National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for retrofitting air ducts

  1. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, Carl; Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  2. In Proc. 1996 ACEEE Summer Study, August 1996, Asilomar, CA Field Measurements of Efficiency and Duct Retrofit Effectiveness in Residential Forced air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Efficiency and Duct Retrofit Effectiveness in Residential Forced air Distribution Systems David A. Jump, Iain. The systems in these houses included conventional air conditioning, gas furnaces, electric furnaces and heat, duct air temperatures, ambient temperatures, surface areas of ducts, and HVAC equipment energy

  3. Retrofit Air Preheat Economics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goolsbee, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Retrofit air preheat systems are the most reliable and efficient means to effect significant energy conservation for large existing industrial furnaces. Units can be quickly installed without a lengthy shutdown, and the furnace efficiency can...

  4. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, P.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques -- manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  5. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, Parker; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques, manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multiunit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder are two story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  6. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2014-12-01

    ?Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with ceiling supply air diffusers, ducts are often removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling.

  7. Industrial HVAC Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Retrofit Economics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Retrofitting air-to-air energy recovery equipment is relatively simply to design and easy to install. Additionally, HVAC energy recovery is almost risk free when compared to process retrofit. Life cycle cost analysis is the best way to illustrate...

  8. Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tubes in the walls, floors, and ceilings; it carries the air from your home's furnace and central air conditioner to each room. Ducts are made of sheet metal, fiberglass, or other...

  9. OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS By TAECHEOL KIM Master of Science Oklahoma May, 2001 #12;ii OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS Thesis Approved Volume Systems ............................................. 5 1.2.2. Duct Design Methods

  10. Longevity of Duct Tape in Residential Air Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL 51099 Longevity of Duct Tape in Residential Air Distribution Systems: 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D Joints involved the aging of common "core-to-collar joints" of flexible duct to sheet metal collars, and sheet consisted of baking duct tape specimens in a constant 212°F (100°C) oven following the UL 181B

  11. Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternational Affairs,Department of EnergyPROGRAM TheMetalThomasPhaseofAir Ducts

  12. Economizer Applications in Dual-Duct Air-Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, I.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01

    for dual-fan, dual-duct air-handling units. The economizer has significant heating energy penalties for single-fan, dual-duct air-handling units. The penalties are higher than the cooling energy savings when the cold airflow is less than the hot airflow...

  13. Measured Energy Savings from Retrofits Installed in Low-Income Housing in a Hot and Humid Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.; Floyd, D. B.

    1998-01-01

    of detailed retrofits were applied to eight of the ten Habitat homes. These included solar water heaters installed in seven homes. In eight homes we retrofit light features to compact fluorescent types, repaired and sealed duct air distribution systems...

  14. Advancing Residential Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Kim, Eyu-Jin [Southface Energy Institute; Roberts, Sydney [Southface Energy Institute

    2012-01-01

    To advance the market penetration of residential retrofits, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Southface Energy Institute (Southface) partnered to provide technical assistance on nine home energy retrofits in metropolitan Atlanta with simulated source energy savings of 30% to 50%. Retrofit measures included duct sealing, air infiltration reductions, attic sealing and roofline insulation, crawlspace sealing, HVAC and water heating equipment replacement, and lighting and appliance upgrades. This paper will present a summary of these measures and their associated impacts on important home performance metrics, such as air infiltration and duct leakage. The average estimated source energy savings for the homes is 33%, and the actual heating season average savings is 32%. Additionally, a case study describing expected and realized energy savings of completed retrofit measures of one of the homes is described in this paper.

  15. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  16. Cold Climate and Retrofit Applications for Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Air source heat pumps (ASHP) including air-to-air ASHPs are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere for new construction as well as retrofits or renovations. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low heating efficiency and capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. Retrofitting air-to-air ASHPs to existing buildings is relatively easy if the building already has an air distribution system. For buildings without such systems alternative approaches are necessary. Examples are ductless, minisplit heat pumps or central heat pumps coupled to small diameter, high velocity (SDHV) air distribution systems. This article presents two subjects: 1) a summary of R&D investigations aimed at improving the cold weather performance of ASHPs, and 2) a brief discussion of building retrofit options using air-to-air ASHP systems.

  17. Measured Cooling Performance and Potential for Buried Duct Condensation in a 1991 Central Florida Retrofit Home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chasar, Dave; Withers, Charles R.

    2013-02-01

    FSEC conducted energy performance monitoring of two existing residences in Central Florida that were undergoing various retrofits. These homes were occupied by FSEC researchers and were fully instrumented to provide detailed energy, temperature, and humidity measurements. The data provided feedback about the performance of two levels of retrofit in two types of homes in a hot-humid climate. This report covers a moderate-level retrofit and includes two years of pre-retrofit data to characterize the impact of improvements. The other home is a 'deep energy retrofit' (detailed in a separate report) that has performed at near zero energy with a photovoltaic (PV) system and extensive envelope improvements.

  18. Performance Analysis of Dual-Fan, Dual-Duct Constant Volume Air-Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, I. S.; Liu, M.

    2001-01-01

    Dual-fan, dual-duct air-handling units introduce outside air directly into the cooling duct and use two variable speed devices to independently maintain the static pressure of the hot and the cold air ducts. Analytical models have been developed...

  19. Cooling air recycling for gas turbine transition duct end frame and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cromer, Robert Harold (Johnstown, NY); Bechtel, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Sutcu, Maz (Niskayuna, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A method of cooling a transition duct end frame in a gas turbine includes the steps of a) directing cooling air into the end frame from a region external of the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve; and b) redirecting the cooling air from the end frame into the annulus between the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve.

  20. Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMayBuildingTheEasements30, 2008: US portion ofofAir

  1. Integrating ducts into the conditioned space: Successes and challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Iain

    2004-01-01

    Improvements from Duct Retrofits on Six Electrically-Heatedal. (2001) Development of a New Duct Leakage Test: Delta Q.Field investigation of duct system performance in California

  2. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    M. and Wang, D. (1999) Duct systems in large commercialin ventilation air supply ducts. Proceedings of Indoor Air ‘filtration efficiency of in-duct ventilation air cleaners.

  3. An Advanced Economizer Controller for Dual Duct Air Handling Systems - with a Case Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Heating penalty is expected when economizers are applied to dual-duct air handling systems. The heating penalty can even be higher than the cooling savings when the hot air flow is higher than the cold air flow. To avoid the excessive heating...

  4. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, James

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  5. Phase A: Initial Development of an Advanced Diagnostic Procedure for Air-Side Retrofits in Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, T. A.; Kissock, J. K.; Katipamula, S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a diagnostic approach that involves analyzing monitored whole-building cooling and heating energy use in large commercial buildings in order to determine the effectiveness of air-side energy retrofits...

  6. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  7. Compressed Air System Analysis and Retrofit for Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harding, C.; Nutter, D.

    2014-01-01

    . Therefore, high quality compressed air is a key component of that objective. The compressed air used in the manufacturing process at this facility is held to ISO (International Organization for Standardization) class 2 air quality standards.... The compressor room contained two wet storage tanks, with a total capacity of 1,800 gallons. A heated desiccant dryer with associated filters was also located in the compressor room. Dry air was sent into the plant to a 2,000 gallon dry storage tank, which...

  8. Bridging the Gap Between Commissioning Measures and Large Scale Retrofits in Existing Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bynum, J.; Jones, A.; Claridge, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    The 11th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations (ICEBO 2011) October 18-20, 2011, New York, NY, USA Bridging the Gap Between Commissioning Measures and Large Scale Retrofits in Existing Buildings John Bynum Alaina Jones... space temperature, cold duct supply air temperature, hot duct supply air ESL-IC-11-10-20 Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference Enhanced Building Operations, New York City, October 18-20, 2011 The 11th International Conference...

  9. 96 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Current duct design methods for variable air volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -round electrical energy cost of the fan. The initial cost of the fan is not included. The calculation procedure to determine duct sizes, overall system pressure drop, and fan energy cost. However, in VAV systems for effective, energy-efficient, and comfortable heating, ventilat- ing, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems

  10. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  11. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  12. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners— Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home, which can result in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters.

  13. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  14. The structural design of air and gas ducts for power stations and industrial boiler applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, R.L.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the new American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) book entitled, The Structural Design of Air and Gas Ducts for Power Stations and Industrial Boiler Applications. This 312 page book was published by the ASCE in August of 1995. This ASCE publication was created to assist structural engineers in performing the structural analysis and design of air and flue-gas ducts. The structural behavior of steel ductwork can be difficult to understand for structural engineers inexperienced in ductwork analysis and design. Because of this needed expertise, the ASCE committee that created this document highly recommends that the structural analysis and design of ducts be performed by qualified structural engineers, not be technicians, designers or drafters. There is a history within the power industry of failures and major degradation of flue-gas ductwork. There are many reasons for these failures or degradation, but in many cases, the problems may have been voided by a better initial design. This book attempts to help the structural engineer with this task. This book is not intended to be used to size or configure ductwork for flow and pressure drop considerations. But it does recommend that the ductwork system arrangement consider the structural supports and the structural behavior of the duct system.

  15. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  16. The Delta Q Method of Testing the Air Leakage of Ducts Walker, I.S., Dickerhoff, D.J. and Sherman, M.H.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-49749 The Delta Q Method of Testing the Air Leakage of Ducts Walker, I.S., Dickerhoff, D in energy efficiency calculations and for compliance testing of duct systems. The DeltaQ test combines a model of the house and duct system with the results of house pressurization tests with the air handler

  17. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Taehong

    2003-01-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must meet the requirements of ANSI N13.1-1999 and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that the exhaust airflow be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne...

  18. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy...

  19. List of Duct/Air sealing Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  20. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 10: Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-04-12

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program. The report provides information to home owners who want to make their existing homes more energy efficient by sealing leaks in the building envelope (ceiling, walls, and floors) that let in drafts and let conditioned air escape. The report provides descriptions of 19 key areas of the home where air sealing can improve home performance and energy efficiency. The report includes suggestions on how to find a qualified weatherization or home performance contractor, what to expect in a home energy audit, opportune times for performing air sealing, and what safety and health concerns to be aware of. The report describes some basic building science concepts and topics related to air sealing including ventilation, diagnostic tools, and code requirements. The report will be available for free download from the DOE Building America website. It is a suitable consumer education tool for home performance and weatherization contractors to share with customers to describe the process and value of home energy retrofits.

  1. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, M R; Nazaroff, William W

    2003-01-01

    m) (c) 85% ASHRAE filters at air intake high-loss ducts low-loss ducts fractional fate (-) exhausted indoors indoorssurface deposition supply & return duct deposition filtered

  2. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  3. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A.; Smith, Matt K.; Gu, Lixing; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  4. The Delta Q method of testing the air leakage of ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, I.S.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Sherman, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    2001. Development of a new duct leakage test: DeltaQ. L B Nin the DeltaQ test for Duct Leakage. Brookhaven Nationalof the DeltaQ test for Duct Leakage. Proc. A C E E E 2002

  5. Duct Systems in large commercial buildings: Physical characterization, air leakage, and heat conduction gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    LBNL-42339 Duct Systems in Large Commercial Buildings:and conduction heat gains of duct systems. Different methodscompared. ELAs-of supply ducts ranged from 0.4 to 2.0 cm 2

  6. An advanced economizer controller for dual-duct air-handling systems -- with a case application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D.E.; Park, B.Y.

    1997-12-31

    A heating penalty is expected when economizers are applied to dual-duct air-handling systems. The heating penalty can be even higher than the cooling savings when the hot airflow is higher than the cold airflow. To avoid the excessive heating penalty, advanced economizers are developed in this paper. The application of the advanced economizer has resulted in savings of $7,000/yr in one 95,000-ft{sup 2} (8,800-m{sup 2}) school building since 1993. The impacts of cold and hot deck settings on the energy consumption are also discussed.

  7. Developing a market-based utility duct sealing program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.; Baylon, D.; Houseknecht, A.

    1998-07-01

    In recent years, residential energy conservation research has focused attention on heating system distribution efficiency. Several field studies in the Pacific Northwest have found forced-air heating systems which have a majority of ducts located in unheated buffer spaces can lose as much as 30% of the equipment's heating output to duct air leakage and conduction loss. The magnitude of loss can be equivalent to the combined improvements in building shell insulation levels due to updated energy codes. Field review of forced-air heating systems often uncovers other problems with duct layout and equipment performance. Several challenges face utilities planning to undertake a large-scale duct-sealing program. Most notable of these challenges are finding suitable homes; working with field protocols which encourage consistent, successful work; and measuring the effects of the work through field quality control and impact analysis. This paper describes the response rate for duct sealing services based on one marketing approach and describes bill and field test screening criteria used to narrow the list of retrofit candidates. Results form the screening are presented, along with preliminary retrofit results and important operations and maintenance findings.

  8. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ? 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  9. Compression effects on pressure loss in flexible HVAC ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abushakra, Bass; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2002-01-01

    Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings. American= pitch of the flexible duct (longitudinal distance between49700. ACCA. 1995. Residential Duct Systems. Manual D. Air

  10. Duct joining system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Proctor, John P. (44 Glen Dr., Fairfax, CA 94930); deKieffer, Robert C. (Boulder, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  11. Duct Joining System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Proctor, John P. (Fairfax, CA)

    2001-02-27

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  12. Air-Side Energy Use Calculations for Four HVAC Systems: Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCAV), Dual Duct Variable Volume (DDVAV), Constant Volume with Reheat (CAVRH), Variable Volume with Reheat (VAVRH), Four Pipe Fan Coil Unit (FC), Four Pipe Induction Unit (FI), and Single Zone (SZ) Systems, Revised June 2002 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Bou-Saada, T. E.; Saman, N. F.

    2001-01-01

    This report contains engineering calculations for seven (7) air-side, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems (HVAC) systems, including: dual duct constant volume (DDCAV), dual duct variable volume (DDVAV), ...

  13. Improving Building Envelope and Duct Airtightness of US Dwellings...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Improving Building Envelope and Duct Airtightness of US Dwellings - the Current State of Energy Retrofits Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving Building...

  14. Sealing Ducts in Large Commercial Buildings with Aerosolized Sealant Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    Building Cavities Used As Ducts: Air Leakage Characteristicspan” technique to prioritize duct sealing efforts: a studyField investigation of duct system performance in California

  15. Air Leakage of US Homes: Regression Analysis and Improvements from Retrofit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    normalized leakage and a number of explanatory variables: IECC climate zone, floor area, height, year built airtightness is important because heating and cooling accounts for about 50% of the total energy consumption are commonly performed in a retrofit. In the US, the expected energy saving in heating and cool

  16. HOW TO HEAT AND COOL A HOME WITH 400 CFM SUPPLY AIR AND KEEP THE DUCTS IN THE CONDITIONED SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1999-05-01

    A design strategy is presented that can enable a typical new home to be heated, cooled, and ventilated with less than 400 cfm of delivered air. The strategy has three major elements. First, peak cooling loads are minimized by using good available technologies for the envelope, with emphasis on minimizing heat gains through the windows. Second, the envelope is designed to have very low natural air leakage rates, such that all the ventilation air can be drawn in at one point and passed over the cooling coil before it is mixed with the house air. This permits a significant portion of the cooling load to be met at an air flow rate of {approximately}200 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per ton, compared with the typical 400 cfm per ton in standard air-conditioning systems. Third, by reducing the amount of supply air needed to meet the envelope loads, the required size of ductwork is reduced, making it easier to locate the ducts within the conditioned space. This reduces duct loads to zero, completing the three-part energy conserving strategy.

  17. Measured heating system efficiency retrofits in eight manufactured (HUD-code) homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, J.; Davis, B.; Francisco, P.; Palmiter, L.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency performed on eight all-electric manufactured homes sited in the Pacific Northwest with forced-air distribution systems. These homes, like more than four million existing manufactured homes in the US, were constructed to thermal specifications that were mandated by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development in 1976. The test protocol compares real-time measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during periods when zonal heaters heat the homes to the same internal temperature. By alternating between the furnace and zonal heaters on 2 hour cycles, a short-term coheat test is performed. Additional measurements, including blower door and duct tightness tests, are conducted to measure and characterize the home's tightness and duct leakage so that coheat test results might be linked to other measures of building performance. The testing was done at each home before and after an extensive duct sealing retrofit was performed. The average pre-retrofit system efficiency for these homes was 69%. After the retrofit, the average system efficiency increased to 83%. The average simple payback period for the retrofits ranges from 1 to 5 years in Western Oregon and 1 to 3 years in colder Eastern Oregon.

  18. An Experimental Method for Determining the Time Constants of Capacitive Thin-Film Polymer Humidity sensors at Various Duct Air Velocities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, B.; O'Neal, D.

    2008-01-01

    of capacitive thin-jïlm polymer humidity sensors to step changes in humidity and temperature as a function of air velocity was investigated. Two duct-mounted humidity sensors (designated Candidate X and Candidate Y) from two manufacturers, each with thin... changes in RH and temperature over a range of air velocities. Duct air velocities ofO (stili air). 200. 500. 800, and UOOft/min (0. 1.0, 2.5. 4.1, and 5.6 m/s) were considered along with .step changes in RH of 20%-40% and step changes in air temperature...

  19. Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-09-01

    This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits. The systems approach means that other retrofits that can affect the HVAC system are also considered. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC system can be used. Secondly, we wanted to examine the practical issues and interactions with contractors and code officials required to accomplish the systems approach because it represents a departure from current practice. We identified problems in the processes of communication and installation of the retrofit that led to compromises in the final energy efficiency of the HVAC system. These issues must be overcome in order for HVAC retrofits to deliver the increased performance that they promise. The experience gained in this case study was used to optimize best practices guidelines for contractors (Walker 2003) that include building diagnostics and checklists as tools to assist in ensuring the energy efficiency of ''house as a system'' HVAC retrofits. The best practices guidelines proved to be an excellent tool for evaluating the eight existing homes in this study, and we received positive feedback from many potential users who reviewed and used them. In addition, we were able to substantially improve the energy efficiency of the retrofitted case study house by adding envelope insulation, a more efficient furnace and air conditioner, an economizer and by reducing duct leakage.

  20. Building America Best Practices Series, Vol. 10 - Retrofit Techniques...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    air leaks in homes, while ensuring healthy levels of ventilation and avoiding indoor air pollution. Retrofit Techniques & Technologies: Air Sealing More Documents &...

  1. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  2. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stecher, Dave; Poerschke, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the Building America team, IBACOS, sought to determine cost-effective, energy-efficient solutions for heating and cooling houses. To this end, the team performed field testing in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California, to evaluate three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. These included a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  3. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stecher, D.; Poerschke, A.

    2014-02-01

    Field testing was performed in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. Three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems -- a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms -- were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  4. Room Temperature Control During Season Switchover with Single Duct Variable Air Volume System Without Reheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, C.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Langford “A” building houses the College of Architecture on TAMU campus. There are ten singleduct variable air volume (VAV) air-handling units (AHUs) without reheat serving the building. The local pneumatic thermostats modulate the dampers...

  5. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  6. Compressed Air System Retrofitting Project Improves Productivity at a Foundry (Cast Masters, Bowling Green, OH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-06-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  7. Control Humidity With Single-Duct, Single-Zone, Constant Air Volume System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Bruner, H. L.; Claridge, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    The lecture hall of the Richardson Petroleum Building at Texas A&M University is a large lecture hall, with a total floor area of approximately 2500 ft^2. The lecture hall was served by a constant air volume (CAV) air handling unit (AHU) which had...

  8. Techni-Cast: Foundry Saves Energy with Compressed Air System Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2004-03-01

    In 2002, Techni-Cast improved its compressed air system at its foundry in Southgate, California. The project allowed the foundry to reduce its compressor capacity by 50%, which greatly reduced the foundry's energy and maintenance costs. The annual energy and maintenance savings from the project implementation are 242,000 kWh and $24,200, and the project's cost was $38,000. Because the plant received a $10,000 incentive payment from the California Public Utilities Commission, the total project cost was reduced to $28,000, yielding a 14-month simple payback.

  9. Optimal Terminal Box Control for Single Duct Air-Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Y.; Vondal, J.; Wang, G.; Liu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Terminal boxes maintain room temperature by modulating supply air temperature and airflow in building HVAC systems. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences often supply inadequate airflow to a conditioned space, resulting in occupant...

  10. Study of Air Ingress Across the Duct During the Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Yassin

    2013-05-06

    The goal of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenoena associated with air ingress in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Air ingress may occur due to a nupture of primary piping and a subsequent breach in the primary pressure boundary in helium-cooled and graphite-moderated VHTRs. Significant air ingress is a concern because it introduces potential to expose the fuel, graphite support rods, and core to a risk of severe graphite oxidation. Two of the most probable air ingress scenarios involve rupture of a control rod or fuel access standpipe, and rupture in the main coolant pipe on the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel. Therefor, establishing a fundamental understanding of air ingress phenomena is critical in order to rationally evaluate safety of existing VHTRs and develop new designs that mimimize these risks. But despite this importance, progress toward development these predictive capabilities has been slowed by the complex nature of the underlaying phenomena. The combination of interdiffusion among multiple species, molecular diffusion, natural convection, and complex geometries, as well as the multiple chemical reactions involved, impose significant roadblocks to both modeling and experiment design. The project team will employ a coordinated experimental and computational effort that will help gain a deeper understanding of multiphased air ingress phenomena. THis project will enhance advanced modeling and simulation methods, enabling calculation of nuclear power plant transients and accident scenarios with a high degree of confidence. The following are the project tasks: Perform particle image velocimetry measurement of multiphase air ingresses Perform computational fluid dynamics analysis of air ingress phenomena

  11. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  12. Ducts Sealing Using Injected Spray Sealant, Raleigh, North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques - manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  13. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit, Stockton, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) team conducted a deep retrofit project within Stockton’s Large-Scale Retrofit Program that expanded on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Post-retrofit site energy savings were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case.

  14. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Podorson, D.; Alaigh, K.

    2014-06-01

    Over one million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 PHAs across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with two public housing authorities (PHAs) to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation in ten housing units. Reductions in average air leakage were 16-20% and duct leakage reductions averaged 38%. Total source energy consumption savings was estimated at 6-10% based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.7 to 2.2 years. Implementation challenges were encountered mainly related to required operational changes and budgetary constraints. Nevertheless, simple measures can feasibly be accomplished by PHA staff at low or no cost. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of unit per year nationally.

  15. Method and apparatus for duct sealing using a clog-resistant insertable injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Duo (Albany, CA); Modera, Mark P. (Piedmont, CA)

    2010-12-14

    A method for forming a duct access region through one side of a previously installed air duct, wherein the air duct has an air flow with an air flow direction by inserting an aerosol injector into a previously installed air duct through the access region. The aerosol injector includes a liquid tube having a liquid tube orifice for ejecting a liquid to be atomized; and a propellant cap. The method is accomplished by aligning the aerosol injector with the direction of air flow in the duct; activating an air flow within the duct; and spraying a sealant through the aerosol injector to seal the duct in the direction of the air flow.

  16. Longevity of Duct Tape in Residential Air Distribution Systems: 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D Joints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abushakra, B.

    2003-01-01

    . The study concluded that the duct tape performance in sealing joints depends on the joint's space dimensions; it gets worse as the number of dimensions required to describe the joint increases (1-D to 3-D). This is essentially caused by the shrinkage...

  17. Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-01-01

    a 90° bend in a 15-cm square duct at a velocity of 5 m/s.M. and Wang, D. (1999) Duct systems in large commercialin ventilation air supply ducts. Proceedings of Indoor Air

  18. Microsoft Word - VitPlantInstallsCrucialDuct_20110209.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Treatment Plant, also known as the "Vit Plant," set a giant heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) duct in the High-Level Waste Facility. The nuclear-quality duct is...

  19. A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, J. M.; Turner, W. J.N.; Walker, I. S.; Singer, B. C.

    2015-07-01

    Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector’s energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level.

  20. Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    Field testing was performed in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. Three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems - a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms - were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

  1. Exploring Maximum Humidity Control and Energy Conservation Opportunities with Single Duct Single Zone Air-Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.

    2006-01-01

    the outside air. However, it also involves major ductwork changes. 2.3 Variable speed control of supply airflow A variable speed drive (VFD) saves fan power by slowing down the fan speed and delivering less supply air to the conditioned space during... by adjusting the supply fan speed. However, if the space cooling load drops below the point where the supply airflow reaches the minimum flow required for proper ventilation, the supply air temperature has to be raised to keep the space temperature from...

  2. Infected thyroglossal duct cyst.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deaver, MJ; Silman, EF; Lotfipour, S

    2009-01-01

    Som P. CT of Thyroglossal Duct Cysts. Radiology. 1985; 157:edicine Infected Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Mark J. Deaver, MD,of infected thyroglossal duct cyst was made. The patient was

  3. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  4. Biodiesel + SCR Retrofit Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This work retrofitted an in-use engine with urea SCR and measured NOx reductions versus blend levels of ULSD, B20, and B100

  5. Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

    1995-01-01

    evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging...

  6. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance.

  7. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan; Conlin, Francis; Podorson, David; Alaigh, Kunal

    2014-06-01

    More than 1 million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 public housing authorities (PHAs) across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low-cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with two PHAs to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation 10 ten housing units. Total source energy consumption savings was estimated at 6%-10% based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.7 to 2.2 years. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of units per year nationally.

  8. Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; German, A.; Porse, E.

    2014-06-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story Tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  9. Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; German, A.; Porse, E.

    2014-06-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  10. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts: Connectors, bends anddeveloping flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2004-03-01

    In ventilation duct flow the turbulent flow profile is commonly disturbed or not fully developed and these conditions are likely to influence particle deposition to duct surfaces. Particle deposition rates at eight S-connectors, in two 90{sup o} duct bends and in two ducts where the turbulent flow profile was not fully developed were measured in a laboratory duct system with both galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle diameters of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition of particles with nominal diameters of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m was measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces. Deposition at S-connectors, in bends and in straight ducts with developing turbulence was often greater than deposition in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence for equal particle sizes, air speeds and duct surface orientations. Deposition rates at all locations were found to increase with an increase in particle size or air speed. High deposition rates at S-connectors resulted from impaction and these rates were nearly independent of the orientation of the S-connector. Deposition rates in the two 90{sup o} bends differed by more than an order of magnitude in some cases, probably because of the difference in turbulence conditions at the bend inlets. In straight steel ducts where the turbulent flow profile was developing, the deposition enhancement relative to fully developed turbulence generally increased with air speed and decreased with downstream distance from the duct inlet. This enhancement was greater at the duct ceiling and wall than at the duct floor. In insulated ducts, deposition enhancement was less pronounced overall than in steel ducts. Trends that were observed in steel ducts were present, but weaker, in insulated ducts.

  11. An Evaluation of Energy-Saving Retrofits from the Texas LoanSTAR Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.; Heneghan, T.; Sieggreen, R.; Sims, J.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses the LoanSTAR retrofit savings through December 1993 with an emphasis on the Constant Volume to Variable Air Volume air-handler retrofits. The report also summarizes several key findings about the LoanSTAR program which has 70...

  12. ADA Retrofit and Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ADA Retrofit and Construction Management Richfield, MN Breckenridge, MN #12;Introduction & Outline Design vs. Construction § Case Studies § City of Richfield's Transition Plan #12;How Detailed Should, MN #12;Case Study Breckenridge, MN #12;§ Construction Plans § Intersection Details for "tough

  13. Concord Four Square Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-09

    This case study describes the retrofit of a home in West Concord, Massachusetts that proved that a 50% reduction in home energy use could be met today in existing housing.

  14. Duct and Blower Section 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    The deflection of a spiral duct depends on its flat span, gauge, pressure, and reinforcement. Furthermore, the duct weight determines the cost of installation, not only in material costs but also labor, which is bid by the duct weight. The current...

  15. Guidelines for Retrofit Performance Monitoring 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ternes, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    A data specification guideline developed for use in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Single-Family Building Energy Retrofit Research Program is applicable to field monitoring studies of cooling retrofits. The guideline was developed to promote...

  16. Residential Building Audits and Retrofits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation covers local, regional, and national efforts to promote energy efficiency in residential buildings, programmatic elements of residential building audit and retrofit programs, and resources that you can access to address residential retrofit issues.

  17. Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide. Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide More...

  18. Residential Retrofit Design Guide Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar covered the Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide and its elements, including assess, plan, implement, and evaluate.

  19. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

  20. A Methodology to Measure Retrofit Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, John Kelly

    2008-01-16

    analysis of constant-air-volume and variable-air-volume HVAC systems. One, two, three and four parameter, temperature-dependent regression models are proposed to model baseline energy use. Retrofit savings are measured as the difference between the baseline...

  1. Building America Case Study: Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole House Retrofit, Stockton, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ARBI

    2014-09-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  2. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-08-01

    Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

  3. HOLDSWORTH RETROFIT AND RENOVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    HOLDSWORTH RETROFIT AND RENOVATION GREEN BUILDING COMMITTEE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE ADVISORY by Respondents 15 Conclusions 15 ENERGY AT UMASS AMHERST 17 SUSTAINABILITY BEYOND ON-SITE ENERGY CONSUMPTION 19 Holdsworth Hall Shower and Bicycle Commuting 20 Behavioral Change /Green Office Program 22 ENERGY CONSUMPTION

  4. Short-Term Test Results. Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, K.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30%-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  5. Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  6. TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery Input file: ducts.in You are a technician for the Air Conditioning Machinery company (ACM). Unfortunately, when you arrive at a customer site to install some air conditioning ducts, you discover that you are running low on supplies. You have only six duct segments

  7. Evaluation of friction loss in flexible and galvanized duct 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmermann, Carlos Michael Alberto

    1985-01-01

    runs and in 90 degree elbows at various center line radii to diameter ratios (r/d). Three, 3. 658 meter (m) (12 ft) sections of straight, flexible 152 millimeter (mm) (6 in) and 203 sss (8 in) duct and three, 3. 048 m (10 ft) sections of straight... mean data and that ail three factors (duct size, duct type and air flow volume) contribute to this difference. Three sections of each type (flexible and galvanized) and size (152 and 203 sws) duct were tested in 90 degree elbows at five different r/d...

  8. Seamless Handover in Buildings Using HVAC Ducts: A New System Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Seamless Handover in Buildings Using HVAC Ducts: A New System Architecture Ariton E. Xhafa, Paisarn ducts for wireless communications. The proposed solution is based on a new system architecture design of the indoor wireless networks that use the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ducts

  9. Static Pressure Losses in 6, 8, and 10-inch Non-Metallic Flexible Ducts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, K.; Culp, C.

    2006-01-01

    This study measured airflow static pressure losses through non-metallic flexible ducts in compliance with ASHRAE Standard 120-1999, Methods of Testing to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings (ASHRAE 1999). Duct sizes of 6, 8...

  10. RF propagation in an HVAC duct system: impulse response characteristics of the channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    RF propagation in an HVAC duct system: impulse response characteristics of the channel Pavel V, the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) duct system in buildings is a complex network of hollow at RF and microwave frequencies of com- mon interest. HVAC ducts can be used as a wireless communication

  11. Sealing Ducts in Large Commercial Buildings with Aerosolized Sealant M. P. Modera, O. Brzozowski**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-42414 1 Sealing Ducts in Large Commercial Buildings with Aerosolized Sealant Particles M. P Abstract Electricity energy savings potential by eliminating air leakage from ducts in large commercial buildings, a new technology that simultaneously seals duct leaks and measures effective leakage area

  12. Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. This report will detail the retrofit of 2 existing houses in the program. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district GSHP system to service the project. This draft report examines the energy efficiency recommendations for retrofit construction at these homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a Cold Climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project's affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

  13. Evaluation of Retrofit Delivery Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2013-07-01

    Residential energy retrofit activities are a critical component of efforts to increase energy efficiency in the U.S. building stock; however, retrofits account for a small percentage of aggregate energy savings at relatively high per unit costs. This report by Building America research team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), describes barriers to widespread retrofits and evaluates opportunities to improve delivery of home retrofit measures by identifying economies of scale in marketing, energy assessments, and bulk purchasing through pilot programs in portions of Sonoma, Los Angeles, and San Joaquin Counties, CA. These targeted communities show potential and have revealed key strategies for program design, as outlined in the report.

  14. The Duct Tape of Computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Tim

    AWK: The Duct Tape of Computer Science Research Tim Sherwood UC Santa Barbara #12;AWK - Sherwood 2 Duct Tape Systems Research Environment · Lots of simulators, data, and analysis tools · Since it is research, nothing works together Unix pipes are the ducts Awk is the duct tape · It's not the "best" way

  15. Retrofit of Tehran City Gate Station C.G.S. No. 2 by Using Turboexpander 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seresht, R. T.; Ja, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    air components. 6. Liquefaction gases (like Helium). 7. Separating condensable components of natural gas. 8. Power generation from geothermal energy. Retrofit of Tehran City Gate Station C.G.S. No.2 by Using Turboexpander Yasun Farayand Company...

  16. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  17. Pilot Residential Deep Energy Retrofits and the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Parker, Graham B.; Sande, Susan; Blanchard, Jeremy; Stroer, Dennis; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes research investigating the technical and economic feasibility of several pilot deep energy retrofits, or retrofits that save 30% to 50% or more on a whole-house basis while increasing comfort, durability, combustion safety, and indoor air quality. The work is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. As part of the overall program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers are collecting and analyzing a comprehensive dataset that describes pre- and post-retrofit energy consumption, retrofit measure cost, health and comfort impacts, and other pertinent information for each home participating in the study. The research and data collection protocol includes recruitment of candidate residences, a thorough test-in audit, home energy modeling, and generation of retrofit measure recommendations, implementation of the measures, test-out, and continued evaluation. On some homes, more detailed data will be collected to disaggregate energy-consumption information. This multi-year effort began in October 2010. To date, the PNNL team has performed test-in audits on 51 homes in the marine, cold, and hot-humid climate zones, and completed 3 retrofits in Texas, 10 in Florida, and 2 in the Pacific Northwest. Two of the retrofits are anticipated to save 50% or more in energy bills and the others - savings are in the 30% to 40% range. Fourteen other retrofits are under way in the three climate zones. Metering equipment has been installed in seven of these retrofits - three in Texas, three in Florida, and one in the Pacific Northwest. This report is an interim update, providing information on the research protocol and status of the PNNL deep energy retrofit project as of December, 2011. The report also presents key findings and lessons learned, based on the body of work to date. In addition, the report summarizes the status of the PNNL Lab Homes that are new manufactured homes procured with minimal energy-efficiency specifications typical of existing homes in the region, and sited on the PNNL campus. The Lab Homes serve as a flexible test facility (the first of its kind in the Pacific Northwest) to rapidly evaluate energy-efficient and grid-smart technologies that are applicable to residential construction.

  18. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Ueno and J. Lstiburek

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  19. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  20. Crowne Plaza Renovation Retrofit Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) and its franchise partner B.F. Saul Company Hospitality Group (B.F. Saul Co.) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  1. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-01-01

    particles in turbulent duct flows. Chemical EngineeringDeposition in Ventilation Ducts. Ph.D. Dissertation,Deposition in Ventilating Duct Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation,

  2. Atypical presentation of an omphalomesenteric duct cyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballester, Irene; Betlloch, Isabel; Pérez-Crespo, María; Toledo, Fernando; Cuesta, Laura

    2009-01-01

    KW, Grosfeld JL. Vitelline duct anomalies. Experience withof the omphalomesenteric duct. Childhood differentialof an omphalomesenteric duct cyst Irene Ballester MD, Isabel

  3. Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide This Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide focuses on the key elements and design...

  4. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, Mary; Jackson, Robert

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  5. Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district ground source heat pump (GSHP) system to service the project. This report details the retrofit of two existing houses in the program, and examines the energy efficiency recommendations for the homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a cold climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project’s affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

  6. Retrofitting Vegas: Implementing Energy Efficiency in Two Las Vegas Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, S.

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, the state of Nevada received nearly forty million dollars in Neighborhood Stabilization Funds from the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The purpose of this funding was to stabilize communities that have suffered from foreclosures and abandonment. In an effort to provide guidance to local officials and maximize how effectively this NSP funding is utilized in retrofitting homes, CARB provided design specifications, energy modeling, and technical support for the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA) team and its local partners - Better Building Performance, Nevada Energy Star Partners Green Alliance, and Home Free Nevada - for two retrofit test homes. One home was to demonstrate a modest retrofit and the other a deep energy retrofit. Through this project, CARB has provided two robust solution packages for retrofitting homes built in this region between the 1980s and early 1990s without substantially inconveniencing the occupants. The two test homes, the Carmen and Sierra Hills, demonstrate how cost-effectively energy efficient upgrades can be implemented in the hot, dry climate of the Southwest. In addition, the homes were used as an educational experience for home performance professionals, building trades, remodelers, and the general public. In-field trainings on air-sealing, HVAC upgrades, and insulating were provided to local contractors during the retrofit and BARA documented these retrofits through a series of video presentations, beginning with a site survey and concluding with the finished remodel and test out.

  7. Advancing Residential Retrofits in Atlanta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Roderick K; Kim, Eyu-Jin; Roberts, Sydney; Stephenson, Robert

    2012-07-01

    This report will summarize the home energy improvements performed in the Atlanta, GA area. In total, nine homes were retrofitted with eight of the homes having predicted source energy savings of approximately 30% or greater based on simulated energy consumption.

  8. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  9. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noris, Federico; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Delp, William W.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Russell, Marion; Singer, Brett C.; Spears, Michael; Vermeer, Kimberly; Fisk, William J.

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  10. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Hendrick, Timothy P; Christian, Jeffrey E; Jackson, Roderick K

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is also monitored, with temperature and humidity measured in all conditioned zones, attics, crawlspaces, and unconditioned basements. In some homes, heat flux transducers are installed on the basement walls to help determine the insulating qualities of the technologies and practices. EnergyGauge is used to estimate the pre-retrofit and post-retrofit home energy rating system (HERS) index and reduction in energy consumption and energy bill. In a follow-up report, data from the installed sensors will be presented and analyzed as well as a comparison of the post-retrofit energy consumption of the home to the EnergyGauge model of the post-retrofit home. Table ES1 shows the retrofits that were completed at the eight households where some or all of the recommended retrofits were completed. Home aliases are used to keep the homeowners anonymous. Some key findings of this study thus far are listed as follows. Some homeowners (50%) are not willing to spend the money to reach 30 50% energy savings. Quality of retrofit work is significantly variable among contractors which impact the potential energy savings of the retrofit. Challenges exist in defining house volume and floor area. Of the five homes that completed all the recommended retrofits, energy bill savings was not the main driver for energy retrofits. In no case were the retrofits cost neutral given a 15 year loan at 7% interest for the retrofit costs.

  11. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with a clean one can lower your air conditioner's energy consumption by 5% to 15%. For central air conditioners, filters are generally located somewhere along the return duct's...

  12. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the home's exterior wall or roof to connect with the packaged air conditioner, which is usually located outdoors....

  13. Measured Effects of Retrofits - A Refrigerant Oil Additive and a Condenser Spray Device - On the Cooling Performance of a Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levins, W. P.; Sand, J. R.; Baxter, V. D.; Linkous, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    A 15-year old, 3-ton single package air-to-air heat pump was tested in laboratory environmental chambers simulating indoor and outdoor conditions. After documenting initial performance, the unit was retrofitted with a prototype condenser water...

  14. Retrofitting of Conditioning Systems for Existing Small Commercial Buildings - Analysis and Design of Liquid Desiccant - Vapor Compression Hybrid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnas, O. A.; McQueen, T. M.

    1984-01-01

    conditioning system was combined with a desiccant air-conditioning unit with a waste heat and solar heat reclaim component. While this retrofit system is feasible, a number of questions remain to be considered regarding the design, installation and operation...

  15. Cost-effective Lighting Retrofits: Lessons Learned 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    -effective Lighting Retrofits: Lessons Learned Mark D. Fisher Certified Lighting Efficiency Professional Johnson Controls Dallas, Texas ABSTRACT Facility managers and energy engineers contemplating a lighting retrofit are confronted with a confusing array...

  16. Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  17. Strategy Guideline. Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) Building America team is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  18. Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings - Control strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance Building America Webinar:...

  19. Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide Overview Transcript...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Overview Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofit Transcript Weatherization & Intergovernmental Programs Office Home...

  20. Retrofit Analysis of Older, Single Family Housing in San Antonio 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rashed-Ali, H.

    2013-01-01

    -12-05 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Study Findings • Additional Possible Retrofits: – Whole house fans: • Initial cost approximately $1,000 – Window replacement: • Initial cost approximately $5..., Single Family Housing in San Antonio Hazem Rashed-Ali, PhD, University of Texas at San Antonio CATEE 2013 Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference December 16-18, 2013 San Antonio, TX 12/17/2013 ESL-KT-13-12-05 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy...

  1. In Proc. 1996 ACEEE Summer Study, August 1996, Asilomar, CA. Energy Effectiveness of Duct Sealing and Insulation in Two Multifamily Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwalk, Connecticut SYNOPSIS This paper discusses field measurements from five apartments in New York1 LBL# 38538 In Proc. 1996 ACEEE Summer Study, August 1996, Asilomar, CA. Energy Effectiveness that were monitored to determine the effect of duct retrofits on energy use. ABSTRACT Energy losses from

  2. Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIlvaine, J.; Saunders, S.; Bordelon, E.; Baden, S.; Elam, L.; Martin, E.

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  3. The Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIlvaine, J.; Martin, E.; Saunders, S.; Bordelon, E.; Baden, S.; Elam, L.

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  4. LBNL -45423 Stopping Duct Quacks: Longevity of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL - 45423 Stopping Duct Quacks: Longevity of Residential Duct Sealants Max H. Sherman, Iain S Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each

  5. Performance Results for Massachusetts and Rhode Island Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, C.; Neuhauser, K.

    2014-03-01

    Between December, 2009 and December, 2012 42 deep energy retrofit (DER) projects were completed through a DER pilot program sponsored by National Grid and conducted in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 37 of these projects were comprehensive retrofits while 5 were partial DERs, meaning that high performance retrofit was implemented for a single major enclosure component or a limited number of major enclosure components. The 42 DER projects represent 60 units of housing. The comprehensive projects all implemented a consistent 'package' of measures in terms of the performance targeted for major building components. Projects exhibited some variations in the approach to implementing the retrofit package. Pre- and post-retrofit air leakage measurements were performed for each of the projects. Each project also reported information about project costs including identification of energy-related costs. Post-retrofit energy-use data was obtained for 29 of the DER projects. Post-retrofit energy use was analyzed based on the net energy used by the DER project regardless of whether the energy was generated on site or delivered to the site. Homeowner surveys were returned by 12 of the pilot participants. Based on the community experience, this DER package is expected to result in yearly source energy use near 110 MMBtu/year or approximately 40% below the Northeast regional average. Larger to medium sized homes that successful implement these retrofits can be expected to achieve source EUI that is comparable to Passive House targets for new construction. The community of DER projects show post-retrofit airtightness below 1.5 ACH50 to be eminently achievable.

  6. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    Between December, 2009 and December, 2012 42 deep energy retrofit (DER) projects were completed through a DER pilot program sponsored by National Grid and conducted in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 37 of these projects were comprehensive retrofits while 5 were partial DERs, meaning that high performance retrofit was implemented for a single major enclosure component or a limited number of major enclosure components. The 42 DER projects represent 60 units of housing. The comprehensive projects all implemented a consistent "package" of measures in terms of the performance targeted for major building components. Projects exhibited some variations in the approach to implementing the retrofit package. Pre- and post-retrofit air leakage measurements were performed for each of the projects. Each project also reported information about project costs including identification of energy-related costs. Post-retrofit energy-use data was obtained for 29 of the DER projects. Post-retrofit energy use was analyzed based on the net energy used by the DER project regardless of whether the energy was generated on site or delivered to the site. Homeowner surveys were returned by 12 of the pilot participants. Based on the community experience, this DER package is expected to result in yearly source energy use near 110 MMBtu/year or approximately 40% below the Northeast regional average. Larger to medium sized homes that successful implement these retrofits can be expected to achieve source EUI that is comparable to Passive House targets for new construction. The community of DER projects show post-retrofit airtightness below 1.5 ACH50 to be eminently achievable.

  7. Measuring retrofit savings in commercial buildings with pre-retrofit utility billing data and post-retrofit sub-metered data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yue

    1993-01-01

    Methodologies to measure energy and dollar savings resulting from energy conserving retrofits in commercial buildings when both pre-retrofit and post-retrofit monitored data are available at an hourly or daily level have ...

  8. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted to existing engines Significantly reduces NOx...

  9. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  10. Evaluation of Early Performance Results for Massachusetts Homes in the National Grid Pilot Deep Energy Retrofit Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.; Gates, C.

    2013-11-01

    This research project evaluates post-retrofit performance measurements, energy use data and construction costs for 13 projects that participated in the National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot program. The projects implemented a package of measures defined by performance targets for building enclosure components and building enclosure air tightness. Nearly all of the homes reached a post-retrofit air tightness result of 1.5 ACH 50. Homes that used the chainsaw retrofit technique along with roof insulation, and wall insulation applied to the exterior had the best air tightness results and the lowest heating and cooling source energy use. Analysis of measure costs and project objectives yielded a categorization of costs relative to energy performance objectives. On average about ½ of the energy-related measure costs correspond primarily to energy-related objectives, and 20% of energy-related measure costs relate primarily to non-energy objectives.

  11. MHD duct flows under hydrodynamic “slip” condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smolentsev, S.

    2009-01-01

    two-dimensional turbulence in MHD duct ?ows, CTR, Stanfordow in rectangular ducts. J. Fluid Mech. 21, 577–590 (1965)C L E S. Smolentsev MHD duct ?ows under hydrodynamic “slip”

  12. Retrofit Savings for Brazos County 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Shao, X.; Claridge, D. E.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the energy and dollar savings for the period May 2000 - April 2001 for 10 of the Brazos County facilities that have been retrofit. The electricity use saved was 555,170 kWh and the demand was 1062 kW, which is equivalent to a...

  13. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America (BA) program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing.

  14. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing mechanical ventilation.

  15. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  16. 44 Market St - Refurbishment of a Dual Duct Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bannister, P.; Foo, G.

    2013-01-01

    44 Market St is a high profile, A-grade, 27-storey, 28,000m2 office building constructed in the 1970s. In common with many other buildings of its era, it was equipped with a dual duct air-conditioning system, and its highest NABERS Rating at full...

  17. Handover Performance of HVAC Duct Based Indoor Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    in indoor wireless net- works (IWN) that use heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ducts point to serve one floor and its staircase region achieves the best handover performance for IWN]. An alternative approach to transmitt/receive the RF signal is to use heating, ventilation, and airconditioning

  18. A Methodology for Identifying Retrofit Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, K.; Reddy, A.; Claridge, D.

    1992-01-01

    Measured energy savings resulting from energy conservation retrofits in commercial buildings can be used to verify the success of the retrofits, determine the payment schedule for the retrofits, and guide the selection of ...

  19. Turbulent mixing in ducts, theory and experiment application to aerosol single point sampling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langari, Abdolreza

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced rules for continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) of stacks and ducts in nuclear facilities. EPA has recently approved use of Alternative Reference Methodologies (ARM) for air sampling in nuclear...

  20. Duct/Air sealing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the National ClimateDongyingOpen Energy3)

  1. Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr.Theories81 to 1990 Timeline of& Tricks

  2. An Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Wall And Window Retrofit Configurations: Supporting the Residential Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Petrie, Thomas [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Hulvey, Kimberly D [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    A Retrofit Best Practices Guide was developed to encourage homeowners to consider energy conservation issues whenever they modify their siding or windows. In support of this guide, an experimental program was implemented to measure the performance of a number of possible wall siding and window retrofit configurations. Both thermal and air-leakage measurements were made for a 2.4 x 2.4 m (8 x 8 ft) wall section with and without a 0.9 x 1.2 m (3 x 4 ft) window. The windows tested were previously well-characterized at a dedicated window test facility. A computer model was also used to provide information for the Best Practices Guide. The experimental data for walls and windows were used in conjunction with this model to estimate the total annual energy savings for several typical houses in a number of different locations.

  3. Building America Webinar: A National Summary of Deep Energy Retrofits...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Webinar: A National Summary of Deep Energy Retrofits Building America Webinar: A National Summary of Deep Energy Retrofits This presentation by Brennan Less is included in the...

  4. Building America Webinar: Results from Phased Deep Retrofits...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    sealing saves 20 kWhday HPWH retrofit saves 4 kWhday Takeaway: HVAC & heat pump water heater Retrofits produce reliable demand reduction Heat Pump Water Heaters *...

  5. Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate Filters Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate...

  6. Building America Webinar: Results from Phased Deep Retrofits...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Building America Webinar: Results from Phased Deep Retrofits in Florida Building America Webinar: Results from Phased Deep Retrofits in Florida This presentation by Danny Parker is...

  7. Business Case for Energy Efficient Building Retrofit and Renovation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Business Case for Energy Efficient Building Retrofit and Renovation Business Case for Energy Efficient Building Retrofit and Renovation This report outlines ways to make the right...

  8. EECBG Success Story: Lighting Retrofits Saving Energy, Helping...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrofits Saving Energy, Helping Local Companies EECBG Success Story: Lighting Retrofits Saving Energy, Helping Local Companies August 9, 2010 - 12:06pm Addthis LEDs such as this...

  9. Syngas Generator Use for Retrofit DPF Active Regeneration on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generator Use for Retrofit DPF Active Regeneration on a Medium Duty Truck Syngas Generator Use for Retrofit DPF Active Regeneration on a Medium Duty Truck Syngas enables low...

  10. DOE Webinar ? Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Webinar Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation) DOE Webinar Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation) Presented at the U.S. Department...

  11. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and...

  12. OTEC- Commercial Lighting Retrofit Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oregon Trail Electric Consumers Cooperative (OTEC) offers a commercial lighting retrofit program that provides rebates for commercial businesses that change existing lighting to more energy...

  13. Building Energy Model Development for Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chasar, David; McIlvaine, Janet; Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-09-30

    Based on previous research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Florida Solar Energy Center providing technical assistance to implement 22 deep energy retrofits across the nation, 6 homes were selected in Florida and Texas for detailed post-retrofit energy modeling to assess realized energy savings (Chandra et al, 2012). However, assessing realized savings can be difficult for some homes where pre-retrofit occupancy and energy performance are unknown. Initially, savings had been estimated using a HERS Index comparison for these homes. However, this does not account for confounding factors such as occupancy and weather. This research addresses a method to more reliably assess energy savings achieved in deep energy retrofits for which pre-retrofit utility bills or occupancy information in not available. A metered home, Riverdale, was selected as a test case for development of a modeling procedure to account occupancy and weather factors, potentially creating more accurate estimates of energy savings. This “true up” procedure was developed using Energy Gauge USA software and post-retrofit homeowner information and utility bills. The 12 step process adjusts the post-retrofit modeling results to correlate with post-retrofit utility bills and known occupancy information. The “trued” post retrofit model is then used to estimate pre-retrofit energy consumption by changing the building efficiency characteristics to reflect the pre-retrofit condition, but keeping all weather and occupancy-related factors the same. This creates a pre-retrofit model that is more comparable to the post-retrofit energy use profile and can improve energy savings estimates. For this test case, a home for which pre- and post- retrofit utility bills were available was selected for comparison and assessment of the accuracy of the “true up” procedure. Based on the current method, this procedure is quite time intensive. However, streamlined processing spreadsheets or incorporation into existing software tools would improve the efficiency of the process. Retrofit activity appears to be gaining market share, and this would be a potentially valuable capability with relevance to marketing, program management, and retrofit success metrics.

  14. Building America Expert Meeting: Interior Insulation Retrofit...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Building Science Corporation team held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in...

  15. Review of Existing Energy Retrofit Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sang Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Evaluator (beta version) COMBAT LBNL / China Energy Groupenergy benchmarking and retrofit recommendations 2.1.8 Evaluator for NYSERDA The Evaluator (currently in beta

  16. Cogeneration as a retrofit strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meckler, M.

    1996-06-01

    The paper describes the retrofitting of cogeneration in industrial plants. The paper describes a cost analysis, feasibility analysis, prime movers, induction generation, developing load profile, and options and research. The prime movers discussed include gas turbines, back-pressure turbines, condensing turbines, extraction turbines, and single-stage turbines. A case history of an institutional-industrial application illustrates the feasibility and benefits of a cogeneration system.

  17. Duct spinning mode's particle velocity imaging with in-duct circular microphone array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xun

    Duct spinning mode's particle velocity imaging with in-duct circular microphone array Qingkai Wei's Republic of China Nowadays, the measurements within a duct have to be conducted using in-duct microphone. In this work, an imaging method of acoustic spinning modes propagating within a circular duct simply

  18. Articulated transition duct in turbomachine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flanagan, James Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-29

    Turbine systems are provided. A turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. The upstream portion extends from the inlet between an inlet end and an aft end. The downstream portion extends from the outlet between an outlet end and a head end. The turbine system further includes a joint coupling the aft end of the upstream portion and the head end of the downstream portion together. The joint is configured to allow movement of the upstream portion and the downstream portion relative to each other about or along at least one axis.

  19. Flow duct for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Straalsund, Jerry L. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    Improved liquid sodium flow ducts for nuclear reactors are described wherein the improvement comprises varying the wall thickness of each of the walls of a polygonal tubular duct structure so that each of the walls is of reduced cross-section along the longitudinal center line and of a greater cross-section along wall junctions with the other walls to form the polygonal tubular configuration.

  20. Pressure Losses in 12”, 15” and 16” Non-Metallic Flexible Ducts with Compression and Sag (RP-1333) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culp, C.H.; Cantrill, D.

    2009-01-01

    is based on findings resulting from ASHRAE Research Project RP-1333. ABSTRACT A study was conducted to measure air pressure loss in non- metallic flexible ducts and included 12” (305 mm), 14” (356 mm) and 16” (406 mm) diameter ducts on a flat surface... and also positioned over joists on 24” (610 mm) centers. For this study, flexible duct compression configurations were fully stretched and 4%, 15%, 30% and 45% compressed. Measure- ments were performed at each compression. All tests were performed...

  1. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot, Massachusetts and Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-01

    Between December, 2009 and December, 2012 42 deep energy retrofit (DER) projects were completed through a pilot program sponsored by National Grid and conducted in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Thirty-seven of these projects were comprehensive retrofits while five were partial DERs, meaning that high performance retrofit was implemented for a single major enclosure component or a limited number of major enclosure components. Building Science Corporation developed a consistent "package" of measures in terms of the performance targeted for major building components. Pre- and post-retrofit air leakage measurements were performed for each of the projects. Each project also reported information about project costs including identification of energy-related costs. Post-retrofit energy-use data was obtained for 29 of the DER projects, and was analyzed based on the net energy used by the DER project regardless of whether the energy was generated on site or delivered to the site. Based on the community experience, this DER package is expected to result in yearly source energy use near 110 MMBtu/year or approximately 40% below the Northeast regional average. Larger to medium sized homes that successful implement these retrofits can be expected to achieve source EUI that is comparable to Passive House targets for new construction. The community of DER projects show post-retrofit airtightness below 1.5 ACH50 to be eminently achievable.

  2. Need for Systematic Retrofit Analysis in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Multifamily housing offers high potential for energy savings through retrofits. A comprehensive energy audit with systematic evaluation of alternative energy measures is one of the key steps to realizing the full energy savings potential. However, this potential often remains unrealized when the selection of measures is (1) based on a one-size-fits-all approach originating from accustomed practices, (2) intended merely to meet code-compliance requirements, and/or (3) influenced by owner renter split incentive. In such cases, the benefits of comprehensive energy auditing are disregarded in view of the apparent difficulty in diagnosing multifamily buildings, evaluating alternative measures, and installing customized sets of measures. This paper highlights some of the barriers encountered in a multifamily housing retrofit project in Georgia and demonstrates the merits of systematic retrofit analysis by identifying opportunities for higher energy savings and improved comfort and indoor air quality that were missed in this project. The study uses a whole-building energy analysis conducted for a 10-unit, low-rise, multifamily building of a 110-unit apartment complex. The analysis projected a 24% energy savings from the measures installed in the building with a payback period of 10 years. Further analysis with a systematic evaluation of alternative measures showed that without compromising on the objectives of durability, livability, and appearance of the building, energy savings of up to 34% were achievable with a payback period of 7 years. The paper concludes by outlining recommendations that may benefit future retrofit projects by improving the audit process, streamlining tasks, and achieving higher energy savings.

  3. Aalborg Universitet Moisture risks arising from retrofitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    on an evaluation by the building owner or user. However, the risk is not quantified. To make the decision moreAalborg Universitet Moisture risks arising from retrofitting Møller, Eva B.; Aagaard, Niels for published version (APA): Møller, E. B., & Aagaard, N-J. (2013). Moisture risks arising from retrofitting

  4. Prologis Rolls Out Warehouse Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    Prologis partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce annual energy consumption by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  5. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    poor service procedures, and inadequate maintenance. Improper installation of a central air conditioner can result in leaky ducts and low airflow. Many times, the...

  6. Buried and Encapsulated Ducts - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buried and Encapsulated Ducts - Building America Top Innovation Buried and Encapsulated Ducts - Building America Top Innovation photo of worker blowing insulation on ducts in an...

  7. Bridging the Gap Between Commissioning Measures and Large Scale Retrofits in Existing Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bynum, J.; Jones, A.; Claridge, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    in the hot duct which modulates to control the static pressure in this duct separate from the cold duct. The third AHU is also DDVAV with DDC controls and serves half of the first floor. The fourth AHU is a constant speed outside air (OA) unit with DDC... controls which pretreats the OA for the first floor AHU. All of the terminal boxes in the building have DDC controls. The total maximum design supply flow for the building is 155,800 CFM with a design maximum of 31,240 CFM of OA. The maximum total...

  8. Proven Performance of Seven Cold Climate Deep Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osser, R.; Neuhauser, K.; Ueno, K.

    2012-06-01

    Seven test homes located in Massachusetts are examined within this report. The retrofit strategies of each home are presented along with a comparison of the pre- and post-retrofit airtightness achieved by the group. Pre- and post-retrofit utility bills were collected; energy models were used to estimate pre-retrofit energy use when bills were unavailable.

  9. Duct leakage impacts on VAV system performance in California large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig P.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the variability of duct leakage impacts on air distribution system performance for typical large commercial buildings in California. Specifically, a hybrid DOE-2/TRNSYS sequential simulation approach was used to model the energy use of a low-pressure terminal-reheat variable-air-volume (VAV) HVAC system with six duct leakage configurations (tight to leaky) in nine prototypical large office buildings (representing three construction eras in three California climates where these types of buildings are common). Combined fan power for the variable-speed-controlled supply and return fans at design conditions was assumed to be 0.8 W/cfm. Based on our analyses of the 54 simulation cases, the increase in annual fan energy is estimated to be 40 to 50% for a system with a total leakage of 19% at design conditions compared to a tight system with 5% leakage. Annual cooling plant energy also increases by about 7 to 10%, but reheat energy decreases (about 3 to 10%). In combination, the increase in total annual HVAC site energy is 2 to 14%. The total HVAC site energy use includes supply and return fan electricity consumption, chiller and cooling tower electricity consumption, boiler electricity consumption, and boiler natural gas consumption. Using year 2000 average commercial sector energy prices for California ($0.0986/kWh and $7.71/Million Btu), the energy increases result in 9 to 18% ($7,400 to $9,500) increases in HVAC system annual operating costs. Normalized by duct surface area, the increases in annual operating costs are 0.14 to 0.18 $/ft{sup 2}. Using a suggested one-time duct sealing cost of $0.20 per square foot of duct surface area, these results indicate that sealing leaky ducts in VAV systems has a simple payback period of about 1.3 years. Even with total leakage rates as low as 10%, duct sealing is still cost effective. This suggests that duct sealing should be considered at least for VAV systems with 10% or more total duct leakage. The VAV system that we simulated had perfectly insulated ducts, and maintained constant static pressure in the ducts upstream of the VAV boxes and a constant supply air temperature at the airhandler. Further evaluations of duct leakage impacts should be carried out in the future after methodologies are developed to deal with duct surface heat transfer effects, to deal with airflows entering VAV boxes from ceiling return plenums (e.g., to model parallel fan-powered VAV boxes), and to deal with static pressure reset and supply air temperature reset strategies.

  10. Roof and Attic Design Guidelines for new and retrofit Construction of Homes in Hot and Coild Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; LaFrance, Marc [International Energy Agency] [International Energy Agency

    2013-01-01

    Some guidelines for improving the energy efficiency of roofs and attics are presented and are based on the research of the DOE Building Technology. The results of combined analytical and experimental studies were used to benchmark computer tools, which in turn, were used to simulate homes in hot and cold climates. Adding floor and roof insulation, above deck ventilation, radiant barriers, cool color shingle, metal or tile roofs, sealing the attic floor, sealing the duct system and sealing the attic were simulated to compute the cost of energy savings. Results are prioritized to help building owners make an informed economic decision when contemplating roof and attic retrofits. Sealing the attic floor is a top retrofit option. The sealed attic approach and a new prototype roof assembly an insulated and ventilated roof are good options for retrofit work but have paybacks ranging from 15 to 25 years. A new sealed attic concept was simulated and computations show its simple payback is about 10 to 12 years in hot and cold climates; its first cost is significantly reduced from that of a spray foam approach. For new construction the best option is to keep the ducts out of the attic, make sure the attic floor is sealed and add at least code level of insulation to the ceiling.

  11. Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fallahi, A.; Duraschlag, H.; Elliott, D.; Hartsough, J.; Shukla, N.; Kosny, J.

    2013-12-01

    This project evaluates the cooling energy savings and cost effectiveness of radiation control retrofit strategies for residential attics in U.S. cooling-dominated climates. Usually, in residential applications, radiation control retrofit strategies are applied below the roof deck or on top of the attic floor insulation. They offer an alternative option to the addition of conventional bulk insulation such as fiberglass or cellulose insulation. Radiation control is a potentially low-cost energy efficiency retrofit strategy that does not require significant changes to existing homes. In this project, two groups of low-cost radiation control strategies were evaluated for southern U.S. applications. One uses a radiant barrier composed of two aluminum foils combined with an enclosed reflective air space and the second uses spray-applied interior radiation control coatings (IRCC).

  12. Evaporation Duct Estimation from Clutter Using Meteorological Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Evaporation Duct Estimation from Clutter Using Meteorological Statistics Caglar Yardim*, Peter under duct- ing conditions. Electromagnetic ducts result in non-standard electromagnetic prop- agation addresses how to incorporate meteo- rological statistics into evaporative duct estimation within a Bayesian

  13. Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: I. Evaporation Duct Tracking Using Kalman Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: I. Evaporation Duct Tracking Using Kalman Filters 92093­0238, USA Introduction This paper addresses the problem of tracking evaporation ducts in marine-standard electromagnetic propagation due to formation of lower atmospheric sea ducts is a common occurrence in maritime

  14. Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: II. Surface-based Duct Tracking Using Multiple Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: II. Surface-based Duct Tracking Using Multiple variability in tracking surface-based ducts in marine and coastal environments. The method tracks of the problem and evaporation duct tracking has been introduced in [1]. In previous studies, atmospheric

  15. Double Ducted Fan (DDF) as a Novel Ducted Fan Inlet Lip Separation Control Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    Double Ducted Fan (DDF) as a Novel Ducted Fan Inlet Lip Separation Control Device Ali Akturk computational study of a novel ducted fan inlet flow conditioning concept that will significantly improve the performance and controllability of VTOL UAVs and many other ducted fan based systems. The new concept

  16. Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

  17. Development of a Laboratory Verified Single-Duct VAV System Model with Fan Powered Terminal Units Optimized Using Computational Fluid Dynamics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Michael A.

    2011-10-21

    Single Duct Variable Air Volume (SDVAV) systems use series and parallel Fan Powered Terminal Units to control the air flow in conditioned spaces. This research developed a laboratory verified model of SDVAV systems that ...

  18. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    will require more energy to cool your house. A preferable alternative is a dehumidifying heat pipe, which can be added as a retrofit to most existing systems. Types of Central Air...

  19. Measurements of Smoke Characteristics in HVAC Ducts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolin, Steven D; Ryder, Noah L; Leprince, Frederic; Milke, James; Mowrer, Frederick; Torero, Jose L

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of smoke traveling in an HVAC duct have been observed along with the response of selected duct smoke detectors. The simulated HVAC system consists of a 9 m long duct, 0.45 m in diameter. An exhaust fan is placed at one end...

  20. Comparative Study: CFD ?P Versus Measured ?P for 30% Flexible Ducts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugursal, A.; Culp, C.

    2006-01-01

    VERSUS MEASURED ?P FOR 30% FLEXIBLE DUCTS Ahmet U?ursal Ph.D. Student, Department of Architecture Texas A&M University College Station, TX Charles Culp, Ph.D., P.E. Associate Professor, Department of Architecture & Associate Director, Energy... Systems Lab Texas A&M University College Station, TX ABSTRACT This study modeled air flow and pressure drops in non-metallic flexible ducts using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. CFD simulation results showed very close comparison...

  1. Deep Energy Retrofits - Eleven California Case Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2014-01-01

    www.lowesforpros.com/deep-energy-retrofits-for- existing-R. H. (Ed. ). (1978). Saving Energy in the Home: Princeton’sA Homeowner’s Guide to Energy-Efficient Renovation. Firefly

  2. Ecology Action: Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    network of contractors to use low-cost, high-impact tools to analyze and implement deep energy retrofits and financing options that are appropriate to small buildings. The...

  3. Energy Efficient Retrofits and Green Building Practices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, M.

    2010-01-01

    . Moreover, the increase in demand is also causing rise in pollution levels. Therefore, the subject of energy efficient retrofits and green building practices is becoming increasingly important. Based on the latest walkthrough energy audit it is proven...

  4. Retrofitting the Streetlights in Boise, Idaho

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Young, Clay; Oliver, LeAnn; Bieter, David; Johnson, Michael; Oldemeyer, Neal

    2013-05-29

    Boise, Idaho is using an energy efficiency grant to retrofit hundreds of streetlights throughout the downtown area with energy-efficient LED bulbs, which will save money and improve safety and local quality of life.

  5. Bedford Farmhouse High Performance Retrofit Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-26

    In this case study, Building Science Corporation partnered with Habitat for Humanity of Greater Lowell on a retrofit of a mid-19th century farmhouse into affordable housing meeting Building America performance standards.

  6. Retrofitting the Streetlights in Boise, Idaho

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boise, Idaho is using an energy efficiency grant to retrofit hundreds of streetlights throughout the downtown area with energy-efficient LED bulbs, which will save money and improve safety and...

  7. Retrofit Existing Buildings | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A WholesaleRetrofit Existing Buildings Retrofit Existing

  8. Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A WholesaleRetrofit Existing Buildings RetrofitDepartment of

  9. Tracer Gas as a Practical Field Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Duct System Leaks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    diagnostic tools for detecting and locating leaks in the air distribution system. The tracer gas tests described are a good complement to these tools in the detection, location, and measurement of duct leakage. Testing for house infiltration once with the air...

  10. Evaluation of passive solar retrofit options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-David, S.; Kirchemen, C.; Martin, S.; Noll, S.; Roach, F.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation framework has been developed which allows for the assessment of the role of passive solar retrofit in the nationwide reduction of conventional fuel use. Three types of analysis are proposed within this framework: the physical/technical capability of the present housing stock to incorporate passive solar retrofit; the economic feasibility of the application of retrofit designs; and the actual market potential or acceptance of these alternative retrofit options. Each type of analysis has specific data requirements and a series of evaluation procedures to help establish estimates of the potential for passive solar retrofit in the present housing stock. The data requirements with their respective sources and evaluation procedures for the first two types of analysis-physical/technical setting and economic feasibility, are examined. A distinction is drawn between community specific case studies and more generalized national assessments. Information derived from these three types of analysis, whether case specific or national in scope, can then be used in an evaluation of potential economic impacts. The establishment of regional economic benefits and costs werve as a measure of the merit or attractiveness of the implementation of a passive solar retrofit program.

  11. Model-Based Commissioning Methodology for Simple Duct System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odajima, T.; Takashi, M.; Juckel-Murakami, B.

    2004-01-01

    and HEPA filter. For the system the VAV is used as constant air volume control device. Controlled room pressure generates airflow from Room B to A and B to C (i.e., pressure in Room B is (+ +), pressure in Room A is (+) and pressure in Room C... shown in Figure 7. As the room leakage is not a subject of this paper, it is not amplified. Figure 3. Air volume pattern for the positive pressure (++) room The duct leakage is calculated from AHU to diffuser (HEPA filter) as shown...

  12. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be assessed but did not account for weather variation. From this statistical analysis, 18 study participants were selected and interviewed. The participants completed an in-home interview covering a range of topics, including changes in occupancy and additional changes to the homes that may have affected energy use. The goal of the interviews was to identify factors that may have contributed to unusual energy performance. These factors were identified by their frequency of occurrence in outperforming or underperforming homes, or simply by identifying factors that had the largest impact on overall savings. The motivations and levels of satisfaction with the outcomes of the upgrades were covered in detail, as well as extensive discussions of behaviors pertaining to thermal control, lighting, water, and appliance use. Most of cases studied achieved substantial energy savings, although it was more common for the projected savings to be greater than the demonstrated savings. Two factors that played a very large role in savings variation were 1) changes in occupancy and 2) fenestration improvements outside of the incentive programs. Motivation for pursuing the upgrades (e.g., environmental sustainability vs. comfort or cost savings) did not seem to play any role in achieving savings. Participants generally were more concerned with maintaining aesthetics through lighting than comfort through heating or cooling. They also seemed more likely to turn the lights off when leaving a room than to turn the heat off when leaving the home.

  13. DOE Webinar ? Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE webinar, Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits presented at the DOE EERE Webinar Series on Dec. 14, 2010.

  14. Financing Energy Efficiency Retrofits in the Commercial Sector Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Financing Energy Efficiency Retrofits in the Commercial Sector Webinar, from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings program.

  15. Integrating Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits in Apartments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01

    16 Energy dataretrofits. Analogous energy data were collected from similarthe retrofits. Analogous energy data were collected from a

  16. Existing Homes Retrofit Case Study: Asdal Builders, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-09-01

    This Building America fact sheet describes a retrofit to improve efficiency of a 1930s era bungalow in Pittsburgh.

  17. NREL Job Task Analysis: Retrofit Installer Technician (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurnik, C.; Woodley, C.

    2012-04-01

    A summary of job task analyses for the position of retrofit installer technician when conducting weatherization work on a residence.

  18. Demonstration of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.

    2011-09-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of art in Eugene, OR

  19. Low-E Retrofit Demonstration and Educational Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, Thomas D; Wiehagen, Joseph; Drumheller, S Craig; Siegel, John; Stratmoen, Todd

    2013-11-16

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the capability of low-emissivity (low-E) storm windows / panels and low-E retrofit glazing systems to significantly and cost effectively improve the energy efficiency of both existing residential and commercial buildings. The key outcomes are listed below: RESIDENTIAL CASE STUDIES: (a) A residential case study in two large multifamily apartment buildings in Philadelphia showed a substantial 18-22% reduction in heating energy use and a 9% reduction in cooling energy use by replacing old clear glass storm windows with modern low-E storm windows. Furthermore, the new low-E storm windows reduced the overall apartment air leakage by an average of 10%. (b) Air leakage testing on interior low-E panels installed in a New York City multifamily building over windows with and without AC units showed that the effective leakage area of the windows was reduced by 77-95%. (c) To study the use of low-E storm windows in a warmer mixed climate with a balance of both heating and cooling, 10 older homes near Atlanta with single pane windows were tested with three types of exterior storm windows: clear glass, low-E glass with high solar heat gain, and low-E glass with lower solar heat gain. The storm windows significantly reduced the overall home air leakage by an average of 17%, or 3.7 ACH50. Considerably high variability in the data made it difficult to draw strong conclusions about the overall energy usage, but for heating periods, the low-E storm windows showed approximately 15% heating energy savings, whereas clear storm windows were neutral in performance. For cooling periods, the low-E storm windows showed a wide range of performance from 2% to over 30% cooling energy savings. Overall, the study showed the potential for significantly more energy savings from using low-E glass versus no storm window or clear glass storm windows in warmer mixed climates, but it is difficult to conclusively say whether one type of low-E performed better than the other. COMMERCIAL CASE STUDIES: (a) A 12-story office building in Philadelphia was retrofitted by adding a double-pane low-E insulating glass unit to the existing single pane windows, to create a triple glazed low-E system. A detailed side-by-side comparison in two pairs of perimeter offices facing north and east showed a 39-60% reduction in heating energy use, a 9-36% reduction in cooling energy use, and a 10% reduction in peak electrical cooling demand. An analysis of utility bills estimated the whole building heating and cooling energy use was reduced by over 25%. Additionally, the retrofit window temperatures were commonly 20 degrees warmer on winter days, and 10-20 degrees cooler on summer days, leading to increased occupant comfort. (b) Two large 4-story office buildings in New Jersey were retrofitted with a similar system, but using two low-E coatings in the retrofit system. The energy savings are being monitored by a separate GPIC project; this work quantified the changes in glass surface temperatures, thermal comfort, and potential glass thermal stress. The low-E retrofit panels greatly reduced daily variations in the interior window surface temperatures, lowering the maximum temperature and raising the minimum temperature by over 20F compared to the original single pane windows with window film. The number of hours of potential thermal discomfort, as measured by deviation between mean radiant temperature and ambient air temperature by more than 3F, were reduced by 93 percent on the south orientation and over two-thirds on the west orientation. Overall, the low-E retrofit led to substantially improved occupant comfort with less periods of both overheating and feeling cold. (c) No significant thermal stress was observed in the New Jersey office building test window when using the low-E retrofit system over a variety of weather conditions. The surface temperature difference only exceeded 10F (500 psi thermal stress) for less than 1.5% of the monitored time, and in all cases, the maximum surface temperature difference never exceeded 35F (1,75

  20. ORNL 'deep retrofits' can cut home energy bills in half

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    of the costs--about $10 per square foot of living space--and agree to allow their post-retrofit energyORNL 'deep retrofits' can cut home energy bills in half November 25, 2009 ORNL's Jeff Christian Ridge National Laboratory has announced plans to conduct a series of deep energy retrofit research

  1. ORNL 'deep retrofits' can cut home energy bills in half

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    . Deep energy retrofits are renovations to existing structures that use the latest in energyORNL 'deep retrofits' can cut home energy bills in half November 25, 2009 ORNL's Jeff Christian Ridge National Laboratory has announced plans to conduct a series of deep energy retrofit research

  2. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Cascade Apartments- Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington, which resulted in annual energy cost savings of 22%, improved comfort and air quality for residents, and increased durability of the units.

  3. Active flow control in an advanced serpentine jet engine inlet duct 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, Aaron Michael

    2009-05-15

    . This advantage is particularly important in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV?s). A scaling analysis performed by engineers at Lockheed Martin showed that reducing duct length by one duct diameter can decrease the empty weight of UAV?s by 15%1. In typical... on this plumbing could be very difficult. A team of researchers at North Carolina State University designed a bleed air system that added approximately 3% to the empty weight of a scaled UAV designed by NASA and 10 Lockheed Martin17. To cool the bleed air...

  4. Acoustic Modes in a Ducted Shear Flow Gregory Vilenski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Acoustic Modes in a Ducted Shear Flow Gregory Vilenski Sjoerd W. Rienstra Eindhoven University but sheared mean flow inside a duct is considered. For isentropic flow in a circular duct with zero swirl = dimensional inner duct radius d = dimensional outer duct radius = dimensional frequency m = circumferential

  5. Generator stator core vent duct spacer posts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, John Wesley (Schenectady, NY); Tong, Wei (Clifton Park, NY)

    2003-06-24

    Generator stator cores are constructed by stacking many layers of magnetic laminations. Ventilation ducts may be inserted between these layers by inserting spacers into the core stack. The ventilation ducts allow for the passage of cooling gas through the core during operation. The spacers or spacer posts are positioned between groups of the magnetic laminations to define the ventilation ducts. The spacer posts are secured with longitudinal axes thereof substantially parallel to the core axis. With this structure, core tightness can be assured while maximizing ventilation duct cross section for gas flow and minimizing magnetic loss in the spacers.

  6. Increasing Property Value with Energy Saving Practices: Hines Retrofit Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-03-13

    Hines partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  7. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods.

  8. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  9. Retrofit Gloveport Cover and Security Device

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hinckley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    The world of glovebox work in the areas of science and manufacturing is in a consistent state of flux due to the inherent nature of changing missions. These rapidly changing work environments result in almost continuous regulatory changes within the codes and standards in order to maintain worker and environmental safety. Gloveboxes designed and manufactured prior to these regulations are not easy to update or retrofit to accommodate new requirements. In order to meet the challenge of retrofitting gloveboxes to the meet the requirements, the following solutions have been developed.

  10. Experience with 113 Retrofit Insulation Surveys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, W. O.

    1985-01-01

    RETROFIT INSULATION SURVEYS W. O. Webber Energy Conservation Consultants Baytown, Texas ABSTRACT We have surveyed 113 plants for thirteen clie~ts. The results of 21 recent surveys, at today s avera&e fuel price, show an average project scope... generat10n of $151,000 while saving about 5MMBTU/hour with a 72% DCF rate of return. The ~ize of the retrofit project generated, or scope, ~s of course sensitive to the fuel price This is an important consideration because of th~ variability of fuel...

  11. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  12. Experimental evaluation of gas filled plenum (GFP) insulation for ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.; Guillot, Cyril

    2003-01-01

    It is possible that the short duct runs and multiple joints,to greater mixing in actual duct installations in houses,Tout, c/l (°F) Tin, 25mm from duct wall (°C) One heater Tin,

  13. PKA Mediates Constitutive Activation of CFTR in Human Sweat Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, M. M.; Quinton, P. M.

    2009-01-01

    al. 1992), not only in sweat ducts but also in M. M. Reddy,Basal CFTR Activity in Sweat Duct Fig. 6 Effect of cytosolicBasal CFTR Activity in Sweat Duct Fig. 9 Effect of cytosolic

  14. Images in Emergency Medicine: Infected Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deaver, Mark J; Silman, Eric F.; Lotfipour, Shahram

    2009-01-01

    Som P. CT of Thyroglossal Duct Cysts. Radiology. 1985; 157:edicine Infected Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Mark J. Deaver, MD,of infected thyroglossal duct cyst was made. The patient was

  15. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  16. Viscous Flow in Ducts We want to study the viscous flow in ducts with various velocities, fluids and duct shapes. The basic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Viscous Flow in Ducts We want to study the viscous flow in ducts with various velocities, fluids and duct shapes. The basic problem is this: Given the pipe geometry and its added components (e Fluid Mechanics (S 09) Viscous Flow in Ducts 2 103

  17. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  18. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  19. Evaluation of a New Ramping Technique for Duct Leakage Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LBNL-61743 Evaluation of a New Ramping Technique for Duct Leakage Testing Iain S. Walker ramping Technique for Duct Leakage Testing Table of contents Introduction

  20. Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building...

  1. Deep Energy Retrofits - Eleven California Case Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2014-01-01

    heat pump water heater is the obvious finishing touch for this retrofit; a PVheat pump and has fairly high plug and lighting loads. Both homes have solar PVheat pump across seasons, as well as the large miscellaneous uses in the home. The PV

  2. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods. While the unvented crawlspace retrofit was effective in reducing heat loss, and the majority of the bulk water drainage problems had been resolved, the important finding was that some of the wood joists embedded in masonry pockets behind the brick veneer were showing signs of moisture damage.

  3. Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Barker, G.; Hancock, C. E.

    2014-06-01

    The Greenbuilt house, is an all-electric, 1980's era home in the eastern Sacramento suburb of Fair Oaks that was retrofit by Greenbuilt Construction as part of Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration (EERD) Program. The project was a joint effort between the design-build team at Greenbuilt Construction, led by Jim Bayless, SMUD and their project manager Mike Keesee, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration program is to work with local builders to renovate homes with cost-effective energy efficient retrofit measures. The homes remodeled under the EERD program are intended to showcase energy efficient retrofit options for homeowners and other builders. The Greenbuilt house is one of five EERD projects that NREL has supported. NREL's main role in these projects is to provide energy analysis and to monitor the home's performance after the retrofit to verify that the energy consumption is in line with the modeling predictions. NREL also performed detailed monitoring on the more innovative equipment included in these remodels, such as an add-on heat pump water heater.

  4. Phillip Burton Federal Building EMCS Retrofit Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology and Community Systems, and the Federal Energy Management protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet

  5. A COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A DUCTED FAN USED IN VTOL UAV SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    diameter ducted fan. They have concentrated on the performance of ducted fan VTOL vehicles in crosswind

  6. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity of 0.5. Over the range from 0.5 to 4.5 cm the shock KE is attenuated by a factor of {approx}70, while its momentum is changed little. The shock and particle velocity falls by a factor of 200 while the mass increases by a factor of 730. In the limit of very porous media u {approx} 1/M, so KE {approx} 1/M, which falls by a factor of {approx}600, while momentum Mu does not change at all. Figure 2 shows the KE, Mu, u, and M for a material with a porosity of 1.05, for which the KE changes little. In the limit of media of very low porosity, u {approx} 1/{radical}M, so KE is constant while Mu {approx} {radical}M, which increases by a factor of 15. Thus, if the goal is to reduce the peak pressure from strong explosions below, very porous materials, which strongly reduce pressure but do not increase momentum, are preferred to non-porous materials, which amplify momentum but do not decrease pressure. These predictions are in qualitative accord with the results of experiments at Los Alamos in which projectiles from high velocity, large caliber cannons were stopped by one to two sandbags. The studies were performed primarily to determine the effectiveness of sand in stopping fragments of various sizes, but could be extended to study sand's effectiveness in attenuating blast pressure. It would also be useful to test the above predictions on the effectiveness of media with higher porosity. Water barriers have been discussed but not deployed in previous retrofit survivability studies for overseas embassies. They would detect the flash from the mine detonation below, trigger a thin layer of explosive above a layer of water, and drive water droplets into the approaching blast wave. The blast loses energy in evaporating the droplets and loses momentum in slowing them. Under favorable conditions that could attenuate the pressure in the blast enough to prevent the penetration or disruption of the vehicle. However, such barriers would depend on prompt and reliable detonation detection and water droplet dispersal, which have not been tested. There is a large literature on the theoretical effec

  7. Retrofit for Plastic Resin Driers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.; Thuro, G.

    1991-01-01

    is not significant. The drying air is also recirculated. 28 ESL-IE-91-06-06 Proceedings from the 13th National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, June 12-13, 1991 o During regeneration ambient air is drawn in and heated. This airstream is sent... for regeneration causes constraints. So a controller with the following algorithm was developed. 4 ...1'1. 8p.I'JII. ep.m. ClOCK ........ '.~ ,..,.,..,. ,,CTc~n .. ReG "'0 '" .,., .,,, C'VLJD!fl e ." '""""" Conclusion The best control...

  8. ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

    2013-04-02

    The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

  9. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington, which resulted in annual energy cost savings of 22%, improved comfort and air quality for residents, and increased durability of the units. This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary Building America research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capital improvement funding.

  10. Existing Homes Retrofit Case Study: SMUD's Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Building America worked with SMUD on this 1980s retrofit home to cut energy use by 104 points from a pre-retrofit California HERS score of 182 to a post retrofit score of 78.

  11. Bayesian Analysis of Savings from Retrofit Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, Piljae

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of savings from retrofit projects depend on statistical models, but because of the complicated analysis required to determine the uncertainty of the estimates, savings uncertainty is not often considered. Numerous simplified methods have been proposed to determine savings uncertainty, but in all but the simplest cases, these methods provide approximate results only. The objective of this paper is to show that Bayesian inference provides a consistent framework for estimating savings and savings uncertainty in retrofit projects. We review the mathematical background of Bayesian inference and Bayesian regression, and present two examples of estimating savings and savings uncertainty in retrofit projects. The first is a simple case where both baseline and post-retrofit monthly natural gas use can be modeled as a linear function of monthly heating degree days. The Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO 2007) defines two methods of determining savings in such cases: reporting period savings, which is an estimate of the savings during the post-retrofit period; and normalized savings, which is an estimate of the savings that would be obtained during a typical year at the project site. For reporting period savings, classical statistical analysis provides exact analytic results for both savings and savings uncertainty in this case. We use Bayesian analysis to calculate reporting period savings and savings uncertainty and show that the results are identical to the analytical results. For normalized savings, the literature contains no exact expression for the uncertainty of normalized savings; we use Bayesian inference to calculate this quantity for the first time, and compare it with the result of an approximate formula that has been proposed. The second example concerns a problem where the baseline data exhibit nonlinearity and serial autocorrelation, both of which are common in real-world retrofit projects. No analytical solutions exist to determine savings or savings uncertainty in this situation, but several simplified formulas have been proposed. We model the data using a 5-parameter model with first-order autoregressive errors, and use Bayesian inference to develop distributions for the model parameters and for the reporting period savings, which allows us to determine the savings uncertainty. We find the energy savings to be about 5% lower than the result obtained by ignoring the autocorrelation. In addition, the Bayesian analysis finds the savings uncertainty to be narrower than the approximate uncertainty calculated using the simplified formula. These results show that Bayesian inference can be used to determine savings and savings uncertainty for a wide variety of real-world problems.

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Family Deep Energy Retrofit Performance in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    The current state of Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) performance in the U.S. has been assessed in 116 homes in the United States, using actual and simulated data gathered from the available domestic literature. Substantial airtightness reductions averaging 63% (n=48) were reported (two- to three-times more than in conventional retrofits), with average post-retrofit airtightness of 4.7 Air Changes per House at 50 Pascal (ACH50) (n=94). Yet, mechanical ventilation was not installed consistently. In order to avoid indoor air quality (IAQ) issues, all future DERs should comply with ASHRAE 62.2-2013 requirements or equivalent. Projects generally achieved good energy results, with average annual net-site and net-source energy savings of 47%±20% and 45%±24% (n=57 and n=35), respectively, and carbon emission reductions of 47%±22% (n=23). Net-energy reductions did not vary reliably with house age, airtightness, or reported project costs, but pre-retrofit energy usage was correlated with total reductions (MMBtu).

  13. POSTER: Duct tracking in 3D medical data Martin Petrcek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelikan, Josef

    POSTER: Duct tracking in 3D medical data Martin Petrícek Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Charles 2, 180 81 Praha 8 - Liben Czech Republic martin.horak@volny.cz ABSTRACT Implementing duct tracking interaction when selecting duct branches of interest or correcting possible mistakes in duct path segmentation

  14. Numerical Study of Acoustic Modes in Ducted Shear Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rienstra, Sjoerd W.

    Numerical Study of Acoustic Modes in Ducted Shear Flow Gregory G. Vilenski & Sjoerd W. Rienstra mean flow inside a duct is studied numerically. For isentropic flow in a circular duct with zero swirl 26, 2007 #12;1 Introduction Normal mode analysis of small-amplitude disturbances in an annular duct

  15. Retrofit California Overview and Final Reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choy, Howard; Rosales, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (also called upgrades) are widely recognized as a critical component to achieving energy savings in the building sector to help lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, however, upgrades have accounted for only a small percentage of aggregate energy savings in building stock, both in California and nationally. Although the measures and technologies to retrofit a building to become energy efficient are readily deployed, establishing this model as a standard practice remains elusive. Retrofit California sought to develop and test new program models to increase participation in the energy upgrade market in California. The Program encompassed 24 pilot projects, conducted between 2010 and mid-2013 and funded through a $30 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The broad scope of the Program can be seen in the involvement of the following regionally based Grant Partners: Los Angeles County (as prime grantee); Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), consisting of: o StopWaste.org for Alameda County o Regional Climate Protection Authority (RCPA) for Sonoma County o SF Environment for the City and County of San Francisco o City of San Jose; California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE) for the San Diego region; Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD). Within these jurisdictions, nine different types of pilots were tested with the common goal of identifying, informing, and educating the people most likely to undertake energy upgrades (both homeowners and contractors), and to provide them with incentives and resources to facilitate the process. Despite its limited duration, Retrofit California undoubtedly succeeded in increasing awareness and education among home and property owners, as well as contractors, realtors, and community leaders. However, program results indicate that a longer timeframe will be needed to transform the market and establish energy retrofits as the new paradigm. Innovations such as Flex Path, which came about because of barriers encountered during the Program, have already shown promise and are enabling increased participation. Together, the pilots represent an unprecedented effort to identify and address market barriers to energy efficiency upgrades and to provide lessons learned to shape future program planning and implementation. The statistics reflects the scope of the marketing and outreach campaigns, which tested a variety of approaches to increase understanding of the benefits of energy upgrades to drive participation in the Program. More traditional methods such as TV and radio advertisements were complimented by innovative community based social marketing campaigns that sought to leverage the trusted status of neighborhood organizations and leaders in order to motivate their constituents to undertake retrofits. The remainder of this report provides an overview of Retrofit California including brief summaries of the pilots’ main components and highlights, followed by the major findings or takeaway lessons from the approaches that were tested. Eleven of the pilots will be continued, with modifications, under the ratepayer-funded Regional Energy Networks. Involvement in the RENS by many of the Retrofit California partners will ensure that early lessons learned are carried forward to guide future programs for energy upgrades in California.

  16. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  17. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  18. Cost-Effective Wall Retrofit Solution for the Interior Side of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the Interior Side of Building's Exterior Wall that Supports a Phased Retrofit Cost Model - 2014 BTO Peer Review Cost-Effective Wall Retrofit Solution for the Interior...

  19. Integrating Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits in Apartments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01

    in US multifamily buildings: Energy savings, costs, andeconomics." Energy 13(11): 797-811. Haas, R. , H. Auer andbenefits of apartment energy retrofits." Building and

  20. Residential photovoltaic worth : an assessment of retrofit vs. new construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper characterizes the basic differences between photovoltaic retrofit and new construction applications. It quantifies the tradeoffs forced by rooftop area constraints, special array mounting costs, maintenance ...

  1. Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  2. Conway Street Apartments: A Multifamily Deep Energy Retrofit...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CONSORTIUM FOR ADVANCED RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS; MULTIFAMILY; RETROFIT; ZERO ENERGY; SOLAR THERMAL; DRAIN WATER RECOVERY SYSTEM; DEMAND-CONTROLLED RECIRCULATION SYSTEM; BRICK;...

  3. Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies K. Ueno and R. Van Straaten Building Science Corporation (BSC) February 2012 ii NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of...

  4. Building America Webinar: Deep Energy Retrofit Case Studies:...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    & Publications Building America Webinar: Introduction - Who's Successfully Doing Deep Energy Retrofits? Critical Question 8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution?...

  5. CBEI: Demonstrating On-Bill Financing to Encourage Deep Retrofits...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financing to Encourage Deep Retrofits - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Rudy Terry, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corp. View the Presentation CBEI: Demonstrating On-Bill...

  6. Designing Effective Incentives to Drive Residential Retrofit Program Participation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar covered retrofit program incentive contests, decision points to consider when designing an incentive program, and examples of incentive structures.

  7. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Existing Homes Building America Case Study Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: The...

  8. Mode propagation and attenuation in lined ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BI, Wenping

    2014-01-01

    Optimal impedance for each mode is an important concept in an infinitely long duct lined with uniform absorption material. However it is not valid for finite length linings. This is because that the modes in lined ducts are not power-orthogonal; the total sound power is not equal to the sum of the sound power of each mode; cross-power terms may play important roles. In this paper, we study sound propagation and attenuation in an infinite rigid duct lined with a finite length of lining impedance. The lining impedance may be axial segments and circumferentially non-uniform. We propose two new physical quantities Kp and S to describe the self-overlap of the left eigenfunction and right eigenfunction of one mode and the normalized overlap between modes, respectively. The two new physical quantities describe totally the mode behaviors in lined ducts.

  9. Achieving Airtight Ducts in Manufactured Housing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIlvaine, J.; Beal, D.; Moyer, N.; Chasar, D.; Chandra, S.

    2004-01-01

    This Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) study, conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP), compares mastic sealed duct systems to tape ...

  10. Decision analysis for seismic retrofit of structures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Ryan J.

    2009-05-15

    as well as the seismic hazard at a specific building location is incorporated into the decision-making process. The prescribed methodology is used to study two identical reinforced concrete buildings, one located in Memphis, Tennessee and one in San... in the NMFZ compared to that in California as well as human bias in the decision-making process, a quantitative measure of the economic costs and benefits of seismic retrofitting that considers the probability of occurrence of seismic events is necessary...

  11. Acoustic imaging of a duct spinning mode by the use of an in-duct circular microphone array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xun

    Acoustic imaging of a duct spinning mode by the use of an in-duct circular microphone array Qingkai 2013) An imaging method of acoustic spinning modes propagating within a circular duct simply in a theoretical way and is demonstrated by a numerical simulation case. Nowadays, the measurements within a duct

  12. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  13. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, Kerrie; Hannigan, Eileen

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results-program cost and energy savings-to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  14. Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

    2010-01-01

    minimizing the use of air-conditioning – A research reportComfort without air -conditioning in refurbished offices –projects. Whether air conditioning is being reduced or

  15. An engine air-brake integration study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulchandani, Hiten

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of operating an engine air-brake (EAB) integrated with a pylon duct bifurcation in a realistic aircraft engine environment has been analyzed. The EAB uses variable exit guide vanes downstream of a high ...

  16. Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4. 1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Babcock Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

  17. Pancreatic duct replication is increased with obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, A. E.; Galasso, R.; Matveyenko, A.; Rizza, R. A.; Dry, S.; Butler, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    1556-8 ARTICLE Pancreatic duct replication is increased withwe noted increased exocrine duct replication. This is aafter immunostaining for the duct cell marker cytokeratin

  18. Statistical maritime radar duct estimation using hybrid genetic algorithm-Markov chain Monte Carlo method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Estimating evaporation duct heights from radar sea echo,”Estimation of surface-based duct parameters from surfaceapplication of an evaporation duct model,” Radio Science,

  19. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-01-01

    of Particles in Vertical Ducts with Smooth and RoughDeposition in Ventilation Ducts, Ph. D. Dissertation,Applicability to Ventilation Ducts in Commercial Buildings,

  20. A systems approach to retrofitting residential HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, J.A.; Walker, I.S.

    2004-05-01

    A Best Practices Guide for retrofitting residential HVAC systems has recently been completed by DOE. The guide uses diagnostics and checklists to guide the user to specific retrofit packages that maximize retrofit energy savings, comfort and safety potential. The guide uses a systems approach to retrofitting where the interaction of different building components is considered throughout the retrofit selection process. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC systems can be used. In this study, several houses were surveyed using the Best Practices Guide and a single house was selected for retrofitting. The objectives were to demonstrate how a successful system-wide retrofit can be carried out and to provide feedback to improve the guide. Because it represents a departure from current practice, a key aspect of this study was to investigate the interactions with contractors and code officials who are unfamiliar with the systems approach. The study found that the major barrier to the systems approach in retrofits was in changing the working practices of contractors and code officials.

  1. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Wireless Sensors Improve Data Center Efficiency...

  2. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers(JournalatBaBar (Thesis/Dissertation) |

  3. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers(JournalatBaBar (Thesis/Dissertation) |(Technical Report) |

  4. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs Search USAJobs SearchWater-SavingofCode |DepartmentVampire

  5. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedofDepartmentVOICES of Experience955

  6. Designing Effective Incentives to Drive Residential Retrofit Program Participation (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transcript of the webinar, "Designing Effective Incentives to Drive Residential Retrofit Program Participation."

  7. Measure Guideline. Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks.

  8. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.A. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)); Durham, M.D. (ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)); Sowa, W.A. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Combustion Lab.); Himes, R.M. (Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)); Mahaffey, W.A. (CHAM of North America, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States))

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  9. Duct Leakage Impacts on VAV System Performance in California Large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-53605 Duct Leakage Impacts on VAV System Performance in California Large Commercial Buildings and for implementing the duct models in a form that could readily be used in this project; and Brian Smith (LBNL

  10. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Buried and Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    In this innovation profile, CARB research shows HVAC ducts that are encapsulated in closed-cell spray foam and buried in blown insulation in a vented attic meet the code requirements for ducts in conditioned space.

  11. Minimizing Energy Losses in Ducts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is critical. In recent years, energy-saving designs have sought to include ducts and heating systems in the conditioned space. Many existing duct systems lose a lot of energy...

  12. INFILTRATION MEASUREMENTS IN AUDIT AND RETROFIT PROGRAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    efficiency, checks water and air-temperature settings, andauditor repairs air leaks, installs water-heater insulation,air filter, calibrates the with the permission of the homeowner, thermostat and, installs a low-flow showerhead and resets the water-

  13. Potential Flow Calculations of Axisymmetric Ducted Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widnall, Sheila

    2009-09-02

    An incompressible potential-flow vortex method has been constructed to analyze the flow field of a ducted

  14. A ``NEW'' APPROACH TO ACTIVE NOISE CONTROL IN DUCTS 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    A ``NEW'' APPROACH TO ACTIVE NOISE CONTROL IN DUCTS 1 Prashant Mehta 2 , Yuan Zheng 3 , Yossi Chait consider the fixed­filter design ap­ proach for active noise control (ANC) in ducts. Based on a large body.e., a duct equipped with both feedforward and feedback sensors and a control speaker. Our design of a linear

  15. LBNL-41434. CAN DUCT-TAPE TAKE THE HEAT?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-41434. 1 CAN DUCT-TAPE TAKE THE HEAT? Max Sherman Iain Walker Energy Performance of Buildings Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections

  16. Clutter-Based Evaporation Duct Estimation Performance Using Meteorological Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Clutter-Based Evaporation Duct Estimation Performance Using Meteorological Statistics Caglar Yardim in different regions of the world with varying duct strengths and statistics. The performance of evaporation duct estimation is investigated in littoral zones such as the North Sea, Wallops Island, Coast

  17. Cuton, cutoff transition of sound in slowly varying flow ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Cut­on, cut­off transition of sound in slowly varying flow ducts Sjoerd W. Rienstra 19­walled duct with irrotational isentropic mean flow is studied. The usual turning point behaviour was found. 1 Introduction The exact multiple scale solution for sound propagation in a slowly varying lined flow duct

  18. DOUBLE DUCTED FAN (DDF) Cengiz Camci and Ali Akturk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    DOUBLE DUCTED FAN (DDF) By Cengiz Camci and Ali Akturk A technology description document a novel ducted fan inlet flow conditioning concept that will significantly improve the performance" and many other ducted fan based systems. The new concept that will significantly reduce the inlet lip

  19. SOUND PROPAGATION IN SLOWLY VARYING LINED FLOW DUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    SOUND PROPAGATION IN SLOWLY VARYING LINED FLOW DUCTS OF ARBITRARY CROSS SECTION S.W. Rienstra.w.rienstra@tue.nl November 20, 2002 Abstract Sound transmission through ducts of constant cross section with a uniform expansion, where the modes are eigenfunctions of the corresponding Laplace eigenvalue problem along a duct

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A Mathematical Model of the Pancreatic Duct Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ermentrout, G. Bard

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE A Mathematical Model of the Pancreatic Duct Cell Generating High Bicarbonate a simple, physiologically based mathemati- cal model of pancreatic duct cell secretion using experimentally CFTR activation. Methods: A new mathematical model was developed simulating a duct cell within

  1. Improved Wireless Performance from Mode Scattering in Ventilation Ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Improved Wireless Performance from Mode Scattering in Ventilation Ducts Benjamin E. Henty, PA 15230. henty@eirp.org and stancil@cmu.edu Abstract Ventilation ducts are a convenient undesirable in a ven- tilation duct setting. With this in mind we investigate the mode scattering effects

  2. Nucleonic analysis of the ETF neutral-beam-injector-duct and vacuum-pumping-duct shields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, W.T.; Seed, T.J.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    A nucleonic analysis of the Engineering Test Facility neutral-beam-injector-duct and vacuum-pumping-duct shields has been made using a hybrid Monte Carlo/discrete-ordinates method. This method used Monte Carlo to determine internal and external boundary surface sources for subsequent discrete-ordinates calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray transport through the shields. Confidence was provided in both the hybrid method and the results obtained through a comparison with three-dimensional Monte Carlo results. Also determined in the analysis were the energy and angular distributions of neutrons and gamma rays entering the neutral-beam-injector duct from the toroidal plasma chamber, as well as exiting the duct into the neutral-beam-injector chamber. In addition, the energy and angular distributions of neutrons entering the vacuum-pumping chamber were determined.

  3. LBNL -53547 Advanced Duct Sealant Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs: Philip Spartz PIER Program Area: Buildings End Use Energy Efficiency PIER Program Area Lead: Nancy contributes to the Buildings End-Use Energy Efficiency program. 4 #12;Executive Summary Duct leakage has been

  4. Procedure and Application for Determining the Cold Deck and Hot Deck Airflow in a Dual-Duct System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Mingsheng, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative method to determine the cold and hot airflow through a dual-duct variable air volume (VAV) system. The actual building load can be identified based on the calculated airflow and temperature for both the cold...

  5. Comparative Testing of the Combined Radiant Barrier and Duct Models in the ESL's Code-Compliant Simulation Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, S.; Haberl, J. S.

    2007-07-10

    model and the EnergyGauge program by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying duct insulation level, supply duct area, return duct area, supply duct leakage, return duct leakage, and ceiling insulation levels...

  6. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code Rudd, A.; Prahl, D. 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS; AIRTIGHTNESS;...

  7. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technologies Office Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS; AIRTIGHTNESS;...

  8. Willow firing in retrofitted Irish peat plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broek, R. van den; Faaij, A.; Kent, T.

    1995-11-01

    Interest in biomass electricity in Ireland is being re-awakened by environmental concerns about CO{sub 2} emissions from power generation and the potential of biomass production to provide an alternative agricultural enterprise. The technical and economical feasibility of wood-fuelled power production using willow from energy farming in existing peat-fired plants in Ireland is being studied within the framework of the EU JOULE II+ programme. These options are compared with new combustion plants and a biomass integrated gasifier with combined cycle (BIG/CC). Background studies supplied data for yields of willow farming, establishment of willow plantations, harvesting methods, logistics and costs and efficiencies for different retrofit options at Irish peat plants. All technologies considered are currently available or are expected to be available in the near future. Neither agricultural subsidies nor possible CO{sub 2} taxes have been included. In the least cost supply scenario storage and chipping of wood is done at the power station. In this case wood is only stored in the form of sticks and wood harvested by a chips harvester is supplied to the plant directly during the harvesting season. Fuel costs at the plant gate were estimated between 3.3 and 11 EGU/GJ{sub LHV}. This wide range resulted in a wide range of kWh costs. For the lowest cost option they ranged between 5.4 and 15 ECUcents/kWh. The cheapest proven retrofit option is the conversion of the existing milled peat Lanesborough unit 3 into a bubbling fluidized bed with kWh costs ranging from 5.6 up to 16 ECUcents/kWh. For this plant, costs per tonne of avoided CO{sub 2} emissions varied between 1 and 70 ECU. It is noteworthy that the kWh costs for all options considered were very close. Especially in the high costs scenario a BIG/CC appeared to have lower kWh cost than all biomass combustion plants. Mainly for the retrofitted plants the fuel costs were by far the largest kWh cost component.

  9. Global evaluation of mass transfer effects: In-duct injection flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.A.; Newton, G.H.; Kramlich, J.C.; Payne, R.

    1990-09-30

    Sorbent injection is a low capital cost, low operating cost approach to SO{sub 2} control targeted primarily at older boilers for which conventional fuel gas desulfurization is not economically viable. Duct injection is one variation of this concept in which the sorbent, either a dry powder or a slurry, is injected into the cooler regions of the boiler, generally downstream of the air heaters. The attractiveness of duct injection is tied to the fact that it avoids much of the boiler heat transfer equipment and thus has minimal impact of boiler performance. Both capital and operating cost are low. This program has as its objectives three performance related issues to address: (1) experimentally identify limits on sorbent performance. (2) identify and test sorbent performance enhancement strategies. (3) develop a compute model of the duct injection process. Two major tasks are described: a laboratory-scale global experiment and development of process model. Both are aimed at understanding and quantifying the rate-limiting processes which control SO{sub 2} capture by lime slurry during boiler duct injection. 29 refs., 35 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. DOE Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost, webinar-based training on Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings. The webinar will focus on improving the...

  11. Pinch Retrofits Provide Cost-Effective Plant Uprating Potential 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossiter, A. P.; Spriggs, H. D.; McMullan, A. S.

    1989-01-01

    In today's economic environment, the need for increased production rivals the desire for energy efficiency for plant operators in many sectors of the process industries. This, in turn, places additional demands on the retrofit studies that are being...

  12. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  13. DOE Webinar - Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-12-14

    This presentation was given December 14, 2010, as part of DOE's Webinar series. The presentation discusses geothermal heat pump retrofits, technology options, and an overview of geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps.

  14. An Overview of the Building Energy Retrofit Research Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mixon, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    four national laboratories, Princeton University, and the Alliance to Save Energy in cooperation with a large number of state, utility, and local agencies. The remaining potential for energy savings from cost effective retrofit measures in existing...

  15. Emission Control Systems and Components for Retrofit and First...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2004deeredgar.pdf More Documents & Publications Development and Deployment of Advanced Emission Controls for the Retrofit Market Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for...

  16. Retrofit of Existing Residential Building: a Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, L.; Xu, W.; Li, L.; Gao, G.

    2006-01-01

    retrofit of the envelope of existing residential buildings should be placed on the wall in northern region. It is possible to reduce about 50 percent of energy consumption of buildings by insulating the wall. The external insulation is suitable...

  17. Tillamook County PUD- Dairy Lighting Retrofit Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tillamook PUD offers the Dairy Lighting Retrofit Program for its agricultural members to save energy on lighting in eligible barns/facilities. Tillamook PUD completes a lighting audit of the...

  18. Applications of sustainable technology to retrofits in urban areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Paki (Paki A.), 1974-

    2001-01-01

    Energy Losses from old buildings comprise a significant percentage of the total residential energy consumption in the United States. Retrofitting buildings for conservation can greatly decrease the present energy demand ...

  19. The retrofitting of existing buildings for seismic criteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Besing, Christa, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the process for retrofitting a building for seismic criteria. It explains the need for a new, performance-based design code to provide a range of acceptable building behavior. It then outlines the ...

  20. Retrofitting Existing Buildings for Demand Response & Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Retrofitting Existing Buildings for Demand Response & Energy Efficiency www rate periods to avoid high charges. · Assembly Bill 1103 ­ Building Energy Efficiency Disclosure - Starting January 1, 2010, all commercial building lease transactions must disclose the energy efficiency

  1. Retrofitting the Southeast. The Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings research team has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home that was unveiled at the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show on Feb. 9, 2012, in Orlando, FL. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This report describes the deep energy retrofit of the Cool Energy House (CEH), which began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  2. Retrofitting the Southeast: The Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home in connection with the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This project, which was unveiled at the 2012 International Builders Show in Orlando on February 9, is the deep energy retrofit Cool Energy House (CEH). The CEH began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  3. Performance Evaluation of a Retrofit Industrial Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    , and paper mill in the Gulf Coast. In most cases the software to perform these analyses can be used at no charge by contacting the local electrical utility that serves your plant. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A RETROFIT INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP Joseph R. Wagner... Mechanical Technology Inc. Latham, NY This paper discusses the performance and economics of a mechanical vapor com? pression (MVC) heat pump that was retrofitted to a single-effect, recirculating? type evaporator. The evaporator is used for reducing...

  4. Retrofit Incentives for Multifamily Buildings | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A WholesaleRetrofit Existing Buildings Retrofit

  5. Low NO{sub x} combustion system with DSVS{trademark} rotating classifier retrofit for a 630 MW{sub e} cell burner unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryk, S.A.; Maringo, G.J.; Shah, A.I. [Babcock and Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States); Madden, V.F. [New England Power, Westborough, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    New England Power Company`s (NEP) 630 MW{sub e} Brayton Point Unit 3 is a universal pressure (UP) type supercritical boiler originally equipped with pulverized coal (PC) fired cell burners. In order to comply with the Phase 1 NO{sub x} emissions requirements under Title I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the unit has been retrofitted with a low NO{sub x} staged combustion system during the spring 1995 outage. The unit was restarted in early May 1995 and was operating under the State Compliance emission levels by the end of the month. Additional optimization testing was performed in August, 1995. The retrofit scope consisted of replacing the cell burners with low NO{sub x} DRB-XCL{reg_sign} type PC/oil burners and overfire air ports within the existing open windbox, with no change in the firing pattern. A 70% NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels was achieved while maintaining acceptable unburned carbon (UBC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels. To maintain low UBC levels, the scope included modifying the MPS-89 pulverizers by replacing the existing stationary classifiers with the B and W DSVS{trademark} (Dynamically Staged Variable Speed) two stage rotating classifiers. The DSVS{trademark} classifiers provide higher fineness for UBC control without derating the mill capacity. This paper will describe the project and discuss the retrofit emissions data. The paper will conclude with recommendations for retrofitting other similarly designed units.

  6. Retrofit of a Multifamily Mass Masonry Building in New England

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

    2013-08-01

    Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) has partnered with Building Science Corporation to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums. The research performed for this project provides information regarding advanced retrofit packages for multi-family masonry buildings in Cold climates. In particular, this project demonstrates safe, durable, and cost-effective solutions that will potentially benefit millions of multi-family brick buildings throughout the East Coast and Midwest (Cold climates). The retrofit packages provide insight on the opportunities for and constraints on retrofitting multifamily buildings with ambitious energy performance goals but a limited budget. The condominium conversion project will contribute to several areas of research on enclosures, space conditioning, and water heating. Enclosure items include insulation of mass masonry building on the interior, airtightness of these types of retrofits, multi-unit building compartmentalization, window selection, and roof insulation strategies. Mechanical system items include combined hydronic and space heating systems with hydronic distribution in small (low load) units, and ventilation system retrofits for multifamily buildings.

  7. PORST: a computer code to analyze the performance of retrofitted steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.; Hwang, I.T.

    1980-09-01

    The computer code PORST was developed to analyze the performance of a retrofitted steam turbine that is converted from a single generating to a cogenerating unit for purposes of district heating. Two retrofit schemes are considered: one converts a condensing turbine to a backpressure unit; the other allows the crossover extraction of steam between turbine cylinders. The code can analyze the performance of a turbine operating at: (1) valve-wide-open condition before retrofit, (2) partial load before retrofit, (3) valve-wide-open after retrofit, and (4) partial load after retrofit.

  8. Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Energy Efficiency Office Best Practice Programme) conducted a series of studies on methods for avoiding new air-conditioning.

  9. Research on Commercial Patterns of China Existing Building Energy Retrofit Based on Energy Management Contract 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Z.; Liu, C.; Sun, J.

    2006-01-01

    Existing building energy retrofit is one of the keys of building energy efficiency in China. According to experience in developed countries, implementation of energy management contract (EMC) is crucial to promote existing building energy retrofit...

  10. Effects of Catalysts on Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Retrofits...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts on Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Retrofits for PM and NOX Control Effects of Catalysts on Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Retrofits for PM and NOX Control The more...

  11. Microsoft Word - T4_VEIC_TO2_ Sub3_Residential Retrofit Program...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Microsoft Word - T4VEICTO2 Sub3Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide Play BookTEAM 4 FINAL.docx Microsoft Word - T4VEICTO2 Sub3Residential Retrofit Program Design...

  12. Housing Stock Characterization Study: An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, P.; Taylor, N.; Kipp, J.

    2012-09-01

    A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.

  13. Housing Stock Characterization Study. An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, P.; Taylor, N.; Kipp, J.

    2012-09-01

    A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.

  14. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofit Transcript

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transcript for a U.S. Department of Energy Webinar on Dec. 14, 2010, about residential geothermal heat pump retrofits

  15. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian Art Museum, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Rosenfeld, S. M.

    2012-06-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, DC.

  16. Existing Homes Retrofit Case Study: SMUD's 32nd Avenue Remodel Demonstration Program, Sacramento, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-03-01

    This case study describes a retrofit project between SMUD and Building America to create a high-performance home.

  17. Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Barker, G.; Hancock, C. E.

    2014-06-01

    The Greenbuilt house is a 1980's era house in the Sacramento area that was a prominent part of Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration Program. The house underwent an extensive remodel, aimed at improving overall energy efficiency with a goal of reducing the home's energy use by 50%. NREL researchers performed a number of tests on the major systems touched by the retrofit to ensure they were working as planned. Additionally, SMUD rented the house from Greenbuilt Construction for a year to allow NREL to perform a number of tests on the cooling system and the water heating system. The goal of the space conditioning tests was to find the best ways to cut cooling loads and shift the summer peak. The water heating system, comprised of an add-on heat pump water heater and an integrated collector-storage solar water heater, was operated with a number of different draw profiles to see how varying hot water draw volume and schedule affected the performance of the system as a whole. All the experiments were performed with the house empty, with a simulated occupancy schedule running in the house to mimic the load imposed by real occupants.

  18. Slagging retrofit pulsed coal combustor: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A concept for a novel form of slagging retrofit pulsed coal combustor was tested in the laboratory. The combustor is based on controlled use of a form of high pressure amplitude combustion instability. The approach adopted was to resolve, in single pulse experiments, the basic technical issues arising in the development of the combustor. In a cold flow device, the issues of coal spatial distribution were addressed and a combustor and solids disperser configuration was developed to give uniform coal distribution in the combustor. Single pulse ignition experiments were conducted to determine the pressure rise in combustor, pressure rise-decay times, and coal conversion a function of various operating variables. Coal injection, flame propagation, and blowdown times leading to potential combustor size reduction of three times over steady flow combustors were demonstrated. The results give high pressure exhaust leading to potentially improved downstream heat transfer and reduced boiler size. Finally, zero-, one-, and two-dimensional mathematical models were developed in support of the experiments and also to provide design capability. 11 refs., 43 figs.

  19. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  20. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  1. Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

    2010-01-01

    and M. Buckley. 1994. Passive Refurbishment of Offices: UKMartin and W. Booth. 1998. Refurbishment of Air-ConditionedTotal Energy Use In Refurbishment – Avoiding the Over-

  2. DOE Challenge Home Technical Training - Ducts in Conditioned...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the U.S. Department of Energy Challenge Home program: Design Options for Locating Ducts within Conditioned Space. challengehometechnicaltraining.pdf More Documents &...

  3. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  4. Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation. There are three possible combinations of BED strategies: (1) buried ducts; (2) encapsulated ducts (with ccSPF); and (3) buried and encapsulated ducts. The best solution for each situation depends on the climate, age of the house, and the configuration of the HVAC system and attic. For new construction projects, the team recommends that ducts be both encapsulated and buried as the minimal planning and costs required for this will yield optimal energy savings. The encapsulated/buried duct strategy, which utilizes ccSPF to address condensation concerns, is an approach that was developed specifically for humid climates.

  5. Flexible metallic seal for transition duct in turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-22

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a flexible metallic seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  6. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  7. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, J.; Bohac, D.; Nelson, C.; Smith, I.

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home’s energy performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Rating systems based on energy performance models, the focus of this report, can establish a home’s achievable energy efficiency potential and provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, although their accuracy needs to be verified by actual measurement or billing data. Ratings can also show homeowners where they stand compared to their neighbors, thus creating social pressure to conform to or surpass others. This project field-tested three different building performance models of varying complexity, in order to assess their value as rating systems in the context of a residential retrofit program: Home Energy Score, SIMPLE, and REM/Rate.

  8. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  9. Numerically-based ducted propeller design using vortex lattice lifting line theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stubblefield, John M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis used vortex lattice lifting line theory to model an axisymmetrical-ducted propeller with no gap between the duct and the propeller. The theory required to model the duct and its interaction with the propeller ...

  10. DEVELOPING FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN STRONGLY CURVED DUCTS OF RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, G.

    2010-01-01

    123. HUMPHREY, J.A.C. , "Flow in Ducts with Curvature andViscous Flow in Curved Ducts of Rectangular Cross-Sections,"Laminar Flow in a Square Duct of Strong Curvature,1I J.

  11. Contributions to the theory of soundpropagation in ducts with bulk-reacting lining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rienstra, Sjoerd W.

    Contributions to the theory of soundpropagation in ducts with bulk-reacting lining S.W. Rienstra interfaceduct/liner modalamplitudeductfield outer radius duct with liner modalamplitudelinerfield wavenumber duct radial wavenumber liner axial wavenumber smallparameter ratioradialpressuregradientsat

  12. Effects of Duct Improvement and ENERGYSTAR Equipment on Comfort and Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL 43723 Effects of Duct Improvement and ENERGYSTAR Equipment on Comfort and Energy Efficiency I................................................................................................................................................ 5 DUCT LEAKAGE AND ENERGYSTAR EQUIPMENT EFFECTS ON COMFORT .................................... 5).......................................................................................................9 Duct leakage by pressurization

  13. Design and development of plugged lactiferous duct treatment technology for nursing women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor, Xochitl L

    2015-01-01

    Plugged lactiferous ducts are a common problem that many nursing women encounter. This occurs when the tissue around a milk duct has become inflamed, thus preventing milk from passing through the duct. Women treat and ...

  14. Pilot Demonstration of Phased Retrofits in Florida Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and Florida Power and Light are pursuing a collaborative energy research/utility partnership to retrofit a large number of homes using a phased approach. The project is creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of home retrofit - simple and deep. Acting as a pilot, this project is expected to provide the information necessary to significantly reduce energy use through much larger community-scale projects in collaboration with utilities, program administrators and other market leader stakeholders.

  15. Evaluation of CNT Energy Savers Retrofit Packages Implemented in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farley, Jenne; Ruch, Russell

    2013-09-01

    This evaluation explored the feasibility of designing prescriptive retrofit measure packages for typical Chicago region multifamily buildings in order to achieve 25%-30% source energy savings through the study of three case studies. There is an urgent need to scale up energy efficiency retrofitting of Chicago's multifamily buildings in order to address rising energy costs and a rapidly depleting rental stock. Aimed at retrofit program administrators and building science professionals, this research project investigates the possibility of using prescriptive retrofit packages as a time- and resource-effective approach to the process of retrofitting multifamily buildings.

  16. Slow sound in lined flow ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auregan, Yves

    2015-01-01

    We consider the acoustic propagation in lined flow duct with a purely reactive impedance at the wall. This reacting liner has the capability to reduce the speed of sound, and thus to enhance the interaction between the acoustic propagation and the low Mach number flow ($M\\simeq0.3$). At the lower frequencies, there are typically 4 acoustic or hydrodynamic propagating modes, with 3 of them propagating in the direction of the flow. Above a critical frequency, there are only 2 propagating modes that all propagate in the direction of the flow. From the exact 2D formulation an approximate 1D model is developed to study the scattering of acoustic waves in a straight duct with varying wall impedance. This simple system, with a uniform flow and with a non-uniform liner impedance at the wall, permits to study the scattering between regions with different waves characteristics. Several situations are characterized to show the importance of negative energy waves, strong interactions between acoustic and hydrodynamic mod...

  17. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    air leakage, duct system, envelope, field study, infiltration, measurement, modeling, simulation of the conditioned spaces. In this study, duct leakage flows were measured in several low-rise apartment buildings in infiltration rates resulting from duct retrofits. The simulation results showed that for the prototype tested

  18. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach, assess the impacts of duct system improvements in California large commercial buildings, over a range of building vintages and climates. This assessment will provide a solid foundation for future efforts that address the energy efficiency of large commercial duct systems in Title 24. This report describes our work to address Objective 1, which includes a review of past modeling efforts related to duct thermal performance, and recommends near- and long-term modeling approaches for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings.

  19. Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4.1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology. Topical report 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

  20. Measurement of flowfield in a simulated solid-propellant ducted rocket combustor using laser Doppler velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, W.H.; Yang, V.; Chuang, C.L.; Yang, A.S.; Cherng, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    A two-component LDV system was used to obtain detailed flow velocity and turbulence measurements in order to study the flow characteristics in a simulated solid-propellant ducted rocket combustor. The vortical structures near the dome region, the size of the recirculation zone, and the location of the reattachment point are all shown to be strongly affected by the jet momentum of both ram air and fuel streams. It is found that the turbulence intensity is anisotropic throughout the front portion of the simulated conbustor, and that the measured Reynolds stress conmponent distribution is well correlated with the local mean velocity vector distribution. 25 refs.

  1. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  2. An actuarial approach to retrofit savings in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subbarao, Krishnappa; Etingov, Pavel V.; Reddy, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    An actuarial method has been developed for determining energy savings from retrofits from energy use data for a number of buildings. This method should be contrasted with the traditional method of using pre- and post-retrofit data on the same building. This method supports the U.S. Department of Energy Building Performance Database of real building performance data and related tools that enable engineering and financial practitioners to evaluate retrofits. The actuarial approach derives, from the database, probability density functions (PDFs) for energy savings from retrofits by creating peer groups for the user’s pre post buildings. From the energy use distribution of the two groups, the savings PDF is derived. This provides the basis for engineering analysis as well as financial risk analysis leading to investment decisions. Several technical issues are addressed: The savings PDF is obtained from the pre- and post-PDF through a convolution. Smoothing using kernel density estimation is applied to make the PDF more realistic. The low data density problem can be mitigated through a neighborhood methodology. Correlations between pre and post buildings are addressed to improve the savings PDF. Sample size effects are addressed through the Kolmogorov--Smirnov tests and quantile-quantile plots.

  3. Analysis of Pre-Retrofit Building and Utility Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Beach, R.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all electric production-built homes was modeled. The homes were in two communities—one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  4. Analysis of Pre-Retrofit Building and Utility Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Beach, R.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all electric production-built homes' was modeled. The homes were in two communities -- one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  5. Whole Foods Market Retrofits Multiple Building Systems for Big Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with U.S. the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in existing stores by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use at its store in Edgewater, New Jersey, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  6. Building America Webinar: Who's Successfully Doing Deep Energy Retrofits?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The webinar on June 25, 2014, focused on specific Building America projects that highlighted real-world examples of deep energy retrofits (DER) that are meeting with technical and market success. Presenters focused on technical strategies, modeled and actual performance results, and project costs.

  7. Building America Webinar: Who's Successfully Doing Deep Energy Retrofits?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The webinar will focus on specific Building America projects and case studies that highlight real-world examples of deep energy retrofits that are meeting with technical and market success. Presenters will focus on technical strategies, modeled and actual performance results, and project costs.

  8. Appraisers Project Plan: Wireless Controls and Retrofit LED Lighting Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Appraisers Project Plan: Wireless Controls and Retrofit LED Lighting Demonstration Measurement and Verification Report This report details the measurement and verification tools and methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of wireless lighting controls and LED lighting at the Appraisers Building, a federal office building in San Francisco, CA.

  9. Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits in Low-Income

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    environmental measurements and collect energy consumption data. Based on analyses of the data collected fromEnergy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits in Low-Income Apartments ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY RESEARCH PIER Environmental Research www.energy.ca.gov/research/environmental August 2011 The Issue

  10. RetrofitNYC Advancing Energy Efficiency in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smerdon, Jason E.

    ) is a New York City (NYC) based, independent non- profit energy efficiency resource center and networkingRetrofitNYC Advancing Energy Efficiency in New York City Multifamily Buildings #12;#12;Foreword. Advancing Energy Efficiency in New York City Multifamily Buildings. By Tan, D., Baxter, M., Leung, E., Meyer

  11. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffiths, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  12. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffiths, Dianne

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  13. Retrofitting America: A 1970s Home Energy Efficiency Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-11-17

    This paper describes a modeling tool that Building America research team CARB developed to identify the energy benefits of various retrofit energy efficiency measures for a typical 1970’s ranch home in ten cities across four climate zones in the United States.

  14. Seismic Retrofitting of RC Frames with RC Infilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seismic Retrofitting of RC Frames with RC Infilling SERIES Workshop: "Role of research infrastructures in seismic rehabilitation" 8 - 9 February 2012, Istanbul, Turkey C. Z. Chrysostomou, N. Kyriakides, P. Kotronis, P. Roussis, M. Poljansek, F. Taucer RC Infilling of Existing RC Structures for Seismic

  15. RetroSkeleton: Retrofitting Android Apps Benjamin Davis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hao

    RetroSkeleton: Retrofitting Android Apps Benjamin Davis University of California, Davis bendavis@ucdavis.edu Hao Chen University of California, Davis chen@ucdavis.edu ABSTRACT An obvious asset of the Android platform. We can leverage the rela- tively uniform nature of Android apps to allow users to tweak appli

  16. Transition to turbulence in duct flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biau, Damien; Bottaro, Alessandro; 10.1017/S0022112007009536

    2010-01-01

    The transition of the flow in a duct of square cross-section is studied. Like in the similar case of the pipe flow, the motion is linearly stable for all Reynolds numbers; this flow is thus a good candidate to investigate the 'bypass' path to turbulence. Initially the so-called 'linear optimal perturbation problem' is formulated and solved, yielding optimal disturbances in the form of longitudinal vortices. Such optimals, however, fail to elicit a significant response from the system in the nonlinear regime. Thus, streamwise-inhomogeneous, sub-optimal disturbances are focussed upon; nonlinear quadratic interactions are immediately evoked by such initial perturbations and an unstable streamwise-homogeneous large amplitude mode rapidly emerges. The subsequent evolution of the flow, at a value of the Reynolds number at the edge between fully developed turbulence and relaminarization, shows the alternance of patterns with two pairs of large scale vortices near opposing parallel walls. Such edge states bear a rese...

  17. Duct Leakage Modeling in EnergyPlus and Analysis of Energy Savings from Implementing SAV with InCITeTM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig; Sherman, Max

    2010-03-01

    This project addressed two significant deficiencies in air-handling systems for large commercial building: duct leakage and duct static pressure reset. Both constitute significant energy reduction opportunities for these buildings. The overall project goal is to bridge the gaps in current duct performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of air-handling system performance in California large commercial buildings. The purpose of this project is to provide technical support for the implementation of a duct leakage modeling capability in EnergyPlus, to demonstrate the capabilities of the new model, and to carry out analyses of field measurements intended to demonstrate the energy saving potential of the SAV with InCITeTM duct static pressure reset (SPR) technology. A new duct leakage model has been successfully implemented in EnergyPlus, which will enable simulation users to assess the impacts of leakage on whole-building energy use and operation in a coupled manner. This feature also provides a foundation to support code change proposals and compliance analyses related to Title 24 where duct leakage is an issue. Our example simulations continue to show that leaky ducts substantially increase fan power: 10percent upstream and 10percent downstream leakage increases supply fan power 30percent on average compared to a tight duct system (2.5percent upstream and 2.5percent downstream leakage). Much of this increase is related to the upstream leakage rather than to the downstream leakage. This does not mean, however, that downstream leakage is unimportant. Our simulations also demonstrate that ceiling heat transfer is a significant effect that needs to be included when assessing the impacts of duct leakage in large commercial buildings. This is not particularly surprising, given that ?ceiling regain? issues have already been included in residential analyses as long as a decade ago (e.g., ASHRAE Standard 152); mainstream simulation programs that are used for large commercial building energy analyses have not had this capability until now. Our analyses of data that we collected during our 2005 tests of the SAV with InCITeTM duct static pressure reset technology show that this technology can substantially reduce fan power (in this case, by about 25 to 30percent). Tempering this assessment, however, is that cooling and heating coil loads were observed to increase or decrease significantly depending on the time window used. Their impact on cooling and heating plant power needs to be addressed in future studies; without translating the coil loads to plant equipment energy use, it is not possible to judge the net impact of this SPR technology on whole-building energy use. If all of the loads had decreased, such a step would not be as necessary.

  18. Energy Savings with Acceptable Indoor Air Quality Through Improved Air Flow Control in Residential Retrofit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Gas Technology Institute—Des Plaines, IL Partners: -- University of Illinois, Urbana IL -- Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, Chicago IL

  19. California Air Resources Board's "California Green Building Strategy"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Air Resources Board's "California Green Building Strategy" Collectively, energy use, as well as the sustainable operation, retrofitting and renovation of existing buildings. Since 1978, when building energy efficiency standards (Title 24, Part 6) were adopted, Californian's have saved more than

  20. A CLASSIFICATION OF DUCT MODES BASED ON SURFACE WAVES Sjoerd W. Rienstra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    A CLASSIFICATION OF DUCT MODES BASED ON SURFACE WAVES Sjoerd W. Rienstra Department of Mathematics For the relatively high frequencies relevant in a turbofan engine duct the modes of a lined sec- tion may be classified in two categories: genuine acoustic 3D duct modes resulting from the finiteness of the duct

  1. Efficient Computation of Spinning Modal Radiation Through an Engine Bypass Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xun

    Efficient Computation of Spinning Modal Radiation Through an Engine Bypass Duct Xun Huang, Xiaoxian out of a duct with flow. The sound propagation inside a generic engine bypass duct, refractions compared on a canonical case of sound propagation out of a semi-infinite duct with flow. Good agreements

  2. A CLASSIFICATION OF DUCT MODES BASED ON SURFACE WAVES Sjoerd W. Rienstra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    A CLASSIFICATION OF DUCT MODES BASED ON SURFACE WAVES Sjoerd W. Rienstra Department of Mathematics For the relatively high frequencies relevant in a turbofan engine duct the modes of a lined sec­ tion may be classified in two categories: genuine acoustic 3D duct modes resulting from the finiteness of the duct

  3. STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR BUOYANCY-OPPOSED FLOWS IN POLOIDAL DUCTS OF THE DCLL BLANKET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR BUOYANCY-OPPOSED FLOWS IN POLOIDAL DUCTS OF THE DCLL BLANKET N. Vetcha, S, the most of heat deposition and tritium breeding occur in the poloidal ducts facing the plasma (front ducts flows in the long poloidal ducts are comparable with or can even dominate over forced flows, thus

  4. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Webinar: Ducts in Conditioned Space

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Challenge Home is a blueprint for zero energy ready homes.  When we make that statement – it’s impossible to justify huge thermal losses from ducts in unconditioned spaces.  That’s why one of...

  5. The Effects of Geometry on Flexible Duct CFD Simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugursal, A.; Culp, C.

    2008-01-01

    dynamics (CFD) simulations allow variable configurations and are emerging as an alternative to laboratory measurements. Issues with the CFD simulations of flexible ducts have been modeling the complex geometry and the computational requirements to complete...

  6. Ducting arrangement for cooling a gas turbine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Morrison, Jay A.

    2015-07-21

    A ducting arrangement (10) for a can annular gas turbine engine, including: a duct (12, 14) disposed between a combustor (16) and a first row of turbine blades and defining a hot gas path (30) therein, the duct (12, 14) having raised geometric features (54) incorporated into an outer surface (80); and a flow sleeve (72) defining a cooling flow path (84) between an inner surface (78) of the flow sleeve (72) and the duct outer surface (80). After a cooling fluid (86) traverses a relatively upstream raised geometric feature (90), the inner surface (78) of the flow sleeve (72) is effective to direct the cooling fluid (86) toward a landing (94) separating the relatively upstream raised geometric feature (90) from a relatively downstream raised geometric feature (94).

  7. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  8. Flow control optimization in a jet engine serpentine inlet duct 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Abhinav

    2009-05-15

    Computational investigations were carried out on an advanced serpentine jet engine inlet duct to understand the development and propagation of secondary flow structures. Computational analysis which went in tandem with experimental investigation...

  9. High-Efficiency Retrofit Lessons for Retail from a SuperTarget: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langner, R.; Deru, M.; Hirsch, A.; Williams, S.

    2013-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnered with Target under the Commercial Building Program to design and implement a retrofit of a SuperTarget in Thornton, CO. The result was a retrofit design that predicted 37% energy savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, and 29% compared to existing (pre-retrofit) store consumption. The largest savings came from energy efficient lighting, energy efficient cooling systems, improved refrigeration, and better control of plug loads.

  10. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  11. Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, K.; Mahle, M.

    2012-03-01

    The City of Meriden Housing Authority (MHA) collaborated with affordable housing developer Jonathon Rose Companies (JRC) to complete a gut renovation of 124 residential units in the Chamberlain Heights retrofit project. The affordable housing community is made up of 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations located on 22 acres within two miles of downtown Meriden, CT. The final post-retrofit analysis showed 40%-45% source energy savings over the existing pre-retrofit conditions.

  12. Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, K.; Mahle, M.

    2012-03-01

    The City of Meriden Housing Authority (MHA) collaborated with affordable housing developer Jonathon Rose Companies (JRC) to complete a gut renovation of 124 residential units in the Chamberlain Heights retrofit project. The affordable housing community is made up of 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations located on 22 acres within two miles of downtown Meriden, CT. The final post-retrofit analysis showed 40-45% source energy savings over the existing pre-retrofit conditions.

  13. Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool, Version 1.1.01 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A WholesaleRetrofit Existing Buildings Retrofit ExistingRetrofit

  14. Test report, air flow control device for 241-SY waste tankventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuck, J.A.

    1997-06-03

    This documents the testing of a passively operated, constant air flow control device for in-duct applications on waste tank ventilation systems in the 50-1000 SCFM range.

  15. Fault detection methods for vapor-compression air conditioners using electrical measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughman, Christopher Reed.

    2008-01-01

    (cont.) This method was experimentally tested and validated on a commercially available air handler and duct system. In the second class of faults studied, liquid refrigerant, rather than vapor, enters the cylinder of a ...

  16. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  17. Lymphoscintigraphic evaluation of the thoracic duct in the canine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Carlos Cintron

    1990-01-01

    LYMPHOSCINTIGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE THORACIC DUCT IN THE CANINE A Thesis by CARLOS CINTRON HODGES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery LYMPHOSCINTIGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE THORACIC DUCT IN THE CANINE A Thesis by CARLOS CINTRON HODGES Approved as to style and content by: H W. Boothe (Chair of Committee) D...

  18. Resource handbook for low-income residential retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, J.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Davis, L.J.; Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of the handbook is to provide technical assistance to state grantees participating in the Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. PILIRR is a demonstration program aimed at identifying innovative, successful approaches to developing public and private support for weatherization of low-income households. The program reflects the basic concept that responsibility for financial support for conservation activities such as low-income residential retrofitting is likely to gradually shift from the DOE to the states and the private sector. In preparing the handbook, PNL staff surveyed over 50 programs that provide assistance to low-income residents. The survey provided information on factors that contribute to successful programs. PNL also studied the winning PILIRR proposals (from the states of Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington) and identified the approaches proposed and the type of information that would be most helpful in implementing these approaches.

  19. Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit , Kent, Washington (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  20. WAVE PROPAGATION in the HOT DUCT of VHTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schultz; Jim C. P. Liou

    2013-07-01

    In VHTR, helium from the reactor vessel is conveyed to a power conversion unit through a hot duct. In a hypothesized Depressurized Conduction Cooldown event where a rupture of the hot duct occurs, pressure waves will be initiated and reverberate in the hot duct. A numerical model is developed to quantify the transients and the helium mass flux through the rupture for such events. The flow path of the helium forms a closed loop but only the hot duct is modeled in this study. The lower plum of the reactor vessel and the steam generator are treated as specified pressure and/or temperature boundary to the hot duct. The model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and on the equations of state for helium. The numerical solution is based on the method of characteristics with specified time intervals with a predictor and corrector algorithm. The rupture sub-model gives reasonable results. Transients induced by ruptures with break area equaling 20%, 10%, and 5% of the duct cross-sectional area are described.

  1. Planning for Climate Change in Low-Impact Development Projects: A Case Study of the Sunset Swales Parking Lot Retrofit in San Francisco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conrad, Esther

    2011-01-01

    3. Swale in Sunset Swales Parking Lot, with ponding water.2007. “Sunset Swales Parking Lot Stormwater Retrofit Projectof the Sunset Swales Parking Lot Retrofit in San Francisco

  2. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database Aimed at Reducing Risk for Residential Retrofit Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Roberts

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a publicly available database of energy retrofit measures containing performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 measures.

  3. Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A text-alternative version of the Building America webinar, Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings held on July 16, 2014.

  4. DOE to Fund up to $454 Million for Retrofit Ramp-Ups in Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    whole-neighborhood building energy retrofits. These will be projects that demonstrate a sustainable business model for providing cost-effective energy upgrades for a large...

  5. Existing Homes Retrofit Case Study: Yakama Nation Housing Authority, Wapato, WA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-01

    This is a Building America fact sheet describing the Yakama Nation Housing Authority's retrofit of 25 homes on the reservation to make them more energy efficient.

  6. Ethnography of Cool Roof Retrofits: The Role of Rebates in the Materials Selection Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazur-Stommen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    you  qualify  for  a  rebate?   Was  that  a  deciding  Retrofits: The Role of Rebates in the Materials Selectionwho   had  received  a  rebate  for  their  cool  roof  

  7. Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool" webcast, held April 3, 2012.

  8. Text-Alternative Version: Using the Street and Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "Using the Street and Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool" webcast, held August 22, 2013.

  9. Energy Efficiency Retrofits for U.S. Housing: Removing the Bottlenecks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardhan, Ashok; Jaffee, Dwight; Kroll, Cynthia; Wallace, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Both Retrofit alternatives and Energy savings based onowners to evaluate alternative energy-saving investmentthe productivity of alternative energy-saving investments

  10. Protocol for Maximizing Energy Savings and Indoor Environmental Quality Improvements when Retrofitting Apartments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noris, Federico; Delp, William W.; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Singer, Brett C.; Fisk, William J.

    2012-06-18

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  11. Existing Homes Retrofit Case Study: SMUD's Jean Avenue Remodel Demonstration Program, Sacramento, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-03-01

    This case study describes how SMUD teamed with Building America partners to retrofit aging, foreclosed homes into high-performance homes.

  12. Seismic Assessment and Retrofit of Existing Multi-Column Bent Bridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seismic Assessment and Retrofit of Existing Multi-Column Bent Bridges By Cole C. Mc ................................................................................................................................... 6 Seismic Activity in Western Washington State Approach ­ Bridge Modeling .............................................11 Seismic Excitations

  13. Energy Efficiency Retrofits for U.S. Housing: Removing the Bottlenecks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardhan, Ashok; Jaffee, Dwight; Kroll, Cynthia; Wallace, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Retrofit alternatives and Energy savings based on Analysisestimates and annual energy savings for individual retrofitsuccess. 4. Financing Energy-Saving Investments Given the 19

  14. Indoor Air Quality Observations in Public Schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    pressurize the crawl space. Sane of the llnderfloor fans were not opera* (failed) an3 this results in mist ~OQI: air flawing into the building through the apenFngs in the pip* chases anl aperative underfloor fan ducts. Turn off the underfloar fans, sedl...

  15. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  16. Commissioning of the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stecher, D.; Imm, C.

    2013-06-01

    Commissioning of instrumentation and limited short-term testing have been completed on a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. This house is intended to be used as a laboratory in which several different methods of space conditioning distribution will be evaluated. This report provides background on the project, including specifications of the house and models used in its development, along with models to be evaluated through its operation.

  17. Instrumenting Buildings to Determine Retrofit Savings: Murphy's Law Revisited 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boecker, C. L.; Bohmer, C.; O'Neal, D. L.; Bryant, J.

    1993-01-01

    BUILDINGS TO DETERMINE RETROFIT SAVINGS: MURPHY'S LAW REVISITED Dennis L. O'Neal, John Bryant, Curtis Boecker, and Chuck Bohmer Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX ABSTRACT Experiences with instrumentation..., installation and maintenance of building energy metering systems are presented. The building energy metering is installed to support the Texas LoanSTAR program in sites throughout the State of Texas. Metering typically includes monitoring the whole building...

  18. Energy Efficient Crawlspace Foundation Retrofit: Mixed Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bianco, M.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2013-01-01

    Residential quality management systems have most often been designed for new home construction. To address quality in existing homes in the form of Scopes of Work (SOW), the NAHB Research Center began with a new construction scope of work and applied it to an existing home project. This document is intended to outline the steps of translating a new home construction SOW to SOW for retrofit.

  19. Energy Efficient Crawlspace Foundation Retrofit: Mixed Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bianco, M.; Wiehagen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Residential quality management systems have most often been designed for new home construction. To address quality in existing homes in the form of Scopes of Work (SOW), the NAHB Research Center began with a new construction scope of work and applied it to an existing home project. This document is intended to outline the steps of translating a new home construction SOW to SOW for retrofit and addressed crawlspace foundations in a mixed-humid climate.

  20. Data Center Airflow Management Retrofit | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 20153Daniel Boff About Us Daniel Boff -DepartmentRetrofit

  1. Desiccant Moisture Exchange for Dehumidification Enhancement of Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    amling mil. Bqe surfam is needed to accomplish the heat ex&ange, so lamberenthian anl wrnpted surfaces have been used. Ihe of heat is ~Wlled by duct* & bypaseirq varying armnrts of air 8ud-1 that all air does not casrtact all the heat exdmqe...

  2. Improved Air Volume Control Logic for VAV Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Claridge, D. E.; Sakuri, Y.; M. Liu

    2000-01-01

    In a VAV (variable air volume) system, the set point of the static pressure (usually measured at 213 downstream of the main supply air duct) is maintained by modulating the fan speed or inlet guide vane position. The set point of the static pressure...

  3. Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-06-01

    This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

  4. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, J.; Bohac, D.; Nelson, C.; Smith, I.

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home's asset performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Home rating systems can help motivate homeowners in several ways. Ratings can clearly communicate a home's achievable energy efficiency potential, provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, and show homeowners how they rate compared to their neighbors, thus creating an incentive to conform to a social standard. An important consideration is how rating tools for the retrofit market will integrate with existing home energy service programs. For residential programs that target energy savings only, home visits should be focused on key efficiency measures for that home. In order to gain wide adoption, a rating tool must be easily integrated into the field process, demonstrate consistency and reasonable accuracy to earn the trust of home energy technicians, and have a low monetary cost and time hurdle for homeowners. Along with the Home Energy Score, this project also evaluated the energy modeling performance of SIMPLE and REM/Rate.

  5. Opportunities for Energy Conservation and Improved Comfort From Wind Washing Retrofits in Two-Story Homes - Part I 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, C. R. Jr.; Cummings, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    of wind washing found in this study. Repairs and energy monitoring were completed in six of these homes to evaluate retrofit methods and cost effectiveness of retrofit solutions. These results are discussed in Part II of this paper....

  6. Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: Low-e Storms: The Next "Big Thing" in Window Retrofits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-e Storms:  The Next “Big Thing” in Window RetrofitsOfficial Webinar Transcript (September 9, 2014)

  7. Fiberglass Duct Cleaning Safe Work Practices Duct Cleaning -Prior to reaching a decision to clean a duct, an investigation of possible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    ­ Locations should be noted prior to conducting work. Lockers, Showers, and Hand Wash Sinks ­ Should to be sure that there are no hazardous containing materials in the duct system such as Asbestos. Asbestos into particulate collection equipment. 3. All equipment located outside should be placed downwind and away from

  8. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single- family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    These appendices are the companion volume to report number LBL--28147 Vol.1, with the same title. The summary data tables include physical characteristics, energy consumption, savings, and the retrofit measures installed and their costs for each retrofit project. Each existing single family residential building'' retrofit project in the BECA-B database is described. 99 refs. (BM)

  9. Ducts in the Attic? What Were They Thinking? Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D.; Winkler, J.

    2010-08-01

    As energy-efficiency efforts focus increasingly on existing homes, we scratch our heads about construction decisions made 30, 40, 50-years ago and ask: 'What were they thinking?' A logical follow-on question is: 'What will folks think in 2050 about the homes we're building today?' This question can lead to a lively discussion, but the current practice that we find most alarming is placing ducts in the attic. In this paper, we explore through literature and analysis the impact duct location has on cooling load, peak demand, and energy cost in hot climates. For a typical new home in these climates, we estimate that locating ducts in attics rather than inside conditioned space increases the cooling load 0.5 to 1 ton, increases cooling costs 15% and increases demand by 0.75 kW. The aggregate demand to service duct loss in homes built in Houston, Las Vegas, and Phoenix during the period 2000 through 2009 is estimated to be 700 MW. We present options for building homes with ducts in conditioned space and demonstrate that these options compare favorably with other common approaches to achieving electricity peak demand and consumption savings in homes.

  10. Sonoma House. Monitoring of the First U.S. Passive House Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Weitzel, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; Dakin, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Sonoma Deep Retrofit is a single-story deep retrofit project in the marine climate of Sonoma, California. The design was guided by Passive House principles that promote the use of very high levels of wall, ceiling, and floor insulation along with tight envelope construction to maintain a comfortable indoor environment with little or no need for conventional heating or cooling.

  11. Sonoma House: Monitoring of the First U.S. Passive House Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Weitzel, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; Dakin, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Sonoma Deep Retrofit is a single-story deep retrofit project in the marine climate of Sonoma, California. The design was guided by Passive House principles which promote the use of very high levels of wall, ceiling, and floor insulation along with tight envelope construction to maintain a comfortable indoor environment with little or no need for conventional heating or cooling.

  12. The USDOE Forrestal Building Lighting Retrofit: Preliminary Analysis of Electricity Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Bou-Saada, T. E.; Vajda, E. J.; Shincovich, M.; D'Angelo III, L.; Harris, L.

    1994-01-01

    In September of 1993 a 36,832 fixture lighting retrofit was completed at the United States Department of Energy Forrestal complex in Washington, D.C. This retrofit represents DOE's largest project to date that utilizes a Shared Energy Savings (SES...

  13. Pre-Retrofit Lighting Study at the University of Texas at Arlington, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houcek, J. K.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the Energy Cost Reduction Measure (ECRM) retrofit program, funded by LoanSTAR, the U.T. Arlington site was granted a $2 million loan to implement an energy-saving lighting retrofit in 20 classroom buildings on the campus. The original...

  14. Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011 at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  15. Expert Meeting Report. Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  16. RETROFIT: A SOFTWARE TO SOLVE OPTIMIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS APPLIED TO BUILDING ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RETROFIT: A SOFTWARE TO SOLVE OPTIMIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS APPLIED TO BUILDING ENERGY the software ReTrofiT that specifically treats this kind of problems applied to building energy performance mod, inverse problems. INTRODUCTION Energy management systems in buildings greatly contribute

  17. Retrofitting Las Vegas. Implementing Energy Efficiency in Two Las Vegas Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, S.

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, the state of Nevada received nearly $40 million in Neighborhood Stabilization Funds from the Department of Housing and Urban Development to use to stabilize communities that have suffered from foreclosures and abandonment. In order to provide guidance to local officials and maximize how effectively this NSP funding is used in retrofitting homes, the CARB team provided design specifications, energy modeling, and technical support for the BARA team and its local partners—Better Building Performance, Nevada Energy Star Partners Green Alliance, and Home Free Nevada—for two retrofit test homes. One home demonstrated a modest retrofit and the other a deep energy retrofit. This report describes the retrofit packages, which were used as an educational experience for home performance professionals, building trades, remodelers, and the general public.

  18. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  19. Measure Guideline: Air Sealing Mechanical Closets in Slab-On-Grade Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, B.

    2012-02-01

    This measure guideline describes covers two fundamental retrofit strategies for air sealing around air handling systems that are located within the living space in an enclosed closet: one in which all of the equipment is removed and being replaced, and a closet where the equipment is to remain and existing conditions are sealed. It includes the design and installation details necessary to effectively seal the air handler closet and central return system to maximize the efficiency and safety of the space conditioning system.

  20. Porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus treated with a combination erbium/CO laser: A case and brief review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Jillian W; Summers, Erika M; Taylor, Mark B; Harris, Ronald M

    2011-01-01

    of the palm — a sweat duct naevus? Br J Dermatol 1979; 101:eccrine ostial and dermal duct naevus. Br J Dermatol 1980;eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus. Pediatric Dermatology

  1. Duct Leakage Modeling in EnergyPlus and Analysis of Energy Savings from Implementing SAV with InCITeTM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig

    2010-01-01

    C. 2005. “Detecting Critical Supply Duct Pressure”. ASHRAEnl18/nl_18.html Wray, C.P. 2003. “Duct Thermal Performance12  Figure 10.  Duct Layout for Intervention Floor (control 

  2. Effects of a new cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitor on Cl- conductance in human sweat ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X F; Reddy, M M; Quinton, Paul M

    2004-01-01

    conductance in human sweat ducts X. F. Wang 1 , M. M. Reddyand cystic ?brosis sweat ducts. P?ugers Arch 408, 505–510.secretion in the human sweat duct. Ann N Y Acad Sci 574,

  3. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 1-A)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    During this past quarter, two tandem-fired pulse combustors were designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5 to 5.5 MMBtu/hr under continuation of Phase I work on DOE project DE-AC22-87PC79654. In prior work, MTCI demonstrated the operation of a 1--2 MMBtu/h coal-fired tandem pulse combustor that is intended for small industrial applications. These component tests emphasized verification of key design issues such as combustor coupling, slag rejection, and staged air addition. The current work, which represents an extension of the Phase I effort, focuses on integrated testing of the tandem pulse combustor with a fire-tube boiler, and the addition of a slag quench vessel. A tandem-fired pulse combustion unit designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5-5 MMBtu/hr was designed and fabricated. The configuration includes two combustion chambers cast in a single monolith, tailpipes cast separately with annular air preheating capability, and a cyclonic decoupler. Design analysis and evaluations were performed to optimize the system with respect to minimizing heat losses, size, and cost. Heat losses from the combustor and decoupler walls are predicted to be approximately 3 percent. The final designs for the ancillary items (slag quench, tertiary air addition, scrubber and sampling system) were completed and fabrication and installation initiated. A Cleaver-Brooks 150 hp-4 pass boiler was delivered and installed and modifications for interfacing with the retrofit pulse combustor unit completed. A below-ground slag collection pit was excavated to permit direct in-line coupling of the combustor to the boiler and to reduce head-room requirements. The pit is 30 inches deep and lined with waterproof and fireproof siding.

  4. Glove port retrofit assembly and method of replacing components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giesen, Isaac M; Cournoyer, Michael E; Rael, David G

    2014-11-18

    What is disclosed is a system for retrofitting a sealed enclosure for performing work therein having an outer enclosure assembly configured to be clamped to the outer annular face of a port ring and form a sealed engagement with the outer annular surface of the port ring, a change assembly having an inner ring and an access element wherein the inner ring has a first annular cylinder body that is sized to be slidably received by the port ring and the access element is configured to be sealably and slidably positioned within the first annular cylinder body of the inner ring.

  5. Results from Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  6. Results From Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Brozyna

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  7. Newporter Apartments. Deep Energy Retrofit Short Term Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Andrew; Howard, Luke; Kunkle, Rick; Lubliner, Michael; Auer, Dan; Clegg, Zach

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost-effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960’s vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  8. Newporter Apartments: Deep Energy Retrofit Short-Term Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, A.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Lubliner, M.; Auer, D.; Clegg, Z.

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960's vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  9. Retrofit Ramp-Up Selected Projects* | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct.7,BreakoutRetooling Michigan: ShinglesRetrofit Ramp-Up

  10. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Retrofit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, IncBioPredicting EnvelopeSiding RetrofitCeilingIntegrated

  11. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.A. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); Durham, M.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States); Sowa, W.A. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Himes, R.M. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Mahaffey, W.A. [CHAM of North America, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  12. RM12-2703 Advanced Rooftop Unit Control Retrofit Kit Field Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doebber, I.; Dean, J.; Dominick, J.; Holland, G.

    2014-03-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This was one of several demonstrations of new and underutilized commercial energy efficiency technologies. The consistent year-round demand for air conditioning and dehumidification in Hawaii provides an advantageous demonstration location for advanced rooftop control (ARC) retrofit kits to packaged rooftop units (RTUs). This report summarizes the field demonstration of ARCs installed on nine RTUs serving a 70,000-ft2 exchange store (large retail) and two RTUs, each serving small office buildings located on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH).

  13. SPRAY FOAM IN ACCESSIBLE SPACES:BEST PRACTICES AND CASE STUDIES FOR RETROFIT IN MIXED-HUMID CLIMATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gant, Kathy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-12-01

    Heating and cooling the house is one of the homeowners major expenses. Reducing these costs, saving energy, and creating a healthier, more comfortable indoor environment are good reasons to consider improving the building thermal envelope. Improvements usually consider increasing the amount of insulation, reducing the infiltration of outside air, and controlling moisture in existing buildings. This report describes the use of spray foam materials to insulate, seal, and control moisture. This discussion is limited to treating areas that are accessible. What is accessible, however, can vary depending on the type of renovation. If the building has been gutted or exterior surfaces removed, there are more options. This report will look at areas to consider for spray foam application and discuss the types of spray foams available and their uses. A number of case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of this retrofit in existing houses based on performance data.

  14. Sustainable Retrofit of Residential Roofs Using Metal Roofing Panels, Thin-Film Photovoltaic Laminates, and PCM Heat Sink Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan; Miller, William A; Childs, Phillip W; Biswas, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    During September-October 2009, research teams representing Metal Construction Association (the largest North American trade association representing metal building manufacturers, builders, and material suppliers), CertainTeed (one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of thermal insulation and building envelope materials), Unisolar (largest U.S. producer of amorphous silicone photo-voltaic (PV) laminates), Phase Change Energy (manufacturer of bio-based PCM), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) installed three experimental attics utilizing different roof retrofit strategies in the ORNL campus. The main goal of this project was experimental evaluation of a newly-developed sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing amorphous silicone PV laminates integrated with metal roof and PCM heat sink. The experimental attic with PV laminate was expected to work during the winter time as a passive solar collector with PCM storing solar heat, absorbed during the day, and increasing overall attic air temperature during the night.

  15. Particle Concentration Dynamics in the Ventilation Duct after an Artificial Release: for Countering Potential Bioterriorist Attack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You , Siming; Wan, Man Pun

    2014-01-01

    leads to In this work, the models of particle concentration dynamics in the ventilation duct following a resuspension

  16. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2014-01-01

    equipment efficiency Air-side economizer control RoomSaving [kWh/m2] The air-side economizer produces the energyand winter. This air-side economizer is thus able to provide

  17. Review of Prior Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit Evaluation: A Report to Snohomish Public Utilities District

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Phillip

    2014-12-22

    Snohomish County Public Utilities District (the District or Snohomish PUD) provides electricity to about 325,000 customers in Snohomish County, Washington. The District has an incentive programs to encourage commercial customers to improve energy efficiency: the District partially reimburses the cost of approved retrofits if they provide a level of energy performance improvement that is specified by contract. In 2013 the District contracted with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide a third-party review of the Monitoring and Verification (M&V) practices the District uses to evaluate whether companies are meeting their contractual obligations. This work helps LBNL understand the challenges faced by real-world practitioners of M&V of energy savings, and builds on a body of related work such as Price et al. (2013). The District selected a typical project for which they had already performed an evaluation. The present report includes the District's original evaluation as well as LBNL's review of their approach. The review is based on the document itself; on investigation of the load data and outdoor air temperature data from the building evaluated in the document; and on phone discussions with Bill Harris of the Snohomish County Public Utilities District. We will call the building studied in the document the subject building, the original Snohomish PUD report will be referred to as the Evaluation, and this discussion by LBNL is called the Review.

  18. Applied methods to verify LP turbine performance after retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overby, R. [Florida Power and Light Co., Juno Beach, FL (United States); Lindberg, G. [ABB Power Generation, Baden (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    With increasing operational hours of power plants, many utilities may find it necessary to replace turbine components, i.e., low pressure turbines. In order to decide between different technical and economic solutions, the utility often takes the opportunity to choose between an OEM or non-OEM supplier. This paper will deal with the retrofitting of LP turbines. Depending on the scope of supply the contract must define the amount of improvement and specifically how to verify this improvement. Unfortunately, today`s Test Codes, such as ASME PTC 6 and 6.1, do not satisfactorily cover these cases. The methods used by Florida Power and Light (FP and L) and its supplier to verify the improvement of the low pressure turbine retrofit at the Martin No. 1 and Sanford No. 4 units will be discussed and the experience gained will be presented. In particular the influence of the thermal cycle on the applicability of the available methods will be analyzed and recommendations given.

  19. Boston solar retrofits: studies of solar access and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, M.

    1980-11-01

    Studies of solar access and solar retrofit economics are described for residential applications in the City of Boston. The study of solar access was based upon a random sample of 94 buildings; the sample was stratified to ensure a broad geographic representation from the city's various sections. Using available data on the heights and orientations of the sampled structures and surrounding buildings, each building's hourly access to sunlight was computed separately for the roof and south facing walls. These data were then aggregated by broad structural classifications in order to provide general measures of solar access. The second study was a comparative analysis of the economics of several solar heating and hot water systems. An active hot water system, installed using pre-assembled, commercially purchased equipment, was selected as a reference technology. A variety of measures of economic performance were computed for this system, with and without existing tax credits and under various financing arrangements. Next, a number of alternative approaches for solar space and water heating were identified from interviews with individuals and groups involved in solar retrofit projects in the Boston area. The objective was to identify approaches that many of those interviewed believe to be low-cost means of applying solar energy in residential settings. The approaches selected include thermal window covers, wall collectors, bread box water heaters, and sun spaces. Preliminary estimates of the performance of several representative designs were developed and the economics of these designs evaluated.

  20. High Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Mosiman, Garrett E.

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of SOG foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated). The optimum insulation strategy was applied to single and multi-family residential buildings in climate zone 4 - 7. The highest site energy savings of 5% was realized for a single family home in Duluth, MN, and the lowest savings of 1.4 % for a 4-unit townhouse in Richmond, VA. SOG foundation insulation retrofit simple paybacks ranged from 18 to 47 years. There are other benefits of SOG foundation insulation resulting from the increase in the slab surface temperatures. These include increased occupant thermal comfort, and a decrease in slab surface condensation particularly around the slab perimeter.

  1. Statistical maritime radar duct estimation using hybrid genetic algorithmMarkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Statistical maritime radar duct estimation using hybrid genetic algorithm­Markov chain Monte Carlo encountered in low- altitude maritime radar applications. This is done by statistically estimating the duct of unknowns. Citation: Yardim, C., P. Gerstoft, and W. S. Hodgkiss (2007), Statistical maritime radar duct

  2. Modal Scattering at an Impedance Transition in a Lined Flow Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Modal Scattering at an Impedance Transition in a Lined Flow Duct Sjoerd W. Rienstra Eindhoven CB3 0WA, UK. An explicit Wiener-Hopf solution is derived to describe the scattering of duct modes at a hard-soft wall impedance transition in a circular duct with uniform mean flow. Specifically, we have

  3. Modeling, Control, and Flight Testing of a Small Ducted Fan Aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric N.

    1 Modeling, Control, and Flight Testing of a Small Ducted Fan Aircraft Eric N. Johnson* and Michael A. Turbe Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332 Small ducted fan autonomous vehicles for the GTSpy, a small ducted fan autonomous vehicle based on the Micro Autonomous Systems' Helispy

  4. On the solution to the Riemann problem for the compressible duct ow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the solution to the Riemann problem for the compressible duct ow Nikolai Andrianov and Gerald Warnecke #3; March 6, 2003 Abstract The quasi-one-dimensional Euler equations in a duct of variable cross of the Euler equations in a duct of corresponding geometry and compare it with the 1D results. Then

  5. ORNL/LTR-2014/283 A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    ORNL/LTR-2014/283 A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts William A. Miller Som Shrestha and Transportation Sciences Division A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts William A. Miller Som Shrestha...........................................................9 3 DUCTS PLACED IN UNCONDITIONED ZONES

  6. TEMPERATURE CONTROLLABILITY IN CROSS-FLOW HEAT EXCHANGERS AND LONG DUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Mihir

    TEMPERATURE CONTROLLABILITY IN CROSS-FLOW HEAT EXCHANGERS AND LONG DUCTS A Dissertation Submitted-FLOW HEAT EXCHANGERS AND LONG DUCTS Abstract by Sorour Abdulhadi Alotaibi The performance of thermal control and long ducts, are investigated, and the following issues are addressed. (a) The first is controllability

  7. Experimental Demonstration of 2x2 MIMO Communications in a Reverberant Ventilation Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Experimental Demonstration of 2x2 MIMO Communications in a Reverberant Ventilation Duct Environment- tilation duct. We further demonstrate that MIMO coefficients applied to transmit and receive antennas can that ventilation ducts are an attractive media for distributing RF communication signals indoors (See for example

  8. Theoretical Study and Numerical Validation of Sound Radiation from Coaxial Annular Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xun

    Theoretical Study and Numerical Validation of Sound Radiation from Coaxial Annular Duct Xin Liu-infinite annular duct. Our problem is different from previous works in that both its inner pipe and outer pipe are semi-infinite. Hence, this problem is a better representative of aircraft engine bypass duct

  9. EXACT RIEMANN SOLUTIONS TO COMPRESSIBLE EULER EQUATIONS IN DUCTS WITH DISCONTINUOUS CROSSSECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXACT RIEMANN SOLUTIONS TO COMPRESSIBLE EULER EQUATIONS IN DUCTS WITH DISCONTINUOUS CROSS solutions for the system of Euler equa- tions in a duct with discontinuous varying cross through a duct of variable cross­section with the area a(x). They are given in the perturbation form U

  10. Characterization of the Conus bullatus genome and its venom-duct transcriptome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yandell, Mark

    Characterization of the Conus bullatus genome and its venom-duct transcriptome Hu et al. Hu et al ARTICLE Open Access Characterization of the Conus bullatus genome and its venom-duct transcriptome Hao Hu1 bullatus genome and venom-duct transcriptome. We find that conopeptides are highly expressed within

  11. Multi-carrier Signal Transmission through HVAC Ducts: Experimental Results for Channel Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Multi-carrier Signal Transmission through HVAC Ducts: Experimental Results for Channel Capacity) ducts based on multi-carrier transmission technique and mea- sured channel frequency responses in the 2 through a building HVAC duct system demonstrate the ability to transmit with a spectral efficiency of 3

  12. AIAA 2008-2877 Sound Radiation from a Generic Bypass Duct with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xun

    1 AIAA 2008-2877 Sound Radiation from a Generic Bypass Duct with Bifurcations Xiaoxian Chen1 , Xun, United Kingdom The influence of bifurcations in an aero-engine bypass duct on noise radiation of the simulations were compared with those of a clean duct case. A circumferential mode of m=12 with radial mode

  13. Control of Flow Separation in S-ducts via Flow Injection and Suction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debiasi, Marco

    Control of Flow Separation in S-ducts via Flow Injection and Suction Marco Debiasi1 , Marco Robert as a mean to control the separation of flow in S-duct inlets. The overall goal is to reduce the distortion of the S-duct outlet flow and to improve its pressure recovery by using the least expenditure of energy. We

  14. Cut-on, cut-off transition of sound in slowly varying flow ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rienstra, Sjoerd W.

    Cut-on, cut-off transition of sound in slowly varying flow ducts Sjoerd W. Rienstra 19-walled duct with irrotational isentropic mean flow is studied. The usual turning point behaviour was found. 1 Introduction The exact multiple scale solution for sound propagation in a slowly varying lined flow duct

  15. LBNL# 40102 Field Investigation of Duct System Performance in California Light Commercial Buildings 1 of 26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL# 40102 Field Investigation of Duct System Performance in California Light Commercial Buildings 1 of 26 Field Investigation of Duct System Performance in California Light Commercial Buildings Wm National Laboratory Berkeley, California Synopsis This paper discusses field measurements of duct system

  16. SOUND TRANSMISSION IN SLOWLY VARYING CIRCULAR AND ANNULAR LINED DUCTS WITH FLOW a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    SOUND TRANSMISSION IN SLOWLY VARYING CIRCULAR AND ANNULAR LINED DUCTS WITH FLOW a S.W. Rienstra/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, June 2­4, 1998, Toulouse ABSTRACT Sound transmission through straight circular ducts by a modal expansion. A natural ex­ tension for ducts with axially slowly varying properties (diameter

  17. Interior Duct Wall Pressure Downstream of a Low-Speed Scott C. Morris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Interior Duct Wall Pressure Downstream of a Low-Speed Rotor Scott C. Morris , David B. Stephens The region downstream of a ducted rotor has been experimentally investigated in terms of its wake characteristics and the duct wall pressure fluctuations. The motivation for the measurements was to document

  18. Toward a Better Understanding of Ducted Rotor Antitorque and Directional Control in Forward Flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toward a Better Understanding of Ducted Rotor Antitorque and Directional Control in Forward Flight of ducted rotors in low-power, near-edgewise flow conditions are not well understood. Motivated by phenomena was initiated to use CFD to improve the understanding of the dynamic relationship between ducted rotor thrust

  19. Duct Leakage Impacts on Airtightness, Infiltration, and Peak Electrical Demand in Florida Homes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, J. B.; Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N.

    1990-01-01

    (ACHSO). When the duct registers were sealed, ACHSO decreased to 11.04, indicating that 12.2% of the house leaks were in the duct system. Duct leaks have a dramatic impact upon peak electrical demand. Based on theoretical analysis, a fifteen percent...

  20. Standard Measurement and Verification Plan for Lighting Retrofit Projects for Buildings and Building Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2012-10-31

    This document provides a framework for standard measurement and verification (M&V) of lighting retrofit and replacement projects. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. It includes details on all aspects of effectively measuring light levels of existing and post-retrofit projects, conducting power measurement, and developing cost-effectiveness analysis. This framework M&V plan also enables consistent comparison among similar lighting projects, and may be used to develop M&V plans for non--lighting-technology retrofits and new installations.

  1. Performance Results for Massachusetts and Rhode Island Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, C.; Neuhauser, K.

    2014-03-01

    Between December, 2009 and December, 2012, 42 deep energy retrofit (DER) projects were completed through a pilot program sponsored by National Grid and conducted in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Thirty-seven of these projects were comprehensive retrofits while five were partial DERs, meaning that high performance retrofit was implemented for a single major enclosure component or a limited number of major enclosure components. Building Science Corporation developed a consistent "package" of measures in terms of the performance targeted for major building components. Based on the community experience, this DER package is expected to result in yearly source energy use near 110 MMBtu/year or approximately 40% below the Northeast regional average.

  2. Test Methods and Protocols for Environmental and Safety Hazards Associated with Home Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cautley, D.; Viner, J.; Lord, M.; Pearce, M.

    2012-12-01

    A number of health hazards and hazards to the durability of homes may be associated with energy retrofitting and home renovation projects. Among the hazards associated with energy retrofit work, exposure to radon is thought to cause more than 15,000 deaths per year in the U.S., while carbon monoxide poisoning results in about 20,000 injuries and 450 deaths per year. Testing procedures have been developed for identifying and quantifying hazards during retrofitting. These procedures commonly include a battery of tests to screen combustion appliances for safe operation, including worst case depressurization measurement, backdrafting (spillage) under depressurized or normal conditions, and carbon monoxide production.

  3. A Review of Thermal Acoustical and Special Project Requirements Data in Designing a Duct System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebens, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    or duct wrap because of their low resistance to punctures. As we all know, it would be impossible to clean out a lined sheet metal duct or fiberglass duct. Specifications on a remodel project should include flexibility for jobsite redesign without...). Lined sheet metal (1" 2.0 pcf density) had a U of .23; wrapped sheet metal (2" .75 pcf density) at 25 percent compression had a U of .16; fiberglass duct 1" thick was .19 U-value; and insulated flexible duct 1" thick had a .18 U-value. This data...

  4. Cooling energy performance and installation of a retrofitted exterior insulation and finish system on masonry residences in the southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.; McLain, H.A.

    1992-12-31

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls using a site-fabricated (non-commercially available) insulation and finish system. The exterior insulation system developed for the field test was easily performed and should result in a durable installation. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation offers the greatest potential for air-conditioning electricity savings and peak demand reductions in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Retrofit economics need to be thoroughly examined from societal, utility, and consumer perspectives and must consider other benefits such as space-heating energy savings and improved house value.

  5. Calculating Energy and Demand Retrofit Savings for Stroman High School: Interim Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y.; Reddy, T. A.; Katipamula, S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    computed by two different approaches: Unnormalized Utility Bill Comparison and Weather and Schedule Normalized Utility Bill Comparison Using Post-Retrofit Daily Models. (For purpose of simplicity, in this report, we will refer them as Level-0 and Level-1...

  6. Building America Webinar: Standardized Retrofit Packages — What Works to Meet Consistent Levels of Performance?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar will focus on specific Building America projects that have examined methods to consistently meet high levels of energy performance in existing homes, with a focus on retrofit packages that can be replicated across many homes.

  7. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database Aimed at Reducing Risk for Residential Retrofit Industry (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a publicly available database of energy retrofit measures containing performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 measures. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed the National Residential Efficiency Measures Database, a public database that characterizes the performance and costs of common residential energy efficiency measures. The data are available for use in software programs that evaluate cost-effective retrofit measures to improve the energy efficiency of residential buildings. The database provides a single, consistent source of current data for DOE and private-sector energy audit and simulation software tools and the retrofit industry. The database will reduce risk for residential retrofit industry stakeholders by providing a central, publicly vetted source of up-to-date information.

  8. Trial Demonstration of Area Lighting Retrofit: Yuma Border Patrol, Yuma Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2014-12-30

    The Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area is a high flux lighting application in a high temperature environment, presenting a formidable challenge for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This retrofit is an Energy Savings Performance Contract ENABLE project under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program. If high flux LED technology performs well in a region with high ambient temperature and solar radiation, it can perform well in most outdoor environments. The design process for the Yuma retrofit has already provided valuable knowledge to CBP and DOE. The LED lighting system selected for the retrofit is expected to reduce energy consumption 69% compared to the incumbent quartz metal halide (QMH) lighting system. If the LED lighting system is installed, GATEWAY will continue to document and disseminate information regarding the installation and long-term performance so that others may also gain valuable knowledge from the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area lighting retrofit.

  9. Retrofitting existing chemical scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S emission control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Retrofitting existing chemical scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S emission control David owned treatment works in the United States (1, 2) and probably 50,000 worldwide, and emission

  10. An Overview of Measured Energy Retrofit Savings Methodologies Developed in the Texas LoanSTAR Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, T. A.; Kissock, J. K.; Katipamula, S.; Ruch, D. K.; Claridge, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Development of methodologies to determine energy retrofit savings in commercial buildings (institutional buildings, schools, hospitals, offices, county and state buildings,...) has been the object of active research during the last 5 years...

  11. DESIGN OF A TRIBOMETER RETROFITTED ONTO A COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROLLED MACHINING CENTER FOR ROCK DRILLING STUDIES 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahner, Derek w

    2014-09-20

    The objective of this research project is to design the components of a tribometer, instrument the assembly for force data acquisition, and to retrofit it onto an existing computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining center; this design...

  12. Energy Efficient Design, Retrofit and Control of Evaporative Condensers in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    Energy Efficient Design, Retrofit and Control of Evaporative Condensers in Ammonia Refrigeration ABSTRACT Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because efficiency of ammonia refrigeration systems. Introduction About 7.5% of the total manufacturing energy

  13. Using auxiliary gas power for CCS energy needs in retrofitted coal power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashadi, Sarah (Sarah Omer)

    2010-01-01

    Post-combustion capture retrofits are expected to a near-term option for mitigating CO 2 emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. Much of the literature proposes using power from the existing coal plant and thermal ...

  14. DOE Tour of Zero: The First DOE Zero Energy Ready Retrofit by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Green Extreme Homes and Carl Franklin Homes DOE Tour of Zero: The First DOE Zero Energy Ready Retrofit by Green Extreme Homes and Carl Franklin Homes Addthis 1 of 11 Green...

  15. Effects of moisture on debonding in FRP-retrofitted concrete systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tuakta, Chakrapan, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    FRP (fiber reinforced polymer) retrofit systems for reinforced concrete (RC) structures have been widely used in the past 10 years, and numerous studies on its short-term debonding behavior have been conducted extensively. ...

  16. Using the Street and Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This August 22, 2013 webinar provided a guided walk-through of the Street and Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool. Developed by a partnership of the DOE Municipal Solid-State...

  17. Assessing methods for predicting retrofit energy savings in buildings : case study of a Norwegian school

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricker, Elizabeth, S.M. (Elizabeth Ann). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates methods for predicting retrofit energy savings in existing Norwegian buildings. A case study is performed on a 30 year old primary school in Trondheim, Norway. The energy consumption in the school ...

  18. Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2009-11-04

    This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.

  19. Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This April 3, 2012 webcast presented information about the Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool developed by DOE"s Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Doug Elliott of Pacific Northwest...

  20. Supply chain strategy for a compressed flow-time retrofitting manufacturing process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, a compressed flow-time enables companies to present a strong value proposition especially for products with a high asset value. In a retrofitting manufacturing process the state of ...