lifting

US Army Corps of Engineers

363

Water Treatment using Electrocoagulation Ritika Mohan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reverse Osmosis (HEROTM). Semiconductor industrial waste water amounts to approximately 105 ­ 106 gal of brine amounting to almost 103 104 gal/day water. The difference between conventional Reverse Osmosis

Fay, Noah

364

Le Lait (1984), 64, 143-162 Aspect nergtique du relvement par osmose  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Summary ENERGETIC CONSIDERATION ABOUT THE CONCENTRATION WITH REVERSE OSMOSIS OF «PIQUETTES» BEFORE DISTILLATION ft is possible ta concentrate «piquettes» by reverse osmosis, before the distillation

Boyer, Edmond

365

Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

Dao, Kim (14 Nace Ave., Piedmont, CA 94611)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Radiative muon absorption in calcium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The photon spectrum from radiative absorption of negative muons in Ca40 has been measured with a high-resolution pair spectrometer. The data are analyzed in order to determine the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant gp in nuclear matter. When compared to models which use a realistic nuclear response function and avoid the closure approximation, a value of gp/gA=4.0±1.5 is obtained, which indicates a quenching of this coupling compared to the nucleonic value by a factor 0.57±0.25.

A. Frischknecht; W. Stehling; G. Strassner; P. Truöl; J. C. Alder; C. Joseph; J. F. Loude; J. P. Perroud; D. Ruegger; T. M. Tran; W. Dahme; H. Panke; R. Kopp

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Formaldehyde Absorption toward W51  

SciTech Connect

We have measured formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) absorption toward the HII region complex W51A (G49.5-0.4) in the 6 cm and 2 cm wavelength rotational transitions with angular resolution of approximately 4 inch. The continuum HII region shows a large, previously undetected shell structure 5.5 pc along the major axis. We observe no H{sub 2}CO emission in regions of low continuum intensity. The absorption, converted to optical depth, shows a higher degree of clumping than previous maps at lower resolution. The good S/N of the maps allows accurate estimation of the complicated line profiles, showing some of the absorbing clouds to be quite patchy. We list the properties of the opacity spectra for a number of positions both in the clumps and in the more diffuse regions of the absorbing clouds, and derive column densities for the 1{sub 11} and 2{sub 12} rotational levels of ortho-formaldehyde.

Kogut, A.; Smoot, G.F.; Bennett, C.L.; Petuchowski, S.J.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Molar Mass, Surface Tension, and Droplet Growth Kinetics of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, thus enabling direct characterization of marine DOM. K¨ohler Theory Analysis

Nenes, Athanasios

369

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reverse osmosis (RO) (46% of global capacity), multi-stage flash (MSF) (36% of global capacity), electrodialysis (

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Climatic Change (2009) 97:409437 DOI 10.1007/s10584-009-9626-y  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-gallon pump-price to cover irrigation costs, using reverse osmosis (RO), desalinated, sea water. Such mature

371

Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

372

Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

Roman, Ian C. [Wilmington, DE; Baker, Richard W. [Palo Alto, CA

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

373

Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film, a team from the University of Washington and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has identified separate magnetic-reversal mechanisms in the two branches of a hysteresis loop. This advance in fundamental understanding will provide new insights for developing the next generation of information storage and sensing devices where exchange bias is expected to play a critical role.

374

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Wednesday, 31 July 2013 00:00 In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

375

Subsurface imaging with reverse vertical seismic profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents imaging results from a 3D reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) dataset measured at a hydrocarbon bearing pinnacle reef in northern Michigan. The study presented many challenges in seismic data ...

Krasovec, Mary L. (Mary Lee), 1972-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

How to reverse-engineer quality rankings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A good or bad product quality rating can make or break an organization. However, the notion of “quality” is often defined by an independent rating ... step in this process is to “reverse-engineer” a rating compan...

Allison Chang; Cynthia Rudin; Michael Cavaretta; Robert Thomas…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Fuel Cells Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings Annual Merit Review Proceedings Workshop & Meeting Proceedings

378

Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries. Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable magnesium...

379

Materials and System Issues with Reversible SOFC | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Lessons Learned from...

380

Characterization of ion selective membranes for application in reverse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characterization of ion selective membranes for application in reverse electrodialysis systems I would have imagined when I started. i #12;Abstract Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a renewable

Kjelstrup, Signe

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Discrimination reversal learning in yearling horses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DISCRIMINATION REVERSAL LEARNING IN YEARLING HORSES A Thesis by JEANNA CHASTAIN FISKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976... Major Subjects Animal Science DISCRIMINATION REVERSAL LEARNING IN YEARLING HORSES A Thesis by JEANNA CHASTAIN FISKE Approved as to style and content by& Chai an o Committee ad oi epartment Member Nem er December 1976 ABSTRACT Discrimination...

Fiske, Jeanna Chastain

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Basics Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three basic principles: When a liquid is heated it boils (vaporizes) and when a gas is cooled it condenses Lowering the pressure above a liquid reduces its boiling point Heat flows from warmer to cooler surfaces.

383

Silicate absorption in heavily obscured galaxy nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectroscopy at 8-13 microns with T-ReCS on Gemini-S is presented for 3 galaxies with substantial silicate absorption features, NGC 3094, NGC 7172 and NGC 5506. In the galaxies with the deepest absorption bands, the silicate profile towards the nuclei is well represented by the emissivity function derived from the circumstellar emission from the red supergiant, mu Cephei which is also representative of the mid-infrared absorption in the diffuse interstellar medium in the Galaxy. There is spectral structure near 11.2 microns in NGC 3094 which may be due to a component of crystalline silicates. In NGC 5506, the depth of the silicate absorption increases from north to south across the nucleus, suggestive of a dusty structure on scales of 10s of parsecs. We discuss the profile of the silicate absorption band towards galaxy nuclei and the relationship between the 9.7 micron silicate and 3.4 micron hydrocarbon absorption bands.

P. F. Roche; C. Packham; D. K. Aitken; R. E. Mason

2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

384

Where Does My Water Come From? The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) the water wars of the 1970s and 2) the construction of the largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO Springs have brackish groundwater reverse osmosis plants; and Dunedin and Clearwater have groundwater reverse osmosis plants. Tampa Bay Water's sources vary throughout the year and current source

Jawitz, James W.

385

Part II: Short Answer Questions. Write a brief, but complete answer to each question, confining your answer to the space provided.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will not be removed by reverse osmosis? Reverse osmosis purifies water by passing it through a membrane. Any small to these hard minerals and prevent them from binding to the soap molecules. (8) 3. Both distillation and reverse osmosis are processes that will produce highly purified, but not absolutely pure water. (a) What types

Viola, Ronald

386

Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-driven desalination with reverse osmosis: the state of the art Andrea Ghermandi*, Rami Messalem Ben-Gurion University; accepted in revised form 17 June 2009 abstract Solar-driven reverse osmosis desalination can potentially experimental and design systems worldwide. Our results show that photovoltaic-powered reverse osmosis is techni

Messalem, Rami

387

Elemental, Isotopic, and Spectroscopic Assessment of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Matter Sampled with a Portable Reverse Osmosis System A L E X A N D R E O U E L L E T , D R A G O S H C manuscript received December 26, 2007. Accepted January 8, 2008. Portable reverse osmosis (RO) systems implies the rinsing of the reverse osmosis system with a solution of dilute Na

Long, Bernard

388

Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scale study of chlorination-induced transport property changes of a seawater reverse osmosis membrane of a seawater reverse osmosis membrane Axel Ettori a,b,c , Emmanuelle Gaudichet-Maurin c , Pierre Aimar a, BP 76, 78603 Maisons-Laffitte cedex, France H I G H L I G H T S A 4" spiral wound reverse osmosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.22 µm. Seawater, reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate collected from a wastewater reclamation plant for the treatment of saline water and wastewater such as thermal distillation and reverse osmosis [2,3]. MD has several advantages compared to conventional thermal distillation and reverse osmosis processes [3

390

Page 5Working Together We Can . . .Volume 9, Issue 9 Marana Pilot Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the results of innovative tech- niques aimed at lowering the cost of Reverse Osmosis and mitigating its in the Northwest Tucson area are considering treat- ing CAP water with reverse osmosis (RO) to reduce TDS reverse osmosis with very low TDS, but the remaining 15% is left with a salt concentration 1/10th

Fay, Noah

391

Proceedings of the ASME 2012 10th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels July 8-12, 2012, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and efforts have focused on the improvement of membrane-based desalination methods such as reverse osmosis or various membranes and includes reverse osmosis (RO) and membrane electro dialysis [2,6,7]. Thermally based) [2-4]. Of all these methods, reverse osmosis and multistage flash distillation ar

Hidrovo, Carlos H.

392

Murdoch University Dixon Road, Rockingham  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. These research themes comprise: pre-treatment, reverse osmosis desalting, novel desalting Evaluation of non-chemical pulsed power technology as an antifouling pre- treatment for reverse osmosis-treatment process for reverse osmosis desalination Prof. Linda Zou, University of South Australia

393

July/August 2006, Vol. 61, No. 4 171 ngested inorganic arsenic (InAs) causes cancer of the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

domestic wells commonly use reverse osmosis (RO) water filtration units to reduce arsenic con- centrations of 351 homes in Churchill County, NV, (the same area where our study took Reverse Osmosis Filter Use water generally do not apply to private domestic wells. Reverse osmosis (RO) units commonly are used

California at Berkeley, University of

394

Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.

Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Daniel Alonso; Gerardo Adesso

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

395

Backscatter absorption gas imaging system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

McRae, Jr., Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Olefin recovery via chemical absorption  

SciTech Connect

The recovery of fight olefins in petrochemical plants has generally been accomplished through cryogenic distillation, a process which is very capital and energy intensive. In an effort to simplify the recovery process and reduce its cost, BP Chemicals has developed a chemical absorption technology based on an aqueous silver nitrate solution. Stone & Webster is now marketing, licensing, and engineering the technology. The process is commercially ready for recovering olefins from olefin derivative plant vent gases, such as vents from polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene oxide, and synthetic ethanol units. The process can also be used to debottleneck C{sub 2} or C{sub 3} splinters, or to improve olefin product purity. This paper presents the olefin recovery imp technology, discusses its applications, and presents economics for the recovery of ethylene and propylene.

Barchas, R. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Houston, TX (United States)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Combining Feedback Absorption Spectroscopy, Amplified Resonance...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling Cummins...

398

Direct and quantitative absorptive spectroscopy of nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photonic nanostructures exhibit unique optical properties that are attractive in many different applications. However, measuring the optical properties of individual nanostructures, in particular the absorptive properties, ...

Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

An Analysis of Cloud Absorption During  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Cloud Absorption During ARESE II (Spring 2000) D. M. Powell, R. T. Marchand, and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction...

400

MEASUREMENT OF VISIBLE LIGHT ABSORPTION BY ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy Commission under contract ... the measurement of light absorption by these particles is .... poorer resolution by the Hubbard unit is largely the result of a

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on the first experiments on saturable absorption in graphene at microwave frequency band. Almost independent of the incident frequency, microwave absorbance of graphene...

Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhao, Chujun; Lu, Shunbin; Chen, Yu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Critical coupling and coherent perfect absorption for ranges of energies due to a complex gain and loss symmetric system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a non-Hermitian medium with a gain and loss symmetric, exponentially damped potential distribution to demonstrate different scattering features analytically. The condition for critical coupling (CC) for unidirectional wave and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) for bidirectional waves are obtained analytically for this system. The energy points at which total absorption occurs are shown to be the spectral singular points for the time reversed system. The possible energies at which CC occurs for left and right incidence are different. We further obtain periodic intervals with increasing periodicity of energy for CC and CPA to occur in this system.

Mohammad Hasan; Ananya Ghatak; Bhabani Prasad Mandal

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

403

Reverse-Engineering Banks' Financial Strength Ratings Using ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 27, 2006 ... reverse-engineering a superior bank rating system, which turns out to ...... sector (

mal92

2009-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

404

Reversed Doppler effect under reflection from a shock electromagnetic wave  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility of observing the reversed Doppler effect in an electrodynamic system of coupled transmission...

A. M. Belyantsev; A. B. Kozyrev

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

406

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

407

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

408

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

409

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print Reversing the Circulation of Magnetic Vortices Print In magnetic media, information is stored in binary form-one or zero, depending on which way the electronic spins are aligned in a given section of the medium. Recently, however, magnetic vortices have drawn scientists toward a new possibility: multibit storage in which each logic unit has four states instead of two and can store twice the information. Each tiny magnetic whirl has a polarity that can point up or down and a circulation that can be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise. Previous studies have shown that the polarity can be flipped on command. Now, using time-resolved magnetic soft x-ray microscopy at the ALS, researchers have shown for the first time how to use pulsed magnetic fields to reverse the circulation.

410

Development of an integrated reverse engineering system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of a customised reverse engineering system in which a 3D digitiser (MicroScribe-3DX) has been integrated with a computer-aided design (CAD) system (Pro/ENGINEER). The application programme written in C language enables a real-time input from the digitiser to Pro/ENGINEER. Two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) were used: the MicroScribe-3D Software Development Kit (SDK) and Pro/TOOLKIT. The former allows the user to develop an integrated system through intuitive and high-level function calls to the digitiser. The latter enables a user to customise a Pro/ENGINEER environment. This system offers an intuitive and user-friendly means for reverse engineering. It also helps to shorten the whole reverse engineering process. This is because the digitised data can be displayed and edited in real time, so that early identification and exclusion of the undesired and incorrect data are made possible.

X.W. Xu; L. Song

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Solid-State NMR Molecular Dynamics Characterization of aHighly Chlorine-Resistant Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Random Copolymer Blended with Poly(ethylene glycol) Oligomers for Reverse Osmosis Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(3) However, PAs show a critical weakness to chlorine (e.g., NaOCl) that is added as an oxidizing biocide to remove microorganisms that accumulate on the membrane surface, blocking water flux. ... (6, 10, 11) Hence, BPS-20K, a relatively low DS material, was considered as an alternative RO membrane material owing to its excellent NaCl separation property being similar to that of commercial PA (>99%). ...

Chang Hyun Lee; Justin Spano; James E. McGrath; Joseph Cook; Benny D. Freeman; Sungsool Wi

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

412

Transient simulation of absorption machines  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a model for a water-cooled Lithium-Bromide/water absorption chiller and predicts its transient response both during the start-up phase and during the shutoff period. The simulation model incorporates such influencing factors as the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, the absorbent, the heat-transfer configuration of different components of the chiller and related physical data. The time constants of different components are controlled by a set of key parameters that have been identified in this study. The results show a variable but at times significant amount of time delay before the chiller capacity gets close to its steady-state value. The model is intended to provide an insight into the mechanism of build-up to steady-state performance. By recognizing the significant factors contributing to transient degradation, steps can be taken to reduce such degradation. The evaluation of the residual capacity in the shut-off period will yield more realistic estimates of chiller COP for a chiller satisfying dynamic space cooling load.

Anand, D.K.; Allen, R.W.; Kumar, B.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Transient simulation of absorption machines  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a model for a water-cooled Lithium-Bromide/water absorption chiller and predicts its transient response both during the start-up phase and during the shutoff period. The simulation model incorporates such influencing factors as the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, the absorbent, the heat-transfer configuration of different components of the chiller and related physical data. The time constants of different components are controlled by a set of key parameters that have been identified in this study. The results show a variable but at times significant amount of time delay before the chiller capacity gets close to its steadystate value. The model is intended to provide an insight into the mechanism of build-up to steady-state performance. By recognizing the significant factors contributing to transient degradation, steps can be taken to reduce such degradation. The evaluation of the residual capacity in the shut-off period will yield more realistic estimates of chiller COP for a chiller satisfying dynamic space cooling load.

Anand, D.K.; Allen, R.W.; Kumar, B.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Tokamak Equilibria with Reversed Current Density  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations of nearly zero toroidal current in the central region of tokamaks (the “current hole”) raises the question of the existence of toroidal equilibria with very low or reversed current in the core. The solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium equation with hollow toroidal current density profile including negative current density in the plasma center are investigated. Solutions of the corresponding eigenvalue problem provide simple examples of such equilibrium configurations. More realistic equilibria with toroidal current density reversal are computed using a new equilibrium problem formulation and computational algorithm which do not assume nested magnetic surfaces.

A. A. Martynov; S. Yu. Medvedev; L. Villard

2003-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

415

Reversed Doppler Effect in Photonic Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonrelativistic reversed Doppler shifts have never been observed in nature and have only been speculated to occur in pathological systems with simultaneously negative effective permittivity and permeability. This Letter presents a different, new physical phenomenon that leads to a nonrelativistic reversed Doppler shift in light. It arises when light is reflected from a moving shock wave propagating through a photonic crystal. In addition to reflection of a single frequency, multiple discrete reflected frequencies or a 10 GHz periodic modulation can also be observed when a single carrier frequency of wavelength 1????m is incident.

Evan J. Reed; Marin Solja?i?; John D. Joannopoulos

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

416

An Explanation for Beta's Mean-reversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the designation as an UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR Approved by Research Advisor: Dr. Dennis Jansen May 2014 Major: Economics TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................. 8 1 ABSTRACT An Explanation for Beta’s Mean Reversion. (May 2014) Connor Matthew Bodkin Department of Economics Texas A&M University Research Advisor: Dr. Dennis Jansen Department of Economics This study aims to improve upon...

Bodkin, Connor Matthew

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

417

Mitochondrial modulation: reversible phosphorylation takes center stage?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.5 billion years, mitochondria have evolved from oxygen-scavenging bacterial symbionts into pri- mary controlMitochondrial modulation: reversible phosphorylation takes center stage? David J. Pagliarini1 and Center for Human Genetics Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA In the past 1

Pagliarini, David J.

418

Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) is a pressurized heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor that began operation at 40 MW. The reactor was subsequently upgraded to 60 MW and operated at that level for several years. The reactor undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Questions which were raised about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal transition led to a reactor shutdown and subsequent resumption of operation at a reduced power of 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these questions is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW. Direct use of the experimental results and an understanding of the governing phenomenology supports this conclusion.

Cheng, L.Y.; Tichler, P.R.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Reversing entanglement change by a weak measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 82, 052323 (2010) Reversing entanglement change by a weak measurement Qingqing Sun,1,* M. Al-Amri,2 Luiz Davidovich,3 and M. Suhail Zubairy1 1Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering, Texas A...

Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Davidovich, Luiz; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Coherent Perfect Absorption of Single Photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the question of coherent perfect absorption (CPA) of single photons, and more generally, of the quantum fields. We show the CPA of path entangled single photons in a Fabry-Perot interferometer containing an absorptive medium. The frequency of perfect absorption can be controlled by changing the interferometer parameters like the reflectivity and the complex dielectric constant of the material. We exhibit similar results for path entangled photons in micro-ring resonators. For entangled fields like the ones produced by a down converter the CPA aspect is evident in phase sensitive detection schemes such as in measurements of the squeezing spectrum.

Huang, Sumei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Multiphonon Absorption in NaF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The infrared absorption in NaF at the two CO2 laser wavelengths 10.6 and 9.3 ?m was measured between 4 and 400 K. The results complement the previously measured absorption for higher temperatures, and allow for a detailed comparison with theoretical predictions. The experimental temperature dependence at 10.6 ?m can be excellently fitted by a curve expected for three-phonon processes in the whole temperature range; the absorption at 9.3 ?m fits a mixture of three- and four-phonon processes.

Dieter W. Pohl and Peter F. Meier

1974-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

422

Total absorption by degenerate critical coupling  

SciTech Connect

We consider a mirror-symmetric resonator with two ports. We show that, when excited from a single port, complete absorption can be achieved through critical coupling to degenerate resonances with opposite symmetry. Moreover, any time two resonances with opposite symmetry are degenerate in frequency and absorption is always significantly enhanced. In contrast, when two resonances with the same symmetry are nearly degenerate, there is no absorption enhancement. We numerically demonstrate these effects using a graphene monolayer on top of a photonic crystal slab, illuminated from a single side in the near-infrared.

Piper, Jessica R., E-mail: jrylan@stanford.edu; Liu, Victor; Fan, Shanhui, E-mail: shanhui@stanford.edu [Ginzton Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

423

Absorption and Scattering When we have both variations in both absorption and scattering, the solution to the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 6 Absorption and Scattering When we have both variations in both absorption and scattering of absorption and scatttering. 6.1 Simulation Results For the following simulationsthe forward data were of the simulation. #12;Absorption and Scattering 107 We have reconstructed images of scattering and absorption

424

Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Wind tunnel balances from the pre-war...rather than the mass of spray which...desalination plant (van Hoof...tonnes and a plant rating of 150kW...material for mass production...anti-fouling treatments. For ships...housing spray plant producing an...osmosis in wastewater reuse and seawater...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Hyperfine Studies of Lithium Vapor using Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the frequency of a laser with respect to an atomic spectral feature.[20] As such, saturated absorptionHyperfine Studies of Lithium Vapor using Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.3 Broadening Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.4 Saturated Absorption

Cronin, Alex D.

426

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biologically Relevant Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

308, Messer, B. M. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of AqueousSarcosine via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy 5.1 Introductionwith Carboxylate by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Liquid

Uejio, Janel Sunayo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

THE RELATION OF BACKSCATTERING TO SELF-ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of backscattering upon salf-absorption correction data, somemg/cm I Figure 1. Self-absorption Correction Curves forof backsc3ttering upon self-absorption correction curves are

Yankwich, Peter E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Solar absorption by Mie resonances in cloud droplets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the enhancement factor for absorption of light by carbonKlett JD. Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation bySize parameter; Particle absorption; Water clouds; Aerosols

Zender, Charles S; Talamantes, Jorge

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Molecular absorption in transition region spectral lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims: We present observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of absorption features from a multitude of cool atomic and molecular lines within the profiles of Si IV transition region lines. Many of these spectral lines have not previously been detected in solar spectra. Methods: We examined spectra taken from deep exposures of plage on 12 October 2013. We observed unique absorption spectra over a magnetic element which is bright in transition region line emission and the ultraviolet continuum. We compared the absorption spectra with emission spectra that is likely related to fluorescence. Results: The absorption features require a population of sub-5000 K plasma to exist above the transition region. This peculiar stratification is an extreme deviation from the canonical structure of the chromosphere-corona boundary . The cool material is not associated with a filament or discernible coronal rain. This suggests that molecules may form in the upper solar atmosphere on small spatial scales...

Schmit, Donald; Ayres, Thomas; Peter, Hardi; Curdt, Werner; Jaeggli, Sarah

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Visible spectrometer utilizing organic thin film absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I modeled and developed a spectrometer for the visible wavelength spectrum, based on absorption characteristics of organic thin films. The device uses fundamental principles of linear algebra to reconstruct ...

Tiefenbruck, Laura C. (Laura Christine)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption model Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

stochastic absorption for the modeling of absorption... absorption eliminates the reflection that ... Source: Pradhan, Prabhakar - Department of Electrical and Computer...

432

Two-Photon Absorption and Coherence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the probabilities for two-photon absorption processes induced by both coherent and thermal light when acting on an atomic system. Calculations are performed with quantum electrodynamics, and we find results similar to those obtained with semiclassical methods; that is, the two-photon absorption probability depends on the statistical properties of the light used. This probability assumes its maximum value for coherent light.

S. Carusotto; G. Fornaca; E. Polacco

1967-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

433

Coherence and Two-Photon Absorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A kinetic theory of the two-photon absorption from a single mode of the radiation field is presented. It is found that, in general, the rate of two-photon absorption depends on certain correlation functions, and hence on the coherence properties, of the field. The results are applied to the case of a pure coherent state and the case of a chaotic field.

P. Lambropoulos; C. Kikuchi; R. K. Osborn

1966-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

434

Absorption cross section of RN black hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The behavior of a charged scalar field in the RN black hole space time is studied using WKB approximation. In the present work it is assumed that matter waves can get reflected from the event horizon. Using this effect, the Hawking temperature and the absorption cross section for RN black hole placed in a charged scalar field are calculated. The absorption cross section $\\sigma _{abs}$ is found to be inversely proportional to square of the Hawking temperature of the black hole.

Sini R.; V. C. Kuriakose

2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

435

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's...

436

Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Water Heater Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Diagram of absorption heat...

437

Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

438

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption spectrometry configurations...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trace Elements in Biological Tissues by Summary: Block Digestion and Spike-Height Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ,.. U. TINGGI AND W. MAHER School... absorption...

439

Self-corrected Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

corrected Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy For Atom Flux Measurements In Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Self-corrected Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy For...

440

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption spectrometry analyticalmethod...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trace Elements in Biological Tissues by Summary: Block Digestion and Spike-Height Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ,.. U. TINGGI AND W. MAHER School... absorption...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Charge Resonance Effects on Electronic Absorption Line Shapes: Application to the Heterodimer Absorption of Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the formalism of Fano's treatment for atomic absorption line shapes associated with autoionization (Fano, UCharge Resonance Effects on Electronic Absorption Line Shapes: Application to the Heterodimer Absorption of Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers Huilin Zhou and Steven G. Boxer* Department

Boxer, Steven G.

442

A REVERSE SHOCK IN GRB 130427A  

SciTech Connect

We present extensive radio and millimeter observations of the unusually bright GRB 130427A at z = 0.340, spanning 0.67-12 days after the burst. We combine these data with detailed multi-band UV, optical, NIR, and Swift X-ray observations and find that the broadband afterglow emission is composed of distinct reverse shock and forward shock contributions. The reverse shock emission dominates in the radio/millimeter and at ?< 0.1 days in the UV/optical/NIR, while the forward shock emission dominates in the X-rays and at ?> 0.1 days in the UV/optical/NIR. We further find that the optical and X-ray data require a wind circumburst environment, pointing to a massive star progenitor. Using the combined forward and reverse shock emission, we find that the parameters of the burst include an isotropic kinetic energy of E{sub K,{sub iso}} ? 2 × 10{sup 53} erg, a mass loss rate of M-dot ?3×10{sup -8} M{sub ?} yr{sup –1} (for a wind velocity of 1000 km s{sup –1}), and a Lorentz factor at the deceleration time of ?(200 s) ? 130. Due to the low density and large isotropic energy, the absence of a jet break to ?15 days places only a weak constraint on the opening angle, ?{sub j} ?> 2.°5, and therefore a total energy of E{sub ?} + E{sub K} ?> 1.2 × 10{sup 51} erg, similar to other gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The reverse shock emission is detectable in this burst due to the low circumburst density, which leads to a slow cooling shock. We speculate that this property is required for the detectability of reverse shocks in radio and millimeter bands. Following on GRB 130427A as a benchmark event, observations of future GRBs with the exquisite sensitivity of the Very Large Array and ALMA, coupled with detailed modeling of the reverse and forward shock contributions, will test this hypothesis.

Laskar, T.; Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chakraborti, S.; Lunnan, R.; Chornock, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chandra, P. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Ray, A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

443

On Reverse Engineering in the Cognitive and Brain Andreas Schierwagen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On Reverse Engineering in the Cognitive and Brain Sciences Andreas Schierwagen Institute #12;On Reverse Engineering in the Cognitive and Brain Sciences Andreas Schierwagen Institute research initiatives try to utilize the operational principles of organisms and brains to develop

Schierwagen, Andreas

444

Published: August 12, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 8483 dx.doi.org/10.1021/es201654k |Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 84838490  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as microfiltration (MF), reverse osmosis (RO), and ultraviolet irradiation with advanced oxidation processes (UV for desalination processes such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) to protect the membranes from-Scale Investigation of Trace Organic Compounds Rejection by Forward Osmosis Nathan T. Hancock, Pei Xu, Dean M. Heil

445

Effects of draw solutions and membrane conditions on electricity generation and water flux in osmotic microbial fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

membrane processes such as microfil- tration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis con. Such a water movement does not require external energy input like that in reverse osmosis; thus, FO is a low Keywords: Forward osmosis Osmotic microbial fuel cell Wastewater treatment Water flux Draw solution a b

446

1 Removal of Trace Organic Chemicals and Performance of a Novel 2 Hybrid Ultrafiltration-Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diluted during the process. A reverse osmosis (RO) system is then used to 16 reconcentrate the diluted DS, additional 46 treatment processes such as nanofiltration (NF) or reverse 47 osmosis (RO),3-7 activated carbon from municipal wastewater. The UFO-MBR 10 system uses both ultrafiltration (UF) and forward osmosis (FO

447

0011-9164/09/$ See front matter 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Desalination 239 (2009) 1021  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the diluted DS is treated in a reverse osmosis (RO) unit; the by-product is a reconcentrated DS for reuse. For potable reuse (e.g., indirect reuse through aquifer recharge), advanced treat- ment [e.g., reverse osmosis) 10­21 The forward osmosis membrane bioreactor: A low fouling alternative to MBR processes Andrea

448

Sakhalin reversal tops C. I. S. action  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the outlook for joint ventures in the former U.S.S.R. has been badly muddied by Russia's reversal on one of the biggest investment opportunities: development off Sakhalin Island. Russia's Supreme Council has suspended award of a feasibility study of development of oil and gas reserves off Sakhalin to a combine of Marathon Oil Co., McDermott International, and Mitsui and Co., (MMM). Development project cost is pegged at $9 - 10 billion.

Not Available

1992-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

449

Progress on the Development of Reversible SOFC Stack Technology  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation by Casey Brown, Versa Power Systems, at the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop, April 19, 2011

450

Tunable terahertz coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coherent perfect absorber (CPA) was proposed as the time-reversed counterpart to laser: a resonator containing lossy medium instead of gain medium can absorb the coherent optical fields completely. Here, we exploit a monolayer graphene to realize the CPA in a non-resonant manner. It is found that quasi-CPA point exists in the terahertz regime for suspending monolayer graphene, and the CPA can be implemented with the assistant of proper phase modulation among two incident beams at the quasi-CPA frequencies. The graphene based CPA is found of broadband angular selectivity: CPA point splits into two frequency bands for the orthogonal $s$ and $p$ polarizations at oblique incidence, and the two bands cover a wide frequency range starting from zero frequency. Furthermore, the coherent absorption can be tuned substantially by varying the gate-controlled Fermi energy. The findings of CPA with non-resonant graphene sheet can be generalized for potential applications in terahertz/infrared detections and signal processi...

Fan, Yuancheng; Zhao, Qian; Wei, Zeyong; Li, Hongqiang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Quantifying the Magnitude of Anomalous Solar Absorption  

SciTech Connect

The data set from ARESE II, sponsored by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, provides a unique opportunity to understand solar absorption in the atmosphere because of the combination of three sets of broadband solar radiometers mounted on the Twin Otter aircraft and the ground based instruments at the ARM Southern Great Plains facility. In this study, we analyze the measurements taken on two clear sky days and three cloudy days and model the solar radiative transfer in each case with two different models. On the two clear days, the calculated and measured column absorptions agree to better than 10 Wm-2, which is about 10% of the total column absorption. Because both the model fluxes and the individual radiometer measurements are accurate to no better than 10 Wm-2, we conclude that the models and measurements are essentially in agreement. For the three cloudy days, the model calculations agree very well with each other and on two of the three days agree with the measurements to 20 Wm-2 or less out of a total column absorption of more than 200 Wm-2, which is again agreement at better than 10%. On the third day, the model and measurements agree to either 8% or 14% depending on which value of surface albedo is used. Differences exceeding 10% represent a significant absorption difference between model and observations. In addition to the uncertainty in absorption due to surface albedo, we show that including aerosol with an optical depth similar to that found on clear days can reduce the difference between model and measurement by 5% or more. Thus, we conclude that the ARESE II results are incompatible with previous studies reporting extreme anomalous absorption and can be modeled with our current understanding of radiative transfer.

Ackerman, Thomas P.; Flynn, Donna M.; Marchand, Roger T.

2003-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

452

Transition fields during geomagnetic reversals and their geodynamic significance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...show that for certain reversals, a path midway between the two preferred paths (i...show that for certain reversals, a path midway between the two preferred paths (i...show that for certain reversals, a path midway between the two preferred paths (i...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

The Testing of Geomagnetic Reversal Models: Recent Developments [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

20 August 1982 research-article The Testing of Geomagnetic Reversal Models: Recent...data are most useful with regard to the testing of geomagnetic reversal models. First...English illus. United Kingdom 1985 The testing of geomagnetic reversal models; recent...

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Reverse Audio Engineering: Model-Based Inversion of Dynamic Range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Reverse Audio Engineering: Model-Based Inversion of Dynamic Range Compression Stanislaw Gorlow, Graduate Student Member, IEEE and Joshua D. Reiss, Member, IEEE Abstract--Reverse audio engineering so far, reverse audio engineering. I. INTRODUCTION SOUND or audio engineering is an established discipline

455

Time Reversal in Solids (Linear and Nonlinear Elasticity): Multimedia Resources in Time Reversal  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Dynamic nonlinear elastic behavior, nonequilibrium dynamics, first observed as a curiosity in earth materials has now been observed in a great variety of solids. The primary manifestations of the behavior are characteristic wave distortion, and slow dynamics, a recovery process to equilibrium that takes place linearly with the logarithm of time, over hours to days after a wave disturbance. The link between the diverse materials that exhibit nonequilibrium dynamics appears to be the presence of soft regions, thought to be 'damage' at many scales, ranging from order 10-9 m to 10-1 m at least. The regions of soft matter may be distributed as in a rock sample, or isolated, as in a sample with a single crack [LANLhttp://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/nonlinear.shtml]. The Geophysics Group (EES-11) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has posted two or more multimedia items under each of the titles below to demonstrate aspects of their work: 1) Source Reconstruction Using Time Reversal; 2) Robustness and Efficiency of Time Reversal Acoustics in Solid Media; 3) Audio Example of Time Reversal - Speech Privacy; 4) Crack Imagining with Time Reversal - Experimental Results; 5) Time Reversal of the 2004 (M9.0) Sumatra Earthquake.

456

Solar absorption aqua-ammonia absorption system simulation base on climate of Malaysia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy is one of the most well known green sources of energy. This research presents a feasibility study of evacuated solar thermal collector by aqua-ammonia ejector absorption systems as a small scale air conditioning unit. The modeling has been ... Keywords: ejector, evacuated tubes, solar assisted absorption system

Poorya Ooshaksaraei; Sohif Mat; M. Yahya; Ahmad Mahir Razali; Azami Zaharim; K. Sopian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

X-ray bandwidth: Determination by on-edge absorption and effect on various absorption experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray bandwidth: Determination by on-edge absorption and effect on various absorption experiments of an x-ray source is increasingly important in fundamental experi- ments and critical applications. The bandwidth of an x-ray beam, selected from a synchrotron radiation spectrum for example, ultimately defines

Chantler, Christopher T.

458

Posters Long-Pathlength Infrared Absorption Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Posters Long-Pathlength Infrared Absorption Measurements in the 8- to 14-µm Atmospheric Window: Self-Broadening Coefficient Data T. J. Kulp (a) and J. Shinn Geophysics and Environmental Research Program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California Introduction The accurate characterization of the latent infrared (IR) absorption in the atmospheric window regions continues to be an area of research interest for the global climate modeling community. In the window between 8 and 14 µm, this absorption can be attributed primarily to water vapor. It consists of 1) weak lines originating from the edge of the water vapor pure rotational band (at low wavenumbers) and the trailing P-branch of the υ 2 rovibrational band (at the high-wavenumber boundary of the window); and 2) the

459

Atomic and Molecular Absorption at High Redshift  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strong constraints on possible variations in fundamental constants can be derived from HI 21-cm and molecular rotational absorption lines observed towards quasars. With the aim of forming a statistical sample of constraints we have begun a program of systematic searches for such absorption systems. Here we describe molecular rotational searches in 25 damped Lyman-alpha systems where, in many cases, we set optical depth limits an order of magnitude better than that required to detect the 4 known redshifted millimeter-wave absorbers. We also discuss the contributory factors in the detectability of HI 21-cm absorption, focusing on possible biases (e.g.low covering factors) in the currently known sample of absorbers and non-detections.

S. J. Curran; J. K. Webb; M. T. Murphy; Y. M. Pihlström

2004-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

460

Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods  

SciTech Connect

Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Absolute absorption spectroscopy based on molecule interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new method to measure the absolute photon absorption cross section of neutral molecules in a molecular beam. It is independent of our knowledge of the particle beam density, nor does it rely on photo-induced fragmentation or ionization. The method is based on resolving the recoil resulting from photon absorption by means of near-field matter-wave interference, and it thus applies even to very dilute beams with low optical densities. Our discussion includes the possibility of internal state conversion as well as fluorescence. We assess the influence of various experimental uncertainties and show that the measurement of absolute absorption cross sections is conceivable with high precision and using existing technologies.

Stefan Nimmrichter; Klaus Hornberger; Hendrik Ulbricht; Markus Arndt

2008-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

462

Continuous Photoelectric Absorption Cross Section of Helium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The continuous photoelectric absorption cross section of helium has been measured in the spectral region extending from 180 to 600 A with greater accuracy and the observations are found to agree with the calculations of Huang and Stewart and Wilkinson. A grazing incidence spectrometer with a photomultiplier was used for a single measurement at 180 A while the remaining measurements were carried out in a normal incidence spectrometer utilizing photographic techniques. Whereas in previous experiments the absorbing gas sample was allowed to fill the entire spectrometer chamber, in the current measurements the gas was confined to a small cell provided with sufficiently transparent windows. The use of an absorption cell reduces contamination and facilitates the measurement of gas pressures. The results indicate that the cross section varies from a value of 0.98±0.04 Mb at 180 A to a value of 7.7±0.3 Mb at the absorption edge located at 504 A.

D. J. Baker; Jr.; D. E. Bedo; D. H. Tomboulian

1961-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12  

SciTech Connect

The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

Bauman, L.E.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Anomalous Light Absorption by Small Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new type of resonant light absorption by a small particle (nanocluster) is reported. The problem cannot be described within the commonly used dipole scattering approximation and should be studied with methods based upon the exact Mie solution. It is shown that the absorption cross-section has giant maxima realized at small values of the imaginary part of the complex dielectric permittivity of the particle. The maxima are situated in the vicinity of the plasmon (polariton) resonances and correspond to the regions where the dissipative damping equals the radiative one. The case is similar to the recently introduced anomalous scattering [PRL vol. 97, 263902 (2006)] and exhibits similar peculiarities.

Michael I. Tribelsky

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

465

Multi-plasmon absorption in graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that graphene possesses a strong nonlinear optical response in the form of multi-plasmon absorption, with exciting implications in classical and quantum nonlinear optics. Specifically, we predict that graphene nano-ribbons can be used as saturable absorbers with low saturation intensity in the far-infrared and terahertz spectrum. Moreover, we predict that two-plasmon absorption and extreme localization of plasmon fields in graphene nano-disks can lead to a plasmon blockade effect, in which a single quantized plasmon strongly suppresses the possibility of exciting a second plasmon.

Marinko Jablan; Darrick E. Chang

2015-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

466

Modified discrete random walk with absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We obtain expected number of arrivals, probability of arrival, absorption probabilities and expected time before absorption for a modified discrete random walk on the (sub)set of integers. In a [pqrs] random walk the particle can move one step forward or backward, stay for a moment in the same state or it can be absorbed immediately in the current state. M[pqrs] is a modified version, where probabilities on both sides of a multiple function barrier M are of different [pqrs] type.

Theo van Uem

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

467

A reverse counterfactual analysis of causation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to justly acknowledge. Particular thanks go to: Knut Nygaard, for pizza and weights in Boston; Julian Hendrix for cat-sitting, house-sitting and wife-sitting while I was at Harvard; Richard Lloyd Morgan, for listening; Jackie Solomon and Maria Whelan... , Schaffer 2007. 4Collins, Hall and Paul say that a divide-and-conquer methodology is acceptable, given how tough the analysis of causation is (Collins et al. 2004, 38–39). 1.5. THINKING ABOUT THE REVERSE COUNTERFACTUAL 13 the difference between e occurring...

Broadbent, Alex

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

468

Steady State Thermoelectric Field-Reversed Configurations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that the cross-field thermoelectric force of magnetized plasmas can maintain field-reversed configurations against resistive diffusion, resulting in a steady state device attractive for thermonuclear fusion. If a peaked radial temperature profile is maintained, the thermoelectric force is in the opposite direction to the usual resistive friction, thus maintaining the field configuration. The field maintenance is tantamount to dynamo action, operating even in two dimensions. We show that a steady state device can be made by simply heating the O-point: no external electric fields or particle sources are needed. The feasibility of this scheme for fusion is discussed.

A. B. Hassam; R. M. Kulsrud; R. J. Goldston; H. Ji; M. Yamada

1999-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

469

Kinetic Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration  

SciTech Connect

New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is an innovative confinement approach that offers a unique fusion reactor potential because of its compact and simple geometry, translation properties, and high plasma beta. One of the most important issues is FRC stability with respect to low-n (toroidal mode number) MHD modes. There is a clear discrepancy between the predictions of standard MHD theory that many modes should be unstable on the MHD time scale, and the observed macroscopic resilience of FRCs in experiments.

E.V. Belova; R.C. Davidson; H. Ji; and M. Yamada

2002-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

470

Harmonic wavelet analysis of modulated tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the direct absorption characteristics of atomic or molecular absorption lines. This is accomplishedHarmonic wavelet analysis of modulated tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy signals Hong analyses of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy signals were performed. The absorption spectroscopy

Cheng, Harry H.

471

Optical bistability in a one-dimensional photonic crystal resonator using a reverse-biased pn-junction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical bistability provides a simple way to control light with light. We demonstrate low-power thermo-optical bistability caused by the Joule heating mechanism in a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam resonator with a moderate quality factor (Q ~ 8900) with an embedded reverse-biased pn-junction. We show that the photocurrent induced by the linear absorption in this compact resonator considerably reduces the threshold optical power. The proposed approach substantially relaxes the requirements on the input optical power for achieving optical bistability and provides a reliable way to stabilize the bistable features of the device.

Sodagar, Majid; Eftekhar, Ali A; Adibi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

474

SUPPLY-SIDE OPTIMIZATION : MAXIMIZING ABSORPTIVE RATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-benefit optimization of the ingestion process alone . We have continued to develop and modify chemical reactor theoryI l SUPPLY-SIDE OPTIMIZATION : MAXIMIZING ABSORPTIVE RATES W. Brian Dade, Peter A. Jumars engineering aimed at the analysis and design of chemical reactors to analyze the process of digestion

Jumars, Pete

475

Effective design for absorption and stripping  

SciTech Connect

Absorption and stripping transfer one or more constituents from a gas stream to a liquid stream (absorption) or from a liquid stream to a gas stream (strippling). Both are widely used in the process industries, for product manufacture and environmental protection alike. They are most often carried out counter currently in packed towers. The aim here is not to reproduce absorption and stripping theory, adequately given elsewhere. Instead, the authors offer practical, often overlooked guidelines and key equations for effective design of packed absorption or stripping towers. The design task consists mainly of two interrelated parts: the hydraulic design and the mass transfer design. Hydraulic design determines the tower diameter; the mass transfer design sets the packed height within the tower. A third basic consideration is the type and size of packing. If these are not given beforehand, the designer should select a packing for which hydraulic and mass-transfer data are available, and which falls in the 1-to-2-in. nominal size range for random packing (which includes over 90% of all applications) or has nominal 1/2-in. crimp height for structured packing.

McNulty, K.J. (Koch Engineering Co., Wilmington, MA (United States))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Absorption on horizon-wrapped branes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the absorption cross section of space-time scalars on a static D2 rane, in global coordinates, wrapped on the S^2 of an AdS_2 X S^2 X CY_3 geometry. We discuss its relevance for the construction of the dual quantum mechanics of Calabi-Yau black holes.

S. Ansari; G. Panotopoulos; I. Sachs

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

477

Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Whitlow, Eugene P. (St. Joseph, MI)

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

478

Microwave Absorption Spectrum of ND3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main J=K sequence of inversion lines of the ND3 absorption spectrum were observed and measured between 1589 and 2540 Mc. Quantum numbers up to J, K=18, 18 were assigned by the use of an approximate empirical formula.

R. G. Nuckolls; L. J. Rueger; Harold Lyons

1953-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Broadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Broadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic nanostructuring of electrodes Michael M. Adachi Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada, 2 Province, 230009, P. R. China. Solution processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have great

480

Global Stability of the Field Reversed Configuration  

SciTech Connect

New computational results are presented which provide a theoretical basis for the stability of the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC). The FRC is a compact toroid with negligible toroidal field in which the plasma is confined by a poloidal magnetic field associated with toroidal diamagnetic current. Although many MHD modes are predicted to be unstable, FRCs have been produced successfully by several formation techniques and show surprising macroscopic resilience. In order to understand this discrepancy, we have developed a new 3D nonlinear hybrid code (kinetic ions and fluid electrons), M3D-B, which is used to study the role of kinetic effects on the n = 1 tilt and higher n modes in the FRC. Our simulations show that there is a reduction in the tilt mode growth rate in the kinetic regime, but no absolute stabilization has been found for s bar less than or approximately equal to 1, where s bar is the approximate number of ion gyroradii between the field null and the separatrix. However, at low values of s bar, the instabilities saturate nonlinearly through a combination of a lengthening of the initial equilibrium and a modification of the ion distribution function. These saturated states persist for many Alfven times, maintaining field reversal.

E.V. Belova; S.C. Jardin; H. Ji; R.M. Kulsrud; W. Park; M. Yamada

2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reverse absorption osmosis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Light-induced bias stress reversal in polyfluorene thin-film transistors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gate bias-stress effects in the high-performance semiconducting polymer poly-9 9? dioctyl-fluorene-co-bithiophene (F8T2) were studied. The bias stress in F8T2 was characterized in devices having various gate dielectric materials—different types of SiO 2 and a polymer—and a variety of chemically modified dielectric/semiconductor interfaces. A bias-stress effect was reversed by illuminating the transistor structure with band gap radiation. The recovery rate was directly related to the absorption characteristics of F8T2. We conclude that bias stress in F8T2 is due to hole charge trapping inside the polymer close to the dielectric interface and not to a structural change in the polymer or to charge in the dielectric.

A. Salleo; R. A. Street

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Novel 4-Way Refrigerant Reversing Valve for Heat Pumps  

SciTech Connect

This project is nearing completion. Since the last progress report (November, 1999), all experimental tests have been completed. Preliminary analysis shows the refrigerant pressure drops through the reversing valve were reduced by an average of about 60{percent}, when compared to traditional reversing valves. Also, the prototype reversing valve reduced the overall coefficient of performance (COP) by an average of only 0.45{percent}.

Darin W. Nutter

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

483

Dynamic simulation of a reverse Brayton refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

A test refrigerator based on the modified Reverse Brayton cycle has been developed in the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently. To study the behaviors of this test refrigerator, a dynamic simulation has been carried out. The numerical model comprises the typical components of the test refrigerator: compressor, valves, heat exchangers, expander and heater. This simulator is based on the oriented-object approach and each component is represented by a set of differential and algebraic equations. The control system of the test refrigerator is also simulated, which can be used to optimize the control strategies. This paper describes all the models and shows the simulation results. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental data are also presented. Experimental validation on the test refrigerator gives satisfactory results.

Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Lei, L. L.; Tang, J. C. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 China and Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

484

Direct observation of time reversal violation  

SciTech Connect

A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique opportunity for a search of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and PHI, Factories. The two quantum effects of the first decay as a filtering measurement and the transfer of information to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of 'in' and 'out' states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system.

Bernabeu, J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Valencia, and IFIC, Joint Centre Univ. Valencia-CSIC (Spain)

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

485

Control of magnetization reversal in oriented strontium ferrite thin films  

SciTech Connect

Oriented Strontium Ferrite films with the c axis orientation were deposited with varying oxygen partial pressure on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. The angle dependent magnetic hysteresis, remanent coercivity, and temperature dependent coercivity had been employed to understand the magnetization reversal of these films. It was found that the Strontium Ferrite thin film grown at lower (higher) oxygen partial pressure shows Stoner-Wohlfarth type (Kondorsky like) reversal. The relative importance of pinning and nucleation processes during magnetization reversal is used to explain the type of the magnetization reversal with different oxygen partial pressure during growth.

Roy, Debangsu, E-mail: debangsu@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Anil Kumar, P. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

486

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known...

487

Reversible mechanism for spin crossover in transition-metal cyanides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the mechanisms for reversible and repeatable spin transition in a Prussian blue analog crystal, KCo[Fe(CN)[subscript 6

Kabir, Mohammad Mukul

488

Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photochromic Metal-Organic Frameworks: Reversible Control of Singlet Oxygen Generation Previous Next List Jihye Park, Dawei Feng, Shuai Yuan and Hong-Cai Zhou, Angew. Chem. Int....

489

Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

at Proton Energy Presentation by Everett Anderson, PROTON ON SITE, at the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop, April 19, 2011 revfcwkshpanderson.pdf More Documents &...

490

Reverse audio engineering for active listening and other applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work deals with the problem of reverse audio engineering for active listening. The format under consideration corresponds to the audio CD. The musical content… (more)

Gorlow, Stasnislaw

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Analysis of Cyclotron Absorption in Bismuth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Classical magnetoionic theory is used for calculating the absorption of microwaves in bismuth in the presence of a dc magnetic field. The detailed calculations are based on the models of the energy surfaces in momentum space for holes and electrons obtained from de Haas-van Alphen and galvanomagnetic experiments. Expressions are derived for the conductivities and resonance masses. Numerical computations of absorption vs magnetic field are made using the data from Shoenberg's de Haas-van Alphen experiments for the masses of the electrons. Since some of the experimental data for the holes is incomplete, the analysis takes this into account through the use of several choices of hole masses. The results are compared with those of preliminary microwave experiments. The limitations of the analysis, which neglects the anomalous skin effect and possible anisotropy of scattering, are discussed.

Benjamin Lax, K. J. Button, H. J. Zeiger, and Laura M. Roth

1956-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Solar absorption cooling in South China  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes a major energy research project carried out in China and Hong Kong over the last ten years. It covers medium temperature solar collectors, cooling and hot water supply systems and describes the design and manufacture of a novel two-stage absorption Li-Br chiller. One of the primary objectives of this project was to encourage technology transfer to China of the manufacturing processes relating to medium temperature solar collectors.

Ward, H.S.; Chu, C.Y. [Lingnan College/Hong Kong Polytechnic, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang, Z.C.; Xia, W. [Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion (China)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

The absorption of ultrasonic waves in liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vee ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ea ~ ~ ~ eee ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ea ~ ~ ~ ~ 2 ~ ?easursasnt of ths Prop-:. ties of:asss and Liquids by Ultrasonicseae ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ dies Borne erscsnt Theories ConcsrrrinS the Oisorsparrcy 3e tween... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 3Q VI, Plot of' Los A /A vs~ Sound Path Length Ital ZthoI' 1Mox' Ppoalul'oe ~ ~ a ~ y ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ e s ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ a ~ ~ 3) xxeasuraaents oa the absorption of high frequency souad. waves ia liquids axe useful ia studying...

Hudson, Paul A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

494

Oral absorption of apramycin in newborn calves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a model is the Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. animals in other species may also have a larger extent of absorption than older animals. Apramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic which is active against some gram... to healthy newborn (less than 24 hours old) veal calves than calves that are 3 weeks old. If the drug is absorbed, it indicates that neonatal calves have a greater capacity to absorb a poorly absorbed drug, thereby potentiating possible problems...

Buck, Joan Marjorie

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

495

Impedance Matched Absorptive Thermal Blocking Filters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have designed, fabricated and characterized absorptive thermal blocking filters for cryogenic microwave applications. The transmission line filter's input characteristic impedance is designed to match $50\\,\\Omega$ and its response has been validated from 0-to-50\\,GHz. The observed return loss in the 0-to-20\\,GHz design band is greater than $20\\,$dB and shows graceful degradation with frequency. Design considerations and equations are provided that enable this approach to be scaled and modified for use in other applications.

Wollack, E J; Rostem, K; U-Yen, K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous

Rochelle, Gary T.

497

Determination of Mercury in Soils by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...chemical analysis exploration flameless geochemical methods mercury...Determination of Mercury in Soils by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry...Determinationof Mercury in Soilsby Flameless Atomic AbsorptionSpectrometry...the mercuryre- RF Induction Heater work coils 1. Carriergas...

B. G. Weissberg

498

Direct Refrigeration from Heat Recovery Using 2-Stage Absorption Chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

absorption chiller which can produce chilled water 44% more efficiently than the conventional single stage absorption chillers. The new 2-stage parallel flow system makes the chiller package more compact, more efficient, and easier to operate. Many types...

Hufford, P. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a heat absorption method for an absorption chiller. It comprises: providing a firs absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range, providing a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range; heat exchanging refrigerant and absorber solution; thermal communication with an external heat load. This patent describes a heat absorption apparatus for use as an absorption chiller. It includes: a first absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range; a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range which has a lower maximum temperature relative to the first temperature range; the first circuit having generator means, condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operatively connected together; the second circuit having generator means condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operative connected together; and the first circuit condenser means and the first circuit absorber means being in heat exchange communication with the second circuit generator means.

DeVault, R.C.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

500

Modular simulation and thermodynamic analysis of absorption heat pumps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The absorption technique for refrigeration or air conditioning is ... using CFCs as working fluids in the conventional chillers based on the vapor compression technique. The absorption systems use thermal energy ...

Sana El May; Ismail Boukholda; Ahmed Bellagi

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z