Sample records for resulting cascading effect

  1. HELIUM EFFECTS ON DISPLACEMENT CASCADE IN TUNGSTEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Nandipati, Giridhar; Roche, Kenneth J.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate He effects on displacement cascades in W. Helium content, proportion of interstitial and substitutional He and temperature were varied to reveal the various effects. The effect of interstitial He on the number of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced during cascade damage appears to be insignificant. However, interstitial He tends to fill a vacancy (V). Nevertheless, this process is less favorable than SIA-V recombination particularly when excess SIAs are present before a cascade. The efficiency of He filling and SIA-V recombination increases as temperature increases due to increased point defect mobility. Likewise, substitutional He is more susceptible to displacement during a collision cascade than W. This susceptibility increases towards higher temperatures. Consequently, the number of surviving V is governed by the interplay between displaced substitutional He and SIA-V recombination. The temperature dependence of these processes results in a minimum number of V reached at an intermediate temperature.

  2. Nonequilibrium phonon effects in midinfrared quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Y. B., E-mail: yshi9@wisc.edu; Knezevic, I., E-mail: knezevic@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1691 (United States)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of nonequilibrium phonon dynamics on the operation of a GaAs-based midinfrared quantum cascade laser over a range of temperatures (77–300?K) via a coupled ensemble Monte Carlo simulation of electron and optical-phonon systems. Nonequilibrium phonon effects are shown to be important below 200?K. At low temperatures, nonequilibrium phonons enhance injection selectivity and efficiency by drastically increasing the rate of interstage electron scattering from the lowest injector state to the next-stage upper lasing level via optical-phonon absorption. As a result, the current density and modal gain at a given field are higher and the threshold current density lower and considerably closer to experiment than results obtained with thermal phonons. By amplifying phonon absorption, nonequilibrium phonons also hinder electron energy relaxation and lead to elevated electronic temperatures.

  3. Phantom cascades: The effect of hidden nodes on information diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belák, Václav; Sala, Alessandra; Morrison, Donn

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on information diffusion generally assumes complete knowledge of the underlying network. However, in the presence of factors such as increasing privacy awareness, restrictions on application programming interfaces (APIs) and sampling strategies, this assumption rarely holds in the real world which in turn leads to an underestimation of the size of information cascades. In this work we study the effect of hidden network structure on information diffusion processes. We characterise information cascades through activation paths traversing visible and hidden parts of the network. We quantify diffusion estimation error while varying the amount of hidden structure in five empirical and synthetic network datasets and demonstrate the effect of topological properties on this error. Finally, we suggest practical recommendations for practitioners and propose a model to predict the cascade size with minimal information regarding the underlying network.

  4. Water Overcomes Methyl Group Directing Effects in Epoxide-Opening Cascades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morten, Christopher J.

    Water is an effective promoter of the endo-selective opening of trisubstituted epoxides, enabling related cascades leading to a variety of substituted ladder polyether structures. When used in conjunction with a ...

  5. Electron acceleration by cascading reconnection in the solar corona I Magnetic gradient and curvature effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, X; Barta, M; Gan, W; Liu, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims: We investigate the electron acceleration in convective electric fields of cascading magnetic reconnection in a flaring solar corona and show the resulting hard X-ray (HXR) radiation spectra caused by Bremsstrahlung for the coronal source. Methods: We perform test particle calculation of electron motions in the framework of a guiding center approximation. The electromagnetic fields and their derivatives along electron trajectories are obtained by linearly interpolating the results of high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) MHD simulations of cascading magnetic reconnection. Hard X-ray (HXR) spectra are calculated using an optically thin Bremsstrahlung model. Results: Magnetic gradients and curvatures in cascading reconnection current sheet accelerate electrons: trapped in magnetic islands, precipitating to the chromosphere and ejected into the interplanetary space. The final location of an electron is determined by its initial position, pitch angle and velocity. These initial conditions also influ...

  6. Near-infrared induced optical quenching effects on mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Dingkai, E-mail: dingk1@umbc.edu; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman; Chen, Xing [Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Cai, Hong [Center of Advanced Studies in Photonics Research (CASPR), University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Johnson, Anthony M.; Choa, Fow-Sen [Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Center of Advanced Studies in Photonics Research (CASPR), University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Khurgin, Jacob B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In space communications, atmospheric absorption and Rayleigh scattering are the dominant channel impairments. Transmission using mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths offers the benefits of lower loss and less scintillation effects. In this work, we report the telecom wavelengths (1.55??m and 1.3??m) induced optical quenching effects on MIR quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), when QCLs are operated well above their thresholds. The QCL output power can be near 100% quenched using 20?mW of near-infrared (NIR) power, and the quenching effect depends on the input NIR intensity as well as wavelength. Time resolved measurement was conducted to explore the quenching mechanism. The measured recovery time is around 14?ns, which indicates that NIR generated electron-hole pairs may play a key role in the quenching process. The photocarrier created local field and band bending can effectively deteriorate the dipole transition matrix element and quench the QCL. As a result, MIR QCLs can be used as an optical modulator and switch controlled by NIR lasers. They can also be used as “converters” to convert telecom optical signals into MIR optical signals.

  7. Market disruption, cascading effects, and economic recovery:a life-cycle hypothesis model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprigg, James A.

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper builds upon previous work [Sprigg and Ehlen, 2004] by introducing a bond market into a model of production and employment. The previous paper described an economy in which households choose whether to enter the labor and product markets based on wages and prices. Firms experiment with prices and employment levels to maximize their profits. We developed agent-based simulations using Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool developed at Sandia, to demonstrate that multiple-firm economies converge toward the competitive equilibria typified by lower prices and higher output and employment, but also suffer from market noise stemming from consumer churn. In this paper we introduce a bond market as a mechanism for household savings. We simulate an economy of continuous overlapping generations in which each household grows older in the course of the simulation and continually revises its target level of savings according to a life-cycle hypothesis. Households can seek employment, earn income, purchase goods, and contribute to savings until they reach the mandatory retirement age; upon retirement households must draw from savings in order to purchase goods. This paper demonstrates the simultaneous convergence of product, labor, and savings markets to their calculated equilibria, and simulates how a disruption to a productive sector will create cascading effects in all markets. Subsequent work will use similar models to simulate how disruptions, such as terrorist attacks, would interplay with consumer confidence to affect financial markets and the broader economy.

  8. A cascaded model of spectral distortions due to spectral response effects and pulse pileup effects in a photon-counting x-ray detector for CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cammin, Jochen, E-mail: jcammin1@jhmi.edu, E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Taguchi, Katsuyuki, E-mail: jcammin1@jhmi.edu, E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu [Division of Medical Imaging Physics, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)] [Division of Medical Imaging Physics, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States); Xu, Jennifer [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States); Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hartsough, Neal E. [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, California 91324 (United States)] [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, California 91324 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Energy discriminating, photon-counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology for computed tomography (CT) with various potential benefits for clinical CT. The photon energies measured by PCDs can be distorted due to the interactions of a photon with the detector and the interaction of multiple coincident photons. These effects result in distorted recorded x-ray spectra which may lead to artifacts in reconstructed CT images and inaccuracies in tissue identification. Model-based compensation techniques have the potential to account for the distortion effects. This approach requires only a small number of parameters and is applicable to a wide range of spectra and count rates, but it needs an accurate model of the spectral distortions occurring in PCDs. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of those spectral distortions and to evaluate the model using a PCD (model DXMCT-1; DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA) and various x-ray spectra in a wide range of count rates. Methods: The authors hypothesize that the complex phenomena of spectral distortions can be modeled by: (1) separating them into count-rate independent factors that we call the spectral response effects (SRE), and count-rate dependent factors that we call the pulse pileup effects (PPE), (2) developing separate models for SRE and PPE, and (3) cascading the SRE and PPE models into a combined SRE+PPE model that describes PCD distortions at both low and high count rates. The SRE model describes the probability distribution of the recorded spectrum, with a photo peak and a continuum tail, given the incident photon energy. Model parameters were obtained from calibration measurements with three radioisotopes and then interpolated linearly for other energies. The PPE model used was developed in the authors’ previous work [K. Taguchi et al., “Modeling the performance of a photon counting x-ray detector for CT: Energy response and pulse pileup effects,” Med. Phys. 38(2), 1089–1102 (2011)]. The agreement between the x-ray spectra calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model and the measured spectra was evaluated for various levels of deadtime loss ratios (DLR) and incident spectral shapes, realized using different attenuators, in terms of the weighted coefficient of variation (COV{sub W}), i.e., the root mean square difference weighted by the statistical errors of the data and divided by the mean. Results: At low count rates, when DLR < 10%, the distorted spectra measured by the DXMCT-1 were in agreement with those calculated by SRE only, with COV{sub W}'s less than 4%. At higher count rates, the measured spectra were also in agreement with the ones calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model; with PMMA as attenuator, COV{sub W} was 5.6% at a DLR of 22% and as small as 6.7% for a DLR as high as 55%. Conclusions: The x-ray spectra calculated by the proposed model agreed with the measured spectra over a wide range of count rates and spectral shapes. The SRE model predicted the distorted, recorded spectra with low count rates over various types and thicknesses of attenuators. The study also validated the hypothesis that the complex spectral distortions in a PCD can be adequately modeled by cascading the count-rate independent SRE and the count-rate dependent PPE.

  9. Body size, not other morphological traits, characterizes cascading effects in fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    certains lagons de la plaine de débordement d'une rivière du Venezuela et les effets en cascade qui s poissons proies dans des lagons exploités et non exploités et vérifié s'il existe une association entre la

  10. 3-D hydro + cascade model at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiho Nonaka; Steffen A. Bass

    2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a 3-D hydro + cascade model in which viscosity and a realistic freezeout process for the hadronic phase are taken into account. We compare our results to experimental data and discuss the finite state interaction effects on physical observables.

  11. CASCADE OPTIMIZATION AND CONTROL OF BATCH REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jutan, Arthur

    CASCADE OPTIMIZATION AND CONTROL OF BATCH REACTORS Xiangming Hua, Sohrab Rohani and Arthur Jutan ajutan@uwo.ca Abstract: In this study, a cascade closed-loop optimization and control strategy for batch reactor. Using model reduction a cascade system is developed, which can effectively combine optimization

  12. Investigations of the cascade of Langmuir wave turbulence over HAARP Observatory in Gakona, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Laura M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the cascade lines from Langmuir wave turbulence as a result of Parametric Decay Instability (PDI) in the ionosphere. This effect is studied using a high-frequency (HF) heater located at the NSF/DoD ...

  13. Velocity and Energy Profiles In Two- vs. Three-Dimensional Channels: Effects of Inverse vs. Direct Energy Cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L'vov, Victor S; Rudenko, Oleksii

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In light of some recent experiments on quasi two-dimensional (2D) turbulent channel flow we provide here a model of the ideal case, for the sake of comparison. The ideal 2D channel flow differs from its 3D counterpart by having a second quadratic conserved variable in addition to the energy, and the latter has an inverse rather than a direct cascade. The resulting qualitative differences in profiles of velocity, V, and energy, K, as a function of the distance from the wall are highlighted and explained. The most glaring difference is that the 2D channel is much more energetic, with K in wall units increasing logarithmically with the Reynolds number $\\Ret$ instead of being $\\Ret$-independent in 3D channels.

  14. Velocity and Energy Profiles In Two- vs. Three-Dimensional Channels: Effects of Inverse vs. Direct Energy Cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor S. L'vov; Itamar Procaccia; Oleksii Rudenko

    2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In light of some recent experiments on quasi two-dimensional (2D) turbulent channel flow we provide here a model of the ideal case, for the sake of comparison. The ideal 2D channel flow differs from its 3D counterpart by having a second quadratic conserved variable in addition to the energy, and the latter has an inverse rather than a direct cascade. The resulting qualitative differences in profiles of velocity, V, and energy, K, as a function of the distance from the wall are highlighted and explained. The most glaring difference is that the 2D channel is much more energetic, with K in wall units increasing logarithmically with the Reynolds number $\\Ret$ instead of being $\\Ret$-independent in 3D channels.

  15. Cascading and local-field effects in non-linear optics revisited: A quantum-field picture based on exchange of photons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Kochise, E-mail: kcbennet@uci.edu; Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu [Chemistry Department, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)] [Chemistry Department, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The semi-classical theory of radiation-matter coupling misses local-field effects that may alter the pulse time-ordering and cascading that leads to the generation of new signals. These are then introduced macroscopically by solving Maxwell's equations. This procedure is convenient and intuitive but ad hoc. We show that both effects emerge naturally by including coupling to quantum modes of the radiation field that are initially in the vacuum state to second order. This approach is systematic and suggests a more general class of corrections that only arise in a QED framework. In the semi-classical theory, which only includes classical field modes, the susceptibility of a collection of N non-interacting molecules is additive and scales as N. Second-order coupling to a vacuum mode generates an effective retarded interaction that leads to cascading and local field effects both of which scale as N{sup 2}.

  16. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF DISPLACEMENT CASCADES IN MOLYBDENUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Richard Whiting

    2003-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics calculations have been employed to simulate displacement cascades in neutron irradiated Mo. A total of 90 simulations were conducted for PKA energies between 1 and 40 keV and temperatures from 298 to 923K. The results suggest very little effect of temperature on final defect count and configuration, but do display a temperature effect on peak defect generation prior to cascade collapse. Cascade efficiency, relative to the NRT model, is computed to lie between 1/4 and 1/3 in agreement with simulations performed on previous systems. There is a tendency for both interstitials and vacancies to cluster together following cascade collapse producing vacancy rich regions surrounded by interstitials. Although coming to rest in close proximity, the point defects comprising the clusters generally do not lie within the nearest neighbor positions of one another, except for the formation of dumbbell di-interstitials. Cascades produced at higher PKA energies (20 or 40 keV) exhibit the formation of subcascades.

  17. Superlattice cascade solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M.W.; Blakeslee, A.E.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports progress toward realization of a new cascade solar cell structure whose chief advantages over other present concepts are: use of silicon for the substrate and low bandgap cell; avoidance of the necessity of lattice matching; and incorporation of a GaAs/GaP superlattice to enhance efficiency and provide a low-resistance connecting junction. Details of the design and operation of an OMCVD system for growing this structure are presented. Results of experiments to optimize layer thickness, compositional uniformity, and surface morphology are described.

  18. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  19. Rescuing ecosystems from extinction cascades through compensatory perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sagar Sahasrabudhe; Adilson E. Motter

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Food-web perturbations stemming from climate change, overexploitation, invasive species, and habitat degradation often cause an initial loss of species that results in a cascade of secondary extinctions, posing considerable challenges to ecosystem conservation efforts. Here we devise a systematic network-based approach to reduce the number of secondary extinctions using a predictive modeling framework. We show that the extinction of one species can often be compensated by the concurrent removal or population suppression of other specific species, which is a counterintuitive effect not previously tested in complex food webs. These compensatory perturbations frequently involve long-range interactions that are not evident from local predator-prey relationships. In numerous cases, even the early removal of a species that would eventually be extinct by the cascade is found to significantly reduce the number of cascading extinctions. These compensatory perturbations only exploit resources available in the system, and illustrate the potential of human intervention combined with predictive modeling for ecosystem management.

  20. Multiperiod quantum-cascade nanoheterostructures: Epitaxy and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, A. Yu., E-mail: Anton@beam.ioffe.ru; Brunkov, P. N.; Nikitina, E. V.; Pirogov, E. V.; Sobolev, M. S.; Lazarenko, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University, Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Baidakova, M. V.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Konnikov, S. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in the production technology of multiperiod nanoheterostructures of quantum-cascade lasers with 60 cascades by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on an industrial multiple-substrate MBE machine are discussed. The results obtained in studying the nanoheterostructures of quantum-cascade lasers by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis, and photoluminescence mapping are presented.

  1. Engineering Light: Quantum Cascade Lasers

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Claire Gmachl

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum cascade lasers are ideal for environmental sensing and medical diagnostic applications. Gmachl discusses how these lasers work, and their applications, including their use as chemical trace gas sensors. As examples of these applications, she briefly presents results from her field campaign at the Beijing Olympics, and ongoing campaigns in Texas, Maryland, and Ghana.

  2. Cascade effects on the polarization of He-like Fe 1s 2l - 1s2 X-ray line emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakel, P; Mancini, R; Harris, C; Neill, P; Beiersdorfer, P; Csanak, G; Zhang, H

    2006-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate X-ray line polarization degrees for cases with axial symmetry using a collisional-radiative magnetic-sublevel atomic kinetics model and the properties of multipole radiation fields. This approach is well-suited for problems where the alignment is determined by the competition between many atomic processes. We benchmark this method against polarization measurements performed at the Livermore electron beam ion trap, and we study the 3-to-2 cascade effects on the polarization of 2-to-1 lines in He-like Fe.

  3. Sub-Doppler Spectra of Infrared Hyperfine Transitions of Nitric Oxide Using a Pulse Modulated Quantum Cascade Laser: Rapid Passage, Free Induction Decay and the AC Stark Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duxbury, Geoffrey; Kelly, James F.; Blake, Thomas A.; Langford, Nigel

    2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a low power, rapid (nsec) pulse-modulated quantum cascade (QC) laser, collective coherent effects in the 5 {micro}m spectrum of nitric oxide have been demonstrated by the observation of sub-Doppler hyperfine splitting and also Autler-Townes splitting of Doppler broadened lines. For nitrous oxide, experiments and model calculations have demonstrated that two main effects occur with ulsemodulated (chirped) quantum cascade lasers: free induction decay signals, and signals induced by rapid passage during the laser chirp. In the open shell molecule, NO, in which both {Lambda}-doubling splitting and hyperfine structure occur, laser field-induced coupling between the hyperfine levels of the two {Lambda}-doublet components can induce a large AC Stark effect. This may be observed as sub-Doppler structure, field-induced splittings, or Autler-Townes splitting of a Doppler broadened line. These represent an extension of the types of behaviour observed in the closed shell molecule nitrous oxide, using the same apparatus, when probed with an 8 {micro}m QC laser.

  4. A network approach for power grid robustness against cascading failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiangrong; Kooij, Robert E; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cascading failures are one of the main reasons for blackouts in electrical power grids. Stable power supply requires a robust design of the power grid topology. Currently, the impact of the grid structure on the grid robustness is mainly assessed by purely topological metrics, that fail to capture the fundamental properties of the electrical power grids such as power flow allocation according to Kirchhoff's laws. This paper deploys the effective graph resistance as a metric to relate the topology of a grid to its robustness against cascading failures. Specifically, the effective graph resistance is deployed as a metric for network expansions (by means of transmission line additions) of an existing power grid. Four strategies based on network properties are investigated to optimize the effective graph resistance, accordingly to improve the robustness, of a given power grid at a low computational complexity. Experimental results suggest the existence of Braess's paradox in power grids: bringing an additional li...

  5. Terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Benjamin S. (Benjamin Stanford), 1974-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of the terahertz frequency range has long been impeded by the relative dearth of compact, coherent radiation sources of reasonable power. This thesis details the development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) ...

  6. Copyright 2008 IEEE. Reprinted from Hui Ren, Student Member, IEEE, and Ian Dobson, Fellow, IEEE; and Benjamin Carreras. "Long-Term Effect of the N-1 Criterion on Cascading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; and Benjamin Carreras. "Long-Term Effect of the N-1 Criterion on Cascading Line Outages in an Evolving Power system security, power transmission reliability, risk analysis. I. INTRODUCTION THERE are diverse Transmission Grid." IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 23, no. 3, August 2008. This material is posted

  7. Survey of tools for risk assessment of cascading outages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papic, Milorad; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Dobson, Ian; Fonte, Louis; Haq, Enamul; Hines, Paul; Kirschen, Daniel; Luo, Xiaochuan; Miller, Stephen; Samaan, Nader A.; Vaiman, Marianna; Varghese, Matthew; Zhang, Pei

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract-This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers [1, 2] are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the second of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. The first paper reviews the state of the art in methodologies for performing risk assessment of potential cascading outages [3]. This paper describes the state of the art in cascading failure modeling tools, documenting the view of experts representing utilities, universities and consulting companies. The paper is intended to constitute a valid source of information and references about presently available tools that deal with prediction of cascading failure events. This effort involves reviewing published literature and other documentation from vendors, universities and research institutions. The assessment of cascading outages risk evaluation is in continuous evolution. Investigations to gain even better understanding and identification of cascading events are the subject of several research programs underway aimed at solving the complexity of these events that electrical utilities face today. Assessing the risk of cascading failure events in planning and operation for power transmission systems require adequate mathematical tools/software.

  8. Rhodium-catalyzed epoxide-opening cascades toward brevisin and hemibrevetoxin B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armbrust, Kurt W. (Kurt Willes)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHAPTER I. Rhodium-Catalyzed Epoxide-Opening Cascades: Formal Synthesis of (-)-Brevisin [chemical formula inserted] [Rh(CO)?Cl]? was found to be an effective catalyst for endo-selective cyclizations and cascades of ...

  9. Cascaded thermoacoustic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.; Gardner, David L.

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoacoustic device is formed with a resonator system defining at least one region of high specific acoustic impedance in an acoustic wave within the resonator system. A plurality of thermoacoustic units are cascaded together within the region of high specific acoustic impedance, where at least one of the thermoacoustic units is a regenerator unit.

  10. Cascade photo production at CLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetz, John [Ohio University, JLAB; Hicks, Kenneth H. [Ohio University, JLAB

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The famous discovery of the Omega ? in 1964 put the quark model on firm ground and since then a lot of effort has been spent on mapping out the baryonic and mesonic states. Over the following decades, many excited baryons with light quarks (up, down and strange) have been measured, but by most predictions, only a small percentage of those expected have been found. In this talk, I will discuss a newly developing technique using an (unflavored) photon beam to excite protons to doubly-strange "Cascade" (Xi) states. Advantages of such an experiment and associated difficulties will be presented, along with recent results from the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab in Virginia.

  11. Detection, Prevention and Mitigation of Cascading Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of automatic control and protection systems in preventing, slowing, or mitigating the impact of a large controllers that respond to unforeseen operating conditions to keep power system problems from cascading and control the effects of instability events in large electric power systems. This research produced a real

  12. Time evolution of cascade decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boyanovsky; Louis Lello

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study non-perturbatively the time evolution of cascade decay for generic fields $\\pi \\rightarrow \\phi_1\\phi_2\\rightarrow \\phi_2\\chi_1\\chi_2$ and obtain the time dependence of amplitudes and populations for the resonant and final states. We analyze in detail the different time scales and the manifestation of unitary time evolution in the dynamics of production and decay of resonant intermediate and final states. The probability of occupation (population) "flows" as a function of time from the initial to the final states. When the decay width of the parent particle $\\Gamma_\\pi$ is much larger than that of the intermediate resonant state $\\Gamma_{\\phi_1}$ there is a "bottleneck" in the flow, the population of resonant states builds up to a maximum at $t^* = \\ln[\\Gamma_\\pi/\\Gamma_{\\phi_1}]/(\\Gamma_\\pi-\\Gamma_{\\phi_1})$ nearly saturating unitarity and decays to the final state on the longer time scale $1/\\Gamma_{\\phi_1}$. As a consequence of the wide separation of time scales in this case the cascade decay can be interpreted as evolving sequentially $\\pi \\rightarrow \\phi_1\\phi_2; ~ \\phi_1\\phi_2\\rightarrow \\phi_2\\chi_1\\chi_2$. In the opposite limit the population of resonances ($\\phi_1$) does not build up substantially and the cascade decay proceeds almost directly from the initial parent to the final state without resulting in a large amplitude of the resonant state. An alternative but equivalent non-perturbative method useful in cosmology is presented. Possible phenomenological implications for heavy sterile neutrinos as resonant states and consequences of quantum entanglement and correlations in the final state are discussed.

  13. Abstract--Relay misoperations play an important role in cascading blackouts. Power swing and out-of-step conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -of-step, power swing, power system faults, power system protection, protective relaying, synchronized sampling. I1 Abstract--Relay misoperations play an important role in cascading blackouts. Power swing and out-of-step conditions caused by large disturbances in the system may result in relay misoperations. This effect

  14. Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have developed a multi-stage...

  15. Global analysis of the intranuclear cascade model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, E.; Fraenkel, Z.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of the predictions of the intranuclear cascade model of Yariv-Fraenkel is made by means of global variables (flow angle and transverse momentum distributions). Signatures for the flow effect in the reaction are studied and the distributions of the shape of the events are determined, using the sphericity and coplanarity as shape parameters. The dependence of the results on two parameters of the model is investigated: the rearrangement of the particles in the Fermi sea after each particle-particle collision and the nuclear potential. The influence of the evaporation particles on the flow angle is checked. A comparison with the experimental results of the plastic ball/plastic wall group is made, using a simulation filter in order to take the experimental acceptance of the detector into account. The dependence of the flow angle on the mass of the colliding ions and on the bombarding energy is also studied. We find that the model predicts finite flow angles of the emitted particles. Slow rearrangement and a central potential cause larger flow angles. However, in all cases we find that the most probable calculated flow angle is smaller than the experimental one.

  16. Collapse and revival of electromagnetic cascades in focused intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Mironov; N. B. Narozhny; A. M. Fedotov

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider interaction of a high-energy electron beam with two counterpropagating femtosecond laser pulses. Nonlinear Compton scattering and electron-positron pair production by the emitted photons result in development of an electromagnetic "shower-type" cascade, which however collapses rather quickly due to energy losses by secondary particles. Nevertheless, the laser field accelerates the low-energy electrons and positrons trapped in the focal region, thus giving rise to development of electromagnetic cascade of another type ("avalanche-type"). This effect of cascade collapse and revival can be observed at the electron beam energy of the order of several GeV and intensity of the colliding laser pulses of the level of $10^{24}$W/cm$^2$. This means that it can be readily observed at the novel laser facilities which are either planned for the nearest future, or are already under construction. The proposed experimental setup provides the most realistic and promissory way to observe the "avalanche-type" cascades.

  17. Collapse and revival of electromagnetic cascades in focused intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mironov, A A; Fedotov, A M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider interaction of a high-energy electron beam with two counterpropagating femtosecond laser pulses. Nonlinear Compton scattering and electron-positron pair production by the emitted photons result in development of an electromagnetic "shower-type" cascade, which however collapses rather quickly due to energy losses by secondary particles. Nevertheless, the laser field accelerates the low-energy electrons and positrons trapped in the focal region, thus giving rise to development of electromagnetic cascade of another type ("avalanche-type"). This effect of cascade collapse and revival can be observed at the electron beam energy of the order of several GeV and intensity of the colliding laser pulses of the level of $10^{24}$W/cm$^2$. This means that it can be readily observed at the novel laser facilities which are either planned for the nearest future, or are already under construction. The proposed experimental setup provides the most realistic and promissory way to observe the "avalanche-type" cascad...

  18. Mathematical modeling for a thermionic-AMTEC cascade system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lodhi, M.A. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Schuller, M.; Hausgen, P. [Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical modeling of a system consisting of a cascade of a thermionic energy conversion (TIEC) device and an alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion (AMTEC) device has been performed. The TIEC is heated by electron bombardment which converts heat partially into electricity and rejects the remaining. The AMTEC utilizes this reject heat of the TIEC. A mathematical thermal model of the cascade converter has been developed to analyze effects of key parameters such as power level, heat fluxes, temperatures, cascade geometry, etc. In this effort, a 9-node system of nonlinear simultaneous equations has been constructed which is solved by MATHCAD predicting the temperatures of the principal components and the heat flow. Through this study, a better understanding of the thermal coupling of the two converters was gained which helps to produce a more efficient cascade. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  20. Modeling Kelvin Wave Cascades in Superfluid Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guido Boffetta; Antonio Celani; Davide Dezzani; Jason Laurie; Sergey Nazarenko

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We study two different types of simplified models for Kelvin wave turbulence on quantized vortex lines in superfluids near zero temperature. Our first model is obtained from a truncated expansion of the Local Induction Approximation (Truncated-LIA) and it is shown to possess the same scalings and the essential behaviour as the full Biot-Savart model, being much simpler than the latter and, therefore, more amenable to theoretical and numerical investigations. The Truncated-LIA model supports six-wave interactions and dual cascades, which are clearly demonstrated via the direct numerical simulation of this model in the present paper. In particular, our simulations confirm presence of the weak turbulence regime and the theoretically predicted spectra for the direct energy cascade and the inverse wave action cascade. The second type of model we study, the Differential Approximation Model (DAM), takes a further drastic simplification by assuming locality of interactions in $k$-space via a differential closure that preserves the main scalings of the Kelvin wave dynamics. DAMs are even more amenable to study and they form a useful tool by providing simple analytical solutions in the cases when extra physical effects are present, e.g. forcing by reconnections, friction dissipation and phonon radiation. We study these models numerically and test their theoretical predictions, in particular the formation of the stationary spectra, and the closeness of the numerics for the higher-order DAM to the analytical predictions for the lower-order DAM .

  1. Performance of the biose cascade-INEL manufactured solar home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, A S; Liebelt, K H; Scofield, M P; Shinn, N R

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two manufactured active solar homes using air collectors and rock storage were designed, bult and are being tested. The cooperative, DOE-funded project involves. Boise Cascade Corporation and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The two primary goals of the project are to develop an active solar heating system that is cost-effective now, and to provide significant market penetration through the involvement of Boise Cascade, a major manufacturer of factory built houses. A brief discussion of the houses and solar systems is included, with more detailed discussion of the desktop-computer based data acquisition system and initial performance results. The 1979 cooling season data indicated a need for modifications to achieve adequate cooling system performance. Data from the heating season showed good agreement with calculations, especially the house heat loss coefficient. However, solar heating fractions were lower than predicted and an examination of the collector operating efficiency showed the collector losses to be approximately three times higher than predicted. Tests are underway to better understand the large collection losses. Comparison of the performance data and f-chart predictions shows significant differences, with predicted solar fractions being lower than actual. The solar domestic hot water preheating system performed reasonably well, with significant thermal losses noticed from the auxiliary hot water heater. Recommendations are made for the design of solar air-heating systems.

  2. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

  3. Peer effects in employment: Results from Mexico's poor rural communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    1 Peer effects in employment: Results from Mexico's poor rural communities Caridad Araujo , Alain-farm non-agricultural (OFNA) employment offers a major pathway from poverty for rural populations. However and informal OFNA employment using village census data for rural Mexico. We test and reject the possibility

  4. Hydrodynamics of the cascading plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Buchel

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The cascading gauge theory of Klebanov et.al realizes a soluble example of gauge/string correspondence in a non-conformal setting. Such a gauge theory has a strong coupling scale Lambda, below which it confines with a chiral symmetry breaking. A holographic description of a strongly coupled cascading gauge theory plasma is represented by a black brane solution of type IIB supergravity on a conifold with fluxes. A characteristic parameter controlling the high temperature expansion of such plasma is 1/ln(T/Lambda). In this paper we study the speed of sound and the bulk viscosity of the cascading gauge theory plasma to order 1/ln(T/Lambda)^4. We find that the bulk viscosity satisfies the bound conjectured in arXiv:0708.3459. We comment on difficulties of computing the transport coefficients to all orders in T/Lambda. Previously, it was shown that a cascading gauge theory plasma undergoes a first-order deconfinement transition with unbroken chiral symmetry at T_c=0.6141111(3) Lambda. We show here that a deconfined chirally symmetric phase becomes perturbatively unstable at T_u=0.8749(0) T_c. Near the unstable point the specific heat diverges as c_V ~ |1-T_u/T|^(-1/2).

  5. Results of temperature gradient and heat flow in Santiam Pass Area, Oregon, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, B.L.; Gardner, M.C.; Koenig, J.B.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conclusions of this report are: (1) There is a weakly defined thermal anomaly within the area examined by temperature-gradient holes in the Santiam Pass area. This is a relict anomaly showing differences in permeability between the High Cascades and Western Cascades areas, more than a fundamental difference in shallow crustal temperatures. (2) The anomaly as defined by the 60 F isotherms at 400 feet follows a north-south trend immediately westward of the Cascade axis in the boundary region. It is clear that all holes spudded into High Cascades rocks result in isothermal and reversal gradients. Holes spudded in Western Cascades rocks result in positive gradients. (3) Cold groundwater flow influences and masks temperature gradients in the High Cascades to a depth of at least 700 feet, especially eastward from the major north-south trending faults. Pleistocene and Holocene rocks are very permeable aquifers. (4) Shallow gradient drilling in the lowlands westward of the faults provides more interpretable information than shallow drilling in the cold-water recharge zones. Topographic and climatological effects can be filtered out of the temperature gradient results. (5) The thermal anomaly seems to have 2 centers: one in the Belknap-Foley area, and one northward in the Sand Mountain area. The anomalies may or may not be connected along a north-south trend. (6) A geothermal effect is seen in holes downslope of the Western-High Cascade boundary. Mixing with cold waters is a powerful influence on temperature gradient data. (7) The temperature-gradient program has not yet examined and defined the geothermal resources potential of the area eastward of the Western Cascades-High Cascades boundary. Holes to 1500-2000 feet in depth are required to penetrate the high permeability-cold groundwater regime. (8) Drilling conditions are unfavorable. There are very few accessible level drill sites. Seasonal access problems and environmental restrictions together with frequent lost circulation results in very high costs per foot drilled.

  6. Boundary Conditions of the Hydro-Cascade Model and Relativistic Kinetic Equations for Finite Domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. A. Bugaev

    2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed analysis of the coupled relativistic kinetic equations for two domains separated by a hypersurface having both space- and time-like parts is presented. Integrating the derived set of transport equations, we obtain the correct system of the hydro+cascade equations to model the relativistic nuclear collision process. Remarkably, the conservation laws on the boundary between domains conserve separately both the incoming and outgoing components of energy, momentum and baryonic charge. Thus, the relativistic kinetic theory generates twice the number of conservation laws compared to traditional hydrodynamics. Our analysis shows that these boundary conditions between domains, the three flux discontinuity, can be satisfied only by a special superposition of two cut-off distribution functions for the ``out'' domain. All these results are applied to the case of the phase transition between quark gluon plasma and hadronic matter. The possible consequences for an improved hydro+cascade description of the relativistic nuclear collisions are discussed. The unique properties of the three flux discontinuity and their effect on the space-time evolution of the transverse expansion are also analyzed. The possible modifications of both transversal radii from pion correlations generated by a correct hydro+cascade approach are discussed.

  7. Interdependent Security with Strategic Agents and Cascades of Infection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La, Richard J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate cascades in networks consisting of strategic agents with interdependent security. We assume that the strategic agents have choices between i) investing in protecting themselves, ii) purchasing insurance to transfer (some) risks, and iii) taking no actions. Using a population game model, we study how various system parameters, such as node degrees, infection propagation rate, and the probability with which infected nodes transmit infection to neighbors, affect nodes' choices at Nash equilibria and the resultant price of anarchy/stability. In addition, we examine how the probability that a single infected node can spread the infection to a significant portion of the entire network, called cascade probability, behaves with respect to system parameters. In particular, we demonstrate that, at least for some parameter regimes, the cascade probability increases with the average degree of nodes.

  8. Photovoltaic Probe of Cavity Polaritons in a Quantum Cascade Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Sapienza; Raffaele Colombelli; Angela Vasanelli; Cristiano Ciuti; Christophe Manquest; Ulf Gennser; Carlo Sirtori

    2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The strong coupling between an intersubband excitation in a quantum cascade structure and a photonic mode of a planar microcavity has been detected by angle-resolved photovoltaic measurements. A typical anticrossing behavior, with a vacuum-field Rabi splitting of 16 meV at 78K, has been measured, for an intersubband transition at 163 meV. These results show that the strong coupling regime between photons and intersubband excitations can be engineered in a quantum cascade opto-electronic device. They also demonstrate the possibility to perform angle-resolved mid-infrared photodetection and to develop active devices based on intersubband cavity polaritons.

  9. Cascading of fluid cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovach, S.M.; Miller, C.B.

    1986-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for conversion of hydrocarbon feedstocks by cascading a cracking catalyst containing zeolite in an acidic matrix from one hydrocarbon processing unit to another, wherein there are at least three different interconnected hydrocarbon processing units comprising a first unit having a regeneration zone and a riser zone, a second unit having having a regeneration zone and a riser zone, and a third unit having a riser zone and a regeneration zone, each unit having different processing conditions.

  10. Demixing cascades in cluster crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nigel B. Wilding; Peter Sollich

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In a cluster crystal, each lattice site is occupied by multiple soft-core particles. As the number density is increased at zero temperature, a `cascade' of isostructural phase transitions can occur between states whose site occupancy differs by unity. For low but finite temperature, each of these transitions terminates in a critical point. Using tailored Monte Carlo simulation techniques we have studied such demixing cascades in systems of soft particles interacting via potentials of the generalized exponential form $u(r)=\\epsilon\\exp[-(r/\\sigma)^n]$. We have estimated the critical parameters of the first few transitions in the cascade as a function of the softness parameter $n$. The critical temperature and pressure exhibit non-monotonic behaviour as $n$ is varied, although the critical chemical potential remains monotonic. The trends for the pressure and chemical potential are confirmed by cell model calculations at zero temperature. As $n\\to 2^+$, all the transitions that we have observed are preempted by melting although we cannot rule out that clustering transitions survive at high density.

  11. Power Grid Defense Against Malicious Cascading Failure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shakarian, Paulo; Lindelauf, Roy

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An adversary looking to disrupt a power grid may look to target certain substations and sources of power generation to initiate a cascading failure that maximizes the number of customers without electricity. This is particularly an important concern when the enemy has the capability to launch cyber-attacks as practical concerns (i.e. avoiding disruption of service, presence of legacy systems, etc.) may hinder security. Hence, a defender can harden the security posture at certain power stations but may lack the time and resources to do this for the entire power grid. We model a power grid as a graph and introduce the cascading failure game in which both the defender and attacker choose a subset of power stations such as to minimize (maximize) the number of consumers having access to producers of power. We formalize problems for identifying both mixed and deterministic strategies for both players, prove complexity results under a variety of different scenarios, identify tractable cases, and develop algorithms f...

  12. EMC effect for light nuclei: new results from Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens OH 45701 (United States)

    2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy lepton scattering has been the primary tool for mapping out the quark distributions of nucleons and nuclei. Measurements of deep inelastic scattering in nuclei show that the quark distributions in heavy nuclei are not simply the sum of the quark distributions of the constituent proton and neutron, as one might expect for a weakly bound system. This modification of the quark distributions in nuclei is known as the EMC effect. I will discuss the results from Jefferson Lab (JLab) experiment E03-103, a precise measurement of the EMC effect in few-body nuclei with emphasis on the large x region. Data from the light nuclei suggests that the nuclear dependence of the high x quark distribution may depend on the nucleon's local environment, rather than being a purely bulk effect. In addition, I will also discuss about a future experiment at the upgraded 12 GeV Jefferson Lab facility which will further investigate the role of the local nuclear environment and the influence of detailed nuclear structure to the modification of quark distributions.

  13. EMC effect for light nuclei: New results from Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aji Daniel

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy lepton scattering has been the primary tool for mapping out the quark distributions of nucleons and nuclei. Measurements of deep inelastic scattering in nuclei show that the quark distributions in heavy nuclei are not simply the sum of the quark distributions of the constituent proton and neutron, as one might expect for a weakly bound system. This modification of the quark distributions in nuclei is known as the EMC effect. I will discuss the results from Jefferson Lab (JLab) experiment E03-103, a precise measurement of the EMC effect in few-body nuclei with emphasis on the large x region. Data from the light nuclei suggests that the nuclear dependence of the high x quark distribution may depend on the nucleon's local environment, rather than being a purely bulk effect. In addition, I will also discuss about a future experiment at the upgraded 12 GeV Jefferson Lab facility which will further investigate the role of the local nuclear environment and the influence of detailed nuclear structure to the modification of quark distributions.

  14. The detection, prevention and mitigation of cascading outages in the power system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hongbiao

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation studies the causes and mechanism of power system cascading outages and develops new methods and new tools to help detect, prevent and mitigate the outages. Three effective solutions: a steady state control scheme, a transient...

  15. Detection, Prevention and Mitigation of Cascading Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    disturbances and protective relay operations leading to cascading events. The detection algorithms improved (such as weak connections, unexpected events, hidden failures in protection system, and human errors

  16. Computer simulation studies of high energy collision cascades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, M.T.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified binary collision approximation allowing the proper order of the collisions in time was used to study cascades in Cu and Au at primary kinetic energies up to 100 keV. Nonlinearities were approximated by letting already-stopped cascade atoms become targets in later collisions, using an improved method of locating potential targets to extend the calculations to energies much higher than heretofore. Beside the effect of the approximate nonlinearity, the effect of thermal disorder in the targets was examined. Target redisplacements reduce the damage in Cu by 3% at most, but in Au they reduce it by amounts up to 20% at 100 keV. Thermal disorder is also important: by disrupting crystal effects, the damage is reduced significantly. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Sentiment cascades in the 15M movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Raquel; Moreno, Yamir; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent grassroots movements have suggested that online social networks might play a key role in their organization, as adherents have a fast, many-to-many, communication channel to help coordinate their mobilization. The structure and dynamics of the networks constructed from the digital traces of protesters have been analyzed to some extent recently. However, less effort has been devoted to the analysis of the semantic content of messages exchanged during the protest. Using the data obtained from a microblogging service during the brewing and active phases of the 15M movement in Spain, we perform the first large scale test of theories on collective emotions and social interaction in collective actions. Our findings show that activity and information cascades in the movement are larger in the presence of negative collective emotions and when users express themselves in terms related to social content. At the level of individual participants, our results show that their social integration in the movement, as m...

  18. DISPLACEMENT CASCADE SIMULATION IN TUNGSTEN AT 1025 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Nandipati, Giridhar; Roche, Kenneth J.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulation was employed to investigate the irradiation damage properties of bulk tungsten at 1025 K (0.25 melting temperature). A comprehensive data set of primary cascade damage was generated up to primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies 100 keV. The dependence of the number of surviving Frenkel pairs (NFP) on the PKA energy (E) exhibits three different characteristic domains presumably related to the different cascade morphologies that form. The low-energy regime < 0.2 keV is characterized by a hit-or-miss type of Frenkel pair (FP) production near the displacement threshold energy of 128 eV. The middle regime 0.3 – 30 keV exhibits a sublinear dependence of log(NFP) vs log(E) associated with compact cascade morphology with a slope of 0.73. Above 30 keV, the cascade morphology consists of complex branches or interconnected damage regions. In this extended morphology, large interstitial clusters form from superposition of interstitials from nearby damage regions. Strong clustering above 30 keV results in a superlinear dependence of log(NFP) vs log(E) with a slope of 1.365. At 100 keV, an interstitial cluster of size 92 and a vacancy cluster of size 114 were observed.

  19. A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kao, Tsung-Yu

    A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser(QCL) is demonstrated. The emitter facet is excited by near-infrared pulses from a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser, and the resulting current ...

  20. Harmonic cascade FEL designs for LUX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.3: a fully 3D time-dependent FEL sim- ulation code, Nucl.a XUV/soft X-ray harmonic-cascade FEL for the proposed LBNLLBNL-56329 Harmonic cascade FEL designs for LUX G. Penn, M.

  1. Generalized Modeling of Enrichment Cascades That Include Minor Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Charles F [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The monitoring of enrichment operations may require innovative analysis to allow for imperfect or missing data. The presence of minor isotopes may help or hurt - they can complicate a calculation or provide additional data to corroborate a calculation. However, they must be considered in a rigorous analysis, especially in cases involving reuse. This study considers matched-abundanceratio cascades that involve at least three isotopes and allows generalized input that does not require all feed assays or the enrichment factor to be specified. Calculations are based on the equations developed for the MSTAR code but are generalized to allow input of various combinations of assays, flows, and other cascade properties. Traditional cascade models have required specification of the enrichment factor, all feed assays, and the product and waste assays of the primary enriched component. The calculation would then produce the numbers of stages in the enriching and stripping sections and the remaining assays in waste and product streams. In cases where the enrichment factor or feed assays were not known, analysis was difficult or impossible. However, if other quantities are known (e.g., additional assays in waste or product streams), a reliable calculation is still possible with the new code, but such nonstandard input may introduce additional numerical difficulties into the calculation. Thus, the minimum input requirements for a stable solution are discussed, and a sample problem with a non-unique solution is described. Both heuristic and mathematically required guidelines are given to assist the application of cascade modeling to situations involving such non-standard input. As a result, this work provides both a calculational tool and specific guidance for evaluation of enrichment cascades in which traditional input data are either flawed or unknown. It is useful for cases involving minor isotopes, especially if the minor isotope assays are desired (or required) to be important contributors to the overall analysis.

  2. The Impact of the Topology on Cascading Failures in Electric Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koç, Yakup; Van Mieghem, Piet; Kooij, Robert E; Brazier, Frances M T

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cascading failures are one of the main reasons for blackouts in power transmission grids. The topology of a power grid, together with its operative state determine, for the most part, the robustness of the power grid against cascading failures. Secure electrical power supply requires, together with careful operation, a robust design of the electrical power grid topology. This paper investigates the impact of a power grid topology on its robustness against cascading failures. Currently, the impact of the topology on a grid robustness is mainly assessed by using purely topological approaches that fail to capture the essence of electric power flow. This paper proposes a metric, the effective graph resistance, that relates the topology of a power grid to its robustness against cascading failures by deliberate attacks, while also taking the fundamental characteristics of the electric power grid into account such as power flow allocation according to Kirchoff Laws. Experimental verification shows that the proposed ...

  3. Predictability of the energy cascade in 2D turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Boffetta; S. Musacchio

    2000-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The predictability problem in the inverse energy cascade of two-dimensional turbulence is addressed by means of direct numerical simulations. The growth rate as a function of the error level is determined by means of a finite size extension of the Lyapunov exponent. For error within the inertial range, the linear growth of the error energy, predicted by dimensional argument, is verified with great accuracy. Our numerical findings are in close agreement with the result of TFM closure approximation.

  4. Staged energy cascades for the LUX FEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penn, G.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a fully 3D time-dependent FEL simulation code, Nucl. Instr.simulations and general FEL physics. This work was supportedan XUV/soft X-ray harmonic-cascade FEL for the proposed LBNL

  5. Dynamic performance and control of a static var generator using cascade multilevel inverters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Fang Zheng [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lai, Jih-Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cascade multilevel inverter is proposed for static VAR shifting, compensation/generation applications. The new cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 single-phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. This inverter can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage with only one time switching per cycle. It can eliminate the need for transformers in multipulse inverters. A prototype static VAR generator (SVG) system using 11- level cascade inverter (21-level line-to-line voltage waveform) has been built. The output voltage waveform is equivalent to that of a 60- pulse inverter. This paper focuses on dynamic performance of the cascade inverter based SVG system. Control schemes are proposed to achieve a fast response which is impossible for a conventional static VAR compensator (SVC). Analytical, simulated and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed SVG system.

  6. Planck 2015 results. XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Casaponsa, B; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Fernandez-Cobos, R; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Ili?, S; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Ma, Y -Z; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marcos-Caballero, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a study of the ISW effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. The CMB is cross-correlated with different LSS tracers: the NVSS, SDSS and WISE catalogues, and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. This cross-correlation yields a detection at $4\\,\\sigma$, where most of the signal-to-noise is due to the Planck lensing and NVSS. In fact, the ISW effect is detected only from the Planck data (through the ISW-lensing bispectrum) at $\\approx 3\\,\\sigma$, which is similar to the detection level achieved by combining the cross-correlation signal coming from all the catalogues. This cross-correlation analysis is performed only with the Planck temperature data, since the polarization scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation detectability. Nevertheless, polarization data is used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features at the locat...

  7. Effects of aquifer interconnection resulting from underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, R.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory evaluated the effects of aquifer interconnection caused by the collapse of cavities formed in coal seams by two small underground coal gasification experiments in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Flow models and field measurements were used to show that the water from one or both of the upper aquifers enters the collapse, rubble and flows down to the lowest aquifer (the gasified coal seam) where it flows away from the collapse zones. The investigations showed that the hydraulic conductivity of the collapse rubble is less than that of the aquifers and provides only a moderately permeable interconnection between them, a marked reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the gasified coal seam near the collapse zones restricts the flow in the seam, away from them; changes in the hydraulic head and flow patterns caused by aquifer interconnection extend generally only 60-90 m away from the experiment sites, whereas flow in the uppermost aquifer at one of the sites may be influenced as far away as 122 m. At both sites, the aquifer interconnection allows water from the uppermost (sand) aquifer, which contains the poorest quality water of the 3 aquifers, to enter one or both of the underlying aquifers.

  8. Importance of growth direction in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouzi, Pierre M., E-mail: pbouzi@princeton.edu; Chiu, YenTing; Deutsch, Christoph; Song, Yu; Gmachl, Claire [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Dikmelik, Yamac [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tokranov, Vadim; Oktyabrsky, Serge [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12222 (United States)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the effect of growth direction on the performance of mid-infrared Quantum Cascade lasers. The design used has a symmetric active core, capable of operating under both negative and positive polarities, which allows to test for residual growth asymmetries such as interface roughness and dopant migration. Calculations of scattering lifetimes from interface roughness and ionized impurities suggest a dominant contribution from the former, with devices biased positively averaging ?15% larger broadening and ?50% shorter upper state lifetime than negatively biased devices. Experimental results for positively biased devices show at least 30% larger broadening and 35% lower electroluminescence peak intensity than those biased negatively, in good agreement with the modeling results.

  9. Response of selected cascade glaciers (Washington, Oregon) to climatic change in the late twentieth century (1980-1995)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatelain, E.E. [Valdosta State Univ., GA (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alpine glaciers of the Washington and Oregon Cascade Range are particularly sensitive indicators of climatic change. Recent maximum size of these glaciers has coincided with periods of explosive volanism (Krakatoa, 1883; Katmai, 1912). Minimum size has resulted from periods of prolonged regional drought (1933-39). The proximity of elevated temperatures in the 80`s decade and the colossal 1991-92 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (Phillippines) provides a unique opportunity to document resultant efforts of both events on the size, thickness, and terminus positions of Cascade glaciers. Present aerial extents of 1994 and compared with USGS aerial surveys predating the Pinatubo eruptions. Climatic records are examined to determine the extent of localized warming during the pre-eruption period (1977-1991), eruption effects (1991-1994), and present (recovery?). The effects of these local climatic variations are evaluated in light of documented changing glacial dimensions. Observed size modifications may also represent response to insulating rockslide cover, glacial surging, or independent climatic effects of El Nino.

  10. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  11. Top-down and bottom-up diversity cascades in detrital vs. living food webs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Lee

    REPORT Top-down and bottom-up diversity cascades in detrital vs. living food webs Lee A. Dyer1 for maintaining diversity in biotic communities, but the indirect (ÔcascadingÕ) effects of top-down and bottom in decomposer food webs. We measured effects of top predators and plant resources on the diversity of endophytic

  12. Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.harrer@tuwien.ac.at; Schwarz, Benedikt; Gansch, Roman; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried [Institute for Solid State Electronics and Center for Micro- and Nanostructures, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate monolithic integrated quantum cascade detectors enhanced by plasmonic lenses. Surface normal incident mid-infrared radiation is coupled to surface plasmon polaritons guided to and detected by the active region of the detector. The lens extends the optical effective active area of the device up to a 5 times larger area than for standard mesa detectors or pixel devices while the electrical active region stays the same. The extended optical area increases the absorption efficiency of the presented device as well as the room temperature performance while it offers a flexible platform for various detector geometries. A photocurrent response increase at room temperature up to a factor of 6 was observed.

  13. Identifying two steps in the internal wave energy cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Oliver Ming-Teh

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the more-typical open ocean energy cascade. Observations ofa skeleton of the open-ocean energy cascade. xx Chapter 1interaction and energy flux in the upper ocean. Geophys Res

  14. Nanoscale displacement sensing based on nonlinear frequency mixing in quantum cascade lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mezzapesa, F P; De Risi, G; Brambilla, M; Dabbicco, M; Spagnolo, V; Scamarcio, G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a sensor scheme for nanoscale target displacement that relies on a single Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) subject to optical feedback. The system combines the inherent sensitivity of QCLs to optical re-injection and their ultra-stability in the strong feedback regime where nonlinear frequency mixing phenomena are enhanced. An experimental proof of principle in the micrometer wavelength scale is provided. We perform real-time measurements of displacement with {\\lambda}/100 resolution by inserting a fast-shifting reference etalon in the external cavity. The resulting signal dynamics at the QCL terminals shows a stroboscopic-like effect that relates the sensor resolution with the reference etalon speed. Intrinsic limits to the measurement algorithm and to the reference speed are discussed, disclosing that nanoscale ranges are attainable.

  15. Optimal adaptive control of cascading power grid failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Bienstock

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 17, 2010 ... Abstract: We describe experiments with parallel algorithms for computing adaptive controls for attenuating power grid cascading failures.

  16. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Cascades Region (Ingebritsen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Cascades Region (Ingebritsen & Mariner, 2010) Exploration...

  17. Component criticality in failure cascade processes of network systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    considered. KEYWORDS: Complex Infrastructures Vulnerability, Cascade Failures, Criticality Indicators of the cascade. For example, in electrical power transmission networks a cascade of events leading to blackout failures are a major threat to distributed, interconnected systems such as power transmission networks(1

  18. Chaotic dynamics in quark-gluon cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. T. Temiraliev

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A map to the quark-gluon cascade on the basis of nonlinearity in the quark and gluon distributions in hadrons is proposed. Calculations of the quarks trajectories have shown the presence of the chaotic dynamics as a consequence of bifurcations.

  19. Cascade Failure in a Phase Model of Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a phase model to study cascade failure in power grids composed of generators and loads. If the power demand is below a critical value, the model system of power grids maintains the standard frequency by feedback control. On the other hand, if the power demand exceeds the critical value, an electric failure occurs via step out (loss of synchronization) or voltage collapse. The two failures are incorporated as two removal rules of generator nodes and load nodes. We perform direct numerical simulation of the phase model on a scale-free network and compare the results with a mean-field approximation.

  20. Analyzing Cascading Failures in Smart Grids under Random and Targeted Attacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruj, Sushmita

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We model smart grids as complex interdependent networks, and study targeted attacks on smart grids for the first time. A smart grid consists of two networks: the power network and the communication network, interconnected by edges. Occurrence of failures (attacks) in one network triggers failures in the other network, and propagates in cascades across the networks. Such cascading failures can result in disintegration of either (or both) of the networks. Earlier works considered only random failures. In practical situations, an attacker is more likely to compromise nodes selectively. We study cascading failures in smart grids, where an attacker selectively compromises the nodes with probabilities proportional to their degrees; high degree nodes are compromised with higher probability. We mathematically analyze the sizes of the giant components of the networks under targeted attacks, and compare the results with the corresponding sizes under random attacks. We show that networks disintegrate faster for targeted...

  1. Cascading process in the flute-mode turbulence of a plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, R.; Gomez, D.; Ferro Fontan, C. (Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina) Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, C C No. 67, Sucursal 28, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Sicardi Schifino, A.C.; Montagne, R. (Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, CC 10773, CP 11200, Montevideo (Uruguay) Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de la Republica, CC No. 30, CP 11000, Montevideo (Uruguay))

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cascades of ideal invariants in the flute-mode turbulence are analyzed by considering a statistics based on an elementary three-mode coupling process. The statistical dynamics of the system is investigated on the basis of the existence of the physically most important (PMI) triad. When finite ion Larmor radius effects are considered, the PMI triad describes the formation of zonal flows.

  2. Abstract Protection system hidden failures have been recognized as a contributing factor to power system cascading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to power system cascading outages. However, in the current bulk power system reliability assessment to evaluate the effects of protection system hidden failures on bulk power system reliability in the general bulk power system reliability assessment procedure. In the proposed methodology, a breaker

  3. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  4. Double Kelvin Wave Cascade in Superfluid Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Boffetta; A. Celani; D. Dezzani; J. Laurie; S. Nazarenko

    2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the double cascade of energy and wave action in a local model of superfluid vortex filaments. The model is obtained from a truncated expansion of the 2D Local Induction Approximation and it is shown to support six-wave interactions. We argue that, because of the uncertainty in the vortex core profile, this model has the same status of validity as the traditionally used Biot-Savart model with cutoff, but it has advantage of being much simpler. Our minimal model leads to a wave kinetic equation for which we predict existence of two distinct power-law scaling in the spectrum, corresponding to a direct cascade of energy and an inverse one of wave action. Direct numerical simulations confirm the theoretical predictions in the weak turbulence regime.

  5. Cascade Training Technique for Particle Identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong Liu; Ion Stancu

    2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The cascade training technique which was developed during our work on the MiniBooNE particle identification has been found to be a very efficient way to improve the selection performance, especially when very low background contamination levels are desired. The detailed description of this technique is presented here based on the MiniBooNE detector Monte Carlo simulations, using both artifical neural networks and boosted decision trees as examples.

  6. The detection, prevention and mitigation of cascading outages in the power system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Hongbiao

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    all the time, and takes actions when needed to help detect, prevent and mitigate the possible cascading outage. Comprehensive simulation studies have been implemented using the IEEE 14- bus, 24-bus, 39-bus and 118-bus systems and promising results show...

  7. Vaporization cooling for gas turbines, the return-flow cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrebrock, J.L.; Stickler, D.B.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new paradigm for gas turbine design is treated, in which major elements of the hot section flow path are cooled by vaporization of a suitable two-phase coolant. This enables the blades to be maintained at nearly uniform temperature without detailed knowledge of the heat flux to the blades, and makes operation feasible at higher combustion temperatures using a wider range of materials than is possible in conventional gas turbines with air cooling. The new enabling technology for such cooling is the return-flow cascade, which extends to the rotating blades the heat flux capability and self-regulation usually associated with heat-pipe technology. In this paper the potential characteristics of gas turbines that use vaporization cooling are outlined briefly, but the principal emphasis is on the concept of the return-flow cascade. The concept is described and its characteristics are outlined. Experimental results are presented that confirm its conceptual validity and demonstrate its capability for blade cooling at heat fluxes representative of those required for high pressure ratio high temperature gas turbines.

  8. Criticality safety concerns of uranium deposits in cascade equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plaster, M.J. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants enrich uranium in the {sup 235}U isotope by diffusing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) through a porous barrier. The UF{sub 6} gaseous diffusion cascade utilized several thousand {open_quotes}stages{close_quotes} of barrier to produce highly enriched uranium (HEU). Historically, Portsmouth has enriched the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant`s product (typically 1.8 wt% {sup 235}U) as well as natural enrichment feed stock up to 97 wt%. Due to the chemical reactivity of UF{sub 6}, particularly with water, the formation of solid uranium deposits occur at a gaseous diffusion plant. Much of the equipment operates below atmospheric pressure, and deposits are formed when atmospheric air enters the cascade. Deposits may also be formed from UF{sub 6} reactions with oil, UF{sub 6} reactions with the metallic surfaces of equipment, and desublimation of UF{sub 6}. The major deposits form as a result of moist air in leakage due to failure of compressor casing flanges, blow-off plates, seals, expansion joint convolutions, and instrument lines. This report describes criticality concerns and deposit disposition.

  9. Inverse Cascade Regime in Shell Models of 2-Dimensional Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Gilbert; Victor S. L'vov; Anna Pomyalov; Itamar Procaccia

    2002-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider shell models that display an inverse energy cascade similar to 2-dimensional turbulence (together with a direct cascade of an enstrophy-like invariant). Previous attempts to construct such models ended negatively, stating that shell models give rise to a "quasi-equilibrium" situation with equipartition of the energy among the shells. We show analytically that the quasi-equilibrium state predicts its own disappearance upon changing the model parameters in favor of the establishment of an inverse cascade regime with K41 scaling. The latter regime is found where predicted, offering a useful model to study inverse cascades.

  10. Identifying two steps in the internal wave energy cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Oliver Ming-Teh

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1.1 The internal wave energy cascade . . . . . . .? ? , which contain only wave energy trav- eling upward anddistinction is made between wave energy propagating upward

  11. Atomistic Simulation of Collision Cascades in Zircon. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    regions occurs in the amorphous core. Citation: Devanathan R, LR Corrales, WJ Weber, A Chartier, and C Meis.2006."Atomistic Simulation of Collision Cascades in...

  12. Simulation of collision cascades and thermal spikes in ceramics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    formed and mainly isolated Frenkel pairs are produced. Citation: Devanathan R, and WJ Weber.2010."Simulation of collision cascades and thermal spikes in ceramics."Nuclear...

  13. Cascade calculation of subthreshold. pi. sup 0 production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavron, A.; Yariv, Y. (Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (US))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intranuclear cascade calculations are found to provide a good description of the various features of subthreshold {pi}{sup 0} production in nucleon-nucleus collisions.

  14. Cascade Natural Gas- Conservation Incentives for Existing Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cascade Natural Gas offers a variety of incentives to residential customers for making energy efficiency improvements to existing homes. Eligible equipment includes furnaces, water heaters,...

  15. Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States...

  16. Cascade Natural Gas- Conservation Incentives for New Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cascade Natural Gas offers a variety of incentives to residential customers for including energy efficiency measures in new homes in Washington and Oregon. Incentives are available directly from...

  17. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Cascade-Induced Ballistic Helium Resolutioning from Bubbles in Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoller, Roger E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to assess the ability of atomic displacement cascades to eject helium from small bubbles in iron. This study of the ballistic resolutioning mechanism employed a recently-developed Fe-He interatomic potential in concert with an iron potential developed by Ackland and co-workers. The primary variables examined were: irradiation temperature (100 and 600K), cascade energy (5 and 20 keV), bubble radius (0.5 and 1.0 nm), and He-to-vacancy ratio in the bubble (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0). Systematic trends were observed for each of these variables. For example, ballistic resolutioning leads to a greater number of helium atoms being displaced from larger bubbles and from bubbles that have a higher He/vacancy ratio (bubble pressure). He resolutioning was reduced at 600K relative to 100K, and for 20 keV cascades relative to 5 keV cascades. Overall, the results indicate a modest level of He removal by ballistic resolutioning. The results can be used to provide guidance in selection of a resolution parameter that can be employed in cluster dynamics models to predict the bubble size distribution that evolves under irradiation.

  18. Compression of laser radiation in plasmas via electromagnetic cascading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalmykov, Serguei; Shvets, Gennady [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, One University Station C1500, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A train of few-laser-cycle relativistically intense radiation spikes with a terahertz repetition rate can be organized self-consistently in plasma from two frequency detuned co-propagating laser beams of low intensity. Large frequency bandwidth for the compression of spikes is produced via laser-induced periodic modulation of the plasma refractive index. The beat-wave-driven electron plasma wave downshifted from the plasma frequency creates a moving index grating thus inducing a periodic phase modulation of the driving laser (in spectral terms, electromagnetic cascading). The group velocity dispersion compresses the chirped laser beat notes to a few-cycle duration and relativistic intensity either concurrently in the same, or sequentially in different plasmas. Particle-in-cell simulations indicate that the effect persists in a realistic three-dimensional axisymmetric geometry.

  19. Remote Chemical Sensing Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper, Warren W.; Strasburg, Jana D.; Aker, Pam M.; Schultz, John F.

    2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Research done by the IR sensors team at PNNL is focused on developing advanced spectroscopic methods for detecting signatures of nuclear, chemical, biological and explosives weapons or weapons production. The sensors we develop fall into two categories: remote sensors that can be operated at distances ranging from 150 m to 10 km, and point sensors that are used for in-situ inspection and detection. FY03 has seen an explosion in FM DIAL progress with the net result being solid confirmation that FM DIAL is a technique capable of remote chemical monitoring in a wide variety of venues. For example, FM DIAL was used to detect a small plume of hydrogen sulfide, a candidate CW agent, released in the desert environment of the Hanford 200 Area site. These experiments were conducted over a range of physical conditions including outside temperatures ranging from 70 F to 105 F and turbulence conditions ranging from quiescent to chaotic. We are now rapidly developing the information needed to design prototype FM DIAL systems that are optimized for specific applications that include scenarios such as fixed position stand-off detection and mobile UAV mounted remote monitoring. Just as an example, in FY04 we will use FM DIAL to detect both in-facility and outdoor release of enriched UF6. The rapid progress in FM DIAL research made in FY03 is attributed to several advances. First, final construction of a custom-designed trailer allowed the instrument to be housed in a mobile temperature-controlled environment. This allowed the experiment to be transported to several locations so that data could be collected under a range of physical conditions. This has led to a better understanding of a variety of experimental noise sources. With this knowledge, we have been able to implement several changes in the way the FM DIAL data is collected and processed, with the net result being a drastic improvement in our confidence of analyte concentration measurement and an improvement i n the instrument detection limit. The range of chemicals detectable by FM DIAL has also been extended. Prior to FY03 only water and nitrous oxide (N2O) had been seen. Experiments on extending the tuning range of the quantum cascade laser (QCL) currently used in the experiments demonstrate that many more species are now accessible including H2S, C2F4H2, and CH4. We additionally demonstrated that FM DIAL measurements can be made using short wave infrared (SWIR) telecommunications lasers. While measurements made using these components are noisier because turbulence and particulate matter cause more interference in this spectral region, monitoring in this region enables larger species to be detected simply because these lasers have a greater tuning range. In addition, SWIR monitoring also allows for the detection of second-row hydride species such as HF and HCl, which are important nuclear and CWA proliferation signatures.

  20. Spin Glass Computations and Ruelle's Probability Cascades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis-Pierre Arguin

    2006-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the Parisi functional, appearing in the Parisi formula for the pressure of the SK model, as a functional on Ruelle's Probability Cascades (RPC). Computation techniques for the RPC formulation of the functional are developed. They are used to derive continuity and monotonicity properties of the functional retrieving a theorem of Guerra. We also detail the connection between the Aizenman-Sims-Starr variational principle and the Parisi formula. As a final application of the techniques, we rederive the Almeida-Thouless line in the spirit of Toninelli but relying on the RPC structure.

  1. Cascade impactor and jet plate for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Farthing, William E.; Landham Jr., Edward C.

    2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling system and method for sampling particulate matter from a high-temperature, high-pressure gas stream. A cyclone sampler for use at high temperatures and pressures, and having threadless sacrificial connectors is disclosed. Also disclosed is an improved cascade impactor including jet plates with integral spacers, and alignment features provided for aligning the jet plates with their associated collection substrates. An activated bauxite alkali collector is disclosed, and includes an alumina liner. The sampling system can be operated remotely or locally, and can be permanently installed or configured as a portable system.

  2. Cascade Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen EnergyCallawayCapara Energia SCarlisleJumpCarrollCascade

  3. Design study of the bending sections between harmonic cascade FEL stages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Weishi; Corlett, John; Fawley, William; Zholents, A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A XUV/Soft X-Ray Harmonic- Cascade FEL for the Proposed LBNLin a Cascaded Harmonic FEL CBP Tech Note-281, Februarybetween Harmonic Cascade FEL Stages W. Wan, J. Corlett, W.

  4. High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7??m, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10?×?10{sup ?7} A/cm{sup 2} at ?5?mV and 150?K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320?×?256 IC focal plane array up to 180?K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120?K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications.

  5. A graphics processor-based intranuclear cascade and evaporation simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Wan Chan Tseung; C. Beltran

    2014-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo simulations of the transport of protons in human tissue have been deployed on graphics processing units (GPUs) with impressive results. To provide a more complete treatment of non-elastic nuclear interactions in these simulations, we developed a fast intranuclear cascade-evaporation simulation for the GPU. This can be used to model non-elastic proton collisions on any therapeutically relevant nuclei at incident energies between 20 and 250 MeV. Predictions are in good agreement with Geant4.9.6p2. It takes approximately 2 s to calculate $1\\times 10^6$ 200 MeV proton-$^{16}$O interactions on a NVIDIA GTX680 GPU. A speed-up factor of $\\sim$20 relative to one Intel i7-3820 core processor thread was achieved.

  6. Evidence That Epoxide-Opening Cascades Promoted by Water Are Stepwise and Become Faster and More Selective After the First Cyclization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morten, Christopher J.

    A detailed kinetic study of the endo-selective epoxide-opening cascade reaction of a diepoxy alcohol in neutral water was undertaken using 1H NMR spectroscopy. The observation of monoepoxide intermediates resulting from ...

  7. RECONFIGURING POWER SYSTEMS TO MINIMIZE CASCADING FAILURES: MODELS AND ALGORITHMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bienstock, Daniel

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    the main goal of this project was to develop new scientific tools, based on optimization techniques, with the purpose of controlling and modeling cascading failures of electrical power transmission systems. We have developed a high-quality tool for simulating cascading failures. The problem of how to control a cascade was addressed, with the aim of stopping the cascade with a minimum of load lost. Yet another aspect of cascade is the investigation of which events would trigger a cascade, or more appropriately the computation of the most harmful initiating event given some constraint on the severity of the event. One common feature of the cascade models described (indeed, of several of the cascade models found in the literature) is that we study thermally-induced line tripping. We have produced a study that accounts for exogenous randomness (e.g. wind and ambient temperature) that could affect the thermal behavior of a line, with a focus on controlling the power flow of the line while maintaining safe probability of line overload. This was done by means of a rigorous analysis of a stochastic version of the heat equation. we incorporated a model of randomness in the behavior of wind power output; again modeling an OPF-like problem that uses chance-constraints to maintain low probability of line overloads; this work has been continued so as to account for generator dynamics as well.

  8. Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser Nanfang Yu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna Nanfang Yu1 , Ertugrul Cubukcu1 , Laurent Diehl1 *Corresponding author: capasso@seas.harvard.edu Abstract: We report a bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser of a pair of nano-rods, the bowtie antenna efficiently suppresses the field enhancement at the outer ends

  9. Adaptive Online Control of Cascading Blackouts Daniel Bienstock, Member, IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bienstock, Daniel

    system faults, Power System Security, Robust control, Smart grids. I. INTRODUCTION CASCADING failures online control algorithms to be deployed in the event of a cascading power system failure. The control on robust controls, using models of line outages that explicitly account for noise. Computational experience

  10. Optimizing protections against cascades in network systems: a modified binary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to the topology of an electricity infrastructure, i.e. the 380 kV Italian power transmission network. We only protection; line switching; cascading failure; differential evolution algorithm; multi-objective optimization, transportation) which the welfare and security of our nations rely on. Their security against cascading failures

  11. A Turbulent Constitutive Law for the Two-Dimensional Inverse Energy Cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory L. Eyink

    2005-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a fundamental approach to a turbulent constitutive law for the 2D inverse cascade, based upon a convergent multi-scale gradient (MSG) expansion. To first order in gradients we find that the turbulent stress generated by small-scale eddies is proportional not to strain but instead to `skew-strain,' i.e. the strain tensor rotated by $45^\\circ.$ The skew-strain from a given scale of motion makes no contribution to energy flux across eddies at that scale, so that the inverse cascade cannot be strongly scale-local. We show that this conclusion extends a result of Kraichnan for spectral transfer and is due to absence of vortex-stretching in 2D. This `weakly local' mechanism of inverse cascade requires a relative rotation between the principal directions of strain at different scales and we argue for this using both the dynamical equations of motion and also a heuristic model of `thinning' of small-scale vortices by an imposed large-scale strain. Carrying out our expansion to second-order in gradients, we find two additional terms in the stress that can contribute to energy cascade. The first is a Newtonian stress with an `eddy-viscosity' due to differential strain-rotation, and the second is a tensile stress exerted along vorticity contour-lines. The latter was anticipated by Kraichnan for a very special model situation of small-scale vortex wave-packets in a uniform strain field. We prove a proportionality in 2D between the mean rates of differential strain-rotation and of vorticity-gradient stretching, analogous to a similar relation of Betchov for 3D. According to this result the second-order stresses will also contribute to inverse cascade when, as is plausible, vorticity contour-lines lengthen on average by turbulent advection.

  12. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  13. Optimization of the output and efficiency of a high power cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijvers, W. A. J.; Gils, C. A. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Meiden, H. J. van der; Veremiyenko, V. P.; Westerhout, J.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; Rooij, G. J. van [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Schram, D. C. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The operation of a cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source was experimentally investigated to provide an empirical basis for the scaling of this source to higher plasma fluxes and efficiencies. The flux and efficiency were determined as a function of the input power, discharge channel diameter, and hydrogen gas flow rate. Measurements of the pressure in the arc channel show that the flow is well described by Poiseuille flow and that the effective heavy particle temperature is approximately 0.8 eV. Interpretation of the measured I-V data in terms of a one-parameter model shows that the plasma production is proportional to the input power, to the square root of the hydrogen flow rate, and is independent of the channel diameter. The observed scaling shows that the dominant power loss mechanism inside the arc channel is one that scales with the effective volume of the plasma in the discharge channel. Measurements on the plasma output with Thomson scattering confirm the linear dependence of the plasma production on the input power. Extrapolation of these results shows that (without a magnetic field) an improvement in the plasma production by a factor of 10 over where it was in van Rooij et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121501 (2007)] should be possible.

  14. Advanced simulation for analysis of critical infrastructure : abstract cascades, the electric power grid, and Fedwire.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Beyeler, Walter Eugene

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Critical Infrastructures are formed by a large number of components that interact within complex networks. As a rule, infrastructures contain strong feedbacks either explicitly through the action of hardware/software control, or implicitly through the action/reaction of people. Individual infrastructures influence others and grow, adapt, and thus evolve in response to their multifaceted physical, economic, cultural, and political environments. Simply put, critical infrastructures are complex adaptive systems. In the Advanced Modeling and Techniques Investigations (AMTI) subgroup of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC), we are studying infrastructures as complex adaptive systems. In one of AMTI's efforts, we are focusing on cascading failure as can occur with devastating results within and between infrastructures. Over the past year we have synthesized and extended the large variety of abstract cascade models developed in the field of complexity science and have started to apply them to specific infrastructures that might experience cascading failure. In this report we introduce our comprehensive model, Polynet, which simulates cascading failure over a wide range of network topologies, interaction rules, and adaptive responses as well as multiple interacting and growing networks. We first demonstrate Polynet for the classical Bac, Tang, and Wiesenfeld or BTW sand-pile in several network topologies. We then apply Polynet to two very different critical infrastructures: the high voltage electric power transmission system which relays electricity from generators to groups of distribution-level consumers, and Fedwire which is a Federal Reserve service for sending large-value payments between banks and other large financial institutions. For these two applications, we tailor interaction rules to represent appropriate unit behavior and consider the influence of random transactions within two stylized networks: a regular homogeneous array and a heterogeneous scale-free (fractal) network. For the stylized electric power grid, our initial simulations demonstrate that the addition of geographically unrestricted random transactions can eventually push a grid to cascading failure, thus supporting the hypothesis that actions of unrestrained power markets (without proper security coordination on market actions) can undermine large scale system stability. We also find that network topology greatly influences system robustness. Homogeneous networks that are 'fish-net' like can withstand many more transaction perturbations before cascading than can scale-free networks. Interestingly, when the homogeneous network finally cascades, it tends to fail in its entirety, while the scale-free tends to compartmentalize failure and thus leads to smaller, more restricted outages. In the case of stylized Fedwire, initial simulations show that as banks adaptively set their individual reserves in response to random transactions, the ratio of the total volume of transactions to individual reserves, or 'turnover ratio', increases with increasing volume. The removal of a bank from interaction within the network then creates a cascade, its speed of propagation increasing as the turnover ratio increases. We also find that propagation is accelerated by patterned transactions (as expected to occur within real markets) and in scale-free networks, by the 'attack' of the most highly connected bank. These results suggest that the time scale for intervention by the Federal Reserve to divert a cascade in Fedwire may be quite short. Ongoing work in our cascade analysis effort is building on both these specific stylized applications to enhance their fidelity as well as embracing new applications. We are implementing markets and additional network interactions (e.g., social, telecommunication, information gathering, and control) that can impose structured drives (perturbations) comparable to those seen in real systems. Understanding the interaction of multiple networks, their interdependencies, and in particular, the underlying mechanisms f

  15. Capacitive effect of cavitation in xylem conduits: results from a dynamic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    Capacitive effect of cavitation in xylem conduits: results from a dynamic model TEEMU HÃ?LTTÃ?1. A dynamic model is presented that models xylem water potential, xylem sap flow and cavitation, taking; xylem transport. INTRODUCTION Xylem embolism formation by cavitation causes a decrease in plant

  16. Average balance equations, scale dependence, and energy cascade for granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Artoni; Patrick Richard

    2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A new averaging method linking discrete to continuum variables of granular materials is developed and used to derive average balance equations. Its novelty lies in the choice of the decomposition between mean values and fluctuations of properties which takes into account the effect of gradients. Thanks to a local homogeneity hypothesis, whose validity is discussed, simplified balance equations are obtained. This original approach solves the problem of dependence of some variables on the size of the averaging domain obtained in previous approaches which can lead to huge relative errors (several hundred percentages). It also clearly separates affine and nonaffine fields in the balance equations. The resulting energy cascade picture is discussed, with a particular focus on unidirectional steady and fully developed flows for which it appears that the contact terms are dissipated locally unlike the kinetic terms which contribute to a nonlocal balance. Application of the method is demonstrated in the determination of the macroscopic properties such as volume fraction, velocity, stress, and energy of a simple shear flow, where the discrete results are generated by means of discrete particle simulation.

  17. Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reininger, Peter, E-mail: peter.reininger@tuwien.ac.at; Schwarz, Benedikt; Detz, Hermann; MacFarland, Don; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried [Institute for Solid State Electronics and Center for Micro- and Nanostructures, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Baumgartner, Oskar; Kosina, Hans [Institute for Microelectronics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the concept of diagonal transitions for quantum cascade detectors (QCD). Different to standard, vertical QCDs, here the active transition takes place between two energy levels in adjacent wells. Such a scheme has versatile advantages. Diagonal transitions generally yield a higher extraction efficiency and a higher resistance than vertical transitions. This leads to an improved overall performance, although the absorption strength of the active transition is smaller. Since the extraction is not based on resonant tunneling, the design is more robust, with respect to deviations from the nominal structure. In a first approach, a peak responsivity of 16.9?mA/W could be achieved, which is an improvement to the highest shown responsivity of a QCD for a wavelength of 8??m at room-temperature by almost an order of magnitude.

  18. Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danesi, P.R.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solution and the supported liquid membranes are arranged to provide a continuous process.

  19. Design and preliminary testing of a thermionic AMTEC cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskolczy, G. [Thermo Trex Corp., 85 First Avenue, Waltham, Massachusetts 02254 (United States); Sievers, B.; Svedberg, B. [Advanced Modular Power Systems, Inc., 4667 Freedom Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States); Schuller, M. [Phillips Laboratory/VTPN, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); VanHagen, T.; Smith, J. [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, California 92121-1194 (United States); Reiners, E.; LeMire, R. [ORION International Technologies, Inc., 6501 Americas Parkway NE, Suite 200, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design of an experiment to demonstrate the feasibly of operating a cascade of a Thermionic Energy Converter (TEC) with an Alkali Metal Thermo Electric Converter (AMTEC). Both of these devices convert heat to electricity without moving mechanical parts and lend themselves to be incorporated into a cascade. Typically, the TEC operates from a hot temperature of 2000 K to 1700 K, rejecting heat at 1100 K to 700 K, while the AMTEC operates from a hot temperature of 1100 K to 900 K and a cold temperature of about 400 K. These temperature ranges form almost ideal cascade. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Vulnerability Assessment for Cascading Failures in Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldick, R.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Dong, Zhao Yang; Gou, Bei; Hawkins, David L.; Huang, Zhenyu; Joung, Manho; Kim, Janghoon; Kirschen, Daniel; Lee, Stephen; Li, Fangxing; Li, Juan; Li, Zuyi; Liu, Chen-Ching; Luo, Xiaochuan; Mili, Lamine; Miller, Stephen; Nakayama, Marvin; Papic, Milorad; Podmore, Robin; Rossmaier, John; Schneider, Kevin P.; Sun, Hongbin; Sun, Kai; Wang, David; Wu, Zhigang; Yao, Liangzhong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Cascading failures present severe threats to power grid security, and thus vulnerability assessment of power grids is of significant importance. Focusing on analytic methods, this paper reviews the state of the art of vulnerability assessment methods in the context of cascading failures in three categories: steady-state modeling based analysis; dynamic modeling analysis; and non-traditional modeling approaches. The impact of emerging technologies including phasor technology, high-performance computing techniques, and visualization techniques on the vulnerability assessment of cascading failures is then addressed, and future research directions are presented.

  1. Nearly degenerate heavy sterile neutrinos in cascade decay: mixing and oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyanovsky, Daniel

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some extensions beyond the Standard Model propose the existence of nearly degenerate heavy sterile neutrinos. If kinematically allowed these can be resonantly produced and decay in a cascade to common final states. The common decay channels lead to mixing of the heavy sterile neutrino states and interference effects. We implement non-perturbative methods to study the dynamics of the cascade decay to common final states, which features similarities but also noteworthy differences with the case of neutral meson mixing. We show that mixing and oscillations among the nearly degenerate sterile neutrinos can be detected as \\emph{quantum beats} in the distribution of final states produced from their decay. These oscillations would be a telltale signal of mixing between heavy sterile neutrinos. We study in detail the case of two nearly degenerate sterile neutrinos produced in the decay of pseudoscalar mesons and decaying into a purely leptonic "visible" channel: $\

  2. Nearly degenerate heavy sterile neutrinos in cascade decay: mixing and oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boyanovsky

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Some extensions beyond the Standard Model propose the existence of nearly degenerate heavy sterile neutrinos. If kinematically allowed these can be resonantly produced and decay in a cascade to common final states. The common decay channels lead to mixing of the heavy sterile neutrino states and interference effects. We implement non-perturbative methods to study the dynamics of the cascade decay to common final states, which features similarities but also noteworthy differences with the case of neutral meson mixing. We show that mixing and oscillations among the nearly degenerate sterile neutrinos can be detected as \\emph{quantum beats} in the distribution of final states produced from their decay. These oscillations would be a telltale signal of mixing between heavy sterile neutrinos. We study in detail the case of two nearly degenerate sterile neutrinos produced in the decay of pseudoscalar mesons and decaying into a purely leptonic "visible" channel: $\

  3. Collective Lamb shift of superradiant cascade emissions in an atomic ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. H. Jen

    2015-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the collective Lamb shift of the cascade spontaneous emissions from an atomic ensemble driven by two-color classical fields. The correlated pair of photons (signal and idler) is generated by adiabatically driving the system with large-detuned light fields in four-wave-mixing condition. The signal photon from the upper transition of the diamond-type atomic levels is followed by the idler one which can be superradiant due to light-induced dipole-dipole interactions. We demonstrate that the collective Lamb shift of the idler photon is a cumulative effect of interaction energy, and investigate its dependence on a cylindrical geometry. Manipulating the collective frequency of cascade emissions enables frequency qubits that provide alternative robust elements in quantum network.

  4. Cascading metallic gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Long; Sun, Fuhe [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications-CAS and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Chen, Qin, E-mail: qchen2012@sinano.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications-CAS and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Peking University Shenzhen SOC Key Laboratory, PKU-HKUST Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institute, Hi-Tech Industrial Park South, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The incorporation of plasmonic nanostructures in the thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) is a promising route to harvest light into the nanoscale active layer. However, the light trapping scheme based on the plasmonic effects intrinsically presents narrow-band resonant enhancement of light absorption. Here we demonstrate that by cascading metal nanogratings with different sizes atop the TFSCs, broadband absorption enhancement can be realized by simultaneously exciting multiple localized surface plasmon resonances and inducing strong coupling between the plasmonic modes and photonic modes. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate of 66.5% in the photocurrent in an ultrathin amorphous silicon TFSC with two-dimensional cascaded gratings over the reference cell without gratings.

  5. Conserved quantities and dual turbulent cascades in Anti-de Sitter spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Buchel; Stephen R. Green; Luis Lehner; Steven L. Liebling

    2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the dynamics of a spherically symmetric massless scalar field coupled to general relativity in Anti--de Sitter spacetime in the small-amplitude limit. Within the context of our previously developed two time framework (TTF) to study the leading self-gravitating effects, we demonstrate the existence of two new conserved quantities in addition to the known total energy $E$ of the modes: The particle number $N$ and Hamiltonian $H$ of our TTF system. Simultaneous conservation of $E$ and $N$ implies that weak turbulent processes undergo dual cascades (direct cascade of $E$ and inverse cascade of $N$ or vice versa). This partially explains the observed dynamics of 2-mode initial data. In addition, conservation of $E$ and $N$ limits the region of phase space that can be explored within the TTF approximation and in particular rules out equipartion of energy among the modes for general initial data. Finally, we discuss possible effects of conservation of $N$ and $E$ on late time dynamics.

  6. Electromagnetic cascade in high energy electron, positron, and photon interactions with intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. S. Bulanov; C. B. Schroeder; E. Esarey; W. P. Leemans

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of high energy electrons, positrons, and photons with intense laser pulses is studied in head-on collision geometry. It is shown that electrons and/or positrons undergo a cascade-type process involving multiple emissions of photons. These photons can consequently convert into electron-positron pairs. As a result charged particles quickly lose their energy developing an exponentially decaying energy distribution, which suppresses the emission of high energy photons, thus reducing the number of electron-positron pairs being generated. Therefore, this type of interaction suppresses the development of the electromagnetic avalanche-type discharge, i.e., the exponential growth of the number of electrons, positrons, and photons does not occur in the course of interaction. The suppression will occur when 3D effects can be neglected in the transverse particle orbits, i.e., for sufficiently broad laser pulses with intensities that are not too extreme. The final distributions of electrons, positrons, and photons are calculated for the case of a high energy e-beam interacting with a counter-streaming, short intense laser pulse. The energy loss of the e-beam, which requires a self-consistent quantum description, plays an important role in this process, as well as provides a clear experimental observable for the transition from the classical to quantum regime of interaction.

  7. Dynamic Modeling of Cascading Failure in Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Jiajia; Ghanavati, Goodarz; Hines, Paul D H

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The modeling of cascading failure in power systems is difficult because of the many different mechanisms involved; no single model captures all of these mechanisms. Understanding the relative importance of these different mechanisms is an important step in choosing which mechanisms need to be modeled for particular types of cascading failure analysis. This work presents a dynamic simulation model of both power networks and protection systems, which can simulate a wider variety of cascading outage mechanisms, relative to existing quasi-steady state (QSS) models. The model allows one to test the impact of different load models and protections on cascading outage sizes. This paper describes each module of the developed dynamic model and demonstrates how different mechanisms interact. In order to test the model we simulated a batch of randomly selected $N-2$ contingencies for several different static load configurations, and found that the distribution of blackout sizes and event lengths from the proposed dynamic...

  8. atomic collision cascades: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    implications. Leszek Motyka; Mariusz Sadzikowski 1999-12-04 2 Parton Cascades in High Energy Nuclear Collisions Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: This is a review of the parton...

  9. Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohen, Stephen Michael, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Finite-element numerical modeling and analysis of electromagnetic waveguides and resonators used in terahertz (THz) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is presented. Simulations and analysis of two types were performed: ...

  10. Analysis of the electron transport properties in quantum cascade lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callebaut, Hans, 1975-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, the operating frequency range of quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) has been extended from the mid-infrared to the far-infrared beow the Reststrahlen band (THz frequencies). Especially for THz QCLs, a detailed ...

  11. Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pfitzner, Rene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.

  12. Endo-selective epoxide-opening cascades in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morten, Christopher J. (Christopher John)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter I. Introduction to the Ladder Polyethers. We introduce the bioactivity of the ladder polyether natural products and provide an overview of the puzzle that is their biogenesis. Cascades of endo-selective epoxide ...

  13. Terahertz quantum cascade laser based optical coherence tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Alan W. M.

    The interfaces of a dielectric sample are resolved in reflection geometry using light from a frequency agile array of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers. The terahertz source is a 10-element linear array of third-order ...

  14. On the polar cap cascade pair multiplicity of young pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timokhin, A N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the efficiency of pair production in polar caps of young pulsars under a variety of conditions to estimate the maximum possible multiplicity of pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres. We develop a semi-analytic model for calculation of cascade multiplicity which allows efficient exploration of the parameter space and corroborate it with direct numerical simulations. Pair creation processes are considered separately from particle acceleration in order to assess different factors affecting cascade efficiency, with acceleration of primary particles described by recent self-consistent non-stationary model of pair cascades. We argue that the most efficient cascades operate in the curvature radiation/synchrotron regime, the maximum multiplicity of pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres is ~few x 10^5. The multiplicity of pair plasma in magnetospheres of young energetic pulsars weakly depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of magnetic field lines and has a stronger dependence ...

  15. Multiple hot images from an obscuration in an intense laser beam through cascaded Kerr medium disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Youwen; Wen Shuangchun; You Kaiming; Tang Zhixiang; Deng Jianqin; Zhang Lifu; Fan Dianyuan

    2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical investigation on the formation of hot images in an intense laser beam through cascaded Kerr medium disks, to disclose the distribution and intensity of hot images in high-power disk amplifiers. It is shown that multiple hot images from an obscuration may be formed, instead of one hot image as reported previously in the literature. This gives a clear explanation for the curious damage pattern of hot images, namely, damage sites appearing on alternating optics in periodic trains. Further analysis demonstrates that the distribution and intensity of hot images depend closely on the number of Kerr medium disks, the distance from the obscuration to the front of the first disk downstream, the space between two neighboring disks, and the thickness and B integral of each disk. Moreover, we take two cascaded Kerr medium disks for example to detail multiple hot images from an obscuration and confirm the theoretical results by numerical simulations.

  16. Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lecaplain, Caroline; Lucas, Erwan; Jost, John D; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR) regime (typically the wavelength regime of $\\lambda \\sim 2.5-20 \\ \\mathrm{\\mu m}$) is an important spectral range for spectroscopy as many molecules have their fundamental rotational-vibrational absorption in this band. Recently optical frequency combs based on optical microresonators ("Kerr" combs) at the onset of the mid-IR region have been generated using crystalline resonators and integrated planar silicon micro-resonators. Here we extend for the first time Kerr combs deep into the mid-IR i.e. the 'molecular fingerprint' region. This is achieved by combining an ultra high quality (Q) factor mid-IR microresonator based on crystalline $\\mathrm{MgF_{2}}$ with the quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology. Using a tapered chalgogenide (ChG) fiber and a QCL continuous wave pump laser, frequency combs at $\\lambda\\sim 4.4\\ \\mathrm{\\mu m}$ (i.e. 2270cm$^{-1}$) are generated, that span over 600nm (i.e. 300cm$^{-1}$) in bandwidth, with a mode spacing of 14.3GHz (0.5cm$^{-1}$), corresponding t...

  17. Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danesi, Pier R. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid membranes. The membranes contain alternatively a liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solutions and the supported liquid membranes are arranged in such a way to provide a continuous process which leads to the continuous enrichment of the species which show the highest permeability coefficients. By virtue of the very high number of stages which can be arranged, even chemical species having very similar chemical behavior (and consequently very similar permeability coefficients) can be completely separated. The invention also provide a way to concentrate the separated species.

  18. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Cascade Apartments- Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington, which resulted in annual energy cost savings of 22%, improved comfort and air quality for residents, and increased durability of the units.

  19. Geomagnetic effects modelling for the PJM interconnection system. Part 2; Geomagnetically induced current study results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhakara, F.S.; Hannett, L.N.; Ringlee, R.J. (Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)); Ponder, J.Z. (PJM Interconnection, Norristown, PA (US))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a computer program for calculation of geomagnetically induced current (GIC) and a GIC power system model for the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection is described in this paper. Results of GIC for three different ionospheric source configurations are shown. A new method is presented for estimating GIC in unmetered parts of the system based on a few measurements and precalculated geomagnetic disturbance conditions. The use of an interactive, menu driven GIC program to study mitigation concepts including the effects of line outages, line series capacitors, transformer neutral blocking resistors and transformer neutral blocking capacitors is also presented.

  20. Management Challenges in Developing Performance Assessments and Effectively Communicating Their Results - 13612

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Steve; Mahoney, Mark [Savannah River Remediations LLC, Building 705-1C, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediations LLC, Building 705-1C, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the cleaned waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making, performance assessments have been developed for the low-level waste disposal facility and for the SRS Tank Farms. Although these performance assessments share many similar features, the nature of the hazards and associated containments differ. As a management team, we are challenged to effectively communicate both the similarities and differences of these performance assessments, how they should be used to support sound decision making for treatment, disposal and waste tank cleaning decisions, and in defending their respective assumptions to the regulatory community and the public but, equally important, to our own corporate decision makers and operations personnel. Effective development and defense of these performance assessments, and effective interpretation and communication of the results are key to making cost-effective, pragmatic decisions for the safe disposal of the low-level waste and stabilization and operational closure of the cleaned tanks and associated structures. This paper will focus on the importance and challenges in communicating key attributes, conclusions and operational implications within a company. (authors)

  1. Fundamental Frequency Switching Control of Seven-Level Hybrid Cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Inverter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Zhong [ORNL; Chiasson, John N [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter that can be implemented using only a single dc power source and capacitors. Standard cascaded multilevel inverters require n dc sources for 2n + 1 levels. Without requiring transformers, the scheme proposed here allows the use of a single dc power source (e.g., a battery or a fuel cell stack) with the remaining n-1 dc sources being capacitors, which is referred to as hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (HCMLI) in this paper. It is shown that the inverter can simultaneously maintain the dc voltage level of the capacitors and choose a fundamental frequency switching pattern to produce a nearly sinusoidal output. HCMLI using only a single dc source for each phase is promising for high-power motor drive applications as it significantly decreases the number of required dc power supplies, provides high-quality output power due to its high number of output levels, and results in high conversion efficiency and low thermal stress as it uses a fundamental frequency switching scheme. This paper mainly discusses control of seven-level HCMLI with fundamental frequency switching control and how its modulation index range can be extended using triplen harmonic compensation.

  2. Compression of Laser Radiation in Plasmas Using Electromagnetic Cascading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalmykov, Serguei; Shvets, Gennady [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, One University Station C1500, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2005-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressing high-power laser beams in plasmas via generation of a coherent cascade of electromagnetic sidebands is described. The technique requires two copropagating beams detuned by a near-resonant frequency {omega} < or approx. {omega}{sub p}. The ponderomotive force of the laser beat wave drives an electron plasma wave which modifies the refractive index of plasma so as to produce a periodic phase modulation of the laser field with the beat period {tau}{sub b}=2{pi}/{omega}. A train of chirped laser beat notes (each of duration {tau}{sub b}) is thus created. The group velocity dispersion of radiation in plasma can then compress each beat note to a few-laser-cycle duration. As a result, a train of sharp electromagnetic spikes separated in time by {tau}{sub b} is formed. Depending on the plasma and laser parameters, chirping and compression can be implemented either concurrently in the same plasma or sequentially in different plasmas.

  3. Review of COMPASS results on transverse-spin effects in SIDIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nour Makke

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The transversity parton distribution remains a poorly known cornerstone in the nucleon spin structure. While the Collins effect in spin asymmetries in Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) is one crucial tool to address the transversity function, the most promising alternative is the azimuthal asymmetry in SIDIS when a hadron pair is detected in the final state. In this case, the chiral-odd transversity function is coupled to another chiral-odd function, i.e. the hadron-pair interference fragmentation function (IFF). The measurement of azimuthal asymmetries in hadron-pair production on a transversely polarised nucleon target has been performed at COMPASS using a 160 GeV/c muon beam of CERN's M2 beam line. Results from the 2007 and 2010 recent measurements will be presented and compared to model predictions.

  4. Demonstration Results on the Effects of Mercury Speciation on the Stabilization of Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, T.B.; Hulet, G.A.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury-contaminated wastes are currently being stored at approximately 19 Department of Energy sites, the volume of which is estimated to be about 16m(sup)3. These wastes exist in various forms including soil, sludges, and debris, which present a particular challenge regarding possible mercury stabilization methods. This reports provides the test results of three vendors, Allied Technology Group, IT Corporation, and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., that demonstrate the effects of mercury speciation on the stabilization of the mercury wastes. Mercury present in concentrations that exceed 260 parts per million must be removed by extraction methods and requires stabilization to ensure that the final wasteforms leach less than 0.2mg/L of mercury by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure or 0.025 mg/L using the Universal Treatment Standard.

  5. Analysis of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent isotopes and optimal feed position

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuntong Ying; Hongjiang Wu; Mingsheng Zhou; Yuguang Nie; Guangjun Liu [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of the concentration distribution in a gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures is different from that in a cascade for separation of two-component mixtures. This paper presents the governing equations for a multicomponent isotope separation cascade. Numerically predicted separation factors for the gas centrifuge cascade agree well with the experimental data. A theoretical optimal feed position is derived for a short square cascade for a two-component mixture in a close-separation case. The optimal feed position for a gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent mixture is discussed.

  6. Frost effects on soil liner systems results of a research project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, A.E. [CH2M Hill, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (United States); Chamberlain, E.J. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH (United States); Benson, C.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A research study was completed on the impact of frost action (freeze-thaw) on compacted clay liners, sand-bentonite liners, and geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) under field and laboratory conditions. The goal of the research discussed in this paper was to improve understanding of the effect of freeze-thaw on these parts of liner systems so that design and construction could be improved. The U.S. Army Corps Cold Regions Research Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), CH2M HILL, Inc., and a team of industrial partners joined together in a cooperative effort to fund and complete this study under the U.S. Army Corps Construction Productivity Advancement Research (CPAR) program. IN 1992 and 1993, five large-scale compacted-soil test pads, and nine GCL test pans were constructed at WMX, Inc.`s Parkview Landfill in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Two of the large-scale test pads were constructed of a low-plasticity clay, two were of a medium-plasticity clay, and one was a sand-bentonite mixture manufactured in a mobile mixer onsite. Three different GCL products were used in the GCL test pans. All of these materials were tested in the field for at least one winter; in the CRREL laboratory in Hanover, New Hampshire; and at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Results of these tests indicate that the hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay increases significantly in the field after one winter of freezing. In laboratory testing, the use of thin-walled shelby tubes changes the clay structure and masks the effect of freeze-thaw. These tests indicated that the detrimental effects of freeze-thaw were reversed by increasing confining pressure. The hydraulic conductivity of the sand-bentonite test pad was found to be below 1x10{sup {minus}8} cm/s after two winter seasons. The GCLs showed no increase in hydraulic conductivity from freeze-thaw action. However, the field test results raised questions that need to be resolved.

  7. A High Efficiency Architecture for Cascaded Raman Fiber Lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supradeepa, V R; Headley, Clifford E; Yan, Man F; Palsdottir, Bera; Jakobsen, Dan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a new high efficiency architecture for cascaded Raman fiber lasers based on a single pass cascaded amplifier configuration. Conversion is seeded at all intermediate Stokes wavelengths using a multi-wavelength seed source. A lower power Raman laser based on the conventional cascaded Raman resonator architecture provides a convenient seed source providing all the necessary wavelengths simultaneously. In this work we demonstrate a 1480nm laser pumped by an 1117nm Yb-doped fiber laser with maximum output power of 204W and conversion efficiency of 65% (quantum-limited efficiency is ~75%). We believe both the output power and conversion efficiency (relative to quantum-limited efficiency) are the highest reported for Raman fiber lasers.

  8. Compressive turbulent cascade and heating in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marino, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Ponte Bucci 31C, I-87036 Rende (Italy); University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, B.P. 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Sorriso-Valvo, L. [Liquid Crystal Laboratory, INFM/CNR, Ponte Bucci 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Carbone, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Ponte Bucci 31C, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Noullez, A. [University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, B.P. 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Bruno, R. [INAF-Istituto Fisica Spazio Interplanetario, Rome (Italy)

    2010-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbulent energy cascade has been recently identified in high-latitude solar wind data samples by using a Yaglom-like relation. However, analogous scaling law, suitably modified to take into account compressible fluctuations, has been observed in a much more extended fraction of the same data set recorded by the Ulysses spacecraft. Thus, it seems that large scale density fluctuations, despite their low amplitude, play a major role in the basic scaling properties of turbulence. The compressive turbulent cascade, moreover, seems to be able to supply the energy needed to account for the local heating of the non-adiabatic solar wind.

  9. Atomic Cascade in Muonic and Hadronic Hydrogen Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. S. Jensen; V. P. Popov; V. N. Pomerantsev

    2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The atomic cascade in $\\mu^- p$ and $\\pi^- p$ atoms has been studied with the improved version of the extended cascade model in which new quantum mechanical calculations of the differential and integral cross sections of the elastic scattering, Stark transitions and Coulomb de-excitation have been included for the principal quantum number values $n\\le 8$ and the relative energies $E \\ge 0.01$ eV. The $X$-ray yields and kinetic energy distributions are compared with the experimental data.

  10. Electrical laser frequency tuning by three terminal terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohtani, K., E-mail: otanik@phys.ethz.ch; Beck, M.; Faist, J., E-mail: jerome.faist@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli Str. 16, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical laser emission frequency tuning of a three terminal THz quantum cascade laser is demonstrated. A high electron mobility transistor structure is used in a surface plasmon waveguide to modulate the electron density in a channel, controlling the effective refractive index of the waveguide. The threshold current density was modulated by 28% via applying voltage from ?3 to 2?V. The observed laser emission frequency shift by electric field was 2?GHz. By using the three terminal devices, pure frequency modulation of the output light is, in principle, achievable.

  11. Cascade design of single input single output systems using H? and quantitative feedback theory methodologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lal, Mayank

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is shown using QFT methodology that there aren?t any advantages gained in the low frequencies with the use of cascaded design. In effect it is concluded that if the design is properly executed a single loop controller closed from the output to the input... In the fourth part the H? methodology was used to design a two loop control structure. The idea was to compare this design to the QFT design. It was seen that H? generated redundant controllers and pre filters...

  12. Abstract-A hybrid cascaded multilevel inverter application for renewable energy resources including a reconfiguration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Abstract- A hybrid cascaded multilevel inverter application for renewable energy resources interfacing with renewable energy resources. I. INTRODUCTION Renewable energy resources (RES) have had specially, in renewable energy applications, a cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter can be applied

  13. Super Kid: Blake Guidice, Cascade High Article by: Julie Muhlstein, Herald Writer, Everett, Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Super Kid: Blake Guidice, Cascade High Article by: Julie Success: Blake Guidice, senior, Cascade High School, spent summer in a science. (Gary) Wood is a great teacher. I had him for chemistry last year and AP

  14. Fast Detection and Mitigation of Cascading Outages in the Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Chengzong

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation studies the causes and mechanism of power system cascading outages and proposes the improved interactive scheme between system-wide and local levels of monitoring and control to quickly detect, classify and mitigate the cascading...

  15. Planck 2015 results. XXII. A map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aghanim, N; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lacasa, F; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tramonte, D; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have constructed all-sky y-maps of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 30 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck satellite survey. These reconstructed y-maps are delivered as part of the Planck 2015 release. The y-maps are characterised in terms of noise properties and residual foreground contamination, mainly thermal dust emission at large angular scales and CIB and extragalactic point sources at small angular scales. Specific masks are defined to minimize foreground residuals and systematics. Using these masks we compute the y-map angular power spectrum and higher order statistics. From these we conclude that the y-map is dominated by tSZ signal in the multipole range, 20-600. We compare the measured tSZ power spectrum and higher order statistics to various physically motivated models and discuss the implications of our results in terms of cluster physics and cosmology.

  16. Number and propagation of line outages in cascading events in electric power transmission systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    Number and propagation of line outages in cascading events in electric power transmission systems that progressively weakens the system. Large electric power transmission systems occasionally have cascading failures of transmission lines. The multiple mechanisms involved these cascading outages are many and varied, and the power

  17. Critical points and transitions in an electric power transmission model for cascading failure blackouts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    Critical points and transitions in an electric power transmission model for cascading failure September 2002 Cascading failures in large-scale electric power transmission systems are an important cause, we examine cascading failure in a simplified transmission system model as load power demand

  18. Testing branching process estimators of cascading failure with data from a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    the propagation of cascading transmission line failures in large blackouts of electric power systems. We use power transmission system, infrastructure I. INTRODUCTION Cascading failure is a sequence of dependent failures that successively weaken a system. In electric power transmission systems, cascading failure

  19. Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanberg, C.A.; Combs, J. (Geothermal Resources International, Inc., San Mateo, CA (USA)); Walkey, W.C. (GEO Operator Corp., Bend, OR (USA))

    1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table. 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanberg, C.A.

    1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core holes GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commercial exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table.

  1. Global environmental effects of impact-generated aerosols: Results from a general circulation model: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covey, C.; Ghan, S.J.; Walton, J.J.; Weissman, P.R.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interception of sunlight by the high altitude worldwide dust cloud generated by impact of a large asteroid or comet would lead to substantial land surface cooling, according to our three-dimensional atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). This result is qualitatively similar to conclusions drawn from an earlier study that employed a one-dimensional atmospheric model, but in the GCM simulation the heat capacity of the oceans substantially mitigates land surface cooling, an effect that one-dimensional models cannot quantify. On the other hand, the low heat capacity of the GCM's land surface allows temperatures to drop more rapidly in the initial stage of cooling than in the one-dimensional model study. These two differences between three-dimensional and one-dimensional model simulations were noted previously in studies of ''nuclear winter; '' GCM-simulated climatic changes in the Alvarez-inspired scenario of ''asteroid/comet winter,'' however, are more severe than in ''nuclear winter'' because the assumed aerosol amount is large enough to intercept all sunlight falling on earth. Impacts of smaller objects -- which would occur much more frequently than the Cretaceous/Tertiary event deduced by Alvarez and coworkers -- could also lead to dramatic, though less severe, climatic changes, according to our GCM. Our conclusion is that it is difficult to imagine an asteroid or comet impact leading to anything approaching complete global freezing, but quite reasonable to assume that impacts at the Alvarez level, or even smaller, dramatically alter the climate in at least a ''patchy'' sense. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Continuum Cascade Model: Branching Random Walk for Traveling Wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshiaki Itoh

    2015-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The food web is a directed graph in which nodes label species and directed links represent the predation between species. Cascade models generate random food webs. The recursion to obtain the probability distribution of the longest chain length has the solution with traveling wave. We consider a branching random walk to study the asymptotic probability on the wave front.

  3. POLYGENETIC TOPOGRAPHY OF THE CASCADE RANGE, WASHINGTON STATE, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -relief topography, 2) post-Miocene surface uplift of the range superimposed on pre-existing high-relief topographyPOLYGENETIC TOPOGRAPHY OF THE CASCADE RANGE, WASHINGTON STATE, USA SARA GRAN MITCHELL Range of Washington State by analyzing the topography, geology, and exhumation patterns across the range

  4. Spectral Cascade and Energy Dissipation in Kinetic Alfven Wave Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhihong

    Spectral Cascade and Energy Dissipation in Kinetic Alfv´en Wave Turbulence Xi Cheng, Zhihong Lin energy sources at large spatial scales. The energy of these non- linearly interacting Alfven waves. 2000). The wave-particle energy exchange rates of these channels depend on the spectral properties near

  5. Optimal operation of a mixed fluid cascade LNG process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Optimal operation of a mixed fluid cascade LNG process Jørgen Bauck Jensen & Sigurd Skogestad distances is to first produce liquefied natural gas (LNG) and then transport the LNG by ships. At atmospheric pressure LNG has approximately 600 times the density of gaseous NG and a temperature of ap

  6. Threshold-Controlled Global Cascading in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Carlos

    Threshold-Controlled Global Cascading in Wireless Sensor Networks Qiming Lu and G. Korniss is a challenging task. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) provide an example where understanding dynamical processes and other wireless ad- hoc networks. First, sensor nodes are often densely deployed (typically 20 sensor per

  7. Superconducting cascade electron refrigerator M. Camarasa-Gomez,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    arranged in a symmetric configuration, i.e. S2IS1INIS1IS2, as displayed in Fig. 1(a). The structure) S2IS1 INIS1 IS2 cascade cooler geometry. The optional el- ements contained into the two dashed boxes

  8. Shear Viscosity to Entropy within a Parton Cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. El; C. Greiner; Z. Xu

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The shear viscosity is calculated by means of the perturbative kinetic partonic cascade BAMPS with CGC initial conditons for various saturation momentum scale Q_s. eta/s ~ 0.15 stays approximately constant when going from RHIC to LHC.

  9. Lattice QCD and Hydro/Cascade Model of Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Cheng

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We report here on a recent lattice study of the QCD transition region at finite temperature and zero chemical potential using domain wall fermions (DWF). We also present a parameterization of the QCD equation of state obtained from lattice QCD that is suitable for use in hydrodynamics studies of heavy ion collisions. Finally, we show preliminary results from a multi-stage hydrodynamics/hadron cascade model of a heavy ion collision, in an attempt to understand how well the experimental data (e.g. particle spectra, elliptic flow, and HBT radii) can constrain the inputs (e.g. initial temperature, freezeout temperature, shear viscosity, equation of state) of the theoretical model.

  10. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in the diffusion cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffer, J.E. [Parallax, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in plant operations..

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol trapping effect Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of this infrared radiation is trapped... 'S TEMPERATURE IS RISING This is the greenhouse effect. Without it, the Earths climate would be ... Source: Brookhaven National...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollutant effects Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    modelling Pollution Control Air pollution and Meterology 7. Global Change 1 week Greenhouse effect... transport Water and waste water treatment Legislations 6. Air Pollution 2.5...

  13. Cascaded-systems analyses and the detective quantum efficiency of single-Z x-ray detectors including photoelectric, coherent and incoherent interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Seungman [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A. [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Kim, Ho Kyung [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Theoretical models of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of x-ray detectors are an important step in new detector development by providing an understanding of performance limitations and benchmarks. Previous cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) models accounted for photoelectric interactions only. This paper describes an extension of the CSA approach to incorporate coherent and incoherent interactions, important for low-Z detectors such as silicon and selenium. Methods: A parallel-cascade approach is used to describe the three types of x-ray interactions. The description of incoherent scatter required developing expressions for signal and noise transfer through an 'energy-labeled reabsorption' process where the parameters describing reabsorption are random functions of the scatter photon energy. The description of coherent scatter requires the use of scatter form factors that may not be accurate for some crystalline detector materials. The model includes the effects of scatter reabsorption and escape, charge collection, secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, and additive noise. Model results are validated by Monte Carlo calculations for Si and Se detectors assuming free-atom atomic form factors. Results: The new signal and noise transfer expressions were validated by showing agreement with Monte Carlo results. Coherent and incoherent scatter can degrade the DQE of Si and sometimes Se detectors depending on detector thickness and incident-photon energy. Incoherent scatter can produce a substantial low-frequency drop in the modulation transfer function and DQE. Conclusions: A generally useful CSA model of the DQE is described that is believed valid for any single-Z material up to 10 cycles/mm at both mammographic and radiographic energies within the limitations of Fourier-based linear-systems models and the use of coherent-scatter form factors. The model describes a substantial low-frequency drop in the DQE of Si systems due to incoherent scatter above 20-40 keV.

  14. Assessment of Critical Events Corridors through Multivariate Cascading Outages Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Kumbale, Murali; Chen, Yousu; Singh, Ruchi; Green, Irina; Morgan, Mark P.

    2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive blackouts of electrical power systems in North America over the past decade has focused increasing attention upon ways to identify and simulate network events that may potentially lead to widespread network collapse. This paper summarizes a method to simulate power-system vulnerability to cascading failures to a supplied set of initiating events synonymously termed as Extreme Events. The implemented simulation method is currently confined to simulating steady state power-system response to a set of extreme events. The outlined method of simulation is meant to augment and provide a new insight into bulk power transmission network planning that at present remains mainly confined to maintaining power system security for single and double component outages under a number of projected future network operating conditions. Although one of the aims of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of simulating network vulnerability to cascading outages, a more important goal has been to determine vulnerable parts of the network that may potentially be strengthened in practice so as to mitigate system susceptibility to cascading failures. This paper proposes to demonstrate a systematic approach to analyze extreme events and identify vulnerable system elements that may be contributing to cascading outages. The hypothesis of critical events corridors is proposed to represent repeating sequential outages that can occur in the system for multiple initiating events. The new concept helps to identify system reinforcements that planners could engineer in order to 'break' the critical events sequences and therefore lessen the likelihood of cascading outages. This hypothesis has been successfully validated with a California power system model.

  15. Ungulate herbivory: Indirect effects cascade into the treetops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Andrew J.

    loams. The ungulate herbivore exclu- sion, that is, all grazing mammals 15 kg, included a nine of large-bodied consumers, but grazing is also known to stimulate growth (12). The research ``gold'' comes

  16. Prediction and Control of Network Cascade: Example of Power Grid or Networking Adaptability from WMD Disruption and Cascading Failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the DTRA project is to develop a mathematical framework that will provide the fundamental understanding of network survivability, algorithms for detecting/inferring pre-cursors of abnormal network behaviors, and methods for network adaptability and self-healing from cascading failures.

  17. Populations and lifetimes in the $v=n-l-1=2$ and 3 metastable cascades of $\\overline{p} He^{+}$ measured by pulsed and continuous antiproton beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hori, Masaki; Widmann, E; Yamazaki, T; Hayano, R S; Ishikawa, T; Torie, H A; Von Egidy, T; Hartmann, F; Ketzer, B; Maierl, C; Pohl, R; Kumakura, M; Morita, N; Horváth, D; Sugai, I

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the laser spectroscopy, the time evolution of the state population in the v equivalent n-l=2 and 3 metastable cascades of antiprotonic helium atoms were studied. The effects of the collision between antiprotonic helium and the ordinary helium atoms on the atomic cascade were also analyzed. The measurements were done using the pulsed and continuous types of antiproton beams supplied by the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. The studies revealed five phases in the life history of the metastable antiprotonic helium. (Edited abstract) 71 Refs.

  18. Cascade time-scales for energy and helicity in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susan Kurien; Mark A. Taylor; Takeshi Matsumoto

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the Kolmogorov phenomenology for the scaling of energy spectra in high-Reynolds number turbulence, to explicitly include the effect of helicity. There exists a time-scale $\\tau_H$ for helicity transfer in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence with helicity. We arrive at this timescale using the phenomenological arguments used by Kraichnan to derive the timescale $\\tau_E$ for energy transfer (J. Fluid Mech. {\\bf 47}, 525--535 (1971)). We show that in general $\\tau_H$ may not be neglected compared to $\\tau_E$, even for rather low relative helicity. We then deduce an inertial range joint cascade of energy and helicity in which the dynamics are dominated by $\\tau_E$ in the low wavenumbers with both energy and helicity spectra scaling as $k^{-5/3}$; and by $\\tau_H$ at larger wavenumbers with spectra scaling as $k^{-4/3}$. We demonstrate how, within this phenomenology, the commonly observed ``bottleneck'' in the energy spectrum might be explained. We derive a wavenumber $k_h$ which is less than the Kolmogorov dissipation wavenumber, at which both energy and helicity cascades terminate due to dissipation effects. Data from direct numerical simulations are used to check our predictions.

  19. Topological analysis of the power grid and mitigation strategies against cascading failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pahwa, Sakshi; Scoglio, Caterina; Wood, Sean; 10.1109/SYSTEMS.2010.5482329

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a complex systems overview of a power grid network. In recent years, concerns about the robustness of the power grid have grown because of several cascading outages in different parts of the world. In this paper, cascading effect has been simulated on three different networks, the IEEE 300 bus test system, the IEEE 118 bus test system, and the WSCC 179 bus equivalent model, using the DC Power Flow Model. Power Degradation has been discussed as a measure to estimate the damage to the network, in terms of load loss and node loss. A network generator has been developed to generate graphs with characteristics similar to the IEEE standard networks and the generated graphs are then compared with the standard networks to show the effect of topology in determining the robustness of a power grid. Three mitigation strategies, Homogeneous Load Reduction, Targeted Range-Based Load Reduction, and Use of Distributed Renewable Sources in combination with Islanding, have been suggested. The Homogeneous Lo...

  20. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Modifications of models resulting from recent reports on health effects of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrahamson, S. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)); Bender, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Gilbert, E.S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The most recent health effects models resulting from these efforts were published in two reports, NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990) and Part 2 (1989). Several major health effects reports have been published recently that may impact the health effects models presented in these reports. This addendum to the Part 2 (1989) report, provides a review of the 1986 and 1988 reports by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council BEAR 5 Committee report and Publication 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection as they relate to this report. The three main sections of this addendum discuss early occurring and continuing effects, late somatic effects, and genetic effects. The major changes to the NUREG/CR-4214 health effects models recommended in this addendum are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies like that on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The results presented in this addendum should be used with the basic NUREG/CR-4214 reports listed above to obtain the most recent views on the potential health effects of radionuclides released accidentally from nuclear power plants. 48 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Effect of Blade Torsion on Modeling Results for the Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT): Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Hansen, A. C.; Minnema, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes modeling results from both the FAST and ADAMS aeroelastic simulators characterizing small wind turbine loads and dynamic behavior.

  2. Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit , Kent, Washington (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  3. Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.

  4. Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    INTERMEDIATE VAPOR EXPANSION DISTILLATION AND NESTED ENRICHMENT CASCADE DISTILLATION D.. C. Erickson Energy Concepts Company Annapolis, Maryland ABSTRACT Although it is known that incorporating an intermediate reboiler or reflux... condenser in a distillation ~olumn will improve column efficiency by 15 to 100%, there has been little use of this technique to date." Intermediate vapor compression heat pumping was recently introduced as one practical means of achieving this benefit...

  5. Three-Phase Modular Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with Individual MPPT for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Hang, Lijun [ORNL; Riley, Cameron [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-phase modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is presented in this paper. To maximize the solar energy extraction of each PV string, an individual maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced power supplied to the three-phase system. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is proposed. The three-phase modular cascaded multilevel inverter prototype has been built. Each H-bridge is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed ideas.

  6. Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium Green's functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindskog, M., E-mail: martin.lindskog@teorfys.lu.se; Wacker, A. [Mathematical Physics, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Wolf, J. M.; Liverini, V.; Faist, J. [ETH Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH-Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Trinite, V.; Maisons, G.; Carras, M. [III-V Lab, 1 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Aidam, R.; Ostendorf, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Tullastrasse 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the operation of an 8.5??m quantum cascade laser based on GaInAs/AlInAs lattice matched to InP using three different simulation models based on density matrix (DM) and non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formulations. The latter advanced scheme serves as a validation for the simpler DM schemes and, at the same time, provides additional insight, such as the temperatures of the sub-band carrier distributions. We find that for the particular quantum cascade laser studied here, the behavior is well described by simple quantum mechanical estimates based on Fermi's golden rule. As a consequence, the DM model, which includes second order currents, agrees well with the NEGF results. Both these simulations are in accordance with previously reported data and a second regrown device.

  7. N=2 cascade revisited and the enhancon bearings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benini, Francesco [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); SISSA and INFN-Sezione di Trieste Via Beirut 2, I 34014 Trieste (Italy); Bertolini, Matteo [SISSA and INFN-Sezione di Trieste Via Beirut 2, I 34014 Trieste (Italy); Closset, Cyril [Physique Theorique et Mathematique and International Solvay Institutes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Cremonesi, Stefano [SISSA and INFN-Sezione di Trieste Via Beirut 2, I 34014 Trieste (Italy); Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Supergravity backgrounds with varying fluxes generated by fractional branes at nonisolated Calabi-Yau singularities had escaped a precise dual field theory interpretation so far. In the present work, considering the prototypical example of such models, the CxC{sup 2}/Z{sub 2} orbifold, we propose a solution for this problem, and show that the known cascading solution corresponds to a vacuum on the Coulomb branch of the corresponding quiver gauge theory involving a sequence of strong coupling transitions reminiscent of the baryonic root of N=2 supersymmetric quantum chromodynamics . We also find a slight modification of this cascading vacuum which upon mass deformation is expected to flow to the Klebanov-Strassler cascade. Finally, we discuss an infinite class of vacua on the Coulomb branch whose renormalization group flows include infinitely coupled conformal regimes, and explain their gravitational manifestation in terms of new geometric structures that we dub enhancon bearings. Repulson-free backgrounds dual to all the vacua we analyze are explicitly provided.

  8. A relativistic parton cascade with radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghi R. Shin; Berndt Müller

    2002-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the evolution of a parton system which is formed at the central rapidity region just after an ultrarelativistic heavy ion collision. The evolution of the system, which is composed of gluons, quarks and antiquarks, is described by a relativistic Boltzmann equations with collision terms including radiation and retardation effects. The equations are solved by the test particle method using Monte-Carlo sampling. Our simulations do not show any evidence of kinetic equilibration, unless the cross sections are artificially increased to unrealistically large values.

  9. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William R. (Zionsville, PA); Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA); Dunbobbin, Brian R. (Allentown, PA); Rao, Pradip (Allentown, PA); Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis, MD)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange.

  10. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  11. The Aid Effectiveness Literature: The Sad Results of 40 Years of Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    in aid effectiveness The welfare loss due to mass poverty in the LDC world is one of the largest problems facing mankind. Many in the rich countries want to do something to reduce the problem, and all DCs give development aid. In addition, many... of reason. The average aid share is about 7.5% so it follows that aid should contribute between 0.4 and 0.8 percentage point to the growth rate. As the average LDC growth rate is about 1.6%, aid should explain between 25% and 50% of the growth...

  12. FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK:RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Q. Zhou; Hui-Hai Liu; F.J. Molz; Y. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D{sub m}{sup e}, a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D{sub m}{sup e} values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F{sub D} (defined as the ratio of D{sub m}{sup e} to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D{sub m}] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F{sub D} value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F{sub D} value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F{sub D} value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminant remediation.

  13. Perform Tests and Document Results and Analysis of Oxide Layer Effects and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, E. D. [ORNL; DelCul, G. D. [ORNL; Spencer, B. B. [ORNL; Hunt, R. D. [ORNL; Ausmus, C. [ORNL

    2014-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    During the initial feasibility test using actual used nuclear fuel (UNF) cladding in FY 2012, an incubation period of 30–45 minutes was observed in the initial dry chlorination. The cladding hull used in the test had been previously oxidized in a dry air oxidation pretreatment prior to removal of the fuel. The cause of this incubation period was attributed to the resistance to chlorination of an oxide layer imparted by the dry oxidation pretreatment on the cladding. Subsequently in 2013, researchers at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) reported on their chlorination study [R1] on ~9-gram samples of unirradiated ZirloTM cladding tubes that had been previously oxidized in air at 500oC for various time periods to impart oxide layers of varying thickness. In early 2014, discussions with Indefinite Delivery, Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contracted technical consultants from Westinghouse described their previous development (and patents) [R2] on methods of chemical washing to remove some or all of the hydrous oxide layer imparted on UNF cladding during irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) . Thus, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) study, described herein, was planned to extend the KAERI study on the effects of anhydrous oxide layers, but on larger ~100-gram samples of unirradiated zirconium alloy cladding tubes, and to investigate the effects of various methods of chemical pretreatment prior to chlorination with 100% chlorine on the average reaction rates and Cl2 usage efficiencies.

  14. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION AND DEFORMATION OF ZIRCONIUM UNDER CASCADE DAMAGE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barashev, Alexander V [ORNL; Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is based on our reaction-diffusion model of radiation growth of Zr-based materials proposed recently in [1]. In [1], the equations for the strain rates in unloaded pure crystal under cascade damage conditions of, e.g., neutron or heavy-ion irradiation were derived as functions of dislocation densities, which include contributions from dislocation loops, and spatial distribution of their Burgers vectors. The model takes into account the intra-cascade clustering of self-interstitial atoms and their one-dimensional diffusion; explains the growth stages, including the break-away growth of pre-annealed samples; and accounts for some striking observations, such as of negative strain in prismatic direction, and co-existence of vacancy- and interstitial-type prismatic loops. In this report, the change of dislocation densities due to accumulation of sessile dislocation loops is taken into account explicitly to investigate the dose dependence of radiation growth. The dose dependence of climb rates of dislocations is calculated, which is important for the climb-induced glide model of radiation creep. The results of fitting the model to available experimental data and some numerical calculations of the strain behavior of Zr for different initial dislocation structures are presented and discussed. The computer code RIMD-ZR.V1 (Radiation Induced Microstructure and Deformation of Zr) developed is described and attached to this report.

  15. Defect structures induced by high-energy displacement cascades in c uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yinbin Miao; Benjamin Beeler; Chaitanya Deo; Maria A. Okuniewski; James F. Stubbins

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Displacement cascade simulations were conducted for the c uranium system based on molecular dynamics. A recently developed modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential was employed to replicate the atomic interactions while an embedded atom method (EAM) potential was adopted to help characterize the defect structures induced by the displacement cascades. The atomic displacement process was studied by providing primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 50 keV. The influence of the PKA incident direction was examined. The defect structures were analyzed after the systems were fully relaxed. The states of the self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) were categorized into various types of dumbbells, the crowdion, and the octahedral interstitial. The voids were determined to have a polyhedral shape with {110} facets. The size distribution of the voids was also obtained. The results of this study not only expand the knowledge of the microstructural evolution in irradiated c uranium, but also provide valuable references for the radiation-induced defects in uranium alloy fuels. 2014 Elsevier

  16. Planck intermediate results. CV. Evidence of unbound gas from the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kitaura, F; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Ma, Y -Z; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mak, D S Y; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Puget, J -L; Puisieux, S; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reach, W T; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wang, W; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By looking at the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ) in Planck nominal mission data, we present a significant detection of baryons participating in large-scale bulk flows around central galaxies (CGs) at redshift $z\\approx 0.1$. We estimate the pairwise momentum of the kSZ temperature fluctuations at the positions of the CGC (Central Galaxy Catalogue) samples extracted from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (DR7) data. For the foreground-cleaned maps, we find $1.8$-$2.5\\sigma$ detections of the kSZ signal, which are consistent with the kSZ evidence found in individual Planck raw frequency maps, although lower than found in the WMAP-9yr W band ($3.3\\sigma$). We further reconstruct the peculiar velocity field from the CG density field, and compute for the first time the cross-correlation function between kSZ temperature fluctuations and estimates of CG radial peculiar velocities. This correlation function yields a $3.0$-$3.7$$\\sigma$ detection of the peculiar motion of extended gas on Mpc scales, in flows correlated...

  17. Excluded Volume Effects in Polymer Solutions: II. Comparison of Experimental Results with Numerical Simulation Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graessley, W.W.; Grest, G.S.; Hayward, R.C.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of excluded volume on the coil size of dilute linear polymers was investigated by off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations. The radius of gyration R{sub g} was evaluated for a wide range of chain lengths at several temperatures and at the athermal condition. The theta temperature and the corresponding theta chain dimensions were established for the system, and the dependence of the size expansion factor, a{sub s} = R{sub g} /(R{sub g}){sub {theta}}, on chain length N and temperature T was examined. For long chains and at high temperatures, a{sub s} is a function of N/N{sub s}{sup 2} alone, where the length scale N{sub s}{sup 2} depends only on T. The form of this simulations-based master function compares favorably with {alpha}{sub s}(M/M{sub s}{sup 2}), an experimental master curve for linear polymers in good solvents, where M{sub s}{sup 2} depends only on polymer-solvent system. Comparisons when N{sub s}{sup 2}(T) and M{sub s}{sup 2}(system) are reduced to common units, numbers of Kuhn steps, strongly indicate that coil expansion in even the best of good solvents is small relative to that expected for truly athermal solutions. An explanation for this behavior is proposed, based on what would appear to be an inherent difference in the equation of state properties for polymeric and monomeric liquids.

  18. Effective No-Hair Relations for Neutron Stars and Quark Stars: Relativistic Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent Yagi; Koutarou Kyutoku; George Pappas; Nicolas Yunes; Theocharis A. Apostolatos

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrophysical charge-free black holes are known to satisfy no-hair relations through which all multipole moments can be specified in terms of just their mass and spin angular momentum. We here investigate the possible existence of no-hair-like relations among multipole moments for neutron stars and quark stars that are independent of their equation of state. We calculate the multipole moments of these stars up to hexadecapole order by constructing uniformly-rotating and unmagnetized stellar solutions to the Einstein equations. For slowly-rotating stars, we construct stellar solutions to quartic order in spin in a slow-rotation expansion, while for rapidly-rotating stars, we solve the Einstein equations numerically with the LORENE and RNS codes. We find that the multipole moments extracted from these numerical solutions are consistent with each other. We confirm that the current-dipole is related to the mass-quadrupole in an approximately equation of state independent fashion, which does not break for rapidly rotating neutron stars or quark stars. We further find that the current-octupole and the mass-hexadecapole moments are related to the mass-quadrupole in an approximately equation of state independent way to $\\sim 10%$, worsening in the hexadecapole case. All of our findings are in good agreement with previous work that considered stellar solutions to leading-order in a weak-field expansion. The quartic in spin, slowly-rotating solutions found here allow us to estimate the systematic errors in the measurement of the neutron star's mass and radius with future X-ray observations, such as NICER and LOFT. We find that the effect of these quartic-in-spin terms on the quadrupole and hexadecapole moments and stellar eccentricity may dominate the error budget for very rapidly-rotating neutron stars. The new universal relations found here should help to reduce such systematic errors.

  19. Cascade production in the reactions gamma p --> K+ K+ (X) and gamma p --> K^+ K^+ pi- (X)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Guo; D. P. Weygand; M. Battaglieri; R. De Vita; V. Kubarovsky; P. Stoler; for the CLAS Collaboration

    2007-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoproduction of the cascade resonances has been investigated in the reactions $\\gamma p \\to K^+ K^+ (X)$ and $\\gamma p \\to K^+ K^+ \\pi^- (X)$. The mass split of the $\\Xi$ doublet is measured to be $5.4\\pm 1.8$ MeV/c$^2$, consistent with existing measurements. The differential (total) cross sections for the $\\Xi^{-}$ have been determined for photon beam energies from 2.75 to 3.85 (4.75) GeV, and are consistent with a possible production mechanism of $Y^*\\to K^+\\Xi^-$ through a $t$-channel process. The reaction $\\gamma p \\to K^+ K^+ \\pi^-[\\Xi^0]$ has also been investigated in search of excited cascade resonances. No significant signal of excited cascade states other than the $\\Xi^-(1530)$ is observed. The cross section results of the $\\Xi^-(1530)$ have also been obtained for photon beam energies from 3.35 to 4.75 GeV.

  20. Cascade production in the reactions gamma p --> K+ K+ (X) and gamma p --> K+ K+ pi- (X)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Guo

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoproduction of the cascade resonances has been investigated in the reactions {gamma}p {yields} K{sup +}K{sup +}(X) and {gamma}p {yields} K{sup +}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}(X). The mass split of the {Xi} doublet is measured to be 5.4 {+-} 1.8 MeV/c{sup 2}, consistent with existing measurements. The differential (total) cross sections for the {Xi}{sup -} have been determined for photon beam energies from 2.75 to 3.85 (4.75) GeV, and are consistent with a possible production mechanism of Y* {yields} K{sup +}{Xi}{sup -} through a t-channel process. The reaction {gamma}p {yields} K{sup +}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}({Xi}{sup 0}) has also been investigated in search of excited cascade resonances. No significant signal of excited cascade states other than the {Xi}{sup -}(1530) is observed. The cross section results of the {Xi}{sup -}(1530) have also been obtained for photon beam energies from 3.35 to 4.75 GeV.

  1. Prion protein induced signaling cascades in monocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krebs, Bjarne [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Muenchen (Germany); Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia [CNS Research III, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Biberach/Riss (Germany); Schmalzbauer, Ruediger [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Vassallo, Neville [Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Herms, Jochen [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Kretzschmar, Hans A. [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: Hans.Kretzschmar@med.uni-muenchen.de

    2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Prion proteins play a central role in transmission and pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}), whose physiological function remains elusive, is anchored to the surface of a variety of cell types including neurons and cells of the lymphoreticular system. In this study, we investigated the response of a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line to exposure with PrP{sup C} fusion proteins synthesized with a human Fc-tag. PrP{sup C} fusion proteins showed an attachment to the surface of monocyte/macrophages in nanomolar concentrations. This was accompanied by an increase of cellular tyrosine phosphorylation as a result of activated signaling pathways. Detailed investigations exhibited activation of downstream pathways through a stimulation with PrP fusion proteins, which include phosphorylation of ERK{sub 1,2} and Akt kinase. Macrophages opsonize and present antigenic structures, contact lymphocytes, and deliver cytokines. The findings reported here may become the basis of understanding the molecular function of PrP{sup C} in monocytes and macrophages.

  2. Modelling the molecular Zeeman effect in M-dwarfs: methods and first results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shulyak, D; Wende, S; Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N; Seifahrt, A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present first quantitative results of the surface magnetic field measurements in selected M-dwarfs based on detailed spectra synthesis conducted simultaneously in atomic and molecular lines of the FeH Wing-Ford $F^4\\,\\Delta-X^4\\,\\Delta$ transitions. A modified version of the Molecular Zeeman Library (MZL) was used to compute Land\\'e g-factors for FeH lines in different Hund's cases. Magnetic spectra synthesis was performed with the Synmast code. We show that the implementation of different Hund's case for FeH states depending on their quantum numbers allows us to achieve a good fit to the majority of lines in a sunspot spectrum in an automatic regime. Strong magnetic fields are confirmed via the modelling of atomic and FeH lines for three M-dwarfs YZ~CMi, EV~Lac, and AD~Leo, but their mean intensities are found to be systematically lower than previously reported. A much weaker field ($1.7-2$~kG against $2.7$~kG) is required to fit FeH lines in the spectra of GJ~1224. Our method allows us to measure average...

  3. Restricted Equilibrium and the Energy Cascade in Rotating and Stratified Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbert, Corentin; Marino, Raffaele

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the turbulent flows appearing in nature (e.g. geophysical and astrophysical flows) are subjected to strong rotation and stratification. These effects break the symmetries of classical, homogenous isotropic turbulence. In doing so, they introduce a natural decomposition of phase space in terms of wave modes and potential vorticity modes. The appearance of a new time scale associated to the propagation of waves, in addition to the eddy turnover time, increases the complexity of the energy transfers between the various scales; nonlinearly interacting waves may dominate at some scales while balanced motion may prevail at others. In the end, it is difficult to predict \\emph{a priori} if the energy cascades downscale as in homogeneous isotropic turbulence, upscale as expected from balanced dynamics, or follows yet another phenomenology. In this paper, we suggest a theoretical approach based on equilibrium statistical mechanics for the ideal system, inspired from the restricted partition function formalism i...

  4. Cascaded Cerenkov third-harmonic generation in random quadratic media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayoub, Mousa; Roedig, Philip; Imbrock, Joerg; Denz, Cornelia [Institute of Applied Physics and Center for Nonlinear Science (CeNoS), Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 2, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the conical emission of Cerenkov-type third-harmonic generation in strontium barium niobate of random 2D-{chi}{sup (2)} distribution. The azimuthal intensity distribution is explained by the polarization properties of the fundamental and Cerenkov second-harmonic waves, depending on the cascaded origin of the generation process. Moreover, we show the role of the individual domain shape in an additional modulation on the conical emission, controlled by the electrical switching of the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric medium.

  5. What is the effect of LiDAR-derived DEM resolution on large-scale watershed model results?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping Yang; Daniel B. Ames; Andre Fonseca; Danny Anderson; Rupesh Shrestha; Nancy F. Glenn; Yang Cao

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the effect of raster cell size on hydrographic feature extraction and hydrological modeling using LiDAR derived DEMs. LiDAR datasets for three experimental watersheds were converted to DEMs at various cell sizes. Watershed boundaries and stream networks were delineated from each DEM and were compared to reference data. Hydrological simulations were conducted and the outputs were compared. Smaller cell size DEMs consistently resulted in less difference between DEM-delineated features and reference data. However, minor differences been found between streamflow simulations resulted for a lumped watershed model run at daily simulations aggregated at an annual average. These findings indicate that while higher resolution DEM grids may result in more accurate representation of terrain characteristics, such variations do not necessarily improve watershed scale simulation modeling. Hence the additional expense of generating high resolution DEM's for the purpose of watershed modeling at daily or longer time steps may not be warranted.

  6. Complex particle and light fragment emission in the cascade-excitation model of nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashnik, S. G. (Stepan G.); Sierk, A. J. (Arnold J.); Gudima, K. K. (Konstantin K.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief description of our improvements and refinements that led from the CEM95 version of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) code to CEM97 and to CEM2k is given. The increased accuracy and predictive power of the code CEM2k are shown by several examples. To describe fission and light-fragment (heavier than {sup 4}He) production, the CEM2k code has been merged with the GEM2 code of Furihata. We present some results on proton-induced fragmentation and fission reactios predicted by this extended version of CEM2k. We show that merging CEM2k with GEM2 allows us to describe many fission and fragmentation reactions in addition to the spallation reactions which are already relatively well described.

  7. A loophole to the universal photon spectrum in electromagnetic cascades: application to the "cosmological lithium problem"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poulin, Vivian

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard theory of electromagnetic cascades onto a photon background predicts a quasi-universal shape for the resulting non-thermal photon spectrum. This has been applied to very disparate fields, including non-thermal big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). However, once the energy of the injected photons falls below the pair-production threshold the spectral shape is very different, a fact that has been overlooked in past literature. This loophole may have important phenomenological consequences, since it generically alters the BBN bounds on non-thermal relics: for instance it allows to re-open the possibility of purely electromagnetic solutions to the so-called "cosmological lithium problem", which were thought to be excluded by other cosmological constraints. We show this with a proof-of-principle example and a simple particle physics model, compared with previous literature.

  8. A loophole to the universal photon spectrum in electromagnetic cascades: application to the "cosmological lithium problem"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vivian Poulin; Pasquale D. Serpico

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard theory of electromagnetic cascades onto a photon background predicts a quasi-universal shape for the resulting non-thermal photon spectrum. This has been applied to very disparate fields, including non-thermal big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). However, once the energy of the injected photons falls below the pair-production threshold the spectral shape is very different, a fact that has been overlooked in past literature. This loophole may have important phenomenological consequences, since it generically alters the BBN bounds on non-thermal relics: for instance it allows to re-open the possibility of purely electromagnetic solutions to the so-called "cosmological lithium problem", which were thought to be excluded by other cosmological constraints. We show this with a proof-of-principle example and a simple particle physics model, compared with previous literature.

  9. Frequency and phaselock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Benjamin S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Hu, Qing (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Reno, John Louis; Boreiko, R. T. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Betz, A. L. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Kumar, S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA)

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have locked the frequency of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) to that of a far-infrared gas laser with a tunable microwave offset frequency. The locked QCL line shape is essentially Gaussian, with linewidths of 65 and 141 kHz at the -3 and -10 dB levels, respectively. The lock condition can be maintained indefinitely, without requiring temperature or bias current regulation of the QCL other than that provided by the lock error signal. The result demonstrates that a terahertz QCL can be frequency controlled with 1-part-in-108 accuracy, which is a factor of 100 better than that needed for a local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver for atmospheric and astronomic spectroscopy.

  10. Direct and Inverse Cascades in the Wind-Driven Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Vladimir E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We offer a new form for the S(nl) term in the Hasselmann kinetic equation for squared wave amplitudes of wind-driven gravity wave. This form of S(nl) makes possible to rewrite in differential form the conservation laws for energy, momentum, and wave action, and introduce their fluxes by a natural way. We show that the stationary kinetic equation has a family of exact Kolmogorov-type solutions governed by the fluxes of motion constants: wave action, energy, and momentum. The simple "local" model for S(nl) term that is equivalent to the "diffusion approximation" is studied in details. In this case, Kolmogorov spectra are found in the explicit form. We show that a general solution of the stationary kinetic equation behind the spectral peak is described by the Kolmogorov-type solution with frequency-dependent fluxes. The domains of "inverse cascade" and "direct cascade" can be separated by natural way. The spectrum in the universal domain is close to $\\omega^{-4}$.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade of coronal loop magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rappazzo, A. F. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Delaware 19716 (United States); Velli, M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Parker model for coronal heating is investigated through a high resolution simulation. An inertial range is resolved where fluctuating magnetic energy E{sub M}(k{sub perpendicular}){proportional_to}k{sub perpendicular}{sup -2.7} exceeds kinetic energy E{sub K}(k{sub perpendicular}){proportional_to}k{sub perpendicular}{sup -0.6}. Increments scale as {delta}b{sub l}{approx_equal}l{sup -0.85}and {delta}u{sub l}{approx_equal}l{sup +0.2} with velocity increasing at small scales, indicating that magnetic reconnection plays a prime role in this turbulent system. We show that spectral energy transport is akin to standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence even for a system of reconnecting current sheets sustained by the boundary. In this new MHD turbulent cascade, kinetic energy flows are negligible while cross-field flows are enhanced, and through a series of ''reflections'' between the two fields, cascade more than half of the total spectral energy flow.

  12. Photovoltaic quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector A. V. Barve and S. Krishna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishna, Sanjay

    Photovoltaic quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector A. V. Barve and S. Krishna Citation subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Photovoltaic) Design and characterization of a quantum dot quantum cascade detector for photovoltaic midwave infrared

  13. The Impact of the Topology on Cascading Failures in a Power Grid Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Mieghem, Piet

    allocation according to Kirchoff Laws. Experimental verification on synthetic power systems showsThe Impact of the Topology on Cascading Failures in a Power Grid Model Yakup Koça,1 Martijn on the IEEE 118 bus power system to improve its robustness against cascading failures. 1. Introduction

  14. Predator diversity strengthens trophic cascades in kelp forests by modifying herbivore behaviour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stachowicz, Jay

    LETTER Predator diversity strengthens trophic cascades in kelp forests by modifying herbivore the consequences of changing predator diversity for trophic cascades in kelp forests. In field surveys we found that predator diversity was negatively correlated with herbivore abundance and positively correlated with kelp

  15. Preprint December 2003 A Loading-Dependent Model of Probabilistic Cascading Failure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a large cascading failure. Keywords: Blackout; Electric power transmission system; Infrastructure; Power Benjamin A. Carreras David E. Newman Abstract: Large blackouts of electric power transmission systems- outs of electric power transmission systems. For exam- ple, long, intricate cascades of events caused

  16. A Probabilistic Model for the Dynamics of Cascading Failures and Blackouts in Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayat, Majeed M.

    systems. The control system of a reliable power grid requires (1) a good understanding of the current in the control/communication systems) factors can affect cascading failures in power grids. These factors can1 A Probabilistic Model for the Dynamics of Cascading Failures and Blackouts in Power Grids Mahshid

  17. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS Stochastic Analysis of Cascading-Failure Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayat, Majeed M.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS Stochastic Analysis of Cascading-Failure Dynamics in Power Grids of the system. Cas- cading failures in power grids can be described as successive changes of power-grid states system state during cascading failures may not be feasible. This is mainly due the large space of power

  18. HARMONIC CASCADE FEL DESIGNS FOR LUX, A FACILTY FOR ULTRAFAST X-RAY SCIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    HARMONIC CASCADE FEL DESIGNS FOR LUX, A FACILTY FOR ULTRAFAST X-RAY SCIENCE J. Corlett, W. Fawley. We also discuss lattice considerations pertinent to harmonic cascade FELs, somesensitivity studies. While much of this effort has been concentrated upon SASE-based FEL's, there is an alternative "harmonic

  19. Beyond the Price Effect in Time-of-Use Programs: Results from a Municipal Utility Pilot, 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutzenhiser, Susan; Peters, Jane; Moezzi, Mithra; Woods, James

    2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses results of a two-year collaborative research project between the authors and the Demand Response Research Center focused on behavioral response to a voluntary time-of-use pilot rate offered by the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD) under the PowerChoice label. The project had two purposes: one was to assess the potential for increasing demand response through the introduction of enhanced information and real-time consumption feedback; the second was to better understand behavioral response to a TOU rate. Three successive waves of telephone surveys collected details about reasons for participation, actions taken, capacities and constraints to altering behavior, and a range of salient conditions, such as demographics and dwelling characteristics. Pre- and post-program interval meter data for participants and a comparison sample of households were also collected and analyzed to consider initial and season-change price effects of the rate and the effect of supplemental information treatments on response. Over half of surveyed participating households reported that they had made a great deal of effort to adjust their electricity consumption to the rate. Despite this, load data analysis revealed only minimal price effects; and, though households subjected to information treatments seemed to have learned from these treatments, load data analysis again detected only minimal effects on load. Given the currently high hopes for behavioral intervention and residential TOU rates, these unexpected results require explanation. We suggest a number of possibilities and discuss some implications for TOU programs, and for understanding demand response behavior and approaches to experiments with TOU rates.

  20. Influence of wetting effect at the outer surface of the pipe on increase in leak rate - experimental results and discussion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Shibata, Katsuyuki

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and computed results applicable to Leak Before Break analysis are presented. The specific area of investigation is the effect of the temperature distribution changes due to wetting of the test pipe near the crack on the increase in the crack opening area and leak rate. Two 12-inch straight pipes subjected to both internal pressure and thermal load, but not to bending load, are modelled. The leak rate was found to be very susceptible to the metal temperature of the piping. In leak rate tests, therefore, it is recommended that temperature distribution be measured precisely for a wide area.

  1. Precision control of multiple quantum cascade lasers for calibration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubman, Matthew S., E-mail: Matthew.Taubman@pnnl.gov; Myers, Tanya L.; Pratt, Richard M.; Stahl, Robert D.; Cannon, Bret D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a precision, 1-A, digitally interfaced current controller for quantum cascade lasers, with demonstrated temperature coefficients for continuous and 40-kHz full-depth square-wave modulated operation, of 1–2 ppm/?°C and 15 ppm/?°C, respectively. High precision digital to analog converters (DACs) together with an ultra-precision voltage reference produce highly stable, precision voltages, which are selected by a multiplexer (MUX) chip to set output currents via a linear current regulator. The controller is operated in conjunction with a power multiplexing unit, allowing one of three lasers to be driven by the controller, while ensuring protection of controller and all lasers during operation, standby, and switching. Simple ASCII commands sent over a USB connection to a microprocessor located in the current controller operate both the controller (via the DACs and MUX chip) and the power multiplexer.

  2. Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.

  3. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  4. Precision Control of Multiple Quantum Cascade Lasers for Calibration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Pratt, Richard M.; Stahl, Robert D.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a precision, digitally interfaced current controller for quantum cascade lasers, with demonstrated DC and modulated temperature coefficients of 1- 2 ppm/ºC and 15 ppm/ºC respectively. High linearity digital to analog converters (DACs) together with an ultra-precision voltage reference, produce highly stable, precision voltages. These are in turn selected by a low charge-injection multiplexer (MUX) chip, which are then used to set output currents via a linear current regulator. The controller is operated in conjunction with a power multiplexing unit, allowing one of three lasers to be driven by the controller while ensuring protection of controller and all lasers during operation, standby and switching. Simple ASCII commands sent over a USB connection to a microprocessor located in the current controller operate both the controller (via the DACs and MUX chip) and the power multiplexer.

  5. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  6. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  7. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  8. K-311-1/K-310-3 Purge Cascade Process Description, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Accelerated Cleanup Project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker J.E.

    2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    K-311-1 was constructed along with the rest of the K-25 Building in the 1943-1945 timeframe. K-311-1 was equipped with Size 3 converters and Size 38 Allis Chalmers{trademark} single-stage centrifugal compressors driven by 3600 rpm electric motors, and the unit operated as the 'bottom' unit flow-wise in K-25. The depleted flow from the bottom stage in K-311-1 passed through booster compressors and flowed to the K-601 Building where the depleted or 'tails' material was removed. In 1948, after the K-27 Building was completed, the decision was made to operate K-27 and K-25 in series rather than operate the two buildings as separate entities. To facilitate this operation, concrete bases were poured and two sets of booster compressors were installed in the extreme West end of the K-311-1 cell floor. These compressors were enclosed in heated housings and consisted of Size 38 compressors. One pair was to boost the 'B' flow between K-25 and K-27, and one pair was to boost the 'A' flow between the buildings. Each station operated with one compressor on-stream and the other in standby. (Reference 9) Each station also was equipped with a Size 2 after-cooler located in the discharge stream downstream of the junction of the onstream and standby compressors. Additional gaseous diffusion capacity was added at Oak Ridge as K-29, K-31, and K-33 were constructed and placed in service in the early 1950s. As a result of the additional process equipment added by these buildings, in-leakage of light gases to the cascade including light gases introduced into the cascade as a result of purging operations threatened to exceed the capacity of the existing K-312 Purge Cascade facilities in the K-25 Building. As a result, in 1954 K-311-1 was converted to a side purge cascade to remove light gases from the process gas stream as the stream entered K-25 from K-27. Low molecular weight gas in-leakage in K-33, K-31, K-29, and K-27 was removed by the K-311-1 Side Purge Facility and a relatively pure stream of UF6 then passed from K-311-1 into the upstream cells in K-25. In-leakage of light gases in the K-25 Building continued to be removed by the K-312 Purge Facilities. K-311-1 operated as a Side Purge Cascade from 1954 until the K-25 Building was shut down in 1964; at that time K-311-1 became the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) Top (and only) Purge Cascade. The adjacent K-310-3 Unit was operated along with K-311-1 as the top purge cascade and K-310-2 was also operated at times to supplement cells in the K311-1/K-310-3 Purge Cascade. K-311-1 was shut down on February 14, 1977, after the newer, larger capacity K-402-9 Purge Cascade was placed in operation. K-310-3 continued to operate until the K-402-8 Coolant Removal Unit was placed in service, and K-310-3 was shut down on March 14, 1978. Since the K-311-1 and K-310-3 units continued to operate after K-25 shutdown, removal of equipment such as valves and piping for other projects did not occur in this area. As a result, these two units have not been exposed to atmospheric wet air over the years as much of the remainder of K-25 has been exposed. Any deposits or residual gases contained in K-311-1 or K-310-3 are not likely to be fully hydrolyzed.

  9. Astrophysical gyrokinetics: kinetic and fluid turbulent cascades in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Schekochihin; S. C. Cowley; W. Dorland; G. W. Hammett; G. G. Howes; E. Quataert; T. Tatsuno

    2009-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical framework for plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas (solar wind, interstellar medium, galaxy clusters, accretion disks). The key assumptions are that the turbulence is anisotropic with respect to the mean magnetic field and frequencies are low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The energy injected at the outer scale scale has to be converted into heat, which ultimately cannot be done without collisions. A KINETIC CASCADE develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. Its nature depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations. In each of the physically distinct scale ranges, the kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more tractable set of equations. In the "inertial range" above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade splits into a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations, which are governed by the RMHD equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales, and a passive cascade of compressive fluctuations, which obey a linear kinetic equation along the moving field lines associated with the Alfvenic component. In the "dissipation range" between the ion and electron gyroscales, there are again two cascades: the kinetic-Alfven-wave (KAW) cascade governed by two fluid-like Electron RMHD equations and a passive phase-space cascade of ion entropy fluctuations. The latter cascade brings the energy of the inertial-range fluctuations that was damped by collisionless wave-particle interaction at the ion gyroscale to collisional scales in the phase space and leads to ion heating. The KAW energy is similarly damped at the electron gyroscale and converted into electron heat. Kolmogorov-style scaling relations are derived for these cascades. Astrophysical and space-physical applications are discussed in detail.

  10. Survival Effect of Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Before Esophagectomy for Patients With Esophageal Cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwer, Amanda L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)], E-mail: amanda.schwer@uchsc.edu; Ballonoff, Ari; McCammon, Robert; Rusthoven, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); D'Agostino, Ralph B. [Department of Biostatistical Science, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Schefter, Tracey E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The role of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (NeoRT) before definitive surgery for esophageal cancer remains controversial. This study used a large population-based database to assess the effect of NeoRT on survival for patients treated with definitive surgery. Methods and Materials: The overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival for patients with Stage T2-T4, any N, M0 (cT2-T4M0) esophageal cancer who had undergone definitive surgery between 1998 and 2004 were analyzed by querying the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results database. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and univariate comparisons were made using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards survival regression multivariate analysis was performed with NeoRT, T stage (T2 vs. T3-T4), pathologic nodal status (pN0 vs. pN1), number of nodes dissected (>10 vs. {<=}10), histologic type (adenocarcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma), age (<65 vs. {>=}65 years), and gender as covariates. Results: A total of 1,033 patients were identified. Of these, 441 patients received NeoRT and 592 underwent esophagectomy alone; 77% were men, 67% had adenocarcinoma, and 72% had Stage T3-T4 disease. The median OS and cause-specific survival were both significantly greater for patients who received NeoRT compared with esophagectomy alone (27 vs. 18 months and 35 vs. 21 months, respectively, p <0.0001). The 3-year OS rate was also significantly greater in the NeoRT group (43% vs. 30%). On multivariate analysis, NeoRT, age <65 years, adenocarcinoma histologic type, female gender, pN0 status, >10 nodes dissected, and Stage T2 disease were all independently correlated with increased OS. Conclusion: These results support the use of NeoRT for patients with esophageal cancer. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.

  11. Triple Cascade Behavior in Quasigeostrophic and Drift Turbulence and Generation of Zonal Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda [Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study quasigeostrophic (QG) and plasma drift turbulence within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. We focus on the zonostrophy, an extra invariant in the CHM model, and on its role in the formation of zonal jets. We use a generalized Fjoertoft argument for the energy, enstrophy, and zonostrophy and show that they cascade anisotropically into nonintersecting sectors in k space with the energy cascading towards large zonal scales. Using direct numerical simulations of the CHM equation, we show that zonostrophy is well conserved, and the three invariants cascade as predicted by the Fjoertoft argument.

  12. Cascadable Absorptive Filter Rev 1.2, 7/21/2014 MMR3 Series U.S. Patent No. 8,392,495, other patents pending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    Number of Cascaded Sections Number of Parallel Channels (QFN only) (blank) = 1 channel Standard parts

  13. to appear at CRIS, Third International Conference on Critical Infrastructures, Alexandria, VA, September 2006 An approach to statistical estimation of cascading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Wierzbicki Ian Dobson Abstract-- Load power is progressively shed as large, cascading blackouts of electric infrastructure failures to quantify the vulnerability to cascading and the overall risk of large cascading failures. I. INTRODUCTION Blackouts in electric power transmission systems become widespread by a cascading

  14. Matrix Metalloproteinase Stromelysin-1 Triggers a Cascade of Molecular Alterations that leads to stable epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Conversion and a Premalignant Phenotype in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Muschler, J.; Freedman, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) regulate ductal morphogenesis, apoptosis, and neoplastic progression in mammary epithelial cells. To elucidate the direct effects of MMPs on mammary epithelium, we generated functionally normal cells expressing an inducible autoactivating stromelysin-1 (SL-1) transgene. Induction of SL-1 expression resulted in cleavage of E-cadherin, and triggered progressive phenotypic conversion characterized by disappearance of E-cadherin and catenins from cell-cell contacts, downregulation of cytokeratins, upregulation of vimentin, induction of keratinocyte growth factor expression and activation, and upregulation of endogenous MMPs. Cells expressing SL-1 were unable to undergo lactogenic differentiation and became invasive. Once initiated, this phenotypic conversion was essentially stable, and progressed even in the absence of continued SL-1 expression. These observations demonstrate that inappropriate expression of SL-1 initiates a cascade of events that may represent a coordinated program leading to loss of the differentiated epithelial phenotype and gain of some characteristics of tumor cells. Our data provide novel insights into how MMPs function in development and neoplastic conversion.

  15. Genetic algorithm applied to the optimization of quantum cascade lasers with second harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaji?, A. [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Telekom Srbija, a.d., Takovska 2, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Radovanovi?, J., E-mail: radovanovic@etf.bg.ac.rs; Milanovi?, V. [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Indjin, D.; Ikoni?, Z. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A computational model for the optimization of the second order optical nonlinearities in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade laser structures is presented. The set of structure parameters that lead to improved device performance was obtained through the implementation of the Genetic Algorithm. In the following step, the linear and second harmonic generation power were calculated by self-consistently solving the system of rate equations for carriers and photons. This rate equation system included both stimulated and simultaneous double photon absorption processes that occur between the levels relevant for second harmonic generation, and material-dependent effective mass, as well as band nonparabolicity, were taken into account. The developed method is general, in the sense that it can be applied to any higher order effect, which requires the photon density equation to be included. Specifically, we have addressed the optimization of the active region of a double quantum well In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/Al{sub 0.48}In{sub 0.52}As structure and presented its output characteristics.

  16. Cavitation effects on the confinement/deconfinement transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Buchel; Xian O. Camanho; Jose D. Edelstein

    2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Cavitation is a process where the viscous terms in a relativistic fluid result in reducing the effective pressure, thus facilitating the nucleation of bubbles of a stable phase. The effect is particularly pronounced in the vicinity of a (weak) first-order phase transition. We use the holographic correspondence to study cavitation in a strongly coupled planar cascading gauge theory plasma close to the confinement/deconfinement phase transition. While in this particular model the shift of the deconfinement temperature due to cavitation does not exceed 5%, we speculate that cavitation might be important near the QCD critical point.

  17. High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Y.

    A frequency tunable terahertz heterodynespectrometer, based on a third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator, has been demonstrated by measuring molecular spectral lines of methanol ...

  18. Cascading Tree Sheets and recombinant HTML: Better encapsulation and retargeting of web content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, Edward Oscar

    Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) took a valuable step towards separating web content from presentation. But HTML pages still contain large amounts of "design scaffolding" needed to hierarchically layer content for proper ...

  19. Ladder Polyether Synthesis via Epoxide-Opening Cascades Directed by a Disappearing Trimethylsilyl Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffron, Timothy P.

    Epoxide-opening cascades offer the potential to construct complex polyether natural products expeditiously and in a manner that emulates the biogenesis proposed for these compounds. Herein we provide a full account of our ...

  20. Atomistic Modeling of Displacement Cascades in La2Zr2O7 Pyrochlore...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    static calculations. Citation: Chartier A, C Meis, JP Crocombette, LR Corrales, and WJ Weber.2003."Atomistic Modeling of Displacement Cascades in La2Zr2O7 Pyrochlore."Physical...

  1. Total Synthesis of ent-Dioxepandehydrothyrsiferol via a Bromonium-Initiated Epoxide-Opening Cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanuwidjaja, Jessica

    In the first total synthesis of ent-dioxepandehydrothyrsiferol, the signature trans-anti-trans 7,7,6-fused tricyclic polyether framework was constructed in a single bromonium-initiated epoxide-opening cascade that incorporates ...

  2. Pollution Reduction System that Generates Profits (Cascading Closed Loop Cycle - CCLC) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stinger, D. H.; Mian, F.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WOW Energy Inc. (WOW) recently received notification from the patent office that its patent claims for the Cascading Closed Loop Cycle (CCLC) were valid for converting waste heat to electricity in a process using standard off-the-shelf components...

  3. atmospheric neutrino-induced cascades: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in GET-UP gave me hope for the future of America and the academy; Tina Collins, Clay Bennet, Elise 52 The horizontal space-time scaling and cascade structure of the atmosphere...

  4. Heat Flow From Four New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades, Oregon, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Heat Flow From Four New Research...

  5. A cascaded laser acceleration scheme for the generation of spectrally controlled proton beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfotenhauer, Sebastian Michael

    We present a novel, cascaded acceleration scheme for the generation of spectrally controlled ion beams using a laser-based accelerator in a 'double-stage' setup. An MeV proton beam produced during a relativistic laser–plasma ...

  6. Advanced fault diagnosis techniques and their role in preventing cascading blackouts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Nan

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation studied new transmission line fault diagnosis approaches using new technologies and proposed a scheme to apply those techniques in preventing and mitigating cascading blackouts. The new fault diagnosis approaches are based on two...

  7. Efficient THz lasers and broadband amplifiers based on quantum cascade gain media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Xiaowei, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important applications for Terahertz (THz) quantum cascade (QC) lasers is to provide compact and powerful frequency-stabilized solid-state sources as local oscillators in heterodyne receivers for astronomical ...

  8. The prediction of airloads on a cascade of staggered blades in oscillatory compressible subsonic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sovinski, John Robert

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE PREDICTION OF AIRLOADS ON A CASCADE OF STAGGERED BLADES IN OSCILLATORY COMPRESSIBLE SUBSONIC FLOW A Thesis by JOHN ROBERT SOVINSKI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of. the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1975 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering THE PREDICTION OF AIRLOADS ON A CASCADE OF STAGGERED BLADES IN OSCILLATORY COMPRESSIBLE SUBSONIC FLOW A Thesis by JOHN ROBERT SOVINSKI Approved as to style and content by...

  9. The Joint Cascade of Energy and Helicity in Three-Dimensional Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiaoning Chen; Shiyi Chen; Gregory L. Eyink

    2002-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional (3D) turbulence has both energy and helicity as inviscid constants of motion. In contrast to two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, where a second inviscid invariant--the enstrophy--blocks the energy cascade to small scales, in 3D there is a joint cascade of both energy and helicity simultaneously to small scales. The basic cancellation mechanism which permits a joint cascade of energy and helicity is illuminated by means of the helical decomposition of the velocity into positively and negatively polarized waves. This decomposition is employed in the present study both theoretically and also in a numerical simulation of homogeneous and isotropic 3D turbulence. It is shown that the transfer of energy to small scales produces a tremendous growth of helicity separately in the + and - helical modes at high wavenumbers, diverging in the limit of infinite Reynolds number. However, because of a tendency to restore reflection invariance at small scales, the net helicity from both modes remains finite in that limit. The net helicity flux is shown to be constant all the way up to the Kolmogorov wavenumber: there is no shorter inertial-range for helicity cascade than for energy cascade. The transfer of energy and helicity between + and - modes, which permits the joint cascade, is shown to be due to two distinct physical processes, advection and vortex stretching.

  10. Beam energy scan using a viscous hydro+cascade model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karpenko, Iu A; Huovinen, P; Petersen, H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the experimental program at BNL RHIC, we perform a similar "energy scan" using 3+1D viscous hydrodynamics coupled to the UrQMD hadron cascade, and study the collision energy dependence of pion and kaon rapidity distributions and $m_T$-spectra, as well as charged hadron elliptic flow. To this aim the equation of state for finite baryon density from a Chiral model coupled to the Polyakov loop is employed for hydrodynamic stage. 3D initial conditions from UrQMD are used to study gradual deviation from boost-invariant scaling flow. We find that the inclusion of shear viscosity in the hydrodynamic stage of evolution consistently improves the description of the data for Pb-Pb collisions at CERN SPS, as well as of the elliptic flow measurements for Au-Au collisions in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at BNL RHIC. The suggested value of shear viscosity is $\\eta/s\\ge0.2$ for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=6.3\\dots39$ GeV.

  11. An introduction to technetium in the gaseous diffusion cascades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, D.W.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioisotope technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) was introduced into the gaseous diffusion plants (GDP) as a contaminant in uranium that had been reprocessed from spent nuclear reactor fuel. {sup 99}Tc is a product of the nuclear fission of uranium-235 ({sup 235}U). The significantly higher emitted radioactivity of {sup 99}Tc generates concern in the enrichment complex and warrants increased attention (1) to the control of all site emissions, (2) to worker exposures and contamination control when process equipment requires disassembly and decontamination, and (3) to product purity when the enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) product is marketed to the private sector. A total of 101,268 metric tons of RU ({approximately}96% of the total) was fed at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) between FY1953 and FY1976. An additional 5600 metric tons of RU from the government reactors were fed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), plus an approximate 500 tons of foreign reactor returns. Only a small amount of RU was fed directly at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The slightly enriched PGDP product was then fed to either the ORGDP or PORTS cascades for final enrichment. Bailey estimated in 1988 that of the 606 kg of Tc received at PGDP from RU, 121 kg was subsequently re-fed to ORGDP and 85 kg re-fed to PORTS.

  12. Exploring ?{sub ?}??{sub s} mixing with cascade events in DeepCore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esmaili, Arman; Peres, O.L.G. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin – UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Halzen, Francis, E-mail: aesmaili@ifi.unicamp.br, E-mail: halzen@icecube.wisc.edu, E-mail: orlando@ifi.unicamp.br [Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric neutrino data collected by the IceCube experiment and its low-energy extension DeepCore provide a unique opportunity to probe the neutrino sector of the Standard Model. In the low energy range the experiment have observed neutrino oscillations, and the high energy data are especially sensitive to signatures of new physics in the neutrino sector. In this context, we previously demonstrated the unmatched potential of the experiment to reveal the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The studies are routinely performed in the simplest 3+1 model concentrating on disappearance of muon neutrinos of TeV energy as a result of their mixing with a sterile neutrino. We here extend this analysis to include cascade events that are secondary electromagnetic and hadronic showers produced by neutrinos of all flavors. We find that it is possible to probe the complete parameter space of 3+1 model, including the poorly constrained mixing of the sterile neutrino to tau neutrinos. We show that ?{sub ?}??{sub s} mixing results into a unique signature in the data that will allow IceCube to obtain constraints well below the current upper limits.

  13. Early Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Reducing Radiotherapy Side Effects: Early Results of a Randomized Trial in Oropharyngeal and Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teguh, David N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Levendag, Peter C., E-mail: p.levendag@erasmusmc.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Noever, Inge; Voet, Peter; Est, Henrie van der; Rooij, Peter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dumans, Antoine G. [Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boer, Maarten F. de [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Huls, Michiel van der; Sterk, Wouter [Institute for Hyperbaric Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Schmitz, Paul [Department of Biostatistics of Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Comparison of quality of life (QoL) and side effects in a randomized trial for early hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: From 2006, 19 patients with tumor originating from the tonsillar fossa and/or soft palate (15), base of tongue (1), and nasopharynx (3) were randomized to receive HBOT or not. HBOT consisted of 30 sessions at 2.5 ATA (15 msw) with oxygen breathing for 90 min daily, 5 days per week, applied shortly after the RT treatment was completed. As of 2005, all patients received validated questionnaires (i.e., the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ Head and Neck Cancer Module (H and N35), Performance Status Scale): before treatment; at the start of RT treatment; after 46 Gy; at the end of RT treatment; and 2, 4, and 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after follow-up. Results: On all QoL items, better scores were obtained in patients treated with hyperbaric oxygen. The difference between HBOT vs. non-HBOT was significant for all parameters: EORTC H and N35 Swallowing (p = 0.011), EORTC H and N35 Dry Mouth (p = 0.009), EORTC H and N35, Sticky Saliva (p = 0.01), PSS Eating in Public (p = 0.027), and Pain in Mouth (visual analogue scale; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Patients randomized for receiving hyperbaric oxygen after the RT had better QoL scores for swallowing, sticky saliva, xerostomia, and pain in mouth.

  14. This document is the result of a major interdisciplinary effort to synthesize our understanding of the cumulative watershed effects of fuel management. This

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    understanding of the cumulative watershed effects of fuel management. This document is the product of more thanForeword This document is the result of a major interdisciplinary effort to synthesize our topics include overviews of the effects of fuel management on both terrestrial and aquatic watershed

  15. Evaluating the learning effectiveness of using simulations in software project management education: results from a twice replicated experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    Evaluating the learning effectiveness of using simulations in software project management education replicated experiment that evaluates the learning effectiveness of using a process simulation model a System Dynamics simulation model, the control group used the well-known COCOMO model as a predictive tool

  16. Cascade population of levels and probable phase transition in vicinity of the excitation energy ~0.5Bn of heavy nucleus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Bondarenko; J. Honzatko; V. A. Khitrov; Li Chol; Yu. E. Loginov; S. Eh. Malyutenkova; A. M. Sukhovoj; I. Tomandl

    2004-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    From the comparison of absolute intensities of the two-step gamma-cascades and known intensities of their primary and secondary transitions, the cascade and total population of about ~100 levels of 181Hf and 184,185,187W excited in thermal neutron capture was determined. These experimental results and intensities of two-step cascades to the low-lying levels of mentioned nuclei were reproduced in calculation using level densities with clearly expressed step-like structure. Radiative strength functions of the primary transitions following gamma-decay of these compound nuclei to the levels in the region of pointed structure are considerably enhanced. Moreover, population of levels below 3 MeV can be reproduced only with accounting for local and rather considerable increase in radiative strength functions of the secondary transitions to the levels in vicinities of break points in energy dependence of level density and significant decrease of that to lower-lying states. Simultaneous change in both level density and strength functions in the same excitation region of a nucleus corresponds to the definition of the second-order phase transition.

  17. Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zachritz, W.H., II; Polka, R.; Schoenmackers

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A demonstration high rate aquaculture production system utilizing a cascaded geothermal resource was designed, constructed and operated to fulfill the objectives of this project. Analysis of the energy and water balances for the system indicated that the addition of an Aquaculture Facility expanded the use of the existing resource. This expanded use in no way affected the up- stream processes. Analysis of the system`s energy and water requirements indicated that the present resource was under-utilized and could be expanded. Energy requirements appeared more limiting than water use, but the existing system could be expanded to a culture volume of 72,000 gal. This system would have a potential production capacity of 93,600 lb/yr with a potential market value of $280,00/yr. Based on the results of this study, the heat remaining in the geothermal fluid from one square foot of operating greenhouse is sufficient to support six gallons of culture water for a high density aquaculture facility. Thus, the over 1.5M ft{sup 2} of existing greenhouse space in New Mexico, has the potential to create an aquaculture industry of nearly 9M gal. This translates to an annual production potential of 11.7M lb with a market value of $35.lM.

  18. Cascades of Multi-headed Chimera States for Coupled Phase Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri L. Maistrenko; Anna Vasylenko; Oleksandr Sudakov; Roman Levchenko; Volodymyr L. Maistrenko

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Chimera state is a recently discovered dynamical phenomenon in arrays of nonlocally coupled oscillators, that displays a self-organized spatial pattern of co-existing coherence and incoherence. We discuss the appearance of the chimera states in networks of phase oscillators with attractive and with repulsive interactions, i.e. when the coupling respectively favors synchronization or works against it. By systematically analyzing the dependence of the spatiotemporal dynamics on the level of coupling attractivity/repulsivity and the range of coupling, we uncover that different types of chimera states exist in wide domains of the parameter space as cascades of the states with increasing number of intervals of irregularity, so-called chimera's heads. We report three scenarios for the chimera birth: 1) via saddle-node bifurcation on a resonant invariant circle, also known as SNIC or SNIPER, 2) via blue-sky catastrophe, when two periodic orbits, stable and saddle, approach each other creating a saddle-node periodic orbit, and 3) via homoclinic transition with complex multistable dynamics including an "eight-like" limit cycle resulting eventually in a chimera state.

  19. CASCADES: An Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keillor, M. E.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Erikson, L. E.; Fast, J. E.; Glasgow, B. D.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Miley, H. S.; Myers, A. W.; Seifert, A.; Stavenger, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    State-of-the-art treaty verification techniques, environmental surveillance, and physics experiments require increased sensitivity for detecting and quantifying radionuclides of interest. This can be accomplished with new detector designs that establish high detection efficiency and reduced instrument backgrounds. Current research is producing an intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive {gamma}--{gamma} coincidence detection. The system design is optimized to accommodate filter paper samples, e.g. samples collected by the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer. The system will provide high sensitivity for weak collections on atmospheric filter samples (e.g.<10{sup 5} fissions) as well as offering the potential to gather additional information from higher activity filters using gamma cascade coincidence detection. The first of two HPGe crystal arrays in ultra-low-background vacuum cryostats has been assembled, with the second in progress. Traditional methods for constructing ultra-low-background detectors were followed, including use of materials known to be low in radioactive contaminants, use of ultra-pure reagents, and clean room assembly. The cryostat is constructed mainly from copper electroformed into near-final geometry at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Details of the detector assembly and initial background and spectroscopic measurement results are presented; also a description of the custom analysis package used by this project is given.

  20. CASCADES: An Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keillor, Martin E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Erikson, Luke E.; Fast, James E.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Seifert, Allen; Stavenger, Timothy J.

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    State-of-the-art treaty verification techniques, environmental surveillance, and physics experiments require increased sensitivity for detecting and quantifying radionuclides of interest. This can be accomplished with new detector designs that establish high detection efficiency and reduced instrument backgrounds. Current research is producing an intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence detection. The system design is optimized to accommodate filter paper samples, e.g., samples collected by the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer. The system will provide high sensitivity for weak collections on atmospheric filter samples (e.g., < 10{sup 5} fissions), as well as offering the potential to gather additional information from higher activity filters using gamma cascade coincidence detection. The first of two HPGe crystal arrays in ultra-low-background vacuum cryostats has been assembled, with the second in progress. Traditional methods for constructing ultra-low-background detectors were followed, including use of materials known to be low in radioactive contaminants, use of ultra-pure reagents, and clean room assembly. The cryostat is constructed mainly from copper electroformed into near-final geometry at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Details of the detector assembly and initial background and spectroscopic measurement results are presented; also a description of the custom analysis package used by this project is given.

  1. Wavelet-based cascade model for intermittent structure in terrestrial environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, D Keith; Vecherin, Sergey N

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wavelet-like model for distributions of objects in natural and man-made terrestrial environments is developed. The model is constructed in a self-similar fashion, with the sizes, amplitudes, and numbers of objects occurring at a constant ratios between parent and offspring objects. The objects are randomly distributed in space according to a Poisson process. Fractal supports and a cascade model are used to organize objects intermittently in space. In its basic form, the model is for continuously varying random fields, although a level-cut is introduced to model two-phase random media. The report begins with a description of relevant concepts from fractal theory, and then progresses through static (time-invariant), steady-state, and non-steady models. The results can be applied to such diverse phenomena as turbulence, geologic distributions, urban buildings, vegetation, and arctic ice floes. The model can be used as a basis for synthesizing realistic terrestrial scenes, and for predicting the performance of ...

  2. Cascade Failures from Distributed Generation in Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scala, Antonio; Scoglio, Caterina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power grids are nowadays experiencing a transformation due to the introduction of Distributed Generation based on Renewable Sources. At difference with classical Distributed Generation, where local power sources mitigate anomalous user consumption peaks, Renewable Sources introduce in the grid intrinsically erratic power inputs. By introducing a simple schematic (but realistic) model for power grids with stochastic distributed generation, we study the effects of erratic sources on the robustness of several IEEE power grid test networks with up to 2000 buses. We find that increasing the penetration of erratic sources causes the grid to fail with a sharp transition. We compare such results with the case of failures caused by the natural increasing power demand.

  3. First search for extraterrestrial neutrino-induced cascades with IceCube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Kiryluk, Joanna

    2009-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the first search for extraterrestrial neutrino-induced cascades in IceCube.The analyzed data were collected in the year 2007 when 22 detector strings were installed and operated. We will discuss the analysis methods used to reconstruct cascades and to suppress backgrounds. Simulated neutrino signal events with a E-2 energy spectrum, which pass the background rejection criteria, are reconstructed with a resolution Delta(log E) ~;; 0.27 in the energy range from ~;; 20 TeV to a few PeV. We present the range of the diffuse flux of extra-terrestrial neutrinos in the cascade channel in IceCube within which we expect to be able to put a limit.

  4. Environmental effects of dredging. Interim results: The relationship between sediment organic carbon and biological uptake of contaminants. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brannon, J.M.; Price, C.B.; Reilly, F.J.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical note describes testing conducted to determine the partitioning of contaminants between sediment organic carbon and sediment interstitial water, assess the effects of sediment organic carbon upon bioaccumulation of a selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) by two organisms, and investigate the accuracy of the apparent preference factor as a predictive tool by comparing predicted uptake with actual uptake.

  5. Femtosecond measurements of near-infrared pulse induced mid-infrared transmission modulation of quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hong; Liu, Sheng [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Center for Advanced Studied in Photonics Research (CASPR), UMBC, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Lalanne, Elaine [Center for Advanced Studied in Photonics Research (CASPR), UMBC, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Guo, Dingkai; Chen, Xing; Choa, Fow-Sen [Center for Advanced Studied in Photonics Research (CASPR), UMBC, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Department of CSEE, UMBC, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Wang, Xiaojun [AdTech Optics, Inc., City of Industry, California 91748 (United States); Johnson, Anthony M., E-mail: amj@umbc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Center for Advanced Studied in Photonics Research (CASPR), UMBC, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Department of CSEE, UMBC, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States)

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We temporally resolved the ultrafast mid-infrared transmission modulation of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using a near-infrared pump/mid-infrared probe technique at room temperature. Two different femtosecond wavelength pumps were used with photon energy above and below the quantum well (QW) bandgap. The shorter wavelength pump modulates the mid-infrared probe transmission through interband transition assisted mechanisms, resulting in a high transmission modulation depth and several nanoseconds recovery lifetime. In contrast, pumping with a photon energy below the QW bandgap induces a smaller transmission modulation depth but much faster (several picoseconds) recovery lifetime, attributed to intersubband transition assisted mechanisms. The latter ultrafast modulation (>60?GHz) could provide a potential way to realize fast QCL based free space optical communication.

  6. Laser frequency stabilization to highly excited state transitions using electromagnetically induced transparency in a cascade system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. P. Abel; A. K. Mohapatra; M. G. Bason; J. D. Pritchard; K. J. Weatherill; U. Raitzsch; C. S. Adams

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate laser frequency stabilization to excited state transitions using cascade electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Using a room temperature Rb vapor cell as a reference, we stabilize a first diode laser to the D2 transition and a second laser to a transition from the intermediate state to a Rydberg state with principal quantum number n=19 - 70. A combined laser linewidth of 280 kHz over a 0.1 ms time period is achieved. This method may be applied generally to any cascade system and allows laser stabilization to an atomic reference in the absence of strong optical transitions.

  7. The Cascades Proposal for the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. C. Haxton; J. F. Wilkerson

    2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the options for creating a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) is a site in the Mt. Stuart batholith, a granodiorite and tonalite rock mass in the Cascade mountain range in Washington State. The batholith's 100-year history in hard-rock tunneling includes the construction of the longest and deepest tunnels in the U.S., the parallel Cascade and Pioneer tunnels. The laboratory plan would utilize these two tunnels to produce a laboratory that has many desirable features, including dedicated, clean, horizontal access, container-module transport, and low operations costs. Various aspects of the site help to reduce geotechnical, environmental, and safety risks.

  8. ARRA: Reconfiguring Power Systems to Minimize Cascading Failures - Models and Algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian [Iowa State University] [Iowa State University; Hiskens, Ian [Unversity of Michigan] [Unversity of Michigan; Linderoth, Jeffrey [University of Wisconsin-Madison] [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Wright, Stephen [University of Wisconsin-Madison] [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Building on models of electrical power systems, and on powerful mathematical techniques including optimization, model predictive control, and simluation, this project investigated important issues related to the stable operation of power grids. A topic of particular focus was cascading failures of the power grid: simulation, quantification, mitigation, and control. We also analyzed the vulnerability of networks to component failures, and the design of networks that are responsive to and robust to such failures. Numerous other related topics were investigated, including energy hubs and cascading stall of induction machines

  9. First and second order approximations to stage numbers in multicomponent enrichment cascades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scopatz, A. [University of Chicago, 5754 S. Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL, 60637 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes closed form, Taylor series approximations to the number product stages in a multicomponent enrichment cascade. Such closed form approximations are required when a symbolic, rather than a numeric, algorithm is used to compute the optimal cascade state. Both first and second order approximations were implemented. The first order solution was found to be grossly incorrect, having the wrong functional form over the entire domain. On the other hand, the second order solution shows excellent agreement with the 'true' solution over the domain of interest. An implementation of the symbolic, second order solver is available in the free and open source PyNE library. (authors)

  10. K-Means+ID3: A Novel Method for Supervised Anomaly Detection by Cascading K-Means

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phoha, Vir V.

    K-Means+ID3: A Novel Method for Supervised Anomaly Detection by Cascading K-Means Clustering and ID. Balagani Abstract--In this paper, we present "K-Means+ID3," a method to cascade k-Means clustering network, an active electronic circuit, and a mechanical mass- beam system. The k-Means clustering method

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 9, NO. 3, MARCH 2014 451 Integrated Security Analysis on Cascading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Haibo

    affecting cascading failures, the electrical power infrastructure is chosen as a study case case of cascading failure threats has been witnessed in power infrastructure, where blackouts, or large on an extended topological metric, we proposed an approach to examine the vulnerability of a specific type

  12. hal-00135292,version1-7Mar2007 Photovoltaic Probe of Cavity Polaritons in a Quantum Cascade Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    hal-00135292,version1-7Mar2007 Photovoltaic Probe of Cavity Polaritons in a Quantum Cascade and a photonic mode of a planar microcavity has been detected by angle-resolved photovoltaic measure- ments polaritons in angle-resolved photovoltaic measurements, performed on a quan- tum cascade (QC) structure

  13. Computational study of radiation damage and impurity effects in iron based alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galloway, Graham

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics techniques are used to explore metals at an atomic level. The focus of the studies is the effects of irradiation on a metallic system. Ion surface bombardment effects, bulk cascades and interaction ...

  14. Extinction cascade: biological consequence of nuclear war/winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughan, G.L.; Pimm, S.; Fields, D.E.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current estimates suggest that direct human casualties in a full-scale nuclear war will exceed one billion people, largely centered around urban and military/industrial centers of the northern hemisphere. The sheer magnitude of potential for immediate human death and suffering in nuclear attack and retaliatory response has served as an effective deterrent for >40 yr. It has become apparent, however, that short-term human mortality and mobidity may not be the factors of greatest concern. It is probable that a larger impact may be attributable to long-term environmental degradation. The general consensus is that a large nuclear war would produce enough smoke to alter and darken the atmosphere so that most of the northern hemisphere would experience reduced temperature, low light levels, altered rainfall patterns, and toxic smog/rain as well as significant exposure to radioactive fallout. Analysis of the environmental changes associated with early nuclear winter scenarios showed a potential for the extinction of a large portion of the earth's plants and animals. Estimates of nuclear winter consequences contain considerable uncertainty. The considerable uncertainties contained in nuclear winter predictions are mentioned. Considering these uncertainties, it is difficult to make definitive statements about the survival of any individual species. It is not, however, difficult to predict that, even with the mitigated nuclear autumn scenario, a mass extinction of biological species, floral and faunal, will result from large-scale nuclear war.

  15. Recent experimental results on the beam-beam effects in storage rings and an attempt of their interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheifets, S.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The latest available experimental results on the luminosity, the space charge parameters, and the beam blowup as functions of particle energy and beam current are reviewed. The comparison with the phenomenological diffusion theory is done and useful scaling laws are derived. Some implications for anti p p storage rings are discussed.

  16. Effects of interactive transport and scavenging of smoke on the calculated temperature change resulting from large amounts of smoke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacCracken, M.C.; Walton, J.J.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several theoretical studies with numerical models have shown that substantial land-surface cooling can occur if very large amounts (approx. 100 x 10/sup 12/ = 100 Tg) of highly absorbing sooty-particles are injected high into the troposphere and spread instantaneously around the hemisphere (Turco et al., 1983; Covey et al. 1984; MacCracken, 1983). A preliminary step beyond these initial calculations has been made by interactively coupling the two-layer, three-dimensional Oregon State University general circulation model (GCM) to the three-dimensional GRANTOUR trace species model developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GCM simulation includes treatment of tropospheric dynamics and thermodynamics and the effect of soot on solar radiation. The GRANTOUR simulation includes treatment of particle transport and scavenging by precipitation, although no satisfactory verification of the scavenging algorithm has yet been possible. We have considered the climatic effects of 150 Tg (i.e., the 100 Mt urban war scenario from Turco et al., 1983) and of 15 Tg of smoke from urban fires over North America and Eurasia. Starting with a perpetual July atmospheric situation, calculation of the climatic effects as 150 Tg of smoke are spread slowly by the winds, rather than instantaneously dispersed as in previous calculations, leads to some regions of greater cooling under the denser parts of the smoke plumes and some regions of less severe cooling where smoke arrival is delayed. As for the previous calculations, mid-latitude decreases of land surface air temperature for the 150 Tg injection are greater than 15/sup 0/C after a few weeks. For a 15 Tg injection, however, cooling of more than several degrees centigrade only occurs in limited regions under the dense smoke plumes present in the first few weeks after the injection. 10 references, 9 figures.

  17. Results of Large-Scale Testing on Effects of Anti-Foam Agent on Gas Retention and Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Arm, Stuart T.; Butcher, Mark G.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Park, Walter R.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Su, Yin-Fong; Wend, Christopher F.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Cooley, Scott K.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Christian D.; Reid, Larry D.; Smith, Harry D.; Wells, Beric E.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2008-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection’s Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste treatment process in the pretreatment facility will mix both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries in large process tanks. Process vessels mixing non-Newtonian slurries will use pulse jet mixers (PJMs), air sparging, and recirculation pumps. An anti-foam agent (AFA) will be added to the process streams to prevent surface foaming, but may also increase gas holdup and retention within the slurry. The work described in this report addresses gas retention and release in simulants with AFA through testing and analytical studies. Gas holdup and release tests were conducted in a 1/4-scale replica of the lag storage vessel operated in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Applied Process Engineering Laboratory using a kaolin/bentonite clay and AZ-101 HLW chemical simulant with non-Newtonian rheological properties representative of actual waste slurries. Additional tests were performed in a small-scale mixing vessel in the PNNL Physical Sciences Building using liquids and slurries representing major components of typical WTP waste streams. Analytical studies were directed at discovering how the effect of AFA might depend on gas composition and predicting the effect of AFA on gas retention and release in the full-scale plant, including the effects of mass transfer to the sparge air. The work at PNNL was part of a larger program that included tests conducted at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is being reported separately. SRNL conducted gas holdup tests in a small-scale mixing vessel using the AZ-101 high-level waste (HLW) chemical simulant to investigate the effects of different AFAs, their components, and of adding noble metals. Full-scale, single-sparger mass transfer tests were also conducted at SRNL in water and AZ-101 HLW simulant to provide data for PNNL’s WTP gas retention and release modeling.

  18. Effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive sources on radiation intensity in beta-voltaic nuclear battery system: A preliminary result

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basar, Khairul, E-mail: khbasar@fi.itb.ac.id; Riupassa, Robi D., E-mail: khbasar@fi.itb.ac.id; Bachtiar, Reza, E-mail: khbasar@fi.itb.ac.id; Badrianto, Muldani D., E-mail: khbasar@fi.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that one main problem in the application of beta-voltaic nuclear battery system is its low efficiency. The efficiency of the beta-voltaic nuclear battery system mainly depends on three aspects: source of radioactive radiation, interface between materials in the system and process of converting electron-hole pair to electric current in the semiconductor material. In this work, we show the effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive sources on radiation intensity of beta-voltaic nuclear battery system.

  19. Atmospheric effects of soot resulting from a nuclear conflict. Technical report, 11 June 1984-11 February 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endal, A.S.

    1985-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of a sunlight-absorbing, high-altitude cloud layer on meteorological conditions near the earth's surface is investigated. If the soot remains in the atmosphere for a few weeks or longer, reduction of sunlight penetrating to the ground can lead to cooling of the lower troposphere. Atmospheric response to the sunlight reduction is simulated using a two-dimensional energy-balance model with diffusive energy transport. Severity and duration of the surface cooling are computed as functions of: (1) the time of year at which the soot is injected; (2) the latitudinal distribution of the soot layer; (3) the infrared absorptance of the soot particles,; (4) the rate of soot-removal (scavengaging) Global climate models assume that the smoke from urban fires is spread uniformly on synoptic scales within a few days after initial injection, and that microscale and mesocale processes do not break up or remove the soot layer. Global climate models assume that the smoke from urban fires is spread uniformly on synoptic scales within a few days after initial injection, and that microscale and mesocale processes do not break up or remove the soot layer. A heuristic analysis indicates that a horizontally uniform and optically thick soot layer is thermally unstable and will break up into long vertical filaments. This process may significantly change the mean optical properties of the cloud layer and thus alter the synoptic and planetary scale effects of the soot injection.

  20. We use the OPA complex systems model of the power transmission system to investigate the effect of a series of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    generation dispatch and represents blackouts caused by randomly triggered cascading line outages the robustness of the Electric Power Transmission systems, the understanding of the system wide effect of various, cascading line outages, and the increases in system capacity caused by the engineering responses

  1. Towards Holistic Scene Understanding: Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    from the dataset; (b) Ground truth; (c) Result obtained using CCM; (d) Result obtained using the proposed FE-CCM. (Best viewed in color) 1 #12;(a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 2: (a) Image from the dataset; (b) Ground truth; (c) Result obtained using CCM; (d) Result obtained using the proposed FE-CCM. (Best viewed

  2. Thermionic/AMTEC cascade converter concept for high-efficiency space power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagan, T.H. van; Smith, J.N. Jr. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Schuller, M. [PL/VTP, Kirtland AFB, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents trade studies that address the use of the thermionic/AMTEC cell--a cascaded, high-efficiency, static power conversion concept that appears well-suited to space power applications. Both the thermionic and AMTEC power conversion approaches have been shown to be promising candidates for space power. Thermionics offers system compactness via modest efficiency at high heat rejection temperatures, and AMTEC offers high efficiency at modest heat rejection temperature. From a thermal viewpoint the two are ideally suited for cascaded power conversion: thermionic heat rejection and AMTEC heat source temperatures are essentially the same. In addition to realizing conversion efficiencies potentially as high as 35--40%, such a cascade offers the following perceived benefits: survivability; simplicity; technology readiness; and technology growth. Mechanical approaches and thermal/electric matching criteria for integrating thermionics and AMTEC into a single conversion device are described. Focusing primarily on solar thermal space power applications, parametric trends are presented to show the performance and cost potential that should be achievable with present-day technology in cascaded thermionic/AMTEC systems.

  3. Method of making cascaded die mountings with springs-loaded contact-bond options

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Adams, Donald J. (Knoxville, TN); Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN); Coomer, Chester (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  4. Cascaded die mountings with spring-loaded contact-bond options

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  5. An advanced control method for cascaded SMPS to reduce the energy storage requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    An advanced control method for cascaded SMPS to reduce the energy storage requirements Damien Frost supplies con- tain large energy storage components that filter the pulsating power that is created by an AC strategies to reduce the size of those energy storage components to reduce the overall size and cost

  6. Optimized Cascade of Classifiers for People Detection Using Covariance Malik SOUDED1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for many applications like people track- ing especially in crowded scenes has motivated many researchesOptimized Cascade of Classifiers for People Detection Using Covariance Features Malik SOUDED1.Souded@digitalbarriers.com Keywords: People detection, Covariance descriptor, LogitBoost. Abstract: People detection on static images

  7. Analytic target cascading in simulation-based building design R. Choudharya,*, A. Malkawib

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Analytic target cascading in simulation-based building design R. Choudharya,*, A. Malkawib , P-criteria building performance problems are also discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Simulation Building simulation's central concern is design performance. The field of building simulation is dedicated

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Damage Cascade Formation in Ion Bombarded Solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Di

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    .......................................................................................................... 10 CHAPTER III MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF DEFECT……………... CREATION DUE TO INTERACTIONS OF DAMAGE CASCADE IN SELF ION…… IRRADIATED SI………….…….………........................................................................12 3... ....................................................................................... 14 CHAPTER IV USING CLUSTER ION BOMBARDMENT TO DETERMINE………… AMORPHIZATION MODE..…………………………………………...........................26 4.1 Introduction of Irradiated Amorphization ........................................................... 26 4...

  9. Phase 1 Feasibility Study, Canby Cascaded Geothermal Project, April 2, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrick, Dale E [CanbyGeo, LLC] [CanbyGeo, LLC

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A small community in Northern California is attempting to use a local geothermal resource to generate electrical power and cascade residual energy to an existing geothermal district heating system, greenhouse, and future fish farm and subsequent reinjection into the geothermal aquifer, creating a net-zero energy community, not including transportation.

  10. THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES --WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES --WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS John Morud that a subsystem is influenced only by its nabor subsystems. An example of such a process is a distillation column in high purity distillation columns; in fact, the magnitude of these time constants may increase

  11. THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS John Morud that a subsystem is in uenced only by its nabor subsystems. An example of such a process is a distillation column in high purity distillation columns; in fact, the magnitude of these time constants may increase

  12. Functional analysis of oxidative stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheen, Jen

    -changing environment. A common plant response to different abiotic and biotic stresses, such as heat, chillingFunctional analysis of oxidative stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade for review December 1, 1999) Despite the recognition of H2O2 as a central signaling molecule in stress

  13. Neural mechanisms of saccade target selection: gated accumulator model of the visualmotor cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schall, Jeffrey D.

    Neural mechanisms of saccade target selection: gated accumulator model of the visual­motor cascade, Vanderbilt University, PMB 407817, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37240-7817, USA Keywords: accumulator neurons in the frontal eye field as evidence for stimulus salience that is accumulated in a network

  14. 11-level Cascaded H-bridge Grid-tied Inverter Interface with Solar Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    11-level Cascaded H-bridge Grid-tied Inverter Interface with Solar Panels Faete Filho, Yue Cao multilevel DC-AC grid-tied inverter. Each inverter bridge is connected to a 200 W solar panel. OPAL-RT lab match. A novel SPWM scheme is proposed in this paper to be used with the solar panels that can account

  15. A COMBINED CASCADING SUBSPACE AND ADAPTIVE SIGNAL ENHANCEMENT METHOD FOR STEREOPHONIC NOISE REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cichocki, Andrzej

    reduction has been a topic of great interest in speech enhancement. One of the classical and most commonly a number of subspace based methods have also been developed for speech enhancement [5] - [8], littleA COMBINED CASCADING SUBSPACE AND ADAPTIVE SIGNAL ENHANCEMENT METHOD FOR STEREOPHONIC NOISE

  16. Observers for Nonlinear-Linear Cascade Systems Hvard Fjr Grip, Ali Saberi, and Tor A. Johansen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    Observers for Nonlinear-Linear Cascade Systems Håvard Fjær Grip, Ali Saberi, and Tor A. Johansen been Håvard Fjær Grip and Ali Saberi are with the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of Håvard Fjær Grip is supported by the Research Council of Norway. The work of Ali Saberi is partially

  17. On the Role of Power-Grid and Communication-System Interdependencies on Cascading Failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayat, Majeed M.

    the fact that today's power grids are reliable and the control and communication systems have been deployed involved in the modeling of interactions between interdependent systems, modeling the coupled powerOn the Role of Power-Grid and Communication- System Interdependencies on Cascading Failures Mahshid

  18. Global Tracking of Uncertain Nonlinear Cascaded Systems with Adaptive Internal Model1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sontag, Eduardo

    robust output regulation problem by dynamic state feedback control for the case where the exosystem regulation with uncertain exosystem by dynamic state feedback control. We have succeeded in developingGlobal Tracking of Uncertain Nonlinear Cascaded Systems with Adaptive Internal Model1 Zhiyong Chen

  19. Novel regulatory cascades controlling expression of nitrogen-fixation genes in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    in these environments. Moreover, Geobacter species show promise for harvesting electricity from waste organic matterNovel regulatory cascades controlling expression of nitrogen-fixation genes in Geobacter Geobacter species often play an important role in bioremediation of environments contaminated with metals

  20. Advanced atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion design: the staged cascading fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The distinctive features of the Staged Cascade Fluidized Bed Combustor (SCFBC) are: combustion is accomplished in two cascaded fluidized beds, with coal fed between the beds; sulfation occurs in two cascaded fluidized beds with the spent sorbent being reactivated between the beds; all heat exchange tubes are submerged in a series of cascaded fluidized beds to improve heat transfer efficiency; the lowest stage provides cooling of spent bed materials and preheating of incoming air; and all of the fluidized beds are shallow, roughly 4'' to 8'' expanded bed depth. The SCFBC does not require external convective section, economizer, air preheater, or spent solids cooling system, as does the AFBC. All the functions of those traditional components are performed within the SCFBC. The shallow beds and low pressure drop distributor plates of the SCFBC have cumulative pressure drop essentially equal to the pressure drop across the single deep bed of a conventional AFBC. Better fuel utilization is achieved in the SCFBC, which achieves a carbon burnout of 97.1% vs 95.0% for the AFBC. The SCFBC advantage is due to the staging of combustion in two beds. The thermal efficiency of the SCFBC is higher than that of the AFBC (85.4%) vs 31.65%). The SCFBC accomplishes the specified SO removal with a significantly reduced amount of limestone adsorbent. The SCFBC has several other technical advantages over the AFBC which are mentioned. 11 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. 2013 China-Korea Relay Protection Forum Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhe

    2013 China-Korea Relay Protection Forum 1 Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events from short circuits. A wide area protection scheme is proposed based on this improved im- pedance relay area protection 1 Introduction In many past blackouts, zone 3 impedance relay played an important role

  2. Single-Phase Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with Nonactive Power Compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    presents a single-phase cascaded H- bridge multilevel inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV research areas. Photovoltaic (PV) systems are ideally distributed generation (DG) units, and they offer this topology in grid-connected PV applications [1-3]. The multilevel inverter also presents the advantages

  3. Wave Turbulence in Superfluid 4 Energy Cascades, Rogue Waves & Kinetic Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Outline Wave Turbulence in Superfluid 4 He: Energy Cascades, Rogue Waves & Kinetic Phenomena Conference, Chernogolovka, 3 August 2009 McClintock Efimov Ganshin Kolmakov Mezhov-Deglin Wave Turbulence in Superfluid 4 He #12;Outline Outline 1 Introduction Motivation 2 Modelling wave turbulence Need for models

  4. The `benchmark glacier' concept does it work? Lessons from the North Cascade Range, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fountain, Andrew G.

    The `benchmark glacier' concept ­ does it work? Lessons from the North Cascade Range, USA Andrew G glaciers were established in many alpine areas during the 1960s as part of the International Hydrological Decade to represent `typical' mass and energy processes on glaciers in different climatic regions around

  5. SansText: Classifying Temporal Topic Dynamics of Twitter Cascades Without Tweet Text

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    as well as more general topics in a collection of more than 2 million tweets from multiple countries] model that leverages statistics about a partially revealed cascade to determine the class of events, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela, over the past

  6. A Hybrid Energy System Using Cascaded H-bridge Converter , Zhong Du2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    A Hybrid Energy System Using Cascaded H-bridge Converter Hui Li1 , Zhong Du2 , Kaiyu Wang1 , Leon M proposes a hybrid energy system to integrate the variable-speed wind turbine, fuel cell, and battery using generation, storage, and transmission. The power from hybrid energy systems can be combined on the dc side

  7. Dense Water Cascading off the Continental Shelf 1 Shapiro_etal_JGR_04_manusc.doc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Georgy

    is a specific type of buoyancy driven current, in which dense water formed by cooling, evaporation or freezing. Estimates of observed down-slope transport rates in case studies accord with theory, which is thereby substantially validated. Typical values of cascading transport rates were in the range 0.5 ­ 1.6 m2 s-1 . We

  8. HARMONIC CASCADE FEL DESIGNS FOR LUX G. Penn, M. Reinsch, J. Wurtele

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    HARMONIC CASCADE FEL DESIGNS FOR LUX G. Penn, M. Reinsch, J. Wurtele , J.N. Corlett, W.M. Fawley, A stages of higher harmonic generation, seeded by a 200­250 nm laser of similar duration. This laser mod then produces ra- diation at a higher harmonic after entering a second, differ- ently tuned undulator. Repeated

  9. To appear in The Electricity Journal, Dec. 2003 Cascading Failures: Survival vs. Prevention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 To appear in The Electricity Journal, Dec. 2003 Cascading Failures: Survival vs. Prevention be taken to reduce the number of large-scale power losses due to failures of the generation and high sense incomplete, since it lacks the technical apparatus to test and verify its solutions. Without

  10. Extinction cascade: Biological consequence of nuclear war/winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughan, G.L.; Pimm, S.; Fields, D.E.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In very general terms, this report describes the effects on biological organisms of a nuclear war and the projected nuclear winter that would follow. (TEM)

  11. A widely tunable 10-?m quantum cascade laser phase-locked to a state-of-the-art mid-infrared reference for precision molecular spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sow, P. L. T.; Mejri, S.; Tokunaga, S. K.; Lopez, O.; Argence, B.; Chardonnet, C.; Darquié, B., E-mail: benoit.darquie@univ-paris13.fr [CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Goncharov, A.; Amy-Klein, A.; Daussy, C. [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the coherent phase-locking of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 10-?m to the secondary frequency standard of this spectral region, a CO{sub 2} laser stabilized on a saturated absorption line of OsO{sub 4}. The stability and accuracy of the standard are transferred to the QCL resulting in a line width of the order of 10?Hz, and leading to the narrowest QCL to date. The locked QCL is then used to perform absorption spectroscopy spanning 6?GHz of NH{sub 3} and methyltrioxorhenium, two species of interest for applications in precision measurements.

  12. Effective Use of Molecular Recognition in Gas Sensing: Results from Acoustic Wave and In-Situ FTIR Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenhofer, K,; Gopel, W.; Hierlemann, A.; Ricco, A.J.

    1998-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    To probe directly the analyte/film interactions that characterize molecular recognition in gas sensors, we recorded changes to the in-situ surface vibrational spectra of specifically fictionalized surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices concurrently with analyte exposure and SAW measurement of the extent of sorption. Fourier-lmnsform infrared external- reflectance spectra (FTIR-ERS) were collected from operating 97-MH2 SAW delay lines during exposure to a range of analytes as they interacted with thin-film coatings previously shown to be selective: cyclodextrins for chiral recognition, Ni-camphorates for Lewis bases such as pyridine and organophosphonates, and phthalocyanines for aromatic compounds. In most cases where specific chemical interactions-metal coordination, "cage" compound inclusion, or z stacking-were expected, analyte dosing caused distinctive changes in the IR spectr~ together with anomalously large SAW sensor responses. In contrast, control experiments involving the physisorption of the same analytes by conventional organic polymers did not cause similar changes in the IR spectra, and the SAW responses were smaller. For a given conventional polymer, the partition coefficients (or SAW sensor signals) roughly followed the analyte fraction of saturation vapor pressure. These SAW/FTIR results support earlier conclusions derived from thickness-shear mode resonator data.

  13. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, VH; Singer, BC

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase with increasing fuel Wobbe number.

  14. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  15. Bromonium-Initiated Epoxide-Opening Cascades : total Synthesis of ent-Dioxepandehydrothyrsiferol and Synthetic Studies toward (+)-Scholarisine A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanuwidjaja, Jessica

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHAPTER I. Bromonium-Initiated Epoxide-Opening Cascades: Total Synthesis of ent-Dioxepandehydrothyrsiferol Our foray into the total synthesis of ent-dioxepandehydrothyrsiferol has led to the discovery and development of ...

  16. Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning RID B-8648-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Ariel; Wang, Christine Y.; Diehl, L.; Kaertner, F. X.; Belyanin, Alexey; Bour, D.; Corzine, S.; Hoefler, G.; Liu, H. C.; Schneider, H.; Maier, T.; Troccoli, M.; Faist, J.; Capasso, Federico

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical and experimental study of multimode operation regimes in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is presented. It is shown that the fast gain recovery of QCLs promotes two multimode regimes: One is spatial hole burning (SHB) and the other one...

  17. Narrow-band injection seeding of a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser: Selection and suppression of longitudinal modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nong, Hanond, E-mail: Nong.Hanond@rub.de; Markmann, Sergej; Hekmat, Negar; Jukam, Nathan, E-mail: Nathan.Jukam@rub.de [Arbeitsgruppe Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Pal, Shovon [Arbeitsgruppe Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Mohandas, Reshma A.; Dean, Paul; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Giles Davies, A. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal with multiple poling periods is used to generate tunable narrow-bandwidth THz pulses for injection seeding a quantum cascade laser (QCL). We demonstrate that longitudinal modes of the quantum cascade laser close to the gain maximum can be selected or suppressed according to the seed spectrum. The QCL emission spectra obtained by electro-optic sampling from the quantum cascade laser, in the most favorable case, shows high selectivity and amplification of the longitudinal modes that overlap the frequency of the narrow-band seed. Proper selection of the narrow-band THz seed from the PPLN crystal discretely tunes the longitudinal mode emission of the quantum cascade laser. Moreover, the THz wave build-up within the laser cavity is studied as a function of the round-trip time. When the seed frequency is outside the maximum of the gain spectrum the laser emission shifts to the preferential longitudinal mode.

  18. Simulation studies of a XUV/soft X-ray harmonic-cascade FEL for the proposed LBNL recirculating linac*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fawley, W.M.; Barletta, W.A.; Corlett, J.N.; Zholents, A.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GINGER and Its Post- Processor XPLOTGIN, LBNL-49625 (2002).CASCADE FEL FOR THE PROPOSED LBNL RECIRCULATING LINCAC £J.N. Corlett, and A. Zholents, LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

  19. Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Y.

    We report frequency locking of two 3.5-THz third-order distributed feedback (DFB)quantum cascade lasers(QCLs) by using methanol molecular absorption lines, a proportional-integral-derivative controller, and a NbN bolometer. ...

  20. Exploration of period-doubling cascade route to chaos with complex network based time series construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruoxi Xiang; Michael Small

    2014-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the topologies of networks constructed from time series from an underlying system undergo a period doubling cascade have been explored by means of the prevalence of different motifs using an efficient computational motif detection algorithm. By doing this we adopt a refinement based on the $k$ nearest neighbor recurrence-based network has been proposed. We demonstrate that the refinement of network construction together with the study of prevalence of different motifs allows a full explosion of the evolving period doubling cascade route to chaos in both discrete and continuous dynamical systems. Further, this links the phase space time series topologies to the corresponding network topologies, and thus helps to understand the empirical "superfamily" phenomenon, as shown by Xu.

  1. Repulsive cues and signalling cascades of the axon growth cone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manns, Richard Peter Charles

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ) question their irreversibility, showing high levels of membrane dynamics and turn-over with 6 7 Introduction repeated episodes of endocytosis and attempts to form membrane veils (Tom et al., 2004), as in growth cones. ?e glial scar inhibits regeneration... of glial ?brillary acidic protein (GFAP), consist of several sub-types (Stephens et al., 1993; Imura et al., 2006; Yeh et al., 2009) and that in vitro at least, astrocytes generated by different differentiation pathways have different effects when injected...

  2. Angle-resolved scattering spectroscopy of explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of angle-resolved scattering from solid explosives residues on a car door for non-contact sensing geometries. Illumination with a mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade laser tuning between 7 and 8 microns was detected both with a sensitive single point detector and a hyperspectral imaging camera. Spectral scattering phenomena were discussed and possibilities for hyperspectral imaging at large scattering angles were outlined.

  3. Observation of an Inverse Energy Cascade in Developed Acoustic Turbulence in Superfluid Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. N. Ganshin; V. B. Efimov; G. V. Kolmakov; L. P. Mezhov-Deglin; P. V. E. McClintock

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We report observation of an inverse energy cascade in second sound acoustic turbulence in He II. Its onset occurs above a critical driving energy and it is accompanied by giant waves that constitute an acoustic analogue of the rogue waves that occasionally appear on the surface of the ocean. The theory of the phenomenon is developed and shown to be in good agreement with the experiments.

  4. Cascade Problems in Some Atomic Lifetime Measurements at a Heavy-Ion Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabert, E; Hoffmann, J; Krantz, C; Wolf, A; Ishikawa, Y; Santana, J

    2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lifetimes of 3s{sup 2}3p{sup k} ground configuration levels of Al-, Si-, P-, and S-like ions of Be, Co, and Ni have been measured at a heavy-ion storage ring. Some of the observed decay curves show strong evidence of cascade repopulation from specific 3d levels that feature lifetimes in the same multi-millisecond range as the levels of the ground configuration.

  5. Intermittency in the Joint Cascade of Energy and Helicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiaoning Chen; Shiyi Chen; Gregory L. Eyink; Darryl D. Holm

    2002-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The statistics of the energy and helicity fluxes in isotropic turbulence are studied using high resolution direct numerical simulation. The scaling exponents of the energy flux agree with those of the transverse velocity structure functions through refined similarity hypothesis, consistent with Kraichnan's prediction \\cite{Kr74}. The helicity flux is even more intermittent than the energy flux and its scaling exponents are closer to those of the passive scalar. Using Waleffe's helical decomposition, we demonstrate that the existence of positive mean helicity flux inhibits the energy transfer in the negative helical modes, a non-passive effect.

  6. Search for a light NMSSM Higgs boson produced in supersymmetric cascades and decaying into a b-quark pair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for a light neutral Higgs boson decaying to a pair of b-quarks, and produced together with at least two very energetic jets and large missing energy, is presented. Such Higgs bosons are conceivable in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Model (NMSSM), with the Higgs sector characterized by two complex Higgs doublets and an additional Higgs singlet field. This could result in a light Higgs boson with a large singlet component, which would be hard to detect in conventional searches at LEP, LHC and Tevatron, but could be copiously produced in decays of neutralinos in supersymmetric cascades. The data used in this analysis correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $8\\,\\text{TeV}$. No indication of a signal is observed. The results are interpreted in terms of cross section limits and within the parameter space of certain NMSSM light Higgs boson scenarios.

  7. Ground-water hydrologic effects resulting from underground coal gasification experiments at the Hoe Creek Site near Gillette, Wyoming. Interim report, October 1979-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raber, E.; Stone, R.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical note summarizes our activities, to date, on the research project: Ground-Water Hydrologic Effects Resulting from Underground Coal Gasification Experiments (EPA-IAG-79-D-X0795). The gasified coal seam (Felix No. 2 coal) and two overlying aquifers (Felix No. 1 coal and overlying sand) appear to have become interconnected as a result of roof collapse and subsidence at both Hoe Creek Sites II and III near Gillette, Wyoming. To evaluate changes in the ground-water flow regime at the two sites, completion of supplementary wells was necessary to define the distance versus head drawdown relationships in each of the three aquifers. Hydraulic head potentials have been measured at Site III since gasification ended on October 10, 1979. These data are presented in graphic format. Although hydraulic head measurements at Site II seemed to be approaching a steady-state condition 1.5 years after gasification, the subsequent gasification at Site III temporarily altered the ground-water flow patterns. These changes will have a definite effect on contaminant dispersal and will need to be taken into consideration.

  8. MHD processes during the cascade development of the neck and hot spot in an X-pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanenkov, G. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Stepniewski, W. [Kaliski Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (Poland); Gus'kov, S. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from two-dimensional MHD simulations of X-pinch implosion. The simulations were performed in the (r, z) and (x, y) geometries for homogeneous (dense plasma) and heterogeneous (core-corona) loads. The formation of a minidiode, the development of a neck and an X-radiating hot spot, and the influence of the plasma corona on the implosion dynamics of the dense X-pinch plasma were investigated. For through simulations, the conical neck model was used, whereas a detailed analysis of the X-ray burst was performed in the parabolic neck model. The MHD processes occurring during the implosion of oblique shock waves and the onset of instability of the plasma column were examined. It is found that, due to the quasi-periodic character of these processes, the neck compression proceeds in a cascade fashion. The plasma state in a hot spot just before the break of the neck is analyzed, and the possibility of generating fast particle beams is considered.

  9. Hadronic cascade calculations of angular distributions of integrated secondary particle fluxes from external targets and new empirical formulae describing particle production in proton-nucleus collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranft, J

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hadronic cascade calculations of angular distributions of integrated secondary particle fluxes from external targets and new empirical formulae describing particle production in proton-nucleus collisions

  10. Effects of Temperature on Rates of Herbivory and Predation: Consequences for a Trophic Cascade?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    for Undergraduates Program Cold Water and Kelp Growth ·Cold water upwelling associated with increased kelp growth- controlled rooms at 10°C and 15°C ·Measurement of grazing rates on giant kelp, Macrocystis ·Two trials, each, Strongylocentrotus Kelp crab, Pugettia Brown turban snail, Tegula Methods Water bath chilled to 10°C Tanks

  11. Humans Strengthen Bottom-Up Effects and Weaken Trophic Cascades in a Terrestrial Food Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebblewhite, Mark

    of Canada, Shell Canada, the Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy, the Canadian.pone.0064311 Editor: Jon Moen, Umea University, Sweden Received December 31, 2012; Accepted April 11, 2013 Association, Alberta Tourism, Parks and Recreation, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Alberta

  12. Performance Analysis of Passive UHF RFID Systems under Cascaded Fading Channels and Interference Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bekkali, Abdelmoula; Zou, Sicheng; Kadri, Abdullah; Penty, Richard

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    and interference environments. A. Ideal Environment In the case of free space scenario, the path loss model is given by: L(d) = ( ? 4pid )2 (32) Substituting Eq.32 into Eq.27 and Eq.31, we have : dmaxf = ? 4pi ? ?LPTxGTG f R ST (33) and dmaxb = ? 4pi ? ?µ...

  13. Accounting for Backwater Effects in Flow Routing by the Discrete Linear Cascade Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    Szilagyi1 and Pal Laurinyecz2 Abstract: Flow-routing at a tributary (Koros River) of the Tisza River equation (Lighthill and Witham 1955) written in a state- space form; see Szilagyi and Szollosi-Nagy (2010 wave equation (Szilagyi and Szollosi-Nagy 2010, p. 59) in its flow-routing either in a pulsed [i

  14. IAEA Coordinated Research Project on Master Curve Approach to Monitor Fracture Toughness of RPV Steels: Final Results of the Experimental Exercise to Support Constraint Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The precracked Charpy single-edge notched bend, SE(B), specimen (PCC) is the most likely specimen type to be used for determination of the reference temperature, T0, with reactor pressure vessel (RPV) surveillance specimens. Unfortunately, for many RPV steels, significant differences have been observed between the T0 temperature for the PCC specimen and that obtained from the 25-mm thick compact specimen [1TC(T)], generally considered the standard reference specimen for T0. This difference in T0 has often been designated a specimen bias effect, and the primary focus for explaining this effect is loss of constraint in the PCC specimen. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has developed a coordinated research project (CRP) to evaluate various issues associated with the fracture toughness Master Curve for application to light-water RPVs. Topic Area 1 of the CRP is focused on the issue of test specimen geometry effects, with emphasis on determination of T0 with the PCC specimen and the bias effect. Topic Area 1 has an experimental part and an analytical part. Participating organizations for the experimental part of the CRP performed fracture toughness testing of various steels, including the reference steel JRQ (A533-B-1) often used for IAEA studies, with various types of specimens under various conditions. Additionally, many of the participants took part in a round robin exercise on finite element modeling of the PCVN specimen, discussed in a separate paper. Results from fracture toughness tests are compared with regard to effects of specimen size and type on the reference temperature T0. It is apparent from the results presented that the bias observed between the PCC specimen and larger specimens for Plate JRQ is not nearly as large as that obtained for Plate 13B (-11 C vs -37 C) and for some of the results in the literature (bias values as much as -45 C). This observation is consistent with observations in the literature that show significant variations in the bias that are dependent on the specific materials being tested. There are various methods for constraint adjustments and two methods were used that reduced the bias for Plate 13B from -37 C to -13 C in one case and to -11 C in the second case. Unfortunately, there is not a consensus methodology available that accounts for the differences observed with different materials. Increasing the Mlim value in the ASTM E-1921 to ensure no loss of constraint for the PCC specimen is not a practicable solution because the PCC specimen is derived from CVN specimens in RPV surveillance capsules and larger specimens are normally not available. Resolution of these differences are needed for application of the master curve procedure to operating RPVs, but the research needed for such resolution is beyond the scope of this CRP.

  15. Integration of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a hollow waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Nordquist, Christopher D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to the integration of a quantum cascade laser with a hollow waveguide on a chip to improve both the beam pattern and manufacturability. By coupling the QCL output into a single-mode rectangular waveguide the radiation mode structure can be known and the propagation, manipulation, and broadcast of the QCL radiation can then be entirely controlled by well-established rectangular waveguide techniques. By controlling the impedance of the interface, enhanced functions, such as creating amplifiers, efficient coupling to external cavities, and increasing power output from metal-metal THz QCLs, are also enabled.

  16. Hyperspectral Microscopy of Explosives Particles Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Using infrared hyperspectral imaging, we demonstrate microscopy of small particles of the explosives compounds RDX, tetryl, and PETN with near diffraction-limited performance. The custom microscope apparatus includes an external cavity quantum cascade laser illuminator scanned over its tuning range of 9.13-10.53 µm in four seconds, coupled with a microbolometer focal plane array to record infrared transmission images. We use the hyperspectral microscopy technique to study the infrared absorption spectra of individual explosives particles, and demonstrate sub-nanogram detection limits.

  17. Cascaded Brillouin lasing in monolithic barium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Guoping; Saleh, Khaldoun; Martinenghi, Romain; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Sylvestre, Thibaut; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering and lasing at 1550~nm in barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal. Brillouin lasing was achieved with ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor monolithic whispering gallery mode (WGM) mm-size disk resonators. Overmoded resonators were specifically used to provide cavity resonances for both the pump and all Brillouin Stokes waves. Single and multiple Brillouin Stokes radiations with frequency shift ranging from $8.2$ GHz up to $49$ GHz have been generated through cascaded Brillouin lasing. BaF$_2$ resonator-based Brillouin lasing can find potential applications for high-coherence lasers and microwave photonics.

  18. Dimensional transition of energy cascades in stably stratified thin fluid layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Sozza; G. Boffetta; P. Muratore-Ginanneschi; S. Musacchio

    2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulations of a thin layer of turbulent flow in stably stratified conditions within the Boussinesq approximation have been performed. The statistics of energy transfer among scales have been investigated for different values of control parameters: thickness of the layer and density stratification. It is shown that in a thin layer with a quasi-two-dimensional phenomenology, stratification provides a new channel for the energy transfer towards small scales and reduces the inverse cascade. The role of vortex stretching and enstrophy flux in the transfer of kinetic energy into potential energy at small scales is discussed.

  19. Proton and gamma irradiation of Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers for space qualification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Hansen, Stewart; Crowther, Blake

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) were characterized following irradiation by high energy (64 MeV) protons and Cobalt-60 gamma rays. Seven QCLs were exposed to radiation dosages that are typical for a space mission in which the total accumulated dosages from both radiation sources varied from 20 krad(Si) to 46.3 krad(Si). The QCLs did not show any measurable changes in threshold current or slope efficiency suggesting the suitability of QCLs for use in space-based missions.

  20. Extending the response of the sum coincidence spectrometer to multiple gamma radiation cascades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helton, Victor Dean

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tubes, and cathode followers, respectively. D. D. Sum represents the differ- ential discriminator of the sum energies. Rl and R2 are resistors and RVI is a potentiometer Consider first a gamma-radiation cascade in which two gamma rays are coincident.... Setting the differential discriminator on the sum of the two gamma-ray energies allows the analyzer to be gated only when the full energy of both gamma rays is absorbed in the detectors. The analyzer may be gated by the absorption of the full energies...

  1. Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Robert M., E-mail: r.heath.1@research.gla.ac.uk; Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT, Scotland (United Kingdom); Webster, Mark G. [Department of Statistics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Warburton, Richard J. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime.

  2. III-nitride quantum cascade detector grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Yu, E-mail: yusong@princeton.edu; Huang, Tzu-Yung; Badami, Pranav; Gmachl, Claire [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Bhat, Rajaram; Zah, Chung-En [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum cascade (QC) detectors in the GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N material system grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition are designed, fabricated, and characterized. Only two material compositions, i.e., GaN as wells and Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N as barriers are used in the active layers. The QC detectors operates around 4??m, with a peak responsivity of up to ?100??A/W and a detectivity of up to 10{sup 8} Jones at the background limited infrared performance temperature around 140?K.

  3. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-?B signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M., E-mail: indiramadambath@gmail.com

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-?B activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKK? and the protein expressions of phospho-I?B?, NF-?B, TNF-?, TGF-?{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers ?-SMA, ?{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-?B activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKK?, which decreased the activation of NF-?B and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKK? and alteration of intestinal permeability. • This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis.

  4. Outcomes and Effect of Radiotherapy in Patients With Stage I or II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballonoff, Ari [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)], E-mail: ari.ballonoff@uchsc.edu; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; Schwer, Amanda; McCammon, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Bassetti, Michael; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and the effect of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with localized diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for all patients diagnosed with Stage I, IE, II, or IIE DLBCL between 1988 and 2004. The analyzable data included gender, age, race, stage, presence of extranodal disease, and RT administration. Patients who had died or were lost to follow-up within 6 months of diagnosis were excluded. Results: A total of 13,420 patients met the search criteria. Of these, 5,547 (41%) had received RT and 7,873 (59%) had not. RT was associated with a significant DSS (hazard ratio, 0.82, p <0.0001) and OS benefit that persisted during the 15 years of follow-up. Elderly patients, defined either as those >60 or >70 years old, had significantly improved DSS and OS associated with RT. On multivariate analysis, RT was significantly associated with increased DSS and OS. The 5-year DSS outcomes were highly variable among patient subsets, defined by age, stage, and extranodal disease (range for RT-treated patients, 70% for Stage II, age >60 years to 87% for Stage I, age {<=}60 years). Conclusion: This analysis presents the largest detailed data set of Stage I-II DLBCL patients. The results of our study have demonstrated that RT is associated with a survival advantage in patients with localized DLBCL, a benefit that extends to elderly patients. Outcomes for discrete patient subsets varied greatly. The development of tailored therapy according to the relapse risk is warranted, rather than uniform treatment of all early-stage DLBCL.

  5. Silver Clear Nylon Dressing is Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Patients With Lower Gastrointestinal Cancer: Results From a Phase III Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niazi, Tamim M. [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada)] [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Vuong, Te, E-mail: tvuong@jgh.mcgill.ca [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada)] [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Azoulay, Laurant [Department of Epidemiology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada)] [Department of Epidemiology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Marijnen, Corrie [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bujko, Kryzstof [Department of Radiotherapy, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre, Warsaw (Poland)] [Department of Radiotherapy, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre, Warsaw (Poland); Nasr, Elie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital (Lebanon)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital (Lebanon); Lambert, Christine; Duclos, Marie; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal-General-Hospital, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal-General-Hospital, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Cummings, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: For patients with anal canal and advanced rectal cancer, chemoradiation therapy is a curative modality or an important adjunct to surgery. Nearly all patients treated with chemoradiation experience some degree of radiation-induced dermatitis (RID). Prevention and effective treatment of RID, therefore, is of considerable clinical relevance. The present phase III randomized trial compared the efficacy of silver clear nylon dressing (SCND) with that of standard skin care for these patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 42 rectal or anal canal cancer patients were randomized to either a SCND or standard skin care group. SCND was applied from Day 1 of radiation therapy (RT) until 2 weeks after treatment completion. In the control arm, sulfadiazine cream was applied at the time of skin dermatitis. Printed digital photographs taken 2 weeks prior to, on the last day, and two weeks after the treatment completion were scored by 10 blinded readers, who used the common toxicity scoring system for skin dermatitis. Results: The radiation dose ranged from 50.4 to 59.4 Gy, and there were no differences between the 2 groups. On the last day of RT, when the most severe RID occurs, the mean dermatitis score was 2.53 (standard deviation [SD], 1.17) for the standard and 1.67 (SD, 1.2; P=.01) for the SCND arm. At 2 weeks after RT, the difference was 0.39 points in favor of SCND (P=.39). There was considerable intraclass correlation among the 10 observers. Conclusions: Silver clear nylon dressing is effective in reducing RID in patients with lower gastrointestinal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation treatment.

  6. A quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR frequency metrology system with ultra-narrow linewidth and $1\\times 10^{-13}$-level absolute frequency stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Michael G; Chen, Qun-Feng; Ernsting, Ingo; Schiller, Stephan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a powerful tool for high-resolution mid-IR spectroscopy and frequency metrology with quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). We have implemented frequency stabilization of a QCL to an ultra-low expansion (ULE) reference cavity, via upconversion to the near-IR spectral range, at a level of $1\\times10^{-13}$. The absolute frequency of the QCL is measured relative to a hydrogen maser, with instability $<1\\times10^{-13}$ and inaccuracy $5\\times10^{-13}$, using a frequency comb phase-stabilized to an independent ultrastable laser. The QCL linewidth is determined to be 60 Hz, dominated by fiber noise. Active suppression of fiber noise could result in sub-10 Hz linewidth.

  7. APPLYING CASCADED PARAMETER SCAN TO STUDY TOP-OFF SAFETY IN NSLS-II STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we introduce a new algorithm, the cascaded parameter scan method, to efficiently carry out the scan over magnet parameters in the safety analysis for storage ring top-off injection. In top-off safety analysis, one must track particles populating phase space through a beamline containing magnets and apertures and clearly demonstrate that for all possible magnet settings and errors, all particles are lost on scrapers within the properly shielded region. In the usual approach, the number of tracking runs increases exponentially with the number of magnet settings. In the cascaded parameter scan method, the number of tracking runs only increases linearly. This reduction of exponential to linear dependence on the number of set-points, greatly reduces the required computation time and allows one to more densely populate phase space and to increase the number of set-points scanned for each magnet. An example of applying this approach to analyze an NSLS-II beamline, the damping wiggler beamline, is also given.

  8. Erlotinib inhibits T-cell-mediated immune response via down-regulation of the c-Raf/ERK cascade and Akt signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo Qiong [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu Yanhong [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Zheng Wei; Wu Xingxin; Gong Fangyuan; Gu Liyun; Sun Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Erlotinib is a potent inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase and has been demonstrated to treat advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer to prolong survival after failure of first-line or second-line chemotherapy. However, little is known about its effects on immune system. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the immunosuppressive activity of erlotinib on T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and further explore its potential molecular mechanism. Erlotinib exerted a significant inhibition on the T cell proliferation and activation induced by concanavalin A, anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28, staphylococcal enterotoxin B or phorbol myristate acetate respectively in a concentration-dependent manner and it also inhibited the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-{gamma} of activated T cells. Further study showed that erlotinib caused G0/G1 arrest and suppressed the phosphorylations of c-Raf, ERK and Akt in activated T cells. Moreover, erlotinib significantly ameliorated picryl chloride-induced ear contact dermatitis in a dose-dependent manner in vivo. In summary, these findings suggest that erlotinib may cause the impairment of T-cell-mediated immune response both in vitro and in vivo through inhibiting T cell proliferation and activation, which is closely associated with its potent down-regulation of the c-Raf/ERK cascade and Akt signaling pathway. - Graphical abstract: Erlotinib may cause the impairment of T-cell-mediated immune response both in vitro and in vivo through inhibiting T cell proliferation and activation, which is closely associated with its potent down-regulation of the c-Raf/ERK cascade and Akt signaling pathway. Display Omitted

  9. Information Cascades in Social Media in Response to a Crisis: a Preliminary Model and a Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Mark

    situ- ation; show how messages spread among the users on Twit- ter including what kinds of information the spreading of accurate information or impede the flow of inaccurate or improper messages. Categories Measurement Keywords Social networks, Twitter, Information diffusion, Cascades, Crisis communication 1

  10. Elliptic Flow from a Hybrid CGC, Full 3D Hydro and Hadronic Cascade Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tetsufumi Hirano; Ulrich W. Heinz; Dmitri Kharzeev; Roy Lacey; Yasushi Nara

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the robustness of the discovery of the perfect fluid through comparison of hydrodynamic calculations with the elliptic flow coefficient v_2 at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV. Employing the Glauber model for initial entropy density distributions, the centrality dependence of v_2 is reasonably reproduced by using an ideal fluid description of the early QGP stage followed by a hadronic cascade in the late hadronic stage. On the other hand, initial conditions based on the Colour Glass Condensate model are found to generate larger elliptic flow due to larger initial eccentricity epsilon. We further predict v_2/epsilon at a fixed impact parameter as a function of collision energy sqrt{s_{NN}} up to the LHC energy.

  11. High detectivity short-wavelength II-VI quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P., E-mail: aravikum@princeton.edu; Gmachl, Claire F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Garcia, Thor A.; Tamargo, Maria C. [Department of Chemistry, The Graduate Center and The City College of New York, CUNY, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Jesus, Joel De [Department of Physics, The Graduate Center and The City College of New York, CUNY, New York, New York 10031 (United States)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe-based short-wavelength photovoltaic Quantum Cascade Detector (QCD). The QCD operates in two spectral bands centered around 2.6??m and 3.6??m. Calibrated blackbody measurements yield a peak responsivity of 0.1?mA/W or 2400?V/W at 80?K, and a corresponding 300?K background radiation limited infrared performance detectivity (BLIP) of ?2.5?×?10{sup 10?}cm ?Hz/W. Comparison of background illuminated and dark current-voltage measurements demonstrates a BLIP temperature of 200?K. The device differential resistance-area product, decreases from about 10{sup 6} ? cm{sup 2} at 80?K to about 8000 ? cm{sup 2} at 300?K, indicative of the ultra-low Johnson noise in the detectors.

  12. A versatile class of prototype dynamical systems for complex bifurcation cascades of limit cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sándor, Bulcsú

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a versatile class of prototype dynamical systems for the study of complex bifurcation cascades of limit cycles, including bifurcations breaking spontaneously a symmetry of the system, period doubling bifurcations and transitions to chaos induced by sequences of limit cycle bifurcations. The prototype system consist of a $2d$-dimensional dynamical system with friction forces $f(V(\\mathbf{x}))$ functionally dependent exclusively on the mechanical potential $V(\\mathbf{x})$, which is typically characterized, here, by a finite number of local minima. We present examples for $d=1,2$ and simple polynomial friction forces $f(V)$, where the zeros of $f(V)$ regulate the relative importance of energy uptake and dissipation respectively, serving as bifurcation parameters. Starting from simple Hopf- and homoclinic bifurcations, complex sequences of limit cycle bifurcation are observed when energy uptake gains progressively in importance.

  13. A versatile class of prototype dynamical systems for complex bifurcation cascades of limit cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulcsú Sándor; Claudius Gros

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a versatile class of prototype dynamical systems for the study of complex bifurcation cascades of limit cycles, including bifurcations breaking spontaneously a symmetry of the system, period doubling bifurcations and transitions to chaos induced by sequences of limit cycle bifurcations. The prototype system consist of a $2d$-dimensional dynamical system with friction forces $f(V(\\mathbf{x}))$ functionally dependent exclusively on the mechanical potential $V(\\mathbf{x})$, which is typically characterized, here, by a finite number of local minima. We present examples for $d=1,2$ and simple polynomial friction forces $f(V)$, where the zeros of $f(V)$ regulate the relative importance of energy uptake and dissipation respectively, serving as bifurcation parameters. Starting from simple Hopf- and homoclinic bifurcations, complex sequences of limit cycle bifurcation are observed when energy uptake gains progressively in importance.

  14. High-resolution multi-heterodyne spectroscopy based on Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yin; Wang, Wen; Wysocki, Gerard, E-mail: gwysocki@princeton.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Soskind, Michael G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersy 08901 (United States)

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we present a method of performing broadband mid-infrared spectroscopy with conventional, free-running, continuous wave Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers (FP-QCLs). The measurement method is based on multi-heterodyne down-conversion of optical signals. The sample transmission spectrum probed by one multi-mode FP-QCL is down-converted to the radio-frequency domain through an optical multi-heterodyne process using a second FP-QCL as the local oscillator. Both a broadband multi-mode spectral measurement as well as high-resolution (?15?MHz) spectroscopy of molecular absorption are demonstrated and show great potential for development of high performance FP-laser-based spectrometers for chemical sensing.

  15. Design of cascaded low cost solar cell with CuO substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, Mil'shtein; Anup, Pillai; Shiv, Sharma; Garo, Yessayan [Advanced Electronic Technology Center, ECE Dept., University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA-01851 (United States)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    For many years the main focus of R and D in solar cells was the development of high-efficiency solar convertors. However with solar technology beginning to be a part of national grids and stand-alone power supplies for variety of individual customers, the emphasis has changed, namely, the cost per kilowatt- hour (kW-hr) started to be an important figure of merit. Although Si does dominate the market of solar convertors, this material has total cost of kilowatt-hour much higher than what the power grid is providing presently to customers. It is well known that the cost of raw semiconductor material is a major factor in formulation of the final cost of a solar cell. That motivated us to search and design a novel solar cell using cheap materials. The new p-i-n solar cell consists of hetero-structure cascade of materials with step by step decreasing energy gap. Since the lattice constant of these three materials do differ not more than 2%, the more expensive epitaxial fabrication methods can be used as well. It should be emphasized that designed solar cell is not a cascade of three solar cells connected in series. Our market study shows that Si solar panel which costs $250–400 / m{sup 2} leads to a cost of $0.12–0.30 / kW-hr. To the contrary, CuO based solar cells with Cadmium compounds on top, would cost $100 / m{sup 2}. This will allow the novel solar cell to produce electricity at a cost of $0.06–0.08 / kW-hr.

  16. The effects of cycle-to-cycle variations on nitric oxide (NO) emissions for a spark-ignition engine: Numerical results 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarroel, Milivoy

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the effects of cycle-to-cycle variations (ccv) on nitric oxide (NO) emissions, and 2) determine if the consideration of ccv affects the average NO emission as compared to ...

  17. Radiation effects on microstructures and properties of irradiated materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansur, L.K.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of structural materials to withstand aggressive radiation environments has been carried out on an international scale over the past four decades. Major radiation-induced changes in properties include swelling, creep and embrittlement. The basic work, stimulated by technology, to understand and control these phenomena, has been heavily oriented toward the evolution of microstructures and their effects on properties. Microstructural research has coupled analyses by high resolution techniques with theoretical modeling to describe and predict microscopic features and the resulting macroscopic properties. A short summary is presented of key physical considerations that drive these changes during irradiation. Such processes begin with displacement cascades, and lead to property changes through the diffusion and clustering of defects.

  18. The POTS cascade transient code and the calculation of the times required to get production U-235 gradients at Oak Ridge and Paducah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, D.M. Jr.; Ebel, R.A.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the POTS Gaseous Diffusion Transient Analysis Code and how it was used to calculate the times that would be required to get production uranium-235 (U-235) gradients in the cascades at the Oak Ridge and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plants if the cascades were restarted after an extended shutdown. Version 3.0 of the POTS code, the method used to calculate the times, and plots showing how the U-235 gradients would change after the cascades were restarted are presented.

  19. Second international conference on computer simulation of radiation effects in solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rubia, T.D.; Gilmer, G.H. [comps.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 102 abstracts are included, arranged under the following headings: interatomic potentials and theoretical methods, displacement cascades and radiation effects in metals, radiation effects in semiconductors, sputtering and surface processes, cluster-solid interactions, highly charged ions and inelastic effects, and posters (A and B).

  20. Synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of Armatol A through a polyepoxide cyclization cascade : revision of the proposed structures of Armatols A-F

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, Brian Saxton

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclization Cascades Leading to the Tricyclic Fragment of Armatol A The synthesis of the fused 6,7,7-tricycle of armatol A was investigated. Fragments containing both a ketone and an aldehyde for subsequent fragment coupling ...

  1. A mAnuAl for CAsCAde server Content mAnAgement system (Cms)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraden, Seth

    A mAnuAl for CAsCAde server Content mAnAgement system (Cms) CMS USer GUide #12;#12;A mAnuAl for CAs to Create an email Address Link 74 how to Upload Multiple Files at Once CHapTeR 9 77 BeST PrACTICeS 78 the Mozilla Firefox browser and navigate to webedit.brandeis.edu. Best practice: We recommend using Mozilla

  2. Cherenkov high-order harmonic generation by multistep cascading in {chi}{sup (2)} nonlinear photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An Ning; Ren Huaijin [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory on Fiber Optic Local Area Communication Networks and Advanced Optical Communication Systems, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zheng Yuanlin [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Deng Xuewei [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Chen Xianfeng [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory on Fiber Optic Local Area Communication Networks and Advanced Optical Communication Systems, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a scheme for efficient Cherenkov high-order harmonic generation. Second to fifth order harmonic wave are observed in a single periodically poled ferroelectric crystal in our experiment. The noncollinear high-order harmonic generation is produced via enhanced Cherenkov second harmonic cascaded with successive multistep sum-frequency generation with simultaneously longitudinal phase-matching. The emission angle and power dependencies are analyzed in detail experimentally, which coincide with theoretical predictions.

  3. The equal load-sharing model of cascade failures in power grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scala, Antonio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric power-systems are one of the most important critical infrastructures. In recent years, they have been exposed to extreme stress due to the increasing demand, the introduction of distributed renewable energy sources, and the development of extensive interconnections. We investigate the phenomenon of abrupt breakdown of an electric power-system under two scenarios: load growth (mimicking the ever-increasing customer demand) and power fluctuations (mimicking the effects of renewable sources). Our results indicate that increasing the system size causes breakdowns to become more abrupt; in fact, mapping the system to a solvable statistical-physics model indicates the occurrence of a first order transition in the large size limit. Such an enhancement for the systemic risk failures (black-outs) with increasing network size is an effect that should be considered in the current projects aiming to integrate national power-grids into "super-grids".

  4. Radiocarbon Dioxide detection based on Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and a Quantum Cascade Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genoud, Guillaume; Phillips, Hilary; Dean, Julian; Merimaa, Mikko

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring of radiocarbon ($^{14}$C) in carbon dioxide is demonstrated using mid-infrared spectroscopy and a quantum cascade laser. The measurement is based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and a high sensitivity is achieved with a simple setup. The instrument was tested using a standardised sample containing elevated levels of radiocarbon. Radiocarbon dioxide could be detected from samples with an isotopic ratio $^{14}$C/C as low as 50 parts-per-trillion, corresponding to an activity of 5 kBq/m$^3$ in pure CO$_2$, or 2 Bq/m$^3$ in air after extraction of the CO$_2$ from an air sample. The instrument is simple, compact and robust, making it the ideal tool for on-site measurements. It is aimed for monitoring of radioactive gaseous emissions in nuclear power environment, during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Its high sensitivity also makes it the ideal tool for the detection of leaks in radioactive waste repositories.

  5. Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilisation at the sub-Hz level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bérengère Argence; Bruno Chanteau; Olivier Lopez; Daniele Nicolodi; Michel Abgrall; Christian Chardonnet; Christophe Daussy; Benoît Darquié; Yann Le Coq; Anne Amy-Klein

    2014-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) are increasingly being used to probe the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" region. This prompted efforts towards improving their spectral performance, in order to reach ever-higher resolution and precision. Here, we report the stabilisation of a QCL onto an optical frequency comb. We demonstrate a relative stability and accuracy of 2x10-15 and 10-14, respectively. The comb is stabilised to a remote near-infrared ultra-stable laser referenced to frequency primary standards, whose signal is transferred via an optical fibre link. The stability and frequency traceability of our QCL exceed those demonstrated so far by two orders of magnitude. As a demonstration of its capability, we then use it to perform high-resolution molecular spectroscopy. We measure absorption frequencies with an 8x10-13 relative uncertainty. This confirms the potential of this setup for ultra-high precision measurements with molecules, such as our ongoing effort towards testing the parity symmetry by probing chiral species.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forming and Springback Behavior and the Resulting Effects on Industrial Application on a Structural Part in Mass Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prexl, A.; Hoffmann, H. [Institute of Metal Forming and Casting, Technische Universitaet Muenchen D-85747 Garching (Germany); Golle, M. [Institute of Metal Forming and Casting, Technische Universitaet Muenchen D-85747 Garching (Germany); Institute of Punching and Blanking, Pforzheim University, D-75175 Pforzheim (Germany); Kudrass, S.; Wahl, M. [AUDI AG, D-85045 Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Springback prediction and compensation is nowadays a widely recommended discipline in finite element modeling. Many researches have shown an improvement of the accuracy in prediction of springback using advanced modeling techniques, e.g. by including the Bauschinger effect. In this work different models were investigated in the commercial simulation program AutoForm for a large series production part, manufactured from the dual phase steel HC340XD. The work shows the differences between numerical drawbead models and geometrically modeled drawbeads. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was made for a reduced kinematic hardening model, implemented in the finite element program AutoForm.

  7. Experimental results of neutron fluence outside an iron shield in the forward direction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, M.M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Elwyn, A.J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Fein, D.; James, E.; Johns, K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Davis, W. [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States); Ciampa, D.P. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mierkiewicz, E. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of both lateral shielding measurements and Monte Carlo calculations for beam stop geometry for incident hadrons at energies between 10 GeV and 10 TeV suggests that the dose equivalent can be represented by the expression H = H{sub 0}(E)e{sup -r/{lambda}}/r{sup 2} where H, is the source term, r is the radial distance to the point of interest in the shield, and {lambda} is the effective interaction length, or absorption mean free path. However, unlike the lateral shielding case, there is no similarly simple analytical expression that can be used to describe the on-axis longitudinal cascade development. In this study the results from the measurement in the forward direction of neutron fluence spectra (and the derived quantity dose equivalent) for 25 to 150 GeV pions incident on an iron beam stop as a function of thickness of iron are presented. The observed dependence of both fluence and dose equivalent on shield thickness and hadron energy was then quantified in terms of an expression in which a build up factor as well as an attenuation term was included. On the basis of this analysis the conversion factor from fluence to dose equivalent was also determined for these forward going neutrons. This work represents the first systematic study at an high energy accelerator of the depth dependence of neutron fluence in longitudinal shielding.

  8. Electric conductivity of the quark-gluon plasma investigated using a perturbative QCD based parton cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz Greif; Ioannis Bouras; Zhe Xu; Carsten Greiner

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric conductivity is sensitive to effective cross sections among the particles of the partonic medium. We investigate the electric conductivity of a hot plasma of quarks and gluons, solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation. In order to extract this transport coefficient, we employ the Green-Kubo formalism and, independently, a method motivated by the classical definition of electric conductivity. To this end we evaluate the static electric diffusion current upon the influence of an electric field. Both methods give identical results. For the first time, we obtain numerically the Drude electric conductivity formula for an ultrarelativistic gas of quarks and gluons employing constant isotropic binary cross sections. Furthermore, we extract the electric conductivity for a system of massless quarks and gluons including screened binary and inelastic, radiative $2\\leftrightarrow 3$ perturbative QCD scattering. Comparing with recent lattice results, we find an agreement in the temperature dependence of the conductivity.

  9. Cascade phonon-assisted trapping of positrons by divacancies in n-FZ-Si(P) single crystals irradiated with 15 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arutyunov, N. Yu., E-mail: n-arutyunov@yahoo.com [Martin Luther University Halle, Department of Physics, 06120 Halle, Germany and Inst. of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies (Inst. of Electronics), 700187 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Emtsev, V. V.; Oganesyan, G. A. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krause-Rehberg, R.; Kessler, C. [Martin Luther University Halle, Department of Physics, 06120 Halle (Germany); Elsayed, M. [Martin Luther University Halle, Department of Physics, 06120 Halle, Germany and Minia university, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. box 61519 Minia (Egypt); Kozlovski, V. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The trapping of positrons by the radiation defects in moderately doped oxygen-lean n-FZ-Si(P) single crystal irradiated with 15 MeV protons has been investigated in a comparative way using the positron lifetime spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. The experiments were carried out within a wide temperature interval ranging from 25 K – 29 K to 300 K. The positron trapping rate for divacancies was reconstructed in the course of many-stage isochronal annealing. The concentration and the charged states of divacancies (V{sub 2}{sup ?} and V{sub 2}{sup ??}) were estimated. The temperature dependency of the trapping cross section of positrons by the negatively charged divacancies is in a good agreement with the data of calculations based on the assumptions of the cascade phonon-assisted mechanism of exchange of the energy between the positron and acoustic long-wave phonons. Obeying ? T{sup ?3} law, the cross-section of the trapping of positrons by divacancies changes considerably ranging from ?1.7×10{sup ?12} cm{sup 2} (66 – 100 K) to ?2×10{sup ?14} cm{sup 2} (? 250 K). The characteristic length of trapping of the positron by V{sub 2}{sup ??} divacancy was estimated to be l{sub 0}(V{sub 2}{sup ??})?(3.4±0.2)×10{sup ?8} cm.

  10. Environmental effects of dredging. Lower limits of organic carbon normalization: Results of fish/sediment/water equilibrium partitioning studies. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, V.A.; Honeycutt, M.E.; Feldhaus, J.; Ace, L.N.; Brannon, J.M.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical note reports the initial results of studies measuring biota/ sediment/water equilibrium partitioning of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener. The focus of this technical note is on the validity of normalizing concentrations of neutral organic chemicals on sediment total organic carbon (TOC) when sediment TOC concentrations are low. Over the past 10 years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has aggressively pursued development of single-chemical sediment quality criteria (SQC). Equilibrium partitioning of neutral organic chemicals between the organic carbon fraction of bedded sediments and the interstitial water of the sediments provides the theoretical basis for the most popular approach to development of SQC. The solution phase of the chemical in equilibrium with the sediment is considered to represent the bioavailable fraction and to enable the conversion of existing water quality criteria (WQC) into SQC or sediment quality standards.

  11. Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA :Work4/11ComputationalEdNERSC:Effect of0/2002Effects of

  12. Infrared Scattering Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy Using An External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser For Nanoscale Chemical Imaging And Spectroscopy of Explosive Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Ian M.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Josberger, Erik E.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) is an apertureless superfocusing technique that uses the antenna properties of a conducting atomic force microscope (AFM) tip to achieve infrared spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. The instrument can be used either in imaging mode, where a fixed wavelength light source is tuned to a molecular resonance and the AFM raster scans an image, or in spectroscopy mode where the AFM is held stationary over a feature of interest and the light frequency is varied to obtain a spectrum. In either case, a strong, stable, coherent infrared source is required. Here we demonstrate the integration of a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) into an s-SNOM and use it to obtain infrared spectra of microcrystals of chemicals adsorbed onto gold substrates. Residues of the explosive compound tetryl was deposited onto gold substrates. s-SNOM experiments were performed in the 1260-1400 cm?1 tuning range of the ECQCL, corresponding to the NO2 symmetric stretch vibrational fingerprint region. Vibrational infrared spectra were collected on individual chemical domains with a collection area of *500nm2 and compared to ensemble averaged far-field reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) results.

  13. High-power, low-lateral divergence broad area quantum cascade lasers with a tilted front facet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Sangil, E-mail: sangil.ahn@tuwien.ac.at; Schwarzer, Clemens; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald C.; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron M.; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried [Institute for Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a simple technique to improve the beam quality of broad area quantum cascade lasers. Moderately tilted front facets of the laser provide suppression of higher order lateral waveguide modes. A device with a width of 60??m and a front facet angle of 17° shows a nearly diffraction limited beam profile. In addition, the peak output power and the slope efficiency of the device are increased since most of the light inside the cavity is emitted through the tilted front facet by an asymmetric light intensity distribution along the cavity.

  14. Multi-metastable states induced by the optical pump-probe process in terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F.; Guo, X. G., E-mail: xgguo@mail.sim.ac.cn; Wang, C.; Cao, J. C., E-mail: jccao@mail.sim.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Terahertz Solid-State Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical pump-probe process in terahertz quantum cascade lasers is studied theoretically by using the open system simulation method. The emitter injection is considered and the charge neutrality in the active region is broken. We find that nonequilibrium oscillations may appear in the recovery processes. In particular, the formation of different equilibrium values of the population change after the periodic pulse pumping is observed clearly. Here, the phenomenon of multi-metastable states stems from the electron regulation by the emitter injection. Finally, we discuss the important impacts of the equilibrium stabilization time and obtain an in-depth understanding of the emitter injection.

  15. A Five-Level Cascade Multilevel Inverter Three-Phase Motor Drive Using a Single DC Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented showing that a 5-level cascade multilevel inverter for a three-phase permanent magnet sychronous motor drive can be implemented using only a single DC link to supply a standard 3-leg inverter along with three full H-bridges supplied by capacitors. It is shown that the capacitor voltages can be regulated while achieving an output voltage waveform that is 20% greater than that obained using the standard 3-leg inverter alone. Finally conditions are given in terms of the power factor and modulation index that determine when the capacitor voltage can regulated.

  16. A Five-Level Cascade Multilever Invertor Three-Phase Motor Drive Using a Single DC Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiasson, J.N. (Univ. Tennessee-Knoxville)

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented showing that a 5-level cascade multilevel inverter for a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor drive can be implemented using only a single DC link to supply a standard 3-leg inverter along with three full H-bridges supplied by capacitors. It is shown that the capacitor voltages can be regulated while achieving an output voltage waveform that is 20% greater than that obtained using the standard 3-leg inverter alone. Finally conditions are given in terms of the power factor and modulation index that determine when the capacitor voltage can regulated.

  17. Randomized, Multicenter Trial on the Effect of Radiation Therapy on Plantar Fasciitis (Painful Heel Spur) Comparing a Standard Dose With a Very Low Dose: Mature Results After 12 Months' Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niewald, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.niewald@uks.eu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich [Radiotherapy Center, Hamburg (Germany)] [Radiotherapy Center, Hamburg (Germany); Micke, Oliver [Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany)] [Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany); Graeber, Stefan [Institute for Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)] [Institute for Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Muecke, Ralf [Lippe Hospital, Lemgo (Germany)] [Lippe Hospital, Lemgo (Germany); Schaefer, Vera; Scheid, Christine; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Licht, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for painful heel spur, comparing a standard dose with a very low dose. Methods and Materials: Sixty-six patients were randomized to receive radiation therapy either with a total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy twice weekly (standard dose) or with a total dose of 0.6 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 0.1 Gy twice weekly (low dose). In all patients lateral opposing 4- to 6-MV photon beams were used. The results were measured using a visual analogue scale, the Calcaneodynia score, and the SF12 health survey. The fundamental phase of the study ended after 3 months, and the follow-up was continued up to 1 year. Patients with insufficient pain relief after 3 months were offered reirradiation with the standard dosage at any time afterward. Results: Of 66 patients, 4 were excluded because of withdrawal of consent or screening failures. After 3 months the results in the standard arm were highly significantly superior compared with those in the low-dose arm (visual analogue scale, P=.001; Calcaneodynia score, P=.027; SF12, P=.045). The accrual of patients was stopped at this point. Further evaluation after 12 months' follow-up showed the following results: (1) highly significant fewer patients were reirradiated in the standard arm compared with the low-dose arm (P<.001); (2) the results of patients in the low-dose arm who were reirradiated were identical to those in the standard arm not reirradiated (reirradiation as a salvage therapy if the lower dose was ineffective); (3) patients experiencing a favorable result after 3 months showed this even after 12 months, and some results even improved further between 3 and 12 months. Conclusions: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy with 6-Gy doses on painful heel spur even for a longer time period of at least 1 year.

  18. Double Chooz: Latest results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. I. Crespo-Anadón; for the Double Chooz collaboration

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The latest results from the Double Chooz experiment on the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ are presented. A detector located at an average distance of 1050 m from the two reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power plant has accumulated a live time of 467.90 days, corresponding to an exposure of 66.5 GW-ton-year (reactor power $\\times$ detector mass $\\times$ live time). A revised analysis has boosted the signal efficiency and reduced the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties compared to previous publications, paving the way for the two detector phase. The measured $\\sin^2 2\\theta_{13} = 0.090^{+0.032}_{-0.029}$ is extracted from a fit to the energy spectrum. A deviation from the prediction above a visible energy of 4 MeV is found, being consistent with an unaccounted reactor flux effect, which does not affect the $\\theta_{13}$ result. A consistent value of $\\theta_{13}$ is measured in a rate-only fit to the number of observed candidates as a function of the reactor power, confirming the robustness of the result.

  19. Ship Effect Neutron Measurements And Impacts On Low-Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary particles entering the upper atmosphere as cosmic rays create showers in the atmosphere that include a broad spectrum of secondary neutrons, muons and protons. These cosmic-ray secondaries interact with materials at the surface of the Earth, yielding prompt backgrounds in radiation detection systems, as well as inducing long-lived activities through spallation events, dominated by the higher-energy neutron secondaries. For historical reasons, the multiple neutrons produced in spallation cascade events are referred to as “ship effect” neutrons. Quantifying the background from cosmic ray induced activities is important to low-background experiments, such as neutrino-less double beta decay. Since direct measurements of the effects of shielding on the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum are not available, Monte Carlo modeling is used to compute such effects. However, there are large uncertainties (orders of magnitude) in the possible cross-section libraries and the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum for the energy range needed in such calculations. The measurements reported here were initiated to validate results from Monte Carlo models through experimental measurements in order to provide some confidence in the model results. The results indicate that the models provide the correct trends of neutron production with increasing density, but there is substantial disagreement between the model and experimental results for the lower-density materials of Al, Fe and Cu.

  20. First Evidence For Atmospheric Neutrino-Induced Cascades with the IceCube Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Agostino, Michelangelo

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BAIKAL neutrino experiment - physics results andal. The Baikal neutrino telescope: Selected physics results.twentieth-century physics thought neutrino detection would

  1. Results from NEMO 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. L. Flack; for the NEMO 3 collaboration

    2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The NEMO 3 experiment is located in the Modane Underground Laboratory and has been taking data since 2003 with seven isotopes. It is searching for the double beta decay process with two or zero neutrinos emitted in the final state. Precision measurements of the half-life of the isotopes due to two neutrino double beta decay have been performed and new results for 96Zr, 48Ca and 150Nd are presented here. Measurements of this process are important for reducing the uncertainties on the nuclear matrix elements. No evidence for zero neutrino double beta decay has been found and a 90% Confidence Level lower limit on the half-life of this process is derived. From this an upper limit can be set on the effective Majorana neutrino mass using the most recent nuclear matrix elements calculations.

  2. The Cascade of Tidal Energy from Low to High Modes on a Continental Slope SAMUEL M. KELLY* AND JONATHAN D. NASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    affiliation: University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia. Corresponding author address: Samuel M. Kelly, University of Western Australia, M015 SESE, 35 Stirling Hwy., Crawley, WA 6009, Australia. EThe Cascade of Tidal Energy from Low to High Modes on a Continental Slope SAMUEL M. KELLY

  3. TUDE DES CASCADES 03B3201403B3 DANS LA CAPTURE DE NEUTRONS THERMIQUES CONDUISANT AU PREMIER TAT EXCIT DE 200Hg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on 03B3 2014 03B3 cascades which go down from the capturing state to the first excited state. LE JOURNAL montre que l'utilisation de la m6thode de Hoogenboom permettait l'emploi de cristaux d'iodure de sodium celles qui aboutissent aux premiers et second niveaux excites par exemple,. surtout si les intensites des

  4. Ultrafast electron cascades in semiconductors driven by intense femtosecond terahertz pulses H. Wen,1 M. Wiczer,3 and A. M. Lindenberg1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ultrafast electron cascades in semiconductors driven by intense femtosecond terahertz pulses H. Wen processing. With wavelengths in the far infrared, near­ half-cycle THz pulses can be thought of as ultrafast,1 M. Wiczer,3 and A. M. Lindenberg1,2 1PULSE Institute, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo

  5. ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION IN DEREGULATED MARKETS; CONFERENCE AT CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY, PITTSBURGH PA USA DECEMBER 2004 1 A criticality approach to monitoring cascading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    the risk of cascading failure of electric power transmission systems as overall loading is increased failure is the usual mechanism for large blackouts of electric power transmission systems. For example of the electrical infrastructure to society motivates the understanding and analysis of large blackouts. Electric

  6. Hydrogen peroxide detection with quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Wei, E-mail: wr5@rice.edu; Jiang, Wenzhe; Tittel, Frank K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Sanchez, Nancy P.; Griffin, Robert J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Patimisco, Pietro [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università e Politecnico di Bari, Via Amendola 173, Bari 70126 (Italy); Spagnolo, Vincenzo [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università e Politecnico di Bari, Via Amendola 173, Bari 70126 (Italy); Zah, Chung-en; Xie, Feng; Hughes, Lawrence C. [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor system was developed for the sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) using its absorption transitions in the v{sub 6} fundamental band at ?7.73??m. The recent availability of distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers provides convenient access to a strong H{sub 2}O{sub 2} absorption line located at 1295.55?cm{sup ?1}. Sensor calibration was performed by means of a water bubbler that generated titrated average H{sub 2}O{sub 2} vapor concentrations. A minimum detection limit of 12 parts per billion (ppb) corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 4.6?×?10{sup ?9}?cm{sup ?1}W/Hz{sup 1/2} was achieved with an averaging time of 100?s.

  7. Fast Detection and Mitigation of Cascading Outages in the Power System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Chengzong

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    is developed to reduce the chance of relay misoperation. Comprehensive simulation studies have been implemented by using the IEEE 39-bus and 118-bus test systems. The results are promising because: The results from weighted vulnerability analysis could...

  8. Coupled modes analysis of SRS backscattering, with Langmuir decay and possible cascadings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salcedo, Ante, 1969-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments aimed at understanding stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in ICF laser-plasma interactions, suggest that SRS is coupled to the Langmuir decay interaction (LDI). The effects of LDI on the saturation of the ...

  9. Predator diversity strengthens trophic cascades in kelp forests by modifying herbivore behaviour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrnes, J; Stachowicz, J J; Hultgren, K M; Hughes, A R; Olyarnik, S V; Thornber, C S

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. & Richards, D.V. (1997). Kelp Forest Monitoring Hand-P.K. (1985). Ecology of kelp communities. In: Annual ReviewEcosystem effects of ?shing in kelp forest communities. ICES

  10. Transverse Energy production in Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bin Zhang; Yang Pang; Miklos Gyulassy

    1997-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinetic theory is used to check the applicability of parton cascade in 1 dimensional expansion. Using the information provided by 3 dimensional parton cascade, we model the transverse expansion by an effective area. With this model, kinetic theory is able to give prediction of the time development of transverse energy which is in good agreement with the parton cascade results.

  11. Cross-Scale Effects in Solar-Wind Turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentini, F.; Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita della Calabria, 87036 Rende (Serbia and Montenegro) (Italy); Califano, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Mangeney, A. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France)

    2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The understanding of the small-scale termination of the turbulent energy cascade in collisionless plasmas is nowadays one of the outstanding problems in space physics. In the absence of collisional viscosity, the dynamics at small scales is presumably kinetic in nature; the identification of the physical mechanism which replaces energy dissipation and establishes the link between macroscopic and microscopic scales would open a new scenario in the study of turbulent heating in space plasmas. We present a numerical analysis of kinetic effects along the turbulent energy cascade in solar-wind plasmas which provides an effective unified interpretation of a wide set of spacecraft observations and shows that, simultaneously with an increase in the ion perpendicular temperature, strong bursts of electrostatic activity in the form of ion-acoustic turbulence are produced together with accelerated beams in the ion distribution function.

  12. Plans, Implementation, and Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    About the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office (WIPO) including information on plans, implementations, and results.

  13. Electric-field-induced turbulent energy cascade in an oil-in-oil emulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atul Varshney; Mayur Sathe; Shankar Ghosh; Anand Yethiraj; S. Bhattacharya; J. B. Joshi

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We observe electro-hydrodynamically driven turbulent flows at low Reynolds numbers in a two-fluid emulsion consisting of micron-scale droplets. In the presence of electric fields, the droplets produce interacting hydrodynamic flows which result in a dynamical organization at a spatial scale much larger than the size of the individual droplets. We characterize the dynamics associated with these structures by both video imaging and a simultaneous, in situ, measurement of the time variation of the bulk Reynolds stress with a rheometer. The results display scale invariance in the energy spectra in both space and time.

  14. Parametric cascade downconverter for intense ultrafast mid-infrared generation beyond the ManleyRowe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    codes: 190.2620, 190.4970, 320.7160, 320.7110. Intense and ultrafast optical pulses (durations typ of optical sources that directly produce ultrafast intense pulses at long wavelengths. One technique that has from in- tense ultrafast pulses in the near infrared 800 nm . Recent results that produce intense

  15. Frequency dependent analysis of shielded coplanar waveguide single and cascaded step discontinuities by the mode matching technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, Khwaja Mustafizur

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TABLE Page ifumber of terms M and calculated results of CPW eigenmodes. E'r 1 ~ cps 96, ss ? l. , hs ? 3. mm, hr=1. mm, h, =3. mm, a=7. 5 mm, S=2 mm, W ? 1. mm, f 30 GHz 30 Comparison of the effective dielectric constants between our anal- ysis... and i46]. szr ? szs = 1 e s = 9 6, hs 1 mm, hs ? hr ? 3mm, a=7. 5mm, S=2 mm, W=l mm, f=30 GHz, iVI=4 LIST OF FIGURES F ICi'RE Pa, ge Planar transmission bnes used in microwave integrated circuits . . . 3 Various types of microstrip discontinuities...

  16. Hazard analysis results report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemi, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes and defines the Hazard Analysis Results for the Tank Waste Remediation System Final Safety Analysis Report.

  17. The Role of Damage Cascade in the Nanocrystallization of Metallic Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Michael T.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    patience seemed unlimited while he not only assisted, but took a guiding role in teaching me sample preparation and characterization. I also express a special gratitude to Michael Martin, Jesse Carter, Assel Aitkaliveya, Di Chen and Mark Hollander who... during electron stopping in the limit of v Pease model. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 22 7 Illustration of the displacement spike as a result of collisions oc- curring with a displacement mean free path...

  18. A New Proof on Net Upscale Energy Cascade in 2D and QG Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eleftherios Gkioulekas; Ka Kit Tung

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A general proof that more energy flows upscale than downscale in two-dimensional (2D) turbulence and barotropic quasi-geostrophic (QG) turbulence is given. A proof is also given that in Surface QG turbulence, the reverse is true. Though some of these results are known in restricted cases, the proofs given here are pedagogically simpler, require fewer assumptions and apply to both forced and unforced cases.

  19. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

    2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon release groups were pooled across the entire Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam for this report. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.92% with an estimated standard error (dSE) of 0.25% for wild spring and summer Chinook salmon for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2004, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. Only for the 1999 and 2000 release years did the wild Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for wild steelhead from the Snake River Basin averaged 0.63% (dSE = 0.15%), including age-1-ocean returns, for release years 1996 through 2004. For release years when the ocean return probability from Bonneville back to Bonneville could be estimated (i.e., 1999 through 2004), it was estimated that on average approximately 83% of the total integrated mortality for nontransported, tagged wild spring and summer Chinook, and 78% for steelhead (omitting the 2001 release year), occurred during the ocean life stage (i.e., from Bonneville to Bonneville). This suggests that additional monitoring and research efforts should include the ocean and estuary environment. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Lower Granite Dam were available for the 2003 and 2004 release years for both wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead. The estimated T/I for Lower Granite was significantly > 1.0 for Chinook in 2004 (P < 0.0001) and for steelhead in both 2003 (P < 0.0001) and 2004 (P < 0.0001), indicating that for these release years, wild fish transported at Lower Granite returned there in higher proportions than fish that were returned to the river at Lower Granite, or that passed Lower Granite without detection as juveniles. Annual estimates of the dam-specific T/I for Little Goose Dam were available for wild Chinook salmon for both 2003 and 2004. The estimated T/I for Little Goose was significantly > 1.0 for wild Chinook in 2004 (P = 0.0024), but not in 2003 (P = 0.1554). Differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) is the ratio of pos

  20. Soil profile data used in analysis byW.M. Post and L.K. Mann. 1990. Changes in Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen as a Result of Cultivation. Pages. 401-406 in A.F. Bouwman, editor, Soils and the Greenhouse Effect. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Nitrogen as a Result of Cultivation. Pages. 401-406 in A.F. Bouwman, editor, Soils and the Greenhouse Effect. John Wiley & Sons, New York. http://cdiac.ornl.gov/programs/CSEQ/terrestrial/postmann1990

  1. Charged and neutral hyperonic effects on the driplines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Roy Chowdhury; C. Samanta; D. N. Basu

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Modification of neutron and proton driplines by the capture of strange hyperon(s) by normal nuclei has been investigated. A generalised mass formula (BWMH) based on the strangeness dependent extended liquid drop model is used to calculate the binding energy of normal nuclei as well as strange hypernuclei. The neutron (Sn) and proton (Sp) separation energies of all hypernuclei with neutral hyperons Lambda, double Lambda or charged hyperons Cascade(-), Theta(+) inside are calculated using BWMH mass formula. The normal neutron and proton driplines get modified due to the addition of the hyperon(s)(Lambda, double Lambda, Cascade(-), Theta(+) etc.) to the core of normal nuclei. The hypernuclei containing the charged hyperon(s) like those with neutral hyperon(s) have similar nucleon separation energies like core nuclei if proton number instead of net charge is used in the symmetry term. Due to the effect of opposite charges present in Theta(+) and Cascade(-), hyperons their corresponding driplines get separated from each other. All the hyperons modify mean field potential due to strong hyperon-nucleon coupling. Addition of a single charged hyperon in normal nuclei affects the entire proton drip line more prominently than that by neutral hyperon. The neutral hyperonic effect on proton dripline is significant for lighter nuclei than for heavier ones whereas both the charged as well as neutral hyperons affect almost the entire neutron dripline.

  2. Geothermal: Search Results

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search Results Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News Related Links The...

  3. User Survey Results | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have accessed computing resources during the prior year. The results of the most recent survey are posted here with management responses to concerns or issues identified by our...

  4. Cascading of Fluctuations in Interdependent Energy Infrastructures: Gas-Grid Coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chertkov, Michael; Backhaus, Scott

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The revolution of hydraulic fracturing has dramatically increased the supply and lowered the cost of natural gas in the United States driving an expansion of natural gas-fired generation capacity in many electrical grids. Unrelated to the natural gas expansion, lower capital costs and renewable portfolio standards are driving an expansion of intermittent renewable generation capacity such as wind and photovoltaic generation. These two changes may potentially combine to create new threats to the reliability of these interdependent energy infrastructures. Natural gas-fired generators are often used to balance the fluctuating output of wind generation. However, the time-varying output of these generators results in time-varying natural gas burn rates that impact the pressure in interstate transmission pipelines. Fluctuating pressure impacts the reliability of natural gas deliveries to those same generators and the safety of pipeline operations. We adopt a partial differential equation model of natural gas pipeli...

  5. Overview of ALICE results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kryshen, E L

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected ALICE results on the global event properties, particle spectra, azimuthal anisotropy, heavy flavour and quarkonium production in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV are presented. First results on p-Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 5.02 TeV are briefly reviewed.

  6. Diffraction Results from CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulianos, Konstantin

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present final results by the CDF II collaboration on diffractive W and Z production, report on the status of ongoing analyses on diffractive dijet production and on rapidity gaps between jets, and briefly summarize results obtained on exclusive production pointing to their relevance to calibrating theoretical models used to predict exclusive Higgs-boson production at the LHC.

  7. Recent results from TRISTAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enomoto, Ryoji [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRISTAN results on {gamma}{gamma} physics from 1994 to 1995 are reviewed in this report. We have systematically investigated jet production, the {gamma}-structure function, and charm pair production in {gamma}{gamma} processes. The results are discussed, and future prospects are presented.

  8. Activation of the MAP Kinase Cascade by Exogenous Calcium-Sensing Receptor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobson, Susan A.; Wright, Jay W.; Lee, Fred; Mcneil, Scott; Bilderback, Tim R.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Rat-1 fibroblasts and ovarian surface epithelial cells, extracellular calcium induces a proliferative response which appears to be mediated by the G-protein coupled Calcium-sensing Receptor (CaR), as expression of the non-functional CaR-R795W mutant inhibits both thymidine incorporation and activation of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) in response to calcium. In this report we utilized CaR-transfected HEK293 cells to demonstrate that functional CaR is necessary and sufficient for calcium-induced ERK activation. CaR-dependent ERK activation was blocked by co-expression of the Ras dominant-negative mutant, Ras N17, and by exposure to the phosphatidyl inositol 3' kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. In contrast to Rat-1 fibroblasts, CaR-mediated in vitro kinase activity of ERK2 was unaffected by tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin in CaR-transfected HEK293 cells. These results suggest that usage of distinct pathways downstream of the CaR varies in a cell-type specific manner, suggesting a potential mechanism by which activation of the CaR could couple to distinct calcium-dependent responses.

  9. Sensitivity and Scenario Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Winston

    Presents the results of various scenarios using models used to study water, climate, agriculture and the economy in Pakistan's Indus Basin, and discusses the policy and investment implications. The water allocations per ...

  10. Electroweak results from CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. S. Waters

    2004-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Inclusive W and Z production cross-sections have been measured by CDF and certain electroweak parameters extracted with high precision from these measurements. New results on diboson production at the Tevatron are also presented.

  11. Recent MEG results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Cavoto

    2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    New results of a search for the ultra-rare decay $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ by the MEG collaboration are reported in this contribution. The data were taken during 2009 and correspond to approximately 6.5 10$^{13}$ muon stopped on target. A maximum likelihood analysis sets an upper limit at 90\\% C.L. on the branching ratio, BF($\\mu \\to e \\gamma$) $< $1.5 10$^{-11}$. The results presented here are preliminary.

  12. VNI version 4.1. Simulation of high-energy particle collisions in QCD: Space-time evolution of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}...A + B collisions with parton-cascades, cluster-hadronization, final-state hadron cascades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, K.; Longacre, R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; Srivastava, D.K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India)

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VNI is a general-purpose Monte-Carlo event-generator, which includes the simulation of lepton-lepton, lepton-hadron, lepton-nucleus, hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. It uses the real-time evolution of parton cascades in conjunction with a self-consistent hadronization scheme, as well as the development of hadron cascades after hadronization. The causal evolution from a specific initial state (determined by the colliding beam particles) is followed by the time-development of the phase-space densities of partons, pre-hadronic parton clusters, and final-state hadrons, in position-space, momentum-space and color-space. The parton-evolution is described in terms of a space-time generalization of the familiar momentum-space description of multiple (semi)hard interactions in QCD, involving 2 {r_arrow} 2 parton collisions, 2 {r_arrow} 1 parton fusion processes, and 1 {r_arrow} 2 radiation processes. The formation of color-singlet pre-hadronic clusters and their decays into hadrons, on the other hand, is treated by using a spatial criterion motivated by confinement and a non-perturbative model for hadronization. Finally, the cascading of produced prehadronic clusters and of hadrons includes a multitude of 2 {r_arrow} n processes, and is modeled in parallel to the parton cascade description. This paper gives a brief review of the physics underlying VNI, as well as a detailed description of the program itself. The latter program description emphasizes easy-to-use pragmatism and explains how to use the program (including simple examples), annotates input and control parameters, and discusses output data provided by it.

  13. Observation of double resonant laser induced transitions in the $v = n - l - 1 = 2$ metastable cascade of antiprotonic helium-4 atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayano, R S; Tamura, H; Torii, H A; Hori, Masaki; Maas, F E; Morita, N; Kumakura, M; Sugai, I; Hartmann, F J; Daniel, H; Von Egidy, T; Ketzer, B; Pohl, R; Horváth, D; Eades, John; Widmann, E; Yamazaki, T

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new laser-induced resonant transition in the $v=n-l-1=2$ metastable cascade of antiprotonic $^4$He atoms has been found by using a double resonance technique. This was done by setting the first laser to the already known 470.724 nm resonance ($(n,l)=(37,34)\\rightarrow (36,33)$), while the $(38,35)\\rightarrow (37,34)$ transition was searched for with the second laser. The resonant transition was found at wavelength of 529.622$\\pm$0.003 nm, showing excellent agreement with a recent prediction of Korobov.

  14. Plans, Implementation, and Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office carries out technology research, development, and deployment through an ongoing process of planning and analysis, implementation, and review. This Web page includes links to documents that support and document the program management process, and the results and public benefits that derive from it.

  15. Recent results from MAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some preliminary results from the MAC detector at PEP are presented. These include measurements of the angular distribution of ..gamma gamma.., ..mu mu.. and tau tau final states, a determination of the tau lifetime, a measurement of R, and a presentation of the inclusive muon p/sub perpendicular/ distribution for hadronic events.

  16. Stream ecosystem responses to the 2007 spring freeze in the Southeastern United States: unexpected effects of climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Roberts, Brian J [ORNL; Hill, Walter [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some expected changes in climate resulting from human greenhouse gas emissions are clear and well documented, but others may be harder to predict because they involve extreme weather events or heretofore unusual combinations of weather patterns. One recent example of unusual weather that may become more frequent with climate change occurred in early spring 2007 when a large Arctic air mass moved into the eastern United States following a very warm late winter. In this paper, we document effects of this freeze event on Walker Branch, a well-studied stream ecosystem in eastern Tennessee. The 2007 spring freeze killed newly grown leaf tissues in the forest canopy, dramatically increasing the amount of light reaching the stream. Light levels at the stream surface were sustained at levels considerably above those normal for the late spring and summer months due to the incomplete recovery of canopy leaf area. Increased light levels caused a cascade of ecological effects in the stream beginning with considerably higher (two-three times) rates of gross primary production (GPP) during the late spring and summer months when normally low light levels severely limit stream GPP. Higher rates of stream GPP in turn resulted in higher rates of nitrate (NO3-) uptake by the autotrophic community and lower NO3- concentrations in stream water. Higher rates of stream GPP in summer also resulted in higher growth rates of a dominant herbivore, the snail Elimia clavaeformis. Typically, during summer months net NO3- uptake and snail growth rates are zero to negative; however, in 2007 uptake and growth were maintained at moderate levels. These results show how changes in forest vegetation phenology can have dramatic effects on stream productivity at multiple trophic levels and on nutrient cycling as a result of tight coupling of forest and stream ecosystems. Thus, climate change-induced changes in canopy structure and phenology may lead to large effects on stream ecosystems in the future.

  17. RESULTS OF SLICE MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudolph, J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear accelerator ELBE delivers high-brightness electron bunches to multiple user stations, including two IR-FEL oscillators [1], [2]. In the framework of an upgrade program the current thermionic injector is being replaced by a SRF-photoinjector [3], [4]. The SRF injector promises higher beam quality, especially required for future experiments with high power laser radiation. During the commissioning phase, the SRF-injector was running in parallel to the thermionic gun. After installation of a injection beamline (dogleg), beam from the SRF-injector can now be injected into the ELBE linac. Detailed characterization of the electron beam quality delivered by the new electron injector includes vertical slice emittance measurements in addition to measurements of projected emittance values. This report gives an overview of the status of the project and summarizes first measurement results as well as results of simulations performed with measurement settings.

  18. Tevatron Top Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christophe Clement

    2006-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    I present the latest results from the CDF and D0 collaborations on top quark production (single top and top quark pair production) at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at sqrt(s) =1.96 TeV, measurements of the top quark decay properties such as the branching ratio B(t -> Wb), the W helicity in t -> Wb decays, and measurements of fundamental parameters such as the top quark charge and mass.

  19. Enzymatic cascade bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Volponi, Joanne V. (Livermore, CA); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Andrew (Woodinville, WA)

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for continuously converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose. The method comprises a three stage enzymatic reactor in which an aqueous solution of sucrose is first converted into a solution of fructose and .alpha.-D-glucose by passing it through a porous, packed column containing an inert media on which invertase is immobilized. This solution is then sent through a second packed column containing glucose isomerase and finally a third packed column containing mutarotase. Solution temperature and pH are adjusted to maximize glucose output.

  20. Crystal Structure of Cascade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ribbon-like structure (Figure 1). This structure is facilitated by rotation of nucleotides out of the duplex region at six base pair intervals and stabilized by the highly...

  1. Insights into Ubiquitin Transfer Cascades from a Structure of a UbcH5B[is equivalent to]Ubiquitin-HECT[superscript NEDD4L] Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamadurai, Hari B.; Souphron, Judith; Scott, Daniel C.; Duda, David M.; Miller, Darcie J.; Stringer, Daniel; Piper, Robert C.; Schulman, Brenda A.; (SJCH)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In E1-E2-E3 ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation cascades, the E2 first forms a transient E2 {approx} Ub covalent complex and then interacts with an E3 for Ub transfer. For cascades involving E3s in the HECT class, Ub is transferred from an associated E2 to the acceptor cysteine in the HECT domain C lobe. To gain insights into this process, we determined the crystal structure of a complex between the HECT domain of NEDD4L and the E2 UbcH5B bearing a covalently linked Ub at its active site (UbcH5B {approx} Ub). Noncovalent interactions between UbcH5B and the HECT N lobe and between Ub and the HECT domain C lobe lead to an overall compact structure, with the Ub C terminus sandwiched between UbcH5B and HECT domain active sites. The structure suggests a model for E2-to-HECT Ub transfer, in which interactions between a donor Ub and an acceptor domain constrain upstream and downstream enzymes for conjugation.

  2. Recent Results from HAPPEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Michaels

    2006-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    New measurements of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic scattering of 3GeV electrons off hydrogen and helium-4 targets at theta{sub lab} = 6 degrees are reported. The helium-4 result is A = (+6.40 {+-} 0.23 (stat) {+-} 0.12 (syst)) * 10{sup -6}. The hydrogen result is A = (-1.58 {+-} 0.12 (stat) {+-} 0.04 (syst)) * 10{sup -6}. The asymmetry for hydrogen is a function of a linear combination of G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s}, the strange quark contributions to the electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon respectively, and that for helium-4 is a function solely of G{sub E}{sup s}. The combination of the two measurements separates G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s} and provide new limits on the role of strange quarks in the nucleon charge and magnetization distributions. We extract G{sub E}{sup s} = 0.002 {+-} 0.014 {+-} 0.007 at Q{sup 2} = 0.077 GeV{sup 2} and G{sub E}{sup s} + 0.09 G{sub M}{sup s} = 0.007 {+-} 0.011 {+-} 0.006 at Q{sup 2} = 0.109 GeV{sup 2}.

  3. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  4. MELCOR validation results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, C.D.; Byers, R.K.; Shaffer, C.J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent comparisons of MELCOR predictions to three sets of experiments, the ABCOVE Aerosol Experiments, the HDR-V44 Steam Blowdown Experiments, and the Battelle-Frankfurt Gas Mixing Experiments are presentd. All three comparisons involve conditions that are of concern in an LWR containment during a severe accident. MELCOR results are compared to the experimental data and the predictions of at least one other state-of-the-art code for each test. In the ABCOVE comparisons, the MELCOR aerosol modeling is demonstrated. In comparisons to the HDR-V44 Steam Blowdown Experiments, MELCOR predictions of the response of the containment to the release of steam from the primary system are shown, and in the Battelle-Frankfurt comparisons, MELCOR predictions of the diffusion in a containment of an injected hydrogen-nitrogen gas are studied. These comparisons provide critical testing of the MELCOR control volume hydrodynamics package, the radionuclide package, and the flow path package.

  5. Results from NA49

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Hoehne

    2005-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of results from the CERN experiment NA49 is presented with emphasis on most recent measurements. NA49 has systematically studied the dependence of hadron production on energy and system size or centrality. At top-SPS energy the detailed investigation of hadron production, now also extending to elliptic flow of Lambda-baryons and to identified particle yields at high p_t, shows that the created matter behaves in a similar manner as at RHIC energies. In the lower SPS energy range a distinct structure is observed in the energy dependence of the rate of strangeness production and in the slopes of p_t-spectra suggesting the onset of the creation of a deconfined phase of matter.

  6. Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Akrami, Y; Alves, M I R; Arnaud, M; Arroja, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Ballardini, M; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battaglia, P; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bertincourt, B; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Carvalho, P; Casaponsa, B; Castex, G; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Chluba, J; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clemens, M; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Contreras, D; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Di Valentino, E; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Eisenhardt, P R M; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fantaye, Y; Farhang, M; Feeney, S; Fergusson, J; Fernandez-Cobos, R; Feroz, F; Finelli, F; Florido, E; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschet, C; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Frolov, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Gauthier, C; Génova-Santos, R T; Gerbino, M; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Giusarma, E; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Grainge, K J B; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hamann, J; Handley, W; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Heavens, A; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huang, Z; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Ili_, S; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jin, T; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Karakci, A; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kim, J; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lacasa, F; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leahy, J P; Lellouch, E; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Lewis, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; Lindholm, V; Liu, H; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Ma, Y -Z; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Mak, D S Y; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marchini, A; Marcos-Caballero, A; Marinucci, D; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martinelli, M; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McEwen, J D; McGehee, P; Mei, S; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mikkelsen, K; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Moreno, R; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Mottet, S; Müenchmeyer, M; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Narimani, A; Naselsky, P; Nastasi, A; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Negrello, M; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Olamaie, M; Oppermann, N; Orlando, E; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Pandolfi, S; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Peiris, H V; Pelkonen, V -M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrott, Y C; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pogosyan, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roman, M; Romelli, E; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Rotti, A; Roudier, G; d'Orfeuil, B Rouillé; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Ruiz-Granados, B; Rumsey, C; Rusholme, B; Said, N; Salvatelli, V; Salvati, L; Sandri, M; Sanghera, H S; Santos, D; Saunders, R D E; Sauvé, A; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Schammel, M P; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Serra, P; Shellard, E P S; Shimwell, T W; Shiraishi, M; Smith, K; Souradeep, T; Spencer, L D; Spinelli, M; Stanford, S A; Stern, D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Strong, A W; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutter, P; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Texier, D; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tornikoski, M; Tristram, M; Troja, A; Trombetti, T; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vidal, M; Viel, M; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Walter, B; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Welikala, N; Weller, J; White, M; White, S D M; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zibin, J P; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14~May 2009 and scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12~August 2009 and 23~October 2013. In February~2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based on data from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic col...

  7. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, W.C.; LSND Collaboration

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LSND (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) experiment at Los Alamos has conducted a search for muon antineutrino {r_arrow} electron antineutrino oscillations using muon neutrinos from antimuon decay at rest. The electron antineutrinos are detected via the reaction electron antineutrino + proton {r_arrow} positron + neutron, correlated with the 2.2-MeV gamma from neutron + proton {r_arrow} deuteron + gamma. The use of tight cuts to identify positron events with correlated gamma rays yields 22 events with positron energy between 36 and 60 MeV and only 4.6 {+-} 0.6 background events. The probability that this excess is due entirely to a statistical fluctuation is 4.1 {times} 10{sup -8}. A chi-squared fit to the entire positron sample results in a total excess of 51.8 {sup +18.7}{sub -16.9} {+-} 8.0 events with positron energy between 20 and 60 MeV. If attributed to muon antineutrino {r_arrow} electron antineutrino oscillations, this corresponds to an oscillation probability (averaged over the experimental energy and spatial acceptance) of (0.31 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05){percent}. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.H.; LSND Collaboration

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LSND experiment at Los Alamos has conducted a search for {anti v}{sub {mu}} {yields} {anti v}{sub e} oscillations using {anti v}{sub {mu}} from {mu}{sup +} decay at rest. The {anti v}{sub e} are detected via the reaction {anti v}{sub e} p {yields} e{sup +}n, correlated with the 2.2 MeV {gamma} from n p {yields} d {gamma}. The use of tight cuts to identify e{sup +} events with correlated {gamma} rays yielded 22 events with e{sup +} energy between 36 and 60 MeV and only 4.6 {+-} 0.6 background events. The probability that this excess is due entirely to a statistical fluctuation is 4.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}. A {chi}{sup 2} fit to the entire e{sup +} sample results in a total excess of 51.8{sub {minus}16.9}{sup +18.7} {+-} 8.0 events with e{sup +} energy between 20 and 60 MeV. If attributed to {anti v}{sub {mu}} {yields} {anti v}{sub e} oscillations, this corresponds to an oscillation probability (averaged over the experimental energy and spatial acceptance) of 0.31 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05%.

  9. 178 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 24, No. 3 / February 1, 1999 Photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum-cascade lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    of primary impor- tance in applications such as pollution monitoring, biomedical sensing, and atmospheric research. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), based on the pho- toacoustic effect, in which acoustic waves

  10. Part-Per-Trillion Level SF6 Detection Using a Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy-Based Sensor with Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser Excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spagnolo, V.; Patimisco, P.; Borri, Simone; Scamarcio, G.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kriesel, J.M.

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensitive spectroscopic sensor based on a hollow-core fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 10.54 µm and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique is reported. The design and realization of mid-infrared fiber and coupler optics has ensured single-mode QCL beam delivery to the QEPAS sensor . The collimation optics was designed to produce a laser beam of significantly reduced beam size and waist so as to prevent illumination of the quartz tuning fork and micro-resonator tubes. SF6 was selected as the target gas. A minimum detection sensitivity of 50 parts per trillion in 1 s was achieved with a QCL power of 18 mW, corresponding to a normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 2.7x10-10 W•cm-1/Hz1/2.

  11. Phospholipase C{gamma}1 stimulates transcriptional activation of the matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene via the protein kinase C/Raf/ERK cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Soon Young [Institute of Natural Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ha Young [Division of Molecular and Life Science, College of Science and Technology, Department of Bio-Nano Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Bong-Hyun [Cardiovascular Branch National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), NIH Bldg 10/CRC 5-3288 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Min, Do Sik [Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Science, Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Son, Sang Wook [Department of Dermatology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-301 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Han [Division of Molecular and Life Science, College of Science and Technology, Department of Bio-Nano Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: younghan@hanyang.ac.kr

    2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The phospholipid hydrolase phospholipase C{gamma}1 (PLC{gamma}1) plays a major role in regulation of cell proliferation, development, and cell motility. Overexpression of PLC{gamma}1 is associated with tumor development, and it is overexpressed in some tumors. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is a protein involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of PLC{gamma}1 stimulates MMP-3 expression at the transcriptional level via the PKC-mediated Raf/MEK1/ERK signaling cascade. We propose that modulation of PLC{gamma}1 activity might be of value in controlling the activity of MMPs, which are important regulators of invasion and metastasis in malignant tumors.

  12. Seed rain and seed bank of third- and fifth-order streams on the western slope of the cascade range. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, J.M.; Franklin, J.F.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors compared the composition and density of the on-site vegetation, seed bank, and seed rain of three geomorphic and successional surfaces along third- and fifth- order streams on the western slope of the Cascade Range in Oregon. The on-site vegetation generally was dominated by tree species, the seed bank by herb species, and the seed rain by tree and herb species. Seed rain density generally correspond to the successional stage of the geomorphic surface and frequency of site disturbance, with the youngest and least vegetatively stable geomorphic surfaces having the highest density of trapped viable seeds. The highest density and greatest species richness of seed germinants were found on the intermediate-aged geomorphic surfaces, which had moderate levels of disturbance.

  13. High-differential-quantum-efficiency, long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers using five-stage bipolar-cascade active regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koda, R.; Wang, C.S.; Lofgreen, D.D.; Coldren, L.A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Raytheon Vision Systems, Goleta, California 93117 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2005-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present five-stage bipolar-cascade vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting at 1.54 {mu}m grown monolithically on an InP substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. A differential quantum efficiency of 120%, was measured with a threshold current density of 767 A/cm{sup 2} and voltage of 4.49 V, only 0.5 V larger than 5x0.8 V, the aggregate photon energy. Diffraction loss study on deeply etched pillars indicates that diffraction loss is a major loss mechanism for such multiple-active region devices larger than 20 {mu}m. We also report a model on the relationship of diffraction loss to the number of active stages.

  14. High-Dose Hypofractionated Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Is Safe and Effective for Central and Peripheral Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results of a 12-Year Experience at Loma Linda University Medical Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, David A., E-mail: dbush@llu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Cheek, Gregory [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Zaheer, Salman; Wallen, Jason [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Mirshahidi, Hamid [Department of Medical Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Katerelos, Ari; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: We update our previous reports on the use of hypofractionated proton beam radiation therapy for early-stage lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had biopsy-proven non-small cell carcinoma of the lung and were medically inoperable or refused surgery. Clinical workup required staging of T1 or T2, N0, M0. Subjects received hypofractionated proton beam therapy to the primary tumor only. The dose delivered was sequentially escalated from 51 to 60 Gy, then to 70 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Endpoints included toxicity, pulmonary function, overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and local control (LC). Results: One hundred eleven subjects were analyzed for treatment outcomes. The patient population had the following average characteristics; age 73.2 years, tumor size 3.6 cm, and 1.33 L forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The entire group showed improved OS with increasing dose level (51, 60, and 70 Gy) with a 4-year OS of 18%, 32%, and 51%, respectively (P=.006). Peripheral T1 tumors exhibited LC of 96%, DSS of 88%, and OS of 60% at 4 years. Patients with T2 tumors showed a trend toward improved LC and survival with the 70-Gy dose level. On multivariate analysis, larger tumor size was strongly associated with increased local recurrence and decreased survival. Central versus peripheral location did not correlate with any outcome measures. Clinical radiation pneumonitis was not found to be a significant complication, and no patient required steroid therapy after treatment for radiation pneumonitis. Pulmonary function was well maintained 1 year after treatment. Conclusions: High-dose hypofractionated proton therapy achieves excellent outcomes for lung carcinomas that are peripherally or centrally located. The 70-Gy regimen has been adopted as standard therapy for T1 tumors at our institution. Larger T2 tumors show a trend toward improved outcomes with higher doses, suggesting that better results could be seen with intensified treatment.

  15. Search results | Department of Energy

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    1 Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 4 of 4 results. Download Green Fuel This activity allows students the opportunity to explore different methods for...

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    1 Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 5 of 5 results. Download Alternative Fuels Used in Transportation (5 Activities) Gasoline is the most commonly...

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    Elementary (K-5) Teachers Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Article Energy Literacy in Action: Nevada Teachers Helping Students Learn...

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    K-8 Grade Teachers Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Page How Distributed Wind Works Wind generator http:energy.goveerewind...

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    Water Elementary (K-5) Teachers Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy,...

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    Elementary (K-5) Teachers Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Protect Your Climate Curriculum and Training Request projects...

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    Energy Sources Elementary (K-5) Teachers Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy,...

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    Wind Elementary (K-5) Teachers Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity,...

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    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 5 of 5 results. Download Exploring Wind Energy (12 activities) Hands-on activities that provide a comprehensive understanding...

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    Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 4 of 4 results. Download Energy from The Wind (9 activities) Hands-on activities that provide a comprehensive...

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    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 6 of 6 results. Download Exploring Wind Energy (12 activities) Hands-on activities that provide a comprehensive understanding...

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    Wind Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 5 of 5 results. Download Energy Production Students will compare and contrast renewable and nonrenewable...

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    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 7 of 7 results. Download Exploring Wind Energy (12 activities) Hands-on activities that provide a comprehensive understanding...

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    Hydrogen Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Electrolysis of Water Students observe the electrolysis of water using either...

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    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 2 of 2 results. Download Energy Conservation Contract (4 activities) Students learn about saving energy and encourage their...

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    Bioenergy Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Transportation Fuels: The Future is Today (6 Activities) This teacher guide...

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    Bioenergy Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video Energy 101: Feedstocks for Biofuels and More See how organic materials like corn...

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    Solar Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption, and Efficiency...

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    Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption, and Efficiency The...

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    Solar Elementary (K-5) Teachers Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy,...

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    Wind Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Page Advantages and Challenges of Wind Energy Wind energy offers many advantages, which explains...

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    Solar Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video Re-Building Greensburg Civic leaders and entrepreneurs helped rebuild Greensburg, Kansas...

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    Educators Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Energy Literacy Videos New video series, Energy Literacy highlights the 7...

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    Page Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Page Advantages and Challenges of Wind Energy Wind energy offers many advantages, which explains...

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    Wind Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video Re-Building Greensburg Civic leaders and entrepreneurs helped rebuild Greensburg, Kansas...

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    Renewables Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video Re-Building Greensburg Civic leaders and entrepreneurs helped rebuild Greensburg,...

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    Bioenergy Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa Cellulosic biofuels made from agricultural...

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    Video Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa Cellulosic biofuels made from agricultural waste...

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    Vehicles Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa Cellulosic biofuels made from agricultural...

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    Science & Innovation Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa Cellulosic biofuels made from...

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    Renewables Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa Cellulosic biofuels made from agricultural...

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    Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa Cellulosic biofuels made from agricultural waste have...

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    Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 21 - 30 of 21 results. Download Energy Awareness Quiz Students will identify their level of knowledge about energy issues...

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    Energy Efficiency Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa Cellulosic biofuels made from...

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    Technology Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa Cellulosic biofuels made from agricultural...

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    Energy Sources Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa Cellulosic biofuels made from...

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    Science & Technology Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Video A New Biofuels Technology Blooms in Iowa Cellulosic biofuels made from...

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    Energy Efficiency Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 2 of 2 results. Download Understanding Earth's Energy Sources In Part 1, students will know how...

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    Vehicles Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Understanding Earth's Energy Sources In Part 1, students will know how fossil fuels...

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    Energy Economy Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Transportation Fuels: The Future is Today (6 Activities) This teacher guide...

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    Economy Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Transportation Fuels: The Future is Today (6 Activities) This teacher guide provides...

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    Fuel Economy Download Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Alternative Fuels Used in Transportation (5 Activities) Gasoline is...

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    Fuel Economy Download Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Transportation Fuels: The Future is Today (6 Activities) This...

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    Fuel Economy Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Transportation Fuels: The Future is Today (6 Activities) This teacher guide...

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    Energy Economy Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 3 of 3 results. Download Energy Management Students will review energy basics and what they have...

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    Energy Economy Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 4 of 4 results. Download Energy Management Students will review energy basics and what they have...

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    Energy Economy Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 2 of 2 results. Download Energy Transfer 1. Identify a closed system with consevative forces. 2....

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    Energy Economy Download Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 4 of 4 results. Download Energy Management Students will review energy basics and what...

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    Energy Economy Download Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 1 of 1 result. Download Transportation Fuels: The Future is Today (6 Activities) This...

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    Energy Economy Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 2 of 2 results. Download Energy Management Students will review energy basics and what they have...