Sample records for restrictive flow orifice

  1. Gas flow characterization of restrictive flow orifice devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrouf, R.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Safety Engineering Dept.; Page, S.R. [Albuquerque Valve and Fitting Co., NM (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A restrictive flow orifice (RFO) can be used to limit the uncontrolled release of system media upon component or line failure in a gas handling system and can thereby enhance the system safety. This report describes a new RFO product available from the Swagelok Companies and specifies the gas flow characteristics of this device. A family of four different sizes of RFO devices is documented.

  2. Pressure and flow characteristics of restrictive flow orifice devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrouf, Roger D.

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Restrictive Flow Orifice (RFO) can be used to enhance the safe design of a pressure system in several ways. Pressure systems frequently incorporate a regulator and relief valve to protect the downstream equipment from accidental overpressure caused by regulator failure. Analysis frequently shows that in cases of high-flow regulator failure, the downstream pressure may rise significantly above the set pressure of the relief valve. This is due to limited flow capacity of the relief valve. A different regulator or relief valve may need to be selected. A more economical solution to this problem is to use an RFO to limit the maximum system flow to acceptable limits within the flow capacity of the relief valve, thereby enhancing the overpressure protection of laboratory equipment. An RFO can also be used to limit the uncontrolled release of system fluid (gas or liquid) upon component or line failure. As an example, potential asphyxiation hazards resultant from the release of large volumes of inert gas from a 'house' nitrogen system can be controlled by the use of an RFO. This report describes a versatile new Sandia-designed RFO available from the Swagelok Company and specifies the gas flow characteristics of this device. Two sizes, 0.010 and 0.020 inch diameter RFOs are available. These sizes will allow enhanced safety for many common applications. This new RFO design are now commercially available and provide advantages over existing RFOs: a high pressure rating (6600 psig); flow through the RFO is equal for either forward or reverse directions; they minimize the potential for leakage by incorporating the highest quality threaded connections; and can enhance the safety of pressure systems.

  3. Orifice flow measurement uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samples, C.R.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer program is now available from Union Carbide that evaluates the total flow uncertainty of orifice flowmeter systems. Tolerance values for every component in the system and the sensitivity of the measured flowrate to each component can be established using historical data and published hardware specifications. Knowing the tolerance and sensitivity values, a total measurement uncertainty can be estimated with a 95% confidence level. This computer program provides a powerful design tool to ensure correct component matching and total metering system optimization.

  4. New flow equation for orifices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, K.R.; Eubank, P.T.; Holste, J.C.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Orifices have been used to measure flowrate for thousands of years, but economic pressures recently have dictated a careful evaluation of the procedure. The National Bureau of Standards currently has two major research programs (funded by API and GRI) underway with the goals of increasing the accuracy and range of orifice measurements. The equations presented in this work represent a significant departure from those normally used. The new expressions are equally rigorous and possess many advantages compared with the conventional relationships.

  5. Theoretical uncertainty of orifice flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husain, Z.D. [Daniel Flow Products, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Orifice meters are the most common meters used for fluid flow measurement, especially for measuring hydrocarbons. Meters are rugged, mechanically simple, and well suited for field use under extreme weather conditions. Because of their long history of use and dominance in the fluid flow measurement, their designs, installation requirements, and equations for flow rate calculation have been standardized by different organizations in the United States and internationally. These standards provide the guideline for the users to achieve accurate flow measurement. and minimize measurement uncertainty. This paper discusses different factors that contribute to the measurement inaccuracy and provide an awareness to minimize or eliminate these errors. Many factors which influence the overall measurement uncertainty are associated with the orifice meter application. Major contributors to measurement uncertainty include the predictability of flow profile, fluid properties at flowing condition, precision of empirical equation for discharge coefficient, manufacturing tolerances in meter components, and the uncertainty associated with secondary devices monitoring the static line pressure, differential pressure across the orifice plate, flowing temperature, etc. Major factors contributing to the measurement uncertainty for a thin, concentric, square-edged orifice flowmeter are as follows: (a) Tolerances in prediction of coefficient of discharge, (b) Predictability in defining the physical properties of the flowing fluid, (c) Fluid flow condition, (d) Construction tolerances in meter components, (e) Uncertainty of secondary devices/instrumentation, and (f) Data reduction and computation. Different factors under each of the above areas are discussed with precautionary measures and installation procedures to minimize or eliminate measurement uncertainty.

  6. A slotted orifice plate used as a flow measurement device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macek, Michael Lee

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard orifice plate is used extensively by the natural gas industry for the metering of fuel. Because of the costs associated with errors in flow measurement inherent with the use of a standard orifice plate, any improvements upon...

  7. Development of slotted orifice flow conditioner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihfe, Larry Michael

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concentric rings of radial slots. The porosity of each ring varied so that the conditioner generated a six step parabolic profile similar to the profile tested with Fluent The overall porosity of the parabolic conditioner was 25. 1'/o, which is lower than... 19 Velocity Profile Procedure . Co Measurement Procedure Data Reduction . . . . . . 19 21 22 RESULTS 24 LDA Velocity Profile and Turbulence Intensity Analysis 24 Tube Bundle, Uniform Slotted Orifice Flow Conditioner . . Parabolic Slotted...

  8. Cavitation in an Orifice Flow , W. A. Sirignano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    Cavitation in an Orifice Flow S. Dabiri , W. A. Sirignano Department of Mechanical and Aerospace the potential locations for cavitation induced by total stress on the flow of a liquid through an orifice. The total-stress criterion for cavitation is applied to find the regions where cavitation is likely to occur

  9. The flow of water through small orifices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lock, Jack Allen

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    , tend to in- dicate that any of these orif'ices (1/d ranging from 1. 61 to 6. 5) could have been individually calibrated and used with a high degree of accuracy for metering purposes in a range below the transition region. It has previously been... postu- lated that orii'ices of these proportions could not, even with individual calibration, be used with confidence oi' accuracy. The tests on orifices having various degrees of rough- ness at the entrance, tend to indicate tha. slight differences...

  10. Recent developments in orifice meter and flow conditioner research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaNasa, P.J. [CPL and Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1969 concerns were raised regarding the validity of the orifice meter`s coefficient of discharge uncertainty. An effort to resolve these concerns resulted in an internationally supported research project which produced a new sharp-edged concentric orifice meter empirical database and coefficient of discharge equation. However, the new empirical database and coefficient of discharge equation did not account for all of the differences being encountered in orifice metering. And in 1986, as a derivative of the coefficient of discharge equation research, questions were raised regarding the influences of installation effects on the orifice meter`s coefficient of discharge. The 1986 EC research data indicated that the flow conditioner and straight pipe installation requirements of the flow measurement standards were inadequate to prevent biasing of the orifice meter`s coefficient of discharge by flow disturbances generated from upstream piping elements. Data generated from 1990 through 1993 by GRI sponsored SWRI and NIST research confirmed the original EC biasing and further identified differential pressure tap radial position sensitivity and velocity profile and swirl angle theory deficiencies. Current research is continuing to define installation effects influences and identify possible solutions.

  11. Advanced computational simulation of flow phenomena associated with orifice meters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freitas, C.J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents and discusses results from a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of fluid flow phenomena associated with orifice meters. These simulations were performed using a new, state-of-the-art CFD code developed at Southwest Research Institute. This code is based on new techniques designed to take advantage of parallel computers to increase computational performance and fidelity of simulation results. This algorithm uses a domain decomposition strategy to create grid systems for very complex geometries composed of simpler geometric subregions, allowing for the accurate representation of the fluid flow domain. The domain decomposition technique maps naturally to parallel computer architectures. Here, the concept of message-passing is used to create a parallel algorithm, using the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) library. This code is then used to simulate the flow through an orifice meter run consisting of an orifice with a beta ratio of 0.5 and air flowing at a Reynolds number of 91,100. The work discussed in this paper is but the first step in developing a Virtual Metering Research Facility to support research, analysis, and formulation of new standards for metering.

  12. Evaluation of a slotted orifice plate flow meter using horizontal two phase flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Anita Elena

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EVALUATION OF A SLOTTED ORIFICE PLATE FLOW METER USING HORIZONTAL TWO PHASE FLOW A Thesis by ANITA ELENA FLORES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2000 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EVALUATION OF A SLOTTED ORIFICE PLATE FLOW METER USING HORIZONTAL TWO PHASE FLOW A Thesis by ANITA ELENA FLORES Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  13. A study of the coherent structures and installation effects in an orifice flow meter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pattabhi, Srikanth

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    . Errors on the order of approximately 250 millions of dollar per year have been estimated for the natural gas industry. The urgent need to improve the accuracy has fueled basic research in the area of orifice flow meters. The objectives of this present... study were to analyze the coherent structures present in an orifice flow meter, and to examine the effect of a flow conditioner placed upstream of the orifice plate on the flow meter's accuracy, The coherent structures were measured by performing...

  14. Two-phase flow characteristics in multiple orifice valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alimonti, Claudio [Sapienza University of Rome, Department ICMA, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Roma (Italy); Falcone, Gioia; Bello, Oladele [The Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3116 TAMU, Richardson Building, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents an experimental investigation on the characteristics of two-phase flow through multiple orifice valve (MOV), including frictional pressure drop and void fraction. Experiments were carried out using an MOV with three different sets of discs with throat thickness-diameter ratios (s/d) of 1.41, 1.66 and 2.21. Tests were run with air and water flow rates ranging between 1.0 and 3.0 m{sup 3}/h, respectively. The two-phase flow patterns established for the experiment were bubbly and slug. Two-phase frictional multipliers, frictional pressure drop and void fraction were analyzed. The determined two-phase multipliers were compared against existing correlations for gas-liquid flows. None of the correlations tested proved capable of predicting the experimental results. The large discrepancy between predicted and measured values points at the role played by valve throat geometry and thickness-diameter ratio in the hydrodynamics of two-phase flow through MOVs. A modification to the constants in the two-phase multiplier equation used for pipe flow fitted the experimental data. A comparison between computed frictional pressure drop, calculated with the modified two-phase multiplier equation and measured pressure drop yielded better agreement, with less than 20% error. (author)

  15. Cavitation in an orifice flow S. Dabiri and W. A. Sirignano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    Cavitation in an orifice flow S. Dabiri and W. A. Sirignano Department of Mechanical and Aerospace locations for cavitation induced by total stress on the flow of a liquid through an orifice of an atomizer. The total-stress criterion for cavitation is applied to find the regions where cavitation is likely to occur

  16. Cavitation in flow through a micro-orifice inside a silicon microchannel Chandan Mishra and Yoav Pelesa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    Cavitation in flow through a micro-orifice inside a silicon microchannel Chandan Mishra and Yoav) Hydrodynamic cavitation in flows through a micro-orifice entrenched in a microchannel has been detected. The flow of de-ionized water through the micro-orifice reveals the presence of multifarious cavitating flow

  17. Identification of whistling ability of a single hole orifice from an incompressible flow simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacombe, Romain; Moussou, Pierre [LaMSID - UMR EDF/CNRS/CEA, DEN-DM2S, 8193 EDF R et D, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Auregan, Yves [Universite du Maine, Le Mans, (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure tone noise from orifices in pipe result from vortex shedding with lock-in. Acoustic amplification at the orifice is coupled to resonant condition to create self-sustained oscillations. One key feature of this phenomenon is hence the ability of an orifice to amplify acoustic waves in a given range of frequencies. Here a numerical investigation of the linear response of an orifice is undertaken, with the support of experimental data for validation. The study deals with a sharp edge orifice. Its diameter equals to 0.015 m and its thickness to 0.005 m. The pipe diameter is 0.030 m. An air flow with a Mach number 0.026 and a Reynolds number 18000 in the main pipe is present. At such a low Mach number; the fluid behavior can reasonably be described as locally incompressible. The incompressible Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved with the help of a finite volume fluid mechanics software. The orifice is submitted to an average flow velocity, with superimposed small harmonic perturbations. The harmonic response of the orifice is the difference between the upstream and downstream pressures, and a straightforward calculation brings out the acoustic impedance of the orifice. Comparison with experiments shows that the main physical features of the whistling phenomenon are reasonably reproduced. (authors)

  18. A field example of a gas orifice meter with debris-ridden liquid in mist flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chisholm, J.L.; Mooney, C.V. [Texas A and M Univ., Kingsville, TX (United States); Datta-Barua, L.; Feldmann, R.J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A field example of debris-ridden liquids in an orifice meter is presented in this paper. Flow conditions in gas pipelines containing hydrocarbon liquids and particulate matter are discussed. Known effects on measurement of the presence of these materials in orifice meters is presented. By definition, gas measurement is accurate if performed on a clean and dry flow stream. This paper demonstrates the importance of removing as much liquid and debris as possible prior to measurement.

  19. Numerical study of the effects of upstream flow condition upon orifice flow meter performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, G.L.; Panak, D.L.; DeOtte, R.E. Jr. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental work has shown that when the mean velocity profile upstream of an orifice plate has a deficit on the centerline and higher velocities at the outer edges of the pipe, the pressure drop across the orifice is greater than if the flow upstream is fully developed. It is proposed that this increase in [Delta]P is directly correlated with the radial distribution of momentum upstream of the orifice plate. In an effort to investigate how the upstream flow condition affects the pressure distribution along the pipe wall and to determine if the hypothesis is correct, Creare.X Inc. 's FLUENT numerical analysis program was used to simulate the effects. Two [beta] ratios (0.50 and 0.75) have been considered with various mean velocity inlet profiles. Inlet profiles include the 1/16th, 1/7th, 1/8th, 1/9th and 1/10th power law power law, uniform flow, and two linear distributions. The results indicate that there is a correlation between the second and third-order moments of momentum and the value of the discharge coefficient. This empirical correlation, after being fully verified by experimental data, can be used to estimate the change in the coefficient of discharge given the inlet velocity profile.

  20. Results mixed from pulsating flow tests of orifice-plate meters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasi, J.A. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Tananger (Norway))

    1992-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that laboratory tests on several commercially available orifice-plate meters for use in pulsating flow indicate that none yields acceptable accuracy. These tests suggested, however, that if the objective of monitoring pulsating flow is to indicate or quantify pulsation magnitudes for comparisons, then at least two instruments are acceptable. Use of such meters, particularly in low flow rate gathering systems, can be a viable alternative to attempting to reduce the intensity (amplitude and frequency) of pulsation by expensive installation and maintenance of chokes and bottles. Phillips Petroleum Co. set out to find a meter that would be sensitive enough to measure pulsating hydrocarbon flows with acceptable accuracy using the orifice plate. Several orifice measurement systems were simultaneously investigated at the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio (SwRI).

  1. The impact assessment of eccentric installation and roughness change in piping on the orifice flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishi, Y.; Eguchi, Y.; Nishihara, T.; Kanai, T.; Kondo, M. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry CRIEPI, 2-11-1 Iwado Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In orifice flowmeters used in nuclear power plants, requirements for the inner surface roughness of upstream piping and eccentric installation exist depending on certain standards. If these cannot be satisfied based on the installation condition, an appropriate error margin must be considered, although this remains to be clarified. In this research, quantitative data concerning the relative error of orifice flowmeters were obtained during experiments with the parameters of the inner surface roughness of upstream piping and the installation eccentricity of the orifice hole. The maximum Reynolds number of the experimental facility is about 1.6x10{sup 6}. In orifice flowmeters, the flow rate is calculated based on the differential pressure between upstream and downstream orifices and the peculiar discharge coefficient C. The latter value shows an upward trend with increasing roughness of piping, while change of 0.3% of C was observed in terms of roughness (case 2), which approaches the limits of the JIS standard. With significant roughness (Case 3) that exceeds five times the JIS standard, C is shown to have increased by about 1%. No influence was observed by varying the direction of eccentric installation, hence this was fixed and the amount of eccentricity was considered. Change in C of about 0.25% was observed when around twice the standard level of eccentricity was applied. The error margin data under conditions exceeding the JIS standard for the orifice flowmeter was obtained. (authors)

  2. Two-Phase Flow of Two HFC Refrigerant Mixtures Through Short Tube Orifices, Draft Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, W. V.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study presents data for flow of two refrigerant mixtures through short tube orifices. The two mixtures were R3211251134a (23%/25%/52% on a mass percentage basis) and R321125 (50%/50%). The following presents results for the flow...

  3. 3rd International symposium on fluid flow measurement effects of acoustic noise on orifice meters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, R.; Graham, P.; Drew, W.A. [Engineering Research Station, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that in-pipe acoustic noise can cause errors in orifice plate metering. The international metering community voted this topic as the highest priority for further research during a {open_quotes}working{close_quotes} held at N.T.I.S. in 1983. Most published work to date has been concerned with periodic, low frequency noise or pulsations, as encountered on reciprocating compressor installations where errors or their side effects may be readily noticed. Many orifice metering locations are, however, subject to high frequency noise emanating from control valves and centrifugal compressors. High frequency in-pipe noise is seldom suspected as a source of metering error and consequently it is a neglected topic. Square root error, which stems form the non-linear flow-differential pressure relationship of an orifice plate, has been well researched for low frequencies but the work has not been extended to high frequencies. To investigate this topic, high pressure studies at the British Gas Bishop Auckland Test Facility were carried out with a noise source (a pressure drop across a ball valve) and a 600 mm 0.4 {beta} orifice meter. These studies identified the effect of high frequency acoustic noise on orifice plate accuracy.

  4. Why Insertion Turbine Meters are Replacing Orifice Plates for Steam Flow Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusnak, J. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WHY INSERTION TURBINE MBTBRS A E REPLACING ORIFICE PLATES FOR STEAM FLOW MEASURE ENT J. J. Rusnak Engineering Measurements Company Longmont, Colorado ABSTRACT Flow measurement is a complex and application related discipline. It borders... to be instrumented quickly, economically and without dis rupting production; and further, these meters had to be accurate in order to be useful in making energy saving decisions. Thus, the entry of the insertion turbine meter for steam in 1975. Since then it has...

  5. Mass flow characteristics of R-407C through short-tube orifices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, W.V. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); O`Neal, D.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mass flow characteristics of the R-22 replacement refrigerant R-407C were measured for multiphase flow through sharp-edged short-tube orifices with length-to-diameter ratios from 6.5 to 23.2. All test conditions were a combination of condensing temperatures ranging from 35.0 C (95 F) to 51.7 C (125 F) and evaporating temperatures ranging from {minus}1.1 C (30 F) to 10 C (50 F). Short-tube orifices 12.70 mm (0.5 in.), 19.05 mm (0.75 in.), and 25.4 mm (1.0 in.) in length with diameters ranging from 1.09 mm (0.0432 in.) to 1.94 mm (0.0763 in.) were tested. The effects of downstream pressure, upstream subcooling/quality, upstream pressure, diameter, and length on the mass flow rate of refrigerant through a given orifice geometry were presented. The R-407C data were fit to a semi-empirical model developed previously. The accuracy of the model was also discussed.

  6. Creating Small Gas Bubbles in Flowing Mercury Using Turbulence at an Orifice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL; Paquit, Vincent C [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to create cavitation damage to the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, creating such a population in mercury is difficult due to the high surface tension and particularly the non-wetting behavior of mercury on gas-injection hardware. If the larger injected gas bubbles can be broken down into small bubbles after they are introduced to the flow, then the material interface problem is avoided. Research at the Oak Ridge National Labarotory is underway to develop a technique that has shown potential to provide an adequate population of small-enough bubbles to a flowing spallation target. This technique involves gas injection at an orifice of a geometry that is optimized to the turbulence intensity and pressure distribution of the flow, while avoiding coalescence of gas at injection sites. The most successful geometry thus far can be described as a square-toothed orifice having a 2.5 bar pressure drop in the nominal flow of 12 L/s for one of the target inlet legs. High-speed video and high-resolution photography have been used to quantify the bubble population on the surface of the mercury downstream of the gas injection sight. Also, computational fluid dynamics has been used to optimize the dimensions of the toothed orifice based on a RANS computed mean flow including turbulent energies such that the turbulent dissipation and pressure field are best suited for turbulent break-up of the gas bubbles.

  7. Predicting the pressure driven flow of gases through micro-capillaries and micro-orifices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, B.L.; Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large body of experimentally measured gas flow rates were obtained from the literature and then compared to the predictions obtained with constitutive flow equations. This was done to determine whether the equations apply to the predictions of gas flow rates from leaking containment vessels used to transport radioactive materials. The experiments consisted of measuring the volumetric pressure-driven flow of gases through micro-capillaries and micro-orifices. The experimental results were compared to the predictions obtained with the equations given in ANSI N14.5 the American National Standard for Radioactive Materials-Leakage Tests on Package for Shipment. The equations were applied to both (1) the data set according to the recommendations given in ANSI N14.5 and (2) globally to the complete data set. It was found that: The continuum and molecular flow equation provided good agreement between the experimental and calculated flow rates for flow rates less than about 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s. The choked flow equation resulted in over-prediction of the flow rates for flow rates less than about 1 atm-cm{sup 3}/s. For flow rates higher than 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s, the molecular and continuum flow equation over-predicted the measured flow rates and the predictions obtained with the choked flow equation agreed well with the experimental values. Since the flow rates of interest for packages used to transport radioactive materials are almost always less than 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s, it is suggested that the continuum and molecular flow equation be used for gas flow rate predictions related to these applications.

  8. Prediction of flow rates through an orifice at pressures corresponding to the transition between molecular and isentropic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMuth, S.F.; Watson, J.S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of compressible flow through an orifice, in the region of transition from free molecular to isentropic expansion flow, has been developed and tested for accuracy. The transitional or slip regime is defined as the conditions where molecular interactions are too many for free molecular flow modeling, yet not great enough for isentropic expansion flow modeling. Due to a lack of literature establishing a well-accepted model for predicting transitional flow, it was felt such work would be beneficial. The model is nonlinear and cannot be satisfactorily linearized for a linear regression analysis. Consequently, a computer routine was developed which minimized the sum of the squares of the residual flow for the nonlinear model. The results indicate an average accuracy within 15% of the measured flow throughout the range of test conditions. Furthermore, the results of the regression analysis indicate that the transitional regime lies between Knudsen numbers of approximately 2 and 45. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Pulsation effects on orifice measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doelling, C. (Pipeline and Compressor Research Council, Tulsa, OK (US))

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural gas transmission industry has historically relied on the orifice as the contractual standard for custody transfer. The simplicity, reliability, low maintenance, rangeability (afforded by changing plate beta ratios) and repeatability of the orifice, together with reliable secondary systems, has dispelled flow measurement replacement attempts. While an influx of other meter types has occurred in recent years, the dominance of orifice meters dictate that any serious attempt at improved gas measurement accuracy must emphasize all phases of orifice meter installation. This paper reports on unsteady flow (pulsation) which can compromise orifice system accuracy. Instruments and error calculations for pulsation are reviewed.

  10. Effects of geometric scaling on static pressure measurements in orifice flow-meters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarker, Arunava

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    . (Mech) University of Mysore, India Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. G. L. Morrison It is estimated that there are over one million orifice meters in operation today in the United States of America. . The accuracy of these meters.... It is estimated that there are over one million orifice meters in operation today in the United States of America. The accuracy of these meters is such that uncertainties of millions of dollars a year result from their use [1]. The basic idea employed...

  11. 3-D laser Doppler velocimetry study of incompressible flow through an orifice plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panak, David Leo

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. Gerald Morrison Orifice meters are used extensively in the U. S. for the measurement of natural gas. Uncertainty of metering accuracy has resulted in an estimated 250 million dollars annually in mis-charges. This has led... to the need for basic research on orifice meters in an attempt to improve the accuracy of existing metering facilities. The objective of this present study was to use a 3-D LDV (laser Doppler velocimeter) to obtain detailed velocity and turbulence...

  12. Choked-Flow Inlet Orifice Bubbler for Creating Small Bubbles in Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL] [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, induce cavitation damage on the target container. The cavitation damage is thought to limit the lifetime of the target for power levels at and above 1 MW. One way to mitigate the damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, creating a bubble size distribution that is sufficiently large and disperse in mercury is challenging due to the high surface tension. Also, measuring the population is complicated by the opacity and the high level of turbulent mixing. Recent advances in bubble diagnostics by batch sampling the mercury made it possible to compare bubble populations for different techniques in a SNS-1/20th scale test loop. More than 10 bubblers were tested and the most productive bubblers were taken for in-beam testing at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) WNR user facility. One bubbler design, referred to as the inlet-orifice bubbler, that showed moderate success in creating populations also has an added advantage that it could easily be included in the existing SNS full-scale mercury target configuration. Improvements to the bubbler were planned including a reduction of the nozzle size to choke the gas injection, thus steadying the injected mass flow and allowing multiple nozzles to work off of a common plenum. For the first time, reliable bubble population data are available in the prototypical target geometry and can be compared with populations that mitigated cavitation damage. This paper presents those experimental results.

  13. Evaluation of a Close Coupled Slotted Orifice, Electrical Impedance, and Swirl Flow Meters for Multiphase Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cevik, Muhammet

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    homogenized flow for several pipe diameters downstream of the plate. This characteristic provides a homogeneous mixture at the inlet of the swirl meter, and impedance probe for gas volume fraction measurement (GVF). In order to evaluate the performance...

  14. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ACCURACY OF MAGENTIC RESONANCE PHASE VELOCITY MAPPING IN TURBULENT FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pidaparthi, Sahitya

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping (MRPVM) is an established clinical technique to measure blood flow. The acquired information can be used to diagnose a… (more)

  15. Two-Phase Flow of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a through Short Tube Orifices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yongchan, K.

    2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    and pressure conditions were those typically found in air-conditioner and heat pump applications. Effects of each operating parameters and short tube geometry on the flow rate were discussed and included in the modeling. Both an analytical and semi...

  16. Theory versus experimental results and comparisons for five orifice-compensated hybrid bearing configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franchek, Nancy Marie

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). . . . . . 16 Static Loader (Kurtin, et al. , 1991). . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Dynamic Excitation (Childs, Hale, and Rouvas, 1991). . . . . 18 Hydrostatic Bearing (Rowe, 1983) Pressure Distribution for an Orifice-Compensated Circular Hydrostatic Pad (Rowe... hydrostatic bearing, shown in Fig. 12, is an externally pressurized journal bearing which employs compensation (i. e. , flow restriction) devices to pro- vide both stability and load support for the journal. This compensation is accomplished by injecting a...

  17. A 3D laser doppler velocimetry study of the upstream velocity profile effects upon the flow field inside an orifice flowmeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robic, Bernard Francois

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    of metering accuracy has resulted in an estimated tens of millions of dollars of annual mischarges for gas companies. This has led to basic research on methods to improve orifice meter accuracy. Those investigations underline the importance of the upstream...

  18. Impact of orifice metering uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, J.W. (Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent utility study, attributed 38% of its unaccounted-for UAF gas to orifice metering uncertainty biasing caused by straightening vanes. How this was determined and how this applied to the company's orifice meters is described. Almost all (97%) of the company's UAF gas was found to be attributed to identifiable accounting procedures, measurement problems, theft and leakage.

  19. Fundamentals of orifice meter chart recorders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whigham, S.E. [SEWCO Sales & Service, Amarillo, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The differential pressure chart recorder used to measure fluid flow through an orifice plate has gone through several design changes since it`s inception some sixty years ago. The present unit on the market uses two fluid filled bellows units connected together. One bellows senses the upstream pressure before the orifice plate, and the other bellows senses the downstream pressure after the orifice plate. This pressure differential created by fluid flow through the orifice plate moves the connected bellows on the back of the chart recorder, which are mechanically linked, by a rotating torque tube through the rear of the case, to the internal case linkage that is connected to an inking pen scribing a line on a circular chart. The ink line on a linear calibrated chart is proportional to the square of the now rate. While the significant information on proper recorder installation will be covered in the classroom. Due to space limitations, this paper will concentrate on a recommended method to precisely calibrate the chart recorder for maximum accuracy of measurement. The basic calibration procedure for the different pressure chart recorder (i.e. set zero, full scale and mid scale) has been taught for years. This paper does not intend to rehash old procedures that are fairly universally known. What this paper does present is a method to achieve a more accurate, more precise calibration than is prescribed in any manufacturer`s literature - and, at the same time, explain why this procedure is more accurate. In addition to being more accurate, this procedure has been proven to be faster than the compromise methods most recorder manufacturers advocate.

  20. Condensate Removal by Drain Orifice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzick, L. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Originally the Drain Orifice Assembly was developed to solve serious steam trap maintenance problems in Navy ship's high pressure systems. Installation was between two ANSI B16.5 Flanges. The high pressure systems operate at pressures between 150...

  1. Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice`s interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figs.

  2. A study of swirl and axial velocity profile effects on orifice flowmeters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hauglie, Jayden Edward

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with [ ] ratios of 0.43, 0.45, 0.484, 0.55, 0.6, 0.65, 0.7 and 0.726 are studied at both flow rates. The response of each orifice meter to the disturbance is measured by determining the axial pressure distribution near the orifice plate, and by determining...

  3. The effect of pipe diameter on orifice mixers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomme, Warren James

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in kerosene, V is the total rate of flow in gallons per minute~ DO is the orifice diameter and A is the interfacial area in square centimeters per cubic centimeter of dispersion. This correlation indicated a linear relationship between the velocity... function of the change in kinetic energy across the orifice and the volume fraction of water in kerosene. Also considered was a correlation based on dimensional analysis. The first of these two correlations is as follows: il 1 661 (P)o. il4) (/ //0)0'V...

  4. Chevron facility focused on commercial orifice-meter research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E.H.; Ferguson, K.R.

    1987-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Research to determine the accuracy of commercial orifice meters for custody-transfer measurement has indicated that high-volume gas meters can be flow-proven while in such service. The research further yielded more accurate orifice-meter discharge coefficient equations (at Reynolds numbers greater than 4,000,000) than current equations of the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). These are partial findings of a major study conducted by Chevron Oil Field Research Co. at its Venice, La., calibration facility.

  5. Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA); Giammarise, Anthony W. (Erie, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  6. Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, Paul L. (5139 Fox Park Dr., Fairview, PA 16415); Giammarise, Anthony W. (527 Lincoln Ave., Erie, PA 16505)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance toerosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  7. Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1991-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

  8. Test procedures help ensure accuracy of orifice meters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fillman, C.R. [Coastal Flow Measurement, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Orifice meter measurement with a chart recorder has been a standard in the petroleum industry for years. The meter consists of the plate/tube and recorder, requires minimal maintenance and can accurately measure a wide range of flow rates. It must be routinely tested to ensure sustained accuracy. The orifice meter measures differential pressure, static pressure, and temperature. However, the accuracy of the measurement is only as good as the calibration devices used in the test. A typical meter test consists of meter calibration, orifice plate inspection, quality of gas tests, and documentation (test report) to verify the data. The paper describes 19 steps that a gas technician can follow to conduct a thorough meter test.

  9. Station design using orifice meters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upp, E.L. (Daniel Industries, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that proper meter station design using gas orifice meters must include consideration of a number of factors to minimize operation and maintenance problems while obtaining the best accuracy over the life of the station. A station should provide accuracy, be safe, functional, economical and free of undue maintenance. It should comply with all codes, reports and specifications but most of all it should be able to comply with terms set forth in the contract. All measuring stations should be designed with considerations of growth or reductions in volume. It should be attractive and built to last for many years.

  10. The Formation of a Bubble from a Submerged Orifice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, Jonathan A; Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of a single bubble from an orifice in a solid surface, submerged in an in- compressible, viscous Newtonian liquid, is simulated. The finite element method is used to capture the multiscale physics associated with the problem and to track the evolution of the free surface explicitly. The results are compared to a recent experimental analysis and then used to obtain the global characteristics of the process, the formation time and volume of the bubble, for a range of orifice radii; Ohnesorge numbers, which combine the material parameters of the liquid; and volumetric gas flow rates. These benchmark calculations, for the parameter space of interest, are then utilised to validate a selection of scaling laws found in the literature for two regimes of bubble formation, the regimes of low and high gas flow rates.

  11. Two phase mixing comparison, oil contamination comparison and manufacturing accuracy effect on calibration of slotted orifice meters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Sara A.

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    are visually documented. The effect of manufacturing accuracy on the slotted orifice plates is investigated as to the effect on the coefficient of discharge, percent change in pressure, and Reynolds number. The slotted orifice plate mixes two-phase flow better...

  12. Effects of abnormal conditions on accuracy of orifice measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, W.B. [NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary (Canada)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The orifice meter is a remarkable paradox. Despite its incredible longevity and simple appearance, we`ve only begun to truly understand how its installation affects its performance. Hundreds of thousands of orifice meters are used for custody transfer around the world and every resulting transaction implies a base level of trust in the technology. Over the last 10 to 15 years we`ve learned more about the physics of flow measurement in {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}non-ideal{close_quotes} flow conditions. In many cases, the laboratory work confirms the experience of industry but there have been a few interesting surprises, too. The intended audience of this paper are users and/or designers of orifice meter facilities who want to know more about the contemporary issues, terminology, and results of research into abnormal metering conditions. Because of its introductory nature, this paper doesn`t attempt to squeeze twenty years if scientific data into five pages, but may lead the measurement aficionado toward specific areas of interest.

  13. Self-sustaining turbulence in a restricted nonlinear model of plane Couette flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Vaughan L.; Gayme, Dennice F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 21218 (United States); Lieu, Binh K.; Jovanovi?, Mihailo R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 (United States); Farrell, Brian F. [School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138 (United States); Ioannou, Petros J. [Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens, 15784 (Greece)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper demonstrates the maintenance of self-sustaining turbulence in a restricted nonlinear (RNL) model of plane Couette flow. The RNL system is derived directly from the Navier-Stokes equations and permits higher resolution studies of the dynamical system associated with the stochastic structural stability theory (S3T) model, which is a second order approximation of the statistical state dynamics of the flow. The RNL model shares the dynamical restrictions of the S3T model but can be easily implemented by reducing a DNS code so that it retains only the RNL dynamics. Comparisons of turbulence arising from DNS and RNL simulations demonstrate that the RNL system supports self-sustaining turbulence with a mean flow as well as structural and dynamical features that are consistent with DNS. These results demonstrate that the simplified RNL system captures fundamental aspects of fully developed turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows and motivate use of the RNL/S3T framework for further study of wall-turbulence.

  14. Surface formation in immiscible liquids with orifice mixers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Nathan Edgar

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    investigation of the mixing of isadscible liquids (Kerosene and water) with orifices was made as a continuation of previous work done by Murdoch and McNair. Data were obtained by making film exposures of flow conditions inside a pipe section aud just below... stable, Water and kerosene, for example, are a pair of liquids with high 0 interfacial tension (/+8 dynes/cm at 20 0), while water and ethyl ether are a pair with relatively low interfacial tension (10, '7 dynes/cm at 20oC ). Consequently, it is more...

  15. Increasing Water Use Efficiency Through Improved Orifice Design and Operational Procedures for Subirrigation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, O. C.; Hiler, E. A.

    of emitters by particulate materials decreased as the cross-sectional area of the emitter opening was increased. Less than 0.06 atm (1 psig) vacuum had little effect on the flow of emitters tested. Higher vacuum amounts caused the reopening of plugged orifice...

  16. Apparatus and process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA); Giammarise, Anthony W. (Erie, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  17. Apparatus and process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

  18. Baseline conditions for orifice meter calibration, Topical report, February 1990-July 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, T.B.; Park, J.T.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study analyzes nominal 102 mm (4') baseline orifice discharge coefficient, data for Beta ratios between 0.2 and 0.75 from several independent laboratories in the United States and Europe. Graphs of Cd vs. Reynolds number are presented for each data set, and each data set was analyzed to determine the statistical mean deviation and standard deviation from the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) Report No. 3 orifice coefficient equation. Baseline orifice Cd data taken in the Gas Research Institute Metering Research Facility (MRF) flowing nitrogen agree well with comparable high accuracy baseline data from the other laboratories. For Beta ratio values between 0.2 and 0.67, the mean deviation of MRF baseline data from the A.G.A. Report No. 3 orifice equation ranges from 0.05% to 0.20%. Vertical and horizontal profiles of mean axial velocity and axial turbulence intensity were measured in the MRF under typical baseline flow conditions for meter run lengths of 45 D and 100 D. The baseline profiles of mean axial velocity satisfy the International Standards Organization (ISO) 5167 requirement of less than + or - 5% variation from a fully developed, turbulent flow velocity profile.

  19. Significance of gauge line error in orifice measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, J.W. [ANR Pipeline Co., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsation induced gauge line amplification can cause errors in the recorded differential signal used to calculate flow. Its presence may be detected using dual transmitters (one connected at the orifice taps, the other at the end of the gauge lines) and comparing the relative peak to peak amplitudes. Its affect on recorded differential may be determined by averaging both signals with a PC based data acquisition and analysis system. Remedial action is recommended in all cases where amplification is detected. Use of close connect, full opening manifolds, is suggested to decouple the gauge lines` resonant frequency from that of the excitation`s, by positioning the recording device as close to the process signal`s origin as possible.

  20. Fuel injector Holes (Fabrication of Micro-Orifices for Fuel Injectors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    injector Holes (Fabrication of Micro-Orifices for Fuel Injectors) Fuel injector Holes (Fabrication of Micro-Orifices for Fuel Injectors) 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  1. Fabrication of Micro-Orifices for Diesel Fuel Injectors

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    G. Fenske, J. Wang, and E. El- Hannouny (ANL), R Schaefer and F. Hamady (NVFEL) US DOE - Vehicle Technologies Propulsion Materials Jerry Gibbs Fabrication of Micro-orifices for...

  2. Surface formation in immiscible liquids with orifice mixers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wesselhoft, Robert Dale

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ . ~ Fraction, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 77 21. Variation of Specific Area with Votume Orifice Diameter 0. 6875 inches . . . ~ Fraction, ~ ~ ~ ~ P ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ 78 22. Rotameter Calibration, Kerosene ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ a 79 23, Rotameter Calibration... liquids, water in kerosene, with orifices was made as a continuation of previous work performed by P. G. Nczdoch and H. WcMair, and K. V. Andrews and M. E. Welch. Data were taken by the photoelectric measuresmnt of mbctures inside a window section...

  3. Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

    2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

  4. Laser velocimetry study of the flow field in a centrifugal pump with a shrouded impeller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moran, Michael Kevin

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    was measured using taps located at the flanges. Flow straighteners were placed twelve diameters upstream and five diameters downstream of the orifice plate. The accuracy of the orifice meter was verified by comparison with measurements of the flow rate made... L2F MCA N N, N, NOMENCLATURE Cross-sectional area of the inlet pipe Area of orifice Best efficiency point Coefficient of discharge for orifice meter Constant fraction discriminator in the L2F processor Beam diameter at probe volume...

  5. Effect of the latest revision of ANSI 2530 (AGA No. 3) on the primary orifice metering element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, D. [Daniel Flow Products, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant improvements in the equations which govern-the measurement of natural gas using orifice meters, have necessitated changes in the primary devices used to gather the data. These changes have been incorporated into the new revision of the API 14.3 Part 2 Third Edition (AGA-3, ANSI 2530) and are detailed in the following discussion. The error in the coefficient of discharge has been reduced by approximately one half when orifice meters (fittings, flanges, etc) conforming to the new revision of the standard are used. These new orifice meters are constructed to much tighter dimensional and configurational requirements than in the past. Orifice meters which do not meet the requirements of Part 2, must have an in-place calibration run to determine the coefficient of discharge curve over the range of Reynolds Number expected. In all cases, presently installed equipment can continue to be used under a grandfather clause. This existing equipment will have higher flow measurement tolerances than equipment that meets the new edition, particularly in line sizes below 10 inches. Also, this existing equipment cannot be used on new installations or relocated.

  6. Optimal design of a micro-orifice for constant evaporator superheat in a small cooler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jongwon

    of the orifice, the aspect ratio between length and diameter, the entrance angle to the orifice, and the surface through the condenser (B) with a heat pipe. Then, the orifice (C) changes the liquid to two-phase vapor device is required for the isenthalpic process between the condenser and the evaporator. The expansion

  7. Orifice-meter measurement errors caused by gas-system pulsations can be controlled

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gegg, D. (Arkla Energy Resources, Shreveport, LA (US))

    1989-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsation-induced inaccuracies in orifice meter gas-flow measurement can be eliminated or at least better controlled. In today's increasingly competitive gas-supply marketplace, such errors can no longer be ignored. In some instances, pulsations have caused errors of 30-50% in volumes. Policies and procedures of Arkla Energy Resources, Shreveport, La., reflect current efforts to combat the problem. Orifice-meter pulsation error can be divided into three categories: those associated with the primary element itself (across the flange taps); those in the gauge line/manifold/transducer system;; and those within the recording and analysis system. Each category is significant in that total meter error contains all three types (box). While it would be desirable to segregate the problems and solve them independently, it is very difficult to do. It becomes apparent quickly that all three occur in many cases. The focus of this discussion is on primary-element errors; if these are reduced, other errors tend to be minimal.

  8. Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutter, Ernest (Wilmette, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

  9. Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutter, E.

    1984-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of micro-orifices for diesel fuel injectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.; Woodford, J.; Wang, J.; El-Hannouny, E.; Schaefer, R.; Hamady, F.; National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Lab.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stringent emission standards are driving the development of diesel-fuel injection concepts to mitigate in-cylinder formation of particulates. While research has demonstrated significant reduction in particulate formation using micro-orifice technology, implementation requires development of industrial processes to fabricate micro-orifices with diameters as low as 50 gmm and with large length-to-diameter ratios. This paper reviews the different processes being pursued to fabricate micro-orifices and the advanced techniques applied to characterize the performance of micro-orifices. The latter include the use of phase-contrast x-ray imaging of electroless nickel-plated, micro-orifices and laser imaging of fuel sprays at elevated pressures. The experimental results demonstrate an industrially viable process to create small uniform orifices that improve spray formation for fuel injection.

  11. Unaccounted-for gas project. Measurement Task Force (orifice meter studies). Volume 2B. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godkin, B.J.; Robertson, J.D.; Wlasenko, R.G.; Cowgill, R.M.; Grinstead, J.R.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study was aimed at determining unaccounted-for (UAF) gas volumes resulting from operating Pacific Gas and Electric Co.'s transmission and distribution systems during 1987. Activities and methods are described and results are presented for research conducted on orifice meter accuracy. The Measurement Task Force determined that orifice metering inaccuracies were the largest single contributor to 1987 UAF.

  12. The orifice expansion correction for a 50 mm line size at various diameter ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidl, W. [Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc., Nunn, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The expansion coefficient or factor for a compressible flowmeter corrects for the change in pressure and density as the fluid is accelerated through the flowmeter. The expansion correction currently in use in the United States and also in other countries was developed over fifty years ago by Buckingham and Bean. More recent work reported by Kinghorn shows the equation currently in use to be in error. This paper describes the results of a test program to determine the expansion factors for flange-tapped sharp-edged orifices with diameter ratios between 0.242 and 0.726 in a nominal 50 mm (2 inch) line. Critical flow Venturis are used as the reference standards and dry air as the flowing fluid. The ratio of differential pressure to inlet static pressure is varied over a range of zero to about 0.2 at a constant Reynolds number. The expansion factor is determined form the apparent change in discharge coefficient at a constant Reynolds number.

  13. Effects of Blood Flow and/or Ventilation Restriction on Radiofrequency Coagulation Size in the Lung: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anai, Hiroshi; Uchida, Barry T.; Pavcnik, Dusan, E-mail: pavcnikd@ohsu.edu; Seong, Chang Kyu [Oregon Health and Science University, Dotter Interventional Institute (United States); Baker, Phillip [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Correa, Luiz Otavio [Oregon Health and Science University, Dotter Interventional Institute (United States); Corless, Christopher L. [Oregon Health and Science University/Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Pathology (United States); Geyik, Serdar; Yavuz, Kivilcim [Oregon Health and Science University, Dotter Interventional Institute (United States); Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef [Oregon Health and Science University, Dotter Interventional Institute (United States)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the restriction of blood flow and/or ventilation affects the radiofrequency (RF) ablation coagulation size in lung parenchyma. Thirty-one RF ablations were done in 16 normal lungs of 8 living swine with 2-cm LeVeen needles. Eight RF ablations were performed as a control (group G1), eight with balloon occlusion of the ipsilateral mainstem bronchus (G2), eight with occlusion of the ipsilateral pulmonary artery (G3), and seven with occlusion of both the ipsilateral bronchus and pulmonary artery (G4). Coagulation diameters and volumes of each ablation zone were compared on computed tomography (CT) and gross specimen examinations. Twenty-six coagulation zones were suitable for evaluation: eight in G1, five in G2, seven in G3, and six in G4 groups. In G1, the mean coagulation diameter was 21.5 {+-} 3.5 mm on CT and 19.5 {+-} 1.78 mm on gross specimen examination. In G2, the mean diameters were 26.5 {+-} 5.1 mm and 23.0 {+-} 2.7 mm on CT and gross specimen examination, respectively. In G3, the mean diameters were 29.4 {+-} 2.2 mm and 27.4 {+-} 2.9 mm on CT and gross specimen examination, respectively, and in G4, they were 32.6 {+-} 3.33 mm and 28.8 {+-} 2.6 mm, respectively. The mean coagulation volumes were 3.39 {+-} l.52 cm{sup 3} on CT and 3.01 {+-} 0.94 cm{sup 3} on gross examinations in G1, 6.56 {+-} 2.47 cm{sup 3} and 5.22 {+-} 0.85 cm{sup 3} in G2, 10.93 {+-} 2.17 cm{sup 3} and 9.97 {+-} 2.91 cm{sup 3} in G3, and 13.81 {+-} 3.03 cm{sup 3} and 11.06 {+-} 3.27 cm{sup 3} in G4, respectively. The mean coagulation diameters on gross examination and mean coagulation volumes on CT and gross examination with G3 and G4 were significantly larger than those in G1 (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively) or in G2 (p < 0.05, p < 0.005, p < 0.005, respectively). Pulmonary collapse occurred in one lung in G2 and pulmonary artery thrombus in two lungs of G3 and two lungs of G4. The coagulation size of RF ablation of the lung parenchyma is increased by ventilation and particularly by pulmonary artery blood flow restriction. The value of these restrictions for potential clinical use needs to be explored in experimentally induced lung tumors.

  14. SHORT-TUBE SUBCRITICAL FLOW Enerag Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;SHORT-TUBE SUBCRITICAL FLOW Y. C. Mei Enerag Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge-tube subcritical flow. For short tubes used as refrigerant expansion devices, the orifice model is found inadequate-TUBE SUBCRITICAL FLOW INTRODUCTION Much theoretical and experimental work regarding short tube fluid flow has

  15. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

  16. J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 72 (1997) 7386 Start-up of flow of a FENE-fluid through a 4:1:4 constriction in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinch, John

    . Introduction Elastic fluids resist converging flow through an orifice, responding by increasing the pressure drop to good accuracy. As a further numerical convenience, we make the shape of the constriction round the flow through a small orifice in a large plate between two reservoirs. They used HPAM and PEO solutions

  17. Measurements versus Predictions for a Hybrid (Hydrostatic plus Hydrodynamic Thrust Bearing for a Range of Orifice Diameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esser, Paul R.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    bearings with three different orifice diameters (1.63, 1.80, and 1.93 mm) are tested for a range of supply pressures, fluid film thicknesses, and rotational speeds. The water-lubricated test bearings have eight pockets, with feed orifices located centrally...

  18. Scaling of pressure drop for oscillatory flow through a slot Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Rajat

    They impart momentum to the external flow through an orifice or slot without any net ad- dition of mass due been found to predict the general behavior of ZNMF actuators with reason- able accuracy. However, one in the orifice/slot. The formulation of LEMs hinges on accurate prediction of the acoustic impedance, which

  19. Experimental test results presented for field-damaged orifice meter plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teyssandier, R.G.; Chisman, W.E.

    1984-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests demonstrate that, unlike other types of meters, there is minimal loss of accuracy with orifice meters even when operational excursions are such that severe damage occurs. Both flange taps and pipe taps effectively have the same general pattern in that the actual coefficient increases with increasing permanent deformation. Of the two types of orifice tap, these data indicate that flange-tapped orifices may be less susceptible to severe deformation. This is probably caused by changes in the local pressure gradients in the vicinity of the plate. Since pipe taps are at such a large distance from the plate, these changes are probably not noticeable due to the turbulent mixing that takes place. With orifice meters, visual inspection of the plates after severe operation is recommended, to tell the user if the plate is beyond specifications. With other types of meters (i.e., other than differential meters) recalibration is the only method of determining if the meter has been affected. Where damage is apparent, the plate (or the meter if it is not of the differential type) should be immediately replaced.

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - aortic blood flow Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    closing of the aortic valve. In this way... . In the setup, both the mitral and aortic orifices were equipped with Carbomedics bi-leaflet valves, and flow... pressures. At that...

  1. Method for generating small and ultra small apertures, slits, nozzles and orifices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khounsary, Ali M. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device for one or more small apertures, slits, nozzles and orifices, preferably having a high aspect ratio. In one embodiment, one or more alternating layers of sacrificial layers and blocking layers are deposited onto a substrate. Each sacrificial layer is made of a material which preferably allows a radiation to substantially pass through. Each blocking layer is made of a material which substantially blocks the radiation.

  2. Design of a single orifice pulse tube refrigerator through the development of a first-order model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schor, Alisha R. (Alisha Robin)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A first order model for the behavior of a linear orifice pulse tube refrigerator (OPTR) was developed as a design tool for construction of actual OPTRs. The model predicts cooling power as well as the pressure/volume ...

  3. Response of a slotted plate flow meter to horizontal two phase flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Vasanth

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    meter is always better in performance and accuracy than the standard orifice plate flow meter. This study is primarily based on how a slotted plate responds to horizontal two-phase flow with air and water being used as the working fluids. The plates...

  4. Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

  5. Vacuum chamber with a supersonic-flow aerodynamic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, C.L.

    1980-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A supersonic flow aerodynamic window is disclosed whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.

  6. Vacuum chamber with a supersonic flow aerodynamic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Clark L. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A supersonic flow aerodynamic window, whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.

  7. BUILDING MANAGEMENT & RESTRICTED ACCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Daniel

    BUILDING MANAGEMENT & RESTRICTED ACCESS Plan Annex 2014 VIII #12;#12;#12;The University of Texas at Austiniv #12;Building Management & Restricted Access Plan Annex v CONTENTS RECORD OF CHANGES .......................................................................................................15 J. BUILDING SECURITY OPERATIONS RESTRICTED ACCESS PROCEDURES FOR BUILDINGS ON ELECTRONIC ACCESS

  8. Pressure compensated flow control valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minteer, Daniel J. (West Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is an air flow control valve which is capable of maintaining a constant flow at the outlet despite changes in the inlet or outlet pressure. The device consists of a shell assembly with an inlet chamber and outlet chamber separated by a separation plate. The chambers are connected by an orifice. Also located within the inlet chamber is a port controller assembly. The port controller assembly consists of a differential pressure plate and port cap affixed thereon. The cap is able to slide in and out of the orifice separating the inlet and outlet chambers. When the pressure differential is sufficient, the differential pressure plate rises or falls to maintain a constant air flow. Movement of the port controller assembly does not require the use of seals, diaphragms, tight tolerances, bushings, bearings, hinges, guides, or lubricants.

  9. Differential probes aid flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesnard, D.R.

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonconstricting differential pressure flow probes which help solve the problems of clogging, wear, and pressure loss at the Seawater Filtration Facility in Saudi Arabia are described. Treated seawater is pumped into oil-bearing formations for secondary recovery. Figures showing principle of operation for probes, installation schematic and long-term accuracy results (flow probes vs. orifice meters) are presented. The new diamond-shaped design flow sensor offers accurate flow measurement with low permanent pressure loss, which translates into cost savings for the operator.

  10. Deed Restrictions for Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report summarizes the efforts made to address Task 3 - Examples of Residential Deed Restrictions Allowing Solar. The focus of the study is on communities surrounding Houston, Texas.

  11. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices Guide: Modeling...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    8. Apply emission controls where viable. This may include installing restrictive flow orifices on compressed gas cylinders, scrubber systems for chemical specific releases,...

  12. Test and evaluation of constant-flow devices for use in SSN AFFF proportioning systems. Interim report, January-May 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, F.W.; Back, G.G.; Burns, R.E.; Quellette, R.J.; Scheffey, J.L.

    1986-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Constant flow devices, which deliver a constant flow of liquid over a range of upstream and downstream pressures, have been suggested as an alternative to orifice plates for proportioning AFFF in SSN 21 fire-suppression systems. Operational and performance characteristics of two lightweight, inexpensive, commercially available constant-flow devices have significant advantages over orifice plates. Both models tested, however, showed performance degradation when subjected to simulated service conditions. A constant flow device with improved resistance to wear and to AFFF exposure is desirable. Since the constant-flow control devices tested improves proportioning efficiency but do not have optimum characteristics, investigation of improved devices or methods is recommended.

  13. Hydrodynamic cavitation and boiling in refrigerant (R-123) flow inside microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    Hydrodynamic cavitation and boiling in refrigerant (R-123) flow inside microchannels Brandon cavitation has on heat transfer. The fluid medium is refrigerant R-123 flowing through 227 lm hydraulic diameter microchannels. The cavitation is instigated by the inlet orifice. Adiabatic tests were con- ducted

  14. RESTRICTED GRASSMANNIANS SIMON SCOTT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Colin J.

    Lie groups. Let {ei} i=1 be an orthonormal basis for H and let Hn be the subspace of H spanned by e1RESTRICTED GRASSMANNIANS SIMON SCOTT We begin by reviewing various facts about Grassmannians such p a regularised p- determinant detp : glp - C to be defined (4) det p (1 + T) = det F ((1 + T)e

  15. Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions. [Coulter Multisizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

  16. Colloidal particle deposition in turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morton, D.S.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical analysis is presented which describes the initial deposition of monodispersed spherical colloidal particles from a steady fully developed turbulent flow onto conduit walls. When the net particle-conduit electrical interaction potential is attractive, particle deposition is shown to be often governed by turbulent hydrodynamics. When the net particle-conduit electrical interaction potential possess a repulsive maximum, particle deposition to first order is uniform and depends solely on electrical interaction effects. The developed theoretical model specialized to orifice deposition with the use of Harwell Flow3D turbulence modelling software qualitatively described the deposition of 0.5 {mu}m silica particles onto glass orifices from an aqueous suspension. The effect of the electrical double layer on the rate of colloidal particle deposition in laminar flow has been described by Spielman and Friedlander (1), Dahneke (2), Bowen et al. (3) and Bowen and Epstein (4). This article describes the extension of their work to colloidal particle deposition under steady fully developed turbulent flow conditions. This article also reports the results of orifice particle deposition experiments which were conducted to qualitatively investigate the developed theoretical model.

  17. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Mowery, Kenneth D. (Noblesville, IN); Ripley, Eugene V. (Russiaville, IN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  18. Device for measuring the flow of a gas containing particulates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.G.; Hofer, P.H.

    1991-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an apparatus for continuously measuring the flow of a gas containing entrained particulates. It comprises: a flow channel, through which the gas flows; an orifice disposed within the flow channel, including at least a first surface and a second surface; means for causing the first surface and second surface independently to move in directions perpendicular to lines normal to the surfaces; scraping means, for intimately contacting at least a portion of the first surface and of the second surface, at all times while the surfaces are moving, whereby particulates which adhere to the first and second surfaces are removed by the movement of the surfaces past the scraping means; pressure taps, positioned so as to communicate with the flow channel upstream and downstream from the orifice, the pressure taps additionally in communication with pressure-measuring means, for measuring the pressure differential in the flow channel resulting from the passage of the gas through the orifice; and thermophoretic heaters, positioned so as to heat the gas within the pressure taps, and thereby excluding particulates therefrom.

  19. The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

    This paper discusses the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice...

  20. Low differential pressure and multiphase flow measurements by means of differential pressure devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Justo, Hernandez Ruiz,

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of slotted plate, Venturi meter and standard orifice to the presence of two phase, three phase and low differential flows was investigated. Two mixtures (air-water and air-oil) were used in the two-phase analysis while a mixture of air...

  1. Measurement of steam quality in two-phase critical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinclair, John William

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    through a venturi for subczitical flow of steam-water 45 13 Steam quality as a function of vapor-phase Reynolds number for subczitical flow of steam-water 46 14 Steam quality as a function of Collins and Gacesa parameter for subcritical flow of steam... high degree of accuracy. He suggested that the following correlation may be used to calculate two-phase flow rates through orifices to within an error of 1. 5 percent 339 K 3 9 9' J 9 v v a v w f + [ 1. 26 (1-f ) K Y /K ] ~p p where V and L...

  2. Diagnosis of Fracture Flow Conditions with Acoustic Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Roberto

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    that this turbulent flow can generate sound as fluid flows from the fracture into the well. According to Testud et al. (2009) it is widely known that industry pipe systems, valves, taps and orifices whistle when fluid flows through them. Lacombe et al. (2013... of the fluid downstream of the shear layer (Lacombe et al. 2013). During this process there is a transfer of energy from the fluid moving to vortices that create sound. Poldervaart et al. (1974) illustrated how vortices can act as an acoustic source in Fig...

  3. Briefing, Restricted Data Classifiers- June 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This briefing provides the training required by 10 CFR part 1045 for persons who classify documents containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data.

  4. Characterization of Gatewell Orifice Lighting at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse and Compendium of Research on Light Guidance with Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Simmons, Mary Ann

    2007-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the study described in this report is to provide U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) biologists and engineers with general design guidelines for using artificial lighting to enhance the passage of juvenile salmonids into the collection channel at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2). During fall 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers measured light levels in the field at one powerhouse orifice through which fish must pass to reach the collection channel. Two light types were evaluated—light-emitting diode (LED) lights and halogen spot lights. Additional measurements with mercury lamps were made at the PNNL Aquatic Research Laboratory to determine baseline intensity of the current lighting. A separate chapter synthesizes the relevant literature related to light and fish guidance for both field and laboratory studies. PNNL will also review the Corps plans for existing lighting protocol at all of the Portland District projects and help develop a uniform lighting scheme which could be implemented. The specific objectives for this study are to 1. Create a synthesis report of existing lighting data for juvenile salmonid attraction and deterrence and how the data are used at fish bypass facilities. 2. Evaluate current B2 orifice lighting conditions with both LED and halogen sources. 3. Make recommendations as to what lighting intensity, source, and configuration would improve passage at the B2 orifices. 4. Review USACE plans for retrofit of existing systems (to be assessed at a later date).

  5. Flare System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    be minimally the flare manufacturer's total recommended flow. For systems with a liquid seal, the purge gas should be added downstream of the seal or designed to continuously flow through the seal at a low pressure. Excessive purge gas should not be added... problems with incorrect purge gas rates include: o Not knowing the correct purge rate o Missing restriction orifices o Improperly sized restriction orifices o Improper flow meter settings o Improperly set pressure regulators o Improper valve...

  6. Acid treatment removes zinc sulfide scale restriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, K. (Kerr McGee Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Allison, D. (Otis Engineering Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Ford, W.G.F. (Halliburton Co., Duncan, OK (United States))

    1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that removal of zinc sulfide (ZnS) scale with acid restored an offshore Louisiana well's production to original rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near well bore area. The selected acid had been proven to control iron sulfide (FeS) scales in sour wells without causing harm to surface production equipment, tubing, and other downhole hardware. The successful removal of the blockage re-established previous production rates with a 105% increase in flowing tubing pressure. On production for a number of months, a high rate, high-pressure offshore well was experiencing unusually rapid pressure and rate declines. A small sample of the restrictive material was obtained during the wire line operations. The well was subsequently shut in while a laboratory analysis determined that zinc sulfide was the major component of the obstruction.

  7. Thermal Energy Measurement with Tangential Paddlewheel Flow Meters: Summary of Experimental Results and in-situ Diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Watt, J. B.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    paddlewheel flow meters, and several new methods for in-situ diagnostic measures for ascertaining whether or not a flow meter is experiencing fluctuating flow conditions or if a flow meter is suffering a degraded signal due to shaft wear. INTRODUCTION Flow... section where it passes across the candidate sensor that is placed in the inter-changeable test section, through the orifice plate and finally into the is combined with Btu meter the threshold can be much higher than the published threshold of the flow...

  8. Partial Restriction Digests Leslie Vosshall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partial Restriction Digests 4/18/2001 Leslie Vosshall · Purpose: To generate DNA cut at a subset to the following schedule for digests [A] ­ [F]: [A] 1.0 ul Enzyme [B] 0.1 ul Enzyme [C] 0.05 ul Enzyme [D] 0.01 ul Enzyme [E] 0.005 ul Enzyme [F] 0.001 ul Enzyme [A] add 1 ul of enzyme and mix well; place digest on wet

  9. Sequence Assembly Validation by Restriction Digest Fingerprint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouchka, Eric

    Sequence Assembly Validation by Restriction Digest Fingerprint Comparison Eric C. Rouchka and David examines the use of restriction digest analysis as a method for testing the fidelity of sequence assembly. Restriction digest fingerprint matching is an established technology for high resolution physical map

  10. Analysis of flow patterns and flow mechanisms in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

    Analysis of flow patterns and flow mechanisms in soils Dissertation Co-directed by the University mechanism or changing soil physical properties (stratification). Thus, in stratified soil, we restricted was prepared at the Department of Soil Physics, University of Bayreuth, and at the Hydrogeological Laboratory

  11. Evaluation of a CFD-model for simulation of simplified flow conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdal, A. [Statoil/K-LAB, Haugesund (Norway); Torbergsen, L.E.; Rimestad, S.; Krogstad, P.A. [Norwegian Inst. of Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Perforated plate flow conditioners are used to generate a fully developed turbulent flow profile upstream of an orifice meter. It is very time-consuming to measure the effect of a flow conditioner for different upstream flow profiles. Therefore a project is initiated to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid computer code for this purpose. If the code correctly predicts the flow characteristics downstream of more complex flow conditioners. In this study a k-{var_epsilon} CFD-model was used to predict the flow downstream of obstruction plates having one large or nine small holes. Both mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, k, and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, {var_epsilon}, were calculated and compared against measured data. The results indicate that it is possible to predict the mean velocity well and that the accuracy of the predicted k and {var_epsilon} depends on the complexity of the flow.

  12. Pumping-Restriction Theorem for Stochastic Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Y. Chernyak; N. A. Sinitsyn

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We formulate an exact result, which we refer to as the pumping restriction theorem (PRT). It imposes strong restrictions on the currents generated by periodic driving in a generic dissipative system with detailed balance. Our theorem unifies previously known results with the new ones and provides a universal nonperturbative approach to explore further restrictions on the stochastic pump effect in non-adiabatically driven systems.

  13. Shock-induced turbulent flow in baffle systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reichenbach, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments are described on shock propagation through 2-D aligned and staggered baffle systems. Flow visualization was provided by shadow and schlieren photography, recorded by the Cranz-Schardin camera. Also single-frame, infinite-fringe, color interferograms were used. Intuition suggests that this is a rather simple 2-D shock diffraction problem. However, flow visualization reveals that the flow rapidly evolved into a complex 3-D turbulent mixing problem. Mushroom-shaped mixing regions blocked the flow into the next baffle orifice. Thus energy was transferred from the directed kinetic energy (induced by the shock) to rotational energy of turbulent mixing, and then dissipated by molecular effects. These processes dramatically dissipate the strength of the shock wave. The experiments provide an excellent test case that could be used to assess the accuracy of computer code calculations of such problems.

  14. Restriction Semigroups Manchester, 30th August

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St Andrews, University of

    Restriction Semigroups NBSAN 2011 Manchester, 30th August Victoria Gould University of York Victoria Gould (University of York) ICA 2010 1 / 26 #12;Where to begin? Restriction semigroups may of idempotents of S and E E(S) Victoria Gould (University of York) ICA 2010 2 / 26 #12;The relations R and L

  15. Review of automated custody transfer equipment for large-volume gas flow measurement. Final report, August 1, 1987-February 28, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rush, W.F.; Tamosaitis, V.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of electronic automation on the accuracy of gas custody transfer measurements was investigated. The term Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) denotes both electronic flow correctors (for positive displacement meters) and flow computers (for orifice plate measurements). Electronic devices have potential to be slightly more accurate than their mechanical counterparts. Electronic systems have the additional benefits of greater application flexibility, reduced flow corrector inventory, reduced maintenance and calibration requirements, and data storage and communication capability. The primary concerns with EFM equipment are compatibility between units made by different manufacturers and their ability to function under extreme environmental conditions.

  16. IFITM Proteins Restrict Viral Membrane Hemifusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an intermediate of fusion, referred to as a cold arrestedcold arrested state (CAS), PLOS Pathogens | www.plospathogens.org January 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e1003124 Restriction of Viral Membrane Fusion

  17. RESTRICTED-TRACE APPROXIMATION FOR NUCLEAR ANTIFERROMAGNETISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1353 RESTRICTED-TRACE APPROXIMATION FOR NUCLEAR ANTIFERROMAGNETISM M. GOLDMAN and G. SARMA Service to predict several properties of nuclear antiferromagnetic structures : sublattice magnetization of nuclear dipolar magnetic ordering, either antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic, has been reported

  18. Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software Representation of Limited Rights Data...

  19. SciTech Connect: Pressure and flow characteristics of restrictive flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2) Sr (2) Ca (2) CuFuture(andConference:Communityorifice

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - activity restrictions influence Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : 1. SUMMARY OF LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND RESTRICTIONS 2. PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED POLITICAL ACTIVITIES... REQUIREMENTS AND RESTRICTIONS a. Campaign Activities -- Contributions...

  1. Acknowledgment of Restricted Staff Employment Dear Colleague

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    ; or a University Staff position funded wholly or in part from non-continuous or non- recurring funding sources (e into a Restricted University Staff position at the University of Virginia. Employment in this position is contingent: A University Staff position created and filled to complete a specific function or project within a defined

  2. Molecular Biology Basics Planning Restriction Enzyme Digests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    Molecular Biology Basics Planning Restriction Enzyme Digests A. Checklist: Buffer type Addition of BSA Optimum temperature Number of units of enzyme B. Plan to digest DNA with an "excess" of enzyme activity. Plan for the "excess" to be divided between time of digestion and number of units of enzyme

  3. SO(N) restricted Schur polynomials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garreth Kemp

    2015-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We focus on the 1/4-BPS sector of free super Yang-Mills theory with an SO(N) gauge group. This theory has an AdS/CFT dual in the form of type IIB string theory with AdS_5 X RP^5 geometry. With the aim of studying excited giant graviton dynamics, we construct an orthogonal basis for this sector of the gauge theory in this work. First, we demonstrate that the counting of states, as given by the partition function, and the counting of restricted Schur polynomials matches by restricting to a particular class of Young diagram labels. We then give an explicit construction of these gauge invariant operators and evaluate their two-point function exactly. This paves the way to studying the spectral problem of these operators and their D-brane duals.

  4. A study of system-induced instabilities in forced-convection flows with subcooled boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maulbetsch, John S.

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined analytical and experimental program was carried out to investigate the problem of hydrodynamic stability of forcedconvection flows with boiling. The study was restricted to the flow of water in small channels ...

  5. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  6. Cotton flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Ulas Ozgur Kisisel; Ozgur Sarioglu; Bayram Tekin

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the conformally invariant Cotton tensor, we define a geometric flow, the "Cotton flow", which is exclusive to three dimensions. This flow tends to evolve the initial metrics into conformally flat ones, and is somewhat orthogonal to the Yamabe flow, the latter being a flow within a conformal class. We define an entropy functional, and study the flow of nine homogeneous spaces both numerically and analytically. In particular, we show that the arbitrarily deformed homogeneous 3-sphere flows into the round 3-sphere. Two of the nine homogeneous geometries, which are degenerated by the Ricci flow, are left intact by the Cotton flow.

  7. Orifice mixing of immiscible liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonough, Joseph Aloysius

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution (7). The present study of orif1ce mixing is a continuation of previous research on this project which yielded a relationship explaining the effect of operating conditions upon the format1on of 1nterfacial area for the system water-kerosene.... The experimental technique evolved by Helch (18), Vesselhoff (19), McNair (8), and Scott (IA) was changed only slightly. Their work on water-kerosene was repeated for the liquid pairs trichloroethylene-water, heptanol-water, 20 per oent aqueous sucrose-kerosene...

  8. Quantitative information-flow tracking for real systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCamant, Stephen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An information-flow security policy constrains a computer system's end-to-end use of information, even as it is transformed in computation. For instance, a policy would not just restrict what secret data could be revealed ...

  9. Near BPS Skyrmions and Restricted Harmonic Maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Speight

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by a class of near BPS Skyrme models introduced by Adam, S\\'anchez-Guill\\'en and Wereszczy\\'nski, the following variant of the harmonic map problem is introduced: a map $\\phi:(M,g)\\rightarrow (N,h)$ between Riemannian manifolds is restricted harmonic (RH) if it locally extremizes $E_2$ on its $SDiff(M)$ orbit, where $SDiff(M)$ denotes the group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms of $(M,g)$, and $E_2$ denotes the Dirichlet energy. It is conjectured that near BPS skyrmions tend to RH maps in the BPS limit. It is shown that $\\phi$ is RH if and only if $\\phi^*h$ has exact divergence, and a linear stability theory of RH maps is developed, whence it follows that all weakly conformal maps, for example, are stable RH. Examples of RH maps in every degree class $R^3\\to SU(2)$ and $R^2\\to S^2$ are constructed. It is shown that the axially symmetric BPS skyrmions on which all previous analytic studies of near BPS Skyrme models have been based, are not RH, so each such field can be deformed along $SDiff(R^3)$ to yield BPS skyrmions with lower $E_2$, casting doubt on the predictions of such studies. The problem of minimizing $E_2$ for $\\phi:R^k\\to N$ over all linear volume preserving diffeomorphisms is solved explicitly, and a deformed axially symmetric family of Skyrme fields constructed which are candidates for approximate near BPS skyrmions at low baryon number. The notion of restricted harmonicity is generalized to restricted $F$-criticality where $F$ is any functional on maps $(M,g)\\to (N,h)$ which is, in a precise sense, geometrically natural. The case where $F$ is a linear combination of $E_2$ and $E_4$, the usual Skyrme term, is studied in detail, and it is shown that inverse stereographic projection $R^3\\to S^3\\equiv SU(2)$ is stable restricted $F$-critical for every such $F$.

  10. Restrictions on Federal Employees Acceptance of Gifts

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalancedDepartmentRestrictions on Federal Employees Acceptance of Gifts As the

  11. New Expressions for Level-restricted Kostka Polynomials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, Anne

    consider the two generalizations together giving rise to level- restricted generalized Kostka polynomials KNew Expressions for Level-restricted Kostka Polynomials Anne Schilling 1 and Mark Shimozono 2 ? 1 to level-restriction. In particular we give an explicit characteriza- tion of the image of level

  12. An evaluation of heat flow transducers as a means of determining soil heat flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Barney L. D

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    provided to the Micrometeorology Section, Department of Oceanography and Meteorology, ARM College of Texas by the Signal Corps of the United States Army, under Contract No. DA 36-039 AMC-02195 (E). The heat flow plates used in this study were provided... surface soil heat flow. The results show that acceptable performance of the plates in the measurement of heat flow is possible although in general should not be expected without thorough testing, and even then there are restrictive considerations...

  13. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Flowdyne Flow Element Information for D-Zero Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuwazaki, Andrew; /Fermilab

    1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This engineering note provides the information used for purchasing two venturi flowmeters and one orifice flowmeter. One venturi and one orifice performance curve is provided along with the purchasing information. Performance data is also given to supplement the performance curves.

  14. Investigation of technology for the monitoring of UF/sub 6/ mass flow in UF/sub 6/ streams diluted with H/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, O.J.; Cooley, J.N.; Hewgley, W.A.; Moran, B.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability, availability, and effectiveness of gas flow meters are assessed as a means for verifying the mass flows of pure UF/sub 6/ streams diluted with a carrier gas. The initial survey identified the orifice, pitot tube, thermal, vortex shedding, and vortex precession (swirl) meters as promising for the intended use. Subsequent assessments of these flow meters revealed that two - the orifice meter and the pitot tube meter - are the best choices for the proposed applications: the first is recommended for low velocity gas, small diameter piping; the latter, for high velocity gas, large diameter piping. Final selection of the gas flow meters should be based on test loop evaluations in which the proposed meters are subjected to gas flows, temperatures, and pressures representative of those expected in service. Known instruments are evaluated that may be applicable to the measurement of uranium or UF/sub 6/ concentration in a UF/sub 6/ - H/sub 2/ process stream at an aerodynamic enrichment plant. Of the six procedures evaluated, four have been used for process monitoring in a UF/sub 6/ environment: gas mass spectrometry, infrared-ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, and acoustic gas analysis. The remaining two procedures, laser fluorimetry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, would require significant development work before they could be used for process monitoring. Infrared-ultravioloet-visible spectrophotometry is judged to be the best procedure currently available to perform the required measurement.

  15. arginase ii restricts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P. De; Waal; Cornelis J. M. Melief 9 A DNA and restriction enzyme implementation of Turing Ma (Turing machines; Universal Turing machines; recombinant DNA; nonpalindromic...

  16. Separable states improve protocols with restricted randomness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. K. Chuan; T. Paterek

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known from Bell's theorem that quantum predictions for some entangled states cannot be mimicked using local hidden variable (LHV) models. From a computer science perspective, LHV models may be interpreted as classical computers operating on a potentially infinite number of correlated bits originating from a common source. As such, Bell inequality violations achieved through entangled states are able to characterise the quantum advantage of certain tasks, so long as the task itself imposes no restriction on the availability of correlated bits. However, if the number of shared bits is limited, additional constraints are placed on the possible LHV models and separable, i.e. disentangled, states may become a useful resource. Bell violations are therefore no longer necessary to achieve a quantum advantage. Here we show that in particular, separable states may improve the so-called random access codes, which is a class of communication problems where one party tries to read a portion of the data held by another distant party in presence of finite shared randomness and limited classical communication. We also show how the bias of classical bits can be used to avoid wrong answers in order to achieve the optimal classical protocol and how the advantage of quantum protocols is linked to quantum discord.

  17. Time-resolved fuel injector flow characterisation based on 3D laser Doppler vibrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crua, Cyril

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to enable investigations of the fuel flow inside unmodified injectors, we have developed a new experimental approach to measure time-resolved vibration spectra of diesel nozzles using a three dimensional laser vibrometer. The technique we propose is based on the triangulation of the vibrometer and fuel pressure transducer signals, and enables the quantitative characterisation of quasi-cyclic internal flows without requiring modifications to the injector, the working fluid, or limiting the fuel injection pressure. The vibrometer, which uses the Doppler effect to measure the velocity of a vibrating object, was used to scan injector nozzle tips during the injection event. The data were processed using a discrete Fourier transform to provide time-resolved spectra for valve-closed-orifice, minisac and microsac nozzle geometries, and injection pressures ranging from 60 to 160MPa, hence offering unprecedented insight into cyclic cavitation and internal mechanical dynamic processes. A peak was consistently f...

  18. Low Stream Flows: Making Decisions in an Uncertain Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is an assessment method for water diversions needed by small-scale hydroelectric projects, I found that uncertainty-scale hydroelectric projects in BC may become more restricted in the future. Keywords: Instream flow needs; low-flow period; fish habitat; run-of-river hydroelectric generation; climate change; small streams; #12;v

  19. Division of Human Resources Retirement Renewed Membership & Reemployment Restrictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Division of Human Resources Retirement Renewed Membership & Reemployment Restrictions Questions employer after you have been retired for 12 calendar months. #12;Division of Human Resources Retirement Renewed Membership & Reemployment Restrictions Questions (813) 974-2970 Rev. 02/2012 If you are reemployed

  20. High precision high flow range control valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, J.A.

    1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid control valve is described having a valve housing having first and second valve housing openings for the ingress and egress of fluid through the control valve. Disposed within a void formed by the control valve is a sleeve having at least one sleeve opening to permit the flow of fluid therethrough. A flow restricter travels within the sleeve to progressively block off the sleeve opening and thereby control flow. A fluid passageway is formed between the first valve housing opening and the outer surface of the sleeve. A second fluid passageway is formed between the inside of the sleeve and the second valve housing opening. Neither fluid passageway contains more than one 90 [degree] turn. In the preferred embodiment only one of the two fluid passageways contains a 90[degree] turn. In another embodiment, the control valve housing is bifurcated by a control surface having control surface opening disposed therethrough. A flow restricter is in slidable contact with the control surface to restrict flow of fluid through the control surface openings. 12 figs.

  1. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the orifice. The manufacturer reports that its accuracy isaccuracy of this method. Flow Plate and Grid: This new device uses a calibrated multiple-orifice

  2. Instrumented home energy rating and commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the orifice. The manufacturer reports that its accuracy isaccuracy of this method. Flow Plate and Grid: This new device uses a calibrated multiple-orifice

  3. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the orifice. The manufacturer reports that its accuracy isaccuracy of this method. Flow Plate and Grid: This new device uses a calibrated multiple-orifice

  4. EXAMINING THE SPECTROSCOPY OF WATER VAPOR IN THE ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Compare to relative humidity probe Describes VCSEL accuracy #12;FLOW DILUTION SYSTEM Critical Orifice

  5. Flow chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA)

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  6. Open-center steering control unit with flow amplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schutten, H.P.; Stephenson, D.B.; Haarstad, D.M.

    1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an open-center controller. It is operable to control the flow of fluid from a source of fluid to a fluid pressure operated device. The controller is of the type including housing means defining a fluid inlet port for connection to the source of fluid, a return port for connection to a reservoir, and first and second control fluid ports for connection to the fluid pressure operated device; valve means disposed in the housing means and defining a neutral position and a first operating position. The housing means and the valve means cooperating to define a neutral fluid path communicating between the inlet port and the return port, and including a variable neutral orifice having its maximum flow area when the valve means is in the neutral position, and a decreasing flow area as the valve means is displaced from the neutral position toward the first operating position. The housing means and the valve means cooperating to define a main fluid path communicating between the inlet port and the first control fluid port, and between the second control fluid port and the return port when the valve means is in the first operating position.

  7. Geological flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. N. Bratkov

    2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper geology and planetology are considered using new conceptual basis of high-speed flow dynamics. Recent photo technics allow to see all details of a flow, 'cause the flow is static during very short time interval. On the other hand, maps and images of many planets are accessible. Identity of geological flows and high-speed gas dynamics is demonstrated. There is another time scale, and no more. All results, as far as the concept, are new and belong to the author. No formulae, pictures only.

  8. Steady-State Flow-Force Compensation in a Hydraulic Spool Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lugowski, Jan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-speed jet flowing inside of a partially-open hydraulic valve is accompanied by a reaction force, also referred to as flow force. The nature of this force has remained a mystery despite an extensive research effort spanning many decades. The momentum theory on the flow force by Lee and Blackburn (1952) explains the origin of the flow force and offers a design solution to shape the valve spool as a turbine bucket. It provides a model to calculate the compensated flow force as well. This paper shows that the model applies to a different flow case due to incorrect assumptions made. A corrected equation is presented based on a detailed analysis of the static-pressure distribution in the valve cavity as well as on a literature review of pressure loss in diffusers and nozzles. The new equation is based on the compensation taking place upstream of the valve orifice, not downstream as assumed by the momentum theory. The new model can be applied to chamfers or notches on the valve spool without the need to machi...

  9. Montgomery County- Renewable Rights- No Private Restrictions on Renewables

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides that “a person must not create or enforce any deed restriction, covenant, rule, or regulation, or take any other action, which would prohibit the owner of any building from installing a...

  10. Restricting Legislative Power to Tax in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaye, Tracy; Mazza, Stephen W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Government’s authority to impose taxes is one of its most pervasive and fundamental powers. In the United States, this power is granted to Congress by the U.S. Constitution with few explicit restrictions. Moreover, the ...

  11. The effect of restricted highway facilities on traffic operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloninger, Kriss

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ ~ ~ ~ 73 ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . 74 LIST OF TABLES Table l. iflotor Vehicle degistrations in The 'Jnited States 2. Analysis of Traf. ic Data 3. Frequency Distribution of Vehicle Speeds at Open Site Number 2 4. Frequency Distribution of Vehicle Time... Recording Tace ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . 25 . 26 . 31 15. Comparison of Vehicle Speeds At Open Site Number 1 And Restricted Site Number 1 . 42 16. Comparison cf Vehicle Speeds At Ooen Site Number 1 And Restricted Site Number 1 . 43 17...

  12. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.

  13. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, Mark D. (1426 Socastee Dr., North Augusta, SC 29841); Sweeney, Chad E. (3600 Westhampton Dr., Martinez, GA 30907-3036); Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel (2715 Margate Dr., Augusta, GA 30909)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  14. Cooling Flows or Heating Flows?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2003-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    It is now clear that AGN heat cooling flows, largely by driving winds. The winds may contain a relativistic component that generates powerful synchrotron radiation, but it is not clear that all winds do so. The spatial and temporal stability of the AGN/cooling flow interaction are discussed. Collimation of the winds probably provides spatial stability. Temporal stability may be possible only for black holes with masses above a critical value. Both the failure of cooling flows to have adiabatic cores and the existence of X-ray cavities confirm the importance of collimated outflows. I quantify the scale of the convective flow that the AGN Hydra would need to drive if it balanced radiative inward flow by outward flow parallel to the jets. At least in Virgo any such flow must be confined to r<~20 kpc. Hydrodynamical simulations suggest that AGN outbursts cannot last longer than ~25 Myr. Data for four clusters with well studied X-ray cavities suggests that heating associated with cavity formation approximately balances radiative cooling. The role of cosmic infall and the mechanism of filament formation are briefly touched on.

  15. Rank and Set Restrictions for Homogeneity Analysis in R: The "homals" Package

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mair, Patrick; Leeuw, Jan de

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rank and Set Restrictions for Homogeneity Analysis in R:various extensions in terms of rank restrictions (nonlinearSection 2.1) in terms of rank restrictions (Section 2.2) and

  16. Rank and Set Restrictions for Homogeneity Analysis in R: The "homals" Package

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick Mair; Jan de Leeuw

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rank and Set Restrictions for Homogeneity Analysis in R:various extensions in terms of rank restrictions (nonlinearSection 2.1) in terms of rank restrictions (Section 2.2) and

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol restrictions reduse Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Events, or Groups had age restrictions.9 Alcohol companies... on Metro trains and buses, there are no restrictions on the placement of alcohol ads on...

  18. Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

  19. Flow distribution analysis on the cooling tube network of ITER thermal shield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Chung, Wooho; Noh, Chang Hyun; Kang, Dong Kwon; Kang, Kyoung-O; Ahn, Hee Jae; Lee, Hyeon Gon [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal shield (TS) is to be installed between the vacuum vessel or the cryostat and the magnets in ITER tokamak to reduce the thermal radiation load to the magnets operating at 4.2K. The TS is cooled by pressurized helium gas at the inlet temperature of 80K. The cooling tube is welded on the TS panel surface and the composed flow network of the TS cooling tubes is complex. The flow rate in each panel should be matched to the thermal design value for effective radiation shielding. This paper presents one dimensional analysis on the flow distribution of cooling tube network for the ITER TS. The hydraulic cooling tube network is modeled by an electrical analogy. Only the cooling tube on the TS surface and its connecting pipe from the manifold are considered in the analysis model. Considering the frictional factor and the local loss in the cooling tube, the hydraulic resistance is expressed as a linear function with respect to mass flow rate. Sub-circuits in the TS are analyzed separately because each circuit is controlled by its own control valve independently. It is found that flow rates in some panels are insufficient compared with the design values. In order to improve the flow distribution, two kinds of design modifications are proposed. The first one is to connect the tubes of the adjacent panels. This will increase the resistance of the tube on the panel where the flow rate is excessive. The other design suggestion is that an orifice is installed at the exit of tube routing where the flow rate is to be reduced. The analysis for the design suggestions shows that the flow mal-distribution is improved significantly.

  20. Flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, G.

    1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

  1. Bone loss during energy restriction: mechanistic role of leptin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baek, Kyunghwa

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    &M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Susan A. Bloomfield Joanne R. Lupton Committee Members... of Leptin. (December 2007) Kyung hwa Baek, B.S., Seoul National University; Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Susan A. Bloomfield Dr. Joanne R. Lupton Mechanical unloading and food restriction...

  2. Relaxing B Sharing Restrictions within CSP B Arnaud Lanoix1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Relaxing B Sharing Restrictions within CSP B Arnaud Lanoix1 , Olga Kouchnarenko2 , Samuel Colin3 of state sharing in CSP B specifications: B machines controlled by various CSP parts are supposed without creating inconsistencies in CSP B specifications. To achieve this, we present an approach where

  3. Relaxing B Sharing Restrictions within CSP B Arnaud Lanoix1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Relaxing B Sharing Restrictions within CSP B Arnaud Lanoix1 , Olga Kouchnarenko2 , Samuel Colin3.poirriez@univ-valenciennes.fr Abstract. This paper addresses the issue of state sharing in CSP B specifications: B machines controlled by various CSP parts are supposed not to refer to, share or modify the same state space. However, some kinds

  4. See Course Restrictions Sheet College of Engineering and Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    See Course Restrictions Sheet College of Engineering and Computer Science Computer Science Name/ 331 Calculus or Linear Algebra MAT 263 4 or 3 J CIS321 Intro. to Probability & Statistics 4 O I SSH/VPA _______________ 3 O SSH/VPA _______________ 3 N SSH/VPA _______________ 3 Natural Sciences

  5. See Course Restrictions Sheet College of Engineering and Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Algebra MA 253 4 or 3 J CIS321 Intro. to Probability & Statistics 4 O Engineering Courses (6 cr) R ECS101See Course Restrictions Sheet College of Engineering and Computer Science Computer Science Name/VPA _______________ 3 N SSH/VPA _______________ 3 Natural Sciences (12 cr) Two semester lab sequence in Natural Sciences

  6. See Course Restrictions Sheet College of Engineering and Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    or Linear Algebra MA442 4 or 3 J CIS321 Intro. to Probability & Statistics 4 O Engineering Courses (6 cr) RSee Course Restrictions Sheet College of Engineering and Computer Science Computer Science Name/VPA _______________ 3 O SSH/VPA _______________ 3 N SSH/VPA _______________ 3 Natural Sciences (12 cr) Two semester lab

  7. SFTEL: Flow Cell | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flow Cell EMSL's Subsurface Flow and Transport Experimental Laboratory offers several meter-scale flow cells and columns for research in saturated and unsaturated porous media....

  8. The Impact of Refrigerant Charge, Air Flow and Expansion Devices on the Measured Performance of an Air-Source Heat Pump Part I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes extensive tests performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. The tests contain 150 steady-state performance tests, 18 cyclic tests and 18 defrost tests. During the testing work, the refrigerant charge level was varied from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value; the outdoor temperature was altered by three levels at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C); indoor air flow rates ranged from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate; and the expansion device was switched from a fixed-orifice to a thermal expansion value. Detailed performance data from the extensive steady state cyclic and defrost testing performed were presented and compared.

  9. Nonstationary flow for the Navier-Stokes equations in a cylindrical pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joanna Renclawowicz; Wojciech M. Zajaczkowski

    2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In cylindrical domain, we consider the nonstationary flow with prescribed inflow and outflow, modelled with Navier-Stokes equations under the slip boundary conditions. Using smallness of some derivatives of inflow function, external force and initial velocity of the flow, but with no smallness restrictions on the inflow, initial velocity neither force, we prove existence of solutions in $W^{2,1}_2.$

  10. Potential impacts of tighter Forest Service log export restrictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal law restricts the export of unprocessed timber cut from national forests in the western half of the United States. Also, purchasers of national forest timber are restricted from substituting timber harvested from federal lands for privately owned timber that they export. GAO reviewed the magnitude of and the potential impacts from extending the substitution restriction to cover third parties who subsequently acquire Forest Service timber from the original purchasers - an export industry practice commonly referred to as third-party substitution. According to the Forest Service and timber industry associations, third-party substitution approximates 100 million board feet annually in the western United States. They said that if the practice were banned, some companies could acquire national forest timber at lower prices because of decreased demand and competition, and the lower prices would result in less government revenues. Also, a ban could disrupt traditional log markets and business practices. The Forest Service believes it could not enforce a ban on third-party substitution without additional legal authority and staff.

  11. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

  12. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J. (Fairport, NY); Venkiteswaran, Arun (Karnataka, IN)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  13. Operation of orifice meter chart integrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, C. [EMC Services Co., Inc., Arlington, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When properly maintained and operated, the chart integrator can provide reliable chart integration for many years. The overall accuracy of the integration process win be determined by the proficiency of the operator as well as the upkeep and calibration of the chart integrator.

  14. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l LPROJECTS IN RENEWABLEOperated inFebruary 26, 2009at the Army0/353/R1

  15. Fabrication of Small Diesel Fuel Injector Orifices

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    nozzles. - Improved fuel atomization reduces sootparticulate formation and improves air entrainment thereby improving combustion efficiency Multiple approaches were examined...

  16. Effects of external pressure on the terminal lymphatic flow rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seale, James Lewis

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pressure applied to the skin of the canine cause the terminal lymphat- ic flow rate to increase until the external pressure reaches 60mm Hg. At an external pressure of 60mm Hg reduced lymphatic flow is observed in some of the test animals. At 75mm Hg... resulting from the external pressure begins to col- lapse the lymph vessels. External pressure between 60 and 75mm Hg restricts or completely occludes the terminal lymphatic flow rate. ACKNOWLEDGENENTS I would like to express my appreciation...

  17. The Flow of Newtonian Fluids in Axisymmetric Corrugated Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taha Sochi

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This article deals with the flow of Newtonian fluids through axially-symmetric corrugated tubes. An analytical method to derive the relation between volumetric flow rate and pressure drop in laminar flow regimes is presented and applied to a number of simple tube geometries of converging-diverging nature. The method is general in terms of fluid and tube shape within the previous restrictions. Moreover, it can be used as a basis for numerical integration where analytical relations cannot be obtained due to mathematical difficulties.

  18. Analysis of the flow imbalance on the profile shape during the extrusion of thin magnesium sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gall, Sven [Forschungszentrum Strangpressen, Technische Universität Berlin, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, Berlin, 13355, Germany, and Metallische Werkstoffe, Technische Universität Berlin, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, Berlin, 10587 (Germany); Müller, Sören [Forschungszentrum Strangpressen, Technische Universität Berlin, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, Berlin, 13355 (Germany); Reimers, Walter [Metallische Werkstoffe, Technische Universität Berlin, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, Berlin, 10587 (Germany)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The extrusion process facilitates the production of magnesium sheets featuring a very thin thickness as well as excellent surface properties by using a single process step only. However, the extrusion of the magnesium sheets applying not optimized process parameters, e.g. low billet temperature or/ and poorly deformable magnesium alloy, produce pronounced buckling and waving of the extruded sheets as well as a variation of accuracy in profile shape along the cross section. The present investigation focuses on the FEM-simulation of the extrusion of magnesium sheets in order to clarify the origin of the mentioned effects. The simulations identify the flow imbalance during extrusion as the main critical factor. Due to the flow imbalance after passing the die a large compression stress zone is formed causing the buckling and waving of the thin sheets. Furthermore, the simulations of the magnesium sheet extrusion reveal that the interaction of the material flow gradients along the width and along the thickness direction near the die orifice lead to the variation of the accuracy in profile shape.

  19. Investigation of technology for monitoring UF/sub 6/ mass flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, J.N.; Moran, B.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability of gas flow meters, in-line enrichment monitors, and instruments for measuring uranium or UF/sub 6/ concentrations in process streams as a means for verifying declared plant throughput have been investigated. The study was performed to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency in the development of an effective international safeguards approach for aerodynamic uranium enrichment plants. Because the process gas in an aerodynamic enrichment facility is a mixture of UF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/, a mass flow measurement in conjunction with a measurement of the uranium (or UF/sub 6/) concentration in the process gas is required to quantify the amount of uranium being fed into, and withdrawn from, the cascades for nuclear materials accountability verification. In-line enrichment monitors developed for the US gas centrifuge enrichment plant are found to be applicable only to pure UF/sub 6/ streams. Of the five gas flow meters evaluated, the orifice meter and the pitot tube meter are judged the best choices for the proposed applications: the first is recommended for low-velocity gas, small diameter piping; the latter, for high-velocity gas, large diameter piping. Of the six procedures evaluated for measurement of uranium or UF/sub 6/ concentration in a mixed process stream, infrared-ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry is judged to be the best procedure currently available to perform the required measurement. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  1. Analysis, design, and control for robots in temperature-restricted environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Ethan B

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, the problem of controlling the internal and external temperatures of a robot operating within a temperature-restricted environment was addressed. One example of a temperature-restricted environment is the ...

  2. A comparison of injector flow and spray characteristics of biodiesel with petrodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Som, S.; Longman, D. E; Ramirez, A. I.; Aggarwal, S. K. (Energy Systems)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engines depend strongly on inner nozzle flow and spray behavior. These processes control the fuel air mixing, which in turn is critical for the combustion process. The differences in the physical properties of petrodiesel and biodiesel are expected to significantly alter the inner nozzle flow and spray structure and, thus, the performance and emission characteristics of the engine. In this study, the inner nozzle flow dynamics of these fuels are characterized by using the mixture-based cavitation model in FLUENT v6.3. Because of its lower vapor pressure, biodiesel was observed to cavitate less than petrodiesel. Higher viscosity of biodiesel resulted in loss of flow efficiency and reduction in injection velocity. Turbulence levels at the nozzle orifice exit were also lower for biodiesel. Using the recently developed KH-ACT model, which incorporates the effects of cavitation and turbulence in addition to aerodynamic breakup, the inner nozzle flow simulations are coupled with the spray simulations in a 'quasi-dynamic' fashion. Thus, the influence of inner nozzle flow differences on spray development of these fuels could be captured, in addition to the effects of their physical properties. Spray penetration was marginally higher for biodiesel, while cone angle was lower, which was attributed to its poor atomization characteristics. The computed liquid lengths of petrodiesel and biodiesel were compared with data from Sandia National Laboratories. Liquid lengths were higher for biodiesel due to its higher boiling temperature and heat of vaporization. Though the simulations captured this trend well, the liquid lengths were underpredicted, which was attributed to uncertainty about the properties of biodiesel used in the experiments. Parametric studies were performed to determine a single parameter that could be used to account for the observed differences in the fuel injection and spray behavior of petrodiesel and biodiesel; fuel temperature seems to be the best parameter to tune.

  3. SOLVING LARGE DOUBLE DIGESTION PROBLEMS FOR DNA RESTRICTION MAPPING BY USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOLVING LARGE DOUBLE DIGESTION PROBLEMS FOR DNA RESTRICTION MAPPING BY USING BRANCH;Solving Large Double Digestion Problems for DNA Restriction Mapping by Using Branch-and-Bound Integer.S.A. Abstract. The double digestion problem for DNA restriction mapping has been proved to be NP

  4. Low volume flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meixler, Lewis D. (East Windsor, NJ)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low flow monitor provides a means for determining if a fluid flow meets a minimum threshold level of flow. The low flow monitor operates with a minimum of intrusion by the flow detection device into the flow. The electrical portion of the monitor is externally located with respect to the fluid stream which allows for repairs to the monitor without disrupting the flow. The electronics provide for the adjustment of the threshold level to meet the required conditions. The apparatus can be modified to provide an upper limit to the flow monitor by providing for a parallel electronic circuit which provides for a bracketing of the desired flow rate.

  5. Propeller Flow Meter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Juan; Santistevan, Dean; Hla, Aung K.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propeller flow meters are commonly used to measure water flow rate. They can also be used to estimate irrigation water use. This publication explains how to select, install, read and maintain propeller flow meters....

  6. Dispersed flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoder, Graydon L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersed flow consists of small liquid droplets entrained in a flowing vapor. This flow regime can occur in cryogenic equipment, in steam generators, and during nuclear reactor loss of coolant accidents. A theoretical ...

  7. Bacteria in shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcos, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria are ubiquitous and play a critical role in many contexts. Their environment is nearly always dynamic due to the prevalence of fluid flow: creeping flow in soil, highly sheared flow in bodily conduits, and turbulent ...

  8. Evaluation of flow capture techniques for measuring HVAC grilleairflows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Wray, Craig P.

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the accuracy of commercially available flow hoods for residential applications. Results of laboratory and field tests indicate these hoods can be inadequate to measure airflows in residential systems, and there can be large measurement discrepancies between different flow hoods. The errors are due to poor calibrations, sensitivity of the hoods to grille airflow non-uniformities, and flow changes from added flow resistance. It is possible to obtain reasonable results using some flow hoods if the field tests are carefully done, the grilles are appropriate, and grille location does not restrict flow hood placement. We also evaluated several simple flow capture techniques for measuring grille airflows that could be adopted by the HVAC industry and homeowners as simple diagnostics. These simple techniques can be as accurate as commercially available devices. Our test results also show that current calibration procedures for flow hoods do not account for field application problems. As a result, agencies such as ASHRAE or ASTM need to develop a new standard for flow hood calibration, along with a new measurement standard to address field use of flow capture techniques.

  9. Time integration for diffuse interface models for two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aland, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.aland@tu-dresden.de

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a variant of the ?-scheme for diffuse interface models for two-phase flow, together with three new linearization techniques for the surface tension. These involve either additional stabilizing force terms, or a fully implicit coupling of the Navier–Stokes and Cahn–Hilliard equation. In the common case that the equations for interface and flow are coupled explicitly, we find a time step restriction which is very different to other two-phase flow models and in particular is independent of the grid size. We also show that the proposed stabilization techniques can lift this time step restriction. Even more pronounced is the performance of the proposed fully implicit scheme which is stable for arbitrarily large time steps. We demonstrate in a Taylor-flow application that this superior coupling between flow and interface equation can decrease the computation time by several orders of magnitude.

  10. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  11. Flow Distances on Open Flow Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Liangzhu; Shi, Peiteng; Wang, Jun; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jiang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Open flow network is a weighted directed graph with a source and a sink, depicting flux distributions on networks in the steady state of an open flow system. Energetic food webs, economic input-output networks, and international trade networks, are open flow network models of energy flows between species, money or value flows between industrial sectors, and goods flows between countries, respectively. Flow distances (first-passage or total) between any given two nodes $i$ and $j$ are defined as the average number of transition steps of a random walker along the network from $i$ to $j$ under some conditions. They apparently deviate from the conventional random walk distance on a closed directed graph because they consider the openness of the flow network. Flow distances are explicitly expressed by underlying Markov matrix of a flow system in this paper. With this novel theoretical conception, we can visualize open flow networks, calculating centrality of each node, and clustering nodes into groups. We apply fl...

  12. Restricted Complexity Framework for Nonlinear Adaptive Control in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Rube B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS K575, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2004-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Control law adaptation that includes implicit or explicit adaptive state estimation, can be a fundamental underpinning for the success of intelligent control in complex systems, particularly during subsystem failures, where vital system states and parameters can be impractical or impossible to measure directly. A practical algorithm is proposed for adaptive state filtering and control in nonlinear dynamic systems when the state equations are unknown or are too complex to model analytically. The state equations and inverse plant model are approximated by using neural networks. A framework for a neural network based nonlinear dynamic inversion control law is proposed, as an extrapolation of prior developed restricted complexity methodology used to formulate the adaptive state filter. Examples of adaptive filter performance are presented for an SSME simulation with high pressure turbine failure to support extrapolations to adaptive control problems.

  13. Complexity of Propositional Abduction for Restricted Sets of Boolean Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creignou, Nadia; Thomas, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abduction is a fundamental and important form of non-monotonic reasoning. Given a knowledge base explaining how the world behaves it aims at finding an explanation for some observed manifestation. In this paper we focus on propositional abduction, where the knowledge base and the manifestation are represented by propositional formulae. The problem of deciding whether there exists an explanation has been shown to be SigmaP2-complete in general. We consider variants obtained by restricting the allowed connectives in the formulae to certain sets of Boolean functions. We give a complete classification of the complexity for all considerable sets of Boolean functions. In this way, we identify easier cases, namely NP-complete and polynomial cases; and we highlight sources of intractability. Further, we address the problem of counting the explanations and draw a complete picture for the counting complexity.

  14. Quark-antiquark static energy from a restricted Fourier transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix Karbstein

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a fully analytical determination of the perturbative quark-antiquark static energy in position space as defined by a restricted Fourier transformation from momentum to position space. Such a determination is complicated by the fact that the static energy genuinely decomposes into a strictly perturbative part (made up of contributions $\\sim\\alpha_s^n$, with $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$) which is conventionally evaluated in momentum space, and a so-called ultrasoft part (including terms $\\sim\\alpha_s^{n+m}\\ln^m\\alpha_s$, with $n\\geq3$ and $m\\in\\mathbb{N}$) which, conversely, is naturally evaluated in position space. Our approach facilitates the explicit determination of the static energy in position space at the accuracy with which the perturbative potential in momentum space is known, i.e., presently up to order $\\alpha_s^4$.

  15. Restricted phase-space approximation in real-time stochastic quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryoji Anzaki; Kenji Fukushima; Yoshimasa Hidaka; Takashi Oka

    2014-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform and extend real-time numerical simulation of a low-dimensional scalar field theory or a quantum mechanical system using stochastic quantization. After a brief review of the quantization method and the complex Langevin dynamics, we calculate the propagator and make a comparison with analytical results. This is a first step toward general applications, and we focus only on the vacuum properties of the theory; this enables us to handle the boundary condition with the $i\\epsilon$ prescription in frequency space. While we can control stability of the numerical simulation for any coupling strength, our results turn out to flow into an unphysical fixed-point, which is qualitatively understood from the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. We propose a simple truncation scheme, "restricted phase-space approximation," to avoid the unphysical fixed-point. With this method, we obtain stable results at reasonably good accuracy. Finally we give a short discussion on the closed-time path formalism and demonstrate the direct computation of the vacuum expectation value not with the $i\\epsilon$ prescription but from an explicit construction of the Feynman kernel.

  16. Hydrogeological restrictions to saline ground-water discharge in the Red River of the North drainage basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strobel, M.L. (Geological Survey, Grand Forks, ND (United States) Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discharge of saline water from bedrock aquifers along the eastern margin of the Williston basin is restricted by surficial glacial till and lacustrine deposits in the Red River of the North drainage basin. Water from these aquifers reaches the surface by (1) diffusion; (2) slow, upward seepage along zones of relatively larger hydraulic conductivity in the till and lacustrine deposits; or (3) flow from artesian wells. Ground-water quality varies near the surface because of mixing of water being discharged from bedrock aquifers with shallower ground water in the surficial deposits. Ground-water quality, hydraulic-gradient, and hydraulic-conductivity data obtained from pumped-well and slug tests indicate that flow in the surficial deposits is eastward, but at slow rates because of small hydraulic conductivities. Base-flow and specific-conductance measurements of water in tributaries to the Red River of the North indicate that focused points of ground-water discharge result in substantial increases in salinity in surface water in the northern part of the basin in North Dakota. Core analyses and drillers' logs were used to generalize hydrogeologic characteristics of the deposits in the basin, and a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model was used to simulate the basin's geohydrologic processes. Model results indicate that the ground-water flow paths in the bedrock aquifers and surficial deposits converge, and that water from the bedrock aquifers contributes to the overall increase in ground-water discharge toward the east. Model results are supported by water-quality data collected along an east-west hydrogeologic section.

  17. Development of a new duct leakage test: DeltaQ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, I.S.; Sherman, M.H.; Wempen, J.; Wang, D.; McWilliams, J.A.; Dickerhoff, D.J.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    orifice on the blower door to eliminate this problem at the expense of reduced air flow measurement accuracy.

  18. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

    1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  19. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  20. Exhibit 12 Restricted Rights Notice UT-B Contracts Div Page 1 of 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    to restrictions set forth in Contract No. DE-AC05-000R22725 and Subcontract No. with UT-Battelle, LLC, and . (End

  1. Analysis of Refrigerant Flow and Deformation for a Flexible Short-Tube using a Finite Element Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D.L.; Bassiouny, R.

    reliability. Short-tubes have either a constant inner dia- meter flow channel or a tapered channel with a smallAbstract A finite element model was used to simulate single-phase flow of R-22 through flexible short-tubes. The numerical model included the fluid... in the flow area. The more flexible (5513 kPa) short-tube restricted the mass flow rate more than the most rigid (9889 kPa) short-tube used in this study. The mass flow rates estimated with the finite element model were as much as 14% higher than those from...

  2. Ultrasonic flow metering system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mauseth, Jason A. (Pocatello, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for determining the density, flow velocity, and mass flow of a fluid comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the fluid. A system for determining flow velocity uses two of the inventive circuits with directional transmitters and receivers, one of which is set at an angle to the direction of flow that is different from the others.

  3. Directory Information Restriction Use this form to manage public access to your data at Boston University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guenther, Frank

    Directory Information Restriction Use this form to manage public access to your data at Boston identifiable information as "Directory Information." A list of this information is below. Unless restricted, Boston University may disclose any of the items of Directory Information without your consent. Boston

  4. WORKING PAPER N 2007 -01 Exports, sunk costs and financial restrictions in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WORKING PAPER N° 2007 - 01 Exports, sunk costs and financial restrictions in Argentina during the 1990s Paula Espanol JEL Codes: C35, F14, O54 Keywords: Sunk costs, firm's export decisions, financial, Sunk Costs and Financial Restrictions in Argentina during the 1990s Paula Espanol (EHESS, PSE) January

  5. Confidentiality Agreement Relating to In Camera Inspection of Materials Subject to Publication Restrictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , research paper, project or other work that arises out of Restricted Materials, strictly confidentialConfidentiality Agreement Relating to In Camera Inspection of Materials Subject to Publication of materials which are presently subject to publication restrictions outlined in the New Jersey Institute

  6. Digestive Response to Restricted Feeding in Migratory Yellow-Rumped Warblers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    314 Digestive Response to Restricted Feeding in Migratory Yellow-Rumped Warblers Kelly A. Lee1 to the idea that digestive physiology limits refueling rates in migrating birds. We tested the digestive restricted birds were able to feed and digest at a high rate immediately following return to ad lib. feeding

  7. Unimodal Maps as Boundary-Restrictions of Two-Dimensional Full-Folding Maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsuiki, Hideki

    Unimodal Maps as Boundary-Restrictions of Two-Dimensional Full-Folding Maps Hideki TSUIKI tsuiki-75-753-6744, Fax:+81-75-753-6694 Abstract It is shown that every unimodal map is realized as a restriction of a simple map defined on the unit disc to a part of its boundary. Our two-dimensional map is called a full

  8. FLOW AND REACTIVE TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA INDUCED BY WELL INJECTION: SIMILARITY SOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with radius '' ? 0. Figure 1. Injection of contaminant into the soil (N = 2). *Delft University of Technology and Stochastics, Hausvogteiplatz 5­7, D­O­1086 Berlin, GERMANY. #12; The water flow regime is characterized by flushing with clean water. As the analysis of both cases is substantially different, we will restrict here

  9. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  10. Fuel control for gas turbine with continuous pilot flame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swick, Robert M. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved fuel control for a gas turbine engine having a continuous pilot flame and a fuel distribution system including a pump drawing fuel from a source and supplying a line to the main fuel nozzle of the engine, the improvement being a control loop between the pump outlet and the pump inlet to bypass fuel, an electronically controlled throttle valve to restrict flow in the control loop when main nozzle demand exists and to permit substantially unrestricted flow without main nozzle demand, a minimum flow valve in the control loop downstream of the throttle valve to maintain a minimum pressure in the loop ahead of the flow valve, a branch tube from the pilot flame nozzle to the control loop between the throttle valve and the minimum flow valve, an orifice in the branch tube, and a feedback tube from the branch tube downstream of the orifice to the minimum flow valve, the minimum flow valve being operative to maintain a substantially constant pressure differential across the orifice to maintain constant fuel flow to the pilot flame nozzle.

  11. Study of Low Speed Flow Cytometry for Diffraction Imaging with Different Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for optimization of the chamber design and improvement of the cell positioning accuracy for study of slow moving utilize a sheath nozzle with a conical end or orifice for hydrodynamic focusing the fluid injected

  12. A New Approach to Computing Max Flows using Electrical Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    A New Approach to Computing Max Flows using Electrical Flows Yin Tat Lee (MIT) Satish Rao (UC-Kelner-Madry-Spielman-Teng'11]: approximate flow in time Uses electrical flows. 7 #12;Electrical Flows 3 1 S t 8 #12;Electrical Flows Identify Graph with Resistor Network R(e)=1/w(e) 1/3 S t 1 9 #12;Electrical Flows Electrical flow

  13. Low flow fume hood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Geoffrey C. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Feustel, Helmut E. (Albany, CA); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fume hood is provided having an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A displacement flow fume hood works on the principal of a displacement flow which displaces the volume currently present in the hood using a push-pull system. The displacement flow includes a plurality of air supplies which provide fresh air, preferably having laminar flow, to the fume hood. The displacement flow fume hood also includes an air exhaust which pulls air from the work chamber in a minimally turbulent manner. As the displacement flow produces a substantially consistent and minimally turbulent flow in the hood, inconsistent flow patterns associated with contaminant escape from the hood are minimized. The displacement flow fume hood largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 70% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance. The fume hood also includes a number of structural adaptations which facilitate consistent and minimally turbulent flow within a fume hood.

  14. Nuclear-radiation-actuated valve. [Patent application; for increasing coolant flow to blanket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Schively, D.P.

    1982-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a breeder reactor blanket fuel assembly coolant system valve which increases coolant flow to the blanket fuel assembly to minimize long-term temperature increases caused by fission of fissile fuel created from fertile fuel through operation of the breeder reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  15. Implicit Large Eddy Simulation of Cavitation in Micro Channel Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickel, S; Schmidt, S J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical method for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of compressible two-phase flows. The method is validated for the flow in a micro channel with a step-like restriction. This setup is representative for typical cavitating multi-phase flows in fuel injectors and follows an experimental study of Iben et al., 2010. While a diesel-like test fuel was used in the experiment, we solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with a barotropic equation of state for water and vapor and a simple phase-change model based on equilibrium assumptions. Our LES resolve all wave dynamics in the compressible fluid and the turbulence production in shear layers.

  16. Turbulent flow in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

    2010-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the possibility of a turbulent flow of electrons in graphene in the hydrodynamic region, by calculating the corresponding turbulent probability density function. This is used to calculate the contribution of the turbulent flow to the conductivity within a quantum Boltzmann approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the system parameters arising from the turbulent flow is very different from that due to scattering.

  17. University of Delaware Baccalaureate Majors -Academic Year 2014-15 1) Non-restricted majors have year-round admissions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Engineering Environmental Science BS Earth, Ocean and Environment Environmental Soil Science BS Agriculture Sciences BS Arts and Sciences Biomedical Engineering BBE Restrictions Engineering Black American Studies BA Arts and Sciences Chemical Engineering BCHE Restrictions Engineering Chemistry BA Arts and Sciences

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - airline smoking restrictions Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    moral standards and legal restrictions on smoking before 1914; the role of supply and demand constraints... 's non- smoking at that time was not a mark of the wowser, because of...

  19. ARAACtional exuberance : lessons and prospects for age-restricted active adult housing development in Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Sloan William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last fifteen years, Massachusetts and neighboring states have experienced explosive growth in a hitherto alien form of residential development to the region: the age-restricted active adult retirement community ...

  20. Excitation energies and Stokes shifts from a restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalczyk, Tim

    Restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham (ROKS) theory provides a powerful computational tool for calculating singlet excited state energies and dynamics. However, the possibility of multiple solutions to the ROKS equations — with ...

  1. International Studies Office Student travel to Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua Restricted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    International Studies Office Student travel to Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua Committee for Education Abroad has restricted student travel to Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua may follow the guidelines documented at: Procedures. The decision

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - amplified rdna restriction Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results for: amplified rdna restriction Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Insect Molecular Biology (2000) 9(2), 217222 2000 Blackwell Science Ltd 217 Summary: of Entomology, North...

  3. BRUSHING WITHOUT CAPACITY RESTRICTIONS DARRYN BRYANT, NEVENA FRANCETIC, PRZEMYSLAW GORDINOWICZ, DAVID PIKE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pralat, Pawel

    BRUSHING WITHOUT CAPACITY RESTRICTIONS DARRYN BRYANT, NEVENA FRANCETI´C, PRZEMYSLAW GORDINOWICZ support from NSERC and Ryerson University. 1 #12;2DARRYN BRYANT, NEVENA FRANCETI´C, PRZEMYSLAW GORDINOWICZ

  4. Different Modes of Retrovirus Restriction by Human APOBEC3A and APOBEC3G In Vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stavrou, Spyridon

    The apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are among the most highly evolutionarily selected retroviral restriction factors, both in terms of gene copy number and sequence diversity. Primate genomes ...

  5. Genetic regulation of dietary restriction-induced longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Nicholas A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dietary restriction (DR), the limitation of food intake below the ad libidum (AL) level without malnutrition, extends mean and maximum lifespan in every organism in which it has been tested. Perhaps even more significantly, ...

  6. CompactCities : analyzing the urban spatial structure in cities with growth restrictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oberoi, Amit

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact city form is one that espouses high intensity development within a restrictive geographic area. Its perceived benefits include (a) saving agricultural land (b) inducing shorter commute trips, thus less consumption ...

  7. Growth and welfare losses from carbon emissions restrictions : a general equilibrium analysis for Egypt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blitzer, Charles R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is an assessment for a particular country, Egypt, of the economic effects, under various conditions, of carbon emission restrictions. Like other work, it is an exemplification of some of the economic possibilities. ...

  8. Liberty, Restriction, and the Remaking of Italians and Eastern European Jews, 1882-1965

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marinari, Maddalena

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    was not really over whether the quota system would become law, but rather over the most 'scientific' criteria to adopt to exclude and restrict prospective immigrants. The adoption of the 1924 Immigration Act represented the climax of a long battle over... another effect on Italian Americans' response to immigration restriction. In addition to complicating Italian Americans' strategy to oppose the quota system, the Italian government also worked hard to keep alive the ties the community had with Italy...

  9. Dolomitization by ground-water flow systems in carbonate platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simms, M.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dolomite occurs throughout the subsurface of modern carbonate platforms such as the Bahamas. Groundwater flow systems must be responsible for delivery of reactants needed for dolomitization. Reflux, freshwater lens flows, and thermal convection are large-scale flow systems that may be widespread in active platforms. The author has evaluated some aspects of the dynamics and characteristics of these processes with ground-water flow theory and by scaled sandbox experiments. Reflux is not restricted to hypersaline brines, but can occur with bankwaters of only slightly elevated salinity such as those found on the Bahama Banks today (42%). The lack of evaporites in a stratigraphic section, therefore, does not rule out the possibility that reflux may have operated. Flows associated with freshwater lenses include flow in the lens, in the mixing zone, and in the seawater beneath and offshore of the lens. Upward transfer of seawater through the platform margins occurs when surrounding cold ocean water migrates into the platform and is heated. This type of thermal convection (Kohout convection) has been studied by Francis Kohout in south Florida. The ranges of mass flux of magnesium in these processes are all comparable and are all sufficient to account for young dolomites beneath modern platforms. Each process yields dolomitized zones of characteristic shape and location and perhaps may be distinguishable in ancient rocks. The concepts presented here may have application to exploration for dolomite reservoirs in the Gulf Coast and elsewhere.

  10. Liquid and liquid–gas flows at all speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeMartelot, S., E-mail: sebastien.lemartelot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr [Polytech'Marseille, Aix-Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7343 IUSTI, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Nkonga, B., E-mail: boniface.nkonga@unice.fr [RS2N, Bastidon de la Caou, 13360 Roquevaire (France); University of Nice, LJAD UMR CNRS 7351, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex (France); Saurel, R., E-mail: richard.saurel@polytech.univ-mrs.fr [Polytech'Marseille, Aix-Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7343 IUSTI, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); RS2N, Bastidon de la Caou, 13360 Roquevaire (France); University Institute of France, 5 rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    All speed flows and in particular low Mach number flow algorithms are addressed for the numerical approximation of the Kapila et al. [1] multiphase flow model. This model is valid for fluid mixtures evolving in mechanical equilibrium but out of temperature equilibrium and is efficient for material interfaces computation separating miscible and non-miscible fluids. In this context, the interface is considered as a numerically diffused zone, captured as well as all present waves (shocks, expansion waves). The same flow model can be used to solve cavitating and boiling flows [2]. Many applications occurring with liquid–gas interfaces and cavitating flows involve a very wide range of Mach number, from 10{sup ?3} to supersonic (and even hypersonic) conditions with respect to the mixture sound speed. It is thus important to address numerical methods free of restrictions regarding the Mach number. To do this, a preconditioned Riemann solver is built and embedded into the Godunov explicit scheme. It is shown that this method converges to exact solutions but needs too small time steps to be efficient. An implicit version is then derived, first in one dimension and second in the frame of 2D unstructured meshes. Two-phase flow preconditioning is then addressed in the frame of the Saurel et al. [3] algorithm. Modifications of the preconditioned Riemann solver are needed and detailed. Convergence of both single phase and two-phase numerical solutions are demonstrated with the help of single phase and two-phase steady nozzle flow solutions. Last, the method is illustrated by the computation of real cavitating flows in Venturi nozzles. Vapour pocket size and instability frequencies are reproduced by the model and method without using any adjustable parameter.

  11. Productivity & Energy Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Randall J.

    1 Productivity & Energy Flow Ecosystem approach, focuses: on flow of energy, water, and nutrients (capture) of energy by autotrophs Gross (total) Net (total ­ costs) Secondary productivity- capture of energy by herbivores http://sciencebitz.com/?page_id=204 What Controls the Primary Productivity

  12. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  13. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat (NE Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  14. Elliptic flow phenomenon at ATLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Spousta

    2014-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize measurements of elliptic flow and higher order flow harmonics performed by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Results on event-averaged flow measurements and event-plane correlations in Pb+Pb collisions are discussed along with the event-by-event flow measurements. Further, we summarize results on flow in p+Pb collisions.

  15. Supplemental Figures and Tables for Groundfish EFH Review Phase 1 Report "Federal and State Marine Protected Areas Type of Fishing Restriction"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldfinger, Chris

    "Federal and State Marine Protected Areas ­ Type of Fishing Restriction" Author and state MPAs depicted in map figures, categorized by level of fishing restriction Fishing Restriction BEFORE AFTER Commercial and Recreational Fishing Prohibited

  16. Shroud leakage flow discouragers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Jeremy Clyde (Middle Grove, NY); Bunker, Ronald Scott (Niskayuna, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine assembly includes a plurality of rotor blades comprising a root portion, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall, and a top portion having a cap. An outer shroud is concentrically disposed about said rotor blades, said shroud in combination with said tip portions defining a clearance gap. At least one circumferential shroud leakage discourager is disposed within the shroud. The leakage discourager(s) increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the clearance gap to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  17. Bypass Flow Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schultz

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched Index of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for the flow ratios between coolant channels and bypass gaps in the interstitial regions of typical prismatic standard fuel element (SFE) or upper reflector block geometries of typical Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (MHTGR) in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measure the velocity fields that will populate the bypass flow study database.

  18. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  19. Optical flow switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Vincent W. S.

    Present-day networks are being challenged by dramatic increases in bandwidth demand of emerging applications. We will explore a new transport, ldquooptical flow switchingrdquo, that will enable significant growth and ...

  20. Olefin Autoxidation in Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuenschwander, Ulrich

    Handling hazardous multiphase reactions in flow brings not only safety advantages but also significantly improved performance, due to better mass transfer characteristics. In this paper, we present a continuous microreactor ...

  1. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  2. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this problem is to develop a burner, which can operate at two firing rates, with the lower rate being significantly lower than 0.5 gallons per hour. This paper describes the initial results of adopting this approach through a pulsed flow nozzle. It has been shown that the concept of flow modulation with a small solenoid valve is feasible. Especially in the second configuration tested, where the Lee valve was integrated with the nozzle, reasonable modulation in flow of the order of 1.7 could be achieved. For this first prototype, the combustion performance is still not quite satisfactory. Improvements in operation, for example by providing a sharp and positive shut-off so that there is no flow under low pressures with consequent poor atomization could lead to better combustion performance. This could be achieved by using nozzles that have shut off or check valves for example. It is recommended that more work in cooperation with the valve manufacturer could produce a technically viable system. Marketability is of course a far more complex problem to be addressed once a technically viable product is available.

  3. Simulation analysis of within-day flow fluctuation effects on trout below flaming Gorge Dam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Railsback, S. F.; Hayse, J. W.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; EPRI

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to being renewable, hydropower has the advantage of allowing rapid load-following, in that the generation rate can easily be varied within a day to match the demand for power. However, the flow fluctuations that result from load-following can be controversial, in part because they may affect downstream fish populations. At Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah, concern has been raised about whether flow fluctuations caused by the dam disrupt feeding at a tailwater trout fishery, as fish move in response to flow changes and as the flow changes alter the amount or timing of the invertebrate drift that trout feed on. Western Area Power Administration (Western), which controls power production on submonthly time scales, has made several operational changes to address concerns about flow fluctuation effects on fisheries. These changes include reducing the number of daily flow peaks from two to one and operating within a restricted range of flows. These changes significantly reduce the value of the power produced at Flaming Gorge Dam and put higher load-following pressure on other power plants. Consequently, Western has great interest in understanding what benefits these restrictions provide to the fishery and whether adjusting the restrictions could provide a better tradeoff between power and non-power concerns. Directly evaluating the effects of flow fluctuations on fish populations is unfortunately difficult. Effects are expected to be relatively small, so tightly controlled experiments with large sample sizes and long study durations would be needed to evaluate them. Such experiments would be extremely expensive and would be subject to the confounding effects of uncontrollable variations in factors such as runoff and weather. Computer simulation using individual-based models (IBMs) is an alternative study approach for ecological problems that are not amenable to analysis using field studies alone. An IBM simulates how a population responds to environmental changes by representing how the population's individuals interact with their environment and each other. IBMs represent key characteristics of both individual organisms (trout, in this case) and the environment, thus allowing controlled simulation experiments to analyze the effects of changes in the key variables. For the flow fluctuation problem at Flaming Gorge Dam, the key environmental variables are flow rates and invertebrate drift concentrations, and the most important processes involve how trout adapt to changes (over space and time) in growth potential and mortality risk. This report documents simulation analyses of flow fluctuation effects on trout populations. The analyses were conducted in a highly controlled fashion: an IBM was used to predict production (survival and growth) of trout populations under a variety of scenarios that differ only in the level or type of flow fluctuation.

  4. Section 13: Flow control 1 Section 13: Flow control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    Geometries for Energyefficient Flow Around Bodies Abstract 14:30 ­ 14:50: Elfriede Friedmann (Universität

  5. Effects of imperfect insulating coatings on the flow partitioning between parallel channels in self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaizer, A.A.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fully developed liquid-metal flow in a system of three straight rectangular ducts is investigated. The ducts are electrically coupled by common conducting walls covered with an imperfect insulating layer. A numerical model of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in the system is described. Since no additional assumptions, such as in the core-flow solution, have been made, this model can be used for the analysis of MHD flow in parallel ducts with nearly perfect insulating coating. Any orientation of the applied uniform magnetic field is possible. Electrical conductivities of the dividing and exterior walls, and of the insulating layers in individual channels can be varied independently, as well as characteristics of insulating imperfections in each channel. A restriction of equal pressure gradients in all ducts is imposed, and the flow partitioning between parallel channels is examined. Results of the numerical simulation of the influence of insulation imperfections on flow distribution and velocity profiles are presented. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I.Skillicorn 1 Azimuthal asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I.Skillicorn 1 Azimuthal asymmetry using energy flow method Azimuthal angle distribution at Q2 >100 GeV2 Energy flow method.Ukleja on behalf of the ZEUS Collaboration #12; Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I

  7. Evaluation of flow hood measurements for residential register flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, I.S.; Wray, C.P.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Sherman, M.H.

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow measurement at residential registers using flow hoods is becoming more common. These measurements are used to determine if the HVAC system is providing adequate comfort, appropriate flow over heat exchangers and in estimates of system energy losses. These HVAC system performance metrics are determined by using register measurements to find out if individual rooms are getting the correct airflow, and in estimates of total air handler flow and duct air leakage. The work discussed in this paper shows that commercially available flow hoods are poor at measuring flows in residential systems. There is also evidence in this and other studies that flow hoods can have significant errors even when used on the non-residential systems they were originally developed for. The measurement uncertainties arise from poor calibrations and the sensitivity of exiting flow hoods to non-uniformity of flows entering the device. The errors are usually large--on the order of 20% of measured flow, which is unacceptably high for most applications. Active flow hoods that have flow measurement devices that are insensitive to the entering airflow pattern were found to be clearly superior to commercially available flow hoods. In addition, it is clear that current calibration procedures for flow hoods may not take into account any field application problems and a new flow hood measurement standard should be developed to address this issue.

  8. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  9. Electrocapturing flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA)

    2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow cell for electrophoretically-assisted capturing analytes from a flow. The flow cell includes a specimen chamber, a first membrane, a second membrane, a first electrode chamber, and a second electrode chamber. The specimen chamber may have a sample inlet and a sample outlet. A first portion of the first membrane may be coupled to a first portion of the specimen chamber. A first portion of the second membrane may be coupled to a second portion of the specimen chamber. The first electrode chamber may be configured to accept a charge. A portion of the first electrode chamber may be coupled to a second portion of the first membrane. A second electrode chamber may be configured to accept an opposite charge. A portion of the second electrode chamber may be coupled to a second portion of the second membrane.

  10. Workshop on hypersonic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Povinelli, L.A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview is given of research activity on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CDF) for hypersonic propulsion systems. After the initial consideration of the highly integrated nature of air-breathing hypersonic engines and airframe, attention is directed toward computations carried out for the components of the engine. A generic inlet configuration is considered in order to demonstrate the highly three dimensional viscous flow behavior occurring within rectangular inlets. Reacting flow computations for simple jet injection as well as for more complex combustion chambers are then discussed in order to show the capability of viscous finite rate chemical reaction computer simulations. Finally, the nozzle flow fields are demonstrated, showing the existence of complex shear layers and shock structure in the exhaust plume. The general issues associated with code validation as well as the specific issue associated with the use of CFD for design are discussed. A prognosis for the success of CFD in the design of future propulsion systems is offered.

  11. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Land disposal restrictions (40 cfr parts 268) updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The module presents an overview of the land disposal restrictions (LDR) program. It defines the basic terms and describes the structure of the LDR regulations. It identifies the statutory basis for LDR and describes the applicability of LDR. It explains how EPA sets treatment standards and identifies treatment standards for wastes subject to land disposal restrictions and cites the CFR section. It describes and identifies how exemptions and variances from treatment requirements are obtained, including federal register citations. It defines generator and Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF) requirements under the LDR program. It summarizes the schedule of existing restrictions and the plan for restricting newly identified wastes.

  12. I can't use my cell phone?: Cell phone addiction, restrictive social environments and health of college students.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Talli R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This study investigated group differences in levels of cell phone addiction, frequency of Internet use on the device, and restrictive classroom and employment settings against… (more)

  13. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility.

  14. Pricing Hydroelectric Power Plants with/without Operational Restrictions: a Stochastic Control Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Peter A.

    Pricing Hydroelectric Power Plants with/without Operational Restrictions: a Stochastic Control of Waterloo, Waterloo ON, Canada N2L 3G1 Abstract. In this paper, we value hydroelectric power plant cash operational constraints may considerably overestimate the value of hydroelectric power plant cashflows. 1

  15. Binge-eating behavior in mice: influences of restriction and palatability in a limited access model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Kristina W.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    this model in mice, explored the fat content within the model, and investigated locomotor activation associated with binge-eating. Adult mice were maintained on a restricted feeding (RF) schedule of 2 h/d of access to chow or ad lib access to chow...

  16. MIMO PID Tuning via Iterated LMI Restriction S. Boyd M. Hast K. J. Astrom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIMO PID Tuning via Iterated LMI Restriction S. Boyd M. Hast K. J. °Astr¨om July 2, 2014 Abstract We formulate multi-input multi-output (MIMO) proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller design, and provides a simple automated method for tuning MIMO PID controllers. The method is readily extended in many

  17. Food Restriction Compromises Immune Memory in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) by Reducing Spleen-Derived

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navara, Kristen

    -offs. Mild food restriction (70% ad lib. diet) reduces secondary antibody responses in deer mice (Peromyscus). Activation of immune defenses, particularly induction of fever, increases calorie and protein turnover- mesticated mice genetically engineered to lack T and B cells were higher, not lower, than those of outbred

  18. Regioselective thermolysis of 1,4-diphenylbutane enhanced by restricted radical mobility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal decomposition of coal has been postulated to involve the formation of free radicals by processes such as the homolysis of aliphatic or ether-containing bridges which connect polycyclic aromatic units into a macromolecular structure. Understanding the thermal reactivity of coal is important in the study of pyrolysis, liquefaction, and coking. Mechanistic insights into the chemical reactivity of coal at the molecular level can be gained from the study of model compounds which represent structural features in coal. However, radicals generated in a cross-linked macromolecular material such as coal may experience restricted mobility when the radical center remains bound to the residual molecular structure. To model the effects of restricted radical mobility on thermally induced decomposition reactions, thermolyses of model compounds covalently attached to an inert support have been studied. Thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,2-diphenylethane showed a substantially altered free radical reaction pathway compared with the corresponding liquid phase behavior, while thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane ({approximately}DPP) showed unexpected regioselectivity resulting from conformational restrictions on hydrogen transfer reactions as the surface coverage of {approximately}DPP decreased. In order to further explore the regionselectivity of hydrogen transfer induced by restricted diffusion, the thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,4-diphenylbutane ({approximately}DPB) is being examined.

  19. Experimental demonstration of enhanced photon recycling in angle-restricted GaAs solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraon, Andrei

    Experimental demonstration of enhanced photon recycling in angle-restricted GaAs solar cells Emily, emphasizing the optical nature of the effect. 1 Introduction For ideal solar cells where all recombination. Despite this theoretical prediction, until recently even the highest efficiency solar cells were not close

  20. The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol-restricted Halocarbons in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol-restricted Halocarbons of Geophysics #12;2 #12;The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. With several hundred MSW landfills in both the US and UK, estimating

  1. A microfluidic-based electrochemical biochip for label-free diffusion-restricted DNA hybridization analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghodssi, Reza

    A microfluidic-based electrochemical biochip for label-free diffusion-restricted DNA hybridization online 16 May 2012 Keywords: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy DNA hybridization biosensor Biochip. However, as device footprints decrease and their complexity increase, the signal-to-noise ratio

  2. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  3. How do the withdrawal rules work? There are no withdrawal restrictions on the TFSA. Any money

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    How do the withdrawal rules work? There are no withdrawal restrictions on the TFSA. Any money you may withdraw money at any time, the TFSA is not meant to be a substitute for a chequing or bank-style savings account. Processing fees may apply to withdrawals. Use the TFSA for money you don't anticipate

  4. transformation restrictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

    Integration of Graph Transformation and Temporal Logic for the Speci#12;cation of Distributed, namely distributed graph transformation and temporal logic. Distributed graph transformation is intended

  5. The effect of cathode geometry on barium transport in hollow cathode plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, James E., E-mail: james.e.polk@jpl.nasa.gov; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Capece, Angela M. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of barium transport on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in numerical modeling of a cathode with two different orifice sizes. Despite large differences in cathode emitter temperature, emitted electron current density, internal xenon neutral and plasma densities, and size of the plasma-surface interaction region, the barium transport in the two geometries is qualitatively very similar. Barium is produced in the insert and flows to the surface through the porous structure. A buildup of neutral Ba pressure in the plasma over the emitter surface can suppress the reactions supplying the Ba, restricting the net production rate. Neutral Ba flows into the dense Xe plasma and has a high probability of being ionized at the periphery of this zone. The steady state neutral Ba density distribution is determined by a balance between pressure gradient forces and the drag force associated with collisions between neutral Ba and neutral Xe atoms. A small fraction of the neutral Ba is lost upstream. The majority of the neutral Ba is ionized in the high temperature Xe plasma and is pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field. The steady state Ba{sup +} ion density distribution results from a balance between electrostatic and pressure forces, neutral Xe drag and Xe{sup +} ion drag with the dominant forces dependent on location in the discharge. These results indicate that hollow cathodes are very effective at recycling Ba within the discharge and therefore maintain a high coverage of Ba on the emitter surface, which reduces the work function and sustains high electron emission current densities at moderate temperatures. Barium recycling is more effective in the cathode with the smaller orifice because the Ba is ionized in the dense Xe plasma concentrated just upstream of the orifice and pushed back into the hollow cathode. Despite a lower emitter temperature, the large orifice cathode has a higher Ba loss rate through the orifice because the Xe plasma density peaks further upstream.

  6. Multiphase cooling flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter A. Thomas

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide strong constraints on the mass distribution within the cooling radius.

  7. A self-sustaining nonlinear dynamo process in Keplerian shear flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Rincon; G. I. Ogilvie; M. R. E. Proctor

    2007-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional nonlinear dynamo process is identified in rotating plane Couette flow in the Keplerian regime. It is analogous to the hydrodynamic self-sustaining process in non-rotating shear flows and relies on the magneto-rotational instability of a toroidal magnetic field. Steady nonlinear solutions are computed numerically for a wide range of magnetic Reynolds numbers but are restricted to low Reynolds numbers. This process may be important to explain the sustenance of coherent fields and turbulent motions in Keplerian accretion disks, where all its basic ingredients are present.

  8. ENERGY FLOWS CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    ENERGY FLOWS FORCINGS CLIMATE CHANGE A REALLY TOUGH PROBLEM Stephen E. Schwartz, BNL, 7-20-11 www average temperature 15°C or 59°F #12;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Power per area Energy per time per area Unit" temperature to radiative flux. #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per

  9. Flow cytometry apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the construction directs flat cells near to the area of one dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates.

  10. AGN and Cooling Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2001-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    For two decades the steady-state cooling-flow model has dominated the literature of cluster and elliptical-galaxy X-ray sources. For ten years this model has been in severe difficulty from a theoretical point of view, and it is now coming under increasing pressure observationally. For two decades the steady-state cooling-flow model has dominated the literature of cluster and elliptical-galaxy X-ray sources. For ten years this model has been in severe difficulty from a theoretical point of view, and it is now coming under increasing pressure observationally. A small number of enthusiasts have argued for a radically different interpretation of the data, but had little impact on prevailing opinion because the unsteady heating picture that they advocate is extremely hard to work out in detail. Here I explain why it is difficult to extract robust observational predictions from the heating picture. Major problems include the variability of the sources, the different ways in which a bi-polar flow can impact on X-ray emission, the weakness of synchrotron emission from sub-relativistic flows, and the sensitivity of synchrotron emission to a magnetic field that is probably highly localized.

  11. On the Design of Driving Restrictions: Theory and Empirical Evidence1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    in developing countries have used driving restrictions as a policy for reducing urban air pollution and traffic for driving restrictions to be effective in reducing air pollution levels, but that due to substitution, air pollution during unrestricted hours and perhaps overall air pollution levels as well may be higher. Also

  12. File: Accessing Restricted Resources Using Network Connect Page 1 of 6 Dec. 2012 on the Secure Remote Access Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    to connecting. You must be approved by your Responsibility Center Administrator to access Network ConnectFile: Accessing Restricted Resources Using Network Connect Page 1 of 6 Dec. 2012 on the Secure Restricted University Online Resources Using Network Connect on the Secure Remote Access Service Table

  13. A controlled microfluidic electrochemical lab-on-a-chip for label-free diffusion-restricted DNA hybridization analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghodssi, Reza

    A controlled microfluidic electrochemical lab-on-a-chip for label-free diffusion-restricted DNA hybridization sensing Microfluidics Valve Label-free detection Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Restricted-of-care. Here, we present a microfluidic LOC, with 3 Ã? 3 arrayed electrochemical sensors for the analysis of DNA

  14. Analysis of flow patterns and flow mechanisms in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Analysis of flow patterns and flow mechanisms in soils Dissertation Co-directed by the University of paths, varying flow mechanism or changing soil physical properties (stratification). Thus, in stratified-28Jan2010 #12;This doctoral thesis was prepared at the Department of Soil Physics, University

  15. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  16. The Big Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Sikivie

    2001-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The late infall of cold dark matter onto an isolated galaxy, such as our own, produces streams and caustics in its halo. The outer caustics are topological spheres whereas the inner caustics are rings. The self-similar model of galactic halo formation predicts that the caustic ring radii $a_n$ follow the approximate law $a_n \\sim 1/n$. In a study of 32 extended and well-measured external galactic rotation curves evidence was found for this law. In the case of the Milky Way, the locations of eight sharp rises in the rotation curve fit the prediction of the self-similar model at the 3% level. Moreover, a triangular feature in the IRAS map of the galactic plane is consistent with the imprint of a ring caustic upon the baryonic matter. These observations imply that the dark matter in our neighborhood is dominated by a single flow. Estimates of that flow's density and velocity vector are given.

  17. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  18. Neutrino Factory Mercury Flow Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Neutrino Factory Mercury Flow Loop V. GravesV. Graves C. Caldwell IDS-NF Videoconference March 9, 2010 #12;Flow Loop Review · 1 cm dia nozzle, 20 m/s jet requires 1.57 liter/sec mercury flow (94 2 liter/min 24 9 gpm)mercury flow (94.2 liter/min, 24.9 gpm). · MERIT experiment showed that a pump

  19. Energy Restriction Effects on Estrogen Status and the Skeletal Response to Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swift, Sibyl Nichole

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    circulating estrogen levels and limits the bone response 4 to exercise or mechanical loading and to determine if it does so through a reduction in the expression of ER-#1; in osteocytes and osteoblasts. The central hypothesis... functional estrogen receptor-#1; (ER-#1;) to respond adequately to loading. The experiment described in this document is significant because this model has not been explored under conditions of energy restriction (EnR) which are known to reduce...

  20. Variability in desert bighorn and Rambouillet sheep using restriction fragment length polymorphisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyles, Ingrid Doodeheefver

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    if bighorn populations are existing in a high quality habitat, a lack of healthy offspring with a lack of adaptability to the environment will certainly be counterproductive in maintaining the already low numbers of these sheep. Previous Research...VARIABILITY IN DESERT BIGHORN AND RAMBOUILLET SHEEP USING RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS A Thesis by INGRID DOODEHEEFVER LYLES Approved as to style and content by: Ja es E. Womack (Char of Committee) Joe W. Templeto (Member) ry...

  1. Hierarchy of Hamilton equations on Banach Lie-Poisson spaces related to restricted Grassmannian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomasz Golinski; Anatol Odzijewicz

    2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Magri method one defines an involutive family of Hamiltonians on Banach Lie-Poisson space iR+UL_res^1 (which contains the restricted Grassmannian as a symplectic leaf) and on its complexification C+L_res^1. The hierarchy of Hamilton equations given by these Hamiltonians is investigated. The operator equations of Ricatti-type are included in this hierarchy. For a few particular cases one gives the explicit solutions.

  2. Evaluation of intrusion sensors and video assessment in areas of restricted passage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, C.E.; Ringler, C.E.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses an evaluation of intrusion sensors and video assessment in areas of restricted passage. The discussion focuses on applications of sensors and video assessment in suspended ceilings and air ducts. It also includes current and proposed requirements for intrusion detection and assessment. Detection and nuisance alarm characteristics of selected sensors as well as assessment capabilities of low-cost board cameras were included in the evaluation.

  3. Chromosomal characterizations in a restricted population of Geomys bursarius (Rodentia: Geomyidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallings, Raymond L

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cleared. in 2 changes of xylene for. 2z hours. After 2 changes of paraffin, the tissue was imbedded in Paraplast blocks (Sherwood Medical Industries, St. louis, Missouri). -ix micron sections were cut, using a Lipshaw microtome. Histological slides...CHROMOSOMAL CHARACTERIZATIONS IN A RESTRICTED POPULATION OF GEOMYS BUFSARIUS (RODENTIA; GEOWiIDAE) A Thesis by Raymond Louis Sta11ings Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEcM University in partial fulf'llment of the requirement...

  4. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  5. Restricted three-body problem in effective-field-theory models of gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmanuele Battista; Giampiero Esposito

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the outstanding problems of classical celestial mechanics was the restricted 3-body prob- lem, in which a planetoid of small mass is subject to the Newtonian attraction of two celestial bodies of large mass, as it occurs, for example, in the sun-earth-moon system. On the other hand, over the last decades, a systematic investigation of quantum corrections to the Newtonian potential has been carried out in the literature on quantum gravity. The present paper studies the effect of these tiny quantum corrections on the evaluation of equilibrium points. It is shown that, despite the extreme smallness of the corrections, there exists no choice of sign of these corrections for which all qualitative features of the restricted 3-body problem in Newtonian theory remain unaffected. Moreover, first-order stability of equilibrium points is characterized by solving a pair of algebraic equations of fifth degree, where some coefficients depend on the Planck length. The coordinates of stable equilibrium points are slightly changed with respect to Newtonian theory, because the planetoid is no longer at equal distance from the two bodies of large mass. The effect is conceptually interesting but too small to be observed, at least for the restricted 3-body problems available in the solar system.

  6. Modeling Merging Galaxies using MINGA - Improving Restricted N-body by Dynamical Friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanns P. Petsch; Christian Theis

    2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling interacting galaxies to reproduce observed systems is still a challenge due to the extended parameter space (among other problems). Orbit and basic galaxy parameters can be tackled by fast simulation techniques like the restricted N-body method, applied in the fundamental work by Toomre & Toomre (1972). This approach allows today for the study of millions of models in a short time. One difficulty for the classical restricted N-body method is the missing orbital decay, not allowing for galaxy mergers. Here we present an extension of the restricted N-body method including dynamical friction. This treatment has been developed by a quantitative comparison with a set of self-consistent merger simulations. By varying the dynamical friction (formalism, strength and direction), we selected the best-fitting parameters for a set of more than 250000 simulations. We show that our treatment reliably reproduces the orbital decay and tidal features of merging disk galaxies for mass ratios up to q=1/3 between host and satellite. We implemented this technique into our genetic algorithm based modeling code MINGA and present first results.

  7. Numerical Investigations of Magnetohydrodynamic Hypersonic Flows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guarendi, Andrew N

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hypersonic flow are presented for both laminar and turbulent flow over a cylinder and flow entering a scramjet inlet. ANSYS… (more)

  8. Adaptive PCCI with Variable Orifice Injector for Low Cost High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Low Cost High Efficiency Clean Diesels Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit,...

  9. The formation of gas bubbles at submerged orifices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, William Bell

    2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    . t - U i ; ? , Volume of Gas Chamber x 10 (cc.) | JO T * | f ? * *** 1 1 4 f 1 | I i ? \\ Fig. 7. Variation of the Bubble Volume with the Volume of the Gas Chamber d m 0.318 cm. 39 relative magnitudes of the terms constituting Equa? tion (25... at the correlations given, the quantity ? (which is proportional to the drag force) was correlated in the same manner as described for ^ ancl Ag. e corre^a^i?ns f?r ? In (E xp er im en ta l va lu e of ~f O In ("V*calculated by use of Equation 33) 8...

  10. Estimation of Gas Leak Rates Through Very Small Orifices

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States nor the L'nited states 'rl:clczr 1tcgl;l;:cry Cornmiszion. :or ally c their e m p i o y e , nor any of chcrr contractors, subcontraaor, a . tlveir rrninvct?t-,...

  11. Fabrication of Small Diesel Fuel Injector Orifices | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 2011 Report toAnnuAl ProgressEnergySmall

  12. Fabrication of Small-Orifice Fuel Injectors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 2011 Report toAnnuAl

  13. Estimation of Gas Leak Rates Through Very Small Orifices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 ton StanatAccepted forEstimation of Gas Leak

  14. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartmentEnergyHydrokineticClothes7, 2014EnergyImmobilization

  15. UZ Flow Models and Submodels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Wu

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.

  16. Fuel Injector Holes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Prepare multi-sized orifices (e.g., 40 m and 145 m) on the same nozzle to maintain fuel flow capability and improve combustion - Detailed microstructural analysis ...

  17. Copyright Warning & Restrictions The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    study bright points, umbra dots and the G-band using a two-dimensional spectrometer and an Adaptive with down-flowing plasma. Furthermore, we find penumbral grains that have penetrated the umbra and appear

  18. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  19. Annular flow diverter valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rider, Robert L. (Walkersville, MD)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A valve for diverting flow from the center of two concentric tubes to the annulus between the tubes or, operating in the reverse direction, for mixing fluids from concentric tubes into a common tube and for controlling the volume ratio of said flow consists of a toroidal baffle disposed in sliding engagement with the interior of the inner tube downstream of a plurality of ports in the inner tube, a plurality of gates in sliding engagement with the interior of the inner tube attached to the baffle for movement therewith, a servomotor having a bullet-shaped plug on the downstream end thereof, and drive rods connecting the servomotor to the toroidal baffle, the servomotor thereby being adapted to move the baffle into mating engagement with the bullet-shaped plug and simultaneously move the gates away from the ports in the inner tube and to move the baffle away from the bullet-shaped plug and simultaneously move the gates to cover the ports in the inner tube.

  20. REQUEST TO LIFT RESTRICTION OF DIRECTORY INFORMATION Directory information is defined as that information which would not generally be considered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    REQUEST TO LIFT RESTRICTION OF DIRECTORY INFORMATION Directory information is defined State University recognizes the following information as directory information. This information may University, preventing release of the directory information listed below to anyone other than University

  1. By Community or Design? Age-restricted Neighbourhoods, Physical Design and Baby Boomers' Local Travel Behaviour in Suburban Boston, US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zegras, P. Christopher

    This article analyses the travel behaviour, residential choices and related preferences of 55+ baby boomers in suburban Boston, USA, looking specifically at age-restricted neighbourhoods. For this highly auto-dependent ...

  2. Cross-functional environmental initiatives : addressing Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) technical challenges at Sun Microsystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenlaw, Tamara

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Union (EU) passed the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive, effective January 2006, banning the sale of electronics equipment containing lead and five other hazardous substances into EU countries. ...

  3. PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of conformationally restricted bicyclic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    of conformationally restricted bicyclic hexahydroisobenzofuran nucleoside analogs Alba D´iaz-Rodr´iguez,a,b Yogesh S for screening. The structure of the novel bicyclic HIBF nucleosides was established by a single crystal X

  4. Restricted Schurs and correlators for SO(N) and Sp(N)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garreth Kemp

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent work, restricted Schur polynomials have been argued to form a complete orthogonal set of gauge invariant operators for the 1/4-BPS sector of free N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory with an SO(N) gauge group. In this work, we extend these results to the theory with an Sp(N) gauge group. Using these operators, we develop techniques to compute correlation functions of any multi-trace operators with two scalar fields exactly in the free theory limit for both SO(N) and Sp(N).

  5. Bayesian approach for g-mode detection, or how to restrict our imagination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Appourchaux

    2007-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays, g-mode detection is based upon a priori theoretical knowledge. By doing so, detection becomes more restricted to what we can imagine. De facto, the universe of possibilities is made narrower. Such an approach is pertinent for Bayesian statisticians. Examples of how Bayesian inferences can be applied to spectral analysis and helioseismic power spectra are given. Our intention is not to give the full statistical framework (much too ambitious) but to provide an appetizer for going further in the direction of a proper Bayesian inference, especially for detecting gravity modes.

  6. Active combustion flow modulation valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hensel, John Peter; Black, Nathaniel; Thorton, Jimmy Dean; Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart; Lambeth, David N; Clark, William W

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow modulation valve has a slidably translating hollow armature with at least one energizable coil wound around and fixably attached to the hollow armature. The energizable coil or coils are influenced by at least one permanent magnet surrounding the hollow armature and supported by an outer casing. Lorentz forces on the energizable coils which are translated to the hollow armature, increase or decrease the flow area to provide flow throttling action. The extent of hollow armature translation depends on the value of current supplied and the direction of translation depends on the direction of current flow. The compact nature of the flow modulation valve combined with the high forces afforded by the actuator design provide a flow modulation valve which is highly responsive to high-rate input control signals.

  7. Identification of opaque-2 genotypes in segregating populations of quality protein maize by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kata, Srinivas Reddy

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IDENTIFICATION OF OPAQUE-2 GENOTYPES IN SEGREGATING POPULATIONS OF QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE BY ANALYSIS OF RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS A Thesis by SRINIVAS REDDY KATA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Adt...M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Genetics IDENTIFICATION OF OPAQUE-2 GENOTYPES IN SEGREGATING POPULATIONS OF QUALITY PROTEIN MAIZE BY ANALYSIS OF RESTRICTION FRAGMENT...

  8. Evaluation of a nodal capacity restricted dynamic model for the Southwest Freeway (US-59) corridor in Houston, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaac, Palathinkal Manu

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EVALUATION OF A NODAL CAPACITY RESTRICTED DYNAMIC MODEL FOR THE SOUTHWEST FREEWAY (US-59) CORRIDOR IN HOUSTON, TEXAS A Thesis by PALATHINKAL MANU ISAAC Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1994 Major Subject Civil Engineering EVALUATION OF A NODAL CAPACITY RESTRICTED DYNAMIC MODEL FOR THE SOUTHWEST FREEWAY (US-59) CORRIDOR IN HOUSTON, TEXAS A Thesis...

  9. ADMINISTRATION OF RESTRICTED FUNDS As a public institution, the University is accountable for the funds it receives and the manner in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ADMINISTRATION OF RESTRICTED FUNDS 2/15/2007 As a public institution, the University is accountable with University policy and guidelines. "Restricted" funds, however, require additional, special care to assure that funds are spent in accordance with requirements set by parties external to the University. Restrictions

  10. Adaptive Robust Control of Programmable Valves with Manufacturer Supplied Flow Mapping Only

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    and final tracking accuracy. In addition, real-time adaptation is used to reduce the degree of modelling-in and meter-out orifices [2], [3], [4] through valves number 1,2 and 4,5; and ii) enabling the precise control is the significant modelling error. The cartridge valves are of fast response and low cost but low accuracy

  11. Section 11: Interfacial flows 1 Section 11: Interfacial flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    Abstract 15:10 ­ 15:30: Martin Lübke, Olaf Wünsch (Universität Kassel): Two-Phase Flow in Single- Screw Extruders Abstract S11.4: Capillary Flows Wed, 16:00­18:00 Chair: Dieter Bothe S1|03­123 16:00 ­ 16:20: K

  12. Coal thermolysis modeling: The effects of restricted diffusion on thermal reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Biggs, C.A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique of model compound immobilization by covalent surface attachment is being employed to investigate the potential impact of restricted diffusional mobility on the thermal reactivity of coal. This restricted mobility may be imposed in coal as a consequence of its cross-linked, macromolecular structure. A detailed study of the thermolysis of surface-immobilized bibenzyl showed that the rate of unimolecular C-C homolysis is similar to that in fluid phases. Recent studies have foucused on the thermally induced, free radical chain decomposition reactions for surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane and 1,4-diphenylbutane. For 1,4-diphenylbutane both the reaction rate and product composition are strongly dependent on surface coverage and, hence, the proximity of 1.4-diphenylbutane molecules and hydrogen abstracting radicals on the surface. The rates and selectivities of these key bimolecular reaction steps on the surface might also be affected by the structure of neighboring molecules. In the current study, we are beginning to probe this feature by examining the influence of the structure of co-attached aromatic molecules such as biphenyl and diphenylmethane on the reaction rate and regioselectivity in the thermolysis of 1,4-diphenylbutane. 7 refs. , 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Experimental Evidence for Self-Limiting Reactive Flow through a Fractured Cement Core: Implications for Time-Dependent Wellbore Leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huerta, Nicolas J.; Hesse, Marc A.; Bryant, Steven L.; Strazisar, Brian R; Lopano, Christina L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a set of reactive transport experiments in cement fractures. The experiments simulate coupling between flow and reaction when acidic, CO{sub 2}-rich fluids flow along a leaky wellbore. An analog dilute acid with a pH between 2.0 and 3.15 was injected at constant rate between 0.3 and 9.4 cm/s into a fractured cement core. Pressure differential across the core and effluent pH were measured to track flow path evolution, which was analyzed with electron microscopy after injection. In many experiments reaction was restricted within relatively narrow, tortuous channels along the fracture surface. The observations are consistent with coupling between flow and dissolution/precipitation. Injected acid reacts along the fracture surface to leach calcium from cement phases. Ahead of the reaction front, high pH pore fluid mixes with calcium-rich water and induces mineral precipitation. Increases in the pressure differential for most experiments indicate that precipitation can be sufficient to restrict flow. Experimental data from this study combined with published field evidence for mineral precipitation along cemented annuli suggests that leakage of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids along a wellbore may seal the leakage pathway if the initial aperture is small and residence time allows mobilization and precipitation of minerals along the fracture.

  14. Effect of flow fluctuations and nonflow on elliptic flow methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Voloshin, Sergei A.

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss how the different estimates of elliptic flow are influenced by flow fluctuations and nonflow effects. It is explained why the event-plane method yields estimates between the two-particle correlation methods and the multiparticle correlation methods. It is argued that nonflow effects and fluctuations cannot be disentangled without other assumptions. However, we provide equations where, with reasonable assumptions about fluctuations and nonflow, all measured values of elliptic flow converge to a unique mean v_2,PP elliptic flow in the participant plane and, with a Gaussian assumption on eccentricity fluctuations, can be converted to the mean v_2,RP in the reaction plane. Thus, the 20percent spread in observed elliptic flow measurements from different analysis methods is no longer mysterious.

  15. Space effect on liquid film flow in a BWR fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, Koji; Kanazawa, Toru; Yokomizo, Osamu (Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Critical power at boiling transition is an important factor in a boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel bundle design. Boiling transition under high quality accounts for dryout as the result of the complete disappearance of film flow on a fuel rod. This liquid film vanishing process can be calculated by the liquid film model, which takes into account the evaporation due to heat from the rod surface, liquid film entrainment by steam flow, and liquid droplet deposition. It is known that spacers affect liquid film entrainment and liquid droplet deposition, so the detailed study of spacer effects on hydrodynamic characteristics is necessary for critical power prediction based on the film flow model. Many studies have been conducted to examine spacer effects on liquid film flow. However, most of them are restricted to simple test sections such as a rectangular conduit. There are a few reports on fuel bundle geometry; however the bundle studied was only a 3 by 3 rod array. It is known that spacers affect not only deposition and entrainment but also flow distribution among the subchannels. Therefore, in this research, liquid film thickness measurements were performed to clarify the deposition and entrainment at a spacer in a full-sized fuel bundle. Furthermore, critical power predictions on a BWR fuel bundle were carried out with a film flow model that included a spacer model.

  16. Network Flow Optimization under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Network model in words Minimize the cost of satisfying demands for electric energy By: imports, exports and electricity Subject to: conservation of energy flows (net after losses), lower and upper bounds on flows is a reactive approach: how would the optimal solution have changed if I'd only known? · Proactive approaches

  17. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Tennessee Knoxville; U. Texas Austin; McGill U; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  18. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, K.L.; Hannum, D.W.; Conrad, F.J.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A portal apparatus is described for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow. 3 figs.

  19. Wavy flow cooling concept for turbine airfoils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An airfoil including an outer wall and a cooling cavity formed therein. The cooling cavity includes a leading edge flow channel located adjacent a leading edge of the airfoil and a trailing edge flow channel located adjacent a trailing edge of the airfoil. Each of the leading edge and trailing edge flow channels define respective first and second flow axes located between pressure and suction sides of the airfoil. A plurality of rib members are located within each of the flow channels, spaced along the flow axes, and alternately extending from opposing sides of the flow channels to define undulating flow paths through the flow channels.

  20. Portable Liquid Flow Metering for Energy Conservation Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miles, F. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .c. jJ = 0.5 3. PERMANENT PRESSURE LOSS: PPL o = 72" w.c. See Table 3 4. HORSEPOWER REQUIRED TO MAKE UP PERMANENT PRESSURE LOSS: HP o = GPM x PPLo x SP. Gr. 38,000* (600) (72 )(1. 0) 38,000 HP o = 1.14 HP * Constant corrects for units...-7, 1982 TABLE 3 PERMANENT PRESSURE LOSS (PPL o ) FOR ORIFICE METERS 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 00?? '0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 07 Beta ratio (d/Dl CONCLUSIONS Ultrasonic flowmetering offers an effec tive way to measure liquids in energy...

  1. KJRR-FAI Hydraulic Flow Testing Input Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; D.B. Chapman

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INL, in cooperation with the KAERI via Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA), undertook an effort in the latter half of calendar year 2013 to produce a conceptual design for the KJRR-FAI campaign. The outcomes of this effort are documented in further detail elsewhere [5]. The KJRR-FAI was designed to be cooled by the ATR’s Primary Coolant System (PCS) with no provision for in-pile measurement or control of the hydraulic conditions in the irradiation assembly. The irradiation assembly was designed to achieve the target hydraulic conditions via engineered hydraulic losses in a throttling orifice at the outlet of the irradiation vehicle.

  2. The Keplerian map for the restricted three-body problem as a model of comet evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonid Malyshkin; Scott Tremaine

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the evolution of highly eccentric, planet-crossing orbits in the restricted three-body problem (Sun, planet, comet). We construct a simple Keplerian map in which the comet energy changes instantaneously at perihelion, by an amount depending only on the azimuthal angle between the planet and the comet at the time of perihelion passage. This approximate but very fast mapping allow us to explore the evolution of large ensembles of long-period comets. We compare our results on comet evolution with those given by the diffusion approximation and by direct integration of comet orbits. We find that at long times the number of surviving comets is determined by resonance sticking rather than a random walk.

  3. Role of Magnesium Ions in DNA Recognition by the EcoRV Restriction Endonuclease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahran, Mai [ORNL; Berezniak, Tomasz [University of Heidelberg; Imhof, Petra [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The restriction endonuclease EcoRV binds two magnesium ions. One of these ions, Mg2+A, binds to the phosphate group where the cleavage occurs and is required for catalysis, but the role of the other ion, Mg2+B is debated. Here, multiple independent molecular dynamics simulations suggest that Mg2+B is crucial for achieving a tightly bound protein DNA complex and stabilizing a conformation that allows cleavage. In the absence of Mg2+B in all simulations the protein DNA hydrogen bond network is significantly disrupted and the sharp kink at the central base pair step of the DNA, which is observed in the two-metal complex, is not present. Also, the active site residues rearrange in such a way that the formation of a nucleophile, required for DNA hydrolysis, is unlikely.

  4. Computer simulations of the restricted primitive model at very low temperature and density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chantal Valeriani; Philip J. Camp; Jos W. Zwanikken; René van Roij; Marjolein Dijkstra

    2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of successfully simulating ionic fluids at low temperature and low density states is well known in the simulation literature: using conventional methods, the system is not able to equilibrate rapidly due to the presence of strongly associated cation-anion pairs. In this manuscript we present a numerical method for speeding up computer simulations of the restricted primitive model (RPM) at low temperatures (around the critical temperature) and at very low densities (down to $10^{-10}\\sigma^{-3}$, where $\\sigma$ is the ion diameter). Experimentally, this regime corresponds to typical concentrations of electrolytes in nonaqueous solvents. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that the RPM has been equilibrated at such extremely low concentrations. More generally, this method could be used to equilibrate other systems that form aggregates at low concentrations.

  5. Physica B 344 (2004) 214223 Averaged propagator of restricted motion from the Gaussian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    StepiÂ?nik, Janez

    in this generalized form to deal with the space­time correlations of diffusion and flow in porous medium, closing self-diffusion; Porous media; Cumulant expansion; Diffusive diffraction 1. Introduction The magnetic catalysts, concrete, rocks or clays, etc. The propagator method of spin echo explains the diffraction

  6. Adaptive differentiation of H-2- and Igh-restricted B lymphocyte in tetraparental bone marrow chimera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, H.; Bitoh, S.; Fujimoto, S.

    1987-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Immunization of BALB/c mice with MOPC-104E myeloma protein induced idiotype-specific enhancing B cells that acted on anti-dextran antibody producing B cells. The enhancing cells have the surface phenotype of B cells. With the use of several H-2 or Igh congenic mice, it was found that the cooperation among B cells was controlled by both the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and Igh. The capability to generate enhancing B cell activity was analyzed by using tetraparental bone marrow chimeras. (C57BL/6 X BALB/c)F1 mice, for example, were lethally irradiated and were reconstituted with C57BL/6 and BALB/c bone marrow cells. Nine to 12 wk after the reconstitution, the chimeras were immunized with the myeloma protein and were tested for their enhancing B cell activity. After the removal of C57BL/6 origin cells by treatment with anti-H-2b + complement, residual cells exhibited enhancing B cell activity on BALB.B, as well as BALB/c antidextran antibody response. This indicates that the generation of H-2-restricted, idiotype-specific enhancing B cell activity differentiated adaptively so as to recognize foreign MHC as self under chimeric conditions. On the other hand, splenic B cells treated with anti-H-2d + complement did not enhance the responses of BALB/c or BALB.B. Even in a chimeric environment, the B cells of C57BL/6 origin could not obtain the ability to generate enhancing B cell activity upon immunization of the idiotype. The results described here, taken in conjunction with our previous studies, suggest that the Ig heavy chain gene(s) predominantly control the Igh restriction properties of enhancing B cells, and the capability of MHC recognition by B cells is selected under chimeric conditions.

  7. 1995 Report on Hanford site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-26-01E. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors at the Hanford Site were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers mixed waste only. The Washington State Department of Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDRs) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for radioactive mixed waste. This report is the fifth update of the plan first issued in 1990. Tri-Party Agreement negotiations completed in 1993 and approved in January 1994 changed and added many new milestones. Most of the changes were related to the Tank Waste Remediation System and these changes are incorporated into this report.

  8. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, D.G.

    1998-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities stored, generation rates, location and method of storage, an assessment of storage-unit compliance status, storage capacity, and the bases and assumptions used in making the estimates.

  9. A Comprehensive Review of the Tests Completed on the Flow Loop at the Energy Systems Laboratory (Draft)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -calibration of the equipment is the best way to ensure field accuracy. The calibration laboratory was built to provide a close at hand facility where the majority of this work could be performed. The flowloop was built to provide a means of calibrating the thermal monitoring... the receiving tank.backto thesupply tank. An orifice plate assembly has been installed to provide a secondary standard. The orifice plate is located in the vertical rise between the test section and the receiving tank. A differential pressure transducer with a 0...

  10. Turbine blade tip flow discouragers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunker, Ronald Scott (Niskayuna, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationery shroud. The rotating blade portions comprise a root section, a tip portion and an airfoil. The tip portion has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall. A number of flow discouragers are disposed on the blade tip portion. In one embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. In an alternative embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned at an angle in the range between about 0.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a reference axis aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. The flow discouragers increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  11. Multiscale Simulations for Polymeric Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiro Murashima; Takashi Taniguchi; Ryoichi Yamamoto; Shugo Yasuda

    2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiscale simulation methods have been developed based on the local stress sampling strategy and applied to three flow problems with different difficulty levels: (a) general flow problems of simple fluids, (b) parallel (one-dimensional) flow problems of polymeric liquids, and (c) general (two- or three-dimensional) flow problems of polymeric liquids. In our multiscale methods, the local stress of each fluid element is calculated directly by performing microscopic or mesoscopic simulations according to the local flow quantities instead of using any constitutive relations. For simple fluids (a), such as the Lenard-Jones liquid, a multiscale method combining MD and CFD simulations is developed based on the local equilibrium assumption without memories of the flow history. (b), the multiscale method is extended to take into account the memory effects that arise in hydrodynamic stress due to the slow relaxation of polymer-chain conformations. The memory of polymer dynamics on each fluid element is thus resolved by performing MD simulations in which cells are fixed at the mesh nodes of the CFD simulations.For general (two- or three-dimensional) flow problems of polymeric liquids (c), it is necessary to trace the history of microscopic information such as polymer-chain conformation, which carries the memories of past flow history, along the streamline of each fluid element. A Lagrangian-based CFD is thus implemented to correctly advect the polymer-chain conformation consistently with the flow. On each fluid element, coarse-grained polymer simulations are carried out to consider the dynamics of entangled polymer chains that show extremely slow relaxation compared to microscopic time scales.

  12. The transition from two phase bubble flow to slug flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radovcich, Nick A.

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of transition from bubble to slug flow in a vertical pipe has been studied analytically and experimentally. An equation is presented which gives the agglomeration time as a function of void fraction, channel ...

  13. Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Arora, Ravi; Kilanowski, David

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention describes features that can be used to control flow to an array of microchannels. The invention also describes methods in which a process stream is distributed to plural microchannels.

  14. Computation of cavity-by-cavity flow development in generic labyrinth seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nail, Gregory Howard

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ( ), 35x45( ? ? ), 50x60 ( ? ? ) and 65x75 ( ? - - ? ) grids Dimensionless turbulence length scale at M, = 0. 5 for 20x30( ), 35x45( ? ? ), 50x60 ( ? ? ) and 65x75 ( ? - ? ) grids 37 38 39 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Figure 14. Shematic of a...'s clearance-to-pitch ratio snd number of restrictions. Hodkinson found his leakage predictions within 5 percent of his experimental results. Kearton and Keh [14] studied compressible flow in a staggered seal, neglecting rotation and carry-over. The last...

  15. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NV)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  16. 'Dark Matter' as a Quantum Foam In-Flow Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reginald T. Cahill

    2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The galactic `dark matter' effect is regarded as one of the major problems in fundamental physics. Here it is explained as a self-interaction dynamical effect of space itself, and so is not caused by an unknown form of matter. Because it was based on Kepler's Laws for the motion of the planets in the solar system the Newtonian theory of gravity was too restricted. A reformulation and generalisation of the Newtonian theory of gravity in terms of a velocity in-flow field, representing at a classical level the relative motion of a quantum-foam substructure to space, reveals a key dynamical feature of the phenomenon of gravity, namely the so called `dark matter' effect, which manifests not only in spiral galaxy rotation curves, but also in the borehole g anomaly, globular and galactic black holes, and in ongoing problems in improving the accuracy with which Newton's gravitational constant G is measured. The new theory of gravity involves an additional new dimensionless gravitational constant, and experimental data reveals this to be the fine structure constant. The new theory correctly predicts the globular cluster black hole masses, and that the `frame-dragging' effect is caused by vorticity in the in-flow. The relationship of the new theory of gravity to General Relativity which, like Newtonian gravity, does not have the `dark matter' dynamics, is explained.

  17. Capillary flows in flexible structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoberg, Theresa B. (Theresa Blinn)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interactions between capillary and elastic effects are relevant to a variety of applications, from micro- and nano-scale manufacturing to biological systems. In this thesis, we investigate capillary flows in extremely ...

  18. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  19. particle flow for nonlinear filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobigeon, Nicolas

    particle flow for nonlinear filters Fred Daum 19 June 2012 Copyright © 2012 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved. Customer Success Is Our Mission is a trademark of Raytheon Company. 1 #12;discrete time

  20. Fluid Flow Modeling in Fractures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Sudipta

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study fluid flow in fractures using numerical simulation and address the challenging issue of hydraulic property characterization in fractures. The methodology is based on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ...

  1. Mechanical design of flow batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Brandon J. (Brandon James)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the design of low-cost, high-efficiency flow batteries. Researchers are searching for next-generation battery materials, and this thesis presents a systems analysis encompassing ...

  2. Field Flows of Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahn, Robert N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field Flows of Dark Energy Robert N. Cahn, Roland de Putter,July 8, 2008) Scalar ?eld dark energy evolving from a longthe key aspects of the dark energy evolution during much of

  3. Longitudinal dispersion in vegetated flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Enda

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vegetation is ubiquitous in rivers, estuaries and wetlands, strongly influencing both water conveyance and mass transport. The plant canopy affects both mean and turbulent flow structure, and thus both advection and ...

  4. Pipe Flow System Holly Guest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    numbers #12;Pipe Flow System Form #12;Components Form Fitting Loss Coefficient, k Globe valve, fully open 10 Angle valve, fully open 5 Swing check valve, fully open 2.5 Gate valve, fully open .2 Shortradius

  5. Multiscale modeling in granular flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rycroft, Christopher Harley

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Granular materials are common in everyday experience, but have long-resisted a complete theoretical description. Here, we consider the regime of slow, dense granular flow, for which there is no general model, representing ...

  6. Subcooled flow boiling of fluorocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Richard Walter

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted of heat transfer and hydrodynamic behavior for subcooled flow boiling of Freon-113, one of a group of fluorocarbons suitable for use in cooling of high-power-density electronic components. Problems ...

  7. Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to all dams and structures which impound or divert waters on rivers or their tributaries, with some exceptions. The regulations set standards for minimum flow (listed in the...

  8. Automation of radiochemical analysis by applying flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sánchez, David

    of detection systems, including scintillation counting, a-spectrometers, proportional counters, mass spectrometry and spectrophotometry. ª 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: Flow-analysis technique; Flow

  9. MODERN DEVELOPMENTS IN MULTIPHASE FLOW & HEAT TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lahey, Richard T.

    MODERN DEVELOPMENTS IN MULTIPHASE FLOW & HEAT TRANSFER "ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS OF FRACTAL and multiphase flow & heat transfer will be stressed. This paper will begin by reviewing some important concepts

  10. Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer,...

  11. Equidistribution results for geodesic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdelhamid Amroun

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the works of Ma\\~n\\'e \\cite{Ma} and Paternain \\cite{Pat} we study the distribution of geodesic arcs with respect to equilibrium states of the geodesic flow on a closed manifold, equipped with a $\\mathcal{C}^{\\infty}$ Riemannian metric. We prove large deviations lower and upper bounds and a contraction principle for the geodesic flow in the space of probability measures of the unit tangent bundle. We deduce a way of approximating equilibrium states for continuous potentials.

  12. Coal slurry letdown valve-concept test phase. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, E.R. Jr.; Suitor, J.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the concept test phase of a novel pressure letdown device indicate usefulness of the concept. The device, using staged letdown, was designed to minimize erosion damage by minimizing slurry velocities through the pressure restrictions. Tests were performed on air, steam/water and a coal slurry with a flashing component. Two valve sizes were used. Based on the results of these tests, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) the basic operating principle of designing for a constant velocity through the orifice restrictions is correct; (2) multiphase pressure letdown can be modeled; (3) temperature profiles are predictable; and (4) erosion in three-phase flow is a complex phenomenon. Recommendations for further work on the device include: (1) development of a controllable device; (2) correlation of further test data; and (3) study of flow regimes where erosion is minimized. 9 refs., 48 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Summary of Post Irradiation Examination Results of the AFIP-6 Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Robinson; Daniel M. Wachs; Francine Rice; Danielle Perez

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AFIP-6 test assembly was irradiated for one cycle in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiment was designed to test two monolithic fuel plates at power and burn-ups which bounded the operating conditions of both ATR and HFIR driver fuel. Both plates contain a solid U-Mo fuel foil with a zirconium diffusion barrier between 6061-aluminum cladding plates bonded by hot isostatic pressing. The experiment was designed with an orifice to restrict the coolant flow in order to obtain prototypic coolant temperature conditions. While these coolant temperatures were obtained, flow restriction resulted in low heat transfer coefficients and the failure of the fuel plates. The results from the post irradiation examinations and some observations of the failure mechanisms are outlined herein.

  14. Subcritical dynamos in shear flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Rincon; G. I. Ogilvie; M. R. E. Proctor; C. Cossu

    2008-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Identifying generic physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of magnetic fields and turbulence in differentially rotating flows is fundamental to understand the dynamics of astrophysical objects such as accretion disks and stars. In this paper, we discuss the concept of subcritical dynamo action and its hydrodynamic analogue exemplified by the process of nonlinear transition to turbulence in non-rotating wall-bounded shear flows. To illustrate this idea, we describe some recent results on nonlinear hydrodynamic transition to turbulence and nonlinear dynamo action in rotating shear flows pertaining to the problem of turbulent angular momentum transport in accretion disks. We argue that this concept is very generic and should be applicable to many astrophysical problems involving a shear flow and non-axisymmetric instabilities of shear-induced axisymmetric toroidal velocity or magnetic fields, such as Kelvin-Helmholtz, magnetorotational, Tayler or global magnetoshear instabilities. In the light of several recent numerical results, we finally suggest that, similarly to a standard linear instability, subcritical MHD dynamo processes in high-Reynolds number shear flows could act as a large-scale driving mechanism of turbulent flows that would in turn generate an independent small-scale dynamo.

  15. Notes on Well-Posed, Ensemble Averaged Conservation Equations for Multiphase, Multi-Component, and Multi-Material Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray A. Berry

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the INL researchers and engineers routinely encounter multiphase, multi-component, and/or multi-material flows. Some examples include: Reactor coolant flows Molten corium flows Dynamic compaction of metal powders Spray forming and thermal plasma spraying Plasma quench reactor Subsurface flows, particularly in the vadose zone Internal flows within fuel cells Black liquor atomization and combustion Wheat-chaff classification in combine harvesters Generation IV pebble bed, high temperature gas reactor The complexity of these flows dictates that they be examined in an averaged sense. Typically one would begin with known (or at least postulated) microscopic flow relations that hold on the “small” scale. These include continuum level conservation of mass, balance of species mass and momentum, conservation of energy, and a statement of the second law of thermodynamics often in the form of an entropy inequality (such as the Clausius-Duhem inequality). The averaged or macroscopic conservation equations and entropy inequalities are then obtained from the microscopic equations through suitable averaging procedures. At this stage a stronger form of the second law may also be postulated for the mixture of phases or materials. To render the evolutionary material flow balance system unique, constitutive equations and phase or material interaction relations are introduced from experimental observation, or by postulation, through strict enforcement of the constraints or restrictions resulting from the averaged entropy inequalities. These averaged equations form the governing equation system for the dynamic evolution of these mixture flows. Most commonly, the averaging technique utilized is either volume or time averaging or a combination of the two. The flow restrictions required for volume and time averaging to be valid can be severe, and violations of these restrictions are often found. A more general, less restrictive (and far less commonly used) type of averaging known as ensemble averaging can also be used to produce the governing equation systems. In fact volume and time averaging can be viewed as special cases of ensemble averaging. Ensemble averaging is beginning to gain some notice, for example the general-purpose multi-material flow simulation code CFDLib under continuing developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory [Kashiwa and Rauenzahn 1994] is based on an ensemble averaged formulation. The purpose of this short note is to give an introduction to the ensemble averaging methodology and to show how ensemble averaged balance equations and entropy inequality can be obtained from the microscopic balances. It then details some seven-equation, two-pressure, two-velocity hyperbolic, well-posed models for two-phase flows. Lastly, a simple example is presented of a model in which the flow consists of two barotropic fluids with no phase change in which an equilibrium pressure equation is obtained in the spirit of pressure-based methods of computational fluid dynamics.

  16. A microfluidic flow-cell for the study of the ultrafast dynamics of biological systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauvet, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.chauvet@epfl.ch; Chergui, Majed [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Ultrarapide, ISIC, Faculté des Sciences de Base, Station 6, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Tibiletti, Tania; Caffarri, Stefano [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CEA, UMR 7265 Biologie Végétale et Microbiologie Environnementales, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of biochemical dynamics by ultrafast spectroscopic methods is often restricted by the limited amount of liquid sample available, while the high repetition rate of light sources can induce photodamage. In order to overcome these limitations, we designed a high flux, sub-ml, capillary flow-cell. While the 0.1 mm thin window of the 0.5 mm cross-section capillary ensures an optimal temporal resolution and a steady beam deviation, the cell-pump generates flows up to ?0.35 ml/s that are suitable to pump laser repetition rates up to ?14 kHz, assuming a focal spot-diameter of 100 ?m. In addition, a decantation chamber efficiently removes bubbles and allows, via septum, for the addition of chemicals while preserving the closed atmosphere. The minimal useable amount of sample is ?250 ?l.

  17. Effects of Small Impoundments on Total Watershed Sediment Yield in Northeast Kansas, April through August 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, Guy M.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    -area and elevation-storage table for Dam 38 .......................... 47 10. Table 10: Rating table for LDMD 5 applying weir, orifice, and full pipe flow discharges depending on elevation above riser.......................................................................................... 58 11. Table 11: Rating table for LDMD 17 applying weir, orifice, and full pipe flow discharges depending on elevation above riser....................................................................................... 59 6 Chapter 1...

  18. RCRA/UST, superfund, and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Land disposal restrictions (40 CFR part 268) updated as of July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This module presents an overview of the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Program. It defines the basic terms and describes the structure of the LDR regulation, identifies the statutory basis for LDR, and describes the applicability of LDR. It explains how EPA sets treatment standards and identifies treatment standards for wastes subject to land disposal restrictions and cites the CFR section. It describes and identifies how extensions and variances from treatment requirements are obtained, including, Federal Register citations. It defines generator and treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF) requirements under the LDR program. It also summarizes the schedule of existing restrictions and the plan for restricting newly identified wastes.

  19. Method and Apparatus for Remote Delivery and Manipulation of a Miniature Tool Adjacent a Work Piece in a Restricted Space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sale, Christopher H.; Kaltenbaugh, Daniel R.

    2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for remote delivery and manipulation of a miniature tool adjacent a work piece in a restricted space, includes a tool camer, a camage for manipulating the tool carrier relative to the work piece, a first actuator for operating the carnage, and an optional remote secondary operating actuator for operating the first actuator.

  20. A RESTRICTED FOUR-BODY MODEL FOR THE DYNAMICS NEAR THE LAGRANGIAN POINTS OF THE SUN-JUPITER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A RESTRICTED FOUR-BODY MODEL FOR THE DYNAMICS NEAR THE LAGRANGIAN POINTS OF THE SUN-JUPITER SYSTEM focus on the dynamics of a small particle near the Lagrangian points of the Sun-Jupiter system. To try solution of the planar three-body problem for Sun, Jupiter and Saturn, close to the real motion

  1. 1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, D.G.

    1997-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones.

  2. 1993 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, D.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the early 1940s, the contractors at the Hanford Site have been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste (RMW). This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976{sup 2}(RCRA) and Atomic Energy Act{sup 3}. This report covers mixed waste only. Hazardous waste that is not contaminated with radionuclides is not addressed in this report. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order{sup 1} (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for RMW. This report is the third update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide, the information that follows: Waste characterization information; storage data; treatment information; waste reduction information; schedule; and progress.

  3. W-026, transuranic waste restricted waste management (TRU RWM) glovebox operational test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The TRU Waste/Restricted Waste Management (LLW/PWNP) Glovebox 401 is designed to accept and process waste from the Transuranic Process Glovebox 302. Waste is transferred to the glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagless Transfer Port (DO-07401) on a transfer stand. The stand is removed with a hoist and the operator inspects the waste (with the aid of the Sampling and Treatment Director) to determine a course of action for each item. The waste is separated into compliant and non compliant. One Trip Port DO-07402A is designated as ``Compliant``and One Trip Port DO-07402B is designated as ``Non Compliant``. As the processing (inspection, bar coding, sampling and treatment) of the transferred items takes place, residue is placed in the appropriate One Trip port. The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved for sampling or storage or it`s state altered by treatment, the Operator will track an items location using a portable barcode reader and entry any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolutions (described here) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  4. Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerstein, A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.

  5. Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve 1. Develop Flow Duration Curve 2. Estimate load given flow and concentration data--select appropriate conversion factors 3. Develop Load Duration Curve 4. Plot observed data with Load Duration Curve What are they? How do you make one? Describes the percent of time a flow rate

  6. Mach flow angularity probes for scramjet engine flow path diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalbert, P.A.; Hiers, R.S. Jr. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Arnold AFS, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Mach-flow angularity (MFA) probes were developed for use in scramjet flow path probe rakes. Prototype probes were fabricated to demonstrate the assembly processes (numerical control machining, furnace brazing, and electron beam welding). Tests of prototype probes confirmed the thermal durability margins and life cycle. Selected probes were calibrated in air at Mach numbers from 1.75 to 6.0. Acceptance criteria for the production probes stressed thermal durability and pressure (and, consequently, Mach number) measurement quality. This new water-cooled MFA probe has 0.397-cm shaft diameter and is capable of withstanding heat fluxes of 2.724 kW/sq cm.

  7. Mirrored serpentine flow channels for fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rock, Jeffrey Allan (Rochester, NY)

    2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A PEM fuel cell having serpentine flow field channels wherein the input/inlet legs of each channel border the input/inlet legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field, and the output/exit legs of each channel border the output/exit legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field. The serpentine fuel flow channels may be longer, and may contain more medial legs, than the serpentine oxidant flow channels.

  8. Transient Start-up of Plane Poiseuille Flow M. Aboubacar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, P. W.

    that the restrictions on variations in the gravitational constant are strict [11]. Nevertheless, we 2 hal-00473533

  9. Microjet array single-phase and flow boiling heat transfer with R134a Eric A. Browne a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    of a submerged microjet array was conducted with R134a. The staggered array of seventeen 112-lm diameter orifices blades and quench metals. Many of these practical uses of jets employ an array of jets rather than circular microjets of diameter 112 lm on a 1 Ã? 1 mm heater to investigate single-phase and boiling heat

  10. Connectivity due to preferential flow controls water flow and solute transport at the hillslope scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiler, Markus

    feedback, flow through the fractured bedrock, kinematic wave routing and flow through discrete preferentialConnectivity due to preferential flow controls water flow and solute transport at the hillslope the major controls on water flow and solute transport at the hillslope scale remains a major topic

  11. Rheo-optical determination of flow birefringence and flow dichroism with the pulsed laser method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheo-optical determination of flow birefringence and flow dichroism with the pulsed laser method online 29 August 2006 Rheo-optical measurements of the flow birefringence, flow dichroism systems under flow. However, the standard setup of an optical train, using phase modulation for the rheo-optical

  12. Interfacial flows in corrugated microchannels: flow regimes, transitions and hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, James J.

    , 1266-1276 (2011), doi:10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2011.08.003 #12;model, microfluidics, porous media 1 of displacing oil by water in enhanced oil recovery (Marle, 1981; Lenormand et al., 1988). More recently on hy- drodynamic principles and concrete flow mechanisms. In fact, conflicting assumptions have been

  13. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Altman, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  14. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

    1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

  15. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

  16. Non-Newtonian fluid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osinski, Charles Anthony

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    zero and unity. The Ostwald- de Waele Equation (4), commonly known as the power law, is sometimes used to describe fluid behavior of this type. The rheological equation is (4) where the parameters "k" and "n" are constant for a particular fluid... be extended to include Reynolds numbers and the type of flow determined to be laminar and/or turbulent. It is assumed that the transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs at a Reynolds number of 2100, the numeric distribution of Reynolds numbers...

  17. Dynamo action in flows with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yi

    Dynamo action in flows with cat's eyes A l i c e C o u r v o i s i e r A n d r e w G i l b e r t Y of k for R = 500 and the flow (2.4) and (2.5). nts k = 2.5 and k = 5 are highlighted. Magnetic field). In (a) k = 2.5 and we have 0.5 max Bz (with max Bz 0.6 max |B|), and in (b) k = 5 and the levels .65 max

  18. Apparatus and method for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry Gordon; Farthing, William Earl; Irvin, James Hodges; Snyder, Todd Robert

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A dilution apparatus for diluting a gas sample. The apparatus includes a sample gas conduit having a sample gas inlet end and a diluted sample gas outlet end, and a sample gas flow restricting orifice disposed proximate the sample gas inlet end connected with the sample gas conduit and providing fluid communication between the exterior and the interior of the sample gas conduit. A diluted sample gas conduit is provided within the sample gas conduit having a mixing end with a mixing space inlet opening disposed proximate the sample gas inlet end, thereby forming an annular space between the sample gas conduit and the diluted sample gas conduit. The mixing end of the diluted sample gas conduit is disposed at a distance from the sample gas flow restricting orifice. A dilution gas source connected with the sample gas inlet end of the sample gas conduit is provided for introducing a dilution gas into the annular space, and a filter is provided for filtering the sample gas. The apparatus is particularly suited for diluting heated sample gases containing one or more condensable components.

  19. Does quantum entanglement in DNA synchronize the catalytic centers of type II restriction endonucleases?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Kurian; G. Dunston; J. Lindesay

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Several living systems have been examined for their apparent optimization of structure and function for quantum behavior at biological length scales. Orthodox type II endonucleases, the largest class of restriction enzymes, recognize four-to-eight base pair sequences of palindromic DNA, cut both strands symmetrically, and act without an external metabolite such as ATP. While it is known that these enzymes induce strand breaks by attacking phosphodiester bonds, what remains unclear is the mechanism by which cutting occurs in concert at the catalytic centers. Previous studies indicate the primacy of intimate DNA contacts made by the specifically bound enzyme in coordinating the two synchronized cuts. We propose that collective electronic behavior in the DNA helix generates coherent oscillations, quantized through boundary conditions imposed by the endonuclease, that provide the energy required to break two phosphodiester bonds. Such quanta may be preserved in the presence of thermal noise and electromagnetic interference through decoherence shielding, the specific complex's exclusion of water and ions surrounding the helix. Clamping energy imparted by the enzyme decoherence shield is comparable with zero-point modes of the dipole-dipole oscillations in the DNA recognition sequence. The palindromic mirror symmetry of this sequence should conserve parity during the process. Experimental data corroborate that symmetric bond-breaking ceases when the symmetry of the endonuclease complex is violated, or when environmental parameters are perturbed far from biological optima. Persistent correlation between states in DNA sequence across spatial separations of any length--a characteristic signature of quantum entanglement--may be explained by such a physical mechanism.

  20. 1994 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, D.G.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al. 1992). The text of this milestone is below. LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration at other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: waste characterization plan; storage report; treatment report; treatment plan; waste minimization plan; a schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; a process for establishing interim milestones. The original plan was published in October 1990. This is the fourth of a series of annual updates required by Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-26-01. A Tri-Party Agreement change request approved in March 1992 changed the annual due date from October to April and consolidated this report with a similar one prepared under Milestone M-25-00. The reporting period for this report is from April 1, 1993, to March 31, 1994.

  1. Half tetrad analysis in alfalfa using multiple restriction fragment length polymorphism markers S. Tavoletti, E. T. Bingham, B. S. Yandell, F. Veronesi, and T. C. Osborn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yandell, Brian S.

    Half tetrad analysis in alfalfa using multiple restriction fragment length polymorphism markers S Genetics Half tetrad analysis in alfalfa using multiple restriction fragment length polymorphism markers alfalfa clone PG-F9 (2n = 2x = 16) previously selected because of its high frequency of 2n egg production

  2. Data Flow Testing Neelam Gupta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rajiv

    Data Flow Testing Neelam Gupta The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona and Rajiv Gupta The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona Software testing techniques are designed to execute a program on a set of test cases that provide suÃ?cient coverage under some speci#12;c well-de#12;ned test coverage criterion

  3. Rinse trough with improved flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O`Hern, T.J.; Grasser, T.W.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects` surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 5 figs.

  4. Comments on "Microscale flow visualization"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kwang-Hua Chu

    2005-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We make comments on the presentation of Sinton's paper (Microfluidics and Nanofluidics {\\bf 1}: 2, 2004) about the microscale flow visualization since the effects of the roughness along the microfabricated wall upon the current macroflow visualization methods could be significant and cannot be neglected in microdomain and even nanodomain.

  5. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  6. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Martens, Jon S. (Sunnyvale, CA); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

  7. Flow preconditioner for electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honacker, H.; Drlik, R.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow preconditioner for an electrostatic precipitator removes particulate matter from a stream of polluted gas immediately after it passes through a tangential inlet at the lower end of a vertical cylindrical housing and straightens and divides the stream into laminations parallel to the axis of the housing. It comprises an annular ledge or choke ring extending inwardly from said housing above the inlet and an assembly of vanes above said ledge extending radially from the axis of the housing and angularly spaced apart. Each of said vanes has a flow receiving edge directed toward said inlet, a curved portion extending upwardly and away from said inlet, and a flat portion extending upwardly from said curved portion in a plane parallel to the housing axis. The curved portion of each vane defines a trough having a camber which gradually decreases along its span from the outer end of the vane towards the axis of the housng, together with means to vary the centrifugal flow distribution relative to the housing to render the preconditioner adjustable for various flow capacities.

  8. A Simple Heat-Flow Quality Function And Appraisal Of Heat-Flow...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Simple Heat-Flow Quality Function And Appraisal Of Heat-Flow Measurements And Heat-Flow Estimates From The Uk Geothermal Catalogue Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  9. Rate of deformation in the Pasco Basin during the Miocene as determined by distribution of Columbia River basalt flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reidel, S.P.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Myers, C.W.; Jones, M.G.; Landon, R.D.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed mapping of over 8000 square kilometers and logs from 20 core holes were used to determine the distribution and thickness of basalt flows and interbeds in the Pasco Basin. The data indicate the high-MgO Grande Ronde Basalt and Wanapum Basalt thicken from the northeast to the southwest. Deformation began in late Frenchman Springs time in the Saddle Mountains along a northwest-southeast trend and in Roza time along an east-west trend. By late Wanapum time, basalt flows were more restricted on the east side. Saddle Mountains Basalt flows spread out in the basin from narrow channels to the east. The Umatilla Member entered from the southeast and is confined to the south-central basin, while the Wilbur Creek, Asotin, Esquatzel, Pomona, and Elephant Mountain Members entered from the east and northeast. The distribution of these members is controlled by flow volume, boundaries of other flows, and developing ridges. The Wilbur Creek, Asotin, and Esquatzel flows exited from the basin in a channel along the northern margin of the Umatilla flow, while the Pomona and Elephant Mountain flows exited between Umtanum Ridge and Wallula Gap. The thickness of sedimentary interbeds and basalt flows indicated subsidence and/or uplift began in post-Grande Ronde time (14.5 million years before present) and continued through Saddle Mountains time (10.5 million years before present). Maximum subsidence occurred 40 kilometers (24 miles) north of Richland, Washington with an approximate rate of 25 meters (81 feet) per million years during the eruption of the basalt. Maximum uplift along the developing ridges was 70 meters (230 feet) per million years.

  10. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen C, Hoogendoom S, Hudson B, Prince J, Teichert K, Wood J, Chase K

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Natural Convection Flows Simulated by both the Conservation and Incompressible Forms of the Navier-Stokes Equations in a Differentially-Heated Square Cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry; Aurélia Esteve; Kurt D. Hamman; Dana A. Knoll; Ryosuke Park; William Taitano

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report illustrates a comparative study to analyze the physical differences between numerical simulations obtained with both the conservation and incompressible forms of the Navier-Stokes equations for natural convection flows in simple geometries. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the incompressible flow assumption (which is based upon constant density advection, divergence-free flow, and the Boussinesq gravitational body force approximation) differs from the conservation form (which only assumes that the fluid is a continuum) when solving flows driven by gravity acting upon density variations resulting from local temperature gradients. Driving this study is the common use of the incompressible flow assumption in fluid flow simulations for nuclear power applications in natural convection flows subjected to a high heat flux (large temperature differences). A series of simulations were conducted on two-dimensional, differentially-heated rectangular geometries and modeled with both hydrodynamic formulations. From these simulations, the selected characterization parameters of maximum Nusselt number, average Nusselt number, and normalized pressure reduction were calculated. Comparisons of these parameters were made with available benchmark solutions for air with the ideal gas assumption at both low and high heat fluxes. Additionally, we generated body force, velocity, and divergence of velocity distributions to provide a basis for further analysis. The simulations and analysis were then extended to include helium at the Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) normal operating conditions. Our results show that the consequences of incorporating the incompressible flow assumption in high heat flux situations may lead to unrepresentative results. The results question the use of the incompressible flow assumption for simulating fluid flow in an operating nuclear reactor, where large temperature variations are present. The results show that the use of the incompressible flow assumption with the Boussinesq gravitational body force approximation should be restricted to flows where the density change of a fluid particle along a pathline is negligible.

  12. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  13. Water and Mercury Pipe Flow Simulation in FLUENTSimulation in FLUENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Water and Mercury Pipe Flow Simulation in FLUENTSimulation in FLUENT Yan Zhan, Foluso Ladeinde Stony Brook University thSep.21th , 2010 #12;OutlineOutline · Straight Pipe flowStraight Pipe flow · Curved pipe flow #12;OutlineOutline · Straight Pipe flowStraight Pipe flow · Curved pipe flow #12

  14. Analysis of oscillating flow cooled SMA actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pachalla Seshadri, Rajagopal

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    literature, most of the cooling mechanisms involve unidirectional forced convection. This may not be the most effective method. Oscillating flow in a channel can sometimes enhance heat transfer over a unidirectional flow. One possible explanation...

  15. A quasionedimensional approach for hypersonic stagnationpoint flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A quasi­onedimensional approach for hypersonic stagnation­point flows Arno Klomfass 1 Lehr­ und An approximate method for the efficient calculation of stagnation streamline quantities in hypersonic flows about

  16. GUI for Hypersonic flow solver Master Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diggavi, Suhas

    GUI for Hypersonic flow solver Master Project Student : Enrique Guzman concerns the design of a GUI for commanding hypersonic flow applications using CFD techniques, as well as its potential applications. These problems are quite complex, since the called hypersonic regime

  17. Smokeless Control of Flare Steam Flow Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agar, J.; Balls, B. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measurement of mass flow rate of flare gas, in spite of the hostile environment. Its use for initiating control of flare steam flow rate and the addition of molecular weight compensation, using specific gravity (relative density) measurement to achieve...

  18. Decentralized information flow control on a cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cliffer, Natan Tsvi Cohen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information flow control security models can prevent programs from divulging sensitive information in unexpected ways. There has been significant work on tracking information flow between processes in the same computer at ...

  19. Electromagnetically Induced Flows Michiel de Reus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Electromagnetically Induced Flows in Water Michiel de Reus 8 maart 2013 () Electromagnetically Conclusion and future research () Electromagnetically Induced Flows 2 / 56 #12;1 Introduction 2 Maxwell Navier Stokes equations 5 Simulations 6 Conclusion and future research () Electromagnetically Induced

  20. Numerical simulation of electrokinetically driven micro flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahm, Jungyoon

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral element based numerical solvers are developed to simulate electrokinetically driven flows for micro-fluidic applications. Based on these numerical solvers, basic phenomena and devices for electrokinetic applications in micro and nano flows...

  1. gtp_flow_power_estimator.xlsx

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This simple spreadsheet model estimates either the flow rate required to produce a specified level of power output, or the power output that can be produced from a specified flow rate.

  2. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  3. Gas flow in barred potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sormani, Mattia C; Magorrian, John

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a Cartesian grid to simulate the flow of gas in a barred Galactic potential and investigate the effects of varying the sound speed in the gas and the resolution of the grid. For all sound speeds and resolutions, streamlines closely follow closed orbits at large and small radii. At intermediate radii shocks arise and the streamlines shift between two families of closed orbits. The point at which the shocks appear and the streamlines shift between orbit families depends strongly on sound speed and resolution. For sufficiently large values of these two parameters, the transfer happens at the cusped orbit as hypothesised by Binney et al. over two decades ago. For sufficiently high resolutions the flow downstream of the shocks becomes unsteady. If this unsteadiness is physical, as appears to be the case, it provides a promising explanation for the asymmetry in the observed distribution of CO.

  4. Zonal Flow as Pattern Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this section, we examine the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence to inhomogeneous turbulence with zonal flows. Statistical equations of motion can be derived from the quasilinear approximation to the Hasegawa-Mima equation. We review recent work that finds a bifurcation of these equations and shows that the emergence of zonal flows mathematically follows a standard type of pattern formation. We also show that the dispersion relation of modulational instability can be extracted from the statistical equations of motion in a certain limit. The statistical formulation can thus be thought to offer a more general perspective on growth of coherent structures, namely through instability of a full turbulent spectrum. Finally, we offer a physical perspective on the growth of large-scale structures.

  5. Flow Imaging Using MRI: Quantification and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiraraksopakun, Yuttapong

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    &M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Jim Ji Committee Members, Andrew K. Chan Deepa Kundur Yoonsuck Choe Mary P. McDougall Head of Department, Costas N... Committee: Dr. Jim Ji A complex and challenging problem in flow study is to obtain quantitative flow information in opaque systems, for example, blood flow in biological systems and flow channels in chemical reactors. In this regard, MRI is superior...

  6. A theory for radial jet reattachment flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadden, Lynne Loise

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    , the velocity profile and mass entrainment are given accordrng to Goertler's t. wo- dimensional free jet theory. His analysrs of a free jet also assumes that. the turbulent eddy viscosity is constant ar ross the jet. (6) For the case of laminar flow... of total jet momentum. Laminar jet flow is approximated using Schlichting's velocity profile, whereas turbulent flow calculations are made assuming Goertler's velocity profile. Momentum integral principles are applied to the flow at reattachment...

  7. Anisotropic collective flow of a Lorentz gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Borghini; Clement Gombeaud

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytical results for the anisotropic collective flow of a Lorentz gas of massless particles scattering on fixed centres are presented.

  8. Building up the elliptic flow: analytical insights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshitaka Hatta; Bo-Wen Xiao

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present a fully analytical description of the early-stage formation of elliptic flow in relativistic viscous hydrodynamics. We first construct an elliptic deformation of Gubser flow which is a boost invariant solution of the Navier-Stokes equation with a nontrivial transverse profile. We then analytically calculate the momentum anisotropy of the flow as a function of time and discuss the connection with the empirical formula by Bhalerao {\\it et al.} regarding the viscosity dependence of elliptic flow.

  9. The Cotton tensor and the Ricci flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mantegazza, Carlo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the evolution equation of the Cotton tensor under the Ricci flow of a three dimensional Riemannian manifold.

  10. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  11. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  12. Microgravity Flow Regime Transition Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shephard, Adam M.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    apparatus have been used in past flow regime mapping experiments such as Venturi, perforated pipe, annular, and t-junction mixers. The mixing apparatus used in a particular experiment determines the bubble size distribution at the inlet... pressure of 80 kPa was reported, however, the temperature was not. The orientation and location of the test section with respect to the aircraft are unknown. The mixing apparatus used in the experiment was a Venturi mixer. This data set does...

  13. Incompressible flow over delta wings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathman, James Kirwin

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    &M University. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ~Pa e INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE THEORY 12 NUMERICAL APPLICATIONS AND RESULTS Attached Flow Model Calculation of Pressure Distribution Fixed-Wake Model Free-Wake Model CONCLUSIONS 21 21 24 26 32 52...- lation. This theory has been expanded to include spanwise velocity effects and the leading-edge separation associated with delta wings. The numerical technique has made use of both fixed and free wakes. In the fixed-wake model the analytical results...

  14. Cyclotron resonance in plasma flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Agapitov, O. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V. [LPC2E/CNRS-University of Orleans, Orleans (France)] [LPC2E/CNRS-University of Orleans, Orleans (France)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the mechanism of particle acceleration via resonant interaction with the electromagnetic circular wave propagating along the inhomogeneous background magnetic field in the presence of a plasma flow. We consider the system where the plasma flow velocity is large enough to change the direction of wave propagation in the rest frame. This system mimics a magnetic field configuration typical for inner structure of a quasi-parallel shock wave. We consider conditions of gyroresonant interaction when the force corresponding to an inhomogeneity of the background magnetic field is compensated by the Lorentz force of the wave-magnetic field. The wave-amplitude is assumed to be about 10% of the background magnetic field. We show that particles can gain energy if kv{sub sw}>?>kv{sub sw}??{sub c} where k is the wave number, v{sub sw} is a plasma flow velocity, and ? and ?{sub c} are the wave frequency and the particle gyrofrequency, respectively. This mechanism of acceleration resembles the gyrosurfing mechanism, but the effect of the electrostatic field is replaced by the effect of the magnetic field inhomogeneity.

  15. Structural stability of cooling flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henrik Omma; James Binney

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations are used to investigate the structural stability of cooling flows that are episodically heated by jets from a central AGN. The radial profile of energy deposition is controlled by (a) the power of the jets, and (b) the pre-outburst density profile. A delay in the ignition of the jets causes more powerful jets to impact on a more centrally concentrated medium. The net effect is a sufficient increase in the central concentration of energy deposition to cause the post-outburst density profile to be less centrally concentrated than that of an identical cluster in which the outburst happened earlier and was weaker. These results suggest that the density profiles of cooling flows oscillate around an attracting profile, thus explaining why cooling flows are observed to have similar density profiles. The possibility is raised that powerful FR II systems are ones in which this feedback mechanism has broken down and a runaway growth of the source parameters has occurred.

  16. Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve #12;1. Develop Flow Duration Curve 2. Estimate load given flow and concentration data--select appropriate conversion factors 3. Develop Load Duration Curve 4. Plot observed data with Load Duration Curve #12;What are they? How do you make one? #12;Describes

  17. A quasionedimensional approach for hypersonic stagnationpoint flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A quasi­onedimensional approach for hypersonic stagnation­point flows Arno Klomfass 1 Lehr­ und An approximate method for the efficient calculation of stagnation streamline quantities in hypersonic flows about­conduction coefficient [W=mK] 2 Introduction The hypersonic flow about a spacecraft entering the atmosphere at orbital

  18. Optimal Power Flow Incorporating Voltage Collapse Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    Optimal Power Flow Incorporating Voltage Collapse Constraints William Rosehart Claudio Ca on the current operating con- ditions is presented. Second, an Optimal Power Flow formulation that incorporates: Voltage Collapse, Optimal Power Flow, Bifur- cations. I. Introduction As open-access market principles

  19. (Preview Draft) Chapter 3. Stocks and Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    the state over time. It will take some time for the flows to have their effect on the stocks, so the stocks(Preview Draft) Chapter 3. Stocks and Flows: The Building Blocks of System Dynamics Models The best way to construct a model is to start with the stocks, add the flows and then use converters to explain

  20. Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries IMRE GYUK, PROGRAM MANAGER ENERGY STORAGE RESEARCH, DOE Flow;LogMW Renewables (not capacity factor adjusted) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Wind Wind (proj) Solar PV Solar PV 2011Year #12;Flow Battery Research at PNNL and Sandia #12

  1. Managing talent flow. 2006 Energy and Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Managing talent flow. 2006 Energy and Resources Talent Pulse Survey Report Consulting #12;Executive ................................................................ 13 Contents #12;1 Managing talent flow 2006 Energy and Resources Talent Pulse Survey Report 2006 strategy. 1 #12;2 Managing talent flow 2006 Energy and Resources Talent Pulse Survey Report Key findings

  2. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

  3. Setup of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in Hypersonic Flows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anwar, Moazzam

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The accuracy of numerical methods in calculating the flow of backward facing steps in turbulent hypersonic flows is limited due to a lack of flow… (more)

  4. WHICH HYDRAULIC MODEL TO USE IN VERTICAL FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WHICH HYDRAULIC MODEL TO USE IN VERTICAL FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS? Ania Morvannoua , Nicolas-equilibrium model, preferential flow path, vertical flow constructed wetlands INTRODUCTION Constructed wetlands (CWs

  5. Self-regulating flow control device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, Duane A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

  6. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  7. Evolution of flow disturbances in cocurrent gas-liquid flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCready, M.J.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of interfacial waves in horizontal gas-liquid flows, close to neutral stability, suggest that the rate of evolution of the interface may be linked to nonlinear interactions between the fundamental mode and the subharmonic -- even if the subharmonic is linearly stable. The rate of evolution increases as the subharmonic becomes more unstable. A comparison of linear stability techniques used to predict the initial behavior of waves reveals similar predictions of growth rates and almost identical speeds between a two layer laminar Orr-Sommerfeld theory and an Orr-Sommerfeld theory when the effect of the (turbulent) gas flow enters as boundary conditions on the liquid layer. However, there is disagreement at small wavenumbers as to the point at which the growth curve crosses 0. This is a significant problem because longwave disturbances, in our case roll waves, form by growth of (initially) small amplitude waves that have frequencies which are 0.5 to 1 Hz, which is in the range where the two theories disagree about the sign of the growth rate. While nonlinear effects are probably involved in the formation of the peak (at least while its amplitude is small), the linear growth rate must play an important role when the amplitude is small.

  8. Jet quenching and elliptic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2007-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In jet quenching, a hard QCD parton, before fragmenting into a jet of hadrons, deposits a fraction of its energy in the medium, leading to suppressed production of high-$p_T$ hadrons. Assuming that the deposited energy quickly thermalizes, we simulate the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution of the QGP fluid. Explicit simulation of Au+Au collision with and without a quenching jet indicate that elliptic flow is greatly reduced in a jet event. The result can be used to identify the jet events in heavy ion collisions.

  9. A new precision flow calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Mark Gezer

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    differences. With no sample fluid flowing, a supply of electrical power is fed to the inner calorimeter. The reference fluid is evaporated with this electrical power and the thermo-syphon system is brought to controlled steady-state conditions of pressure... calorimeter is kept cooler than the inner calorimeter for reasons discussed in chapter 4. Thus the above mentioned procedure is essential to avoid condensation in Freon@-11 vapor lines. The thermo-syphon ensures a saturated Freon&-11 vapor phase in the top...

  10. FUNCTIONAL DESIGN DATA-FLOW NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kienhuis, Bart

    , visualization, virtual reality) and in control (system identification, plant control, robotica). In some to be carried out in real time. Still other constraints may restrict implementation volume, power dissipation- over, even if they would have such capacities, low-power constraints might rule them out. Indeed

  11. The municipal solid waste landfill as a source of Montreal Protocol-restricted halocarbons in the United States and United Kingdom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodson, Elke L. (Elke Lynn Ann)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central to the study of stratospheric ozone recovery and climate change, is the ability to predict emissions of Montreal Protocol-restricted halocarbons (MPGs) over the coming decades. The prediction of emissions has become ...

  12. Core and Valence Excitations in Resonant X-ray Spectroscopy using Restricted Excitation Window Time-dependent Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Healion, Daniel; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

    2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report simulations of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and 1D stimulated X-ray Raman spectroscopy (SXRS) signals of cysteine at the oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur K and L2,3 edges. The simulated XANES signals from the restricted window time-dependent density functional theory (REW-TDDFT) and the static exchange (STEX) method are compared with experiments, showing that REW-TDDFT is more accurate and computationally less expensive than STEX. Simulated RIXS and 1D SXRS signals from REW-TDDFT give some insights on the correlation of different excitations in the molecule.

  13. The effect of a prolonged magnesium restriction on the humoral immune response in maternal rats and their offspring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohill, Diane T

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    TIIE EFFECT 0F A PR0L0NGED MAGNESIUM RESTRI CTI0N ON THE HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN HATERHAL RATS AHD THEIR OFFSPRING A Thesis by DIANE T. COHILL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SC IENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECT OF A PROLONGED MAGNESIUM RESTRICTION ON THE HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN MATERNAL RATS AND THEIR OFFSPRING A Thesis by DIANE T. COHILL Approved as to sty le...

  14. On the Proper Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Senior Research Projects and Beginning Graduate Fluid Mechanics Courses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    and approach length correlations to enlarge the body of design information; · orifice calculations to correct, document that process, and assess the accuracy of their solution independent of any experiment. Because across Orifices in Laminar Flow Ch.E. 499 Project for Febe Kusmanto, Sp, 2002 The goal is to predict

  15. Potential Flow Calculations of Axisymmetric Ducted Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widnall, Sheila

    2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An incompressible potential-flow vortex method has been constructed to analyze the flow field of a ducted

  16. Flow shop scheduling with peak power consumption constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Fang

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 29, 2012 ... Flow shop scheduling with peak power consumption constraints ... Keywords: scheduling, flow shop, energy, peak power consumption, integer ...

  17. Controlling the Delay of Small Flows in Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carra, Damiano

    and CAPEX and ignore designs which could help reduce delay of delay sensitive flows. The flow routing

  18. Process for retarding fluid flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandford, B.B.; Zillmer, R.C.

    1989-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for retarding the flow of fluid in a subterranean formation, comprising: (a) introducing an effective amount of a gel-forming composition into a subterranean formation, the gel-forming composition being operable when gelled in the formation for retarding the flow of fluid therein. The gel-forming composition consists of: i. a first substance dissolved in water to form an aqueous solution, the first substance being selected from the group consisting of polyvivyl alcohols, and mixtures thereof, wherein the gel-forming composition contains an amount of the first substance of from about 0.5 to about 5 weight percent of the gel-forming composition, and ii. an effective amount of glutaraldehyde which is operable for forming a weakly acidic condition having a pH from about 5.5 to less than 7 in the gel-forming composition and also operable for promoting crosslinking of the first substance and glutaraldehyde and for forming a gel from the gel-forming composition under the weakly acidic condition within a period of time no greater than about 5 days without adding an acidic catalyst to the gel-forming composition to lower the pH of the gel-forming composition below about 5.5.

  19. Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL; Laurence, Stuart J [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Hornung, Hans G [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hypersonic flows involving two or more bodies travelling in close proximity to one another are encountered in several important situations, both natural and man-made. The present work seeks to investigate one aspect of the resulting flow problem by exploring the forces experienced by a secondary body when it is within the domain of influence of a primary body travelling at hypersonic speeds. An analytical methodology based on the blast wave analogy is developed and used to predict the secondary force coefficients for simple geometries in both two and three dimensions. When the secondary body is entirely inside the primary shocked region, the nature of the lateral force coefficient is found to depend strongly on the relative size of the two bodies. For two spheres, the methodology predicts that the secondary body will experience an exclusively attractive lateral force if the secondary diameter is larger than one-sixth the primary diameter. The analytical results are compared with those from numerical simulations and reasonable agreement is observed if an appropriate normalization for the lateral displacement is used. Results from a series of experiments in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are also presented and compared with perfect-gas numerical simulations, with good agreement. A new force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities, enabling the experimental simulation of the proximal bodies problem, is described. This technique provides two independent means of measurement, and the agreement observed between the two gives a further degree of confidence in the results obtained.

  20. A constitutive law for dense granular flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Jop; Yoël Forterre; Olivier Pouliquen

    2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  1. Epitopes associated with the MHC restriction site of T cells. II. Somatic generation of Iat epitopes on T cells in radiation bone marrow chimeras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asano, Y.; Tada, T.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We described in this paper systematic alterations in the expression of unique I region controlled epitopes on helper T cells (Th) in chimeras according to the changes in their H-2 restriction specificity. Taking advantage of the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (anti-Iat) putatively specific for the epitopes indirectly controlled by I region and expressed in association with the Iak restriction site of Th, we examined the alterations of these epitopes on Th cells from various bone marrow chimeras. Iatk epitopes were physiologically expressed on Iak-restricted but not on Iab-restricted Th cells in (H-2k X H-2b)F1 mice. In the chimeric condition, the H-2k-restricted Th of B6----F1 chimera acquired the expression of Iatk even though B6 Th is unable to express Iatk when developed under the physiologic condition. Iatk are also found on Th of fully allogeneic chimera of B6----C3H, whereas Th cells of C3H----B6 completely lost the Iatk expression. These results indicate that Iat epitopes originally defined as unique I region-controlled determinants selectively expressed on T cells are not encoded by the I region genes but are associated with the T cell receptor that sees the self Ia. The epitopes undergo the adaptive alterations according to the acquisition of a new MHC restriction. This is the first example to demonstrate the epitope associated with T cell receptor which undergo the systematic adaptive differentiation.

  2. CFD analysis of laminar oscillating flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C. W. Charles W.); Konecni, S. (Snezana); Smith, B. L. (Barton L.); Martin, R. A. (Richard A.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a numerical simulations of oscillating flow in a constricted duct and compares the results with experimental and theoretical data. The numerical simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFX4.2. The numerical model simulates an experimental oscillating flow facility that was designed to test the properties and characteristics of oscillating flow in tapered ducts, also known as jet pumps. Jet pumps are useful devices in thermoacoustic machinery because they produce a secondary pressure that can counteract an unwanted effect called streaming, and significantly enhance engine efficiency. The simulations revealed that CFX could accurately model velocity, shear stress and pressure variations in laminar oscillating flow. The numerical results were compared to experimental data and theoretical predictions with varying success. The least accurate numerical results were obtained when laminar flow approached transition to turbulent flow.

  3. Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the Hoe Creek No. 2 (Wyoming) underground-coal-gasification field test, researchers introduced helium pulses to characterize the flow field and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Flow models such as the axial-dispersion and parallel tanks-in-series models allowed interpretation of the in situ combustion flow field from the residence time distribution of the tracer gas. A quantitative analysis of the Hoe Creek tracer response curves revealed an increasing departure from a plug-flow regime with time, which was due to the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex nonuniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery, and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model.

  4. Effect of virtual mass on the characteristics and the numerical stability in two-phase flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, H.C.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that the typical six equation two-fluid model of the two-phase flow possesses complex characteristics, exhibits unbounded instabilities in the short-wavelength limit and constitutes an ill-posed initial value problem. Among the suggestions to overcome these difficulties, one model for the virtual mass force terms were studied here, because the virtual mass represents real physical effects to accomplish the dissipation for numerical stability. It was found that the virtual mass has a profound effect upon the mathematical characteristic and numerical stability. Here a quantitative bound on the coefficient of the virtual mass terms was suggested for mathematical hyperbolicity and numerical stability. It was concluded that the finite difference scheme with the virtual mass model is restricted only by the convective stability conditions with the above suggested value.

  5. Heat flow of the Earth and resonant capture of solar 57-Fe axions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. A. Danevich; A. V. Ivanov; V. V. Kobychev; V. I. Tretyak

    2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In a very conservative approach, supposing that total heat flow of the Earth is exclusively due to resonant capture inside the Earth of axions, emitted by 57-Fe nuclei on Sun, we obtain limit on mass of hadronic axion: m_aEarth, this estimation could be improved to the value: m_a<1.6 keV. Both the values are less restrictive than limits set in devoted experiments to search for 57-Fe axions (m_a<216-745 eV), but are much better than limits obtained in experiments with 83-Kr (m_a<5.5 keV) and 7-Li (m_a<13.9-32 keV).

  6. Dissipation flow-frames: particle, energy, thermometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ván, P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We associate the following physical co-mover conditions of to different frame choices: i) Eckart: particle flow, ii) Landau-Lifshitz: energy flow, iii) J\\"uttner: moving thermometer frame. The role of fixing a flow-frame is analysed with respect to local equilibrium concentrating on dissipative currents and forces in single component relativistic fluids. The special role of a "J\\"uttner frame" is explored and contrasted to the more common Eckart and Landau-Lifshitz choices.

  7. Dissipation flow-frames: particle, energy, thermometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Ván; T. S. Biró

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We associate the following physical co-mover conditions of to different frame choices: i) Eckart: particle flow, ii) Landau-Lifshitz: energy flow, iii) J\\"uttner: moving thermometer frame. The role of fixing a flow-frame is analysed with respect to local equilibrium concentrating on dissipative currents and forces in single component relativistic fluids. The special role of a "J\\"uttner frame" is explored and contrasted to the more common Eckart and Landau-Lifshitz choices.

  8. SOLVENT DISPERSION AND FLOW METER CALCULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) found that the dispersion numbers for the six combinations of CSSX:Next Generation Solvent (NGS) “blend” and pure NGS versus salt solution, caustic wash, and strip aqueous solutions are all good. The dispersion numbers are indications of processability with centrifugal contactors. A comparison of solvent physical and thermal properties shows that the Intek™ solvent flow meter in the plant has a reading biased high versus calibrated flow when NGS is used, versus the standard CSSX solvent. The flow meter, calibrated for CSSX solvent, is predicted to read 2.8 gpm of NGS in a case where the true flow of NGS is 2.16 gpm.

  9. Applications in MPC and Network Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This allows for improvement in communication-efficiency. We apply our algorithm to model predictive control (MPC) and to network flow problems and show, ...

  10. Radionuclide Sensors for Environmental Monitoring: From Flow...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Equilibration-Based Radionuclide Sensors for Environmental Monitoring: From Flow Injection Solid-Phase Absorptiometry to Equilibration-Based Abstract: The development...

  11. Flow visualisation in inclined louvered fins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T'Joen, C.; De Paepe, M. [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Jacobi, A. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study the flow within an interrupted fin design, the inclined louvered fin, is investigated experimentally through visualisation. The inclined louvered fin is a hybrid of the offset strip fin and standard louvered fin, aimed at improved performance at low Reynolds numbers for compact heat exchangers. The flow behaviour is studied in six geometrically different configurations over a range of Reynolds numbers and quantified using the concept of 'fin angle alignment factor'. The transition from steady laminar to unsteady flow was studied in detail. The fin geometry had a very large impact on the transitional flow behaviour, especially on vortex shedding. (author)

  12. Microsphere estimates of blood flow: Methodological considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Ritter, C.; Hinder, R.A.; Womack, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Fimmel, C.J.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.; Blum, A.L. (Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa) Louisianna State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport (USA) Universitaire Vaudois (Switzerland))

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microsphere technique is a standard method for measuring blood flow in experimental animals. Sporadic reports have appeared outlining the limitations of this method. In this study the authors have systematically assessed the effect of blood withdrawals for reference sampling, microsphere numbers, and anesthesia on blood flow estimates using radioactive microspheres in dogs. Experiments were performed on 18 conscious and 12 anesthetized dogs. Four blood flow estimates were performed over 120 min using 1 {times} 10{sup 6} microspheres each time. The effects of excessive numbers of microspheres pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and replacement of volume loss for reference samples with dextran 70 were assessed. In both conscious and anesthetized dogs a progressive decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow and cardiac output was observed over 120 min. This was also observed in the pancreas in conscious dogs. The major factor responsible for these changes was the volume loss due to the reference sample withdrawals. Replacement of the withdrawn blood with dextran 70 led to stable blood flows to all organs. The injection of excessive numbers of microspheres did not modify hemodynamics to a greater extent than did the injection of 4 million microspheres. Anesthesia exerted no influence on blood flow other than raising coronary flow. The authors conclude that although blood flow to the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is sensitive to the minor hemodynamic changes associated with the microsphere technique, replacement of volume loss for reference samples ensures stable blood flow to all organs over a 120-min period.

  13. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    santos

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF. CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW. J. E. Santos. 1. , G. B. Savioli. 2. , J. M. Carcione. 3. , D. Gei. 3. 1. CONICET, IGPUBA, Fac.

  14. Measurement of thermodynamics using gradient flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masakiyo Kitazawa; Masayuki Asakawa; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Takumi Iritani; Etsuko Itou; Hiroshi Suzuki

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze bulk thermodynamics and correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in pure Yang-Mills gauge theory using the energy-momentum tensor defined by the gradient flow and small flow time expansion. Our results on thermodynamic observables are consistent with those obtained by the conventional integral method. The analysis of the correlation function of total energy supports the energy conservation. It is also addressed that these analyses with gradient flow require less statistics compared with the previous methods. All these results suggest that the energy-momentum tensor can be successfully defined and observed on the lattice with moderate numerical costs with the gradient flow.

  15. Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary...

  16. Fluid Gravity Engineering Rocket motor flow analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Mahesh

    Fluid Gravity Engineering Capability · Rocket motor flow analysis -Internal (performance) -External young scientists/engineers Fluid Gravity Engineering Ltd #12;

  17. Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technologies Program Office Program Manager: Mr. Gurpreet Singh Petrodiesel vs. Biodiesel 2 Primary Breakup Inner Nozzle Flow Influence of Physical and Chemical properties of...

  18. Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the underground coal gasification field test at the Hoe Creek site No. 2, Wyoming, helium pulses were introduced to develop information to characterize the flow field, and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Quantitative analysis of the tracer response curves shows an increasing departure from a plug flow regime with time because of the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex non-uniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model. 17 refs.

  19. California energy flow in 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borg, I.Y.; Mui, N.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California energy consumption increased in 1994 in keeping with a recovery from the previous mild recession years. Although unemployment remained above the national average, other indicators pointed to improved economic health. Increased energy use was registered principally in the residential/commercial and transportation end-use sectors. A cooler-than-usual winter and spring was reflected in increased consumption of natural gas, the principal space-heating fuel in the state. Because of low water levels behind state dams, utilities turned to natural gas for electrical generation and to increased imports from out-of- state sources to meet demand. Other factors, such as smaller output from geothermal, biomass, and cogenerators, contributed to the need for the large increase in electrical supply from these two sources. Nonetheless, petroleum dominated the supply side of the energy equation of the state in which transportation requirements comprise more than one-third of total energy demand. About half of the oil consumed derived from California production. Onshore production has been in slow decline; however, in 1994 the decrease was compensated for by increases from federal offshore fields. Until 1994 production had been limited by regulatory restrictions relating to the movement of the crude oil to onshore refineries. State natural gas production remained at 1993 levels. The increased demand was met by larger imports from Canada through the recent expansion of Pacific Transmission Company`s 804 mile pipeline. Deregulation of the state`s utilities moved ahead in 1994 when the California Public Utilities Commission issued its proposal on how to restructure the industry. Public hearings were conducted in which the chief issues were recovery of the utilities` capital investments, conflicts with the Public Utilities Policies Act, management of power transactions between new suppliers and former utility customers, and preservation of energy conservation programs currently sponsored by the utilities. The issues were not resolved at year-end, but the state`s public utilities began to take steps to improve their positions in a future competitive market by cutting costs, improving efficiencies operating plants, and enlarging their nonutility interests.

  20. TEMPERATURE DEPENDANT BEHAVIOUR OBSERVED IN THE AFIP-6 IRRADIATION TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs; P. Medvedev; S.J. Miller; F. J. Rice; M. K. Meyer; D. M. Perez

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AFIP-6 test assembly was irradiated for one cycle in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiment was designed to test two monolithic fuel plates at power and burn-ups which bounded the operating conditions of both ATR and HFIR driver fuel. Both plates contained a solid U-Mo fuel foil with a zirconium diffusion barrier between 6061-aluminum cladding plates bonded by hot isostatic pressing. The experiment was designed with an orifice to restrict the coolant flow in order to obtain prototypic coolant temperature conditions. While these coolant temperatures were obtained, the reduced flow resulted in a sufficiently low heat transfer coefficient that failure of the fuel plates occurred. The increased fuel temperature led to significant variations in the fission gas retention behaviour of the U-Mo fuel. These variations in performance are outlined herein.

  1. The transition from the annular to the slug flow regime in two-phase flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberstroh, Robert D.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to determine the transition from annular to semiannular flow regimes for two-phase, gas-liquid upflow in vertical tubes. The influencesof liquid flow rate, tube diameter, liquid viscosity, surface ...

  2. Tritium flow through a non-symmetrical source. Simulation of gas flow through an injection hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharipov, Felix

    Tritium flow through a non-symmetrical source. Simulation of gas flow through an injection hole of source in injection rarefaction parameter µ0 viscosity of tritium at T0 Pa s 2 #12;Ll = 5074.5 Lr = 5007

  3. Laser Sheet Light Flow Visualization For Evaluating Room Air Flows From

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-56483 Laser Sheet Light Flow Visualization For Evaluating Room Air Flows From Registers Iain S using a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurement technique. Water marked with fluorescent

  4. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being carried out in the model report, ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The velocity fields are calculated by the flow model, described herein, independent of the transport processes, and are then used as inputs to the transport model. Justification for this abstraction is presented in the model report, ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021 (BSC 2003 [164870]).

  5. The effects between two slotted plate flow meter under single, two, three components flow condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sang Hyan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    THE INTERACTION BETWEEN A TWO SLOTTED PLATE FLOW METER UNDER ONE, TWO, OR THREE COMPONENT FLOW CONDITIONS A Thesis by SANG HYUN PARK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE INTERACTION BETWEEN A TWO SLOTTED PLATE FLOW METER UNDER ONE, TWO, OR THREE COMPONENT FLOW...

  6. Fluctuating initial conditions and fluctuations in elliptic and triangular flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In heavy ion collisions, event-by-event fluctuations in participating nucleon positions can lead to triangular flow. With fluctuating initial conditions, flow coefficients will also fluctuate. In a hydrodynamic model, we study the fluctuations in elliptic and triangular flow, due to fluctuating initial conditions. Both elliptic and triangular flow fluctuates strongly, triangular flow more strongly than the elliptic flow. Strong fluctuations greatly reduce the sensitivity of elliptic and triangular flow to viscosity.

  7. Solyndra Facts vs. Fiction: Cash Flow Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questions have been raised about a quote selectively pulled from an Aug. 20, 2009 email to make it look like Solyndra would run out of cash by Sept. 2011. To be clear, the analysis addressed in that email did not refer to Solyndra’s corporate cash flow, but rather the cash flow for a subsidiary of Solyndra – the “Fab 2 Project Company.

  8. HYPERSONIC FLOW COMPUTATIONS ON UNSTRUCTURED MESHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    97--0625 HYPERSONIC FLOW COMPUTATIONS ON UNSTRUCTURED MESHES K. L. Bibb \\Lambda NASA Langley hypersonic flow over complex configurations using unstructured meshes is presented. The unstructured grid for a sphere­cone configuration at Mach numbers of 5.25 and 10.6, and a complex hypersonic re­entry vehicle

  9. Non-Darcy flow in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zyvoloski, G.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of non-Darcy flow laws are investigated for two geothermal reservoir types: multiphase and Hot Dry Rock (HDR). Long-term thermal behavior is emphasized as short-term pressure transient behavior is addressed in the oil field literature. Comparisons of Darcy and non-Darcy flow laws are made.

  10. Scaling bounds on dissipation in turbulent flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seis, Christian

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new rigorous method for estimating statistical quantities in fluid dynamics such as the (average) energy dissipation rate directly from the equations of motion. The method is tested on shear flow, channel flow, Rayleigh--B\\'enard convection and porous medium convection.

  11. Integrable magnetic geodesic flows on Lie groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexey A. Magazev; Igor V. Shirokov; Yuriy Y. Yurevich

    2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Right-invariant geodesic flows on manifolds of Lie groups associated with 2-cocycles of corresponding Lie algebras are discussed. Algebra of integrals of motion for magnetic geodesic flows is considered and necessary and sufficient condition of integrability in quadratures is formulated. Canonic forms for 2-cocycles of all 4-dimensional Lie algebras are given and integrable cases among them are separated.

  12. Conservation Law Models for Traffic Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bressan, Alberto

    Conservation Law Models for Traffic Flow Alberto Bressan Mathematics Department, Penn State University http://www.math.psu.edu/bressan/ Alberto Bressan (Penn State) Scalar Conservation Laws 1 / 117 #12;Review of hyperbolic conservation laws Models of traffic flow, on a single road and on a network of roads

  13. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walrath, David E. (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY); Burgess, Robert K. (Sheridan, WY); LaBelle, James (Murrieta, CA)

    2000-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  14. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS FOR FLOW IN RESERVOIRS By ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Darcy's law for each phase with a simple differential material balance for each phase. In this first ... that the pressure declines in the direction of flow. .... lies within some closed curve C across which there is no flow, and fluid injec- tion and ...

  15. Quantitative supersonic flow visualization by hydraulic analogy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rani, Sarma Laxminarasimha

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydraulic analogy, which forms the basis for the phics. current investigation, can be used to study supersonic gas flows with great ease by means of a water table. As a result of the analogy, water heights in free surface water flow correspond...

  16. Second-order perturbative corrections to the restricted active space configuration interaction with the hole and particle approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casanova, David, E-mail: david.casanova@ehu.es [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herria Unibersitatea (UPV/EHU), Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P.K. 1072, 20080 Donostia, Spain and IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)] [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herria Unibersitatea (UPV/EHU), Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P.K. 1072, 20080 Donostia, Spain and IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Second-order corrections to the restricted active space configuration interaction (RASCI) with the hole and particle truncation of the excitation operator are developed. Theoretically, the computational cost of the implemented perturbative approach, abbreviated as RASCI(2), grows like its single reference counterpart in MP2. Two different forms of RASCI(2) have been explored, that is the generalized Davidson-Kapuy and the Epstein-Nesbet partitions of the Hamiltonian. The preliminary results indicate that the use of energy level shift of a few tenths of a Hartree might systematically improve the accuracy of the RASCI(2) energies. The method has been tested in the computation of the ground state energy profiles along the dissociation of the hydrogen fluoride and N{sub 2} molecules, the computation of correlation energy in the G2/97 molecular test set, and in the computation of excitation energies to low-lying states in small organic molecules.

  17. Thermolysis of surface-attached 1,3-diphenylpropane: radical chain induced decomposition under conditions of restricted diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A.

    1989-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane (/approximately//approximately/Ph(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/Ph, or /approximately//approximately/DPP) has been prepared by the condensation of p-(3-phenylpropyl)phenol with the surface hydroxyl groups of an amorphous, fumed silica. Thermolysis studies of the covalently attached /approximately//approximately/DPP have been conducted to explore the effects of restricted radical and substrate diffusion on a free-radical chain induced decomposition reaction, which has been reported to underlie the thermal reactivity of fluid-phase DPP at /<=/400/degrees/C. Thermolysis of /approximately//approximately/DPP has been studied at 345-400/degrees/C as a function of /approximately//approximately/DPP conversion (0.3-23%) and initial surface coverage (0.132-0.586 mmol g/sup -1/; 0.43-1.97 DPP molecules nm/sup -2/). Decomposition of surface-immobilized /approximately//approximately/DPP occurs readily in this temperature range by parallel free-radical chain pathways, whose rates are quite sensitive to surface coverage, producing PhCH/sub 3/ + /approximately//approximately/PhCH/double bond/CH/sub 2/ and /approximately//approximately/PhCH/sub 3/ + PhCH/double bond/CH/sub 2/ as the major product pairs. An unusual regiospecific hydrogen transfer process is observed that favors formation of /approximately//approximately/PhCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/CHPh over /approximately//approximately/PhCHCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/Ph as the proximity of /approximately//approximately/DPP molecules and hydrogen abstracting radicals on the surface decreases. This phenomenon results in regioselective cracking of /approximately//approximately/DPP favoring the /approximately//approximately/PhCH/sub 3/ + PhCH/double bond/CH/sub 2/ product pair. Implications are discussed for the thermal degradation of related structural features in a diffusionally restricted, macromolecular network such as occurs in coal. 31 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Chong, E-mail: songchong@xmu.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)] [School of Mathematical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun, Xiaowei, E-mail: sunxw@cufe.edu.cn [School of Applied Mathematics, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081 (China)] [School of Applied Mathematics, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Youde, E-mail: wyd@math.ac.cn [Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well-known that the LIE (Locally Induction Equation) admit soliton-type solutions and same soliton solutions arise from different and apparently irrelevant physical models. By comparing the solitons of LIE and Killing magnetic geodesics, we observe that these solitons are essentially decided by two families of isometries of the domain and the target space, respectively. With this insight, we propose the new concept of geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds, such as geometric Schrödinger flows and KdV flows for maps. Moreover, we give several examples of geometric solitons of the Schrödinger flow and geometric KdV flow, including magnetic curves as geometric Schrödinger solitons and explicit geometric KdV solitons on surfaces of revolution.

  19. Flow through electrode with automated calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szecsody, James E [Richland, WA; Williams, Mark D [Richland, WA; Vermeul, Vince R [Richland, WA

    2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an improved automated flow through electrode liquid monitoring system. The automated system has a sample inlet to a sample pump, a sample outlet from the sample pump to at least one flow through electrode with a waste port. At least one computer controls the sample pump and records data from the at least one flow through electrode for a liquid sample. The improvement relies upon (a) at least one source of a calibration sample connected to (b) an injection valve connected to said sample outlet and connected to said source, said injection valve further connected to said at least one flow through electrode, wherein said injection valve is controlled by said computer to select between said liquid sample or said calibration sample. Advantages include improved accuracy because of more frequent calibrations, no additional labor for calibration, no need to remove the flow through electrode(s), and minimal interruption of sampling.

  20. Rapidity Dependence of Elliptic Flow at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erik Johnson

    2006-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The measured elliptic flow (v2) of identified particles as a function of pT and centrality at RHIC suggests the created medium in Au+Au collisions achieves early local thermal equilibrium that is followed by hydrodynamic expansion. It is not known if the eta dependence on v2 is a general feature of elliptic flow or reflects other changes in the particle spectra in going from mid-rapidity to foward rapidities. The BRAHMS experiment provides a unique capability compared to the other RHIC experiments to measure v2 for identified particles over a wide rapidity range. From Run 4 Au+Au collision at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200GeV, identified elliptic flow is studied using the BRAHMS spectrometers, which cover 0flow and to measure the pT-integrated flow for charged hadrons.

  1. Valve for controlling solids flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feldman, David K. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized solids control valve is disclosed that is particularly well adapted for use with a flow of coal or char that includes both large particles and fines. The particles may or may not be fluidized at various times during the operation. The valve includes a tubular body that terminates in a valve seat covered by a normally closed closure plate. The valve body at the seat and the closure plate is provided with aligned longitudinal slots that receive a pivotally supported key plate. The key plate is positionable by an operator in inserted, intermediate and retracted positions respecting the longitudinal slot in the valve body. The key plate normally closes the slot within the closure plate but is shaped and aligned obliquely to the longitudinal slot within the valve body to provide progressively increasing slot openings between the inserted and retracted positions. Transfer members are provided between the operator, key plate and closure plate to move the closure plate into an open position only when the key plate is retracted from the longitudinal slot within the valve body.

  2. Cross flow electrofilter and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gidaspow, Dimitri (Northbrook, IL); Lee, Chang H. (Chicago, IL); Wasan, Darsh T. (Westmont, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A filter for clarifying carbonaceous liquids containing finely divided solid particles of, for instance, unreacted coal, ash and other solids discharged from a coal liquefaction process is presented. The filter includes two passageways separated by a porous filter medium. In one preferred embodiment the filter medium is of tubular shape to form the first passageway and is enclosed within an outer housing to form the second passageway within the annulus. An electrode disposed in the first passageway, for instance along the tube axis, is connected to a source of high voltage for establishing an electric field between the electrode and the filter medium. Slurry feed flows through the first passageway tangentially to the surfaces of the filter medium and the electrode. Particles from the feed slurry are attracted to the electrode within the first passageway to prevent plugging of the porous filter medium while carbonaceous liquid filters into the second passageway for withdrawal. Concentrated slurry is discharged from the first passageway at an end opposite to the feed slurry inlet. Means are also provided for the addition of diluent and a surfactant into the slurry to control relative permittivity and the electrophoretic mobility of the particles.

  3. Department of Chemical Engineering Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Aug.2013 Department of Chemical Engineering Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory Ron Zevenhoven.1 Fluid statics 6.2 Fluid dynamics: viscosity, laminar / turbulent flow, boundary layer 6.3 Fluid dynamics: internal flows / tube flows 6.4 Fluid dynamics: pressure drop & energy dissipation in tube systems 6.5 Flow

  4. Department of Chemical Engineering Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    August 12 Department of Chemical Engineering Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory Ron Zevenhoven.1 Fluid statics 6.2 Fluid dynamics: viscosity, laminar / turbulent flow, boundary layer 6.3 Fluid dynamics: internal flows / tube flows 6.4 Fluid dynamics: pressure drop & energy dissipation in tube systems 6.5 Flow

  5. Classification of Two-Phase Flow Patterns by Ultrasonic Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    in addition to several other factors such as the bulk flow rate, fluid properties, and flow boundary conditions [1]. Characterization of flow patterns and identification of the associ- ated flow regimes instrumentation, both for void fraction identification and flow pattern classification. High-speed photog- raphy

  6. Microgravity flow pattern identification using void fraction signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valota, Luca

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the two-phase flow state is fundamental for two-phase flow system design and operation. In traditional two-phase flow studies, the flow regime refers to the physical location of the gas and liquid in a conduit. Flow configuration...

  7. Online Supplement Appendix Flow Anatomy of the TCPC Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pekkan, Kerem

    narrowings that dissipate little power at baseline flows may be sources of significant power loss at increased flows, 2) flow collision between SVC and IVC flows can be a significant source of power loss and usually increases significantly with increasing power loss, 3) increased skewing of the IVC flow toward

  8. Constraints on flow regimes in wide-aperture fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.

    2004-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the complex flow processes in individual fractures, aided by flow visualization experiments and conceptual modeling efforts. These advances have led to the recognition of several flow regimes in individual fractures subjected to different initial and boundary conditions. Of these, the most important regimes are film flow, rivulet flow, and sliding of droplets. The existence of such significantly dissimilar flow regimes has been a major hindrance in the development of self-consistent conceptual models of flow for single fractures that encompass all the flow regimes. The objective of this study is to delineate the existence of the different flow regimes in individual fractures. For steady-state flow conditions, we developed physical constraints on the different flow regimes that satisfy minimum energy configurations, which enabled us to segregate the wide range of fracture transmissivity (volumetric flow rate per fracture width) into several flow regimes. These are, in increasing order of flow rate, flow of adsorbed films, flow of sliding drops, rivulet flow, stable film flow, and unstable (turbulent) film flow. The scope of this study is limited to wide-aperture fractures with the flow on the opposing sides of fracture being independent.

  9. Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than today’s flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRC’s flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

  10. Flow Partitioning in Fully Saturated Soil Aggregates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Richmond, Marshall C.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Resat, Haluk

    2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbes play an important role in facilitating organic matter decomposition in soils, which is a major component of the global carbon cycle. Microbial dynamics are intimately coupled to environmental transport processes, which control access to labile organic matter and other nutrients that are needed for the growth and maintenance of microorganisms. Transport of soluble nutrients in the soil system is arguably most strongly impacted by preferential flow pathways in the soil. Since the physical structure of soils can be characterized as being formed from constituent micro aggregates which contain internal porosity, one pressing question is the partitioning of the flow among the “inter-aggregate” and “intra-aggregate” pores and how this may impact overall solute transport within heterogeneous soil structures. The answer to this question is particularly important in evaluating assumptions to be used in developing upscaled simulations based on highly-resolved mechanistic models. We constructed a number of diverse multi-aggregate structures with different packing ratios by stacking micro-aggregates containing internal pores and varying the size and shape of inter-aggregate pore spacing between them. We then performed pore-scale flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the flow patterns in these aggregate-of-aggregates structures and computed the partitioning of the flow through intra- and inter-aggregate pores as a function of the spacing between the aggregates. The results of these numerical experiments demonstrate that soluble nutrients are largely transported via flows through inter-aggregate pores. Although this result is consistent with intuition, we have also been able to quantify the relative flow capacity of the two domains under various conditions. For example, in our simulations, the flow capacity through the aggregates (intra-aggregate flow) was less than 2% of the total flow when the spacing between the aggregates was larger than 18 micron. Inter-aggregate pores continued to be the dominant flow pathways even at much smaller spacing; intra-aggregate flow was less than 10% of the total flow when the inter- and intra-aggregate pore sizes were comparable. Such studies are making it possible to identify which model upscaling assumptions are realistic and what computational methods are required for detailed numerical investigation of microbial carbon cycling dynamics in soil systems.

  11. Quantitative tomographic measurements of opaque multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GEORGE,DARIN L.; TORCZYNSKI,JOHN R.; SHOLLENBERGER,KIM ANN; O'HERN,TIMOTHY J.; CECCIO,STEVEN L.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed for quantitative measurements of radial phase distribution profiles in two-phase and three-phase vertical column flows. The EIT system is described along with the computer algorithm used for reconstructing phase volume fraction profiles. EIT measurements were validated by comparison with a gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) system. The EIT system was used to accurately measure average solid volume fractions up to 0.05 in solid-liquid flows, and radial gas volume fraction profiles in gas-liquid flows with gas volume fractions up to 0.15. In both flows, average phase volume fractions and radial volume fraction profiles from GDT and EIT were in good agreement. A minor modification to the formula used to relate conductivity data to phase volume fractions was found to improve agreement between the methods. GDT and EIT were then applied together to simultaneously measure the solid, liquid, and gas radial distributions within several vertical three-phase flows. For average solid volume fractions up to 0.30, the gas distribution for each gas flow rate was approximately independent of the amount of solids in the column. Measurements made with this EIT system demonstrate that EIT may be used successfully for noninvasive, quantitative measurements of dispersed multiphase flows.

  12. Fluid flow control with transformation media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urzhumov, Yaroslav A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new concept for the manipulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies. Inspired by transformation optics, the concept is based on a mathematical idea of coordinate transformations, and physically implemented with anisotropic porous media permeable to the flow of fluids. In two different situations - for an impermeable object situated either in a free-flowing fluid or in a fluid-filled porous medium - we show that the object can be coated with a properly chosen inhomogeneous, anisotropic permeable medium, such as to preserve the streamlines of flow and the pressure distribution that would have existed in the absence of the object. The proposed fluid flow cloak completely eliminates any disturbance of the flow by the object, including the downstream wake. Consequently, the structure helps prevent the onset of turbulence by keeping the flow laminar even above the typical critical Reynolds number for the object of the same shape and size. The cloak also cancels the viscous drag force. This...

  13. Annular flow control safety valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, P.W.; Pringle, R.E.

    1981-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A tubular housing having an inner tubular member forms an inner passageway inside of the inner member and an outer passageway between the inner member and the housing. The housing has valve openings leading from the outer passageway to the exterior of the housing and a tubular valve closure member telescopically moves on the interior of the housing. First means move the valve closure member in an upper direction for closing the openings and at least one actuating piston is telescopically movable within and has its longitudinal axis in the wall of the housing and engages the valve closure member. The piston is in communication with a hydraulic passageway adapted to extend to the well surface for actuating the closure member in a direction to open the valve openings. The closure member is positioned whereby upward flow through the outer passageway acts on the closure member to close the valve opening. At least one lockout piston telescopically moves within the housing and is actuated from the surface and is engageable with holding means in the housing for providing a hydraulic lockout for the valve. Shear means may be provided between the lockout piston and the housing for controlling the hydraulic lockout. A single seal is provided between the closure member and the housing and is positioned below the opening and exposed to the pressure on both sides when the valve is opened. Preferably the actuating pistons are connected to the valve closure member but the hydraulic lockout pistons engage but are unconnected to the valve closure member.

  14. A study of flow in transition pieces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kochan, Thomas Walter

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . , Mummalog F J g "Boundary Layer Induced Potential Flow on an Elliptical Cylinder, " Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 66, Part 1, 1974, pp. 145-157. 3 Glassman, A. J. , "Turbine Design and Application, " NASA Report No. SP-290, Vol. 2, 1973. 4 Schlichting... piece to be used and often acts as the prime design consideration, as the transition piece has the primary purpose of routing the flow. See Figures 1 and 2. The method of flow routing in a transition piece can in- troduce losses in the system...

  15. Momentum spectra, anisotropic flow, and ideal fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Borghini; J. -Y. Ollitrault

    2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    If the matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions reaches thermal equilibrium, its subsequent evolution follows the laws of ideal fluid dynamics. We show that general predictions can be made on this basis alone, irrespective of the details of the hydrodynamical model. We derive several scaling rules for momentum spectra and anisotropic flow (in particular the elliptic flow, v2, and the hexadecupole flow, v4) of identified particles. Comparison with existing data is briefly discussed, and qualitative predictions are made for LHC.

  16. Redox Flow Batteries: An Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalamala, Babu R.; Soundappan, Thiagarajan; Fisher, Graham R.; Anstey, Mitchell A.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Perry, Mike L.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox flow batteries are well suited to provide modular and scalable energy storage systems for a wide range of energy storage applications. In this paper, we review the development of redox flow battery technology including recent advances in new redox active materials and systems. We discuss cost, performance, and reliability metrics that are critical for deployment of large flow battery systems. The technology, while relatively young, has the potential for significant improvement through reduced materials costs, improved energy and power efficiency, and significant reduction in the overall system cost.

  17. Mass Dependence of Directed Collective Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, M.J.; Lemmon, R.C.; Daffin, F.; Lynch, W.G.; Schwarz, C.; Tsang, M.B.; Williams, C.; Danielewicz, P.; Haglin, K.; Bauer, W.; Carlin, N.; Charity, R.J.; de Souza, R.T.; Gelbke, C.K.; Hsi, W.C.; Kunde, G.J.; Lemaire, M.; Lisa, M.A.; Lynen, U.; Peaslee, G.F.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sann, H.; Sobotka, L.G.; Souza, S.R.; Trautmann, W. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)] [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); [Laboratoire National SATURNE, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-6100 Darmstadt 11 (Germany); [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility and Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 01498, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sidewards directed fragment flow has been extracted for {sup 84}Kr+{sup 197}Au collisions at {ital E}/{ital A}=200 MeV, using techniques that are free of reaction plane dispersion. The fragment flow per nucleon increases with mass, following a thermal or coalescencelike behavior, and attains roughly constant limiting values at 4{le}{ital A}{le}12. Comparisons of the impact parameter dependences of the measured coalescence-invariant proton flow to Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck calculations clearly favor a momentum dependent nuclear mean field. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Large volume flow-through scintillating detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gritzo, Russ E. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large volume flow through radiation detector for use in large air flow situations such as incinerator stacks or building air systems comprises a plurality of flat plates made of a scintillating material arranged parallel to the air flow. Each scintillating plate has a light guide attached which transfers light generated inside the scintillating plate to an associated photomultiplier tube. The output of the photomultiplier tubes are connected to electronics which can record any radiation and provide an alarm if appropriate for the application.

  19. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  20. Ionization based multi-directional flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Casleton, Kent H. (Morgantown, WV)

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method, system, and apparatus for conducting real-time monitoring of flow (airflow for example) in a system (a hybrid power generation system for example) is disclosed. The method, system and apparatus measure at least flow direction and velocity with minimal pressure drop and fast response. The apparatus comprises an ion source and a multi-directional collection device proximate the ion source. The ion source is configured to generate charged species (electrons and ions for example). The multi-directional collection source is configured to determine the direction and velocity of the flow in real-time.