National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for retail outlets average

  1. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices ",60,"Annual",2014,"6301984" ,"Release...

  2. Price of Motor Gasoline Through Retail Outlets

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    & Stocks by State (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Data Series: Retail Price - Motor Gasoline Retail Price - Regular Gasoline Retail Price - Midgrade Gasoline Retail Price...

  3. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to 3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's ...

  4. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  5. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  6. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  7. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  8. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  9. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Idaho" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  10. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  11. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  12. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  13. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  14. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  15. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  16. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  17. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  18. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  19. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  20. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Average Retail Price (cents/kWh)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Retail Price (cents/kWh) (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 17.82 14.70 11.84 10.38 15.45 Connecticut 19.75 15.55 12.92 13.08 17.05 Maine 15.27 12.70 8.95 0.00 12.65 Massachusetts 17.39 14.68 12.74 8.76 15.35 New Hampshire 17.53 14.34 11.93 0.00 15.22 Rhode Island 17.17 14.56 12.86 14.89 15.41 Vermont 17.47 14.56 10.23 0.00 14.57 Middle Atlantic 16.39 13.65 7.61 12.28 13.41 New Jersey

  1. No. 2 Distillate Prices - Through Retail Outlets

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    67 - - - - - 1983-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 2.455 - - - - - 1983-2015 New England (PADD 1A) 2.531 - - - - - 1983-2015 Connecticut 2.481 - - - - - 1983-2015 Maine 2.540 - - - - - ...

  2. Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    19 - - - - - 1984-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 2.300 - - - - - 1984-2015 New England (PADD 1A) 2.377 - - - - - 1984-2015 Connecticut 2.422 - - - - - 1984-2015 Maine 2.360 - - - - - ...

  3. Retail Unbundling

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    This special report provides a brief summary of the status of retail unbundling programs (also known as "customer choice" programs) for residential natural gas customers in various states,

  4. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other uses, such as in enclosed luminaires, may require more development. At the same price point, lamps purchased in 2013 tended to have higher output and slightly higher efficacy than in 2011 or 2010. Over 30% of the products purchased in 2013 exceeded the maximum efficacy measured in 2011 (71 lm/W), with the most efficacious product measured at 105 lm/W. There appears to be increasing consistency in color quality, with a vast majority of products having a CCT of 2700 K or 3000 K and a CRI between 80 and 85. There were also fewer poor performing products tested and more high-performing products available in 2013 than in previous years. The accuracy of equivalency and performance claims was better than in 2011, but remains a concern, with 43% of tested products failing to completely meet their equivalency claim and 20% of products failing to match the manufacturer’s performance data. Although progress has been substantial, on average LED lamps remain more expensive than other energy efficiency lighting technologies -- although some aspects can be superior. Although not universal to all product lines or all product types, the issue of insufficient lumen output from LED lamps is waning. Thus, manufacturers can focus on other issues, such as reducing cost, improving electrical/dimmer compatibility, eliminating flicker, or improving color quality. While these issues are not inherent to all products, they remain a concern for the broader market.

  5. Refiner Prices of Gasoline, All Grades - Through Retail Outlets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 1.892 2.306 3.058 3.168 3.068 2.876 1978-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1.871 2.291 3.054 3.172 3.058 2.716 1983-2014 New England (PADD...

  6. U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.785 1.759 1.601 1.472 1.346 1.210 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.786 1.760 1.602 1.471 1.345 1.209 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.553 1.513 1.373 1.290 1.117 0.998 1994-2016 DTW 1.812 1.637 1.591 1.532 1.337 1.161 1994-2016 Rack 1.559 1.519 1.372 1.288 1.109 0.994 1994-2016 Bulk 1.449 1.413 1.326 1.254 1.137 0.991

  7. U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.155 2.007 1.905 1.840 1.790 1.553 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 2.157 2.008 1.907 1.841 1.792 1.554 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.728 1.651 1.537 1.497 1.331 1.143 1994-2016 DTW 2.128 1.979 1.864 1.854 1.796 1.471 1994-2016 Rack 1.634 1.577 1.459 1.412 1.221 1.066 1994-2016 Bulk 1.645 1.566 1.524 1.456 1.307 1.074

  8. Retailer Energy Alliance Subcommittees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the Retailer Energy Alliances Subcommittees: Lighting and Electrical, Restaurant and Food Preparation, Refrigeration, HVAC, and Whole Building Systems.

  9. Table 9. Retail electricity sales statistics, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4560,1201929.7,"NA","NA","NA",7923662.4 "Percentage of revenue",62.5,18.74,3.59,15.17,"NA","NA","NA",100 "Average retail price (centskWh)",9.02,9.15,4.92,11.02,"NA","NA","NA",9.02...

  10. Table 9. Retail electricity sales statistics, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,"NA",1063623.3,"NA","NA","NA",3703710.6 "Percentage of revenue",58.49,12.8,"NA",28.72,"NA","NA","NA",100 "Average retail price (centskWh)",7.81,7.9,"NA",8.22,"NA","NA","NA",7.93...

  11. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  12. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L; Ford, Justin R; Spires, Shannon V; Goldsmith, Steven Y

    2015-11-05

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  13. Information for Retailers of Lighting Products | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Retailers of Lighting Products Information for Retailers of Lighting Products Information for Retailers of Lighting Products U.S. retailers who sell lighting products can use the...

  14. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  15. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nevada" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  16. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share ...

  17. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  18. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  19. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  20. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  1. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  2. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  3. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  4. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  5. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Delaware" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  6. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  7. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  8. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share ...

  9. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  10. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share ...

  11. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  12. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oregon" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  13. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  14. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  15. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  16. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  17. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  18. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  19. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  20. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  1. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United States" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  2. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share ...

  3. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share ...

  4. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  5. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  6. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  7. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  8. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  9. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, ...,4937074,4649203,4641931,4501977,4328452,4124028,4079696,3884263,3791300,3665112,3565532,2...

  10. Dominion Retail Inc (Connecticut) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dominion Retail Inc (Connecticut) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dominion Retail Inc Place: Connecticut Phone Number: 1-888-216-3718 Website: www.dominionenergy.comen Outage...

  11. U.S. diesel prices decrease … U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over 4 The U.S. average retail price for ... Diesel prices were highest in the New England region and Central Atlantic states at 4.31 a ...

  12. Retail Replacement Lamps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CALiPER Testing » Application Reports » Retail Replacement Lamps Retail Replacement Lamps Annual CALiPER testing of A19, G25, candelabra, night light, MR16/PAR16, PAR20, and PAR30 replacement lamps - purchased directly from store shelves - offers insights on performance trends from year to year. The report findings offer valuable insights for manufacturers and retailers alike. Retail Lamps Study 3 (48 pages, February 2014) Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality

  13. Automatic Identification and Truncation of Boundary Outlets in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; ALGORITHMS; IMAGE PROCESSING; LUNGS; MESH GENERATION; AUTOMATION; ARTERIES; CALCULATION METHODS medical imaging; outlets; ...

  14. Category:StandAloneRetail | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IN Duke Energy Indiana Inc.png SVStandAloneRetail Ind... 66 KB SVStandAloneRetail Jackson MS Entergy Mississippi Inc.png SVStandAloneRetail Jac... 63 KB SVStandAloneRetail...

  15. Dominion Retail Inc (Maine) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dominion Retail Inc (Maine) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dominion Retail Inc Place: Maine Phone Number: 1-866-366-4357 Website: www.dom.com Outage Hotline: 1-866-366-4357...

  16. The calm before the storm. [Retail wheeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studness, C.M.

    1993-05-15

    The right to refuse retail wheeling requests is one of the cornerstones of a utility's monopoly power. Utilities have fought staunchly to preserve it, most recently in preventing retail wheeling from becoming an important issue in the congressional debate over deregulation; the Energy Policy Act of 1992 steered clear of it. For the present, the prohibition of retail wheeling gives utilities enormous power over the retail electric power market. The ability to refuse retail wheeling requests, of course, prevents retail customers from buying power from third parties. This enables a utility to sell retail customers all the power it can generate, at a price that covers its cost plus an allowed return-even if its price exceeds that of power available in the wholesale market. The denial of retail wheeling thus protects a utility's inefficiencies, whose price is ultimately shouldered onto customers through cost-plus electric rates. Allowing retail wheeling would remove the foundation for much of the current monopoly power that utilities enjoy. Third parties could sell power to a utility's retail customers, since the utility would be required to wheel it. Retail customers would be able to bypass the local distribution utility to buy power from the cheapest source available. Market forces would drive pricing rather than the cost-plus ratemaking process. A utility whose electric rates were above market would have to meet the competitive price or lose sales.

  17. Dominion Retail Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Buying Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  18. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Retailer Business Model Conclusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Retailer Business Model Conclusion, Summary of Retailer Insights.

  19. Information for Retailers of Lighting Products | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retailers of Lighting Products Information for Retailers of Lighting Products Information for Retailers of Lighting Products U.S. retailers who sell lighting products can use the information below to help their customers better understand energy-efficient lighting choices. New information will be added as it becomes available. U.S. retailers are welcome to use parts of these materials in their retail displays. In those cases, please do so without the Department of Energy's name, since we will

  20. Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores Find the ...

  1. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Delaware) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Delaware) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Delaware References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final...

  2. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Connecticut) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Connecticut) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Connecticut Phone Number: 212-997-8500...

  3. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (District of Columbia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (District of Columbia) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: District of Columbia References:...

  4. Automatic Identification and Truncation of Boundary Outlets in Complex

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Imaging-Derived Biomedical Geometries (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Automatic Identification and Truncation of Boundary Outlets in Complex Imaging-Derived Biomedical Geometries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Automatic Identification and Truncation of Boundary Outlets in Complex Imaging-Derived Biomedical Geometries Fast and accurate reconstruction of imaging-derived geometries and subsequent quality mesh generation for biomedical computation are enabling technologies for

  5. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Diesel prices continue to increase … U.S. average over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase - U.S. average over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel broke the 4-dollar mark for the first time since last March. The U.S. retail average rose to $4.02 a gallon. That's up 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 1.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.81 a

  7. U.S. diesel prices decrease … U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over 4 The U.S. average retail price for ... Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 3-tenths of a ...

  8. U.S. diesel prices increase … U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. diesel prices increase - U.S. average still over 4 The U.S. average retail price for ... Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.36 a gallon, down 2.7 cents from ...

  9. Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the second half of 2014, the national average retail price per gallon of gasoline (all grades) fell from a high of $3.77 in June to a low of $2.63 in December – a difference of $1.14 per gallon....

  10. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Average Residential Price Residential Price - Local Distribution Companies Residential Price - Marketers Residential % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Average Commercial Price Commercial Price - Local Distribution Companies Commerical Price - Marketers Commercial % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011

  11. Texas Retail Energy, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 50046 Utility Location Yes Ownership R ISO Ercot Yes ISO NY Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help...

  12. CPL Retail Energy, LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 13151 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC ERCOT Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a...

  13. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  14. Energy and IAQ Implications of Alternative Minimum Ventilation Rates in California Retail and School Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, Spencer M.; Fisk, William J.

    2015-01-01

    For a stand-alone retail building, a primary school, and a secondary school in each of the 16 California climate zones, the EnergyPlus building energy simulation model was used to estimate how minimum mechanical ventilation rates (VRs) affect energy use and indoor air concentrations of an indoor-generated contaminant. The modeling indicates large changes in heating energy use, but only moderate changes in total building energy use, as minimum VRs in the retail building are changed. For example, predicted state-wide heating energy consumption in the retail building decreases by more than 50% and total building energy consumption decreases by approximately 10% as the minimum VR decreases from the Title 24 requirement to no mechanical ventilation. The primary and secondary schools have notably higher internal heat gains than in the retail building models, resulting in significantly reduced demand for heating. The school heating energy use was correspondingly less sensitive to changes in the minimum VR. The modeling indicates that minimum VRs influence HVAC energy and total energy use in schools by only a few percent. For both the retail building and the school buildings, minimum VRs substantially affected the predicted annual-average indoor concentrations of an indoor generated contaminant, with larger effects in schools. The shape of the curves relating contaminant concentrations with VRs illustrate the importance of avoiding particularly low VRs.

  15. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices - Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Residential CommercialInstitutional Industrial Through Retail Outlets Petro-Chemical Other End Users Sales for Resale Period: Monthly ...

  16. Property:Building/FloorAreaOtherRetail | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Property:BuildingFloorAreaOtherRetail Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Floor area for Other retail Pages using the...

  17. Texas Retail Energy, LLC (Texas) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Texas Retail Energy, LLC (Texas) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Texas Retail Energy, LLC Address: 2001 SE 10th St Place: Bentonville, AR Zip: 72712 Phone Number: (479) 204-0845...

  18. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Maine) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Maine) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Maine Phone Number: 1-800-437-7645 Website:...

  19. Metal halogen battery system with multiple outlet nozzle for hydrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-06-21

    A metal halogen battery system, including at least one cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode contacted by aqueous electrolyte containing the material of said metal and halogen, store means whereby halogen hydrate is formed and stored as part of an aqueous material, means for circulating electrolyte through the cell and to the store means, and conduit means for transmitting halogen gas formed in the cell to a hydrate former whereby the hydrate is formed in association with the store means, said store means being constructed in the form of a container which includes a filter means, said filter means being inoperative to separate the hydrate formed from the electrolyte, said system having, a hydrate former pump means associated with the store means and being operative to intermix halogen gas with aqueous electrolyte to form halogen hydrate, said hydrate former means including, multiple outlet nozzle means connected with the outlet side of said pump means and being operative to minimize plugging, said nozzle means being comprised of at least one divider means which is generally perpendicular to the rotational axes of gears within the pump means, said divider means acting to divide the flow from the pump means into multiple outlet flow paths.

  20. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    prices were found in the New England region, at 4.18 a gallon, up 2.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 3.74 a gallon, up almost 6 cents....

  1. "2014 Total Electric Industry- Average Retail Price (cents/kWh...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-861U)" "State","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "New England",17.822291,14.699138,11.842263,10.37511,15.452998 "Connecticut",19.748254,15.547557...

  2. Retail wheeling: Is this revolution necessary?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cudahy, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    As of a former state regulator and a once enthusiastic practitioner of public utility law, I find it fascinating to see the latest nostrum to burst on the electric utility scene: retail wheeling. Wheeling became a personal interest in the Texas interconnection fight of the late seventies and may have led to the interconnection and wheeling provision of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Retail wheeling contemplates that every electric power customer should be given an opportunity to seek out the lowest cost source of power wherever it can be found. As a practical matter, the drums for retail wheeling are presently being beaten by large industrial users, who believe that they have the capability to find low cost sources and to make advantageous commercial arrangements to acquire electricity. Large industrials have long been fighting the utilities for cheaper electricity, frequently using the threat of self-generation and cogeneration.

  3. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  4. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LBNL-1470E Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Ranjit Bharvirkar, Grayson Heffner and Charles Goldman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environmental Energy Technologies Division January 2009 The work described in this report was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Permitting, Siting and Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Disclaimer This document was

  5. Financial Management for Retail Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financial Management for Retail Energy Efficiency Financial Management for Retail Energy Efficiency Lead Performer: Retail Industry Leaders Association (RILA) - Arlington, VA Partners: -- Deloitte - New York, NY -- Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) - Boston, MA -- Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) - Washington, D.C. -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Boston, MA DOE Total Funding: $750,000 Cost Share: $750,000 Project Term: April 1, 2015 - June 30, 2018 Funding Opportunity:

  6. Retail Electric Competition: A Blueprint for Consumer Protection |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Retail Electric Competition: A Blueprint for Consumer Protection Retail Electric Competition: A Blueprint for Consumer Protection This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Regional Support Office (Purchase Order DE-AP45-97R553188). Funding was provided by the Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies, Ofiice of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. PDF icon Retail Electric Competition: A Blueprint for Consumer Protection More

  7. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating

  8. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (kWh)","Average Price (centskWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",862269,5132.4894,14.699138,754.43169 "Connecticut",155372,6915.4089,15.547557,1075...

  9. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Residential"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (kWh)","Average Price (centskWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",6243013,630.1915,17.822291,112.31456 "Connecticut",1459239,729.69421,19.748254,144...

  10. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (kWh)","Average Price (centskWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",28017,56832.854,11.842263,6730.2959 "Connecticut",4648,63016.315,12.915601,8138.93...

  11. Retail Building Guide for Entrance Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, J.; Kung, F.

    2012-03-01

    This booklet is based on the findings of an infiltration analysis for supermarkets and large retail buildings without refrigerated cases. It enables retail building managers and engineers to calculate the energy savings potential for vestibule additions for supermarkets; and bay door operation changes in large retail stores without refrigerated cases. Retail managers can use initial estimates to decide whether to engage vendors or contractors of vestibules for pricing or site-specific analyses, or to decide whether to test bay door operation changes in pilot stores, respectively.

  12. Reliant Energy Retail Services, LLC Smart Grid Project | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deploys new services and market offerings for retail customers in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) region. Reliant is deploying in-home energy displays,...

  13. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Pennsylvania) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pennsylvania) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Pennsylvania References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101...

  14. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015 Although retail gasoline prices have risen in recent weeks U.S. consumers are still expected to save about $675 per household in motor fuel costs this year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says the average pump price for regular grade gasoline in 2015 will be $2.43 per gallon. That's about 93 cents lower than last year's average. The savings for consumers will be even bigger during the

  15. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energys Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  16. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  17. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  18. Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Sun, Y.; Bush, B.

    2014-08-01

    Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions. Total fuel costs per mile for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are, respectively, 21% lower and 13% lower than that for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) under the home-dominant scenario. Including fuel economies and vehicle costs makes FCEVs and BEVs comparable in terms of costs per mile, and PHEVs are about 10% less than FCEVs and BEVs. To account for geographic variability in energy prices and hydrogen delivery costs, we use the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model and confirm the aforementioned estimate of cost per mile, nationally averaged, but see a 15% variability in regional costs of FCEVs and a 5% variability in regional costs for BEVs.

  19. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  20. High average power pockels cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  1. The great ``retail wheeling`` illusion, and more productive energy futures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavanagh, R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper sets out the reasons why many environmental and public interest organizations oppose retail wheeling. Cavanagh argues that retail wheeling would destroy incentives for energy efficiency improvements and renewable energy generation--benefits that reduce long-term energy service costs to society as a whole. The current debate over the competitive restructuring of the electric power industry is critical from both economic and environmental perspectives. All attempts to introduce broad-scale retail wheeling in the United States have failed; instead, state regulators are choosing a path that emphasizes competition and choice, but acknowledges fundamental differences between wholesale and retail markets. Given the physical laws governing the movement of power over centrally controlled grids, the choice offered to customers through retail wheeling of electricity is a fiction -- a re-allocation of costs is all that is really possible. Everyone wants to be able to claim the cheapest electricity on the system; unfortunately, there is not enough to go around. By endorsing the fiction of retail wheeling for certain types of customers, regulators would be recasting the retail electricity business as a kind of commodity exchange. That would reward suppliers who could minimize near-term unit costs of electricity while simultaneously destroying incentives for many investments, including cost-effective energy efficiency improvements and renewable energy generation, that reduce long-term energy service costs to society as a whole. This result, which has been analogized unpersuasively to trends in telecommunications and natural gas regulation, is neither desirable nor inevitable. States should go on saying no to retail wheeling in order to be able to create something better: regulatory reforms that align utility and societal interests in pursuing a least-cost energy future. An appendix contains notes on some recent Retail Wheeling Campaigns.

  2. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Number of Customers Average Monthly Consumption (kWh) Average Price (cents/kWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 862,269 5,132 14.70 754.43 Connecticut 155,372 6,915 15.55 1,075.18 Maine 91,541 3,627 12.70 460.77 Massachusetts 398,717 5,450 14.68 799.87 New Hampshire 105,840 3,515 14.34 504.04 Rhode Island 58,346 5,224 14.56 760.66 Vermont 52,453 3,226 14.56 469.78 Middle Atlantic 2,247,455 5,860

  3. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Number of Customers Average Monthly Consumption (kWh) Average Price (cents/kWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 28,017 56,833 11.84 6,730.30 Connecticut 4,648 63,016 12.92 8,138.94 Maine 3,023 92,554 8.95 8,281.27 Massachusetts 14,896 44,536 12.74 5,674.13 New Hampshire 3,342 49,099 11.93 5,857.27 Rhode Island 1,884 39,241 12.86 5,047.36 Vermont 224 527,528 10.23 53,984.67 Middle Atlantic 44,397

  4. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Number of Customers Average Monthly Consumption (kWh) Average Price (cents/kWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 6,243,013 630 17.82 112.31 Connecticut 1,459,239 730 19.75 144.10 Maine 706,952 549 15.27 83.91 Massachusetts 2,720,128 615 17.39 106.94 New Hampshire 606,883 619 17.53 108.57 Rhode Island 438,879 583 17.17 100.09 Vermont 310,932 569 17.47 99.34 Middle Atlantic 15,806,914 696 16.39

  5. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  6. Net-Zero Energy Retail Store Debuts in Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Walgreens on November 21 opened a net-zero energy retail store in Evanston, Illinois that it anticipates will generate at least as much energy as it consumes over the course of a year.

  7. DOE Publishes New CALiPER Report on Retail Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released a special report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. While previous reports in...

  8. DOE Publishes Special CALiPER Report on Retail Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released a special report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. The report follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012.

  9. Mercantile (Retail Other Than Mall) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Other Than Mall) Definition Buildings used for the sale and display of goods other than food. Sub Categories retail store; beer, wine, or liquor store; rental center; dealership or...

  10. NextEra Retail of Texas LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 56620 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC ERCOT Yes ISO Ercot Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This...

  11. Duke Energy Retail Sales, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 56502 Utility Location Yes Ownership R Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can...

  12. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Maryland) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maryland) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Maryland References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101 EIA Form...

  13. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Massachusetts) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Massachusetts Phone Number: 212-997-8500 Website: www.hess.com Twitter: @HessCorporation Facebook: https:www.facebook.com...

  14. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (Rhode Island) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rhode Island) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: Rhode Island References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101...

  15. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (New Hampshire) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: New Hampshire Phone Number: 1-800-437-7645 Website: www.hess.com Twitter: @HessCorporation Facebook: https:www.facebook.com...

  16. DOE Publishes Long-Term Testing Investigation of Retail Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released another special report on LED lamps that are available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. CALiPER...

  17. Retail Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  18. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Reformulated Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  19. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Business Case for E85 Fuel Retailers on Digg Find

  1. Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality ...

  2. Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A ...

  3. Average monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September The U.S. average monthly retail price of gasoline is expected to decline by about 18 cents per gallon between May and September, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The lower price reflects, in part, slightly lower crude oil prices that account for about two-thirds of the cost at the pump. The largest price drops are expected in the Midwest states as refineries serving that region, which had been down

  4. Energy options: Cogen V and retail wheeling alternatives technical conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The Energy Options technical conference proceedings contains 265 papers, of which 17 were selected for the database. The conference was split into two primary topics: cogeneration and retail wheeling. Subtopics under cogeneration included: the state of cogeneration in the United States, case studies in facility ownership, fuels considerations for tomorrow, and plant design considerations for cogeneration systems. Retail wheeling alternatives subtopics included U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission rulings, end-user options for retail wheeling, deregulation issues, and forecasting of electricity generating costs. Papers not selected for the database, while clearly pertinent topics of interest, consisted of viewgraphs which were judged not to have sufficient technical information and coherence without the corresponding presentation. However, some papers which did consist of viewgraphs were included.

  5. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Contractor/Retailer Business Models

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Business models information focused on remodelers, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) contractors, home performance contractors, or retailers.

  6. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Mountain Retail Stores Become Showcase for Solar Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mountain Retail Stores Become Showcase for Solar Energy Local Officials, Business Leaders to Gather for Groundbreaking Ceremony For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., June 7, 1999 — A retail development owner who wants to set an example is helping make possible a new showcase for energy efficient buildings in the Colorado high country. Ground will be broken June 9 on the BigHorn Home Improvement Center in Silverthorne, which will boast a series of "firsts"

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Retail Buildings (1) Shell Percent Glass 0.4 Window (U-Factor 0.38-0.69 SHGC 0.40-0.44 Wall R-Value (2) 7.6-15.2 c.i. Roof R-Value Attic 30-60 Insulation Above Deck 15-25 c.i. Lighting Average Power Density (W/ft.^2) 1.3 System and Plant Heating Plant Gas Furnace(>225 kBtuh) 80% Combustion Efficiency Cooling Plant Air conditioner (>135-240 kBtuh) 10.8 EER/11.2 IPLV - 11.0 EER/11.5 IPLV Service Hot Water Gas Storage Water Heater (>75kBtuh) 90%

  9. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  10. Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008 – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008

  11. Water Outlet Control Mechanism for Fuel Cell System Operation in Variable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gravity Environments - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Water Outlet Control Mechanism for Fuel Cell System Operation in Variable Gravity Environments Self-Regulating Water Separation System for Fuel Cells National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contact NASA About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryInnovators at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) have

  12. Flexible stainless steel hose liner used to rehab drain pipe for seal gates and outlet tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, S.J.; Monsanto, R. )

    1993-08-01

    Not unlike other dams, the Bureau of Reclamation's 6,500-MW Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State has a large amount of embedded piping, conduits, and drains. Typically, these features were constructed of ductile iron, cast iron, or carbon steel materials. Over the years, excessive internal corrosion of the drains for 102-inch ring seal gates and outlet tubes created leaks that required attention. Reclamation performed a number of temporary repairs before it became evident that the drain system must be rehabilitated. After considering several alternatives for rehabilitation, Reclamation selected stainless steel flexible hose liners for the job. Reclamation is satisfied with the performance of the stainless steel flexible hose liner. The total cost for installing the liners for nine drain lines (for three outlet tubes) was $15,000. Of that, materials cost $7,500, and labor and overhead cost $7,500. The inserts themselves cost from $640 for an 18-foot by 6-inch section. While this was not the least expensive option, it was the best choice for this job. The procedure will be repeated for other outlet tubes at Grand Coulee. Information used in this rehabilitation is being made available to other Reclamation projects.

  13. Heat recovery steam generator outlet temperature control system for a combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martens, A.; Myers, G.A.; McCarty, W.L.; Wescott, K.R.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a command cycle electrical power plant including: a steam turbine and at least one set comprising a gas turbine, an afterburner and a heat recovery steam generator having an attemperator for supplying from an outlet thereof to the steam turbine superheated steam under steam turbine operating conditions requiring predetermined superheated steam temperature, flow and pressure; with the gas turbine and steam turbine each generating megawatts in accordance with a plant load demand; master control means being provided for controlling the steam turbine and the heat recovery steam generator so as to establish the steam operating conditions; the combination of: first control means responsive to the gas inlet temperature of the heat recovery steam generator and to the plant load demand for controlling the firing of the afterburner; second control means responsive to the superheated steam predetermined temperature and to superheated steam temperature from the outlet for controlling the attemperator between a closed and an open position; the first and second control means being operated concurrently to maintain the superheated steam outlet temperature while controlling the load of the gas turbine independently of the steam turbine operating conditions.

  14. REPORT TO CONGRESS ON COMPETITION IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL MARKETS

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    REPORT TO CONGRESS ON COMPETITION IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL MARKETS FOR ELECTRIC ENERGY Pursuant to Section 1815 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 The Electric Energy Market Competition Task Force The Electric Energy Market Competition Task Force Members: J. Bruce McDonald, Department of Justice Michael Bardee, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission John H. Seesel, Federal Trade Commission David Meyer, Department of Energy Karen Larsen, Department of Agriculture Report Contributors: Robin Allen -

  15. FGD markets & business in an age of retail wheeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.C.; Dalton, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses (1) the market and technology outlook for flue gas desulfurization ({open_quotes}FGD{close_quotes}) systems, with particular emphasis on wet systems in North America and the implications of retail wheeling of electricity and emission allowances for the utility industry, and (2) implications for the utility industry of architect/engineering ({open_quotes}A/E{close_quotes}) firm tendencies to reduce greatly the FGD vendor`s scope of award. The paper concludes that (1) the FGD market will be modest domestically and robust offshore over the forecast period (5-10 years), although the utility industry`s response to federal and state air toxics rules and retail wheeling may eventually grow the FGD market domestically beyond that created by compliance with Phase II of the Clean Air Act`s Title IV acid rain program alone, (2) new designs are likely to follow trends established in the past few years, but will likely include advanced processes that use higher velocity and smaller space, and possibly multi-pollutant control to remain competitive, and (3) shrinking of the FGD vendor`s scope may have adverse implications for the utility end-user, while retail wheeling may increase third-party ownership of FGD technology

  16. Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media and Retailers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media and Retailers Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media and Retailers This presentation provides helpful background information on the new legislation and the types of energy-efficient lighting available today. PDF icon Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media and Retailers More Documents & Publications Interior Lighting Efficiency for Municipalities Lighting Tip

  17. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Reliant Energy Retail Services","Investor-owned",38670...

  18. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for ...

  19. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

  20. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  1. Compensatory Paracrine Mechanisms That Define The Urothelial Response to Injury in Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bassuk, James; Lendvay, Thomas S.; Sweet, Robert; Han, Chang-Hee; Soygur, Tarkan; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Plaire, J. Chadwick; Charleston, Jay S.; Charleston, Lynne B.; Bagai, Shelly; Cochrane, Kimberly; Rubio, Eric; Bassuk, James A.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2007-06-21

    Diseases and conditions affecting the lower urinary tract are a leading cause of dysfunctional sexual health, incontinence, infection, and kidney failure. The growth, differentiation, and repair of the bladder's epithelial lining are regulated, in part, by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7 and -10 via a paracrine cascade originating in the mesenchyme (lamina propria) and targeting the receptor for FGF-7 and -10 within the transitional epithelium (urothelium). The FGF-7 gene is located at the 15q15-q21.1 locus on chromosome 15 and four exons generate a 3.852-kb mRNA. Five duplicated FGF-7 gene sequences that localized to chromosome 9 were predicted not to generate functional protein products, thus validating the use of FGF-7-null mice as an experimental model. Recombinant FGF-7 and -10 induced proliferation of human urothelial cells in vitro and transitional epithelium of wild-type and FGF-7-null mice in vivo.To determine the extent that induction of urothelial cell proliferation during the bladder response to injury is dependent on FGF-7, an animal model of partial bladder outlet obstruction was developed. Unbiased stereology was used to measure the percentage of proliferating urothelial cells between obstructed groups of wild-type and FGF-7-null mice. The stereological analysis indicated that a statistical significant difference did not exist between the two groups, suggesting that FGF-7 is not essential for urothelial cell proliferation in response to partial outlet obstruction. In contrast, a significant increase in FGF-10 expression was observed in the obstructed FGF-7-null group, indicating that the compensatory pathway that functions in this model results in urothelial repair.

  2. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  3. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of the heave performance of a two-body floating-point absorber wave energy system Yi-Hsiang Yu, Ye Li ⇑ National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 7 September 2011 Received in revised form 5 August 2012 Accepted 9 October 2012 Available online 17 October 2012 Keywords: Wave energy conversion Heave Computational Fluid Dynamics Reynolds-averaged

  4. Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Characteristics of LED A Lamps | Department of Energy Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps PDF icon caliper_retail-study_3-1.pdf More Documents & Publications Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps Report 20.3: Stress Testing of LED PAR38 Lamps DOE Booth Presentations from LIGHTFAIR International 2015

  5. New applications for high average power beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

    1993-08-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

  6. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (n,3n) reaction cross sections (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Publication Date: 2015-10-01 OSTI

  7. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions December 2014 Prepared for: Solid-State Lighting Program Building ...

  8. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (New York) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: New York References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File220101 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 22509 This article is a...

  9. DOE Awards $15 Million in Technical Assistance to Support Major Retailers,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financial Institutions and Real Estate Firms to Adopt Energy-Efficient Technologies | Department of Energy 5 Million in Technical Assistance to Support Major Retailers, Financial Institutions and Real Estate Firms to Adopt Energy-Efficient Technologies DOE Awards $15 Million in Technical Assistance to Support Major Retailers, Financial Institutions and Real Estate Firms to Adopt Energy-Efficient Technologies September 26, 2008 - 3:43pm Addthis Awards Encourage Adoption of Energy-Saving

  10. REPORT TO CONGRESS ON COMPETITION IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL MARKETS FOR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ELECTRIC ENERGY | Department of Energy REPORT TO CONGRESS ON COMPETITION IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL MARKETS FOR ELECTRIC ENERGY REPORT TO CONGRESS ON COMPETITION IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL MARKETS FOR ELECTRIC ENERGY The enclosed report is submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1815 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Section 1815 of the Act established a five-member Electric Energy Market Competition Task Force. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005)1 was designed to provide a comprehensive

  11. Effect of increases in energy-related labor forces upon retailing in Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robicheaux, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The heightened mining employment that will result from increased extraction of coal from Alabama's Warrior Coal Basin will boost retail sales and employment. The Warrior Coal Basin counties (Fayette, Jefferson, Tuscaloosa and Walker) are heavily dependent upon coal mining as a source of employment and wages. Further, since the counties' economies grew increasingly dependent upon coal mining activities throughout the 1970s, it was believed that it would be possible to measure, with some acceptable level of reliability, the impact of the steadily rising mining activity upon the area's retailing sector. Therefore, a small scale econometric model was developed which represents the interrelationships among income, mining and trade employment and retail sales in the four-county Warrior Coal Basin area. The results of two versions of the model are presented. In the first version, area-wide retail sales are treated in the aggregate. In the second version, retail sales are disaggregated into twelve categories (e.g., food, apparel, furniture, etc.). The models were specified using 1960 to 1976 data. The mining employment growth scenario used in this report called for steady increases in mining employment that culminated in an employment level that is 4000 above the baseline employment projections by 1985. Both versions of the model predicted that cumulative real regional income would increase by $1.39 billion over seven years with the added mining employment. The predicted impacts on trade employment and real retail sales varied between the two models, however. The aggregate model predicts the addition of 7500 trade workers and an additional $1.35 billion in real retail sales. The disaggregate model suggests that food stores, automobile dealers, general merchandise stores, gas stations and lumber and building materials retailers would enjoy the greatest positive benefits.

  12. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  13. Smolt Responses to Hydrodynamic Conditions in Forebay Flow Nets of Surface Flow Outlets, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Hedgepeth, J. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Deng, Zhiqun; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Serkowski, John A.; Steinbeck, John R.

    2009-04-01

    This study provides information on juvenile salmonid behaviors at McNary and The Dalles dams that can be used by the USACE, fisheries resource managers, and others to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance fish passage. We researched smolt movements and ambient hydrodynamic conditions using a new approach combining simultaneous acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and acoustic imaging device (AID) measurements at surface flow outlets (SFO) at McNary and The Dalles dams on the Columbia River during spring and summer 2007. Because swimming effort vectors could be computed from the simultaneous fish and flow data, fish behavior could be categorized as passive, swimming against the flow (positively rheotactic), and swimming with the flow (negatively rheotactic). We present bivariate relationships to provide insight into fish responses to particular hydraulic variables that engineers might consider during SFO design. The data indicate potential for this empirical approach of simultaneous water/fish measurements to lead to SFO design guidelines in the future.

  14. Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee O. Nelson

    2011-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540°C and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625–925°C. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

  15. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  16. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, DWH; Adlakha, S; Low, SH; De Martini, P; Chandy, KM

    2013-11-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reactor User Interface Technology Development Roadmaps for a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Outlet Temperature of 750 degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Mckirdy

    2010-12-01

    This report evaluates the technology readiness of the interface components that are required to transfer high-temperature heat from a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) to selected industrial applications. This report assumes that the HTGR operates at a reactor outlet temperature of 750°C and provides electricity and/or process heat at 700°C to conventional process applications, including the production of hydrogen.

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward for 750800C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Collins

    2009-08-01

    This document presents the NGNP Critical PASSCs and defines their technical maturation path through Technology Development Roadmaps (TDRMs) and their associated Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). As the critical PASSCs advance through increasing levels of technical maturity, project risk is reduced and the likelihood of within-budget and on-schedule completion is enhanced. The current supplier-generated TRLs and TDRMs for a 750800C reactor outlet temperature (ROT) specific to each supplier are collected in Appendix A.

  19. Dominion Retail Inc (New York) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 3763 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Average Rates Residential: 0.0593kWh...

  20. Texas Retail Energy, LLC (New York) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 50046 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Average Rates Commercial: 0.0507kWh...

  1. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel ...

  2. The political economy of retail wheeling, or how to not re-fight the last war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A.; Kihm, S.

    1994-04-01

    Disparities in utility rates - observably the result of poor supply-side resource planning - have been small before and will be small once again. Retail wheeling`s promise of short-run gains for a few would, ironically, destroy integrated resource processes in place today that guard against a repeat of yesterday`s planning mistakes. The authors argue that retail wheeling is a troubling answer to a mis-diagnosis of yesterday`s problem. They believe that a variety of other policies offer most of the benefits and few of the risks that retail wheeling poses. These include aggressive wholesale competition, judicious pruning of uneconomic capacity, and serious incorporation of environmental risks into utility planning and regulation.

  3. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To achieve a sizable and self-sustaining market for grid-connected, customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, solar will likely need to be competitive with retail electricity rates. In this report, we examine the impact of retail rate design on the economic value of commercial PV systems in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial customer retail rates currently offered in the state. We find that the specifics of the rate structure, combined with the characteristics of the customer’s underlying load and the size of the PV system, can have a substantial impact on the customer-economics of commercial PV systems.

  4. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  5. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for...

  6. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging ...

  7. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman ...

  8. Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grocery Stores | Department of Energy Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores Find the presentation for the June 3, 2015 webinar on the 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores below. The guide shows practical ways for grocery stores to achieve a 50% energy savings over ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and exceeds the requirements of 90.1-2013. Intended for grocery

  9. ,"Los Angeles Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Los Angeles Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Los Angeles Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices",8,"Weekly","5/23/2016","6/5/2000" ,"Release Date:","5/23/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  10. ,"New York City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices",8,"Weekly","5/23/2016","6/5/2000" ,"Release Date:","5/23/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  11. ,"New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices",12,"Weekly","5/23/2016","6/5/2000" ,"Release Date:","5/23/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  12. ,"San Francisco Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    San Francisco Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","San Francisco Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices",8,"Weekly","5/23/2016","6/5/2000" ,"Release Date:","5/23/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel

  13. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2011 the average used light vehicle price was 36% higher than in 1990, while the average new light vehicle price was 67% higher than it was in 1990. The average price of a used vehicle had been...

  14. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Contractor/Retailer Description

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The home improvement market includes a range of private-sector entities that currently provide or could offer home energy upgrade services. Most of these entities are remodelers, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) contractors, home performance contractors, or retailers; other actors are present in the sector (such as window installers and insulators), but this analysis focuses on these four main categories.

  15. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  16. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact 849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better ...

  17. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to the latest National Household Travel Survey, the average trip length grew to over 10 miles in 2009, just slightly over the 9.9 mile average in 2001. Trips to work in 2009 increased to...

  18. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First ...

  19. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first...

  20. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 File fotw835web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, ...

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FUELS Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy April 2013 Prepared by NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY Golden, Colorado 80401-3305 managed by

  2. The Impact of Retail Rate Structure on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact of Retail Rate Structure on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California Ryan Wiser, Andrew Mills, Galen Barbose & William Golove State Energy Advisory Board Meeting Berkeley, CA August 14, 2007 The Electricity Markets and Policy Group Conducts research and provides assistance to policy makers on issues related to: ¾ Energy Efficiency and Demand Response (Chuck Goldman) - Tracking industry trends - Program administration, planning, implementation, and evaluation -

  3. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-05-11

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  4. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-06-24

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05 to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  5. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ...

  6. ,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","22016","1151985" ,"Release Date:","4292016" ,"Next Release Date:","5312016" ,"Excel File ...

  7. Table 4. Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2003-2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2003-2013" "(dollars per peak watt)" ... Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report.' Note: ...

  8. Table 2. Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments, 2013" "Module value, total ... Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report' Note: ...

  9. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Authors: Rao T. ; Ben-Zvi I. ; Skarita, J. ; Wang, E. Publication Date: 2013-08-26 OSTI Identifier: ...

  10. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  11. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James 1 ; Monteith, Kristine 2 ; Seppi, Kevin 2 ; Martinez, Tony 2 + Show Author ...

  12. Acoustic Camera Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Approach and Fate at Surface Flow Outlets of Two Hydropower Dams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Serkowski, John A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Hedgepeth, J.; Skalski, John R.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Klatte, Bernard A.

    2006-08-04

    The objective of this study was to estimate and compare fate probabilities for juvenile salmon approaching two surface flow outlets (SFOs) to identify effective design characteristics. The SFOs differed principally in forebay location, depth, discharge, and water velocity over a sharp-crested weir. Both outlets were about 20 ft wide. The 22-ft deep Bonneville Powerhouse 2 Corner Collector (B2CC) was located in the southwest corner of the forebay and passed 5,000 ft3/s of water at normal-pool elevation. In contrast, The Dalles Dam ice and trash sluiceway outlet above Main Unit 1-3 (TDITC) was not located in a forebay corner, was only 7-ft deep, and discharged about 933 ft3/s at normal-pool elevation. The linear velocity of water over the weir was about 15 ft/s at the B2CC and 5 ft/s at the TDITC. We used a Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar (DIDSON) to record movements of fish within about 65 ft of the B2CC and within 35 ft of the TDITC. We actively tracked fish by manually adjusting pan and tilt rotator angles to keep targets in view. Contrary to expectations, active tracking did not provide a predominance of long tracks that clearly indicated fish fate because most tracks were incomplete. Active tracking did increase error in fish-position estimation, which complicated data processing, so we plan to sample multiple fixed zones in the future. The probability of fish entering each SFO was estimated by a Markov chain analysis, which did not require complete fish tracks. At the B2CC, we tracked 7,943 juvenile salmonids and most of them entered the B2CC. Fish moving south 40 to 60 ft upstream of the dam face were more likely to enter the eddy at the south end of the powerhouse than to enter the B2CC. At the TDITC, we tracked 2,821 smolts. Fish movement was complex with active swimming toward and away from the entrance. The high entrance probability zone (EPZ), where over 90% of tracked fish entered the SFO, extended 32 ft out at the B2CC and only 8 ft out at the TDITC. Greater discharge at the B2CC pushed the entrainment zone (EZ - where flow exceeded 7 ft/s) upstream from the entrance so that fish were entrained before they began to struggle against the flow. The high EPZ also was extended by flow along the powerhouse face at both sites, but more at the B2CC (about 450 ft) than at the TDITC (about 50 ft). Fish entering the large south eddy that circulated past the B2CC entrance were provided multiple opportunities to discover and enter. In contrast, fish moving past the sampled TDITC entrance either entered adjacent sluiceway openings or moved west to the spillway because there was no eddy to provide additional opportunities. Information from our study should be useful to fisheries managers and engineers seeking to transfer SFO technologies from one site to another. There are two important components to designing SFOs, the location within the forebay to take advantage of forebay circulation and specific entrance characteristics such as discharge and depth which affect the size and shape of the EZ and the high EPZ. Providing SFOs with an EZ extending upstream of structure could reduce entrance rejection, decrease forebay residence time and risk of predation, and increase passage of schools of smolts.

  13. Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Abstract not provided. Authors: Ermanoski, Ivan ; Siegel, Nathan Phillip Publication Date: 2013-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1143854 Report Number(s): SAND2013-5257C 456746

  14. Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Gears for New Light Vehicles, Model Years 1979-2012 Model Year Average Number of Gears 1979 3.3 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 ...

  15. ,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Average Natural Gas Prices",11,"Monthly","3/2016","01/15/1973" ,"Data 2","Annual Average Natural Gas Prices",11,"Annual",2015,"06/30/1922" ,"Release

  16. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,200...

  17. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 ...

  18. Average summer electric power bills expected to be lowest in...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    years The average U.S. household is expected to pay 395 for electricity this summer. That's down 2.5% from last year and the lowest residential summer power bill in four years, ...

  19. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is ...

  20. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  1. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 File fotw915web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices - Dataset Fact 835: ...

  2. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  3. "Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and ....015,"W",7.25,2.434,6.685,"W",1.1 33,"Primary Metal Industries",10.178,2.172,5.835,2...

  4. "Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and ...044,"W",1.006,2.507,0.576,"W",1.1 33,"Primary Metal Industries",0.035,0.325,0.809,2....

  5. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  6. Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

  7. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of individual company data. 1 Includes sales through retail outlets as well as all direct sales to end users that were not made through company-operated retail outlets,...

  8. E85 Retail Business Case: When and Why to Sell E85

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    A national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future E85 Retail Business Case: When and Why to Sell E85 C. Johnson and M. Melendez Technical Report NREL/TP-540-41590 December 2007 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 *

  9. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 2010 Top Supermarkets, by Sales 2010 All Commodity Supermarket Wal-Mart Stores 3,001 Kroger Co. 2,460 Safeway, Inc. 1,461 Supervalu, Inc. 1,504 Ahold USA, Inc. (Stop and Shop, Giant) 746 Publix Super Markets, Inc. 1,035 Delhaize America, Inc. (Food Lion) 1,641 H.E. Butt Grocery Co. (HEB) 291 Meijer Inc. 195 Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Co. (Pathmark) 373 Note(s): Source(s): All commodity volume in this example represents the "annualized range of the estimated retail sales volume of

  10. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Energy Benchmarks for Newly Constructed Retail Buildings, by Selected City and End-Use (thousand Btu per square foot) IECC Climate Zone Miami 1A Houston 2A Phoenix 2B Atlanta 3A Los Angeles 3B Las Vegas 3B San Francisco 3C Baltimore 4A Albuquerque 4B Seattle 4C Chicago 5A Boulder 5B Minneapolis 6A Helena 6B Duluth 7 Fairbanks 8 Note(s): Source(s): 108.9 0.1 9.4 Commercial building energy benchmarks are based off of the current stock of commercial buildings and reflect 2004 ASHRAE 90.1 Climate

  11. To Own or Lease Solar: Understanding Commercial Retailers' Decisions to Use Alternative Financing Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.; Margolis, R.

    2014-12-01

    This report examines the tradeoffs among financing methods for businesses installing onsite photovoltaics (PV). We present case studies of PV financing strategies used by two large commercial retailers that have deployed substantial U.S. PV capacity: IKEA, which owns its PV, and Staples, which purchases power generated from onsite PV systems through power purchase agreements (PPAs). We also analyze the financial considerations that influence any company's choice of PV financing strategy. Our goal in this report is to clarify the financial and institutional costs and benefits of financing strategies and to inform other companies that are considering launching or expanding similar PV programs.

  12. Business Case for Installing E85 at Retail Stations, Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    January 2008 Fact Sheet In a business environment where there are up to four gas stations on every major intersection, it's hard for retailers to differentiate themselves from their competitors. One way station owners can distinguish themselves and make a profit is to add alternative fuels, such as E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline), to their product mix. When pricing and availability of the fuel are positive, adding E85 can be a profitable move that can position a station as "green."

  13. Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  14. Table 3. Top Five Retailers of Electricity, with End Use Sectors, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Five Retailers of Electricity, with End Use Sectors, 2014" "Alaska" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of Provider","All Sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Golden Valley Elec Assn Inc","Cooperative",1219363,276627,129773,812963,0 2,"Chugach Electric Assn Inc","Cooperative",1134527,513748,563581,57198,0 3,"Anchorage Municipal

  15. U.S. Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Gasoline, All Grades Sales to End Users (Average) 2.301 3.050 3.154 3.049 2.855 2.003 1978-2015 Through Retail Outlets 2.306 3.058 3.168 ...

  16. S. 3047: A Bill to amend the antitrust laws in order to preserve and promote wholesale and retail competition in the retail gasoline market. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, September 13, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bill would amend the antitrust laws in order to preserve and promote wholesale and retail competition in the retail gasoline market. The bill defines limits on the purchases required of a retailer from the producer or refiner and defines the exceptions under which any large integrated refiner can operate any motor fuel service station in the US. The Federal Trade Commission is charged with the enforcement.

  17. Energy Implications of Retrofitting Retail Sector Rooftop Units with Stepped-Speed and Variable-Speed Functionality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studer, D.; Romero, R.; Herrmann, L.; Benne, K.

    2012-04-01

    Commercial retailers understand that retrofitting constant-speed RTU fan motors with stepped- or variable-speed alternatives could save significant energy in most U.S. climate zones. However, they lack supporting data, both real-world and simulation based, on the cost effectiveness and climate zone-specific energy savings associated with this measure. Thus, building managers and engineers have been unable to present a compelling business case for fan motor upgrades to upper management. This study uses whole-building energy simulation to estimate the energy impact of this type of measure so retailers can determine its economic feasibility.

  18. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam with Emphasis on the Prototype Surface Flow Outlet, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Monter, Tyrell J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2009-12-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of Top Spill Weirs installed at two spillbays at John Day Dam and evaluate the effectiveness of these surface flow outlets at attracting juvenile salmon away from the powerhouse and reducing turbine passage. The Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids passing the dam and also for calculating performance metrics used to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the dam at passing juvenile salmonids.

  19. Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product/Sales Type: Residual Fuel, Average - Sales to End Users Residual Fuel, Average - Sales for Resale Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales for Resale Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product/Sales Type Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15

  20. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  1. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James [1] ; Monteith, Kristine [2] ; Seppi, Kevin [2] ; Martinez, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory BYU Publication Date: 2011-07-28 OSTI Identifier: 1084524 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04419; LA-UR-11-4419 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  2. The New Hampshire retail competition pilot program and the role of green marketing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, E.A.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    Most states in the US are involved in electric industry restructuring, from considering the pros and cons in regulatory dockets to implementing legislative mandates for full restructuring and retail access for all consumers. Several states and utilities have initiated pilot programs in which multiple suppliers or service providers may compete for business and some utility customers can choose among competing suppliers. The State of New Hampshire has been experimenting with a pilot program, mandated by the State Legislature in 1995 and implemented by the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (NHPUC), before it implements full retail access. Green marketing, an attempt to characterize the supplier or service provider as environmentally friendly without referring to the energy resource used to generate electricity, was used by several suppliers or service providers to attract customers. This appeal to environmental consumerism was moderately successful, but it raised a number of consumer protection and public policy issues. This issue brief examines the marketing methods used in New Hampshire and explores what green marketing might mean for the development of renewable energy generation. It also addresses the issues raised and their implications.

  3. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 9.45 15.81 11.72 12.09 9.45 8.76 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 8.91 8.02 7.57 7.93 6.88 6.67

  4. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.20 2006-2010 Marketers 13.51 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 81.7 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 ...

  5. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 17.85 2006-2010 Marketers 19.44 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 97.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 ...

  6. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.77 2006-2010 Marketers 14.87 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 96.6 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.11 9.51 8.50 9.55 ...

  7. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Average Price 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 10.00 2006-2010 Marketers 7.61 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies ...

  8. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.64 2006-2010 Marketers 13.64 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 90.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 ...

  9. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.82 2006-2010 Marketers 13.78 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 91.2 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.47 10.42 10.24 10.11 ...

  10. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  11. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  12. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 4.41 23.37 21.56 19.15 16.78 16.00 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 11.15 10.61 10.69 10.89 10.70 10.62

  13. Georgia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 5.75 20.43 15.20 14.41 10.79 10.94 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 9.38 8.65 9.72 7.80 6.57 7.05

  14. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Ma 8.32 NA 10.56 9.85 8.75 8.64 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 11.10 NA 8.27 8.13 7.19 7.44

  15. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 9.39 13.51 12.72 13.12 9.95 9.46 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 11.11 9.98 9.56 10.44 NA 8.18

  16. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 3.21 8.93 7.84 7.55 7.25 7.58 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 9.05 7.46 6.75 6.59 6.50 6.64

  17. U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History Conventional, Average 1.785 1.759 1.601 1.472 1.346 1.210 1994-2016 Conventional Regular 1.743 1.721 1.562 1.431 1.305 1.169 ...

  18. Parity-violating anomalies and the stationarity of stochastic averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.

    1988-01-15

    Within the framework of stochastic quantization the parity-violating anomalies in odd space-time dimensions are derived from the asymptotic stationarity of the stochastic average of a certain fermion bilinear. Contrary to earlier attempts, this method yields the correct anomalies for both massive and massless fermions.

  19. Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    speed between peak traffic times and non-peak hours can be as much as 1.5 mph (I-45) or as little as 0.2 mph (I-81). Map of the U.S. showing the highway system and the average ...

  20. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  1. Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration Electricity Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), revenue, prices & customers Generation and thermal output Electric power plants generating capacity Consumption of fuels used to generate electricity Receipts of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Average cost of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Fossil-fuel stocks for electricity generation Revenue and

  2. Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ," (kWh)",," (million Btu)" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic

  3. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dima, Germn C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  4. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  5. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-14

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one characteristic, but not others. Consumers (and specifiers) may have a hard time distinguishing better-performing lamps from one another; at this time, physical experimentation is likely the best evaluation tool.

  6. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  7. Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edeling, W.N.; Cinnella, P.; Dwight, R.P.

    2014-10-15

    The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

  8. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Mills, Andrew

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer adoption of PV (from -14% to -61%, depending on the design). Moving towards time-varying rates, on the other hand, may accelerate near- and medium-term deployment (through 2030), but is found to slow adoption in the longer term (-22% in 2050).

  9. Gauge and averaging in gravitational self-force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gralla, Samuel E.

    2011-10-15

    A difficulty with previous treatments of the gravitational self-force is that an explicit formula for the force is available only in a particular gauge (Lorenz gauge), where the force in other gauges must be found through a transformation law once the Lorenz-gauge force is known. For a class of gauges satisfying a 'parity condition' ensuring that the Hamiltonian center of mass of the particle is well-defined, I show that the gravitational self-force is always given by the angle average of the bare gravitational force. To derive this result I replace the computational strategy of previous work with a new approach, wherein the form of the force is first fixed up to a gauge-invariant piece by simple manipulations, and then that piece is determined by working in a gauge designed specifically to simplify the computation. This offers significant computational savings over the Lorenz gauge, since the Hadamard expansion is avoided entirely and the metric perturbation takes a very simple form. I also show that the rest mass of the particle does not evolve due to first-order self-force effects. Finally, I consider the 'mode sum regularization' scheme for computing the self-force in black hole background spacetimes, and use the angle-average form of the force to show that the same mode-by-mode subtraction may be performed in all parity-regular gauges. It appears plausible that suitably modified versions of the Regge-Wheeler and radiation gauges (convenient to Schwarzschild and Kerr, respectively) are in this class.

  10. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnema, Eric; Leach, Matt; Pless, Shanti

    2013-06-05

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Should utility incumbents be able to extend their brand name to competitive retail markets? An economic perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abel, J.R.; Clements, M.E.

    1998-06-01

    As retail competition begins, at least for the short run, there should be policy restrictions on an incumbent utility`s ability to extend its brand to an affiliated marketer. However, a utility-affiliated marketer should be permitted to compete in a newly deregulated market using a generic or self-developed brand name. If extending a brand name from an incumbent utility to an affiliated marketer does in fact create real barriers to entry in the retail market, competition will be crippled in this market and consumers will suffer. More important, deregulation will appear to have failed in the electric power market--a consequence with effects reaching past the electricity industry to other industries considering deregulation as a viable policy choice. However, if real barriers to entry are not erected by this type of brand name extension, the industry may suffer from lower quality products, less service, and reduced innovation if policymakers prohibit brand name extension.

  13. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.30 7.30 7.40 7.50 7.60 AEO 1995 1993 6.80 6.80 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20

  14. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Diks, Cees G H; Clark, Martyn P

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  15. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 2010 Top Retail Companies, by Sales # Stores % Change over Chain ($billion) 2009 Revenues 2010 2009 Stores Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. 419.0 3.4% 8,970 6.0% The Kroger Co. 82.2 7.1% 3,605 -0.4% Costco 76.3 9.1% 572 1.1% The Home Depot 68.0 2.8% 2,248 0.2% Walgreen Co. 67.4 6.4% 8,046 7.3% Target Corp. 67.4 3.1% 1,750 0.6% CVS Caremark 57.3 3.6% 7,182 2.2% Best Buy 50.3 1.2% 4,172 3.7% Lowes Cos. 48.8 3.4% 1,749 2.3% Sears Holdings 43.3 -1.6% 4,038 2.2% Source(s): 2010 Revenues % Change over Chain

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Energy Benchmarks for Existing Retail Buildings, by Selected City and End-Use (thousand Btu per square foot) IECC Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Miami 1A 0.5 0.7 23.0 25.2 14.3 16.1 Houston 2A 11.6 12.4 16.2 18.9 14.6 16.9 Phoenix 2B 8.3 10.2 17.2 21.3 14.2 17.5 Atlanta 3A 24.9 26.2 9.2 11.2 15.1 17.4 Los Angeles 3B 6.9 7.7 3.3 3.9 13.4 14.1 Las Vegas 3B 15.4 17.9 11.6 14.8 12.7 16.9 San Francisco 3C 22.4 22.5 0.7 1.0 10.6 12.1 Baltimore 4A 43.0 46.9 6.2 7.9 13.3 16.2 Albuquerque 4B 30.2 33.8 5.3

  18. Outfall Site and Type Selection for a New Surface Flow Outlet to Pass Juvenile Salmonids at Bonneville Dams Second Powerhouse, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Giorgi, Albert E.; Kuhn, Karen; Lee, Randall T.; Plump, John H.; Stensby, David A.; Sweeney, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    A site near the downstream tip of Cascades Island with a mid-level chute outfall type was selected for the high flow (> 28.3 m3/s) outfall of the new surface flow outlet for juvenile salmonids at Bonneville Dams Second Powerhouse (B2). The new passage route and outfall are a result of modifications to the original ice and trash sluice chute to increase discharge capacity and improve passage conditions, including a new outfall type and site. Technical guidelines on high flow outfall location and design were established concurrently with the outfall development process. Critical design parameters for the new B2 outfall included discharge of 150 m3/s, jet entry velocities approaching 15.2 m/s, and a tailwater elevation range of 6.1 m. For outfall siting, the selection process began with identification of nine initial alternatives. Screening, evaluation, and selection stages narrowed the list to two outfall sites Range D 122 m directly downstream from the existing sluice chute outfall and Range F 760 m downstream near the end of Cascades Island. For outfall type, the selection process was initiated with conceptualization of 13 alternatives. Following successive screening, evaluation, consolidation, and selection stages, two outfall types became finalists Adjustable Cantilever and Mid-Level Cantilever. The four combinations of outfall site/type were evaluated in 1:30 and 1:100 scale physical hydraulic models and a Mid-Level Cantilever at the tip of Cascades Island in Range F was selected. During further engineering after our study, the cantilever was replaced with a monolith structure to reduce construction costs, resulting in a mid-level chute outfall that was installed in 2004. Post-construction evaluations indicated survival rates around 100% through the B2CC were the highest of all passage routes at Bonneville Dam. The B2CC surface flow outlet with its high flow outfall provided a major improvement to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam.

  19. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles Preprint M. Melaina National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. Bremson University of California Davis K. Solo Lexidyne, LLC Presented at the 31st USAEE/IAEE North American Conference Austin, Texas November 4-7, 2012 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5600-56898

  20. Why Do Motor Gasoline Prices Vary Regionally? California Case Study

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the difference between the retail gasoline prices in California and the average U.S. retail prices.

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  2. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Bremson, J.; Solo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

  3. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine, Spillway, and Regulating Outlet at Detroit Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-05-06

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways, a Francis turbine, and a regulating outlet (RO) at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes. The study was performed in July, October, and December 2009 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe strike, collision, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Detroit Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 5-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine and spillway passage. However, none of the passage routes tested is safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  4. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine and Regulating Outlet at Cougar Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009–2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-05-23

    Fish passage conditions through a Francis turbine and a regulating outlet (RO) at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions encountered during passage via specific routes. The RO investigation was performed in December 2009 and the turbine evaluation in January 2010, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision, strike, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Cougar Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 3.7-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine passage. Compared to mainstem Columbia River passage routes, none of the Cougar Dam passage routes as tested are safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  5. Fact #715: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to Rise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age for cars and light trucks continues to rise as consumers hold onto their vehicles longer. Between 1995 and 2011, the average age for cars increased by 32% from 8.4 years to 11.1...

  6. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Average Square Footage of Northeast Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Northeast",20.8,2121,1663,921,836,656,363 "Northeast Divisions and

  7. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Average Square Footage of Midwest Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Midwest",25.9,2272,1898,1372,912,762,551 "Midwest Divisions and

  8. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Average Square Footage of South Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total South",42.1,1867,1637,1549,732,642,607 "South Divisions and

  9. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Average Square Footage of West Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total West",24.8,1708,1374,800,628,506,294 "West Divisions and States"

  10. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Square Footage of Single-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Single-Family",78.6,2422,2002,1522,880,727,553 "Census

  11. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Average Square Footage of Multi-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Multi-Family",28.1,930,807,535,453,393,261 "Census Region"

  12. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Average Square Footage of Mobile Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Mobile Homes",6.9,1087,985,746,413,375,283 "Census Region"

  13. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Average Square Footage of U.S. Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total",113.6,1971,1644,1230,766,639,478 "Census Region"

  14. Properties of tropical convection observed by ARM millimeter-radars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Residential Commercial/Institutional Industrial Through Retail Outlets Petro-Chemical Other End Users Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Sales Type Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History U.S. - - - - - - 1993-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) - - - - - - 1993-2016 New England (PADD 1A) - - - - - - 1993-2016

  15. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Box Retail -- 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of medium box retail buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The recommendations are given by climate zone and address building envelope, fenestration, lighting systems, HVAC systems, building automation and controls, outside air treatment, service water heating, plug loads, and photovoltaic systems. The report presents several paths to 50% savings, which correspond to different levels of integrated design. These are recommendations only, and are not part of a code or standard. The recommendations are not exhaustive, but we do try to emphasize the benefits of integrated building design, that is, a design approach that analyzes a building as a whole system, rather than as a disconnected collection of individually engineered subsystems.

  16. ARM: 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Wind and Moment Averages

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Wind and Moment Averages Title: ARM: 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Wind and Moment Averages 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Wind and Moment Averages Authors: Timothy Martin ; Paytsar Muradyan ; Richard Coulter Publication Date: 2012-12-06 OSTI Identifier: 1095573 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)

  17. Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hamiltonian model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective Hamiltonian model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective Hamiltonian model We develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of an averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an effective Hamiltonian, as well as decoherence terms in Lindblad form. Applying

  18. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015 Even with the recent increases in gasoline prices, the average U.S. household is still expected save $710 in gasoline costs this year compared with what was paid at the pump in 2014. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the national average price for regular gasoline is expected to be $2.39 per gallon this year. That's almost $1 less than the $3.36 average in 2014. Lower crude oil prices

  19. Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years The annual average price for U.S. regular-grade gasoline is expected to fall below $2 per gallon this year for the first time since 2004. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said drivers will pay on average $1.98 per gallon to fill up at the pump with regular-grade gasoline. EIA expects the monthly average price of gasoline to reach a seven-year low of $1.82 per gallon in February, before

  20. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " ...

  1. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1929-2015 - Dataset | Department of Energy 5: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 File fotw#915_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact #888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices -

  2. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David Papp, Dávid; Unkelbach, Jan

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  3. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    9 Number of Stores and Average Sales in the Grocery Industry as of 2007 Store Type Supermarket Convenience Grocery (<$2million) Wholesale Clubs Military Convenience Stores Total Source(s): 0.4 2.2 196.2 963.9 DOE/EERE/Navigant Consulting, Energy Savings Potential and R&D Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration, Sept. 2009, Table 3-2, p. 27. 145.9 306.6 13.7 18.2 1.2 101.5 Number of Stores US Annual Sales (1,000s) ($ Billions) 35.0 535.4

  4. Solid-State Lighting News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    consumers. The report follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012. LED replacement lamps are available through many retail outlets, and CALiPER testing offers insights on...

  5. Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Sources: Energy Information Administration Forms EIA-782A, "Refiners'...

  6. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Sources: Energy Information Administration Forms EIA-782A, "Refiners'...

  7. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Note: Totals may not equal the sum of the components due to rounding....

  8. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'Gas...

  9. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Sources: Energy Information Administration Forms EIA-782A, "Refiners'...

  10. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'Gas...

  11. Summary Statistics Table 1. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'Gas...

  12. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'Gas...

  13. A comparison of spatial averaging and Cadzow's method for array wavenumber estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.B.; Clark, G.A.

    1989-10-31

    We are concerned with resolving superimposed, correlated seismic waves with small-aperture arrays. The limited time-bandwidth product of transient seismic signals complicates the task. We examine the use of MUSIC and Cadzow's ML estimator with and without subarray averaging for resolution potential. A case study with real data favors the MUSIC algorithm and a multiple event covariance averaging scheme.

  14. Advanced Energy Design Guides Slash Energy Use in Schools and Retail Buildings by 50% (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Results Achievement NREL's Commercial Buildings Group executed advanced energy modeling simulations and optimized the design of schools and retail buildings to develop recommendations that result in 50% energy savings over code. NREL developed the simulation tools and led the committee that produced the guides. Key Result The Advanced Energy Design Guides, based on the work of NREL's researchers, provide owners, contractors, engineers, and architects user-friendly, how-to guidance by

  15. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and

  16. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1929-2015 | Department of Energy 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week When adjusted for inflation, the average annual price of gasoline has fluctuated greatly, and has recently experienced sharp increases and decreases. The effect of the U.S. embargo of oil from Iran can be seen in the early 1980's with the price of gasoline peaking in

  17. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see big savings at the gasoline pump this summer U.S. consumers are expected to pay the lowest average price for gasoline in six years during this summer's driving season, mostly because of lower crude oil costs. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the price for regular gasoline should average $2.45 per gallon this summer. That's down more than a dollar from the $3.59 per gallon seen last summer, and the cheapest average summer pump price since 2009.

  18. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Historical Gas Prices File fotw#888_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. the First Time in Six Years - Dataset | Department of Energy

    Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years File fotw#889_web.xlsx More Documents

  19. Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average trip length (one-way) is 9.7 miles according to the 2009 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Trip lengths vary by the purpose of the trip. Shopping and family/personal business...

  20. U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In its latest monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said low oil prices will keep the average annual price for a gallon of regular-grade gasoline at 1.89 ...

  1. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The...

  2. U.S. average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012 ... Diesel fuel will continue to cost more than gasoline because of strong global demand for ...

  3. Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is then assumed that the domain averaged irradiance F at the bottom of two layers is , Fd ) C exp( ) , ; ( P C 1 F 0 0 0 u where P is a gamma distribution expressing the...

  4. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel...

  5. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer’s fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain model year (MY). First enacted by...

  6. Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    According to the Federal Highway Administration, the average fuel economy for all light vehicles on the road today is 21.4 miles per gallon (mpg). A person owning a gasoline ...

  7. Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of an averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an effective Hamiltonian, as ...

  8. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. "Table HC1.1.3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit-- Single-Family and Mobile Homes" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit

  10. "Table HC1.2.3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit

  11. Monitoring and Characterization of Miscellaneous Electrical Loads in a Large Retail Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile-Polese, L.; Frank, S.; Sheppy, M.; Lobato, C.; Rader, E.; Smith, J.; Long, N.

    2014-02-01

    Buildings account for 40% of primary energy consumption in the United States (residential 22%; commercial 18%). Most (70% residential and 79% commercial) is used as electricity. Thus, almost 30% of U.S. primary energy is used to provide electricity to buildings. Plug loads play an increasingly critical role in reducing energy use in new buildings (because of their increased efficiency requirements), and in existing buildings (as a significant energy savings opportunity). If all installed commercial building miscellaneous electrical loads (CMELs) were replaced with energy-efficient equipment, a potential annual energy saving of 175 TWh, or 35% of the 504 TWh annual energy use devoted to MELs, could be achieved. This energy saving is equivalent to the annual energy production of 14 average-sized nuclear power plants. To meet DOE's long-term goals of reducing commercial building energy use and carbon emissions, the energy efficiency community must better understand the components and drivers of CMEL energy use, and develop effective reduction strategies. These goals can be facilitated through improved data collection and monitoring methodologies, and evaluation of CMELs energy-saving techniques.

  12. Revision of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation - 12510

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Maurice; Kennedy, James E.; Ridge, Christianne; Lowman, Donald [U.S. NRC, Washington, DC, 20555-0001 (United States); Cochran, John [Sandia National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation governing low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 'Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste', 10 CFR Part 61, establishes a waste classification system based on the concentration of specific radionuclides contained in the waste. The regulation also states, at 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8), that, 'the concentration of a radionuclide (in waste) may be averaged over the volume of the waste, or weight of the waste if the units are expressed as nanocuries per gram'. The NRC's Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation provides guidance on averaging radionuclide concentrations in waste under 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8) when classifying waste for disposal. In 2007, the NRC staff proposed to revise the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is an NRC guidance document for averaging and classifying wastes under 10 CFR 61. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is used by nuclear power plants (NPPs) licensees and sealed source users, among others. In addition, three of the four U.S. LLW disposal facility operators are required to honor the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation as a licensing condition. In 2010, the Commission directed the staff to develop guidance regarding large scale blending of similar homogenous waste types, as described in SECY-10-0043 as part of its Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation revision. The Commission is improving the regulatory approach used in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation by moving towards a making it more risk-informed and performance-based approach, which is more consistent with the agency's regulatory policies. Among the improvements to the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation are more risk-informed limits for the sizes of sealed sources for safe disposal. Using more realistic intruder exposure scenarios, the suggested limits for Class B and C waste disposal of sealed sources, particularly Cs-137 and Co-60, have been increased. These suggested changes, and others in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, if adopted by Agreement States, have the potential to eliminate numerous orphan sources (i.e., sources that currently have no disposal pathway) that are now being stored. Permanent disposal of these sources, rather than temporary storage, will help reduce safety and security risks. The revised Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation has an alternative approach section which provides flexibility to generators and processors, while also ensuring that intruder protection will be maintained. Alternative approaches provide flexibility by allowing for consideration of likelihood of intrusion, the possibility of averaging over larger volumes and allowing for disposal of large activity sources. The revision has improved the organization of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, improved its clarity, better documented the bases for positions, and made the positions more risk informed while also maintaining protection for intruder as required by 10 CFR Part 61. (authors)

  13. Influence of wind speed averaging on estimates of dimethylsulfide emission fluxes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, E. G.; Shaw, W. J.; Easter, R. C.; Bian, X.; Ghan, S. J.

    2002-12-03

    The effect of various wind-speed-averaging periods on calculated DMS emission fluxes is quantitatively assessed. Here, a global climate model and an emission flux module were run in stand-alone mode for a full year. Twenty-minute instantaneous surface wind speeds and related variables generated by the climate model were archived, and corresponding 1-hour-, 6-hour-, daily-, and monthly-averaged quantities calculated. These various time-averaged, model-derived quantities were used as inputs in the emission flux module, and DMS emissions were calculated using two expressions for the mass transfer velocity commonly used in atmospheric models. Results indicate that the time period selected for averaging wind speedsmore » can affect the magnitude of calculated DMS emission fluxes. A number of individual marine cells within the global grid show DMS emissions fluxes that are 10-60% higher when emissions are calculated using 20-minute instantaneous model time step winds rather than monthly-averaged wind speeds, and at some locations the differences exceed 200%. Many of these cells are located in the southern hemisphere where anthropogenic sulfur emissions are low and changes in oceanic DMS emissions may significantly affect calculated aerosol concentrations and aerosol radiative forcing.« less

  14. Average M shell fluorescence yields for elements with 70?Z?92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, V.; Aylikci, N. K.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    The theoretical, experimental and analytical methods for the calculation of average M-shell fluorescence yield (?{sup }{sub M}) of different elements are very important because of the large number of their applications in various areas of physical chemistry and medical research. In this paper, the bulk of the average M-shell fluorescence yield measurements reported in the literature, covering the period 1955 to 2005 are interpolated by using an analytical function to deduce the empirical average M-shell fluorescence yield in the atomic range of 70?Z?92. The results were compared with the theoretical and fitted values reported by other authors. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  15. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2010-07-15

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  16. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer; Mayes, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  17. Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005 " ,,"Average Square Feet per--" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Housing Unit",,,"Household Member" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2171,1618,1031,845,630,401 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,2334,1664,562,911,649,220

  18. Table HC1.1.4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  19. Table HC1.2.2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace, " " Per Housing Unit and Per Household Member, 2005" ,,"Average Square Feet" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Per Housing Unit",,,"Per Household Member" "Living Space Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2033,1618,1031,791,630,401 "Total Floorspace (Square

  20. Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  1. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  2. Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average The amount of natural gas put into underground storage since the beginning of the so-called "injection season" in April has been above the five-year average by a wide margin. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said natural gas inventories, which are running more than 50% above year ago levels, are on track to reach almost 4 trillion cubic feet by the end of October which marks the start of

  3. Performance and production requirements for the optical components in a high-average-power laser system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Doss, F.W.; Taylor, J.R.; Wong, J.N.

    1999-07-02

    Optical components needed for high-average-power lasers, such as those developed for Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), require high levels of performance and reliability. Over the past two decades, optical component requirements for this purpose have been optimized and performance and reliability have been demonstrated. Many of the optical components that are exposed to the high power laser light affect the quality of the beam as it is transported through the system. The specifications for these optics are described including a few parameters not previously reported and some component manufacturing and testing experience. Key words: High-average-power laser, coating efficiency, absorption, optical components

  4. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Commercial Consumers by Local Distributio Area: District of Columbia Florida Georgia Maryland Michigan New Jersey New York Ohio Pennsylvania Virginia Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Residential Average Price 13.53 13.06 12.10 12.45 13.05 12.52 1980-2015 Commercial Average Price 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18

  5. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Commercial Consumers by Local Distributio 18.17 16.21 12.60 10.70 9.96 9.53 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 11.50 11.68 11.28 10.01 9.50 9.30

  6. Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Gears in New Cars and Light Trucks Model Year Gears 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 1987 3.9 1988 3.9 1989 3.9 1990 4.0 1991 4.0 ...

  7. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Mark 2.38 10.30 9.08 7.85 6.55 6.86 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 8.03 8.10 8.66 8.24 7.76 7.66

  8. New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 7.53 14.26 12.27 11.42 10.31 9.45 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 5.99 6.27 6.33 6.82 6.59 6.58

  9. Ohio Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers 24.31 15.36 9.68 7.40 6.48 6.44 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 7.99 6.79 6.03 5.53 5.32 5.30

  10. Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

  11. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  12. Table N8.2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " ...,0,0,1.21,0,"W","W",0,0,0,0.46,7.8 331,"Primary Metals",4.17,133.23,3.29,1.42,2.19,1.4,0...

  13. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " ...98,0,0,0,0,0,0,"W",0,0,0,"W",0,1.4 331,"Primary Metals",4.94,0.1,72.69,51.26,102.06,50.5,...

  14. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " ...88,0,0,0,0,0,0,"W",0,0,0,"W",0,1.4 331,"Primary Metals",4.94,68.32,3.67,1.95,4.17,1.92,"...

  15. Averaged Description of Flow (Steady and Transient) and Nonreactive Solute Transport in Random Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schvidler, M.; Karasaki, K.

    2011-06-15

    In previous papers (Shvidler and Karasaki, 1999, 2001, 2005, and 2008) we presented and analyzed an approach for finding the general forms of exactly averaged equations of flow and transport in porous media. We studied systems of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded domains with stochastically homogeneous conductivity fields. A brief analysis of exactly averaged equations of nonsteady flow and nonreactive solute transport was also presented. At the core of this approach is the existence of appropriate random Green's functions. For example, we showed that in the case of a 3-dimensional unbounded domain the existence of appropriate random Green's functions is sufficient for finding the exact nonlocal averaged equations for flow velocity using the operator with a unique kernel-vector. Examination of random fields with global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy and orthotropy) makes it possible to describe significantly different types of averaged equations with nonlocal unique operators. It is evident that the existence of random Green's functions for physical linear processes is equivalent to assuming the existence of some linear random operators for appropriate stochastic equations. If we restricted ourselves to this assumption only, as we have done in this paper, we can study the processes in any dimensional bounded or unbounded fields and in addition, cases in which the random fields of conductivity and porosity are stochastically nonhomogeneous, nonglobally symmetrical, etc.. It is clear that examining more general cases involves significant difficulty and constricts the analysis of structural types for the processes being studied. Nevertheless, we show that we obtain the essential information regarding averaged equations for steady and transient flow, as well as for solute transport.

  16. HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LOW EMITTANCE BEAM EMPLOYING CW NORMAL CONDUCTING GUN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KEWISCH, J.; PAI, C.

    2007-06-25

    CW normal conducting guns usually do not achieve very high field gradient and waste much RF power at high field gradient compared to superconducting cavities. But they have less trapped modes and wakefields compared to the superconducting cavities due to their low Q. The external bucking coil can also be applied very close to the cathode to improve the beam quality. By using a low frequency gun with a recessed cathode and a carefully designed beam line we can get a high average current and a high quality beam with acceptable RF power loss on the cavity wall. This paper shows that the CW normal conducting gun can be a backup solution for those projects which need high peak and average current, low emittance electron beams such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) e-cooling project and Energy Recovery Linac (Em) project.

  17. Gatling gun: high average polarized current injector for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    This idea was originally developed in 2001 for, at that time, an ERL-based (and later recirculating-ring) electron-ion collider at JLab. Naturally the same idea is applicable for any gun requiring current exceeding capability of a single cathode. ERL-based eRHIC is one of such cases. This note related to eRHIC was prepared at Duke University in February 2003. In many case photo-injectors can have a limited average current - it is especially true about polarized photo-guns. It is know that e-RHIC requires average polarized electron current well above currently demonstrated by photo-injectors - hence combining currents from multiple guns is can be useful option for eRHIC.

  18. Coupling of an average-atom model with a collisional-radiative equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.

    2014-11-15

    We present a method to combine a collisional-radiative equilibrium model and an average-atom model to calculate bound and free electron wavefunctions in hot dense plasmas by taking into account screening. This approach allows us to calculate electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity as well as pressure in non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas. Illustrations of the method are presented for dilute titanium plasma.

  19. Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging Attendees: Representatives from Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) met at the DOE offices in Germantown, Maryland on 3 October 2007. Representatives from Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) participated in the meeting via a teleconference link. Discussion: DOE believes that

  20. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  1. Effect of vitrification temperature upon the solar average absorptance properties of Pyromark Series 2500 black paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.; Mahoney, A.R.

    1986-06-01

    A significant drop in production efficiency has occurred over time at the Solar One facility at Barstow, California, primarily as a result of the degradation of the Pyromark Series 2500 black paint used as the absorptive coating on the receiver panels. As part of the investigation of the problem, the solar-averaged adsorptance properties of the paint were determined as a function of vitrification temperature, since it is known that a significant amount of the panel surface area at Solar One was vitrified at temperatures below those recommended by the paint manufacturer (540/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/F). Painted samples initially vitrified at 230/sup 0/C (450/sup 0/F), 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F), 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), and 480/sup 0/C (900/sup 0/F) exhibited significantly lower solar-averaged absorptance values (0.02 absorptance units) compared to samples vitrified at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). Thus, Solar One began its service life below optimal levels. After 140 h of thermal aging at 370/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F) and 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F), all samples regardless of their initial vitrification temperatures, attained the same solar-averaged absorptance value (..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.973). Therefore, both the long-term low-temperature vitrification and the short-term high-temperature vitrification can be used to obtain optimal or near-optimal absorptance of solar flux. Futher thermal aging of vitrified samples did not result in paint degradation, clearly indicating that high solar flux is required to produce this phenomenon. The panels at Solar One never achieved optimal absorptance because their exposure to high solar flux negated the effect of long-term low-temperature vitrification during operation. On future central receiver projects, every effort should be made to properly vitrify the Pyromark coating before its exposure to high flux conditions.

  2. Properties of a new average power Nd-doped phosphate laser glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.; Wilke, G.D.; Hayden, J.S.

    1995-03-09

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  3. Laser properties of an improved average-power Nd-doped phosphate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.

    1995-03-15

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties (expansion, conduction, fracture toughness, and Young`s modulus), and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  4. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James

    2012-07-31

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  5. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  6. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 637 665 699 1970's 737 751 777 779 734 730 789 745 784 811 1980's 739 693 696 625 672 634 587 606 647 652 1990's 619 626 636 641 639 654 669 675 595 608 2000's 635 605 621 617 609 577 537 568 579 586 2010's 585 593 540 613 640 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  7. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  8. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Coal NAICS TOTAL Acetylene Breeze Total Anthracite Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (cu ft) (short tons) (short tons) (short tons) Total United States 311 Food 9.12 0.26 0.00 53.43 90.85 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6.30 0.29 0.00 51.34 50.47 311221 Wet Corn Milling 4.87 0.48 0.00 47.74 50.47 31131 Sugar

  9. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Row"

  10. Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014" "Year","State","Industry Sector Category","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Other","Total" 2014,"AK","Total Electric Industry",19.14,17.09,15.66,0,"NA",17.46 2014,"AL","Total Electric Industry",11.48,10.79,6.15,0,"NA",9.27

  11. jcpenney retail renovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Zhang, Jian; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Wilburn, Matthew S.

    2011-06-30

    JC Penney is a partner with the DOE's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program, working with PNNL to explore energy design measures (EDMs) that may be applied to their building portfolio. A site in Colonial Heights, VA was chosen for a retrofit project; computer modeling predicts 45% improved energy performance compared to baseline operations. This case study reviews EDMs that were selected and their performance as of June 2011.

  12. Retail Power Marketer

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 0 6 All other costs 0 7 Approval Expires: 05312017 SCHEDULE 6. PART B. DEMAND RESPONSE PROGRAMS Schedule 6. Part B. Energy and Demand Savings -- Demand Response ANNUAL ...

  13. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | Month | | | | | | Sales | | | | | | for | Commercial |Industrial| Through | Other | |Resale |Institutional| Consumers| Retail | End |Average| |...

  14. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fccmore » and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.« less

  15. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Sampling Methodology The sample for the Motor Gasoline Price Survey was drawn from a frame of approximately 115,000 retail gasoline outlets. The gasoline outlet frame was constructed by combining information purchased from a private commercial source with information contained on existing EIA petroleum product frames and surveys. Outlet names, and zip codes were obtained from the private commercial data source. Additional information was obtained directly from companies selling retail

  16. The impact of NRC guidance on concentration averaging on low level waste sealed source disposal - 11424

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia; Stewart, Bill; Cuthbertson, Abigail

    2011-01-20

    As part of its ongoing efforts to revise the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current position on blending to be risk-informed and performance based and its current review of the low-level waste classification codified in 10 CFR 61.55, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has stated that it may review the 1995 'Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (BTP), which is still commonly used today. Such a review will have timely advantages, given the lack of commercial disposal availability within the United States for radioactive sealed sources that are in wide beneficial use across the country. The current application of the BTP guidance has resulted in an effective cap on commercial disposal for sources larger than 1.1 TBq (30 Ci). This paper will analyze how the BTP has been implemented with respect to sealed sources, what the implications have been for commercial disposal availability, and whether alternative packaging configurations could be considered for disposal.

  17. United States Wind Resource Map: Annual Average Wind Speed at 30 Meters

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    30 m 21-FEB-2012 2.1.1 Wind Speed m/s >10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 < 4.0 Source: Wind resource estimates developed by AWS Truepower, LLC. Web: http://www.awstruepower.com. Map developed by NREL. Spatial resolution of wind resource data: 2.0 km. Projection: Albers Equal Area WGS84. The average wind speeds indicated on this map are model-derived estimates that may not represent the true wind resource at any given location. Small terrain features, vegetation,

  18. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  19. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  20. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,635 1950's 3,742 3,944 4,132 4,069 4,070 4,101 4,080 4,174 4,118 4,220 1960's 4,213 4,285 4,408 4,405 4,431 4,510 4,478 4,385 4,738 4,881 1970's 4,943 4,858 4,974 5,041 4,662 4,661 4,577 4,708 4,760 4,689

  1. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  2. Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-05-08

    A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.

  3. Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program - Cross-Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source, Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Sidheswaran, Meera; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William

    2014-02-01

    This field study measured ventilation rates and indoor air quality parameters in 21 visits to retail stores in California. The data was collected to guide the development of new, science-based commercial building ventilation rate standards that balance the dual objectives of increasing energy efficiency and maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and March 2013. Three types of stores participated in this study: grocery stores, furniture/hardware stores, and apparel stores. Ventilation rates and indoor air contaminant concentrations were measured on a weekday, typically between 9 am and 6 pm. Ventilation rates measured using a tracer gas decay method exceeded the minimum requirement of California’s Title 24 Standard in all but one store. Even though there was adequate ventilation according to Title 24, concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein exceeded the most stringent chronic health guidelines. Other indoor air contaminants measured included carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), and particulate matter (PM). Concentrations of CO{sub 2} were kept low by adequate ventilation, and were assumed low also because the sampling occurred on a weekday when retail stores were less busy. CO concentrations were also low. The indoor-outdoor ratios of O{sub 3} showed that the first-order loss rate may vary by store trade types and also by ventilation mode (mechanical versus natural). Analysis of fine and ultrafine PM measurements showed that a substantial portion of the particle mass in grocery stores with cooking-related emissions was in particles less than 0.3 μm. Stores without cooking as an indoor source had PM size distributions that were more similar indoors and outdoors. The whole-building emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM were estimated from the measured ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor contaminant concentrations. Mass balance models were then used to determine the ventilation rates, filtration strategies, or source reductions needed to maintain indoor contaminant concentrations below reference levels. Several scenarios of potential concern were considered: (i) formaldehyde levels in furniture/hardware stores, (ii) contaminants associated with cooking (e.g., PM, acrolein, and acetaldehyde) in grocery stores, and (iii) outdoor contaminants (e.g., PM and O{sub 3}) impacting stores that use natural ventilation. Estimated formaldehyde emission rates suggest that retail stores would need to ventilate at levels far exceeding the current Title 24 requirement to lower indoor concentrations below California’s stringent formaldehyde reference level. Given the high costs of providing ventilation but only modest chronic health benefit is expected, effective source control is an attractive alternative, as demonstrated by some retail stores in this study. Predictions showed that grocery stores need MERV 13 air filters, instead of MERV 8 filters that are more commonly used, to maintain indoor PM at levels that meet the chronic health standards for PM. Exposure to acrolein is a potential health concern in grocery stores, and should be addressed by increasing the use of kitchen range hoods or improving their contaminant removal efficiency. In stores that rely on natural ventilation, indoor PM can be a health concern if the stores are located in areas with high outdoor PM. This concern may be addressed by switching to mechanical ventilation when the outdoor air quality is poor, while continuing natural ventilation when outdoor air quality is good.

  4. Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise

  5. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  6. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  7. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  8. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  9. Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.

    2006-03-31

    One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

  10. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  11. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 4,232 1950's 4,335 4,609 4,781 4,761 4,740 4,819 4,901 5,036 4,993 5,021 1960's 5,170 5,099 5,124 4,878 5,509 5,672 5,700 5,758 5,914 6,054 1970's 6,247 5,745 5,880 6,243 5,855 5,913 6,010 5,902 6,067 6,011 1980's 5,727 5,853 5,504 5,141 5,565 5,865 6,069 6,104 6,182 6,028 1990's 6,838 6,641 6,930 6,627 6,671

  12. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,720 1950's 3,893 4,103 4,214 4,033 4,028 3,981 3,942 4,021 3,916 3,935 1960's 3,889 3,994 4,070 4,063 4,042 4,059 4,013 3,825 4,153 4,286 1970's 4,385 4,126 4,330 4,369 3,812 3,943 3,895 4,025 4,017 3,966 1980's 3,801 3,923 3,793 3,662 3,791 3,906 3,999

  13. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,568 1950's 3,691 3,851 3,999 3,880 3,905 3,904 3,880 3,966 3,907 3,999 1960's 4,020 4,064 4,227 4,193 4,179 4,288 4,112 4,004 4,328 4,431 1970's 4,610 4,480 4,590 4,687 4,249 4,285 4,214 4,404 4,421 4,374 1980's 4,166 4,209 4,225 4,004 4,125

  14. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,842 1950's 3,898 4,197 4,476 4,557 4,550 4,632 4,587 4,702 4,658 4,795 1960's 4,770 4,953 4,966 5,016 5,174 5,198 5,402 5,388 5,739 5,924 1970's 5,885 5,915 6,015 5,955 5,777 5,842 5,825 5,798 5,978 5,916 1980's 5,733 5,793 5,597 5,035 5,369 5,544 5,680 5,563

  15. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    per Well) Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,473 1950's 3,445 3,706 3,983 4,004 4,004 4,161 4,079 4,126 4,110 4,275 1960's 4,248 4,311 4,524 4,552 4,598 4,723 4,573 4,616 5,053 5,195 1970's 5,265 5,305 5,377 5,403 5,191 5,073 5,014 5,120 5,183 5,071 1980's 4,791 4,827 4,691 4,320 4,631 4,733 4,763

  16. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,225 1950's 3,077 3,255 3,520 3,401 3,512 3,699 3,574 3,605 3,631 3,844 1960's 3,889 3,782 4,239 4,143 4,207 4,446 3,900 3,901 4,311 4,437 1970's 4,714 4,633 4,725 4,851 4,599 4,415 4,439 4,662 4,600 4,517 1980's 4,214 4,226 4,184 3,974 4,205 4,306 4,236 4,390 4,704 4,684 1990's 4,755 4,629

  17. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,658 1950's 3,733 4,059 4,334 4,447 4,408 4,498 4,425 4,488 4,449 4,602 1960's 4,575 4,799 4,790 4,933 4,980 5,007 5,117 5,188 5,589 5,739 1970's 5,700 5,796 5,882 5,808 5,649 5,674 5,607 5,605 5,812 5,716 1980's 5,533 5,582 5,367 4,800 5,178 5,317 5,447 5,294 5,748 5,579 1990's 5,685 5,658 5,480

  18. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Well) Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,412 1950's 3,766 3,837 4,015 4,373 4,365 4,339 4,734 4,950 4,801 5,120 1960's 5,321 5,145 5,186 5,198 5,171 5,337 5,474 5,629 5,716 5,531 1970's 5,644 5,670 5,259 5,286 5,173 5,238 4,960 5,053 5,066 5,082 1980's 5,093 5,149 5,453 5,187 5,158 5,193 5,080 5,112 5,155 5,038 1990's

  19. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 5,682 1950's 5,466 5,497 6,071 5,654 6,059 5,964 6,301 6,898 6,657 6,613 1960's 6,298 6,457 6,728 6,370 7,547 7,295 8,321 7,478 7,697 8,092 1970's 7,695 7,649 7,400 6,596 6,456 6,748 6,777 6,625 6,662 6,630 1980's 6,604 6,772 6,921 6,395 6,502 6,787 6,777 6,698 6,683 6,606 1990's 7,100 7,122 6,907 6,482 6,564

  20. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,698 1950's 3,979 4,056 4,342 4,599 4,670 4,672 5,018 5,326 5,106 5,396 1960's 5,486 5,339 5,408 5,368 5,453 5,562 5,928 5,898 5,994 5,918 1970's 5,860 5,890 5,516 5,488 5,387 5,470 5,220 5,254 5,262 5,275 1980's 5,275 5,351 5,617 5,319 5,276

  1. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectivenessmore » of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.« less

  2. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectiveness of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.

  3. Use of SPMDs to determine average water concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVita, W.; Crunkilton, R.

    1995-12-31

    Semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDS) were deployed for 30 day periods to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban stream which receives much of its flow from urban runoff. SPMDs are capable of effectively sampling several liters of water per day for some PAHs. Unlike conventional methods, SPMDs sample only those non-polar organic contaminants which are truly dissolved and available for bioconcentration. Also, SPMDs may concentrate contaminants from episodic events such as stormwater discharge. The State of Wisconsin has established surface water quality criteria based upon human lifetime cancer risk of 23 ppt for benzo(a)pyrene and 23 ppt as the sum of nine other potentially carcinogenic PAHs. Bulk water samples analyzed by conventional methodology were routinely well above this criteria, but contained particulate bound PAHs as well as PAHs bound by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which are not available for bioconcentration. Average water concentrations of dissolved PAHs determined using SPMDs were also above this criteria. Variables used for determining water concentration included sampling rate at the exposure temperature, length of exposure and estimation of biofouling of SPMD surface.

  4. Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a D.I. diesel with simulated turbocharging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, R.J.; Borman, G.L.; Bower, G.R.

    1994-10-20

    An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct ijection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-lI computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-lI combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.

  5. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  6. A quantitative approach to the characterization of cumulative and average solvent exposure in paint manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.P.; Schwartz, B.S.; Powell, S.; Nelson, T.; Keller, L.; Sides, S.; Agnew, J.; Bolla, K.; Bleecker, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous reports have attributed a range of neurobehavioral effects to low-level, occupational solvent exposure. These studies have generally been limited in their exposure assessments and have specifically lacked good estimates of exposure intensity. In the present study, the authors describe the development of two exposure variables that quantitatively integrate industrial hygiene sampling data with estimates of exposure duration--a cumulative exposure (CE) estimate and a lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) estimate. Detailed occupational histories were obtained from 187 workers at two paint manufacturing plants. Historic industrial hygiene sampling data for total hydrocarbons (a composite variable of the major neurotoxic solvents present) were grouped according to 20 uniform, temporally stable exposure zones, which had been defined during plant walk-through surveys. Sampling at the time of the study was used to characterize the few zones for which historic data were limited or unavailable. For each participant, the geometric mean total hydrocarbon level for each exposure zone worked in was multiplied by the duration of employment in that zone; the resulting products were summed over the working lifetime to create the CE variable. The CE variable was divided by the total duration of employment in solvent-exposed jobs to create the LWAE variable. The explanatory value of each participant's LWAE estimate in the regression of simple visual reaction time (a neurobehavioral test previously shown to be affected by chronic solvent exposure) on exposure was compared with that of several other exposure variables, including exposure duration and an exposure variable based on an ordinal ranking of the exposure zones.

  7. Does the orbit-averaged theory require a scale separation between periodic orbit size and perturbation correlation length?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenlu; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 ; Lin, Zhihong; Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871

    2013-10-15

    Using the canonical perturbation theory, we show that the orbit-averaged theory only requires a time-scale separation between equilibrium and perturbed motions and verifies the widely accepted notion that orbit averaging effects greatly reduce the microturbulent transport of energetic particles in a tokamak. Therefore, a recent claim [Hauff and Jenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 075004 (2009); Jenko et al., ibid. 107, 239502 (2011)] stating that the orbit-averaged theory requires a scale separation between equilibrium orbit size and perturbation correlation length is erroneous.

  8. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  9. Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in Fuel Taxes Each Year?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to the Federal Highway Administration, the average fuel economy for all light vehicles on the road today is 21.4 miles per gallon (mpg). A person owning a gasoline vehicle with that fuel...

  10. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although the average expenditure for a new car has increased from 1967 to 2009, family earnings have also been on the rise. For this period, new car expenditures went from $3,216 to $23,186, while...

  11. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2)",0.9204312786,45.77777778 "Petroleum" "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a)",37.71300779,17.33333333 "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil

  12. Horizontal-Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Yelena L.; Banta, Robert M.; Kelley, Neil D.; Jonkman, Bonnie J.; Tucker, Sara C.; Newsom, Rob K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--has been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAAs High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be numerically equivalent to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance ?u2 were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a technique described in Banta, et al. (2002). The technique was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. It then describes several series of averaging tests that produced the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal velocity variance ?u2. The results show high correlation (0.71-0.97) of the mean U and average wind speed measured by sodar and in-situ instruments, independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging techniques.

  13. Horizontal Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Tucker, S. C.; Newsom, R. K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--have been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA's high-resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be approximately equal to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance {sigma}2u were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a method described by Banta et al., which uses an elevation (vertical slice) scanning technique. The method was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. The results for the mean U and mean wind speed measured by sodar and in situ instruments for all nights of LLLJP show high correlation (0.71-0.97), independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures, and correlation coefficients consistently >0.9 for four high-wind nights, when the low-level jet speeds exceeded 15 m s{sup -1} at some time during the night. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging parameters. Several series of averaging tests are described, to find the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal-velocity variance {sigma}{sup 2}{sub u}. Because of the nonstationarity of the SBL data, the best results were obtained when the velocity data were first averaged over intervals of 1 min, and then further averaged over 3-15 consecutive 1-min intervals, with best results for the 10- and 15-min averaging periods. For these cases, correlation coefficients exceeded 0.9. As a part of the analysis, Eulerian integral time scales ({tau}) were estimated for the four high-wind nights. Time series of {tau} through each night indicated erratic behavior consistent with the nonstationarity. Histograms of {tau} showed a mode at 4-5 s, but frequent occurrences of larger {tau} values, mostly between 10 and 100 s.

  14. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.50 11.68 11.28 10.01 9.50 9.30 1989-2016 Florida 11.15 10.61 10.69 10.89 10.70 10.62 1989-2016 Georgia 9.38 8.65 9.72 7.80 6.57 7.05 1989-2016 Maryland 11.11 9.98 9.56 10.44 NA 8.18 1989-2016 Michigan 9.05 7.46 6.75 6.59 6.50 6.64 1989-2016 New Jersey 8.03 8.10 8.66 8.24 7.76 7.66 1989-2016 New York 5.99 6.27 6.33 6.82 6.59 6.58 1989-2016 Ohio 7.99 6.79 6.03 5.53 5.32 5.30 1989-2016 Pennsylvania 11.10 NA 8.27 8.13 7.19 7.44 1989-2016 Virginia 8.91 8.02 7.57 7.93 6.88 6.67

  15. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.17 16.21 12.60 10.70 9.96 9.53 1989-2016 Florida 24.41 23.37 21.56 19.15 16.78 16.00 1989-2016 Georgia 25.75 20.43 15.20 14.41 10.79 10.94 1989-2016 Maryland 19.39 13.51 12.72 13.12 9.95 9.46 1989-2016 Michigan 13.21 8.93 7.84 7.55 7.25 7.58 1989-2016 New Jersey 12.38 10.30 9.08 7.85 6.55 6.86 1989-2016 New York 17.53 14.26 12.27 11.42 10.31 9.45 1989-2016 Ohio 24.31 15.36 9.68 7.40 6.48 6.44 1989-2016 Pennsylvania 18.32 NA 10.56 9.85 8.75 8.64 1989-2016 Virginia 19.45 15.81 11.72 12.09 9.45

  16. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.47 8.91 8.10 8.08 8.90 7.89 1967-2015 Alabama 13.34 12.36 12.56 12.35 11.92 11.03 1967-2015 Alaska 8.78 8.09 8.09 8.34 8.30 7.80 1967-2015 Arizona 10.72 9.99 9.35 8.76 10.34 10.53 1967-2015 Arkansas 8.89 8.90 7.99 7.68 7.88 8.08 1967-2015 California 8.30 8.29 7.05 7.81 9.05 7.98 1967-2015 Colorado 7.58 7.84 7.58 7.26 8.15 NA 1967-2015 Connecticut 9.55 8.48 8.40 9.20 10.24 8.56 1967-2015 Delaware 13.26 13.58 13.31 11.78 11.42 10.70 1967-2015 District of Columbia 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18

  17. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  18. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  19. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11.39 11.03 10.65 10.32 10.97 10.38 1967-2015 Alabama 15.79 15.08 16.20 15.47 14.59 13.95 1967-2015 Alaska 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68 1967-2015 Arizona 15.87 15.04 15.75 13.92 17.20 17.04 1967-2015 Arkansas 11.53 11.46 11.82 10.46 10.39 11.20 1967-2015 California 9.92 9.93 9.14 9.92 11.51 11.38 1967-2015 Colorado 8.13 8.25 8.28 7.85 8.89 NA 1967-2015 Connecticut 14.93 13.83 14.17 13.32 14.13 12.47 1967-2015 Delaware 15.12 15.38 15.24 13.65 13.21 NA 1967-2015 District of Columbia 13.53 13.06

  20. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  1. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  2. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History District of Columbia 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Florida 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 11.38 10.74 1967-2015 Georgia 10.95 10.51 9.75 9.38 9.86 8.49 1967-2015 Maryland 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 10.52 10.00 1967-2015 Michigan 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 New Jersey 10.11 9.51

  3. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.37 7.74 7.38 7.21 6.74 6.82 1973-2016 Alabama 11.75 11.40 11.47 10.73 9.81 9.70 1989-2016 Alaska 7.03 7.67 7.43 7.39 7.18 7.24 1989-2016 Arizona 10.40 10.14 9.36 9.17 8.93 9.32 1989-2016 Arkansas 8.00 7.71 7.86 7.29 7.16 6.74 1989-2016 California 7.84 7.69 7.20 8.23 7.98 8.43 1989-2016 Colorado 9.19 7.83 6.49 6.18 5.79 5.94 1989-2016 Connecticut 10.53 9.53 8.48 8.18 NA 7.26 1989-2016 Delaware 13.93 12.54 10.82 9.15 8.75 8.58 1989-2016 District of Columbia 11.50 11.68 11.28 10.01 9.50 9.30

  4. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    16.37 12.59 10.06 9.29 8.30 8.39 1973-2016 Alabama 20.38 19.12 17.67 14.30 12.00 11.12 1989-2016 Alaska 9.86 9.44 8.89 8.79 8.91 9.03 1989-2016 Arizona 23.01 20.77 14.57 12.75 11.99 13.82 1989-2016 Arkansas 18.15 17.40 13.80 10.34 9.54 9.06 1989-2016 California 11.91 11.53 10.31 11.37 11.45 11.52 1989-2016 Colorado 13.03 9.26 6.88 6.45 6.06 6.44 1989-2016 Connecticut 21.49 15.30 12.50 11.82 10.32 10.65 1989-2016 Delaware 23.22 NA 14.03 11.09 10.09 9.71 1989-2016 District of Columbia 18.17 16.21

  5. Statistical Analysis of the Factors Influencing Consumer Use of E85

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromiley, P.; Gerlach, T.; Marczak, K.; Taylor, M.; Dobrovolny, L.

    2008-07-01

    Evaluating the sales patterns of E85 retail outlets can provide important information about consumer behavior regarding E85, locating future E85 fueling infrastructure, and developing future alternative fuel policies and programs.

  6. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail outlets, petrochemical, and other end user sales. Discussion of Sample Design The Form EIA-782A is sent to a census of refiners and gas plant operators. Respondents...

  7. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  8. Computing the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states for lattice spin systems by sampling the mean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2013-10-01

    An algorithm to approximately calculate the partition function (and subsequently ensemble averages) and density of states of lattice spin systems through non-Monte-Carlo random sampling is developed. This algorithm (called the sampling-the-mean algorithm) can be applied to models where the up or down spins at lattice nodes interact to change the spin states of other lattice nodes, especially non-Ising-like models with long-range interactions such as the biological model considered here. Because it is based on the Central Limit Theorem of probability, the sampling-the-mean algorithm also gives estimates of the error in the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states. Easily implemented parallelization strategies and error minimizing sampling strategies are discussed. The sampling-the-mean method works especially well for relatively small systems, systems with a density of energy states that contains sharp spikes or oscillations, or systems with little a priori knowledge of the density of states.

  9. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE?0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  10. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (?0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for nearby overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  11. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due to the rising...

  12. Prices of Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product/ Sales Type: Gasoline, All Grades - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Through Retail Outlets Gasoline, All Grades - Other End Users Gasoline, All Grades - Sales for Resale Gasoline, All Grades - DTW (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Rack (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Bulk (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Through Retail Outlets Regular Gasoline - Other End Users Regular Gasoline - Sales for Resale Regular Gasoline -

  13. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Jalali, Rakesh; Goswami, Savita; Nair, Vimoj; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Epari, Sridhar; Sarin, Rajiv

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  14. Determination of the Average Aromatic Cluster Size of Fossil Fuels by Solid-State NMR at High Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Kanmi; Kennedy, Gordon J.; Althaus, Stacey M.; Pruski, Marek

    2013-01-07

    We show that the average aromatic cluster size in complex carbonaceous materials can be accurately determined using fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR at a high magnetic field. To accurately quantify the nonprotonated aromatic carbon, we edited the 13C spectra using the recently reported MAS-synchronized spinecho, which alleviated the problem of rotational recoupling of 1H-13C dipolar interactions associated with traditional dipolar dephasing experiments. The dependability of this approach was demonstrated on selected Argonne Premium coal standards, for which full sets of basic structural parameters were determined with high accuracy.

  15. Application of Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging to Groundwater Flow and Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2008-06-01

    A methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess model predictive uncertainty was applied to saturated zone uranium transport at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. The methodology extends Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging (MLBMA) to account jointly for uncertainties due to the conceptual-mathematical basis of models, model parameters, and the scenarios to which the models are applied. Conceptual uncertainty was represented by postulating four alternative models of hydrogeology and uranium adsorption. Parameter uncertainties were represented by estimation covariances resulting from the joint calibration of each model to observed heads and uranium concentration. Posterior model probability was dominated by one model. Results demonstrated the role of model complexity and fidelity to observed system behavior in determining model probabilities, as well as the impact of prior information. Two scenarios representing alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. Predictive simulations carried out with the calibrated models illustrated the computation of model- and scenario-averaged predictions and how results can be displayed to clearly indicate the individual contributions to predictive uncertainty of the model, parameter, and scenario uncertainties. The application demonstrated the practicability of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modelling.

  16. Technical Note: Measuring contrast- and noise-dependent spatial resolution of an iterative reconstruction method in CT using ensemble averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Lifeng Vrieze, Thomas J.; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The spatial resolution of iterative reconstruction (IR) in computed tomography (CT) is contrast- and noise-dependent because of the nonlinear regularization. Due to the severe noise contamination, it is challenging to perform precise spatial-resolution measurements at very low-contrast levels. The purpose of this study was to measure the spatial resolution of a commercially available IR method using ensemble-averaged images acquired from repeated scans. Methods: A low-contrast phantom containing three rods (7, 14, and 21 HU below background) was scanned on a 128-slice CT scanner at three dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 16, 8, and 4 mGy). Images were reconstructed using two filtered-backprojection (FBP) kernels (B40 and B20) and a commercial IR method (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction, SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare) with two strength settings (I40-3 and I40-5). The same scan was repeated 100 times at each dose level. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated based on the edge profile measured on the ensemble-averaged images. Results: The spatial resolution of the two FBP kernels, B40 and B20, remained relatively constant across contrast and dose levels. However, the spatial resolution of the two IR kernels degraded relative to FBP as contrast or dose level decreased. For a given dose level at 16 mGy, the MTF{sub 50%} value normalized to the B40 kernel decreased from 98.4% at 21 HU to 88.5% at 7 HU for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 82.1% for I40-5. At 21 HU, the relative MTF{sub 50%} value decreased from 98.4% at 16 mGy to 90.7% at 4 mGy for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 85.6% for I40-5. Conclusions: A simple technique using ensemble averaging from repeated CT scans can be used to measure the spatial resolution of IR techniques in CT at very low contrast levels. The evaluated IR method degraded the spatial resolution at low contrast and high noise levels.

  17. Retail Sales Allocation Tool (RSAT)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  18. Retail Prices for Regular Gasoline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    East Coast (PADD1) 2.097 2.126 2.215 2.217 2.216 2.248 1992-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 2.155 2.188 2.250 2.270 2.263 2.315 1993-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 2.171 2.201 2.269 ...

  19. PySpline: A Modern, Cross-Platform Program for the Processing of Raw Averaged XAS Edge and EXAFS Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tenderholt, A.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.

    2007-01-08

    PySpline is a modern computer program for processing raw averaged XAS and EXAFS data using an intuitive approach which allows the user to see the immediate effect of various processing parameters on the resulting k- and R-space data. The Python scripting language and Qt and Qwt widget libraries were chosen to meet the design requirement that it be cross-platform (i.e. versions for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux). PySpline supports polynomial pre- and post-edge background subtraction, splining of the EXAFS region with a multi-segment polynomial spline, and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the resulting k{sup 3}-weighted EXAFS data.

  20. Application of a generalized matrix averaging method for the calculation of the effective properties of thin multiferroic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkov, A. S.; Starkov, I. A.

    2014-11-15

    It is proposed to use a generalized matrix averaging (GMA) method for calculating the parameters of an effective medium with physical properties equivalent to those of a set of thin multiferroic layers. This approach obviates the need to solve a complex system of magnetoelectroelasticity equations. The required effective characteristics of a system of multiferroic layers are obtained using only operations with matrices, which significantly simplifies calculations and allows multilayer systems to be described. The proposed approach is applicable to thin-layer systems, in which the total thickness is much less than the system length, radius of curvature, and wavelengths of waves that can propagate in the system (long-wave approximation). Using the GMA method, it is also possible to obtain the effective characteristics of a periodic structure with each period comprising a number of thin multiferroic layers.

  1. NREL Recommends Ways to Cut Building Energy Costs in Half (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    Building designers and operators could cut energy use by 50% in large office buildings, hospitals, schools, and a variety of stores - including groceries, general merchandise outlets, and retail outlets - by following the recommendations of researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  2. NREL Recommends Ways to Cut Building Energy Costs in Half (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    Building designers and operators could cut energy use by 50% in large office buildings, hospitals, schools, and a variety of stores -- including groceries, general merchandise outlets, and retail outlets -- by following the recommendations of NREL researchers. The innovative energy-saving recommendations are contained in technical support documents and Advanced Energy Design Guides compiled by NREL.

  3. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  4. Combining multi-objective optimization and bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Wohling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Most studies in vadose zone hydrology use a single conceptual model for predictive inference and analysis. Focusing on the outcome of a single model is prone to statistical bias and underestimation of uncertainty. In this study, we combine multi-objective optimization and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models. To illustrate our method, we use observed tensiometric pressure head data at three different depths in a layered vadose zone of volcanic origin in New Zealand. A set of seven different soil hydraulic models is calibrated using a multi-objective formulation with three different objective functions that each measure the mismatch between observed and predicted soil water pressure head at one specific depth. The Pareto solution space corresponding to these three objectives is estimated with AMALGAM, and used to generate four different model ensembles. These ensembles are post-processed with BMA and used for predictive analysis and uncertainty estimation. Our most important conclusions for the vadose zone under consideration are: (1) the mean BMA forecast exhibits similar predictive capabilities as the best individual performing soil hydraulic model, (2) the size of the BMA uncertainty ranges increase with increasing depth and dryness in the soil profile, (3) the best performing ensemble corresponds to the compromise (or balanced) solution of the three-objective Pareto surface, and (4) the combined multi-objective optimization and BMA framework proposed in this paper is very useful to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models.

  5. Charge and fluence lifetime measurements of a dc high voltage GaAs photogun at high average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Grames, R. Suleiman, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, J. Hansknecht, D. Machie, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman

    2011-04-01

    GaAs-based dc high voltage photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed high average current facilities that must operate at tens of milliamperes or more. This paper describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering beam, and techniques that minimize the ill effects of ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield of a GaAs-based dc high voltage photogun. Experimental results presented here demonstrate enhanced lifetime at high beam currents by: (a) operating with the drive laser beam positioned away from the electrostatic center of the photocathode, (b) limiting the photocathode active area to eliminate photoemission from regions of the photocathode that do not support efficient beam delivery, (c) using a large drive laser beam to distribute ion damage over a larger area, and (d) by applying a relatively low bias voltage to the anode to repel ions created within the downstream beam line. A combination of these techniques provided the best total charge extracted lifetimes in excess of 1000 C at dc beam currents up to 9.5 mA, using green light illumination of bulk GaAs inside a 100 kV photogun.

  6. This Week In Petroleum Gasoline Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Regular gasoline retail prices (dollars per gallon) U.S. Average Conventional Reformulated U.S. retail regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices graph Retail conventional regular gasoline prices graph Retail reformulated regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices (dollars per gallon) more price data › Year ago Most recent 05/11/15 05/09/16 05/02/16 04/25/16 04/18/16 04/11/16 04/04/16 03/28/16 U.S. 2.691 2.220 2.240 2.162 2.137 2.069 2.083

  7. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  8. Transverse flowing liquid Kerr cell for high average power laser Q-switching and for direct modulation of high power laser beams.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.

    2004-12-07

    A fluid flow concept is applied in an optical apparatus to define a high gain stand-off, fast electro-optical q-switch which is highly impervious to high average power optical loads.

  9. No Slide Title

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Programs: Topics Choice Programs: Topics * Background and Current Status * Trends Evolution * Savings to Consumers? * Issues Average Natural Gas Retail Prices for Average ...

  10. How Well Can We Estimate Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission in an Atlantic Coastal Area?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2015-10-15

    Areal-averaged albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-averaged albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-average approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an area surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about ±0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in areas with inhomogeneous surfaces.

  11. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a new technology trying to build a reputation with consumers. Beyond the observed parametric failures nearly half of the products failed to meet early-life thresholds for lumen maintenance, which were borrowed from ENERGY STAR specifications. That is, the lumen maintenance was sufficiently low at 6,000 hours that seven of the products are unlikely to have lumen maintenance above 70% at their rated lifetime (which was usually 25,000 hours). Given the methods used for this investigation—most notably continuous operation—the results should not be interpreted as indicative of a lamp’s performance in a typical environment. Likewise, these results are not directly relatable to manufacturer lifetime claims. This report is best used to understand the variation in LED product performance, compare the robustness of LED lamps and benchmark conventional lamps, and understand the characteristics of lumen and chromaticity change. A key takeaway is that the long-term performance of LED lamps can vary greatly from model to model (i.e., the technology is not homogenous), although the lamp-to-lamp consistency within a given model is relatively good. Further, operation of LED lamps in an enclosed luminaire (or otherwise in high ambient temperatures), can induce parametric failure of LEDs much earlier than their rated lifetime; manufacturer warnings about such conditions should be followed if performance degradation is unacceptable.

  12. State Electricity Profiles - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name Average retail price (centskWh) Net summer capacity (MW) Net generation (MWh) Total retail sales (MWh) Alabama 9.27 31,953 149,340,447 90,493,727 Alaska 17.46 2,464 ...

  13. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gasoline data elements are not affected by the switch to ethanol. U.S. Retail Gasoline Price Increases Ahead of the Holiday The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose...

  14. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    for oil markets. Retail Gasoline Prices Gain Almost 5 Cents The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline increased 4.7 cents last week to jump to 279.6 cents per gallon...

  15. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    retail margins, retail prices generally average about 65 cents higher than spot prices, once the full effect of spot price changes are passed through. In the chart below, the right...

  16. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    retail gasoline prices often decline, as demand drops with people going back to work and school. However, last year, the average retail price increased over the second half of...

  17. SU-E-T-174: Evaluation of the Optimal Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Plans Done On the Maximum and Average Intensity Projection CTs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Li, Y; Patel, A; Vincent, J; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the difference in coverage between plans done on average intensity projection and maximum intensity projection CT data sets for lung patients and to establish correlations between different factors influencing the coverage. Methods: For six lung cancer patients, 10 phases of equal duration through the respiratory cycle, the maximum and average intensity projections (MIP and AIP) from their 4DCT datasets were obtained. MIP and AIP datasets had three GTVs delineated (GTVaip delineated on AIP, GTVmip delineated on MIP and GTVfus delineated on each of the 10 phases and summed up). From the each GTV, planning target volumes (PTV) were then created by adding additional margins. For each of the PTVs an IMRT plan was developed on the AIP dataset. The plans were then copied to the MIP data set and were recalculated. Results: The effective depths in AIP cases were significantly smaller than in MIP (p < 0.001). The Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.839 indicates strong degree of positive linear relationship between the average percentage difference in effective depths and average PTV coverage on the MIP data set. The V2 0 Gy of involved lung depends on the PTV coverage. The relationship between PTVaip mean CT number difference and PTVaip coverage on MIP data set gives r = 0.830. When the plans are produced on MIP and copied to AIP, r equals ?0.756. Conclusion: The correlation between the AIP and MIP data sets indicates that the selection of the data set for developing the treatment plan affects the final outcome (cases with high average percentage difference in effective depths between AIP and MIP should be calculated on AIP). The percentage of the lung volume receiving higher dose depends on how well PTV is covered, regardless of on which set plan is done.

  18. MHK Projects/Wax Lake Outlet | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    *MHK TechnologiesSmarTurbine Project Licensing FERC License Docket Number P-14254 Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts See Tethys << Return to the MHK database...

  19. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Compliance Order, Los Alamos National Security, LLC - July 12, 2007 Compliance Order, Los Alamos National Security, LLC - July 12, 2007 July 12, 2007 Issued to Los Alamos National Security, LLC related to the Unauthorized Reproduction and Removal of Classified Matter from the Los Alamos National Laboratory On July 12, 2007, the Secretary of Energy issued a Compliance Order to Los Alamos National Security, LLC requiring the contractor to implement specific corrective

  20. High-Average Power Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, David H.; Power, John G.; /Argonne

    2012-09-05

    There has been significant progress in the development of high-power facilities in recent years yet major challenges remain. The task of WG4 was to identify which facilities were capable of addressing the outstanding R&D issues presently preventing high-power operation. To this end, information from each of the facilities represented at the workshop was tabulated and the results are presented herein. A brief description of the major challenges is given, but the detailed elaboration can be found in the other three working group summaries.

  1. Measurement of Time-Averaged Particle-Wall Collision Properties Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry, CRADA PC93-006, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaffer, F.; Massah, H.; Sinclair, J.; Shahnam, M.

    1995-04-30

    This paper describes an experimental facility to measure time-averaged properties of particle-wall collisions. A particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) system measures particle rebound angles and velocities and impact angles and velocities for specific particles. From these measured properties, values of normal and tangential coefficient of restitution are derived. The PTV system rapidly measures thousands of particle-wall collisions enabling determination of time-averaged properties. In this initial work we use 191 {micro}m glass particles colliding with a glass plate at a fixed angle of 17.5{degree} and a velocity of 17.07 m/s. Observations are also made of aspherical particles colliding with gross sliding. In the future, this experimental system will be used with particles and wall materials of industrial significance.

  2. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ? 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  3. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  4. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field.more » By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.« less

  5. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, retail on-highway diesel prices are collected by telephone and fax from a sample of approximately 350 retail diesel outlets, including truck stops and service stations. The data represent the price of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) which contains less than 15 parts-per-million sulfur. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that all on-highway diesel sold be ULSD by December 1, 2010 (September 1, 2006 in California). In January 2007, the

  6. Average and local crystal structures of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Schieber, Natalie; Han, Wei -Qiang

    2015-11-06

    We report the comprehensive study of the crystal structure of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles by means of neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering. In our study we used four different types of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) nanoparticles, with diameters of 10–27 nm and x = 0.075–0.51, which show the narrow energy-band gaps from 2.21 to 2.61 eV. The Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data revealed that the average crystal structure is the hexagonal wurtzite (space group P63mc), in agreement with previous reports on similar bulk materials. The pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis of the same data found that the local structure is more disorderedmore » than the average one. It is best described by the model with a lower symmetry space group P1, where atoms are quasirandomly distorted from their nominal positions in the hexagonal wurtzite lattice.« less

  7. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sampling Methodology The respondents reporting to the weekly diesel price survey represent a stratified probability proportional to size (PPS) sample selected from a frame list of retail outlets. The outlet sampling frame was constructed using commercially available lists from several sources in order to provide comprehensive coverage of truck stops and service stations that sell on-highway diesel fuel in the United States. The frame includes about 62,000 service stations and 4,000 truck stops.

  8. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L.

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  9. Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation of Ion Back BomBardment in a High Average Current RF Photo-Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J.

    2009-10-17

    In this paper, we report on study of ion back bombardment in a high average current radio-frequency (RF) photo-gun using a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation method. Using this method, we systematically studied effects of gas pressure, RF frequency, RF initial phase, electric field profile, magnetic field, laser repetition rate, different ion species on ion particle line density distribution, kinetic energy spectrum, and ion power line density distribution back bombardment onto the photocathode. Those simulation results suggested that effects of ion back bombardment could increase linearly with the background gas pressure and laser repetition rate. The RF frequency has significantly affected the ion motion inside the gun so that the ion power deposition on the photocathode in an RF gun can be several orders of magnitude lower than that in a DC gun. The ion back bombardment can be minimized by appropriately choosing the electric field profile and the initial phase.

  10. Local and average crystal structure and displacements of La{sup 11}B{sub 6} and EuB{sub 6} as a function of temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, C.H.; Sarrao, J.L.; Hundley, M.F.; Cornelius, A.L.; Kwei, G.H.; Bianchi, A.; Fisk, Z.; Lawrence, J.M.

    2001-01-30

    Measurements of both the average crystal structure from Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and the local structure from La L{sub III}-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) are presented for a La{sup 11}B{sub 6} sample as a function of temperature ({approx}10-320 K). These data are compared to XAFS results on a EuB{sub 6} sample. The single-site La and B positional distribution widths and the La-B and La-La bond length distribution widths and their temperature dependence are compared. This comparison allows an estimate of the La and B site displacements, and we find that these sublattices are only slightly correlated with each other. Moreover, while the temperature dependence of the displacement parameters of the average sites from diffraction fit an Einstein model well, the temperature dependence of the La-B bond length distribution width requires at least two vibrational frequencies, corresponding to the La and B frequencies of the individual sites. XAFS data on EuB{sub 6} indicate that the situation is the same in the Eu compound. In addition, comparisons between data taken below and above the ferromagnetic transition temperature for EuB{sub 6} place stringent limits on the lattice involvement in the associated metal-insulator transition and the ensuing large magnetoresistance effect. This lack of lattice involvement in the magnetoresistance transition is in sharp contrast to the strong lattice involvement observed in the colossal magnetoresistance lanthanum manganese perovskites.

  11. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Fsica del Plasma , Departamento de Fsica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 0.07 eV (= 11400 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  12. Financial Management for Retail Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... * Ralph Lauren Corporation * Recreational Equipment, Inc. * Rite Aid Corporation * Ross Stores Inc. * Safeway Inc. * Saks Incorporated * Sears Holdings Corporation * Sephora ...

  13. "2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Industrial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...r",29,259685,16873.9,6.4978339 "EDF Industrial Power Services (CA), LLC","CA","Power Marketer",4,398426,23575,5.9170335 "Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC","CA","Power ...

  14. 2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6.50 EDF Industrial Power Services (CA), LLC CA Power Marketer 4 398,426 23,575.0 5.92 Glacial Energy Holdings CA Power Marketer 174 30,435 3,138.3 10.31 Liberty Power Corp. ...

  15. 2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Industrial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketer 29 259,685 16,873.9 6.50 EDF Industrial Power Services (CA), LLC CA Power Marketer 4 398,426 23,575.0 5.92 Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC CA Power Marketer 51 ...

  16. "2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ter",484,4328084,281231.8,6.497836 "EDF Industrial Power Services (CA), LLC","CA","Power Marketer",4,398426,23575,5.9170335 "Glacial Energy Holdings","CA","Power ...

  17. 2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Transportation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6,712.4 8.50 Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC DC Power Marketer 1 148,128 9,306.9 ... 15,133.8 8.71 Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC MD Power Marketer 2 113,058 6,601.5 ...

  18. "2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Transportation"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC","DC","Power Marketer",1,148128,930... "Direct Energy Business Marketing, LLC","MD","Power Marketer",2,113058,660...

  19. "2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Residential"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ipal",5758,49078,4553,9.2770692 "City of Hamilton - (OH)","OH","Municipal",26127,267514,28...operative",19241,368809,42042,11.399396 "Hamilton County Elec Coop Assn","TX","Cooperative...

  20. "2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ipal",5990,105389,8856,8.403154 "City of Hamilton - (OH)","OH","Municipal",29042,578972,61...operative",24868,502493,56758,11.295282 "Hamilton County Elec Coop Assn","TX","Cooperative...

  1. 2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Industrial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 103 146,636 14,343.0 9.78 City of Galion OH Municipal 70 47,605 3,526.0 7.41 City of Hamilton - (OH) OH Municipal 54 174,978 16,203.0 9.26 City of Jackson - (OH) OH Municipal 9 ...

  2. "2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Industrial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "City of Galion","OH","Municipal",70,47605,3526,7.406785 "City of Hamilton - (OH)","OH","Municipal",54,174978,16203,9.2600213 "City of Jackson - ...

  3. "2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Commercial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...nicipal",162,8706,777,8.9248794 "City of Hamilton - (OH)","OH","Municipal",2861,136480,163...ooperative",5626,130607,14559,11.147182 "Hamilton County Elec Coop Assn","TX","Cooperative...

  4. 2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Municipal 162 8,706 777.0 8.92 City of Hamilton - (OH) OH Municipal 2,861 136,480 ... TX Cooperative 5,626 130,607 14,559.0 11.15 Hamilton County Elec Coop Assn TX Cooperative ...

  5. 2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 5,990 105,389 8,856.0 8.40 City of Hamilton - (OH) OH Municipal 29,042 578,972 ... TX Cooperative 24,868 502,493 56,758.0 11.30 Hamilton County Elec Coop Assn TX Cooperative ...

  6. 2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 5,758 49,078 4,553.0 9.28 City of Hamilton - (OH) OH Municipal 26,127 267,514 ... TX Cooperative 19,241 368,809 42,042.0 11.40 Hamilton County Elec Coop Assn TX Cooperative ...

  7. Boston Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    205 2.247 2.305 2.335 2.319 2.364 2003-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.205 2.247 2.305 2.335 2.319 2.364 2003-2016 Regular 2.104 2.148 2.211 2.239 2.222 2.272 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.104 2.148 2.211 2.239 2.222 2.272 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.336 2.362 2.411 2.444 2.422 2.462 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.336 2.362 2.411 2.444 2.422 2.462 2003-2016 Premium 2.529 2.567 2.615 2.651 2.643 2.669 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.529 2.567 2.615 2.651 2.643 2.669

  8. California Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    825 2.830 2.864 2.842 2.844 2.860 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.825 2.830 2.864 2.842 2.844 2.860 1995-2016 Regular 2.771 2.775 2.809 2.786 2.789 2.804 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.771 2.775 2.809 2.786 2.789 2.804 1995-2016 Midgrade 2.895 2.901 2.935 2.917 2.915 2.930 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.895 2.901 2.935 2.917 2.915 2.930 1995-2016 Premium 3.013 3.018 3.052 3.034 3.034 3.052 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 3.013 3.018 3.052 3.034 3.034 3.052 1995-2016 Diesel (On-Highway)

  9. Chicago Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    368 2.495 2.558 2.454 2.542 2.617 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.368 2.495 2.558 2.454 2.542 2.617 2000-2016 Regular 2.249 2.376 2.439 2.333 2.421 2.499 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.249 2.376 2.439 2.333 2.421 2.499 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.556 2.688 2.750 2.648 2.738 2.807 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.556 2.688 2.750 2.648 2.738 2.807 2000-2016 Premium 2.896 3.016 3.080 2.983 3.077 3.137 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.896 3.016 3.080 2.983 3.077 3.137 2000

  10. Cleveland Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    223 2.300 2.428 2.293 2.363 2.478 2003-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.223 2.300 2.428 2.293 2.363 2.478 2003-2016 Regular 2.102 2.181 2.313 2.178 2.247 2.364 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.102 2.181 2.313 2.178 2.247 2.364 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.379 2.452 2.577 2.449 2.515 2.617 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.379 2.452 2.577 2.449 2.515 2.617 2003-2016 Premium 2.667 2.733 2.847 2.707 2.784 2.898 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.667 2.733 2.847 2.707 2.784 2.898 2003

  11. Colorado Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 2.166 2.199 2.230 2.234 2.319 2000-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.152 2.166 2.199 2.230 2.234 2.319 2000-2016 Regular 2.050 2.065 2.098 2.129 2.133 2.217 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.050 2.065 2.098 2.129 2.133 2.217 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.308 2.321 2.354 2.386 2.392 2.476 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.308 2.321 2.354 2.386 2.392 2.476 2000-2016 Premium 2.557 2.569 2.601 2.635 2.637 2.726 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.557 2.569 2.601 2.635 2.637 2.726 2000

  12. Denver Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    158 2.166 2.198 2.229 2.230 2.313 2000-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.158 2.166 2.198 2.229 2.230 2.313 2000-2016 Regular 2.046 2.056 2.089 2.119 2.119 2.203 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.046 2.056 2.089 2.119 2.119 2.203 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.335 2.335 2.367 2.399 2.401 2.483 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.335 2.335 2.367 2.399 2.401 2.483 2000-2016 Premium 2.591 2.592 2.620 2.658 2.660 2.738 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.591 2.592 2.620 2.658 2.660 2.738 2000

  13. Florida Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    153 2.162 2.327 2.308 2.288 2.306 2003-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.153 2.162 2.327 2.308 2.288 2.306 2003-2016 Regular 2.018 2.027 2.195 2.170 2.148 2.164 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.018 2.027 2.195 2.170 2.148 2.164 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.271 2.277 2.441 2.431 2.411 2.426 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.271 2.277 2.441 2.431 2.411 2.426 2003-2016 Premium 2.507 2.517 2.676 2.667 2.654 2.680 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.507 2.517 2.676 2.667 2.654 2.680

  14. Retail Prices for Regular Gasoline - Reformulated Areas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2.017 1.961 1994-2016 East Coast (PADD1) 1.997 1.975 1.906 1.880 1.850 1.806 1994-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 2.025 1.988 1.934 1.904 1.875 1.827 1994-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD...

  15. Retail Prices for Regular Gasoline - Conventional Areas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1.933 1.922 1990-2016 East Coast (PADD1) 2.075 2.060 2.033 2.029 2.013 2.000 1992-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 2.205 2.197 2.156 2.130 2.106 2.097 1993-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD...

  16. Retail Prices for Gasoline, All Grades

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 2.835 3.576 3.680 3.575 3.437 2.520 1993-2015 East Coast (PADD1) 2.824 3.587 3.695 3.599 3.470 2.483 1993-2015 New England (PADD 1A) ...

  17. Los Angeles Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    55 2.876 2.886 2.928 2.874 2.876 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.855 2.876 2.886 2.928 2.874 2.876 2000-2016 Regular 2.807 2.826 2.837 2.879 2.819 2.825 2000-2016 ...

  18. Retail Prices for Gasoline, All Grades

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    240 2.265 2.342 2.325 2.345 2.403 1993-2016 East Coast (PADD1) 2.230 2.258 2.346 2.350 2.350 2.384 1993-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 2.253 2.284 2.345 2.366 2.359 2.407 1993-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 2.303 2.331 2.399 2.408 2.413 2.447 1993-2016 Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) 2.170 2.195 2.307 2.302 2.301 2.331 1993-2016 Midwest (PADD 2) 2.139 2.181 2.269 2.202 2.263 2.365 1993-2016 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 2.013 2.019 2.099 2.094 2.093 2.171 1993-2016 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 2.165 2.204 2.257 2.302

  19. PADD 5 Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.299 2.325 2.325 2.368 2.376 2.432 1995-2016 All Grades - ... Regular 2.570 2.580 2.563 2.591 2.596 2.635 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.234 2.261 2.260 ...

  20. PADD 4 Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.029 2.049 2.086 2.165 2.204 2.257 1994-2016 Regular 1.947 1.969 2.001 2.078 2.116 2.167 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 1.947 1.969 2.001 2.078 2.116 ...