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  1. Responsible Asia Forest Trade (RAFT) Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regional Development Mission for Asia (USAID RDMA) in Bangkok. RAFT is managed by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) in partnership with International Union for Conservation of Nature...

  2. Cambodia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for GHG reductions, Build and institutionalize technical capacity for economic valuation of forest ecosystem services and monitoring changes in forest carbon stocks, and...

  3. Vietnam-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  4. Malaysia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  5. Papua New Guinea-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  6. Laos-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  7. Thailand-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  8. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danson, F.M. ); Curran, P.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation.

  9. Asia/ITS | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AsiaITS AsiaITS EV Policy Landscape in the US PDF icon AsiaITS More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Evaluating National Parks and Forest Service ...

  10. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Zak, Donald R.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-04-23

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes) in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.

  11. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Zak, Donald R.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-04-23

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes)more » in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.« less

  12. Modeling Transient Response of Forests to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Tharp, M Lynn; Lannom, Karen O.; Hodges, Donald G

    2010-01-01

    Our hypothesis is that a high diversity of dominant life forms in Tennessee forests conveys resilience to disturbance such as climate change. Because of uncertainty in climate change and their effects, three climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2080 from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) were used to simulate a range of potential climate conditions for the state. These climate changes derive from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B storyline that assumes rapid global economic growth. The precipitation and temperature projections from the three GCMs for 2030 and 2080 were related to changes in five ecological provinces using the monthly record of temperature and precipitation from 1980 to 1997 for each 1 km cell across the state as aggregated into the provinces. Temperatures are projected to increase in all ecological provinces in all months for all three GCMs for both 2030 and 2080. Precipitation differences from the long-term average are more complex but less striking. The forest ecosystem model LINKAGES was used to simulate conditions for five ecological provinces from 1989 to 2300. Average output projects changes in tree diversity and species composition in all ecological provinces in Tennessee with the greatest changes in the Southern Mixed Forest province. Projected declines in total tree biomass are followed by biomass recovery as species replacement occurs in stands. The Southern Mixed Forest province results in less diversity in dominant trees as well as lower overall biomass than projections for the other four provinces. The biomass and composition changes projected in this study differ from forest dynamics expected without climate change. These results suggest that biomass recovery following climate change is linked to dominant tree diversity in the southeastern forest of the US. The generality of this observation warrants further investigation, for it relates to ways that forest management may influence climate change effects.

  13. Long-term successional forest dynamics: species and community responses to climatic variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kardol, Paul; Todd Jr, Donald E; Hanson, Paul J; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    Question: Are tree dynamics sensitive to climatic variability, and do tree species differ in their responses to climatic variability? Hence, is vulnerability of forest communities to climatic variability depending on stand composition? Location: Mixed young forest at Walker Branch Watershed near Oak Ridge, East-Tennessee, USA. Methods: Using a long-term data set (1967-2006), we analyzed temporal forest dynamics at the tree and species level, and we analyzed community dynamics for forest stands that different in their initial species composition (i.e., Chestnut Oak, Oak-Hickory, Pine, and Yellow poplar stands). Using summer drought and growing season temperature as defined climate drivers, we evaluated relationships between forest dynamics and climate across levels of organization. Results: Over the 4-decade studied period, forest communities underwent successional change and substantially increased their biomass. Variation in summer drought and growing season temperature contributed to temporal biomass dynamics for some tree species, but not for others. Stand-level responses to climatic variability were shown to be related to responses of specific component species; however, not for Pine stands. Pinus echinata, the dominant species in stands initially identified as Pine stands, decreased over time due to periodical outbreaks of the pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis). The outbreaks on Walker Branch could not be directly related to climatic conditions. Conclusions: Our results imply that vulnerability of developing forests to predicted climate conditions is stand-type dependent, and hence, is a function of species composition. Autogenic successional processes (or insect outbreaks) were found to prevail over climatic variability in determining long-term forest dynamics for stands dominated by sensitive species, emphasizing the importance of studying interactions between forest succession and climate change.

  14. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2016-01-18

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to heavily underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model's low bias is due to aerosol extinctions below  ∼  2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over Southmore » Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to −0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and

  15. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-06-19

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in the northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model low-bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AODmoreand extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day?1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond

  16. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-06-19

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in the northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model low-bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond

  17. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2016-01-18

    In this study, aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to heavily underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model's low bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD andmore » extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to –0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are

  18. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-06-19

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in the northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model low-bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AODmore » and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond

  19. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  20. Thermal Plasticity of Photosynthesis: the Role of Acclimation in Forest Responses to a Warming Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Carla A; O'Hara, Keiran H; Campion, Christina M; Walker, Ashley V; Edwards, Nelson T

    2010-01-01

    The increasing air temperatures central to climate change predictions have the potential to alter forest ecosystem function and structure by exceeding temperatures optimal for carbon gain. Such changes are projected to threaten survival of sensitive species, leading to local extinctions, range migrations, and altered forest composition. This study investigated photosynthetic sensitivity to temperature and the potential for acclimation in relation to the climatic provenance of five species of deciduous trees, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus rubra, Quercus falcata, Betula alleghaniensis, and Populus grandidentata. Open-top chambers supplied three levels of warming (+0, +2, and +4 C above ambient) over 3 years, tracking natural temperature variability. Optimal temperature for CO2 assimilation was strongly correlated with daytime temperature in all treatments, but assimilation rates at those optima were comparable. Adjustment of thermal optima was confirmed in all species, whether temperatures varied with season or treatment, and regardless of climate in the species' range or provenance of the plant material. Temperature optima from 17 to 34 were observed. Across species, acclimation potentials varied from 0.55 C to 1.07 C per degree change in daytime temperature. Responses to the temperature manipulation were not different from the seasonal acclimation observed in mature indigenous trees, suggesting that photosynthetic responses should not be modeled using static temperature functions, but should incorporate an adjustment to account for acclimation. The high degree of homeostasis observed indicates that direct impacts of climatic warming on forest productivity, species survival, and range limits may be less than predicted by existing models.

  1. United States Forest Service - Forest Service Environmental Appeals...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Responses Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: United States Forest Service - Forest Service Environmental Appeals Responses Abstract...

  2. Asia | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asia Jump to: navigation, search Select a country above to navigate to that country's page. Additional Categories Countries (48) Programs (409) Tools (87) Back to World Map...

  3. Belowground Response to Drought in a Tropical Forest Soil. I. Changes in Microbial Functional Potential and Metabolism

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Wood, Tana E.; Baran, Richard; Ye, Zaw; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Lim, HsiaoChien; Zhou, Jizhong; Nostrand, Joy D. Van; Nico, Peter; Northen, Trent R.; et al

    2016-04-20

    We report that global climate models predict a future of increased severity of drought in many tropical forests. Soil microbes are central to the balance of these systems as sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon (C), yet how they respond metabolically to drought is not well-understood. We simulated drought in the typically aseasonal Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, by intercepting precipitation falling through the forest canopy. This approach reduced soil moisture by 13% and water potential by 0.14 MPa (from -0.2 to -0.34). Previous results from this experiment have demonstrated that the diversity and composition of these soil microbial communitiesmore » are sensitive to even small changes in soil water. Here, we show prolonged drought significantly alters the functional potential of the community and provokes a clear osmotic stress response, including the production of compatible solutes that increase intracellular C demand. Subsequently, a microbial population emerges with a greater capacity for extracellular enzyme production targeting macromolecular carbon. Significantly, some of these drought-induced functional shifts in the soil microbiota are attenuated by prior exposure to a short-term drought suggesting that acclimation may occur despite a lack of longer-term drought history.« less

  4. Towards physics responsible for large-scale Lyman-α forest bias parameters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agnieszka M. Cieplak; Slosar, Anze

    2016-03-08

    Using a series of carefully constructed numerical experiments based on hydrodynamic cosmological SPH simulations, we attempt to build an intuition for the relevant physics behind the large scale density (bδ) and velocity gradient (bη) biases of the Lyman-α forest. Starting with the fluctuating Gunn-Peterson approximation applied to the smoothed total density field in real-space, and progressing through redshift-space with no thermal broadening, redshift-space with thermal broadening and hydrodynamically simulated baryon fields, we investigate how approximations found in the literature fare. We find that Seljak's 2012 analytical formulae for these bias parameters work surprisingly well in the limit of no thermalmore » broadening and linear redshift-space distortions. We also show that his bη formula is exact in the limit of no thermal broadening. Since introduction of thermal broadening significantly affects its value, we speculate that a combination of large-scale measurements of bη and the small scale flux PDF might be a sensitive probe of the thermal state of the IGM. Lastly, we find that large-scale biases derived from the smoothed total matter field are within 10–20% to those based on hydrodynamical quantities, in line with other measurements in the literature.« less

  5. Asia Silicon Qinghai Co Ltd aka Asia Si Material | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicon Qinghai Co Ltd aka Asia Si Material Jump to: navigation, search Name: Asia Silicon (Qinghai) Co Ltd (aka Asia Si Material) Place: Xining, Qinghai Province, China Zip:...

  6. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  7. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  8. Stand-Level Gas-Exchange Responses to Seasonal Drought in Very Young Versus Old Douglas-fir Forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Bible, K; Falk, M; Paw U, K T

    2009-02-23

    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral stands (ES) (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) ({approx} 450-500) forest in the Wind River Experiment Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F{sub NEE}), latent energy ({lambda}E) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E{sub T}), bowen ratio ({beta}), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G{sub c}), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient ({alpha}) and a canopy decoupling factor ({Omega}). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to see how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in available soil water ({theta}{sub r}) and vapor pressure deficit ({delta}e) differ among the two forest successional-stages. Despite very different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed distinct successional-stage relationships between E{sub T}, {alpha}, and G{sub c} to {delta}e and {theta}{sub r} during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) higher morning G{sub c} (> 10 mm s{sup -1}) at the OG forest coinciding with higher CO{sub 2} uptake (F{sub NEE} = -9 to -6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) but a strong negative response in G{sub c} to moderate {delta}e later in the day and a subsequent reduction in E{sub T}, and (2) higher E{sub T} at the ES stands because midday canopy conductance did not decrease until very low water availability levels (<30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that early seral stands are more likely than mature forests to experience declines in production if the summer drought becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were only observed at the very end of the seasonal drought period in the youngest stands.

  9. Land cover change and remote sensing: Examples of quantifying spatiotemporal dynamics in tropical forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krummel, J.R.; Su, Haiping; Fox, J.; Yarnasan, S.; Ekasingh, M.

    1995-06-01

    Research on human impacts or natural processes that operate over broad geographic areas must explicitly address issues of scale and spatial heterogeneity. While the tropical forests of Southeast Asia and Mexico have been occupied and used to meet human needs for thousands of years, traditional forest management systems are currently being transformed by rapid and far-reaching demographic, political, economic, and environmental changes. The dynamics of population growth, migration into the remaining frontiers, and responses to national and international market forces result in a demand for land to produce food and fiber. These results illustrate some of the mechanisms that drive current land use changes, especially in the tropical forest frontiers. By linking the outcome of individual land use decisions and measures of landscape fragmentation and change, the aggregated results shows the hierarchy of temporal and spatial events that in summation result in global changes to the most complex and sensitive biome -- tropical forests. By quantifying the spatial and temporal patterns of tropical forest change, researchers can assist policy makers by showing how landscape systems in these tropical forests are controlled by physical, biological, social, and economic parameters.

  10. TEP Asia Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TEP Asia Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: TEP Asia Ltd Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon credit purchaser. References: TEP Asia Ltd1 This article is a...

  11. Pioneer Asia Wind Turbines | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asia Wind Turbines Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pioneer Asia Wind Turbines Place: Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India Zip: 625 002 Sector: Wind energy Product: Madurai-based wind...

  12. Sustainable Development Strategy for Central Asia | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Sustainable Development Strategy for Central Asia AgencyCompany Organization AIT-UNEP Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the...

  13. Sustainable Development Strategy for South Asia | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    South Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Sustainable Development Strategy for South Asia AgencyCompany Organization AIT-UNEP Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific...

  14. UNEP-Southeast Asia Climate Change Network | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Southeast Asia Climate Change Network Jump to: navigation, search Logo: UNEP-Southeast Asia Climate Change Network Name UNEP-Southeast Asia Climate Change Network AgencyCompany...

  15. Strategic Asia 2002 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Ellings; Aaron Friedberg; Michael Wills

    2002-09-01

    The Strategic Asia Program made considerable progress over the course of 2002--the program's first year with support from the Department of Energy--and completed all its tasks on schedule and within budget. Following a planning meeting in Washington in February 2002, a team of leading specialists wrote a series of original assessments regarding the impact of September 11 on the strategic environment in Asia, examining how perceptions and strategies of countries in the region changed following the terrorist attacks. The final products, Strategic Asia 2002-03: Asian Aftershocks and its accompanying executive summary, were published in September 2002. The program's research findings (some of which are summarized) were presented to policymakers in Washington and elsewhere throughout the year, and almost 2,000 copies of the book had been distributed by mid-2003.

  16. Asia West LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    West LLC Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Asia West LLC Name: Asia West LLC Address: One East Weaver Street Place: Greenwich, Connecticut Zip: 06831 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT...

  17. Forest Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Purchased energy remains the third largest manufacturing cost for the forest products industry–despite its extensive use of highly efficient co-generation technology. The industry has worked with...

  18. Asia Wind Group Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Group Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Asia Wind Group Ltd Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100085 Sector: Wind energy Product: Investment company focused on the...

  19. Asia-Pacific energy database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    Statistical data is presented in graphic and tabular form on the petroleum market in Asia and Pacific nations. Seven major categories are reported: (1) primary energy production and consumption; (2) historical petroleum product demand and forecasts; (3) crude oil production and exports; (4) import dependence; (5) crude and product pricing assumptions; (6) market share of refined products by suppliers in selected countries; and (7) refining margins. Petroleum demand and forecasts and crude oil production and exports are reported by country. Historical data are presented from 1970 through 1996, and forecasts are made through 2010.

  20. U.S. Forest Service - Biomass Activities and Tribal Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Partnership with the USDA Forest Service Faline Haven Office of Tribal Relations USDA Forest Service fhaven@fs.fed.us 202-205-1520 Forest Service/Tribal Relationship * "We envision a future where the Forest Service and Indian Tribes work collaboratively through government-to-government relationships to manage the resources entrusted to their care, a future where the Forest Service has the organizational structure, skills and policies to redeem our responsibilities in this

  1. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification of

  2. Asia Carbon Emission Management India Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asia Carbon Emission Management India Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Asia Carbon Emission Management India Pvt Ltd Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Zip: 600 034 Sector:...

  3. South Asia Energy Management Systems Inc SAEMS | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Management Systems Inc SAEMS Jump to: navigation, search Name: South Asia Energy Management Systems, Inc. (SAEMS) Place: California Product: South Asia Energy is...

  4. Before the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific and the Global Environment Before the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific and the Global Environment Before...

  5. Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy Program | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sustainable and Alternative Energy Program Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy Program Name Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy Program...

  6. REEEP South Asia Regional Secretariat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    South Asia Regional Secretariat Jump to: navigation, search Name: REEEP South Asia Regional Secretariat Place: New Delhi, Delhi (NCT), India Zip: 110 003 Product: Regional...

  7. Solid International ASIA Pte Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid International ASIA Pte Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solid International ASIA Pte Ltd Place: Singapore, Singapore Zip: 349564 Sector: Solar Product: Singapore-based...

  8. Renewable Energy Asia Group Ltd REA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asia Group Ltd REA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Asia Group Ltd (REA) Place: China Sector: Wind energy Product: Singaporean wind turbine component and system...

  9. File:NREL-asia-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  10. File:NREL-asia-dir.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  11. File:NREL-asia-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  12. Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report You are accessing a ...

  13. Implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism in Asia and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asia, South-Eastern Asia, "Pacific" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean,...

  14. Vestas Asia Pacific A S | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Division of Danish wind turbine manufacturer Vestas, providing sales and service in Australia, New Zealand, China, Japan, India and the rest of Asia. References: Vestas Asia...

  15. Regional Climate Change Adaptation Platform for Asia | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change Adaptation Platform for Asia Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Regional Climate Change Adaptation Platform for Asia Name Regional Climate Change Adaptation Platform...

  16. Southeast Asia: `A robust market`

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pagano, S.S.

    1997-04-01

    Southeast Asia is emerging as a robust market for exploration and field development activities. While much of the worldwide attention is focused on lucrative deep water drilling and production in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Brazil, and West Africa, the burgeoning Pacific Rim region is very much in the spotlight. As the industry approaches the next century. Southeast Asia is a key growth area that will be the focus of extensive drilling and development. Regional licensing activity is buoyant as oil and gas companies continue to express interest in Southeast Asian opportunities. During 1996, about 75 new license awards were granted. This year, at least an equal number of licenses likely will be awarded to international major and independent oil companies. In the past five years, the number of production-sharing contracts and concessions awarded declined slightly as oil companies apparently opted to invest in other foreign markets. Brunei government officials plan to open offshore areas to licensing in 1997, including what may prove to be attractive deep water areas. Indonesia`s state oil company Pertamina will offer 26 offshore tracts under production-sharing and technical assistance contracts this year. Malaysia expects to attract international interest in some 30 blocks it will soon offer under production-sharing terms. Bangladesh expects to call for tenders for an unspecified number of concessions later this year. Nearby, bids were submitted earlier this year to the Australian government for rights to explore 38 offshore areas. Results are expected to be announced by mid-year.

  17. Environmental trends in Asia are accelerating the introduction of clean coal technologies and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-09-01

    This paper examines the changing energy mix for Asia to 2020, and impacts of increased coal consumption on Asia`s share of world SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Stricter SO{sub 2} emissions laws are summarized for eight Asian economies along with implications for fuel and technology choices. The paper compares the economics of different technologies for coal and natural gas in 1997 and in 2007. Trends toward introducing clean coal technologies and the use of natural gas will accelerate in response to tighter environmental standards by 2000. The most important coal conversion technology for Asia, particularly China, in the long term is likely to be integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), but only under the assumption of multiple products.

  18. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies.

  19. Danionics Asia Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: N.T., Hong Kong, Hong Kong Product: JV between Danionics AS, Denmark, and GP Batteries International Ltd., Hong Kong. References: Danionics Asia Ltd1 This article is a...

  20. Tropospheric ozone in east Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadnis, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of the observed data for the tropospheric ozone at mid latitudes in east Asia is done. There are three ways by which the tropospheric ozone is calculated, namely: (1) Ozonesonde measurements, (2) Fishman`s method of Residual Ozone and (3) TOMS measurements - an indirect method of calculating tropospheric ozone. In addition the surface ozone values at the network sites in Japan is also considered. The analysis of data is carried out for a period of twelve years from 1979 to 1991. In general it is observed that the tropospheric ozone is more in summer than winter, obviously because of the larger tropopause height in summer. On an average for the period of the analysis, the ozone values are at a high of about 60 DU (dobson units). While in winter the values go down to around 30 DU. Also a time series analysis shows an increasing trend in the values over the years. The ozonesonde values are correlated more to the TOMS tropospheric ozone values. For the stations analyzed in Japan, the TOMS tropospheric ozone values are generally greater than the ozonesonde values. The analysis of the average monthly surface ozone in Japan shows highs in spring and lows in summer. This can be attributed to movement of pollutant laden fronts towards Japan during spring. The highs for surface ozone are about 50 DU while the lows are around 20 DU.

  1. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality ...

  2. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...

  3. Forest phenology and a warmer climate - Growing season extension...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predicting forest responses to warming climates relies on assumptions about niche and ... northern species advanced, despite temperatures well beyond those of the realized niche. ...

  4. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  5. GHG Mitigation Potential, Costs and Benefits in Global Forests: ADynamic Partial Equilibrium Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2005-03-22

    This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.

  6. Aufwind Schmack Asia Holding GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asia Holding GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aufwind Schmack Asia Holding GmbH Place: Bavaria, Germany Sector: Carbon Product: Bavaria-based carbon consultancy and brokerage...

  7. Credit Leona Securities Asia CLSA UK | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Leona Securities Asia CLSA UK Jump to: navigation, search Name: Credit Leona Securities Asia - CLSA (UK) Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: EC3V 4QH Sector: Services Product: CLSA...

  8. PNOC EnerAsia JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PNOC EnerAsia JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: PNOCEnerAsia JV Place: Philippines Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Philippine-based JV and clean energy project developer in...

  9. EERE Asia-Pacific Partnerships and Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Asia-Pacific Partnerships and Projects EERE Asia-Pacific Partnerships and Projects The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) engages in the Asia-Pacific region through regional partnerships, as well as bilaterally with individual countries. In addition to the deployment-focused partnerships described below, EERE Technology Offices engage in bilateral research partnerships with countries in the Asia-Pacific region, including Australia, China, India, Japan, and Korea. China

  10. The East Asia geographic map series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terman, M.J.; Bell, E.P. )

    1990-06-01

    During the last 15 years, the Circum-Pacific Map Project Northwest Quadrant Panel (NWQP) has created a map inventory of geoscience data at a scale of 1:10,000,000. Now, for East Asia, a second set of thematic maps is being initiated cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP). These new maps will constitute the East Asia Map Project, and they will present geoscience parameters at a scale of 1:2,000,000 that can be used to evaluate the potential for undiscovered resources with the application of new deposit modeling methodologies. The following map series are being compiled or are under consideration: geography, geotectonics, geophysics, mineral resources, energy resources, and hazards. The U.S, Geological Survey (USGS) is compiling the East Asia Geographic Map Series. Shorelines, rivers, and international boundaries have been computer plotted by the National Mapping Division from the most detailed version of the World Data Bank II (WDB II). This publicly available bank was hand digitized from a 1:3,000,000-scale global map compiled from a variety of sources. The East Asia series is composed of eight overlapping sheets with Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection having a common point of origin at 120{degree}E and 15{degree}N; neatlines for each sheet are 39{degree} {times} 54.4{degree}. Titles reflect each map's coverage: Sheet 1, Japan/Korea/Northeast China; Sheet 2, Southeast China; Sheet 3, Southeast Asia; Sheet 4, Philippines; Sheet 5, Malaysia/ West Indonesia; Sheet 6, East Indonesia; Sheet 7, Papua New Guinea/ Solomon Islands; and Sheet 8, Western Pacific Islands. Contours have been scribed by the USGS's Office of International Geology.

  11. MECS 2006- Forest Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Forest Products (NAICS 321, 322) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - Forest-tundra_LANL-28 Jan-2015.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Circumpolar pattern Why Why focus focus on on the the subarctic subarctic forest? forest? Models predict: * Rapid advance of trees and shrubs i p t l b l i in response to global...

  13. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, Wen-Chung

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  14. The Role of Asia in Mitigating Climate Change: Results from the Asia Modeling Exercise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Krey, Volker; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Jiang, Kejun; Kainuma, M.; Kriegler, Elmar; Luderer, Gunnar; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, Asia accounted for 60% of global population, 39% of Gross World Product, 44% of global energy consumption and nearly half of the worlds energy system CO2 emissions. Thus, Asia is an important region to consider in any discussion of climate change or climate change mitigation. This paper explores the role of Asia in mitigating climate change, by comparing the results of 23 energy-economy and integrated assessment models. We focus our analysis on seven key areas: base year data, future energy use and emissions absent climate policy, the effect of urban and rural development on future energy use and emissions, the role of technology in emissions mitigation, regional emissions mitigation, and national climate policies

  15. Sustainable Nanomaterials from Forest Products: Umaine Perspective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainable Nanomaterials from Forest Products: Umaine Perspective Sustainable Nanomaterials from Forest Products: Umaine Perspective Sustainable Nanomaterials from Forest Products ...

  16. Global Forest Resource Assessment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010) covers all seven thematic elements of sustainable forest management: Extent of forest resources Forest biological diversity Forest health and...

  17. Energy, Transportation Ministers from Asia-Pacific Nations Pledge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooperation on Cleaner, More Energy-Efficient Transportation | Department of Energy Energy, Transportation Ministers from Asia-Pacific Nations Pledge Cooperation on Cleaner, More Energy-Efficient Transportation Energy, Transportation Ministers from Asia-Pacific Nations Pledge Cooperation on Cleaner, More Energy-Efficient Transportation September 13, 2011 - 7:44pm Addthis SAN FRANCISCO - Energy and transportation ministers from 21 economies in the Asia-Pacific region today agreed to continue

  18. Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre-IEA Cooperation | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Research Centre-IEA Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre, International Energy Agency Sector Energy Focus Area Conventional Energy,...

  19. Accounting for Co-benefits in Asia's Transportation Sector: Methods...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methods and Applications Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Accounting for Co-benefits in Asia's Transportation Sector: Methods and Applications...

  20. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Background Membership "ESCWA comprises 14 Arab countries in Western Asia: Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab...

  1. Asia Power Leibo Hydroelectricity Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Province, China Sector: Hydro Product: China-based developer and operator of small hydro plants. References: Asia Power (Leibo) Hydroelectricity Co Ltd1 This article is a...

  2. Asia Least-Cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Study | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Abatement Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Asia Least-Cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Study (ALGAS) AgencyCompany Organization Global Environment Facility,...

  3. Vietnam-Strengthening Public and Private Climate Finance in Asia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to support climate-resilient development in the developing world. Mitigation investment is substantial in parts of Asia, but lacking elsewhere; adaptation investment flows...

  4. Strengthening Public and Private Climate Finance in Asia - Indonesia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to support climate-resilient development in the developing world. Mitigation investment is substantial in parts of Asia, but lacking elsewhere; adaptation investment flows...

  5. Energy Outlook in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Asia, "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean,...

  6. Energy Security and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Statistics Division, UNDP, APERC, BP and IEA. For demand forecasts, it uses IEA methodology, albeit modified for Asia-Pacific conditions. The study uses the international...

  7. AAB Asia Alliance Base International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy Product: Manufacturers and sells small-scale wind turbines, solar PV and wind hybrid solar PV systems, primarily for domestic use. References: AAB (Asia Alliance Base)...

  8. South Asia Regional Initiative for Energy Cooperation and Development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and overall improvements in environmental quality and human health in the region. "The South Asia Regional Initiative for Energy Cooperation and...

  9. Asia-Pacific Regional Climate Change Adaptation Assessment |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pacific Regional Climate Change Adaptation Assessment Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Asia-Pacific Regional Climate Change Adaptation Assessment Agency...

  10. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  11. Response Response

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Attachment 7 Response Response Response Response Response Response Response Response Response Response Response Response Percent of Mentors that are People with Disabilities 9.00% Total number of Mentors (The count used to calculate the Mentor percentages) 252 Demographic Information Percent of Mentors Two or More Races Not reported Percent of White Mentors 63.00% Percent of Female Mentors 39.00% Percent of Male Mentors 61.00% Percent of Veteran Mentors 21.00% Percent of Asian American Mentors

  12. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality will cause forest and species distributions to change substantially. October 1, 2012 A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the

  13. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality will cause forest and species distributions to change substantially. October 1, 2012 A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the

  14. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality will cause forest and species distributions to change substantially. October 1, 2012 A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the

  15. Forest Products (2010 MECS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Forest Products Sector (NAICS 321, 322) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014

  16. Response

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning Report: Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning This report assesses the relationship between high levels of demand-side resources (including end-use efficiency, demand response, and distributed generation) and investment in new transmission or utilization of existing transmission. It summarizes the extensive modeling of transmission scenarios done through DOE-funded studies

  17. United States Forest Service - Forest Service Schedule of Proposed...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Actions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: United States Forest Service - Forest Service Schedule of Proposed Actions Abstract The...

  18. Low Carbon Green Growth Roadmap for Asia and the Pacific | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Green Growth Roadmap for Asia and the Pacific AgencyCompany Organization: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), Korea International Cooperation Agency...

  19. China-NAMA Programme for the Construction Sector in Asia | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NAMA Programme for the Construction Sector in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name China-NAMA Programme for the Construction Sector in Asia AgencyCompany Organization United...

  20. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so

  1. Response of C3 and C4 plants to middle-Holocene climatic variation near the prairie-forest ecotone of Minnesota, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, J; Brown, T A; Hu, F S; Stefanova, I; Nelson, D M

    2003-12-24

    Paleorecords of the middle Holocene (MH) from the North American midcontinent can offer insights into ecological responses to pervasive drought that may accompany future climatic warming. We analyzed MH sediments from West Olaf Lake (WOL) and Steel Lake (SL) in Minnesota to examine the effects of warm/dry climatic conditions on prairie-woodland ecosystems. Mineral composition and carbonate {delta}{sup 18}O were used to determine climatic variations, whereas pollen assemblages, charcoal {delta}{sup 13}C, and charcoal accumulation rates were used to reconstruct vegetation composition, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plant abundance, and fire. The ratio of aragonite:calcite at WOL and {delta}{sup 18}O at SL suggest that pronounced droughts occurred during the MH but that drought severity decreased with time. From charcoal {delta}{sup 13}C data we estimated that the MH abundance of C{sub 4} plants averaged 50% at WOL and 43% at SL. At WOL C{sub 4} abundance was negatively correlated with aragonite:calcite, suggesting that severe moisture deficits suppressed C{sub 4} plants in favor of weedy C{sub 3} plants (e.g., Ambrosia). As climate ameliorated C{sub 4} abundance increased (from {approx}33 to 66%) at the expense of weedy species, enhancing fuel availability and fire occurrence. In contrast, farther east at SL climate was cooler and wetter than at WOL, and C{sub 4} abundance showed no correlation with {delta}{sup 18}O-inferred aridity. Woody C{sub 3} plants (e.g., Quercus) were more abundant, biomass flammability lower, and fires less important at SL than at WOL. Our results suggest that C{sub 4} plants are adapted to warm/dry climatic conditions, but not to extreme droughts, and that the fire regime is controlled by biomass-climate interactions.

  2. The human causes of deforestation in southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kummer, D.M.; Turner, B.L. II )

    1994-05-01

    The recurrent pattern of deforestation in southeast Asia is that of large scale logging for exports followed by agricultural expansion. The apparent difference between global and regional or local causes of land use, such as in SE Asia, has become a central theme in the emerging global change agenda. This article illustrates the significance of regional variation for understanding one example of land cover change, tropical deforestation, focusing on the Philippines, and using mathematical modeling. The commonalities of this case with other in SE Asia are discussed. 43 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. International prospects for clean coal technologies (Focus on Asia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallaspy, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to propose Asia as a focus market for commercialization of CCT`s; describe the principles for successful penetration of CCT`s in the international market; and summarize prospects for CCT`s in Asia and other international markets. The paper outlines the following: Southern Company`s clean coal commitment; acquisition of Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA); the prospects for CCT`s internationally; requirements for CCT`s widespread commercialization; CEPA`s application of CCT`s; and gas turbine power plants as a perfect example of a commercialization driver.

  4. ARM - Black Forest News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black Forest News ARM Mobile Facility Completes Field Campaign in Germany January 15, 2008 Microwave Radiometers Put to the Test in Germany September 15, 2007 Zeppelin NT Flies for ...

  5. Forest products technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2006-07-18

    Report highlights DOE Industrial Technology Program co-funded R&D resulting in commercial energy-efficient technologies and emerging technologies helping the forest products industry save energy.

  6. Forest Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forest carbon cycle Forest Carbon Cycle Terrestrial carbon stocks above- and belowground (in humus and litter layers, woody debris, and mineral soil) are not only sensitive to physical environmental controls (e.g., temperature, precipitation, soil moisture) but also to land use history/management, disturbance, "quality" of carbon input (a reflection of plant carbon allocation and species controls), and the microbial community. The relative importance of these controls on soil carbon

  7. Cautious peace: Strategy and circumstance in Asia-Pacific security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacy, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    This paper examines the conditions of secunty. alliance, and forward presence in which U.S. military forces may operate in the Asia-Pacific region`s near and distant future. The analysis includes: (1) a mid-decade overview of the Asia-Pacific economic, energy, environmental, political, and social development environment; (2) assessment of the near- or longer- term conflict potential and prospects in the region; (3) examination of emerging security alignments, ambitions and balances in Asia-Pacific security; (4) evaluation of the region`s experience with and prospects for multilateral security arrangements; and (5) priority areas for U.S. defense policy and planning for the Asia-Pacific over the next several years.

  8. USDA Forest Products Laboratory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Products Laboratory Jump to: navigation, search Name: USDA Forest Products Laboratory Place: Madison, WI Website: www.fpl.fs.fed.us References: USDA Forest Products...

  9. Energy Secretary Announces $52 Million Request for Asia Pacific Partnership

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Clean Development and Climate | Department of Energy 52 Million Request for Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate Energy Secretary Announces $52 Million Request for Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate January 12, 2006 - 10:33am Addthis FY 2007 money to expand the use of clean energy technologies SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced that President Bush will request $52 million in the upcoming FY 2007 budget to

  10. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  11. United States Forest Service - Forest Service NEPA Procedures...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Guidance Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: United States Forest Service - Forest Service NEPA Procedures and Guidance Abstract This...

  12. BT16 Forest Resource Factsheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the con- ventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the

  13. Regional Community Forestry Training Center for Asia and the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is that strong capacities are crucial for successfully engaging local people in forest management. This concept forms the basis of RECOFTC's strategic and program plans for the...

  14. Central Asia Environmental Security Technical Workshop: Responding to the CENTCOM Vision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, R

    2002-08-01

    Environmental security is not formally classified as a ''vital mission'' in the USCENTCOM ranking of priorities in its area of responsibility. Rather, it is ranked as an ''other/important'' mission in Central Asia, thereby supporting the war making efforts in the region by improving stability of the regimes in the region. Environmental security is, however, the USCENTCOM primary mechanism for engagement in the region. USCENTCOM sees environmental issues as among the most destabilizing issues in the region; anything that can be done to ameliorate them, works to enhance stability. By environmental issues, USCENTCOM includes: water access, quality, and control, transboundary resource competition, migration of pollutants, land use, public health/HIV/Famine, and industrial pollution. Objectives of USCENTCOM work in Central Asia are: improving resource use, disaster response, international cooperation, and civil-military cooperation, particularly with the local military and between the local civilians and the U.S. military. Activities to date include assistance, education, and military-to-military contacts, bilateral and multilateral conferences on the issues, and interagency coordination in the region. The Comprehensive Threat Reduction program has been the backbone of its Central Asian funding.

  15. AIT-UNEP Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AIT-UNEP Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific Jump to: navigation, search Logo: AIT-UNEP Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific Name: AIT-UNEP Regional...

  16. Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makalinao, Irma R. . E-mail: docirma@mydestiny.net; Awang, Rahmat

    2005-09-01

    Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic poisoning. Recognizing that types of poisoning and specific needs may vary from country to country, toxicology education that addresses these unique regional issues has become more necessary. Toxicology education, both formal and informal, exists in various stages of development in Asia. Clearly, there are gaps that need to be addressed especially in areas where there are no poison centers or where strengthening is necessary. Collaboration between PCCs in developing countries can help augment available resources including human, analytical and technical expertise. The critical mass of trained toxicologists will fill in the demand for clinical and regulatory specialists and educators as well. This paper highlights the experiences and resources available to the Philippine and Malaysian poison centers and the strengths generated by networking and collaboration. The role of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT) as the Science NGO representative to the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) forum standing committee in promoting chemical safety at the regional level will be discussed. The 'Clearinghouse on the Sound Management of Chemicals', a platform for engaging multi-stakeholder and interdisciplinary partnerships, will be described as a possible model for capacity building to advance chemical safety through education and training not only in developing countries in Asia but globally as well.

  17. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-10-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region.

  18. Method of determining forest production from remotely sensed forest parameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, J.C.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1987-08-31

    A method of determining forest production entirely from remotely sensed data in which remotely sensed multispectral scanner (MSS) data on forest 5 composition is combined with remotely sensed radar imaging data on forest stand biophysical parameters to provide a measure of forest production. A high correlation has been found to exist between the remotely sensed radar imaging data and on site measurements of biophysical 10 parameters such as stand height, diameter at breast height, total tree height, mean area per tree, and timber stand volume.

  19. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact

  20. Tax Credit for Forest Derived Biomass

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Forest-derived biomass includes tree tops, limbs, needles, leaves, and other woody debris leftover from activities such as timber harvesting, forest thinning, fire suppression, or forest health m...

  1. Supporting Small Forest Enterprises: A Facilitator's Toolkit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Small Forest Enterprises: A Facilitator's Toolkit Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Supporting Small Forest Enterprises: A Facilitator's Toolkit Agency...

  2. Forest Carbon Index | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Carbon Index Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Forest Carbon Index AgencyCompany Organization: Resources for the Future Partner: United Nations...

  3. Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Forest County Potawatomi...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest County Potawatomi Tribe Jump to: navigation, search Name Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Forest County Potawatomi Tribe AgencyCompany Organization US Department of...

  4. Forest Carbon Portal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Trends Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.forestcarbonportal.com Forest Carbon Portal...

  5. Black Forest Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Forest Partners Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Forest Partners Place: San Francisco, California Zip: 94111 Product: San Francisco-based project developer focused on...

  6. Role of coal in the world and Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

    1994-10-01

    This paper examines the changing role of coal in the world and in Asia. Particular attention is given to the rapidly growing demand for coal in electricity generation, the importance of China as a producer and consumer of coal, and the growing environmental challenge to coal. Attention is given to the increasing importance of low sulfur coal and Clean Coal Technologies in reducing the environmental impacts of coal burning.

  7. (Collection of data on tropical forest inventories, Rome, Italy, March 20--25, 1989): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Gillespie, A.

    1989-04-06

    All forestry information in the library of FAO was organized into country ''boxes,'' and all boxes for countries in tropical Asia and tropical America were searched for data on forest inventories. Information on location and extent of inventories and resulting stand and stock tables were obtained for (1) converting to biomass by using methods that were already developed and (2) calculating expansion factors (commercial volume to total biomass). This work was conducted by the University of Illinois (Drs. Sandra Brown, Principal Investigator, and Andrew Gillespie, Research Associate) for the Department of Energy's Energy Systems Program managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The travelers were successful in obtaining copies of some data for most countries in tropical Asia and tropical America. Most of the inventories for Asia were for only parts of countries, whereas most in America were national in scale. With the information gathered, the travelers will be able to make biomass estimates, geographically referenced, for many forest types representing thousands of hectares in most countries in these two tropical regions.

  8. Deep forest rebounds from H...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... While many sweet gums and oaks were uprooted or broken, surviving trees of these species ... the forest soon will be more resourceful sweet gums and oaks. * Powerful hurricanes in ...

  9. Forest City Solar Military Community

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features the Forest City military community in Honolulu, Hawaii, that uses high-efficiency solar panels installed on the roof of its community center to power 10 homes.

  10. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  11. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  12. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obozov, A.J.; Loscutoff, W.V.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  13. GE Hydro Asia Co Ltd formerly Kvaerner Power Equipment Co Ltd...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kvaerner Power Equipment Co Ltd Kvaerner Hangfa Jump to: navigation, search Name: GE Hydro Asia Co Ltd (formerly Kvaerner Power Equipment Co., Ltd (Kvaerner Hangfa)) Place:...

  14. UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the United Nations five regional commissions, and the largest United Nations body serving the Asia-Pacific region with over 600 staff. ... ESCAP works to overcome some...

  15. Asia to see major pipelines in near future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, D.R.

    1987-11-30

    Recent discoveries of crude oil and natural gas in Asia and the Far East have spawned a number of major pipeline projects. Many of these are underway or likely to be started in the next few years. The author reviews what is being done in Taiwan, South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and China. He says all of the countries discussed are undergoing an overall improvement in the quality of life, demonstrated by changing life styles, and an overall advancement in economic activity as a result of the discovery of oil and the need for pipelines.

  16. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  17. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa.

  18. Colombia-US Forest Service Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Forest Service Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Colombia-US Forest Service Program AgencyCompany Organization United States Forest Service Sector Land Focus Area...

  19. Southern Asia future plans feature long-distance lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that although pipe line mileage working, planned and under study has dipped slightly from 47,346 km (29,420 mi) to 44,853 km (27,871 mi), Southern Asia continues to hold a strong position for future projects with some of the most interesting programs in the international market. Two dramatic, long-distance natural gas transmission, gathering and lateral networks continue to hold the future pipe line construction spotlight in Southern Asia. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) continues to study a 7,830 km (4,865 mi) gas transmission system. With an estimated cost of $10 billion, the system includes some 6,276 km (3,900 mi) of transmission lines, with 1,094 km (680 mi) offshore. Group members include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The second project, the Trans-Asian Pipeline System, involves 3,380 km (2,100 mi) of transmission lines from the Iran's Bandar Abbas gas field across Pakistan to a terminal at Calcutta, India.

  20. Decadal Prediction and Stochastic Simulation of Hydroclimate Over Monsoonal Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghil, Michael; Robertson, Andrew W.; Cook, Edward R.; D’Arrigo, Rosanne; Lall, Upmanu; Smyth, Padhraic J.

    2015-01-18

    We developed further our advanced methods of time series analysis and empirical model reduction (EMR) and applied them to climatic time series relevant to hydroclimate over Monsoonal Asia. The EMR methodology was both generalized further and laid on a rigorous mathematical basis via multilayered stochastic models (MSMs). We identified easily testable conditions that imply the existence of a global random attractor for MSMs and allow for non-polynomial predictors. This existence, in turn, guarantees the numerical stability of the MSMs so obtained. We showed that, in the presence of low-frequency variability (LFV), EMR prediction can be improved further by including information from selected times in the system’s past. This prediction method, dubbed Past-Noise Forecasting (PNF), was successfully applied to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Our time series analysis and forecasting methods, based on singular-spectrum analysis (SSA) and its enhancements, were applied to several multi-centennial proxy records provided by the Lamont team. These included the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for 1300–2005 from the Monsoonal Asia Drought Atlas (MADA), and a 300-member ensemble of pseudo-reconstructions of Indus River discharge for 1702–2005. The latter was shown to exhibit a robust 27-yr low-frequency mode, which helped multi-decadal retroactive forecasts with no look-ahead over this 300-year interval.

  1. Impacts of global warming on climate change over East Asia as simulated by 15 GCMs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zong-ci Zhao; Xiaodong Li

    1997-12-31

    About 15 GCMs (GFDL1, GISS, LLNL, MPI, OSU, UKMOL, UKMOH, GCMs90-92, GFDL2, NCAR, OPYC, LSG, HADL, GCMs95) obtained from the IPCC WG 1 1990, 1992 and 1995 reports have been chosen to examine the impacts of global warming, on the climate chance over East Asia. Although the models scenarios of the human activities were different for the different GCMs, the climate change over East Asia (70E-140E, 15N-60N) for tile doubled CO{sub 2} as simulated by about 15 GCMs have been analysed. The Simulations shown that the temperature might increased by about 0.5 - 1.5 C over East Asia, especially in winter and northwestern parts of East Asia. The precipitation might increase in northwestern and northeastern parts of East Asia and decrease in the central part of East Asia. The evaluations and assessments of the GCMs over East Asia have indicated that the GCMs have the abilities to simulate the climate change over East Asia, especially for the temperature and the winter season. There are some uncertainties for the simulations to compare with the observations, especially for tile precipitation and tile summer season.

  2. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  3. Forest County Potawatomi Community- 2014 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC), in collaboration with a selected contractor, will install and operate approximately 875 kilowatts (kW) of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at a minimum of eight tribal facilities in Milwaukee and Forest Counties.

  4. Forest City Solar Military Community Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features a Forest City military community that uses high-efficiency solar photovoltaic (PV) panels installed on the roof of its community center to power 10 homes. Forest City is in...

  5. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, N

    2002-07-05

    This morning I will describe a program that we refer to as STARS, for Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security, in Central Asia. It is a program that is based on cooperative, bilateral and multilateral, science and technology projects. It is our premise that such cooperative projects provide an opportunity for engagement while addressing real problems that could otherwise lead to destabilizing tensions in the region. The STARS program directly supports USCENTCOM's activities and objectives in environmental security. In fact, we think that STARS is a great vehicle for implementing and amplifying USCENTCOM's environmental security objectives and activities. We are very grateful and very pleased to have General DeLong's support in this matter. I am going to briefly describe the program. I want to stress again that it is a cooperative program. We would like to get input, suggestions, and feedback from the Central Asians here today so we can move forward together.

  6. US Forest Service | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Forest Service Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleUSForestService&oldid442004...

  7. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  8. Projections of water stress based on an ensemble of socioeconomic growth and climate change scenarios: A case study in Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fant, Charles; Schlosser, C. Adam; Gao, Xiang; Strzepek, Kenneth; Reilly, John; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2016-03-30

    The sustainability of future water resources is of paramount importance and is affected by many factors, including population, wealth and climate. Inherent in current methods to estimate these factors in the future is the uncertainty of their prediction. In this study, we integrate a large ensemble of scenarios—internally consistent across economics, emissions, climate, and population—to develop a risk portfolio of water stress over a large portion of Asia that includes China, India, and Mainland Southeast Asia in a future with unconstrained emissions. We isolate the effects of socioeconomic growth from the effects of climate change in order to identify themore » primary drivers of stress on water resources. We find that water needs related to socioeconomic changes, which are currently small, are likely to increase considerably in the future, often overshadowing the effect of climate change on levels of water stress. As a result, there is a high risk of severe water stress in densely populated watersheds by 2050, compared to recent history. There is strong evidence to suggest that, in the absence of autonomous adaptation or societal response, a much larger portion of the region’s population will live in water-stressed regions in the near future. Lastly, tools and studies such as these can effectively investigate large-scale system sensitivities and can be useful in engaging and informing decision makers.« less

  9. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/12: ENTNEA: A Concept for Enhancing Nuclear Transparency for Confidence Building in Northeast Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Man-Kwon; Shin, Sung-Tack

    1999-06-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties.

  10. Asia, North America lead way in growth of NGL, LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-01-12

    Recent analyses of world NGL trade indicate that important changes in LPG supply and demand are under way in Asia and North America. LPG markets in the 1990s reflect a rapidly shifting balance between East-of-Suez and West-of-Suez markets. This shift has increased concern about availability of future LPG supplies for Asia. The paper discusses world developments, East versus West of Suez, end uses and supplies in Asia, Canadian ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline, Mexican ethane, LPG, and natural gasoline, US ethane, propane, butanes, and iso-C{sub 4} and C{sub 5}.

  11. Decreases in Soil Moisture and Organic Matter Quality Suppress Microbial Decomposition Following a Boreal Forest Fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, Sandra R.; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-01

    Climate warming is projected to increase the frequency and severity of wildfires in boreal forests, and increased wildfire activity may alter the large soil carbon (C) stocks in boreal forests. Changes in boreal soil C stocks that result from increased wildfire activity will be regulated in part by the response of microbial decomposition to fire, but post-fire changes in microbial decomposition are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the response of microbial decomposition to a boreal forest fire in interior Alaska and test the mechanisms that control post-fire changes in microbial decomposition. We used a reciprocal transplant between a recently burned boreal forest stand and a late successional boreal forest stand to test how post-fire changes in abiotic conditions, soil organic matter (SOM) composition, and soil microbial communities influence microbial decomposition. We found that SOM decomposing at the burned site lost 30.9% less mass over two years than SOM decomposing at the unburned site, indicating that post-fire changes in abiotic conditions suppress microbial decomposition. Our results suggest that moisture availability is one abiotic factor that constrains microbial decomposition in recently burned forests. In addition, we observed that burned SOM decomposed more slowly than unburned SOM, but the exact nature of SOM changes in the recently burned stand are unclear. Finally, we found no evidence that post-fire changes in soil microbial community composition significantly affect decomposition. Taken together, our study has demonstrated that boreal forest fires can suppress microbial decomposition due to post-fire changes in abiotic factors and the composition of SOM. Models that predict the consequences of increased wildfires for C storage in boreal forests may increase their predictive power by incorporating the observed negative response of microbial decomposition to boreal wildfires.

  12. Towards SEA for the developing nations of Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briffett, Clive; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip; Mackee, Jamie

    2003-03-01

    In the developing and transitional countries of Asia, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely practiced as a planning tool that identifies the potential impacts associated with developments and determines their level of significance and the need for mitigating measures. Not withstanding its extensive use in many Asian countries, certain limitations are now being increasingly recognised with regard to achieving sustainable development within the planning process. It is also noted that the natural environment in Asia has continued to be severely degraded despite the adoption of EIA. This research project was undertaken at the National University of Singapore to review the status on the implementation of EIA procedures and to investigate the status and potential of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in Asia. The research project generally investigated the existing physical attributes of six countries including Hong Kong and Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam and discussed their prevailing environmental conditions. It more specifically reviewed policymaking and environmental planning, environmental legislation and the practice and procedures of environmental impact assessment. It also evaluated environmental assessment education and training activities. In some cases such as Hong Kong, an opportunity to analyse actual SEA practice was included. In other cases, the potential for possible take up of formal SEA was assessed. A comparative review assesses the degree to which EIA and SEA procedures have been utilized, considers how the use of SEA could overcome the deficiencies of the EIA project-based system and includes aspects of meeting sustainability criteria. Results show that the use and application of EIA is relatively strong across all countries with the possible exception of Singapore which relies more heavily on its planning and control system to address potential environmental impacts arising from development

  13. USAID-Energy Trends in Developing Asia: Priorities for a Low...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    demand on energy security and greenhouse gas emissions; and (3) the prospects for the scale-up of clean energy in developing Asia economies. The report also reviews and...

  14. Natural gas in Central Asia. Industries, markets and export options of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, A.

    1998-01-01

    This comprehensive study examines the recent development of the three major gas resource countries in Central Asia. The author assesses the strategies likely to be taken by the Central Asian gas industry, especially with regard to pipeline construction.

  15. CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Southeast Asia and the USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Vishaldeep; Fricke, Brian A; Bansal, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the annual energy consumption of these refrigeration systems in eighty eight cities from all climate zones in Southeast Asia. Also, the performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion (DX) system. Finally, the overall performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems in various climatic conditions in Southeast Asia is compared to that in the United States. For the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) performs better or equivalent to the R404A multiplex DX system in the northern regions of Southeast Asia (China and Japan). In the southern regions of Southeast Asia (India, Bangladesh, Burma), the R404A multiplex DX system and the Combined Secondary Cascade (CSC) system performs better than the TBS-BC.

  16. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  17. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  18. Aussie LNG players target NE Asia in expansion bid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-28

    Australia's natural gas players, keen to increase their presence in world liquefied natural gas trade, see Asia as their major LNG market in the decades to come. That's despite the fact that two spot cargoes of Australian Northwest Shelf LNG were shipped to Europe during the last 12 months and more are likely in 1994. Opportunities for growth are foreseen within the confines of the existing Northwest Shelf gas project for the rest of the 1990s. But the main focus for potential new grassroots project developers and expansions of the existing LNG plant in Australia is the expected shortfall in contract volumes of LNG to Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan during 2000--2010. Traditionally the price of crude oil has been used as a basis for calculating LNG prices. This means the economics of any new 21st century supply arrangements are delicately poised because of the current low world oil prices, a trend the market believes is likely to continue. In a bid to lessen the effect of high initial capital outlays and still meet projected demand using LNG from new projects and expansion of the existing plant, Australia's gas producers are working toward greater cooperation with prospective Asian buyers.

  19. The Asia Pacific Clean Energy Summit in Honolulu, Hawaii | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Asia Pacific Clean Energy Summit in Honolulu, Hawaii The Asia Pacific Clean Energy Summit in Honolulu, Hawaii October 6, 2010 - 6:18pm Addthis Assistant Secretary Patricia Hoffman test drives the new Nissan Leaf. Nissan will introduce the all-electric Leaf in Hawaii in January 2011. Hawaii is offering incentives for the purchase of the vehicle and for home charging station development. Assistant Secretary Patricia Hoffman test drives the new Nissan Leaf. Nissan will introduce the

  20. Model analysis of the anthropogenic aerosol effect on clouds over East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2012-01-16

    A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over East Asia to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and East China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeast China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.

  1. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  2. Tropical Forest Foundation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Virginia. About "The Tropical Forest Foundation (TFF) is an international, non-profit, educational institution committed to advancing environmental stewardship, economic...

  3. Forest City Enterprises | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enterprises Jump to: navigation, search Name: Forest City Enterprises Place: Denver, CO Zip: 80238 Website: www.forestcity.net Coordinates: 39.7564482, -104.8863279 Show Map...

  4. Tradewinds Forest Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tradewinds Forest Products Place: Hawaii Product: Firm developing a cogeneration plant for a sugar mill in Hawaii. References: Tradewinds...

  5. International Forest Policy Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: International Forest Policy Database AgencyCompany Organization: GTZ Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry...

  6. CRiSTAL Forests | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Use: Simple Website: www.iisd.orgcristaltooldownload.aspxcristal-forests Cost: Free Related Tools CRED: A New Model of Climate and Development Applied Dynamic Analysis of...

  7. Forest County Potawatomi Community- 2011 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC) will conduct an energy efficiency feasibility study at Potawatomi Carter Casino Hotel (PCCH) in Northern Wisconsin.

  8. National Forest Management Act of 1976 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The National Forest Management Act of 1976 is a federal law that governs the administration of national forests. This act requires the United States Forest Service to use a...

  9. Laboratory Dynamos Professor Cary Forest

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamos Professor Cary Forest University of Wisconsin - Madison Wednesday, June 5, 2013 - 4:15PM MBG AUDITORIUM Refreshments at 4:00PM The PrinceTon Plasma Physics laboraTory is a U.s. DeParTmenT of energy faciliTy One of the most fundamental tenets of astrophysical plasma physics is that magnetic fields can be stretched and amplified by flowing plasmas. In the right geometry, this can even lead to the self-generation of magnetic fields from flow through the dynamo process, a positive feedback

  10. Data Archive of the Harvard Forest, a Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Since 1907 research and education have been the mission of the Harvard Forest is one of the oldest and most intensively studied forests in North America. Located in Petersham, Massachusetts, its 3000 acres of land have been a center of research and education since 1907. The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program, established in 1988 and funded by the National Science Foundation, provides a framework for much of this activity. An understanding of forest responses to natural and human disturbance and environmental change over broad spatial and temporal scales pulls together research topics including biodiversity studies, the effects of invasive organisms, large experiments and permanent plot studies, historical and retrospective studies, soil nutrient dynamics, and plant population and community ecological interactions. Major research in forest-atmosphere exchange, hydrology, and regional studies places the work in regional and global context, aided by modeling tools. Conservation and management research and linkages to policy have been part of the Forest since its beginning, and the approaches used in New England can often apply to international studies. [Copied from http://harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/research.html] In addition to more than 150 datasets, the Visual Information Access system at Harvard University Library makes nearly 900 images pertaining to Harvard Forest research available online to the public.

  11. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Dale, V. H.; Rauscher, H. M.

    1993-04-06

    Models that address the impacts to forests of climate change are reviewed by four levels of biological organization: global, regional or landscape, community, and tree. The models are compared as to their ability to assess changes in greenhouse gas flux, land use, maps of forest type or species composition, forest resource productivity, forest health, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. No one model can address all of these impacts, but landscape transition models and regional vegetation and land-use models consider the largest number of impacts. Developing landscape vegetation dynamics models of functional groups is suggested as a means to integrate the theory of both landscape ecology and individual tree responses to climate change. Risk assessment methodologies can be adapted to deal with the impacts of climate change at various spatial and temporal scales. Four areas of research development are identified: (1) linking socioeconomic and ecologic models, (2) interfacing forest models at different scales, (3) obtaining data on susceptibility of trees and forest to changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and (4) relating information from different scales.

  12. Accuracy Assessment for Forest and Land Use Maps (English version...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.leafasia.orglibraryusaid-leaf-accuracy-assessment-forest-and-lan Cost: Free Language: English Accuracy Assessment for Forest and Land Use Maps (English version)...

  13. Evaluating the Contribution of Climate Forcing and Forest Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and PAR) records from Harvard Forest (Massachusetts) and Tapajos National Forest (Brazil) to establish empirical relationships among directly measured cloud type and cover...

  14. Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests...

  15. A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi...

  16. Norway-Indonesia-Forest Management Agreement | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Norway-Indonesia-Forest Management Agreement Jump to: navigation, search Name Norway-Indonesia-Forest Management Agreement AgencyCompany Organization Government of Norway,...

  17. Forest City High School Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    High School Energy Purchaser Forest City Community School District Location Forest City IA Coordinates 43.266011, -93.653378 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  18. Nature Climate Change features Los Alamos forest research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nature Climate Change Features Forest Research Nature Climate Change features Los Alamos forest research The print issue features as its cover story the tree-stress research of...

  19. Nature Climate Change features Los Alamos forest research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nature Climate Change Features Forest Research Nature Climate Change features Los Alamos forest research The print issue features as its cover story the tree-stress research of ...

  20. Forest City Military Communities, Hawaii | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Forest City Military Communities, Hawaii Place: Honolulu, HI Website: www.fcnavyhawaii.com References: Solar Technical Assistance Provided to Forest...

  1. Simulating the Impacts of Disturbances on Forest Carbon Cycling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    America: Processes, Data, Models, and Challenges Disturbances disrupt the forest structures and alter forest resources, substrate availability, or the physical environment....

  2. Forest Carbon and Biomass Energy - LCA Issues and Challenges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forest Carbon and Biomass Energy - LCA Issues and Challenges Forest Carbon and Biomass Energy - LCA Issues and Challenges Breakout Session 2D-Building Market Confidence and ...

  3. Community-Based Forest (Natural) Resource Management: A Path...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Based Forest (Natural) Resource Management: A Path to Sustainable Environment and Development Jump to: navigation, search Name Community-Based Forest (Natural) Resource Management:...

  4. USFS Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    USFS Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest Jump to: navigation, search Name: USFS Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest Abbreviation: Humbolt-Toiyabe NF Address: 1200 Franklin Way Place:...

  5. Tools for Forest Carbon Inventory, Management, and Reporting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of carbon in forests are crucial for forest carbon management, carbon credit trading, national reporting of greenhouse gas inventories to the United Nations Framework...

  6. Forest Monitoring for Action (FORMA) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    online maps of tropical forest clearing, providing useful information for local and national forest conservation programs, as well as international efforts to curb greenhouse...

  7. Brazil-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation Jump to: navigation, search Name Brazil-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization...

  8. Forests and Climate Change Toolbox | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forests and Climate Change Toolbox Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Forests and Climate Change Toolbox AgencyCompany Organization: Center for...

  9. Indonesia-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation AgencyCompany...

  10. Jordan-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation Jump to: navigation, search Name Jordan-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization...

  11. Mexico-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization...

  12. Russia-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation Jump to: navigation, search Name Russia-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization...

  13. Liberia-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation Jump to: navigation, search Name Liberia-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization...

  14. Classifying forest productivity at different scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Spatial scale is an important consideration when evaluating, using, or constructing forest productivity classifications. First, the factors which dominate spatial variability in forest productivity are scale dependent. For example, within a stand, spatial variability in productivity is dominated by microsite differences; within a national forest such as the Cherokee National Forest, spatial variability is dominated by topography and land-use history (e.g., years since harvest); within a large region such as the southeast, spatial variability is dominated by climatic patterns. Second, classifications developed at different spatial scales are often used for different purposes. For example, stand-level classifications are often keys or rules used in the field to judge the quality or potential of a site. National-forest classifications are often presented as maps or tables and may be used in forest land planning. Regional classifications may be maps or tables and may be used to quantify or predict resource availability. These scale-related differences in controlling factors and purposes will affect both the methods and the data used to develop classifications. In this paper, I will illustrate these points by describing and comparing three forest productivity classifications, each developed for a specific purpose at a specific scale. My objective is not to argue for or against any of these particular classifications but rather to heighten awareness of the critical role that spatial scale plays in the use and development of forest productivity classifications. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Light rain events change over North America, Europe and Asia for 1973-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gong, Daoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2010-10-28

    Long-term daily precipitation data from NCDC are used to investigate the changes of light rain events from 1973-2009 over North America, Europe and Asia. Results reveal that the trend of light rain events presents a remarkably diverse feature in different regions, while an overall decrease trend can be found over the continents in northern hemisphere. In North America, most of stations show a decrease trend for light rain on the annual basis but a decrease trend can also be found for moderate and heavy rain. The opposite trends are observed over the stations in Europe and the trend of light rain is not significant when averaged for all the stations. In Asia, especially East Asia, the light rain days show an overwhelming decrease trend with high spatial coherency. Meanwhile the moderate and heavy rain events (> 10 mm/day) have increased, suggesting a remarkable shift of precipitation from light to heavy rain in East Asia. While both the warming at a global scale and increased atmospheric aerosols due to air pollution at a regional scale (e.g. East Asia) may have affected the light rain changes, it remains a challenging task to quantitatively detect and separate the cause of light rain changes in different regions. ?

  16. Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, N D; Kirk, E J; DeLaTorre, G

    2003-12-23

    On February 6, 2003, a workshop, was cosponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Center for Global Security Research (CGSR) to explore both the linkage between U.S. policy in Central Asia and science and technology (S&T) and the role of S&T in achieving U.S. security and development objectives in the region. A major outcome of the workshop is the identification of potential S&T initiatives that support U.S. Central Asia policy goals. This document summarizes the proceedings, conclusions, and recommendations from this workshop; it is a companion document to the full proceedings entitled Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia. The proceedings are also published by AAAS and a copy can be obtained from either AAAS (www.aaas.org), Sheri Abbott (AAAS; 202 326-6655), or Richard Knapp (LLNL; 925 423-3328; knapp4@llnl.gov).

  17. The Clean Energy Dilemma in Asia: Is There a Way Out?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    2008-07-15

    An American geographer and specialist on energy and environmental policies in developing countries assesses the challenge to sustainable development posed by Asia's rapid economic growth and the concurrent need to reduce the environmental impacts of energy production and use. A particular focus is on China and India, as rapidly growing energy consumers and greenhouse gas emitters, and on Russia as a potentially important supplier of natural gas and liquid alternatives to coal use. The author suggests some elements of a strategy to resolve the dilemma of reducing global environmental impacts without penalizing Asia's economic development, although a significant energy transition over the next several decades appears quite difficult.

  18. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  19. Climate indices strongly influence old-growth forest carbon exchange

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wharton, Sonia; Falk, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    We present a decade and a half (1998–2013) of carbon dioxide fluxes from an old-growth stand in the American Pacific Northwest to identify ecosystem-level responses to Pacific teleconnection patterns, including the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study provides the longest, continuous record of old-growth eddy flux data to date from one of the longest running Fluxnet stations in the world. From 1998 to 2013, average annual net ecosystem exchange (FNEE) at Wind River AmeriFlux was –32 ± 84 g C m–2 yr–1 indicating that the late seral forest is on average a small net sink of atmospheric carbon. However, interannualmore » variability is high (>300 g C m–2 yr–1) and shows that the stand switches from net carbon sink to source in response to climate drivers associated with ENSO. The old-growth forest is a much stronger sink during La Niña years (mean FNEE = –90 g C m–2 yr–1) than during El Niño when the stand turns carbon neutral or into a small net carbon source (mean FNEE = +17 g C m–2 yr–1). Forest inventory data dating back to the 1930s show a similar correlation with the lower frequency Pacific North American (PNA) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) whereby higher aboveground net primary productivity (FANPP) is associated with cool phases of both the PNA and PDO. Furthermore, these measurements add evidence that carbon exchange in old-growth stands may be more sensitive to climate variability across shorter time scales than once thought.« less

  20. Forest County Potawatomi Community- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community ("FCPC" or "Tribe") owns a six-story parking facility that consists of two separate buildings located on fee land adjacent to its Milwaukee Bingo Casino operation.

  1. Carbon flows and economic evaluation of mitigation options in Tanzani's forest sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.R.; Okinting'Ati, Aku

    1995-02-02

    This paper presents estimates of the rate of forest use, deforestation and forest degradation, as well as the corresponding carbon flows, in the Tanzanian forest sector. It is estimated that the country lost 525,000 ha of forests in 1990, with associated committed emissions of 31.5 Mt. Carbon (MtC), and 7.05 MtC of committed carbon sequestration. The paper then describes the possible response options in the forest sector to mitigate GHG emissions, and evaluates the most stable subset of these-i.e. forest conservation, woodfuel plantations and agroforestry. The conservation options were found to cost an average of U.S. $1.27 per tonne of carbon (tC) conserved. Five options for fuelwood plantations and agroforestry, with two different ownership regimes were evaluated. Each one of the options gives a positive net present value at low rates of discount, ranging from U.S. $1.06 to 3.4/1C of avoided emissions at 0 percent discount rate. At 10 percent discount, the eucalyptus and maize option has a highest PNV of U.S. $1.73 tC, and the government plantation gives a negative PNV (loss) of U.S. $0.13 tC sequestered. The options with a private/community type of ownership scheme fared better than government run options. This conclusion also held true when ranking the options by the BRAC indicator, with the government fuelwood plantation ranked the lowest, and the private agroforestry option of eucalyptus and corn performing best. The mitigation options evaluated here show that the forest sector in Tanzania has one of the most cost-effective GHG mitigation opportunities in the world, and they are within the developmental aspirations of the country.

  2. Effects of Warming on Tree Species’ Recruitment in Deciduous Forests of the Eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Clark, James S.; Mohan, Jacqueline

    2015-03-25

    Climate change is restructuring forests of the United States, although the details of this restructuring are currently uncertain. Rising temperatures of 2 to 8oC and associated changes in soil moisture will shift the competitive balance between species that compete for light and water, and so change their abilities to produce seed, germinate, grow, and survive. We have used large-scale experiments to determine the effects of warming on the most sensitive stage of species distributions, i.e., recruitment, in mixed deciduous forests in southern New England and in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Two questions organized our research: (1) Might temperate tree species near the “warm” end of their range in the eastern United States decline in abundance during the coming century due to projected warming? and (2) Might trees near the “cool” end of their range in the eastern United States increase in abundance, or extend their range, during the coming 100 years because of projected warming? To explore these questions, we exposed seedlings to air and soil warming experiments in two eastern deciduous forest sites; one at the Harvard Forest (HF) in central Massachusetts, and the other at the Duke Forest (DF) in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We focused on tree species common to both Harvard and Duke Forests (such as red, black, and white oaks), those near northern range limits (black oak, flowing dogwood, tulip poplar), and those near southern range limits (yellow birch, sugar maple, Virginia pine). At each site, we planted seeds and seedlings in common gardens established in temperature-controlled, open-top chambers. The experimental design was replicated and fully factorial and involved three temperature regimes (ambient, +3oC and +5oC) and two light regimes (closed forest canopy (low light) and gap conditions (high light)). Measured variables included Winter/Spring responses to temperature and mid-Summer responses to low soil moisture. This research

  3. Forest Productivity and Diversity: Using Ecological Theory and Landscape Models to Guide Sustainable Forest Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huston, M.A.

    1998-11-01

    distribution of various plants and animals. These models can be, used to predict the patterns of forest type and structure that develop in response to variation in productivity and disturbance across complex landscapes, as well as species diversity and the distribution and population fluctuations of threatened species in specific regions.

  4. Asia/Pacific ethylene capacity to more than double by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-08

    The tremendous growth of Asia`s petrochemical industry is expected to continue into the next century. This rapid expansion has redirected many Asian nations` energy resources to the petrochemical industry, according to an advisory report by Ronald E. Hagen of the East-West Center, Honolulu. Petrochemical producers throughout the region are planning to build a number of new, world-scale ethylene plants, and expand and upgrade existing facilities. Feedstocks used to produce ethylene include: ethane, LPG, naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, and ethanol. Traditionally, usage of ethanol and kerosene in the region has been small, and gas oil usage is centered mainly in China. Information is listed and discussed for ethylene capacity through 2000 on a country-by-country basis, along with the feedstocks used by each plant.

  5. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  6. Energy in Europe and Central Asia: A sector strategy for the World Bank Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    Many countries in the Europe and Central Asia region have had an excess production capacity, lower quality supply, decreasing demand, and inefficient consumption in the energy sector since the late 1980s. This report outlines the four main objectives that form the World Bank Group`s strategy for reform: assisting governments to protect the public interest, supporting economic transition, facilitating private investments, and promoting regional initiatives to increase energy trade.

  7. Trends in emissions of acidifying species in Asia, 1985-1997.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D. G.; Tsai, N. Y.; Akimoto, H.; Oka, K.

    2000-05-31

    Acid deposition is a serious problem throughout much of Asia. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) have been increasing steadily, as nations strive to increase their levels of economic development. Coal and fuel oil have been the main choices for powering industrial development; and, until recently, only a few countries (notably Japan and Taiwan) had taken significant steps to avert the atmospheric emissions that accompany fuel combustion. This paper discusses trends in emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} that have occurred in Asian countries in the period 1985--1997, using results from the RAINS-ASIA computer model and energy-use trends from the IEA Energy Statistics and Balances database. Emissions of SO{sub 2} in Asia grew from 26.6 Tg in 1985 to 33.7 Tg in 1990 and to 39.2 Tg in 1997. Though SO{sub 2} emissions used to grow as fast as fossil-fuel use, recent limitations on the sulfur content of coal and oil have slowed the growth. The annual-average emissions growth between 1990 and 1997 was only 1.1%, considerably less than the economic growth rate. Emissions of NO{sub x}, on the other hand, continue to grow rapidly, from 14.1 Tg in 1985 to 18.7 Tg in 1990 and 28.5 Tg in 1997, with no signs of abating. Thus, though SO{sub 2} remains the major contributor to acidifying emissions in Asia, the role of NO{sub x}, will become more and more important in the future.

  8. Forests and climate change focus of Frontiers in Science lectures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontiers in Science lectures Forests and climate change focus of Frontiers in Science lectures LANL researcher Nate McDowell will discuss climate change and its effects on forest ...

  9. Town of Forest City, North Carolina (Utility Company) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest City, North Carolina (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Town of Forest City Place: North Carolina Phone Number: 828-245-0149 Website: www.townofforestcity.c...

  10. Benefits of Tropical Forest Management Under the New Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Tropical Forest Management Under the New Climate Change Agreement-A Case Study in Cambodia Jump to: navigation, search Name Benefits of Tropical Forest Management Under the New...

  11. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  12. Energy, economics, and security in central Asia: Russia and its rivals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blank, S.J.

    1995-04-10

    Five Central Asian states emerged out of the Soviet Union`s Central Asian republics in 1991. Although U.S. policy makers presumed that Iran would inevitably sweep them into its sphere of influence, this has not happened. Nor is it likely to occur. Instead there has developed a multistate competition for influence and even control of these new states. This competition involves Russia as the leading force in the area and Moscow`s main rivals are Turkey, Iran, Pakistan (and India), China, and the United States. This rivalry is particularly strong in the struggle among these states to gain positions of leverage over the energy economy, i.e. production, pipelines, and refining in Central Asia because this region is blessed with enormous energy deposits. These deposits are crucial to Central Asia`s integration with the world economy and economic progress. Indeed, energy exports may be the only way these governments can hope for any economic stability and progress in the future.

  13. State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2009 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analysis Resource Type: Publications Website: moderncms.ecosystemmarketplace.comrepositorymoderncmsdocumentsSFCM State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2009 Screenshot...

  14. DOE Supports Renewable Energy Deployment Projects for Forest County

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potawatomi Community | Department of Energy Supports Renewable Energy Deployment Projects for Forest County Potawatomi Community DOE Supports Renewable Energy Deployment Projects for Forest County Potawatomi Community July 21, 2014 - 12:03pm Addthis Anaerobic digesters reduce pollution and generate electricity in Milwaukee. | Image from Forest County Potawatomi Community Anaerobic digesters reduce pollution and generate electricity in Milwaukee. | Image from Forest County Potawatomi

  15. Coal investment and long-term supply and demand outlook for coal in the Asia-Pacific Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-12-31

    The theme of this symposium to look ahead almost a quarter century to 2020 gives one the freedom to speculate more than usual in projections for coal. It is important to attempt to take a long term look into the future of coal and energy, so that one can begin to prepare for major changes on the horizon. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the crystal ball for making long term projections is accurate for 2020. Hopefully it can suggest plausible changes that have long term strategic importance to Asia`s coal sector. This paper presents the medium scenario of long term projects of coal production, consumption, imports and exports in Asia. The second part of the paper examines the two major changes in Asia that could be most important to the long term role of coal. These include: (1) the impact of strict environmental legislation on energy and technology choices in Asia, and (2) the increased role of the private sector in all aspects of coal in Asia.

  16. Directory of Tennessee's forest industries 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A directory of primary and secondary forest industries is presented. Firm names and addresses are listed by county in alphabetical order. The following information is listed for each industry: type of plant, production and employee size class, products manufactured, and equipment. For the primary industries, the major species of trees used are listed. (MHR)

  17. Final Technical Report Interannual Variations in the Rate of Carbon Storage by a Mid-Latitude Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wofsy, Steven; Munger, J W

    2012-07-31

    The time series of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon by an entire forest ecosystem on time scales from hourly to decadal was measured by eddy-covariance supplemented with plot-level measurements of biomass and tree demography. The results demonstrate the response of forest carbon fluxes and long-term budgets to climatic factors and to successional change. The data from this project have been extensively used worldwide by the carbon cycle science community in support of model development and validation of remote sensing observations.

  18. Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, R B

    2003-11-04

    The current war with Iraq, international interventions in Afghanistan, and the continuous and seemingly insolvable problems in the Middle East emphasize the importance of supporting stable, healthy countries throughout the Middle East and South and Central Asia. The political alliances and foreign aid promulgated by the Cold War have been seriously strained, creating a more uncertain and unstable international environment. We must stay engaged with this part of the world. New partnerships must be forged. Central Asia represents a mix of political systems - from totalitarian rule to nascent democracy; of economic resources from natural to human; and of cultures from ancient to modern - making it of strategic importance to U. S. national and economic security. The U.S. must remain committed and proactively engaged in the region to promote open and democratic societies attractive to outside investment and to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and extremist groups. The U.S is admired for its science and technology and its flexibility in innovation and applying S&T to solve problems. The inherent value that S&T can contribute to advancing U.S. policy goals is the underlying assumption of this report. Science and technology and their applications have much to contribute to social, economic, and environmental sustainability and, therefore, provide a strong foundation for helping the U.S. to implement its policies abroad. The application of concepts such as competition and peer review, open sharing of scientific information through the use of the internet and other information technologies, and the development of international scientific collaborations and networks, can make major contributions to healthy and stable societies in Central Asia. U.S. scientific and technical know-how has much to contribute to U.S. policy goals and easing regional tensions. Science and technology truly can build bridges between nations and cultures while serving the

  19. Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Boris B.; Sverdlik, Leonid G.; Imashev, Sanjar A.; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Artamonova, Maria S.; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass and chemical composition in both size fractions. Dust transported into the region is common, being detected 33% of the time. The maximum frequency occurred in the spring of 2009. Dust transported to Central Asia comes from regional sources, for example, Taklimakan desert and Aral Sea basin, and from long-range transport, for example, deserts of Arabia, Northeast Africa, Iran, and Pakistan. Regionalmore » sources are characterized by pollution transport with maximum values of coarse particles within the planetary boundary layer, aerosol optical thickness, extinction coefficient, integral coefficient of aerosol backscatter, and minimum values of the Ångström exponent. Pollution associated with air masses transported over long distances has different characteristics during autumn, winter, and spring. During winter, dust emissions were low resulting in high values of the Ångström exponent (about 0.51) and the fine particle mass fraction (64%). Dust storms were more frequent during spring with an increase in coarse dust particles in comparison to winter. The aerosol vertical profiles can be used to lower uncertainty in estimating radiative forcing.« less

  20. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

  1. Quantitative analysis of forest island pattern in selected Ohio landscapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, G.W.; Burgess, R.L.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe the various aspects of regional distribution patterns of forest islands and relate those patterns to other landscape features. Several maps showing the forest cover of various counties in Ohio were selected as representative examples of forest patterns to be quantified. Ten thousand hectare study areas (landscapes) were delineated on each map. A total of 15 landscapes representing a wide variety of forest island patterns was chosen. Data were converted into a series of continuous variables which contained information pertinent to the sizes, shape, numbers, and spacing of woodlots within a landscape. The continuous variables were used in a factor analysis to describe the variation among landscapes in terms of forest island pattern. The results showed that forest island patterns are related to topography and other environmental features correlated with topography.

  2. AmeriFlux US-MMS Morgan Monroe State Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Rich; Novick, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-MMS Morgan Monroe State Forest. Site Description - Owned by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR), the Morgan Monroe State Forest, the site's namesake, is operated thanks to the long-term agreement between Indiana University and IDNR. The first settlers cleared the surrounding ridges for farming, but were largely unsuccessful. The state of Indiana purchased the land in 1929, creating the Morgan Monroe State Forest. Many of the trees in the tower footprint are 60-80 years old, surviving selective logging that ended over the past 10 years. Today, the forest is a secondary successional broadleaf forest within the maple-beech to oak hickory transition zone of the eastern deciduous forest.

  3. Rising global temperatures accelerate drought-induced forest mortality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drought-induced forest mortality Rising global temperatures accelerate drought-induced forest mortality Many southwestern forests in the United States will disappear or be heavily altered by 2050, according to a series of joint LANL-UNM studies. April 23, 2015 Piñon trees show increased susceptibility to drought when also subjected to rising temperatures. Piñon trees show increased susceptibility to drought when also subjected to rising temperatures. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications

  4. Drought-induced tree mortality accelerating in forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drought-induced tree mortality accelerating in forests Drought-induced tree mortality accelerating in forests Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have found that drought and heat-induced tree mortality is accelerating in many forest biomes as a consequence of a warming climate in their paper published in the journal Nature Climate Change. May 19, 2015 Nathan McDowell examines an old, large tree, which could be impacted by future droughts. Nathan McDowell examines an old, large tree,

  5. Forest Carbon and Biomass Energy - LCA Issues and Challenges | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Forest Carbon and Biomass Energy - LCA Issues and Challenges Forest Carbon and Biomass Energy - LCA Issues and Challenges Breakout Session 2D-Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels Forest Carbon and Biomass Energy - LCA Issues and Challenges Reid Miner, Vice President, NCASI miner_biomass_2014.pdf (302.74 KB) More Documents & Publications GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks 2016 Billion-Ton

  6. Forest County Potawatomi Community: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Community: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Projects Mercedes Vega Forest County Potawatomi Community Milwaukee, Wisconsin 2 Background on Forest County Potawatomi Community Ø FCPC has trust land in northern Wisconsin and the City of Milwaukee. Ø Facilities include tribal government offices, a health and wellness center, a cultural museum, a former college campus, a hotel, two casinos and various other smaller support facilities and enterprises. 3 Forest County Potawatomi Community

  7. Status of forest resources and the environment in Siberia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilin, I.; Sokoly, V.

    1997-12-31

    The Siberian forests are considered to be one of the most important biomes on earth. The forested area of Siberia constitutes about 20 percent of the total world forested area and nearly 50 percent of the total world coniferous forested area. About 605 million hectares are covered with stands, these areas make up about 48 percent of the total area. Nearly 450 million hectares are covered with coniferous species. The total growing stock of stemwood is 61.4 billion m{sup 3} as compared to North America - 50.3 billion m{sup 3} of which 51 billion m{sup 3} is made up of coniferous species. About 38.5 billion m{sup 3} (nearly 63 percent) of the growing stock are classified as mature and overmature forests. Nearly 65 percent of the Siberian forests are growing in areas with permafrost and more than 60 percent of the forested areas are classified as mountain forests. The carbon stock, accumulated in forest ecosystems of Siberia, exceeds 94 billion tons in total, with annual carbon sequestration at more than 170 million tons. This sink could be significantly increased by implementation of rational forestry in Siberia. Average stock per 1 ha of mature and overmature stands is 148 m{sup 3}. Average annual growth per 1 ha of forest-forming species is 1.31 m{sup 3}, among them conifers - 1.17 m{sup 3}. Siberia has roughly 40% of its original forests intact (the United States has less than 5% of its ancient forests).

  8. Project Reports for Forest County Potawatomi Community - 2014 Project |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 4 Project Project Reports for Forest County Potawatomi Community - 2014 Project Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC), in collaboration with a selected contractor, will install and operate approximately 875 kilowatts (kW) of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at a minimum of eight tribal facilities in Milwaukee and Forest Counties. Learn more about this project or find details in the below status reports. March 2014 status report (1.31 MB) May 2015 status report (2.65

  9. Forest County Potawatomi Recognized for Renewable Energy Achievements...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    solar photovoltaic array powers the Tribes administration building in Milwaukee. Photo from Forest County Potawatomi Community. A 30-kilowatt rooftop solar photovoltaic array ...

  10. Wake Forest, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest, North Carolina: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.9798734, -78.5097228 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  11. Developing Effective Forest Policy-A Guide | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developing Effective Forest Policy-A Guide AgencyCompany Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics:...

  12. Forest Grove Light & Power- Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Forest Grove Light & Power offers a variety of rebates through Conservation Services Department. Rebates vary based on technology, and are available to residential, commercial, and/or...

  13. Project Reports for Forest County Potawatomi Community - 2011...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC) will conduct an energy efficiency feasibility study at Potawatomi Carter Casino Hotel (PCCH) in Northern Wisconsin. Learn more about ...

  14. Forest Service Handbook 2709.15 - Hydroelectric Handbook | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Forest Service Handbook 2709.15 - Hydroelectric HandbookPermitting...

  15. Project Reports for Forest County Potawatomi Community - 2014...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC), in collaboration with a selected contractor, will install and operate approximately 875 kilowatts (kW) of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems ...

  16. Rising global temperatures accelerate drought-induced forest...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    professor, explain that their research, and more from scientists around the world, is forecasting that by 2100 most conifer forests should be heavily disturbed, if not gone, as...

  17. India-Legislation on Environment, Forests and Wildlife | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on Environment, Forests and Wildlife1 Overview "Category Name Water Pollution Air Pollution Environment Protection Coastal Regulation Zone Delegation of Powers...

  18. Forest County Potawatomi Recognized for Renewable Energy Achievements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fulfill its mission, Forest County Potowatomi Community Chief Financial Officer Kevin Hanson presented at the Tribal Leader Forum on "Financing and Investing in Tribal Renewable...

  19. WRI-The Governance of Forests Toolkit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Publications Website: pdf.wri.orgworkingpapersgfitenureindicatorssep09.pdf Cost: Free WRI-The Governance of Forests Toolkit Screenshot References: WRI-The Governance of...

  20. River Forest, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest, Illinois: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.8978091, -87.8139483 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservi...

  1. Forest County, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest County, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.5341012, -79.2451149 Show Map Loading map......

  2. Forest View, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest View, Illinois: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.8086431, -87.7933895 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  3. Forest Hills, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Hills, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.4197911, -79.8500487 Show Map Loading map......

  4. Forest Grove, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Grove, Oregon: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 45.5198364, -123.1106631 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  5. Forest City, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest City, Florida: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 28.6612, -81.445063 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservi...

  6. Lake Forest, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lake Forest, California: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 33.6469661, -117.689218 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappi...

  7. Black Forest, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Forest, Colorado: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.0130484, -104.7008083 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappi...

  8. Lake Forest, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lake Forest, Florida: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 30.3980165, -81.6737085 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  9. Forest Hills, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Hills, Michigan: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.9594739, -85.4897456 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  10. Oak Forest, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oak Forest, Illinois: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.6028116, -87.7439384 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  11. Forest County Potawatomi Community- 2010 Energy Efficiency Historic Building Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC) will implement energy efficiency improvements in revitalizing its historic Milwaukee inner-city trust property.

  12. Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    or for non wood forest products may also have a considerable role in the global carbon balance, but these are beyond the scope of this publication." References "Forestry...

  13. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pine Energy Plantations High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations This abstract outlinse a project that is designing and demonstrating a...

  14. Status and Distribution of Mangrove Forests of the World Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Status and Distribution of Mangrove Forests of the World Using Earth Observation Satellite ... by using disparate geospatial data sources and national statistics, need to be improved. ...

  15. Forest phenology and a warmer climate - Growing season extension in relation to climatic provenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Carla A; Edwards, Nelson T; Walker, Ashley V; O'Hara, Keiran H; Campion, Christina M; Hanson, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Predicting forest responses to warming climates relies on assumptions about niche and temperature sensitivity that remain largely untested. Observational studies have related current and historical temperatures to phenological shifts, but experimental evidence is sparse, particularly for autumn responses. A five-year field experiment exposed four deciduous forest species from contrasting climates (Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus rubra, Populus grandidentata, and Betula alleghaniensis) to air temperatures 2 and 4 C above ambient controls. Impacts of year-round warming on bud burst (BB), senescence and abscission were evaluated in relation to thermal provenance. Leaves emerged earlier in all species, by an average of 6-9 days at +2 and +4 C. Magnitude of advance varied with species and year, but was larger for the first 2 C increment than the second. The effect of warming increased with early BB, favoring Liquidambar, from the warmest climate, but even BB in northern species advanced, despite temperatures well beyond those of the realized niche. Treatment differences in BB were poorly explained by temperature sums, which increased with treatment. In autumn, chlorophyll was retained an average of 4 and 7 days longer in +2 and +4 C treatments, and abscission delayed by 8 and 13 days. Species differences in autumn responses were marginally significant. Growing seasons in the warmer atmospheres were 6 - 28 days longer, with the least impact in Quercus. Results are compared with a 16-year record of canopy onset and offset in a nearby upland deciduous forest, where BB showed similar responsiveness to spring temperatures (2 - 4 days C-1). Offset dates in the stand tracked August-September temperatures, except when late summer drought caused premature senescence. The common garden-like experimental approach provides evidence that warming alone extends the growing season, at both ends, even if stand-level impacts are complicated by other environmental factors.

  16. OAK FOREST CARBON AND WATER SIMULATIONS: MODEL INTERCOMPARISONS AND EVALUATIONS AGAINST INDEPENDENT DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Paul J; Amthor, Jeffrey S; Wullschleger, Stan D; Wilson, K.; Grant, Robert F.; Hartley, Anne; Hui, D.; HuntJr., E. Raymond; Johnson, Dale W.; Kimball, John S.; King, Anthony Wayne; Luo, Yiqi; McNulty, Steven G.; Sun, G.; Thornton, Peter; Wang, S.; Williams, M.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Cushman, Robert Michael

    2004-01-01

    Models represent our primary method for integration of small-scale, processlevel phenomena into a comprehensive description of forest-stand or ecosystem function. They also represent a key method for testing hypotheses about the response of forest ecosystems to multiple changing environmental conditions. This paper describes the evaluation of 13 stand-level models varying in their spatial, mechanistic, and temporal complexity for their ability to capture intra- and interannual components of the water and carbon cycle for an upland, oak-dominated forest of eastern Tennessee. Comparisons between model simulations and observations were conducted for hourly, daily, and annual time steps. Data for the comparisons were obtained from a wide range of methods including: eddy covariance, sapflow, chamber-based soil respiration, biometric estimates of stand-level net primary production and growth, and soil water content by time or frequency domain reflectometry. Response surfaces of carbon and water flux as a function of environmental drivers, and a variety of goodness-of-fit statistics (bias, absolute bias, and model efficiency) were used to judge model performance. A single model did not consistently perform the best at all time steps or for all variables considered. Intermodel comparisons showed good agreement for water cycle fluxes, but considerable disagreement among models for predicted carbon fluxes. The mean of all model outputs, however, was nearly always the best fit to the observations. Not surprisingly, models missing key forest components or processes, such as roots or modeled soil water content, were unable to provide accurate predictions of ecosystem responses to short-term drought phenomenon. Nevertheless, an inability to correctly capture short-term physiological processes under drought was not necessarily an indicator of poor annual water and carbon budget simulations. This is possible because droughts in the subject ecosystem were of short duration and

  17. Plasma Dynamo Experiments Cary Forest PPPL Colloquium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamo Experiments Cary Forest PPPL Colloquium 5 th June 2013 Wednesday, June 5, 13 So many dynamos (sŌ men´ē dī´nuh-mŌz´), 1. a phrase which reads the same backwards and forwards, i.e. a palindrome. 2. a whole slew of electric generators. Wednesday, June 5, 13 So Many Dynamos  Mechanical  Astrophysical  Numerical  Liquid metal  Plasma Wednesday, June 5, 13 What is a self-exciting dynamo? feedback ~ J = ⇣ ~ E + ~ V ⇥ ~ B ⌘ Induction Equation Faraday's Law of Induction

  18. Numerical simulation of tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peryshkin, A. Yu.; Makarov, P. V. Eremin, M. O.

    2014-11-14

    An evolutionary approach proposed in [1, 2] combining the achievements of traditional macroscopic theory of solid mechanics and basic ideas of nonlinear dynamics is applied in a numerical simulation of present-day tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia. Relative values of strength parameters of rigid blocks with respect to the soft zones were characterized by the ? parameter that was varied in the numerical experiments within ? = 1.11.8 for different groups of the zonal-block divisibility. In general, the numerical simulations of tectonic block motion and accompanying seismic process in the model geomedium indicate that the numerical solutions of the solid mechanics equations characterize its deformation as a typical behavior of a nonlinear dynamic system under conditions of self-organized criticality.

  19. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  20. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiewi; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong

    2011-11-14

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m-2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m-2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan

  1. Getting Forest Carbon Right in Climate Models | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Getting Forest Carbon Right in Climate Models Biological and Environmental Research (BER) ... Getting Forest Carbon Right in Climate Models New method predicts how climates will move ...

  2. REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST: ... Title: REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST: PROPOSING A NEW ...

  3. Forest Products Industry of the Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc

    2002-05-01

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc (LATA) conducted an evaluation of the potential impact and value of a portion of the current portfolio of r&d projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technology and the Forest Products Industry of the Future. The mission of the evaluation was to (a) assess the potential impact of the projects to meet the critical goals of the industry as identified in the vision and roadmapping documents. (b) Evaluate the relationship between the current portfolio of projects and the Agenda 202 Implementation Plan. In addition, evaluate the relationship between the portfolio and the newly revised draft technology strategy being created by the industry. (c) Identify areas where current efforts are making significant progress towards meeting industry goals and identify areas where additional work my be required to meet these goals. (d) Make recommendations to the DOE and the Forest Products Industry on possible improvements in the portfolio and in the current methodology that DOE uses to assess potential impacts on its R&D activities.

  4. Southwestern Pine Forests Likely to Disappear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Nathan

    2015-12-21

    A new study, led by Los Alamos National Laboratory's Nathan McDowell, suggests that widespread loss of a major forest type, the pine-juniper woodlands of the Southwestern U.S., could be wiped out by the end of this century due to climate change, and that conifers throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere may be on a similar trajectory. New results, reported in the journal Nature Climate Change, suggest that global models may underestimate predictions of forest death. McDowell and his large international team strove to provide the missing pieces of understanding tree death at three levels: plant, regional and global. The team rigorously developed and evaluated multiple process-based and empirical models against experimental results, and then compared these models to results from global vegetation models to examine independent simulations. They discovered that the global models simulated mortality throughout the Northern Hemisphere that was of similar magnitude, but much broader spatial scale, as the evaluated ecosystem models predicted for in the Southwest.

  5. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other

  6. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas

  7. Response Events

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Emergency preparedness and response activities help to facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply, thereby reducing the impact of these events. As such, the ISER approach for emergency response is to leverage a coordinated integration of several DOE capabilities and resources to emergency response situations.

  8. Effects of Projected Transient Changes in Climate on Tennessee Forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Tharp, M Lynn; Lannom, Karen O.; Hodges, Donald G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines transient effects of projected climate change on the structure and species composition of forests in Tennessee. The climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2080 were provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) that simulate the range of potential climate conditions for the state. The precipitation and temperature projections from the three GCMs for 2030 and 2080 were related to changes in the ecoregions by using the monthly record of temperature and precipitation from 1980 to 1997 for each 1 km cell across the state as aggregated into the five ecological provinces. Temperatures are projected to increase in all ecological provinces in all months for all three GCMs for both 2030 and 2080. Precipitation patterns are more complex with one model projecting wetter summers and two models projecting drier summers. The forest ecosystem model LINKAGES was used to simulate conditions in forest stands for the five ecological provinces of Tennessee from 1989 to 2300. These model runs suggest there will be a change in tree diversity and species composition in all ecological provinces with the greatest changes occurring in the Southern Mixed Forest province. Most projections show a decline in total tree biomass followed by recovery as species replacement occurs in stands. The changes in forest biomass and composition, as simulated in this study, are likely to have implications on forest economy, tourism, understory conditions, wildlife habitat, mast provisioning, and other services provided by forest systems.

  9. The increased concentration of SO{sub 2} and threat to the largest mangrove forest of the world - the Sundarbans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, J.U.; Ullah, S.S.; Carmichael, G.R.; Haque, R.

    1996-12-31

    The atmospheric concentration of SO{sub 2} was monitored in two different sites, Khulna and Savar in Bangladesh as a part of Rains Asia Atmos Module, Phase I Project. The results show that the winter concentration of SO{sub 2} in Khulna is 3 to 4 times higher than the summer concentrations, which is also higher compared to measurements at Savar which is adjacent to Dhaka city. Based on these facts and seasonal wind pattern, trans-boundary air pollution has been suggested. Khulna is in the southwestern part of Bangladesh and this area harbors the largest mangrove forest of the world, the Sundarbans. Sundari trees are the main trees of the Sundarban ecosystem. During the last few years, many of the Sundari trees, which are quite susceptible to pH stress, are dying from the top. The unusual winter increase of atmospheric sulphurdioxide has been assigned to be one of the reasons for the top dying. Other factors might be the increase of salinity and diminished flow of water.

  10. The vanishing forest. The human consequences of deforestation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report highlights the rapid destruction of the world's remaining tropical rainforests. It stresses the devastating consequences, both in the short-term, as developers take over the forests from their indigenous inhabitants, and in the long-term, as deforestation threatens to destroy the vital natural resource, to bring out irreversible climatic changes, and to cause the loss of gene pools needed for future agricultural and medical progress. What we urgently need, this report argues, are policy changes that make forest conversion a vehicle of sustainable development so that human civilization can continue in the tropics, and so that forest areas of particular ecological value are preserved.

  11. A survey of nuclear-related agreements and possibilities for nuclear cooperation in South Asia: Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAJEN,GAURAV

    2000-04-01

    Several existing nuclear-related agreements already require India and Pakistan, as members, to share information. The agreements are bilateral, regional, and international. Greater nuclear transparency between India and Pakistan could be promoted by first understanding the information flows required by existing agreements. This understanding is an essential step for developing projects that can incrementally advance the sensitivity of the information being shared. This paper provides a survey of existing nuclear-related agreements involving India and Pakistan, and suggests future confidence-building projects using the frameworks provided by these agreements. The Bilateral Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Facilities is discussed as a basis for creating further agreements on restricting the use and deployment of nuclear weapons. The author suggests options for enhancing the value of the list of nuclear facilities exchanged annually as a part of this agreement. The International Atomic Energy Agency's regional cooperation agreement among countries in the Asia-Pacific region is an opportunity for greater subregional nuclear cooperation in South Asia. Linking the regional agreement with South Asian environmental cooperation and marine pollution protection efforts could provide a framework for projects involving Indian and Pakistani coastal nuclear facilities. Programs of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that use nuclear techniques to increase food and crop production and optimize water management in arid areas also provide similar opportunities for nuclear cooperation. Other frameworks for nuclear cooperation originate from international conventions related to nuclear safety, transportation of nuclear wastes, worker protection against ionizing radiation, and the nondeployment of nuclear weapons in certain areas. The information shared by existing frameworks includes: laws and regulations (including

  12. Effects of harvest management practices on forest biomass and soil carbon in eucalypt forests in New South Wales, Australia: Simulations with the forest succession model LINKAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranatunga, Kemachandra; Keenan, Rodney J.; Wullschleger, Stan D; Post, Wilfred M; Tharp, M Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Understanding long-term changes in forest ecosystem carbon stocks under forest management practices such as timber harvesting is important for assessing the contribution of forests to the global carbon cycle. Harvesting effects are complicated by the amount, type, and condition of residue left on-site, the decomposition rate of this residue, the incorporation of residue into soil organic matter and the rate of new detritus input to the forest floor from regrowing vegetation. In an attempt to address these complexities, the forest succession model LINKAGES was used to assess the production of aboveground biomass, detritus, and soil carbon stocks in native Eucalyptus forests as influenced by five harvest management practices in New South Wales, Australia. The original decomposition sub-routines of LINKAGES were modified by adding components of the Rothamsted (RothC) soil organic matter turnover model. Simulation results using the new model were compared to data from long-term forest inventory plots. Good agreement was observed between simulated and measured above-ground biomass, but mixed results were obtained for basal area. Harvesting operations examined included removing trees for quota sawlogs (QSL, DBH >80 cm), integrated sawlogs (ISL, DBH >20 cm) and whole-tree harvesting in integrated sawlogs (WTH). We also examined the impact of different cutting cycles (20, 50 or 80 years) and intensities (removing 20, 50 or 80 m{sup 3}). Generally medium and high intensities of shorter cutting cycles in sawlog harvesting systems produced considerably higher soil carbon values compared to no harvesting. On average, soil carbon was 2-9% lower in whole-tree harvest simulations whereas in sawlog harvest simulations soil carbon was 5-17% higher than in no harvesting.

  13. Demand Response

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response Assessment for Eastern Interconnection Youngsun Baek, Stanton W. Hadley, Rocio Martinez, Gbadebo Oladosu, Alexander M. Smith, Fran Li, Paul Leiby and Russell Lee ...

  14. SPRUCE: Spruce and Peatland Responses under Climatic and Environmental Change

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    SPRUCE is an experiment to assess the response of northern peatland ecosystems to increases in temperature and exposures to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. It is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a Picea mariana [black spruce] - Sphagnum spp. bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. It is an ecosystem considered especially vulnerable to climate change, and anticipated to be near its tipping point with respect to climate change. Responses to warming and interactions with increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are anticipated to have important feedbacks on the atmosphere and climate, because of the high carbon stocks harbored by such ecosystems.[copied from http://mnspruce.ornl.gov/] While some data files are restricted to access by project members only, others are available for public download now, even as research is being actively conducted.

  15. The Silicon Detector (SiD) And Linear Collider Detector R&D in Asia And North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Fujii, Y.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-08-11

    In Asia and North America research and development on a linear collider detector has followed complementary paths to that in Europe. Among the developments in the US has been the conception of a detector built around silicon tracking, which relies heavily on a pixel (CCD) vertex detector, and employs a silicon tungsten calorimeter. Since this detector is quite different from the TESLA detector, we describe it here, along with some of the sub-system specific R&D in these regions.

  16. National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleason, G.

    1993-12-01

    Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

  17. Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Amit; Kamal, Nazir

    1998-11-01

    The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.

  18. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  19. Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in Africa, southeast Asia and the Caspian. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crockett, B.D.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.

  20. Assessment of boreal forest historical C dynamics in Yukon River...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    this study we applied a large-scale ecosystem model that included dynamics of organic soil horizons and soil organic matter characteristics of multiple pools to assess forest C...

  1. Do insect outbreaks reduce the severity of subsequent forest...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Sci. USA 111 15120-5 Hessburg P F, Smith B G, Salter R B, Ottmar R D and Alvarado E 2000 Recent changes (1930s-1990s) in spatial patterns of interior northwest forests, USA For. ...

  2. City of Forest City, Iowa (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .cityofforestcity.comdepar Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesCity-of-Forest-City-IA142928346092 Outage Hotline: (641) 585-3574 or (641) 585-4343 References: EIA Form...

  3. Forest County Potawatomi Recognized for Renewable Energy Achievements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In pursuit of its long-term energy goal to reduce its carbon footprint to zero, the Forest County Potawatomi Community has assumed a leadership role in creating a sustainable and healthy world....

  4. Renewable Energy Deployment Projects for Forest County Potawatomi Community

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With funding and technical support from the U.S. Department of Energy, the Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC) has significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions through the deployment of a biogas generation facility and solar photovoltaic system.

  5. Forest County Potawatomi Community- 2010 Energy Efficiency Lighting Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community ("FCPC" or "Tribe") owns a six-story parking facility that consists of two separate buildings located on fee land adjacent to its Milwaukee Bingo Casino operation.

  6. Forest Service Handbook 2709.11 - Special Uses Handbook, Chapter...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 - Special Uses Handbook, Chapter 20 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Forest Service Handbook...

  7. Forest Service Handbook 2709.11 - Special Uses Handbook, Chapter...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Handbook 2709.11 - Special Uses Handbook, Chapter 10 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Forest...

  8. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 2012. Properties of Southern Pine from DOE High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems. ... Bioresources 7(3):2996-3007 * Via, B.K., T. McDonald, and J. Fulton. 2012. Nonlinear ...

  9. Forest Glen, Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Forest Glen is a census-designated place in Montgomery County, Maryland.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA...

  10. Roman Forest, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Roman Forest is a town in Montgomery County, Texas. It falls under Texas's 8th congressional district.12 References...

  11. Project Reports for Forest County Potawatomi Community- 2010 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community ("FCPC" or "Tribe") owns a six-story parking facility that consists of two separate buildings located on fee land adjacent to its Milwaukee Bingo Casino operation.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Black Forest...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to other sites as determined. In 2007 the AMF operated in the Black Forest ...

  13. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Park Forest Village, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Park Forest Village is a census-designated place in Centre County, Pennsylvania.1...

  15. Forest Park, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Forest Park is a city in Hamilton County, Ohio. It falls under Ohio's 1st congressional...

  16. Park Forest, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Park Forest is a village in Cook County and Will County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois'...

  17. Forest Park, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Forest Park is a village in Cook County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 3rd congressional...

  18. Forest Park, Oklahoma: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Forest Park is a town in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. It falls under Oklahoma's 5th congressional...

  19. ITP Forest Products: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry ITP Forest Products: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry PDF icon ...

  20. Lake Forest Park, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Lake Forest Park is a city in King County, Washington. It falls under Washington's 1st congressional district and...

  1. Forest County Potawatomi Tribe Cuts Emissions, Promotes Green...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forest County Potawatomi Tribe Cuts Emissions, Promotes Green Growth February 23, 2012 - ... In pursuit of its long-term energy goal of reducing its carbon footprint to zero, the ...

  2. Nature climate change features Los Alamos forest research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nature climate change features forest research Nature climate change features Los Alamos forest research The print issue features as its cover story the tree-stress research of LANL scientist A. Park Williams and partners from the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arizona and several other organizations. February 27, 2013 Burned trees in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico after the 2011 Las Conchas fire. Image by Craig D. Allen, USGS. Burned trees in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico after

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Evaluating National Parks and Forest

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Service Fleets for Plug-in Electric Vehicles | Department of Energy National Parks and Forest Service Fleets for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Evaluating National Parks and Forest Service Fleets for Plug-in Electric Vehicles The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Through the AVTA, Idaho National Laboratory

  4. Microsoft PowerPoint - Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel: What it takes to have a successful wood pellet manufacturing business Presented at The Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunities and Strategies Forum July 9, 2014 Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel: What it takes to have a successful wood pellet manufacturing business Presented at The Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunities and Strategies Forum July 9, 2014 Presented by Dr. William Strauss President, FutureMetrics Director, Maine Energy

  5. Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atalla, Rajai; Beecher, James; Caron, Robert; Catchmark, Jeffrey; Deng, Yulin; Glasser, Wolfgang; Gray, Derek; Haigler, Candace; Jones, Philip; Joyce, Margaret; Kohlman, Jane; Koukoulas, Alexander; Lancaster, Peter; Perine, Lori; Rodriguez, Augusto; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wegner, Theodore; Zhu, Junyong

    2005-03-01

    A roadmap for Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industries has been developed under the umbrella of the Agenda 2020 program overseen by the CTO committee. It is expected that the use of new analytical techniques and methodologies will allow us to understand the complex nature of wood based materials and allow the dramatically enhanced use of the major strategic asset the US has in renewable, recyclable resources based on its well managed Forests.

  6. Forest County Potawatomi Community: Installation of Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forest County Potawatomi Community Installation of Solar Photovoltaic Systems Presented by: Nathan Karman Legal Department Forest County Potawatomi Community March 27, 2014 "Let us share our natural resources for the good of our People. Let us work for clean air and water and pray for the courage to stand up to those who would abuse our Mother Earth. So be it." - Bemwetek (Elder James Thunder) Excerpt from 2007 Class I Air Redesignation Public Hearing Prayer Community's Commitment to

  7. Project Reports for Forest County Potawatomi Community - 2010 Project |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 0 Project Project Reports for Forest County Potawatomi Community - 2010 Project The Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC) will implement energy efficiency improvements in revitalizing its historic Milwaukee inner-city trust property. Learn more about this project or find details in the below status reports. November 2009 status report (6.96 MB) October 2010 status report (121.95 KB) November 2011 status report (594.75 KB) Final Report (17.05 MB) More Documents &

  8. U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes the U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program, which strongly encouraged employees to shut off their computers when leaving the office. The U.S. Forest Service first piloted the program on a voluntary basis in one region then implemented it across the agency's 43,000 computers as a joint effort by the Chief Information Office and Sustainable Operations department.

  9. Montage Builders Northern Forest, Ryerson University Selected as Grand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Winners of First Student Design Competition for Zero Energy Ready Homes | Department of Energy Montage Builders Northern Forest, Ryerson University Selected as Grand Winners of First Student Design Competition for Zero Energy Ready Homes Montage Builders Northern Forest, Ryerson University Selected as Grand Winners of First Student Design Competition for Zero Energy Ready Homes April 29, 2014 - 2:15pm Addthis To help cut energy waste and improve U.S. energy productivity, the Energy

  10. Observed and modeled ecosystem isoprene fluxes from an oak-dominated temperate forest and the influence of drought stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potosnak, M.; LeStourgeon, Lauren; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Gu, Lianghong; Karl, Thomas; Geron, Chris; Guenther, Alex B.

    2014-02-19

    Ecosystem fluxes of isoprene emission were measured during the majority of the 2011 growing season at the University of Missouri's Baskett Wildlife Research and Education Area in centralMissouri, USA (38.7° N, 92.2° W). This broadleaf deciduous forest is typical of forests common in theOzarks region of the central United States. The goal of the isoprene flux measurements was to test ourunderstanding of the controls on isoprene emission from the hourly to the seasonal timescale using a state-of-the-art emission model, MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Isoprene emission rates were very high from the forest with a maximum of 50.9 mg m-2 hr-1 (208 nmol m-2 s-1), which to our knowledge exceeds all other reports of canopy-scale isoprene emission. The fluxes showed a clear dependence on the previous temperature and light regimes which was successfully captured by the existing algorithms in MEGAN. During a period of drought, MEGAN was unable to reproduce the time-dependent response of isoprene emission to water stress. Overall, the performance of MEGAN was robust and could explain 87% of the observed variance in the measured fluxes, but the response of isoprene emission to drought stress is a major source of uncertainty.

  11. Final Report, 2011-2014. Forecasting Carbon Storage as Eastern Forests Age. Joining Experimental and Modeling Approaches at the UMBS AmeriFlux Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Peter; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher; Nadelhoffer, Knute

    2015-03-12

    At the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) AmeriFlux sites (US-UMB and US-UMd), long-term C cycling measurements and a novel ecosystem-scale experiment are revealing physical, biological, and ecological mechanisms driving long-term trajectories of C cycling, providing new data for improving modeling forecasts of C storage in eastern forests. Our findings provide support for previously untested hypotheses that stand-level structural and biological properties constrain long-term trajectories of C storage, and that remotely sensed canopy structural parameters can substantially improve model forecasts of forest C storage. Through the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET), we are directly testing the hypothesis that forest C storage will increase due to increasing structural and biological complexity of the emerging tree communities. Support from this project, 2011-2014, enabled us to incorporate novel physical and ecological mechanisms into ecological, meteorological, and hydrological models to improve forecasts of future forest C storage in response to disturbance, succession, and current and long-term climate variation

  12. Departmental Response:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Departmental Response: Assessment of the Report of the SEAB Task Force on National Laboratories Introduction The Department of Energy (DOE) and its network or national laboratories (labs) are responsible for advancing the national, economic. energy. and nuclear security of the U.S.: promoting innovative and transformative scientific and technological solutions in support or those missions: sponsoring basic research in the physical sciences: and ensuring environmental cleanup of the nation's

  13. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; et al

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly valuesmore » from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of

  14. Crisis prevention centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for Northeast Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are particularly important and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, inter-related categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. First, technology is required to establishing communication systems and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Second, technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues. In addition, technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries. Establishing a CPC in Northeast Asia does not require the existence of an Asian security regime. Potential first steps for such a CPC should include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a {open_quotes}Hot Line{close_quotes} in bilateral and multilateral emergency situations. A central CPC could also be established as a regional communications hub. The central CPC could coordinate a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities, perhaps initially in an unofficial capacity. Specific recommendations for confidence building measures are discussed.

  15. Volatility basis-set approach simulation of organic aerosol formation in East Asia: implications for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction and controllable amounts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Takami, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Kanaya, Y.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-09-16

    Organic aerosol (OA) simulations using the volatility basis-set approach were made for East Asia and its outflow region. Model simulations were evaluated through comparisons with OA measured by aerosol mass spectrometers in and around Tokyo (at Komaba and Kisai in summer 2003 and 2004) and over the outflow region in East Asia (at Fukue and Hedo in spring 2009). The simulations with aging processes of organic vapors reasonably well reproduced mass concentrations, temporal variations, and formation efficiency of observed OA at all sites. As OA mass was severely underestimated in the simulations without the aging processes, the oxidations of organic vapors are essential for reasonable OA simulations over East Asia. By considering the aging processes, simulated OA concentrations considerably increased from 0.24 to 1.28 g m-3 in the boundary layer over the whole of East Asia. OA formed from the interaction of anthropogenic and biogenic sources was also enhanced by the aging processes. The fraction of controllable OA was estimated to be 87 % of total OA over the whole of East Asia, showing that most of the OA in our simulations formed anthropogenically (controllable). A large portion of biogenic secondary OA (78 % of biogenic secondary OA) formed through the influence of anthropogenic sources. The high fraction of controllable OA in our simulations is likely because anthropogenic emissions are dominant over East Asia and OA formation is enhanced by anthropogenic sources and their aging processes. Both the amounts (from 0.18 to 1.12 g m-3) and the fraction (from 75 % to 87 %) of controllable OA were increased by aging processes of organic vapors over East Asia.

  16. Corporate Responsibility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab » Corporate Responsibility Corporate Responsibility Motivated to serve our nation and the world Contact LANS, LLC Office (505) 606-0105 The nation turns to us for solutions to the most complex national security technical challenges of our times, whether a threat may be nuclear, biological or chemical. At the heart of the Lab is a sense of service At the Lab, we are motivated by service to our nation and a desire to keep our nation and the world secure. That same sense of service compels us

  17. Global warming accelerates drought-induced forest death

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McDowell, Nathan; Pockman, William

    2014-06-02

    Many southwestern forests in the United States will disappear or be heavily altered by 2050, according to a series of joint Los Alamos National Laboratory-University of New Mexico studies. Nathan McDowell, a Los Alamos plant physiologist, and William Pockman, a UNM biology professor, explain that their research, and more from scientists around the world, is forecasting that by 2100 most conifer forests should be heavily disturbed, if not gone, as air temperatures rise in combination with drought. "Everybody knows trees die when there's a drought, if there's bark beetles or fire, yet nobody in the world can predict it with much accuracy." McDowell said. "What's really changed is that the temperature is going up," thus the researchers are imposing artificial drought conditions on segments of wild forest in the Southwest and pushing forests to their limit to discover the exact processes of mortality and survival. The study is centered on drought experiments in woodlands at both Los Alamos and the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico. Both sites are testing hypotheses about how forests die on mature, wild trees, rather than seedlings in a greenhouse, through the ecosystem-scale removal of 50 percent of yearly precipitation through large water-diversion trough systems.

  18. Global warming accelerates drought-induced forest death

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Nathan; Pockman, William

    2013-07-09

    Many southwestern forests in the United States will disappear or be heavily altered by 2050, according to a series of joint Los Alamos National Laboratory-University of New Mexico studies. Nathan McDowell, a Los Alamos plant physiologist, and William Pockman, a UNM biology professor, explain that their research, and more from scientists around the world, is forecasting that by 2100 most conifer forests should be heavily disturbed, if not gone, as air temperatures rise in combination with drought. "Everybody knows trees die when there's a drought, if there's bark beetles or fire, yet nobody in the world can predict it with much accuracy." McDowell said. "What's really changed is that the temperature is going up," thus the researchers are imposing artificial drought conditions on segments of wild forest in the Southwest and pushing forests to their limit to discover the exact processes of mortality and survival. The study is centered on drought experiments in woodlands at both Los Alamos and the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico. Both sites are testing hypotheses about how forests die on mature, wild trees, rather than seedlings in a greenhouse, through the ecosystem-scale removal of 50 percent of yearly precipitation through large water-diversion trough systems.

  19. Daytime turbulent exchange between the Amazon forest and the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzjarrald, D.R.; Moore, K.E. ); Cabral, M.R. ); Scolar, J. ); Manzi, A.O.; de Abreau Sa, L.D. )

    1990-09-20

    Detailed observations of turbulence just above and below the crown of the Amazon rain forest during the wet season are presented. The forest canopy is shown to remove high-frequency turbulent fluctuations while passing lower frequencies. Filter characteristics of turbulent transfer into the Amazon rain forest canopy are quantified. In spite of the ubiquitous presence of clouds and frequent rain during this season, the average horizontal wind speed spectrum and the relationship between the horizontal wind speed and its standard deviation are well described by dry convective boundary layer similarity hypotheses originally found to apply in flat terrain. Diurnal changes in the sign of the vertical velocity skewness observed above and inside the canopy are shown to be plausibly explained by considering the skewness budget. Simple empirical formulas that relate observed turbulent heat fluxes to horizontal wind speed and variance are presented. Changes in the amount of turbulent coupling between the forest and the boundary layer associated with deep convective clouds are presented in three case studies. Even small raining clouds are capable of evacuating the canopy of substances normally trapped by persistent static stability near the forest floor. Recovery from these events can take more than an hour, even during midday.

  20. Changes in soil respiration components and their specific respiration along three successional forests in the subtropics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Tianfeng; Liu, Juxiu; Wang, Gangsheng; Huang, Wenjuan; Zhou, Guoyi

    2016-01-16

    1.Understanding how soil respiration components change with forest succession is critical for modelling and predicting soil carbon (C) processes and its sequestration below-ground. The specific respiration (a ratio of respiration to biomass) is increasingly being used as an indicator of forest succession conceptually based on Odum's theory of ecosystem development. However, the hypothesis that specific soil respiration declines with forest succession remains largely untested. 2.We used a trenching method to partition soil respiration into heterotrophic respiration and autotrophic respiration (RH and RA) and then evaluated the specific RH and specific RA in three successional forests in subtropical China. 3.Our resultsmore » showed a clear seasonality in the influence of forest succession on RH, with no significant differences among the three forests in the dry season but a higher value in the old-growth forest than the other two forests in the wet season. RA in the old-growth forest tended to be the highest among the three forests. Both the specific RH and specific RA decreased with the progressive maturity of three forests. 4.Lastly, our results highlight the importance of forest succession in determining the variation of RH in different seasons. With forest succession, soil microbes and plant roots become more efficient to conserve C resources, which would result in a greater proportion of C retained in soils.« less

  1. AmeriFlux US-Dk2 Duke Forest-hardwoods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novick, Kim; Oishi, Chris; Stoy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Dk2 Duke Forest-hardwoods. Site Description - private land adjacent to the Duke Forest in November 2002

  2. File:03-FD-d - Forest Service Special Use Authorization.pdf ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3-FD-d - Forest Service Special Use Authorization.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03-FD-d - Forest Service Special Use Authorization.pdf...

  3. AmeriFlux BR-Sa3 Santarem-Km83-Logged Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulden, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa3 Santarem-Km83-Logged Forest. Site Description - Cleared forest. Logged site is near km 83 along BR-183.

  4. REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST: PROPOSING A NEW ... Title: REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST: PROPOSING A NEW ...

  5. Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) Breakout Session 1A: Biomass Feedstocks for the...

  6. Project Reports for Forest County Potawatomi Community - 2011 Project |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1 Project Project Reports for Forest County Potawatomi Community - 2011 Project The Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC) will conduct an energy efficiency feasibility study at Potawatomi Carter Casino Hotel (PCCH) in Northern Wisconsin. Learn more about this project or find details in the below status reports. November 2011 status report (595.39 KB) November 2012 status report (1.68 MB) March 2014 status report (1.64 MB) Final report (2.68 MB) More Documents &

  7. Response Elements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-07-11

    The Guide provides acceptable methods for meeting the requirement of DOE O 151.1C for response elements that respond or contribute to response as needed in an emergency. Supersedes DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-5, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-6.

  8. Departmental Response:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Departmental Response: Assessment of the Report of the SEAB Task Force on Nuclear Nonproliferation Introduction Despite many successful U.S. efforts in nuclear nonproliferation, daunting challenges remain. Some nations are pursuing nuclear weapons and others are expanding their nuclear arsenals; some stockpiles of nuclear weapons and nuclear-weapons-usable materials remain dangerously insecure; and rapidly changing technologies and greater availability of dual-use knowledge are increasing the

  9. Departmental Response:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Departmental Response: Assessment of the Report of the SEAB Task Force on Methane Hydrates 1. Introduction Recent research confirms that gas hydrates are abundant in nature and exist in a wide variety of forms with varying relevance to future energy, long-term global carbon cycling, near-term climate change, and both natural and operational geohazards. Further, recent assessments within the Department of the Interior suggest large potential resources in gas hydrate deposits onshore Alaska and

  10. CMC Participation in the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) Workshop: Defense, Technology and Cooperative Security in South Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biringer, K.L.; Olsen, J.

    1998-11-01

    As an ongoing part of the collaborative efforts between the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories, the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), staff from the CMC served as faculty in conducting a workshop in Shanghai, China. Sponsor of the workshop was the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) based in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The workshop included participants from throughout South Asia and China. The CMC presented four sessions related to the role of monitoring technologies in promoting regional security and building confidence among nations. Participation in these workshops supports U.S. efforts to further regional cooperation and promote arms control, nonproliferation and other cooperative securily measures and supplements efforts funded by DOE and ACDA over the past four years. The RCSS Shanghai meeting permitted a continued CMC involvement in regionally conducted training for anew generation of leaders in government, the military, and academia throughout South Asia and China. Nuclear issues are clearly a dominant South Asian concern since the nuclear tests of May 1998. However, there remains a strong interest in identifying opportunities for increased trade and reduced tensions in other areas. The RCSS and other regional organizations are enthusiastic about continued CMC involvement in future regional courses.

  11. Exploring the Future Role of Asia Utilizing A Scenario Matrix Architecture and Shared Socio-Ecosystem Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kim, Son H.; Kopp, Roberrt; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Moss, Richard H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2012-12-01

    We explore the implications of alternative pathways for human population and economic development for the role of Asia in both reference, no-climate-policy, scenarios and scenarios in which climate forcing is limited. We consider three different reference scenarios, which we refer to as Shared Socio-ecosystem Pathways (SSPs) and four different levels of limitation on climate forcing, which we refer to as Shared Policy Assumptions (SPAs). SSPs are differentiated by population and economic growth assumptions, while SPAs are differentiated on the level of radiative forcing in the year 2100. Regardless of the scenarios we examined Asia plays a central role in shaping the world’s future with nearly half of the world’s people and more than half of the world’s economic activity and energy consumption. The future of Asian and world are dramatically different across the various combinations of SSPs and SPAs. High population worlds place significant stress on Asian resources and ecosystems. In high population SSPs the poorest members of the population face high energy and food prices and the more stringent the level of emissions mitigation, the more stress poor populations experience, though the more stringent the emissions mitigation, the larger the area of unmanaged ecosystems that are preserved.

  12. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

    2006-05-04

    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  13. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Kim, S. -Y.; Lee, M.; Shim, H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Guenther, A. B.; He, A.; Hong, Y.; Han, J.

    2015-04-29

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas, and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational data set of CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, HONO, and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa research forest (TRF) near the Seoul metropolitan area in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. With the data set, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated using the University of Washington chemical box model (UWCM v2.1) with near-explicit VOC oxidation mechanisms from MCM v3.2 (Master Chemical Mechanism). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that (1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOx distributions, especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times), and (2) radical destruction (HO2 + HO2 or HO2 + RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (RO2 + NO), especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone–VOC–NOx sensitivity and VOC oxidation product

  14. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Saewung; Kim, So-Young; Lee, Meehye; Shim, Heeyoun; Wolfe, Glenn; Guenther, Alex B.; He, Amy; Hong, Youdeog; Han, Jinseok

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Gangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical concentrations, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational dataset of CO, NOX, SO2, ozone, HONO, and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) near the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh BVOC emissions. With the dataset, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated with the University of Washington Chemical Box Model (UWCM v 2.1). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that 1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOX distributions especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times) and 2) radical destruction (HO2+HO2 or HO2+RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (HO2+NO) especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone-VOC-NOX sensitivity and oxidation product formation rates. Overall, the VOC limited regime in ozone photochemistry is predicted but the degree of sensitivity can significantly vary depending on the model scenarios. The model results also suggest that RO2 levels are positively correlated with OVOCs production that is not routinely

  15. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, S.; Kim, S. -Y.; Lee, M.; Shim, H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Guenther, A. B.; He, A.; Hong, Y.; Han, J.

    2015-04-29

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas, and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational data set of CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, HONO,more » and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa research forest (TRF) near the Seoul metropolitan area in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. With the data set, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated using the University of Washington chemical box model (UWCM v2.1) with near-explicit VOC oxidation mechanisms from MCM v3.2 (Master Chemical Mechanism). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that (1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOx distributions, especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times), and (2) radical destruction (HO2 + HO2 or HO2 + RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (RO2 + NO), especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone–VOC–NOx sensitivity and VOC oxidation product formation rates. Overall, the NOx limited regime is assessed except for the morning hours (8 a.m. to 12 p.m. local standard time), but the degree of sensitivity

  16. Remote sensing-based estimation of annual soil respiration at two contrasting forest sites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, Lianhong; Huang, Ni; Black, T. Andrew; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2015-11-23

    Soil respiration (Rs), an important component of the global carbon cycle, can be estimated using remotely sensed data, but the accuracy of this technique has not been thoroughly investigated. In this article, we proposed a methodology for the remote estimation of annual Rs at two contrasting FLUXNET forest sites (a deciduous broadleaf forest and an evergreen needleleaf forest).

  17. US forests and global change - precolonization to the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1997-12-31

    The forests of the United States and manufacture of products from raw materials produced in the forests are significant for the international global economy and for amelioration of threatening global climate change. This paper explores the conditions of the forests as a result of changing anthropogenic influences, and how these conditions might impact on global change.

  18. Commercial & Industrial Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  19. Evaluating the Contribution of Climate Forcing and Forest Dynamics to Accelerating Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in the Northeastern U.S.: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munger, J. William; Foster, David R.; Richardson, Andrew D.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes work to improve quantitative understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem processes that control carbon sequestration in unmanaged forests It builds upon the comprehensive long-term observations of CO2 fluxes, climate and forest structure and function at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA. This record includes the longest CO2 flux time series in the world. The site is a keystone for the AmeriFlux network. Project Description The project synthesizes observations made at the Harvard Forest HFEMS and Hemlock towers, which represent the dominant mixed deciduous and coniferous forest types in the northeastern United States. The 20+ year record of carbon uptake at Harvard Forest and the associated comprehensive meteorological and biometric data, comprise one of the best data sets to challenge ecosystem models on time scales spanning hourly, daily, monthly, interannual and multi-decadal intervals, as needed to understand ecosystem change and climate feedbacks.

  20. Forest County Potawatomi Tribe Cuts Emissions, Promotes Green Growth

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In pursuit of its long-term energy goal of reducing its carbon footprint to zero, the Forest County Potawatomi Community has adopted an integrated renewable energy deployment plan that includes the installation of solar, biogas, and biomass energy systems to heat, cool, and power its tribal facilities.

  1. BLM and Forest Service Consider Large-Scale Geothermal Leasing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In an effort to encourage appropriate geothermal energy development on public lands, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service have prepared a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for geothermal leasing in the West, including Alaska.

  2. AmeriFlux US-Blo Blodgett Forest

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Goldstein, Allen [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Blo Blodgett Forest. Site Description - The flux tower site at Blodgett Forest is on a 1200 ha parcel of land owned by Sierra Pacific Industries in the Sierra Nevada range near Georgetown, California. The field site was established in May 1997 with continuous operation since May 1999. The site is situated in a ponderosa pine plantation, mixed-evergreen coniferous forest, located adjacent to Blodgett Forest Research Station. The Mediterranean-type climate of California is characterized by a protracted summer drought, with precipitation occurring mainly from October through May. The infrastructure for the ecosystem scale flux measurements includes a walkup measurement tower, two temperature controlled instrument buildings, and an electrical generation system powered by a diesel generator. Typical wind patterns at the site include upslope flow during the day (from the west) and downslope flow at night (from the east). The plantation is relatively flat, and contains a homogenous mixture of evenly aged ponderosa pine with other trees and shrubs scattered throughout the ecosystem making up less than 30% of the biomass. The daytime fetch for the tower measurements extends approximately 200 m to the southwest of the tower (this region contributes ~90% of the daytime flux), thus remote sensing images to be used for modeling should probably be centered approximately 100 m from the tower at an angle of 225 deg.

  3. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  4. AmeriFlux US-Bar Bartlett Experimental Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bar Bartlett Experimental Forest. Site Description - The Bartlett Experimental Forest (448170 N, 71830 W) is located within the White Mountains National Forest in north-central New Hampshire, USA. The 1050 ha forest extends across an elevational range from 200 to 900 m a.s.l. It was established in 1931 and is managed by the USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station in Durham, NH. The climate is humid continental with short, cool summers (mean July temperature, 19.8C) and long, cold winters (mean January temperature, 9.8C). Annual precipitation averages 130 cm and is distributed evenly throughout the year. Soils are developed from glacial till and are predominantly shallow, well-drained spodosols. At lowto mid-elevation, vegetation is dominated by northern hardwoods (American beech, Fagus grandifolia; sugar maple, Acer saccharum; yellow birch, Betula alleghaniensis; with some red maple, Acer rubrum and paper birch, Betula papyrifera). Conifers (eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis; eastern white pine, Pinus strobus; red spruce, Picea rubens) are occasionally found intermixed with the more abundant deciduous species but are generally confined to the highest (red spruce) and lowest (hemlock and pine) elevations. In 2003, the site was adopted as a NASA North American Carbon Program (NACP) Tier-2 field research and validation site. A 26.5 m high tower was installed in a low-elevation northern hardwood stand in November, 2003, for the purpose of making eddy covariance measurements of the forest–atmosphere exchange of CO2, H2O and radiant energy. Continuous flux and meteorological measurements began in January, 2004, and are ongoing. Average canopy height in the vicinity of the tower is approximately 20–22 m. In the tower footprint, the forest is predominantly classified into red maple, sugar maple, and American beech forest types. Leaf area index in the vicinity of the tower is 3.6 as measured

  5. Findings of an evaluation of public involvement programs associated with the development of a Land and Resource Management Plan for the Ouachita National Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holthoff, M.G.; Howell, R.E.

    1993-08-01

    Federal regulations require the United States Forest Service (USFS) to integrate public input and values into decisions concerning land and resource management planning. The USFS has typically relied on traditional methods of involving the public, whereby public access and input to policy development are unilaterally controlled by the agency. Because of the highly political nature of land and resource management planning, such technocratic forms of public involvement and decision-making appear to be proving ineffective. This paper describes and evaluates two public involvement programs associated with the Ouachita National Forest`s (ONF) lengthy forest planning process. The research consisted of personal interviews with key program leaders and knowledgeable citizen participants, collection of secondary data, and a survey of citizen participants. Because of controversial planning decisions made during an initial planning process, the ONF was forced to re-enter the planning process in order to address unresolved planning issues and to conduct a more effective public involvement program. The supplemental planning process also resulted in a considerable degree of public contention. The survey revealed that although citizen participants were somewhat more satisfied with the supplemental public involvement program relative to the initial program, neither program was viewed as satisfactory. The findings of the study suggest that in order to be more effective, USFS public involvement programs should be more responsive to public concerns and conducted in adherence to principles of collaborative planning.

  6. Hydraulic Geometry and Microtopography of Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetlands and Implications for Restoration, Columbia River, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Coleman, Andre M.; Borde, Amy B.; Sinks, Ian A.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrologic reconnection of tidal channels, riverine floodplains, and main stem channels are among responses by ecological restoration practitioners to the increasing fragmentation and land conversion occurring in coastal and riparian zones. Design standards and monitoring of such ecological restoration depend upon the characterization of reference sites that vary within and among regions. Few locales, such as the 235 km tidal portion of the Columbia River on the West Coast U.S.A., remain in which the reference conditions and restoration responses of tidal freshwater forested wetlands on temperate zone large river floodplains can be compared. This study developed hydraulic geometry relationships for Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) dominated tidal forests (swamps) in the vicinity of Grays Bay on the Columbia River some 37 km from the Pacific Coast using field surveys and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Scaling relationships between catchment area and the parameters of channel cross-sectional area at outlet and total channel length were comparable to tidally influenced systems of San Francisco Bay and the United Kingdom. Dike breaching, culvert replacement, and tide gate replacement all affected channel cross-sectional geometry through changes in the frequency of over-marsh flows. Radiocarbon dating of buried wood provided evidence of changes in sedimentation rates associated with diking, and restoration trajectories may be confounded by historical subsidence behind dikes rendering topographical relationships with water level incomparable to reference conditions. At the same time, buried wood is influencing the development of channel morphology toward characteristics resembling reference conditions. Ecological restoration goals and practices in tidal forested wetland regions of large river floodplains should reflect the interactions of these controlling factors.

  7. Climate change and forests in India: note from the guest editors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravindtranath, N.H.; Aaheim, Asbjporn

    2010-12-23

    Forestry is one of the most important sectors in the context of climate change. It lies at the center-stage of global mitigation and adaptation efforts. Yet, it is one of the least understood sectors, especially in tropical zones, which constitute a significant portion of the global forests. Recently, there has been a growing interest in forests in addressing global climate change. The IPCC Assessment Report 4 (2007) Chapters related to forests have highlighted the limited number of studies on the impact of climate change on forests at the regional, national and sub-national level, while policy makers need information at these scales. Further, implication of projected climate change on mitigation potential of forest sector is only briefly mentioned in the IPCC report, with limited literature to support the conclusions. India is one among the top ten nations in the world in terms of forest cover. It is also sixth among the tropical countries in terms of forested area. As IPCC Assessment Report 5 work is about to be initiated soon, studies on the impact of climate change on forests as well as the mitigation potential of the forest sector, particularly at regional and national level, will be of great interest to the scientific and policy community. In order to conserve the carbon stored in forests and to reduce CO2 emissions from the forest sector, the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanism is now being finalized under the UNFCCC. In this context, climate change itself may affect the mitigation potential significantly, and it is important to understand how vulnerable the forest carbon stock (biomass and soil) in the tropics is to the projected climate change. In fact, there is a need to study the impact of climate change on forests for all the major forested countries

  8. Multi-Institutional Phase II Clinical Study of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer in East and Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, Shingo; Ohno, Tatsuya; Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chansilpa, Yaowalak

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia, a multi-institutional Phase II clinical study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Methods and Materials: Between April 2003 and March 2006, 120 patients (60 with bulky Stage IIB and 60 with Stage IIIB) with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were enrolled in the present study. Radiotherapy consisted of pelvic external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate or low-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy according to institutional practice. The planned Point A dose was 24-28 Gy in four fractions for high-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy and 40-45 Gy in one to two fractions for low-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy. Five cycles of weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) were administered during the radiotherapy course. Results: All patients were eligible for the study. The median follow-up was 27.3 months. Of the 120 patients, 100 (83%) received four or five cycles of chemotherapy. Acute Grade 3 leukopenia was observed in 21% of the patients, and Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 6%. No patient failed to complete the radiotherapy course because of toxicity. The 2-year local control and overall survival rate for all patients was 87.1% and 79.6%, respectively. The 2-year major late rectal and bladder complication rate was 2.5% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The results have suggested that concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin is feasible and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia.

  9. Management of Philippine tropical forests: Implications to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasco, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of the paper presents the massive changes in tropical land management in the Philippines as a result of a {open_quotes}paradigm shift{close_quotes} in forestry. The second part of the paper analyzes the impacts of the above management strategies on global warming, in general, preserved forests are neither sinks not sources of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Reforestation activities are primarily net sinks of carbon specially the use of fast growing reforestation species. Estimates are given for the carbon-sequestering ability of some commonly used species. The last part of the paper policy recommendations and possible courses of action by the government to maximize the role of forest lands in the mitigation of global warming. Private sector initiatives are also explored.

  10. NREL Helps Industry Partner Commercialize Promising Technology For Forest

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Products Industry Industry Partner Commercialize Promising Technology For Forest Products Industry For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., April 3, 1997 -- The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently signed a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with Minerals Technologies, Inc. of Bethlehem, Penn. to conduct research to improve the quality of paper derived from thermomechanical pulp (TMP). The 17-month

  11. A field investigation of sulfate fluxes to a deciduous forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, B.B.; Matt, D.R.; McMillen, R.T.; Womack, J.D. ); Wesely, M.L.; Hart, R.L.; Cook, D.R.; Lindberg, S.E.; de Pena, R.G.; Thomson, D.W.; and others

    1989-09-20

    An intensive investigation of particulate sulfur fluxes to a deciduous forest was conducted at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during May 1983, as part of a multilaboratory program to study the dry deposition of airborne trace gases and aerosols to vegetated surfaces. At this time, the leaf area was approximately 50% of the maximum and was rapidly increasing. Eddy correlation methods were used to measure fluxes of submicron particulate sulfur (presumably sulfate), of submicron particles in three different size ranges, and of ozone above the forest canopy. The measured deposition velocities (v{sub d}) of particulate sulfur peaked at about 1 cm s{sup {minus}1} in daytime, but dropped to near zero at night, with a long-term average of about 0.6 cm s{sup {minus}1}. When scaled with friction velocity, these values of v{sub d} are consistent with similar measurements taken previously over different surfaces. Measurements and analyses indicate that the flux divergence of particulate sulfur should have caused an error no greater than {plus minus}0.05 cm s{sup {minus}1} in v{sub d} estimates. For very small particles (less than 0.1 {mu}m diameter), measured values of v{sub d} were similar to those for particulate sulfate, but deposition velocities for particles in the accumulation size range decreased as particle size increased, and upward components of fluxes were found in daytime convective conditions. During this study, measurements were also made of sulfur deposition to polycarbonate petrie dishes placed in the forest canopy, and to the bucket of a standard wet-dry collector in a forest clearing. These surrogate surface studies produced much smaller values of v{sub d} for sulfate than those derived from eddy correlation, when no scaling as a function of leaf area relative to ground area was applied. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

  12. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, D.R.

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  13. Fast Pyrolysis Conversion Tests of Forest Concepts' Crumbles™. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santosa, Daniel M.; Zacher, Alan H.; Eakin, David E.

    2012-04-02

    The report describes the work done by PNNL on assessing Forest Concept's engineered feedstock using the bench-scale continuous fast pyrolysis system to produce liquid bio-oil, char and gas. Specifically, bio-oil from the following process were evaluated for its yield and quality to determine impact of varying feed size parameters. Furthermore, the report also describes the handling process of the biomass and the challenges of operating the system with above average particle size.

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - Forest County Potawatomi Project Greenfire

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    traditional values of the Forest County Potawatomi Community teach us to respect all living things, to take only what we need from mother earth, and to preserve the air, water, and soil for our children. Reflecting these values, we take leadership in creating a sustainable and healthy world. We resolve to reduce our own environmental impacts and to take steps to remedy the impacts of others. We encourage others to do the same. We also seek legislative and policy changes that protect the

  15. Publications - Madison Dynamo Experiment - Cary Forest Group - UW Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Publications UW Madison Madison Dynamo Experiment Publications MDE HomeLinksNewsBackgroundPublicationsPresentationsContactsMDE People CPLA Home Directory Publications Links University of Wisconsin Physics Department Department of Energy National Science Foundation Publications K. Reuter, F. Jenko, C. B. Forest. Hysteresis cycle in a turbulent, spherically bounded MHD dynamo model. New J. Phys. 11, 012027 (2009). E. J. Spence, M. D. Nornberg, R. A. Bayliss, R. D. Kendrick, C. B.

  16. Contacts - Madison Dynamo Experiment - Cary Forest Group - UW Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Contacts UW Madison Madison Dynamo Experiment Contacts MDE HomeLinksNewsBackgroundPublicationsPresentationsContactsMDE People CPLA Home Directory Publications Links University of Wisconsin Physics Department Department of Energy National Science Foundation Group Members Prof. Cary Forest - Principal Investigator Nicholas Zane Taylor - Research Assistant Elliot Kaplan - Research Assistant Mark Nornberg - Staff Scientist Kian Rahbarnia - Post doc Collaborators Erik Spence - Associate

  17. Contacts - Plasma Couette Experiment - Cary Forest Group - UW Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Contacts UW Madison Plasma Couette Experiment Contacts PCX HomeResearch MissionPhysics TopicsDeviceDiagnosticsContacts LinksPCX People CPLA Home Directory Publications Links University of Wisconsin Physics Department Department of Energy National Science Foundation Contacts Principal Investigator Cary B. Forest Graduate Student Cami Collins Engineers John Wallace Mike Clark Undergraduate Researchers Jonathan Jara-Almonte Kristine Garot

  18. Patterns of NPP, GPP, Respiration and NEP During Boreal Forest Succession

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulden, Michael L.; McMillan, Andrew; Winston, Greg; Rocha, Adrian; Manies, Kristen; Harden, Jennifer W.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2010-12-15

    We deployed a mesonet of year-round eddy covariance towers in boreal forest stands that last burned in ~1850, ~1930, 1964, 1981, 1989, 1998, and 2003 to understand how CO2 exchange changes during secondary succession.The strategy of using multiple methods, including biometry and micrometeorology, worked well. In particular, the three independent measures of NEP during succession gave similar results. A stratified and tiered approach to deploying eddy covariance systems that combines many lightweight and portable towers with a few permanent ones is likely to maximize the science return for a fixed investment. The existing conceptual models did a good job of capturing the dominant patterns of NPP, GPP, Respiration and NEP during succession. The initial loss of carbon following disturbance was neither as protracted nor large as predicted. This muted response reflects both the rapid regrowth of vegetation following fire and the prevalence of standing coarse woody debris following the fire, which is thought to decay slowly. In general, the patterns of forest recovery from disturbance should be expected to vary as a function of climate, ecosystem type and disturbance type. The NPP decline at the older stands appears related to increased Rauto rather than decreased GPP. The increase in Rauto in the older stands does not appear to be caused by accelerated maintenance respiration with increased biomass, and more likely involves increased allocation to fine root turnover, root metabolism, alternative forms of respiration, mycorrhizal relationships, or root exudates, possibly associated with progressive nutrient limitation. Several studies have now described a similar pattern of NEP following boreal fire, with 10-to-15 years of modest carbon loss followed by 50-to-100 years of modest carbon gain. This trend has been sufficiently replicated and evaluated using independent techniques that it can be used to quantify the likely effects of changes in boreal fire frequency and

  19. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  20. Remote sensing-based estimation of annual soil respiration at two contrasting forest sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Lianhong; Huang, Ni; Black, T. Andrew; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2015-11-23

    Soil respiration (Rs), an important component of the global carbon cycle, can be estimated using remotely sensed data, but the accuracy of this technique has not been thoroughly investigated. In this article, we proposed a methodology for the remote estimation of annual Rs at two contrasting FLUXNET forest sites (a deciduous broadleaf forest and an evergreen needleleaf forest).

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Palos Park Forest Preserve Site (A

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Plot M) - IL 04 Palos Park Forest Preserve Site (A Plot M) - IL 04 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Palos Park Forest Preserve Site (A/Plot M) (IL.04 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see Site A/Plot M, Illinois, Decommissioned Reactor Site Documents Related to Palos Park Forest Preserve Site (A/Plot M) Surveillance of

  2. Before the House Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Committee on Natural Resources | Department of Energy Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands - Committee on Natural Resources Before the House Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands - Committee on Natural Resources Before the House Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands - Committee on Natural Resources By: Ingrid Kolb, Director Office of Management Subject: Proposed Manhattan Project National Historical Park Microsoft Word - 6.28.12 MA

  3. U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program Case study describes the U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program, which strongly encouraged employees to shut off their computers when leaving the office. The U.S. Forest Service first piloted the program on a voluntary basis in one region then implemented it across the agency's 43,000 computers as a joint effort by the Chief Information Office and Sustainable Operations department. Download the Power-IT-Down

  4. REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST: PROPOSING A NEW STRATEGICALLY LOCATED AMERIFLUX TOWER SITE IN MISSOURI Pallardy, Stephen G 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL...

  5. Liquefaction of Forest Biomass to Drop-inŽ Hydrocarbon Biofuels...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquefaction of Forest Biomass to "Drop-in" Hydrocarbon Biofuels Contract EE0005974 March ... of technologies for production of biofuels and biobased products * Supports the ...

  6. Using Atmosphere-Forest Measurements To Examine The Potential For Reduced Downwind Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viner, B.

    2015-10-13

    A 2-D dispersion model was developed to address how airborne plumes interact with the forest at Savannah River Site. Parameters describing turbulence and mixing of the atmosphere within and just above the forest were estimated using measurements of water vapor or carbon dioxide concentration made at the Aiken AmeriFlux tower for a range of stability and seasonal conditions. Stability periods when the greatest amount of mixing of an airborne plume into the forest were found for 1) very unstable environments, when atmospheric turbulence is usually at a maximum, and 2) very stable environments, when the plume concentration at the forest top is at a maximum and small amounts of turbulent mixing can move a substantial portion of the plume into the forest. Plume interactions with the forest during stable periods are of particular importance because these conditions are usually considered the worst-case scenario for downwind effects from a plume. The pattern of plume mixing into the forest was similar during the year except during summer when the amount of plume mixed into the forest was nearly negligible for all but stable periods. If the model results indicating increased deposition into the forest during stable conditions can be confirmed, it would allow for a reduction in the limitations that restrict facility operations while maintaining conservative estimates for downwind effects. Continuing work is planned to confirm these results as well as estimate specific deposition velocity values for use in toolbox models used in regulatory roles.

  7. Dry-deposition measurements of sulfur dioxide to a spruce-fir forest in the Black Forest: a data report. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillen, R.T.; Matt, D.R.; Hicks, B.B.; Womack, J.D.

    1987-02-01

    Measurements of dry deposition of SO/sub 2/ are reported for a forested site in the Black Forest of West Germany. The measurements were made using the eddy-correlation method about 10 meters above the top of a spruce forest that was already affected by Waldsterben. These measurements were conducted as one component of TULLA, a large sulfur mass-balance experiment. The dry-deposition measurements were successful during times when SO/sub 2/ concentrations were greater than 5 micro grams/cu m.

  8. The Nuvruz Project: Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Transboundary Rivers End of Year One Reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV, BAJGABYL; VALENTINA, ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN, VLADIMIR; POZNIAK, VICTOR; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.

    2002-09-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors. The Navruz project has a duration of three years. This document contains the reports from each of the participating institutions following the first year of data collection. While a majority of samples from the Navruz project are within normal limits, a preliminary analysis does indicate a high concentration of selenium in the Kazakhstan samples. Uzbekistan samples contain high uranium and thorium concentrations, as well as elevated levels of chromium, antimony and cesium. Additionally, elevated concentrations of radioactive isotopes have been detected at one Tajikistan sampling location. Further analysis will be published in a subsequent report.

  9. Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Kajino, Mizuo; Sato, Keiichi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi; Ueda, Hiromasa; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-11-01

    We analyzed the sourceereceptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40N, 40-60%) and central China (30-40N, 10-40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40-80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes.

  10. U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PID was an agency-wide program launched through piloting and mul- tiple phases with strong leadership support and a cross-functional team. Outreach material spoke to multiple motivations. U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program The Power-IT-Down (PID) program, in effect from 2013-2015, strongly encour- aged employees to shut off their computers when leaving the offce. The U.S. For- est Service did not initially launch the program agency-wide, but frst piloted it on a voluntary basis in one

  11. BPA-2014-00122-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a campaign or expedition for which a campaign medal has been authorized, such as El Salvador, Lebanon, Granada, Panama, Southwest Asia, Somalia, and Haiti. You must submit a copy...

  12. Forest Carbon – Sustaining an Important Climate Service: Roles of Biomass Use and Markets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels Forest Carbon – Sustaining an Important Climate Service: Roles of Biomass Use and Markets David Cleaves, Climate Change Advisor to the Chief, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

  13. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  14. Global climate change mitigation and sustainable forest management--The challenge of monitoring and verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, sustainable forest management is discussed within the historical and theoretical framework of the sustainable development debate. The various criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management put forth by different institutions are critically explored. Specific types of climate change mitigation policies/projects in the forest sector are identified and examined in the light of the general criteria for sustainable forest management. Areas of compatibility and contradiction between the climate mitigation objectives and the minimum criteria for sustainable forest management are identified and discussed. Emphasis is put on the problems of monitoring and verifying carbon benefits associated with such projects given their impacts on pre-existing policy objectives on sustainable forest management. The implications of such policy interactions on assignment of carbon credits from forest projects under Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly initiatives are discussed. The paper concludes that a comprehensive monitoring and verification regime must include an impact assessment on the criteria covered under other agreements such as the Biodiversity and/or Desertification Conventions. The actual carbon credit assigned to a specific project should at least take into account the negative impacts on the criteria for sustainable forest management. The value of the impacts and/or the procedure to evaluate them need to be established by interested parties such as the Councils of the respective Conventions.

  15. Nitrogen Deposition to and Cycling in a Deciduous Forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pryor, Sara C.; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Carreiro, Margaret; Davis, Melissa L.; Hartley, Anne; Jensen, Bjame; Oliphant, Andrew; Randolph, Melissa J. C.; Schoof, Justin T.

    2001-01-01

    The project described here seeks to answer questions regarding the role increased nitrogen (N) deposition is playing in enhanced carbon (C) sequestration in temperate mid-latitude forests, using detailed measurements from an AmeriFlux tower in southern Indiana (Morgan-Monroe State Forest, or MMSF). The measurements indicate an average atmosphere-surface N flux of approximately 6 mg-N m -2 day -1 during the 2000 growing season, with approximately 40% coming from dry deposition of ammonia (NH 3 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ), and particle-bound N. Wet deposition and throughfall measurements indicate significant canopy uptake of N (particularly NH 4 +) at themore » site, leading to a net canopy exchange (NCE) of –6 kg-N ha -1 for the growing season. These data are used in combination with data on the aboveground C:N ratio, litterfall flux, and soil net N mineralization rates to indicate the level of potential perturbation of C sequestration at this site.« less

  16. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kula, Erhun, E-mail: erhun.kula@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey); Gunalay, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.gunalay@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Business Studies, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  17. Effects of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on the ecology of the Cumberland forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Lannom, Karen O.; Hodges, Donald G.; Tharp, M Lynn; Fogel, Jonah

    2009-02-01

    Effects of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on the ecology of the Cumberland forests

  18. AmeriFlux BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleska, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest. Site Description - The LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site is located in the Tapajos National Forest, a 450,000 ha closed-canopy upland forest in Amazonian Brazil. Bounded by the Tapajos River in the west and highway BR-163 to the east, the tower is located on a flat plateau (or planalto) that extends up to 150 km to the north, south, and east. Within the confines of the National Forest, anthropogenic disturbances are limited to a few small hunting trails. The surrounding stand is classified as primary or "old-growth"" predominantly by its uneven age distribution, emergent trees, numerous epiphytes and abundant large logs. In 2007 falling trees hit the tower guy wires rendering all instrumentation in-operational. After a complete restoration tower measurements resumed in August of 2008.

  19. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located

  20. Organic Matter Transformation in the Peat Column at Marcell Experimental Forest: Humification and Vertical Stratification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tfaily, Malak; Cooper, Bill; Kostka,; Chanton, Patrick R; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Hanson, Paul J; Iversen, Colleen M; Chanton, Jeff P

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale ecosystem manipulation (Spruce and Peatland Responses under Climatic and Environmental Change, SPRUCE) is being constructed in the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA, to determine the effects of climatic forcing on ecosystem processes in northern peatlands. Prior to the initiation of the manipulation, we characterized the solid-phase peat to a depth of 2 meters using a variety of techniques, including peat C:N ratios, 13C and 15N isotopic composition, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT IR), and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR). FT IR determined peat humification-levels increased rapidly between and 75 cm, indicating a highly reactive zone. We observed a rapid drop in the abundance of O-alkyl-C, carboxyl-C, and other oxygenated functionalities within this zone and a concomitant increase in the abundance of alkyl- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Below 75-cm, minimal change was observed except that aromatic functionalities accumulated with depth. Incubation studies revealed the highest methane production rates and greatest CH4:CO2 ratios within this and 75 cm zone. Hydrology and surface vegetation played a role in belowground carbon cycling. Radiocarbon signatures of microbial respiration products in deeper porewaters resembled the signatures of dissolved organic carbon rather than solid phase peat, indicating that more recently photosynthesized organic matter fueled the bulk of subsurface microbial respiration. Oxygen-containing functionalities, especially O-alkyl-C, appear to serve as an excellent proxy for soil decomposition rate, and in addition should be a sensitive indicator of the response of the solid phase peat to the climatic manipulation.

  1. Decision making, procedural compliance, and outcomes definition in U.S. forest service planning processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, Marc J.; Predmore, S. Andrew

    2011-04-15

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) dictates a process of analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed agency actions on the human environment. This study addresses two key questions related to NEPA implementation in the U.S. Forest Service: 1) how do Interdisciplinary (ID) team leaders and decision makers conceptualize the outcomes of NEPA processes? And 2), how does NEPA relate to agency decision making? We address these questions through two separate online surveys that posed questions about recently completed NEPA processes - the first with the ID team leaders tasked with carrying out the processes, and the second with the line officers responsible for making the processes' final decisions. Outcomes of NEPA processes include impacts on public relations, on employee morale and team functioning, on the achievement of agency goals, and on the achievement of NEPA's procedural requirements (disclosure) and substantive intent (minimizing negative environmental impacts). Although both tended to view public relations outcomes as important, decision makers' perceptions of favorable outcomes were more closely linked to the achievement of agency goals and process efficiency than was the case for ID team leaders. While ID team leaders' responses suggest that they see decision making closely integrated with the NEPA process, decision makers more commonly decoupled decision making from the NEPA process. These findings suggest a philosophical difference between ID team leaders and decision makers that may pose challenges for both the implementation and the evaluation of agency NEPA. We discuss the pros and cons of integrating NEPA with decision making or separating the two. We conclude that detaching NEPA from decision making poses greater risks than integrating them.

  2. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  3. Forest stand development patterns in the southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copenheaver, C.A.; Matthews, J.M.; Showalter, J.M.; Auch, W.E.

    2006-07-01

    Composition of southern Appalachian forests are influenced by disturbance and topography. This study examined six stands in southwestern Virginia. Within each stand, a 0.3-ha plot was established, and all trees and saplings were measured and aged. Burned stands had lower densities of saplings and small trees, but appeared to have greater Quercus regeneration. Ice damage from the 1994 ice storm was most evident in Pinus strobus saplings. A stand on old coal-mine slag appeared to be experiencing a slower rate of succession than other sites. A variety of stand development patterns were observed, but one common pattern was that oak-hickory overstories had different species in their understory, which may indicate future changes in species composition.

  4. IMPACTS OF INTERACTING ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND O3 ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF A NORTHERN FOREST ECOSYSTEM: OPERATING AND DECOMMISSIONING THE ASPEN FACE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, Andrew J.; Zak, Donald R.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.

    2014-06-30

    Two of the most important and pervasive greenhouse gases driving global change and impacting forests in the U.S. and around the world are atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3. As the only free air, large-scale manipulative experiment studying the interaction of elevated CO2 and O3 on forests, the Aspen FACE experiment was uniquely designed to address the long-term ecosystem level impacts of these two greenhouse gases on aspen-birch-maple forests, which dominate the richly forested Lake States region. The project was established in 1997 to address the overarching scientific question: “What are the effects of elevated [CO2] and [O3], alone and in combination, on the structure and functioning of northern hardwood forest ecosystems?” From 1998 through the middle of the 2009 growing season, we examined the interacting effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on ecosystem processes in an aggrading northern forest ecosystem to compare the responses of early-successional, rapid-growing shade intolerant trembling aspen and paper birch to those of a late successional, slower growing shade tolerant sugar maple. Fumigations with elevated CO2 (560 ppm during daylight hours) and O3 (approximately 1.5 x ambient) were conducted during the growing season from 1998 to 2008, and in 2009 through harvest date. Response variables quantified during the experiment included growth, competitive interactions and stand dynamics, physiological processes, plant nutrient status and uptake, tissue biochemistry, litter quality and decomposition rates, hydrology, soil respiration, microbial community composition and respiration, VOC production, treatment-pest interactions, and treatment-phenology interactions. In 2009, we conducted a detailed harvest of the site. The harvest included detailed sampling of a subset of trees by component (leaves and buds, fine branches, coarse branches and stem, coarse roots, fine roots) and excavation of soil to a depth of 1 m. Throughout the experiment, aspen and birch

  5. Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) Breakout Session 1A: Biomass Feedstocks for the Bioeconomy Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) Robert C. Abt, Professor of Natural Resource Economics and Management, North Carolina State University abt_bioenergy_2015.pdf (2.18 MB) More Documents & Publications 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a

  6. AmeriFlux US-NR1 Niwot Ridge Forest (LTER NWT1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanken, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-NR1 Niwot Ridge Forest (LTER NWT1). Site Description - The Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site is located in a subalpine forest ecosystem just below the Continental Divide near Nederland, CO. The site is located at 3050 m elevation, within 600m of the NOAA C1 long-term monitoring station, approximately 8 km east of the Continental Divide. The surrounding subalpine forest is ~97 years old and in a state of aggradation, having recovered from early twentieth century logging (Monson, et al. Global Change Biology (2002), 8 459-478).

  7. AmeriFlux US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munger, J. William

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1). Site Description - The Harvard Forest tower is on land owned by Harvard University. The site is designated as an LTER site. Most of the surrounding area was cleared for agrigulture during European settlement in 1600-1700. The site has been regrowing since before 1900 (based on tree ring chronologies) and is now predominantly red oak and red maple, with patches of mature hemlock stand and individual white pine. Overstory trees were uprooted by hurricane in 1938. Climate measurements have been made at Harvard Forest since 1964.

  8. Demand Response | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology Development Smart Grid Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the ...

  9. Cross-sector Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  10. Sources of black carbon aerosols in South Asia and surrounding regions during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Nair, V. S.; Pfister, G. G.; Suresh Babu, S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Carmichael, G. R.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-05-19

    This study examines differences in the surface black carbon (BC) aerosol loading between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identifies dominant sources of BC in South Asia and surrounding regions during March–May 2006 (Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget, ICARB) period. A total of 13 BC tracers are introduced in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry to address these objectives. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variability of BC distribution observed over the AS and the BoB during the ICARB ship cruise and captured spatial variability at the inlandmore » sites. In general, the model underestimates the observed BC mass concentrations. However, the model–observation discrepancy in this study is smaller compared to previous studies. Model results show that ICARB measurements were fairly well representative of the AS and the BoB during the pre-monsoon season. Elevated BC mass concentrations in the BoB are due to 5 times stronger influence of anthropogenic emissions on the BoB compared to the AS. Biomass burning in Burma also affects the BoB much more strongly than the AS. Results show that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively, accounted for 60 and 37% of the average ± standard deviation (representing spatial and temporal variability) BC mass concentration (1341 ± 2353 ng m-3) in South Asia. BC emissions from residential (61%) and industrial (23%) sectors are the major anthropogenic sources, except in the Himalayas where vehicular emissions dominate. We find that regional-scale transport of anthropogenic emissions contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions in different regions of South Asia.« less

  11. Sources of black carbon aerosols in South Asia and surrounding regions during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Nair, V. S.; Pfister, G. G.; Suresh Babu, S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Carmichael, G. R.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-05-19

    This study examines differences in the surface black carbon (BC) aerosol loading between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identifies dominant sources of BC in South Asia and surrounding regions during March–May 2006 (Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget, ICARB) period. A total of 13 BC tracers are introduced in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry to address these objectives. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variability of BC distribution observed over the AS and the BoB during the ICARB ship cruise and captured spatial variability at the inland sites. In general, the model underestimates the observed BC mass concentrations. However, the model–observation discrepancy in this study is smaller compared to previous studies. Model results show that ICARB measurements were fairly well representative of the AS and the BoB during the pre-monsoon season. Elevated BC mass concentrations in the BoB are due to 5 times stronger influence of anthropogenic emissions on the BoB compared to the AS. Biomass burning in Burma also affects the BoB much more strongly than the AS. Results show that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively, accounted for 60 and 37% of the average ± standard deviation (representing spatial and temporal variability) BC mass concentration (1341 ± 2353 ng m-3) in South Asia. BC emissions from residential (61%) and industrial (23%) sectors are the major anthropogenic sources, except in the Himalayas where vehicular emissions dominate. We find that regional-scale transport of anthropogenic emissions contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions in different regions of South Asia.

  12. Asia/ITS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis Energy & Transportation Science Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transportation's Energy Transition The 2009 Energy Conference Energy Information Administration April 7, 2009 Petroleum, petroleum and petroleum. Transportation Energy Use, 1950-2008 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Source: USDOE/EIA, AER 2007 table 2.1e, MER March, 2009 table 2.5 Quads Other Petroleum Depletion of conventional oil outside

  13. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we determined that by grinding the soil samples to a finer particle size of less than 250 μm (sieve No. 60), the effect of mine soil coal particle size on the extent to which these particles will be oxidized during the thermal treatment of the carbon partitioning procedure will be eliminated, thus making the procedure more accurate and precise. In the second phase of the carbon sequestration project, we focused our attention on determining the sample size required for carbon accounting on grassland mined fields in order to achieve a desired accuracy and precision of the final soil organic carbon (SOC) estimate. A mine land site quality classification scheme was developed and some field-testing of the methods of implementation was completed. The classification model

  14. BIGHORN SHEEP: SUPPLEMENTAL ANALYSIS TO THE FOREST PLAN ENVIRONMENTAL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * Update on 618-10 Documented Safety Analysis; update on VPU remediation * Update on drums from ERDF (TRU?) * Update on K-Reactor boreholes * Advice responses? * Committee...

  15. BIGHORN SHEEP: SUPPLEMENTAL ANALYSIS TO THE FOREST PLAN ENVIRONMENTAL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    committee is looking for * Iron Phosphate Glass (tentative, potential advice, needs IM framing w ORP)- package with System Plan 7 agenda item * Advice responses? * Committee...

  16. BIGHORN SHEEP: SUPPLEMENTAL ANALYSIS TO THE FOREST PLAN ENVIRONMENTAL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Committee call placeholder: Tuesday, August 13 @ 1:30 p.m. * PNNL Deep Vadose Zone technologies (Tim Johnson, John Morse) * Advice responses? * Committee Business Holding Bin: ...

  17. Madison Dynamo Experiment - Cary Forest Group - UW Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the mechanism responsible for magnetic field generation in the Earth, Sun, and Galaxy. A picture of the Madison Dynamo Experiment Magnetic Field Lines This work is funded...

  18. The response of mangroves to projected impacts of global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Twilley, R.R.; Chen, R.H.

    1995-06-01

    A hierarchical classification system for mangroves together with a community-based ecological model (ESA abstract by Chen and Twilley, 1995) were used to asses the response of mangroves to global climate change. The hierarchical classification includes a matrix of the ecological type (riverine, fringe, basin, and dwarf mangroves) and the geomorphologic environmental setting (delta, estuarine, lagoon, carbonate platform systems). The significance of this hierarchical classification, referred to as a eco-geomorphic system, is demonstrated with a summary of the spatial variation in ecosystem function among different coastal settings. Changes in sea level, frequency of frost, and frequency of hurricanes were simulated and results of forest community composition, tree density and dominance, and forest biomass were compared to field sites of known disturbance. For lagoon basin forests, hurricane frequency increase from 28 yrs to 15 yrs had less impact on total biomass than increase in frost from 12 yrs to 8 yrs. Both disturbances changed the community composition of the forests. The patterns of recovery vary among geomorphic types due to nutrient limitation of regrowth.

  19. 16 U.S.C. 1600 et seq.: Chapter 36: Forest and Rangeland Renewable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1600 et seq.: Chapter 36: Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 16...

  20. AmeriFlux US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munger, William

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site. Site Description - The forest surrounding the Hemlock site has remained pristine with two exceptions. In the early to mid-1700s, European settlers cleared the majority of the forest for agricultural purposes. Selective harvesting of hemlock and chestnut trees occurred up until the early 1900s, when the chestnut blight killed all of the chestnut trees. In the current forest, about 83% of the total basal area of trees is hemlock. The remainder is equally divided between eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and deciduous species, including red maple (Acer rubrum), red oak (Quercus rubra) and black birch (Betula lenta). A very thick organic layer (10-20 cm or more) covers the soil surface, and highly decayed coarse woody debris is abundant.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from forest, land use and biomass burning in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matitu, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) gases are the main contributors to the greenhouse effect that consequently results in global warming. This paper examines the sources and sinks of these gases from/to forest, land use and biomass burning and their likely contribution to climate change using IPCC/OECD methodology. Emissions have been calculated in mass units of carbon and nitrogen Emissions and uptake have been summed for each gas and the emissions converted to full molecular weights. Mismanagement of forests and land misuse have contributed much to greenhouse gas emissions in Tanzania. For example, cultivation methods, forest clearing, burning of savannah grass and indiscriminate logging (non-sustainable logging) have contributed significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. These categories contribute more than 90% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the study shows that shifting cultivation, savannah burning and forest clearing for conversion to permanent crop land and pasture are the main contributors.

  2. MCA 77-5-303 - Standards for Forest Practices in Streamside Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    77-5-303 - Standards for Forest Practices in Streamside Management Zones Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: MCA...

  3. ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report PDF icon ...

  4. The Fate of Trees: How Climate Change May Alter Forests Worldwide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rolling Stone" covers climate change research at Los Alamos Lab March 26, 2015 The Fate of Trees: How Climate Change May Alter Forests Worldwide By the end of the century, the...

  5. Final Progress Report on Model-Based Diagnosis of Soil Limitations to Forest Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luxmoore, R.J.

    2004-08-30

    This project was undertaken in support of the forest industry to link modeling of nutrients and productivity with field research to identify methods for enhancing soil quality and forest productivity and for alleviating soil limitations to sustainable forest productivity. The project consisted of a series of related tasks, including (1) simulation of changes in biomass and soil carbon with nitrogen fertilization, (2) development of spreadsheet modeling tools for soil nutrient availability and tree nutrient requirements, (3) additional modeling studies, and (4) evaluation of factors involved in the establishment and productivity of southern pine plantations in seasonally wet soils. This report also describes the two Web sites that were developed from the research to assist forest managers with nutrient management of Douglas-fir and loblolly pine plantations.

  6. AmeriFlux US-Prr Poker Flat Research Range Black Spruce Forest

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Suzuki, Rikie [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Prr Poker Flat Research Range Black Spruce Forest. Site Description - This site is located in a blackspruce forest within the property of the Poker Flat Research Range, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Time-lapse image of the canopy is measured at the same time to relate flux data to satellite images.

  7. Potential and cost of carbon sequestration in the Tanzanian forest sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    2001-01-01

    The forest sector in Tanzania offers ample opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and sequestered carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems. More than 90% of the country's demand for primary energy is obtained from biomass mostly procured unsustainably from natural forests. This study examines the potential to sequester C through expansion of forest plantations aimed at reducing the dependence on natural forest for wood fuel production, as well as increase the country's output of industrial wood from plantations. These were compared ton conservation options in the tropical and miombo ecosystems. Three sequestration options were analyzed, involving the establishment of short rotation and long rotation plantations on about 1.7 x 106 hectares. The short rotation community forest option has a potential to sequester an equilibrium amount of 197.4 x 106 Mg C by 2024 at a net benefit of $79.5 x 106, while yielding a NPV of $0.46 Mg-1 C. The long rotation options for softwood and hardwood plantations will reach an equilibrium sequestration of 5.6 and 11.8 x 106 Mg C at a negative NPV of $0.60 Mg-1 C and $0.32 Mg-1 C. The three options provide cost competitive opportunities for sequestering about 7.5 x 106 Mg C yr -1 while providing desired forest products and easing the pressure on the natural forests in Tanzania. The endowment costs of the sequestration options were all found to be cheaper than the emission avoidance cost for conservation options which had an average cost of $1.27 Mg-1 C, rising to $ 7.5 Mg-1 C under some assumptions on vulnerability to encroachment. The estimates shown here may represent the upper bound, because the actual potential will be influenced by market prices for inputs and forest products, land use policy constraints and the structure of global C transactions.

  8. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Biomass Program Review High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations DE-EE0001036 S. Taylor (Auburn University), R. Rummer (USDA Forest Service), F. Corley (Corley Land Services), G. Somerville (Tigercat), O. Fasina (Auburn University), J. Fulton (Auburn University), T. McDonald (Auburn University), M. Smidt (Auburn University), T. Gallagher (Auburn University) This project is designing and demonstrating a high productivity system to harvest, process,

  9. Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-06-01

    An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a community’s response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated withinmore » the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This system—based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make real—time adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.« less

  10. Brazilian rain forest security - environment - development. Study project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arruda, P.A.

    1993-03-25

    The Amazon region has been intensely discussed in the recent years. Most of these discussions have been highly influenced by interests groups. To understand the Amazon area we need to specify what the Amazon is, to describe the forest, to evaluate its mineral and biological resources, and to study the people living in the region. A security analysis reveals that there are no main threats to Brazilian Amazon. Nevertheless, narco guerrillas, acting in neighboring countries, can cross the borders and challenge regional authorities. First World interests may disturb Brazilian policies to the region. To face these threats, Brazilian armed forces maintain a well trained military sharing with other native people the security and the routes towards progress. Brazilian government is also implementing some programs to achieve a well balanced development. The new concepts of sustainable development are applied to keep the region's natural resources available for future generations. Among these programs this paper addresses the ecological economic zoning, Calha Norte Program and Amazon Protection System (SIPAM/SIVAM). In synthesis it demonstrates the Brazilian commitment to integrate, develop and preserve this rich and exotic region.

  11. Environmental surveillance of the Palos Park Forest Preserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.; Hayes, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    This is the second report describing an ongoing environmental surveillance program conducted at the Palos Park Forest Preserve near Chicago, Illinois. The Preserve was a site of a nuclear research laboratory (Site A) from 1943 to 1956 and a radioactive waste burial site (Plot M) from 1944 to 1949. An extensive radiological characterization of the site was conducted from February 1976 to August 1977, and tritium in the form of water was found to be the only radionuclide that migrated from the nuclear facilities. The results were published in US Department of Energy Report DOE/EV-0005/7. The present report summarizes the earlier findings and gives the detailed results of the work from August 1977 through December 1981. The vertical and horizontal distribution of tritium within the glacial till was determined from measurements of tritium in soil moisture. Chemical and radiochemical analyses were performed on a number of wells in the area. Tritiated water continued to be the only species that was observed to have migrated from the Plot M area. Migration from the Site A area was not observed. The concentration of tritium at the Red Gate Woods well, 1200 ft downgradient from Plot M, continued to show the seasonal fluctuations of high concentrations in the winter and low concentrations in the summer. Monitoring of the Palos Park area is continuing.

  12. Impacts of precipitation variability on plant species and community water stress in a temperate deciduous forest in the central US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Sun, Ying

    2015-12-11

    Variations in precipitation regimes can shift ecosystem structure and function by altering frequency, severity and timing of plant water stress. There is a need for predictively understanding impacts of precipitation regimes on plant water stress in relation to species water use strategies. Here we first formulated two complementary, physiologically-linked measures of precipitation variability (PV) - Precipitation Variability Index (PVI) and Average Recurrence Interval of Effective Precipitation (ARIEP). We then used nine-year continuous measurements of Predawn Leaf Water Potential Integral (PLWPI) in a central US forest to relate PVI and ARIEP to actual plant water availability and comparative water stress responses of six species with different capacities to regulate their internal water status. We found that PVI and ARIEP explained nearly all inter-annual variations in PLWPI for all species as well as for the community scaled from species measurements. The six species investigated showed differential sensitivities to variations in precipitation regimes. Their sensitivities were reflected more in the responses to PVI and ARIEP than to the mean precipitation rate. Further, they exhibited tradeoffs between responses to low and high PV. Finally, PVI and ARIEP were closely correlated with temporal integrals of positive temperature anomalies and vapor pressure deficit. We suggest that the comparative responses of plant species to PV are part of species-specific water use strategies in a plant community facing the uncertainty of fluctuating precipitation regimes. In conclusion, PVI and ARIEP should be adopted as key indices to quantify physiological drought and the ecological impacts of precipitation regimes in a changing climate.

  13. Demand Response Research Center and Open Automated Demand Response

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Capacity Bidding Real- Dme Pricing Demand Response Opportunities: Advance Notice and Duration of Response End Use Type Modulate OnOff Max. Response Time HVAC Chiller ...

  14. Project risk and appeals in U.S. Forest Service planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, Marc J.; Predmore, S. Andrew; Morse, Wayde C.; Seesholtz, David N.

    2013-09-15

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires U.S. Forest Service planning processes to be conducted by interdisciplinary teams of resource specialists to analyze and disclose the likely environmental impacts of proposed natural resource management actions on Forest Service lands. Multiple challenges associated with these processes have been a source of frustration for the agency. One of these challenges involves administrative appeals through which public entities can challenge a Forest Service decision following a NEPA process. These appeals instigate an internal review process and can result in an affirmation of the Forest Service decision, a reversal of that decision, or additional work that re-initiates all or part of the NEPA process. We examine the best predictors of appeals and their outcomes on a representative sample of 489 Forest Service NEPA processes that were decided between 2007 and 2009. While certain factors associated with pre-existing social contexts (such as a history of controversy) or pre-determined elements of a proposed action (such as the extraction of forest products) predispose certain processes to a higher risk of appeals, other practices and process-related strategies within the control of the agency also appear to bear meaningful influence on the occurrence of appeals and their outcomes. Appeals and their outcomes were most strongly related to programmatic, structural (turnover of personnel in particular), and relationship risks (both internal and external) within the processes, suggesting the need for greater focus within the agency on cultivating positive internal and external relationships to manage the risk of appeals. -- Highlights: ► We examined appeals and their outcomes on 489 U.S. Forest Service NEPA processes. ► Project type, context, team turnover, and personal relationships predicted appeals. ► External relationship management and staff turnover best predicted appeal outcomes. ► Positive internal and

  15. A dynamic model for evaluating radionuclide distribution in forests from nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, W.R.; Linkov, I.; Myttenaere, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 caused radionuclide contamination in most countries in Eastern and Western Europe. A prime example is Belarus where 23% of the total land area received chronic levels; about 1.5 X 10{sup 6} ha of forested lands were contaminated with 40-190 kBq m{sup -2} and 2.5 X 10{sup 4} ha received greater than 1,480 kBq m{sup -2} of {sup 137}Cs and other long-lived radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239,240}Pu. Since the radiological dose to the forest ecosystem will tend to accumulate over long time periods (decades to centuries), we need to determine what countermeasures can be taken to limit this dose so that the affected regions can, once again, safely provide habitat and natural forest products. To address some of these problems, our initial objective is to formulate a generic model, FORESTPATH, which describes the major kinetic processes and pathways of radionuclide movement in forests and natural ecosystems and which can be used to predict future radionuclide concentrations. The model calculates the time-dependent radionuclide concentrations in different compartments of the forest ecosystem based on the information available on residence half-times in two forest types: coniferous and deciduous. The results show that the model reproduces well the radionuclide cycling pattern found in the literature for deciduous and coniferous forests. Variability analysis was used to access the relative importance of specific parameter values in the generic model performance. The FORESTPASTH model can be easily adjusted for site-specific applications. 92 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. NNMCAB Responses from DOE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a listing of responses from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the recommendations provided from the Northern New Mexico Citizens’ Advisory Board (NNMCAB).

  17. TECHNICAL STANDARDS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PurposeThis procedure describes the responsibilities of persons who are charged with implementing the DOE Technical Standards Program. 

  18. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  19. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  20. CRA Comments & Responses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (51105) 11 Response to CRA Comments (92005) Enclosure 1 - Computer Code VerificationTesting (92005) Inventory and Performance Assessment Reports DOE - Performance...

  1. AmeriFlux CA-Gro Ontario - Groundhog River, Boreal Mixedwood Forest.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCaughey, Harry [Queen's University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Gro Ontario - Groundhog River, Boreal Mixedwood Forest.. Site Description - Groundhog River (FCRN or CCP site "ON-OMW") is situated in a typical boreal mixedwood forest in northeastern Ontario (48.217 degrees north and 82.156 degrees west) about 80 km southwest of Timmins in Reeves Twp. near the Groundhog River. Rowe (1972) places the site in the Missinaibi-Cabonga Section of the Boreal Forest Region. In terms of ecoregion and ecozone, the site is in the Lake Timiskaming Lowlands of the Boreal Shield. The forest developed after high-grade logging in the 1930's. The average age in 2013 is estimated at beteen 75 and 80 years. The forest is dominated by five species characteristic of Ontario boreal mixedwoods: trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.). The surficial geology is a lacustrine deposit of varved or massive clays, silts and silty sands. The soil is an orthic gleysol with a soil moisture regime classified as fresh to very fresh. Plonski (1974) rates it as a site class 1. The topography is simple and flat with an overall elevation of 340 m ASL.

  2. The Pleistocene biogeography of eastern North America: A nonmigration scenario for deciduous forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loehle, C.; Iltis, H.

    1998-12-31

    The current reconstruction of the vegetation of eastern North America at the last glacial maximum postulates a very wide zone of tundra and boreal forest south of the ice. This reconstruction requires that the deciduous forest retreated far to the south. The authors believe that this reconstruction is seriously in error. Geologic evidence for glacial activity or tundra is absent from the southern Appalachians. Positive evidence for boreal forest is based on pollen identifications for Picea, Betula, and Pinus, when in reality southern members of these genera have pollen that cannot be distinguished from that of northern members. Further, pollen of typical southern species such as oaks and hickories occurs throughout profiles that past authors had labeled boreal. Pollen evidence for a far southern deciduous forest refuge is lacking. Data on endemics are particularly challenging for the scenario in which deciduous forest migrated to the south and back. The southern Appalachian region is rife with endemics that are often extreme-habitat specialists unable to migrate. The previously glaciated zone is almost completely lacking in endemics. Outlier populations, range boundaries, and absence of certain hybrids all argue against a large boreal zone. The new reconstruction postulates a cold zone no more than 75--100 miles wide south of the ice in the East.

  3. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  4. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  5. Impacts of precipitation variability on plant species and community water stress in a temperate deciduous forest in the central US

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Sun, Ying

    2015-12-11

    Variations in precipitation regimes can shift ecosystem structure and function by altering frequency, severity and timing of plant water stress. There is a need for predictively understanding impacts of precipitation regimes on plant water stress in relation to species water use strategies. Here we first formulated two complementary, physiologically-linked measures of precipitation variability (PV) - Precipitation Variability Index (PVI) and Average Recurrence Interval of Effective Precipitation (ARIEP). We then used nine-year continuous measurements of Predawn Leaf Water Potential Integral (PLWPI) in a central US forest to relate PVI and ARIEP to actual plant water availability and comparative water stress responsesmore » of six species with different capacities to regulate their internal water status. We found that PVI and ARIEP explained nearly all inter-annual variations in PLWPI for all species as well as for the community scaled from species measurements. The six species investigated showed differential sensitivities to variations in precipitation regimes. Their sensitivities were reflected more in the responses to PVI and ARIEP than to the mean precipitation rate. Further, they exhibited tradeoffs between responses to low and high PV. Finally, PVI and ARIEP were closely correlated with temporal integrals of positive temperature anomalies and vapor pressure deficit. We suggest that the comparative responses of plant species to PV are part of species-specific water use strategies in a plant community facing the uncertainty of fluctuating precipitation regimes. In conclusion, PVI and ARIEP should be adopted as key indices to quantify physiological drought and the ecological impacts of precipitation regimes in a changing climate.« less

  6. Elevated CO2 increases tree-level intrinsic water use efficiency: insights from carbon and oxygen isotope analyses in tree rings across three forest FACE sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna [Second University of Naples; Saurer, Matthias [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Cherubini, Paulo [WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research; Califapietra, Carlo [University of Tuscia; McCarthy, Heather R [Duke University; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Cotrufo, M. Francesca [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

    2013-01-01

    Elevated CO2 increases intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) of forests, but the magnitude of this effect and its interaction with climate is still poorly understood. We combined tree ring analysis with isotope measurements at three Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE, POP-EUROFACE, in Italy; Duke FACE in North Carolina and ORNL in Tennessee, USA) sites, to cover the entire life of the trees. We used 13C to assess carbon isotope discrimination ( 13C ci/ca) and changes in WUEi, while direct CO2 effects on stomatal conductance were explored using 18O as a proxy. Across all the sites, elevated CO2 increased 13C-derived WUEi on average by 73% for Liquidambar styraciflua, 77% for Pinus taeda and 75% for Populus sp., but through different ecophysiological mechanisms. Our findings provide a robust means of predicting WUEi responses from a variety of tree species exposed to variable environmental conditions over time, and species-specific relationships that can help modeling elevated CO2 and climate impacts on forest productivity, carbon and water balances.

  7. The plant cell wall decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastwood, Daniel C.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Baker, Scott E.; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Vries, Ronald P. de; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hä; vard,; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José; L.; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José; A.; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kü; es, Ursula; Hibbett, David S.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hö; gberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Watkinson, Sarah C.

    2011-05-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood?residual lignin contributing up to 30percent of forest soil carbon?and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the ?dry rot? fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota

  8. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-31

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  9. Frequency Response Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could leadmore » to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.« less

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  11. The biological diversity conservation district: A rain forest conservation tool for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simons, M.

    1995-12-01

    Over the next twenty years, the Earth`s rain forests may decrease by forty percent! This paper presents a revolutionary corporate entity for the protection of those forests, the biological diversity conservation district (biodistricts). The underlying cause of rain forest destruction is unfettered competition for limited resources. The competitors are many: farmers, business, local and national governments, the biotechnology and ecotourism industries, multinational companies, public utilities, and indigenous groups. To varying degrees, all compete within the marketplace. biodistricts will bring together two forces once thought to be antithetical: conservation an development. They will be set up in corporate form, owned and controlled by groups claiming access to the forest resources. Because the various groups will fight for the same resources habitats, ecosystems, and genetic diversity-each will prevent the others from destroying them. The district members will ensure that all businesses maintain sustainable development practices because the economic success of the district depends upon the area`s natural beauty and biological diversity. This paper analyzes the effects on the culture, politics, economy and conservation there. It will conclude that the comprehensive approach taken by biodistricts is the only method for solving the problem of rain forest destruction; that it is economically feasible, culturally viable, and ethically defensible. By March 1, 1995, the paper will represent not only the culmination of eighteen months of research, writing and interviews regarding biological diversity conservation, but also the impetus to push the thinking of environmentalists and business persons in a new direction, perhaps the only direction that will allow the nations of the world to protect their forests for the next twenty years and beyond.

  12. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  13. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  14. COMMENTS AND RESPONSES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comments and Responses to the Tentative Agreement Regarding The Fast Flux Test Facility (Agreement Major Milestone Series M-81-00) August 1999 2 COMMENTS AND RESPONSES TO THE TENTATIVE AGREEMENT REGARDING THE FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY COMMENTS AND RESPONSES 1. Introduction In January 1997 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) changed the status of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) from deactivation to standby pending a decision, to be made by December 1998 on whether or not the facility will be

  15. AmeriFlux US-Ho2 Howland Forest (west tower)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollinger, David; Hollinger, David

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ho2 Howland Forest (west tower). Site Description - Closed conifer forest, minimal disturbance. References: Fernandez et al. (1993), Canadian Journal of Soil Science 73 317-328. Hollinger et al. (1999), Global Change Biology 5: 891-902. Savage KE, Davidson EA (2001), Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15 337-350. Scott et al. (2004), Environmental Management, Vol. 33, Supplement 1, pp. S9-S22. Hollinger et al. (2004), Global Change Biology 10: 1689-1706.

  16. AmeriFlux US-Ho3 Howland Forest (harvest site)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollinger, David; Hollinger, David

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ho3 Howland Forest (harvest site). Site Description - Closed conifer forest, minimal disturbance. References: Fernandez et al. (1993), Canadian Journal of Soil Science 73 317-328. Hollinger et al. (1999), Global Change Biology 5: 891-902. Savage KE, Davidson EA (2001), Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15 337-350. Scott et al. (2004), Environmental Management, Vol. 33, Supplement 1, pp. S9-S22. Hollinger et al. (2004), Global Change Biology 10: 1689-1706.

  17. AmeriFlux US-Ho1 Howland Forest (main tower)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollinger, David; Hollinger, David

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ho1 Howland Forest (main tower). Site Description - Closed conifer forest, minimal disturbance. References: Fernandez et al. (1993), Canadian Journal of Soil Science 73 317-328. Hollinger et al. (1999), Global Change Biology 5: 891-902. Savage KE, Davidson EA (2001), Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15 337-350. Scott et al. (2004), Environmental Management, Vol. 33, Supplement 1, pp. S9-S22. Hollinger et al. (2004), Global Change Biology 10: 1689-1706.

  18. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically Viable Forest Harvesting Practices That Increase Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, E.A.; Dail, D.B., Hollinger, D.; Scott, N.; Richardson, A.

    2012-08-02

    Forests provide wildlife habitat, water and air purification, climate moderation, and timber and nontimber products. Concern about climate change has put forests in the limelight as sinks of atmospheric carbon. The C stored in the global vegetation, mostly in forests, is nearly equivalent to the amount present in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Both voluntary and government-mandated carbon trading markets are being developed and debated, some of which include C sequestration resulting from forest management as a possible tradeable commodity. However, uncertainties regarding sources of variation in sequestration rates, validation, and leakage remain significant challenges for devising strategies to include forest management in C markets. Hence, the need for scientifically-based information on C sequestration by forest management has never been greater. The consequences of forest management on the US carbon budget are large, because about two-thirds of the {approx}300 million hectare US forest resource is classified as 'commercial forest.' In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere. However, forest management practices could be designed to meet the multiple goals of providing wood and paper products, creating economic returns from natural resources, while sequestering C from the atmosphere. The shelterwood harvest strategy, which removes about 30% of the basal area of the overstory trees in each of three successive harvests spread out over thirty years as part of a stand rotation of 60-100 years, may improve net C sequestration compared to clear-cutting because: (1) the average C stored on the land surface over a rotation increases, (2) harvesting only overstory trees means that a larger fraction of the harvested logs can be used for long-lived sawtimber products, compared to more pulp resulting from clearcutting, (3) the shelterwood cut encourages growth of subcanopy trees

  19. Demand Response- Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response is an electricity tariff or program established to motivate changes in electric use by end-use customers, designed to induce lower electricity use typically at times of high market prices or when grid reliability is jeopardized.

  20. Your Records Management Responsibilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Your Records Management Responsibilities Table of Contents INTRODUCTION RECORDS MANAGEMENT IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT RECORDS MANAGEMENT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY IMPORTANCE OF RECORDS MANAGEMENT YOUR RECORDS MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES RECORDS MANAGEMENT LIFE CYCLE ELECTRONIC RECORDS & RECORDKEEPING LAW, REGULATION, AND POLICY ASSISTANCE RECORDS MANAGEMENT TERMS 2 INTRODUCTION If you are a government employee or contractor working for a federal agency, records management is part of your

  1. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  2. CRA Comments & Responses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CRA Comments & Responses Home CRA - 2004 Final Recertification Decision CRA Comments & Responses CCA - 1996 CRA CARDs & TSDs CCA CARDs & TSDs Regulatory Tools Completeness Determination-Related Correspondence All EPA & DOE correspondence related to the determination of completeness and the CRA are provided below. Letter Transmitting EPA's CRA Completeness Determination (9/29/05) Notification of Completeness Determination EPA Letter # Subject 1 CRA Comments (5/20/04)

  3. Questions and Responses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Responses: Question 1: Would the Government consider accepting either CMMI-DEV or CMMI-SVC Level 3 or higher since there is majority of process areas are shared between the two constellations and repeatability of processes will not be reduced since both will require Level 3 or higher? Government Response: The Government has determined that CMMI-SVC is a relatively new methodology and is in agreement that there is a considerable overlap of process areas shared between the two constellations. The

  4. Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis of Baseline Carbon Emissions and Removal in Tropical Rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Benjamin Kroll; Carlos R. Vargas

    2006-01-10

    Conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land and pasture has reduced forest extent and the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation and reforestation can restore those ecosystem services. We have assessed forest species patterns, quantified deforestation and reforestation rates, and projected future baseline carbon emissions and removal in Amazon tropical rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru. The research area is a 4800 km{sup 2} buffer zone around the Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen, Bosque de Proteccion San Matias-San Carlos, and the Reserva Comunal Yanesha. A planned project for the period 2006-2035 would conserve 4000 ha of forest in a proposed 7000 ha Area de Conservacion Municipale de Chontabamba and establish 5600 ha of natural regeneration and 1400 ha of native species plantations, laid out in fajas de enriquecimiento (contour plantings), to reforest 7000 ha of agricultural land. Forest inventories of seven sites covering 22.6 ha in primary forest and 17 sites covering 16.5 ha in secondary forest measured 17,073 trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm. The 24 sites host trees of 512 species, 267 genera, and 69 families. We could not identify the family of 7% of the trees or the scientific species of 21% of the trees. Species richness is 346 in primary forest and 257 in the secondary forest. In primary forest, 90% of aboveground biomass resides in old-growth species. Conversely, in secondary forest, 66% of aboveground biomass rests in successional species. The density of trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm is 366 trees ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 533 trees ha{sup -1} in secondary forest, although the average diameter is 24 {+-} 15 cm in primary forest and 17 {+-} 8 cm in secondary forest. Using Amazon forest biomass equations and wood densities for 117 species, aboveground biomass is 240 {+-} 30 t ha{sup -1} in the primary sites and 90 {+-} 10 t ha{sup -1} in the

  5. Forest-atmosphere BVOC exchange in diverse and structurally complex canopies: 1-D modeling of a mid-successional forest in northern Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Alexander M.; Cheng, Susan J.; Ashworth, Kirsti; Guenther, Alex B.; Hardiman, Brady; Bohrer, Gil; Steiner, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Foliar emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC)dimportant precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosolsdvary widely by vegetation type. Modeling studies to date typi-cally represent the canopy as a single dominant tree type or a blend of tree types, yet many forests are diverse with trees of varying height. To assess the sensitivity of biogenic emissions to tree height vari-ation, we compare two 1-D canopy model simulations in which BVOC emission potentials are homo-geneous or heterogeneous with canopy depth. The heterogeneous canopy emulates the mid-successional forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). In this case, high-isoprene-emitting fo-liage (e.g., aspen and oak) is constrained to the upper canopy, where higher sunlight availability increases the light-dependent isoprene emission, leading to 34% more isoprene and its oxidation products as compared to the homogeneous simulation. Isoprene declines from aspen mortality are 10% larger when heterogeneity is considered. Overall, our results highlight the importance of adequately representing complexities of forest canopy structure when simulating light-dependent BVOC emissions and chemistry.

  6. Opal Creek Forest Preserve Act of 1994. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, August 8, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The legislative text proposes to provide for the establishment and management of the Opal Creek Forest Reserve in Oregon. The purpose of the Act is to protect and preserve the forests and watersheds in the Reserve. And to promote and conduct research regarding old-growth forests and for educators to provide scientifically credible information to the public.

  7. Method for calculating the value of bioanthropogenic emission of CO2 into the atmosphere resulted from forest cutting on the Russia`s territory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharova, O.K.

    1997-12-31

    Biotical anthropogenic CO2 emission Qb into the atmosphere is now the essential part from the industrial emission. Qb is equal to the deficit of forest productivity and appeared during the periodical forest cuttings. This flux may change slightly because of the full destroying of forest areas and reforestation measures, which lead to changes in full forest areas. Bioanthropogenic flux Qb is equal to the forest productivity deficit DP because of its periodical cuttings with the period td. The forest productivity P(t), where t is the forest age marked off the cutting moment, is rebuilding after cutting not immediately but during the time period tp. Suggested is the formula for calculation of Qb as the function of td and tp. This formula holds true only for a limited forest area. But it can be used for big forest parts supposing that these parts consist of small forest cutting areas with forest ages t distributed evenly between 0 and td. The Qb for world and Russia are calculated. Besides, we studied the possibility to decrease the greenhouse effect by means of decreasing biotical anthropogenic emission till 2025 without essential forest industry changes.

  8. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically viable Forest Harvesting Practices that Increase Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dail, David Bryan

    2012-08-02

    This technical report covers a 3-year cooperative agreement between the University of Maine and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station that focused on the characterization of forest stands and the assessment of forest carbon storage (see attached for detailed description of the project). The goal of this work was to compare estimates of forest C storage made via remeasurement of FIA-type plots with eddy flux measurements. In addition to relating whole ecosystem estimates of carbon storage to changes in aboveground biomass, we explored methodologies by partitioning growth estimates from periodic inventory measurements into annual estimates. In the final year, we remeasured plots that were subject to a shelterwood harvest over the winter of 2001-02 to assess the production of coarse woody debris by this harvest, to remeasure trees in a long-term stand first established by NASA, to carry out other field activities at Howland, and, to assess the importance of downed and decaying wood as well as standing dead trees to the C inputs to harvested and non harvested plots.

  9. Net carbon uptake has increased through warming-induced changes in temperate forest phenology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keenan, Trevor; Gray, Josh; Friedl, Mark; Toomey, Michael; Bohrer, Gil; Hollinger, David; Munger, J. William; OKeefe, John; Hans, Schmid; Wing, Ian; Yang, Bai; Richardson, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    The timing of phenological events exerts a strong control over ecosystem function and leads to multiple feedbacks to the climate system1. Phenology is inherently sensitive to temperature (though the exact sensitivity is disputed2) and recent warming is reported to have led to earlier spring, later autumn3,4 and increased vegetation activity5,6. Such greening could be expected to enhance ecosystem carbon uptake7,8, though reports also suggest decreased uptake for boreal forests4,9. Here we assess changes in phenology of temperate forests over the eastern US during the past two decades, and quantify the resulting changes in forest carbon storage. We combine long-term ground observations of phenology, satellite indices, and ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide flux measurements, along with 18 terrestrial biosphere models. We observe a strong trend of earlier spring and later autumn. In contrast to previous suggestions4,9 we show that carbon uptake through photosynthesis increased considerably more than carbon release through respiration for both an earlier spring and later autumn. The terrestrial biosphere models tested misrepresent the temperature sensitivity of phenology, and thus the effect on carbon uptake. Our analysis of the temperature-phenology-carbon coupling suggests a current and possible future enhancement of forest carbon uptake due to changes in phenology. This constitutes a negative feedback to climate change, and is serving to slow the rate of warming.

  10. Using biodiversity methods to assess the impacts of oil and gas development in tropical rain forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, D.P.; Silva del Poso, X. |

    1995-06-01

    Oil and gas development in tropical rain forests has attracted international attention because of the potentially adverse effects on the forest ecosystems. Biodiversity is a topic of particular concern, but is difficult to assess for small areas of disturbance. In July 1992 we used light traps to compare insect diversity at canopy and ground level as a means of detecting the impacts of an exploratory well site and related facilities within mature Amazonian rain forest in the Oriente Province of Ecuador. Replicate samples were collected at the well site, in a nearby area of agricultural development, and in a reference site within mature forest. Species richness was determined, and diversity indices were calculated for each set of samples. Results indicated that changes in diversity could be detected in the canopy and at ground level at the well site, but that the reduction in diversity was small. Biological diversity was substantially reduced in the area of agricultural development. Limitations and possible applications of this approach are discussed.

  11. Consequences of stand age and species functional trait changes on ecosystem water use of forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewers, Brent; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Mackay, D. Scott

    2011-07-22

    We tested whether using stomatal conductance could capture the dynamic in transpiration with forest age. To do this we by answered the question If we chose a reference stomatal conductance from one stand age of the entire chronosequence to put into a model, would modeled transpiration be biased from the other ages? with a resounding yes. We found that obtaining the right stomatal conductance was crucial for accurate models in two different chronosequences. This strongly suggests that stomatal conductance is the appropriate integrator of inter- and intra-species change in tree transpiration with forest age. If we had tried to use a single reference canopy stomatal conductance, it would not have been able to capture the variability in transpiration with stand age despite the suggestion that hydraulic limitation was consistently acting on the trees; the situation is even more complex in many boreal systems, where a transition to nonstomatal bryophytes may occur over the course of succession. Because we used a biophysical approach, even if our and other researchers chronosequences do not fit the assumptions, the results are still useful. Further, our synthesis of sap flux based estimates of tree transpiration showing a large dynamic suggest that our approach to modeling is crucial in the face of anthropogenic changes to forest age structure. We have now provided the framework for a mechanistically rigorous yet simple approach based on simple tree hydraulics to measuring and modeling stand transpiration with changing forest age and/or species composition.

  12. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  13. TCP Final Report: Measuring the Effects of Stand Age and Soil Drainage on Boreal Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Goulden

    2007-05-02

    This was a 6-year research project in the Canadian boreal forest that focused on using field observations to understand how boreal forest carbon balance changes during recovery from catastrophic forest fire. The project began with two overarching goals: (1) to develop techniques that would all the year round operation of 7 eddy covariance sites in a harsh environment at a much lower cost than had previously been possible, and (2) to use these measurements to determine how carbon balance changes during secondary succession. The project ended in 2006, having accomplished its primary objectives. Key contributions to DOE during the study were: (1) Design, test, and demonstrate a lightweight, fully portable eddy flux system that exploits several economies of scale to allow AmeriFlux-quality measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange at many sites for a large reduction in cost (Goulden et al. 2006). (2) Added seven year-round sites to AmeriFlux, at a relatively low per site cost using the Eddy Covariance Mesonet approach (Goulden et al. 2006). These data are freely available on the AmeriFlux web site. (3) Tested and rejected the conventional wisdom that forests lose large amounts of carbon during the first decade after disturbance, then accumulate large amounts of carbon for {approx}several decades, and then return to steady state in old age. Rather, we found that boreal forests recovers quickly from fire and begins to accumulate carbon within {approx}5 years after disturbance. Additionally, we found no evidence that carbon accumulation declines in old stands (Goulden et al. 2006, Goulden et al. in prep). (4) Tested and rejected claims based on remote sensing observations (for example, Myneni et al 1996 using AVHRR) that regions of boreal forest have changed markedly in the last 20 years. Rather, we assembled a much richer data set than had been used in the past (eddy covariance observations, tree rings, biomass, NPP, AVHRR, and LandSat), which we used to establish that the

  14. BPA-2015-00598-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    number in any correspondence with the agency about your request. You requested: the land-use form for Zena Farm and Forest that was submitted by Willamette University in 2007"...

  15. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  16. Roles & Responsibilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roles & Responsibilities PDF icon Roles & Responsibilities.pdf Responsible Contacts Donna Friend HUMAN RESOURCES SPECIALIST E-mail donna.friend@hq.doe.dov Phone 202-586-5880 More ...

  17. Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Fisk, Justin P.; Holm, Jennifer; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher

    2015-01-27

    Disturbance-induced tree mortality is a key factor regulating the carbon balance of a forest, but tree mortality and its subsequent effects are poorly represented processes in terrestrial ecosystem models. It is thus unclear whether models can robustly simulate moderate (non-catastrophic) disturbances, which tend to increase biological and structural complexity and are increasingly common in aging US forests. We tested whether three forest ecosystem models – Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), a classic big-leaf model, and the ZELIG and ED (Ecosystem Demography) gap-oriented models – could reproduce the resilience to moderate disturbance observed in an experimentally manipulated forest (the Forest Accelerated Succession Experimentmore » in northern Michigan, USA, in which 38% of canopy dominants were stem girdled and compared to control plots). Each model was parameterized, spun up, and disturbed following similar protocols and run for 5 years post-disturbance. The models replicated observed declines in aboveground biomass well. Biome-BGC captured the timing and rebound of observed leaf area index (LAI), while ZELIG and ED correctly estimated the magnitude of LAI decline. None of the models fully captured the observed post-disturbance C fluxes, in particular gross primary production or net primary production (NPP). Biome-BGC NPP was correctly resilient but for the wrong reasons, and could not match the absolute observational values. ZELIG and ED, in contrast, exhibited large, unobserved drops in NPP and net ecosystem production. The biological mechanisms proposed to explain the observed rapid resilience of the C cycle are typically not incorporated by these or other models. It is thus an open question whether most ecosystem models will simulate correctly the gradual and less extensive tree mortality characteristic of moderate disturbances.« less

  18. Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Fisk, Justin P.; Holm, Jennifer; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher

    2015-01-27

    Disturbance-induced tree mortality is a key factor regulating the carbon balance of a forest, but tree mortality and its subsequent effects are poorly represented processes in terrestrial ecosystem models. It is thus unclear whether models can robustly simulate moderate (non-catastrophic) disturbances, which tend to increase biological and structural complexity and are increasingly common in aging US forests. We tested whether three forest ecosystem models – Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), a classic big-leaf model, and the ZELIG and ED (Ecosystem Demography) gap-oriented models – could reproduce the resilience to moderate disturbance observed in an experimentally manipulated forest (the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in northern Michigan, USA, in which 38% of canopy dominants were stem girdled and compared to control plots). Each model was parameterized, spun up, and disturbed following similar protocols and run for 5 years post-disturbance. The models replicated observed declines in aboveground biomass well. Biome-BGC captured the timing and rebound of observed leaf area index (LAI), while ZELIG and ED correctly estimated the magnitude of LAI decline. None of the models fully captured the observed post-disturbance C fluxes, in particular gross primary production or net primary production (NPP). Biome-BGC NPP was correctly resilient but for the wrong reasons, and could not match the absolute observational values. ZELIG and ED, in contrast, exhibited large, unobserved drops in NPP and net ecosystem production. The biological mechanisms proposed to explain the observed rapid resilience of the C cycle are typically not incorporated by these or other models. It is thus an open question whether most ecosystem models will simulate correctly the gradual and less extensive tree mortality characteristic of moderate disturbances.

  19. Personal PM2.5 exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel, B.; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke, P.

    2011-07-15

    This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM{sub 2.5} and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: 'none' or 'very little,' 'low,' 'moderate,' 'high,' and 'very high.' An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM{sub 2.5} ranged from 5.9-2673 {mu}g/m{sup 3} on burn days. Geometric mean PM{sub 2.5} exposure was 280 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 140, 557 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 10, 26 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM{sub 2.5} differed across levels of the firefighters categorical self-assessments of exposure (p < 0.0001): none to very little = 120 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 71, 203 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and high to very high = 664 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 373, 1185 {mu}g/m{sup 3}); p < 0.0001 on burn days. Time-weighted average PM{sub 2.5} and personal CO averaged over the run times of PM{sub 2.5} pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH{reg_sign}-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m{sup 3} for respirable particulate matter in a few

  20. Demand Response | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the operation of the electric grid by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during peak periods in response to time-based rates or other forms of financial incentives. Demand response programs are being used by electric system planners and operators as resource options for balancing supply and demand. Such programs can lower the cost of electricity in

  1. Supervisor Responsibilities at Berkeley Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supervisor Responsibilities at Berkeley Lab This online course will help both new and experienced supervisors better understand key knowledge and responsibilities needed to be an...

  2. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  3. General Responsibilities and Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The material presented in this guide provides suggestions and acceptable ways of implementing DOE M 435.1-1 and should not be viewed as additional or mandatory requirements. The objective of the guide is to ensure that responsible individuals understand what is necessary and acceptable for implementing the requirements of DOE M 435.1-1.

  4. Development of RAMS-CMAQ to Simulate Aerosol Optical Depth and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Its Application to East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Li-Li

    2009-11-16

    The air quality modeling system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) is developed to simulate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol direct forcing (DF). The aerosol-specific extinction, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor are parameterized based on Mie theory taking into account the aerosol size distribution, composition, refractive index, and water uptake of solution particles. A two-stream solar radiative model considers all gaseous molecular absorption, Rayleigh scattering, and aerosols and clouds. RAMSCMAQ is applied to simulate all major aerosol concentrations (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon, black carbon, fine soil, and sea salt) and AOD and DF over East Asia in 2005. To evaluate its performance, the simulated AOD values were compared with ground-based in situ measurements. The comparison shows that RAMSCMAQ performed well in most of the model domain and generally captured the observed variations. High AOD values (0.2−1.0) mainly appear in the Sichuan Basin as well as in central and southeastern China. The geographic distribution of DF generally follows the AOD distribution patterns, and the DF at the top-of-the-atmosphere is less than −25 and −20 W m−2 in clear-sky and all-sky over the Sichuan Basin. Both AOD and DF exhibit seasonal variations with lower values in July and higher ones in January. The DF could obviously be impacted by high cloud fractions.

  5. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake

    2001-05-30

    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995.

  6. Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stith T.Gower

    2010-03-03

    A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground

  7. Climate Change Response

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Interior Climate Change Response "From the Everglades to the Great Lakes to Alaska and everywhere in between, climate change is a leading threat to natural and cultural resources across America, and tribal communities are often the hardest hit by severe weather events such as droughts, floods and wildfires" - Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell "Impacts of climate change are increasingly evident for American Indian and Alaska Native communities and, in some cases, threaten

  8. Response Resources Demonstration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY Final Technical Report Award Number: DE-FC26-08NT02869 Project Type: Regional Demonstration Principal Investigator: Andre Wellington, Project Manager, Smart Grid Implementation Group Recipient: Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. Team members: Innoventive Power and Verizon Communications Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. Taxpayer ID Number: 13-5009340 Organizational DUNS: 00-698-2359 4 Irving Place New York,

  9. Structural response synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozisik, H.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    The open loop control technique of predicting a conditioned input signal based on a specified output response for a second order system has been analyzed both analytically and numerically to gain a firm understanding of the method. Differences between this method of control and digital closed loop control using pole cancellation were investigated as a follow up to previous experimental work. Application of the technique to diamond turning using a fast tool is also discussed.

  10. ACCELERATION RESPONSIVE SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chabrek, A.F.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1963-07-01

    An acceleration-responsive device with dual channel capabilities whereby a first circuit is actuated upon attainment of a predetermined maximum acceleration level and when the acceleration drops to a predetermined minimum acceleriltion level another circuit is actuated is described. A fluid-damped sensing mass slidably mounted in a relatively frictionless manner on a shaft through the intermediation of a ball bushing and biased by an adjustable compression spring provides inertially operated means for actuating the circuits. (AEC)

  11. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  12. AmeriFlux CA-SF3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Amiro, Brian [University of Manitoba; Canadian Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998.. Site Description - The 1998 burn site (F98) was in the east part of Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, in the Waskesiu Fire, ignited by lightning that burned about 1700 ha in July 1998. The pre-fire forest consisted of jack pine and black spruce stands, with some intermixed aspen. The fire was severe, consuming much of the top layer of organic soil and killing all trees. In 2001, much of the regenerating vegetation consisted of aspen saplings about 1 m tall and shorter jack pine and black spruce seedlings. An overstory of dead, leafless jack pine trees dominated at a height of 18 m. Sparse grass and herbs, such as fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.) covered the ground. There were a large number of fallen dead trees, mostly perched above the ground and not decomposing quickly.

  13. AmeriFlux US-Dk3 Duke Forest - loblolly pine

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Novick, Kim [Indiana University; Oishi, Chris [USDA Forest Service; Stoy, Paul [Montana State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Dk3 Duke Forest - loblolly pine. Site Description - The site was established in 1983 following a clear cut and a burn. Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) seedlings were planted at 2.4m by 2.4m spacing and ecosystem development has not been managed after planting. Canopy height increased from 16m in 2001 to 18m in 2004. The canopy is comprised primarily of P. taeda with some emergent Liquidambar styraciflua L. and a diverse and growing understory with 26 different woody species of diameter breast height 42.5 cm. The flux tower lies upwind of the CO2-enriched components of the free atmosphere carbon enrichment (FACE) facility located in the same pine forest. EC instrumentation is at 20.2m on a 22m tower.

  14. High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Silk, Joseph E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a ''21 cm forest'' against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift (z?>10), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, G? < 1.5 10{sup ?7}. Our results also predict that the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with G? ? 7.5 10{sup ?8} for the single frequency band case and 4.0 10{sup ?8} for the multi-frequency band case.

  15. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the United States Forest Service: Caribou-Targhee National Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

    2014-06-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Caribou-Targhee National Forest (CTNF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. ITSNA acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory and CTNF for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from the Forest Service and CTNF personnel.

  16. Marker-free registration of forest terrestrial laser scanner data pairs with embedded confidence metrics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Van Aardt, Jan; Romanczyk, Paul; van Leeuwen, Martin; Kelbe, David; Cawse-Nicholson, Kerry

    2016-04-04

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has emerged as an effective tool for rapid comprehensive measurement of object structure. Registration of TLS data is an important prerequisite to overcome the limitations of occlusion. However, due to the high dissimilarity of point cloud data collected from disparate viewpoints in the forest environment, adequate marker-free registration approaches have not been developed. The majority of studies instead rely on the utilization of artificial tie points (e.g., reflective tooling balls) placed within a scene to aid in coordinate transformation. We present a technique for generating view-invariant feature descriptors that are intrinsic to the point cloud datamore » and, thus, enable blind marker-free registration in forest environments. To overcome the limitation of initial pose estimation, we employ a voting method to blindly determine the optimal pairwise transformation parameters, without an a priori estimate of the initial sensor pose. To provide embedded error metrics, we developed a set theory framework in which a circular transformation is traversed between disjoint tie point subsets. This provides an upper estimate of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) confidence associated with each pairwise transformation. Output RMSE errors are commensurate with the RMSE of input tie points locations. Thus, while the mean output RMSE=16.3cm, improved results could be achieved with a more precise laser scanning system. This study 1) quantifies the RMSE of the proposed marker-free registration approach, 2) assesses the validity of embedded confidence metrics using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, and 3) informs optimal sample spacing considerations for TLS data collection in New England forests. Furthermore, while the implications for rapid, accurate, and precise forest inventory are obvious, the conceptual framework outlined here could potentially be extended to built environments.« less

  17. Vegetation classification in southern pine mixed hardwood forests using airborne scanning laser point data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGaughey, Robert J.; Reutebuch, Stephen E.

    2012-09-01

    Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), making information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important to the

  18. Maintenance Plan Site A and Plot M Palos Forest Preserve, Cook County, Illinois

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Maintenance Plan Site A and Plot M Palos Forest Preserve, Cook County, Illinois January 2015 LMS/SAM/S01063-1.0 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for Site A and Plot M January 2015 Doc. No. S01063-1.0 Page i Contents Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................. iii 1.0 Introduction

  19. Removal of introduced inorganic content from chipped forest residues via air classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Aston, John E.; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert S.; Thompson, David N.

    2015-08-04

    Inorganic content in biomass decreases the efficiency of conversion processes, especially thermochemical conversions. The combined concentrations of specific ash forming elements are the primary attributes that cause pine residues to be considered a degraded energy conversion feedstock, as compared to clean pine. Air classification is a potentially effective and economical tool to isolate high inorganic content biomass fractions away from primary feedstock sources to reduce their ash content. In this work, loblolly pine forest residues were air classified into 10 fractions whose ash content and composition were measured. Ash concentrations were highest in the lightest fractions (5.8–8.5 wt%), and in a heavy fraction of the fines (8.9–15.1 wt%). The removal of fractions with high inorganic content resulted in a substantial reduction in the ash content of the remaining biomass in forest thinnings (1.69–1.07 wt%) and logging residues (1.09–0.68 wt%). These high inorganic content fractions from both forest residue types represented less than 7.0 wt% of the total biomass, yet they contained greater than 40% of the ash content by mass. Elemental analysis of the air classified fractions revealed the lightest fractions were comprised of high concentrations of soil elements (silicon, aluminum, iron, sodium, and titanium). However, the elements of biological origin including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, and phosphorous were evenly distributed throughout all air classified fractions, making them more difficult to isolate into fractions with high mineral concentrations. Under the conditions reported in this study, an economic analysis revealed air classification could be used for ash removal for as little as $2.23 per ton of product biomass. As a result, this study suggests air classification is a potentially attractive technology for the removal of introduced soil minerals from pine forest residues.

  20. Forest County Potawatomi Community: Assessing Energy Upgrades at Potawatomi Carter Casino Hotel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC) Tribal enrollment numbers about 1450 with about half living on reservation lands. The FCPC is a federally recognized Indian tribe governed by a 6 person Executive Council. * Originally located in Eastern Canada, the tribe migrated to the Western Lake Michigan area. As white settlers moved in, the tribe was relocated to Kansas. Many opposed removal and went to live in areas of Northern Wisconsin, Michigan and Canada. The tribe purchased its own land with

  1. Risk of large-scale fires in boreal forests of Finland under changing climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lehtonen, I.; Venäläinen, A.; Kamarainen, M.; Peltola, H.; Gregow, H.

    2016-01-21

    Here, the target of this work was to assess the impact of projected climate change on forest-fire activity in Finland with special emphasis on large-scale fires. In addition, we were particularly interested to examine the inter-model variability of the projected change of fire danger. For this purpose, we utilized fire statistics covering the period 1996-2014 and consisting of almost 20,000 forest fires, as well as daily meteorological data from five global climate models under representative concentration pathway RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The model data were statistically downscaled onto a high-resolution grid using the quantile-mapping method before performing the analysis. Inmore » examining the relationship between weather and fire danger, we applied the Canadian fire weather index (FWI) system. Our results suggest that the number of large forest fires may double or even triple during the present century. This would increase the risk that some of the fires could develop into real conflagrations which have become almost extinct in Finland due to active and efficient fire suppression. However, the results reveal substantial inter-model variability in the rate of the projected increase of forest-fire danger, emphasizing the large uncertainty related to the climate change signal in fire activity. We moreover showed that the majority of large fires in Finland occur within a relatively short period in May and June due to human activities and that FWI correlates poorer with the fire activity during this time of year than later in summer when lightning is a more important cause of fires.« less

  2. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    03.25.2015 Technology Area Review: Terrestrial Feedstocks Principal Investigator: Steve Taylor Organization: Auburn University This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Project Goals * Design and deploy machines and systems that can reduce delivered cost of woody biomass. - Design and

  3. ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bandwidth Study Report | Department of Energy Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report doe_bandwidth.pdf (1.41 MB) More Documents & Publications Bandwidth Study U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing AMO PEER REVIEW, MAY 28-29, 2015 Low Cost Carbon Fiber from Renewable Resources

  4. Removal of introduced inorganic content from chipped forest residues via air classification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Aston, John E.; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert S.; Thompson, David N.

    2015-08-04

    Inorganic content in biomass decreases the efficiency of conversion processes, especially thermochemical conversions. The combined concentrations of specific ash forming elements are the primary attributes that cause pine residues to be considered a degraded energy conversion feedstock, as compared to clean pine. Air classification is a potentially effective and economical tool to isolate high inorganic content biomass fractions away from primary feedstock sources to reduce their ash content. In this work, loblolly pine forest residues were air classified into 10 fractions whose ash content and composition were measured. Ash concentrations were highest in the lightest fractions (5.8–8.5 wt%), and inmore » a heavy fraction of the fines (8.9–15.1 wt%). The removal of fractions with high inorganic content resulted in a substantial reduction in the ash content of the remaining biomass in forest thinnings (1.69–1.07 wt%) and logging residues (1.09–0.68 wt%). These high inorganic content fractions from both forest residue types represented less than 7.0 wt% of the total biomass, yet they contained greater than 40% of the ash content by mass. Elemental analysis of the air classified fractions revealed the lightest fractions were comprised of high concentrations of soil elements (silicon, aluminum, iron, sodium, and titanium). However, the elements of biological origin including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, and phosphorous were evenly distributed throughout all air classified fractions, making them more difficult to isolate into fractions with high mineral concentrations. Under the conditions reported in this study, an economic analysis revealed air classification could be used for ash removal for as little as $2.23 per ton of product biomass. As a result, this study suggests air classification is a potentially attractive technology for the removal of introduced soil minerals from pine forest residues.« less

  5. Diagnosis & Correction of Soil Nutrient Limitations in Intensively managed southern pine forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Florida

    2002-10-25

    Forest productivity is one manner to sequester carbon and it is a renewable energy source. Likewise, efficient use of fertilization can be a significant energy savings. To date, site-specific use of fertilization for the purpose of maximizing forest productivity has not been well developed. Site evaluation of nutrient deficiencies is primarily based on empirical approaches to soil testing and plot fertilizer tests with little consideration for soil water regimes and contributing site factors. This project uses mass flow diffusion theory in a modeling context, combined with process level knowledge of soil chemistry, to evaluate nutrient bioavailability to fast-growing juvenile forest stands growing on coastal plain Spodosols of the southeastern U.S. The model is not soil or site specific and should be useful for a wide range of soil management/nutrient management conditions. In order to use the model, field data of fast-growing southern pine needed to be measured and used in the validation of the model. The field aspect of the study was mainly to provide data that could be used to verify the model. However, we learned much about the growth and development of fast growing loblolly. Carbon allocation patterns, root shoot relationships and leaf area root relationships proved to be new, important information. The Project Objectives were to: (1) Develop a mechanistic nutrient management model based on the COMP8 uptake model. (2) Collect field data that could be used to verify and test the model. (3) Model testing.

  6. Spring and summer contrast in new particle formation over nine forest areas in North America

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, F.; Luo, G.; Pryor, S. C.; Pillai, P. R.; Lee, S. H.; Ortega, J.; Schwab, J. J.; Hallar, A. G.; Leaitch, W. R.; Aneja, V. P.; et al

    2015-08-06

    Recent laboratory chamber studies indicate a significant role for highly oxidized low volatility organics in new particle formation (NPF) but the actual role of these highly oxidized low volatility organics in atmospheric NPF remains uncertain. Here, particle size distributions (PSDs) measured in nine forest areas in North America are used to characterize the occurrence and intensity of NPF and to evaluate model simulations using an empirical formulation in which formation rate is a function of the concentrations of sulfuric acid and low volatility organics from alpha-pinene oxidation (Nucl-Org), and using an ion-mediated nucleation mechanism (excluding organics; Nucl-IMN). On average, NPFmoreoccurred on ~ 70 % of days during March for the four forest sites with springtime PSD measurements, while NPF occurred on only ~ 10 % of days in July for all nine forest sites. Both Nucl-Org and Nucl-IMN schemes capture the observed high frequency of NPF in spring, but the Nucl-Org scheme significantly over-predicts while the Nucl-IMN scheme slightly under-predicts NPF and particle number concentrations in summer. Statistical analyses of observed and simulated ultrafine particle number concentrations and frequency of NPF events indicate that the scheme without organics agrees better overall with observations. The two schemes predict quite different nucleation rates (including their spatial patterns), concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol first indirect radiative forcing in North America, highlighting the need to reduce NPF uncertainties in regional and global earth system models.less

  7. LPG emergency response training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dix, R.B.; Newton, B.

    1995-12-31

    ROVER (Roll Over Vehicle for Emergency Response) is a specially designed and constructed unit built to allow emergency response personnel and LPG industry employees to get ``up close and personal`` with the type of equipment used for the highway transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This trailer was constructed to simulate an MC 331 LPG trailer. It has all the valves, piping and emergency fittings found on highway tankers. What makes this unit different is that it rolls over and opens up to allow program attendees to climb inside the trailer and see it in a way they have never seen one before. The half-day training session is composed of a classroom portion during which attendees will participate in a discussion of hazardous material safety, cargo tank identification and construction. The specific properties of LPG, and the correct procedures for dealing with an LPG emergency. Attendees will then move outside to ROVER, where they will participate in a walkaround inspection of the rolled over unit. All fittings and piping will be representative of both modern and older equipment. Participants will also be able to climb inside the unit through a specially constructed hatch to view cutaway valves and interior construction. While the possibility of an LPG emergency remains remote, ROVER represents Amoco`s continuing commitment to community, education, and safety.

  8. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Steven J; Oldham, Warren J; Murrell, Michael T; Katzman, Danny

    2010-12-07

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS

  9. Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authoritie...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities and Accountabilities Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles, Responsibilities, Authorities and ...

  10. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  11. Spatial and temporal variations of new particle formation in East Asia using an NPF-explicit WRF-chem model: North-south contrast in new particle formation frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Yutaka; Takami, A.; Takamura, T.; Yoon, Soh-joung; Kim, S. W.; Lim, Hyuntae; Fast, Jerome D.

    2013-10-27

    The new particle formation (NPF)-explicit version of the WRF-chem model, which we developed recently, can calculate the growth and sink of nucleated clusters explicitly with 20 aerosol size bins from 1 nm to 10 μm. In this study, the model is used to understand spatial and temporal variations of the frequency of NPF events and the concentrations of aerosols (condensation nuclei, CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) within the boundary layer in East Asia in spring 2009. Model simulations show distinct north-south contrast in the frequency and mechanism of NPF in East Asia. NPF mostly occurred over limited periods and regions between 30° and 45°N, such as northeast China, Korea, and Japan, including regions around active volcanoes (Miyakejima and Sakurajima). At these latitudes, NPF was considerably suppressed by high concentrations of preexisting particles under stagnant air conditions associated with high-pressure systems, while nucleation occurred more extensively on most days during the simulation period. Conversely, neither nucleation nor NPF occurred frequently south of 30°N because of lower SO2 emissions and H2SO4 concentrations. The period-averaged NPF frequency was 3 times higher at latitudes of 30° - 45°N than at latitudes of 20° - 30°N. The north-south contrast of NPF frequency is validated by surface measurements in outflow regions in East Asia. The period- and domain-averaged contribution of secondary particles is estimated to be 44% for CN (> 10 nm) and 26% for CCN at a supersaturation of 1.0% in our simulation, though the contribution is highly sensitive to the magnitudes and size distributions of primary aerosol emissions and the coefficients in the nucleation parameterizations.

  12. Nuclear deterrence in South Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagerty, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    Did India and Pakistan nearly fight a nuclear war in 1990? In a provocative 1993 article, Seymour M. Hersh claims that they did. During a crisis with India over the rapidly escalating insurgency in Kashmir, Pakistan openly deployed its main armored tank units along the Indian border and, in secret, placed its nuclear-weapons arsenal on alert. As a result, the Bush Administration became convinced that the world was on the edge of a nuclear exchange between Pakistan and India. Universe of cases is admittedly small, but my argument is supported by recent research indicating that preemptive attacks of any kind have been historically rarer than conventionally believed. The nuclear era has seen two instances of preventive attacks against nuclear facilities-the 1981 Israeli bombing of Iraq`s Osirak nuclear facility and the allied coalition`s 1991 air war against Iraq-but both of these actions were taken without fear of nuclear reprisal. In situations where nuclear retaliation has been a possibility, no leader of nuclear weapon state has chosen to launch a preemptive first strike. 97 refs.

  13. Assessment of boreal forest historical C dynamics in Yukon River Basin: relative roles of warming and fire regime change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Fengming [ORNL; Yi, Shuhua [Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS; McGuire, A. David [University of Alaska; Johnson, Kristopher D [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Liang, Jingjing [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Harden, Jennifer [USGS, Menlo Park, CA; Kasischke, Eric S. [University of Maryland, College Park; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service

    2012-01-01

    Carbon (C) dynamics of boreal forest ecosystems have substantial implications for efforts to mitigate the rise of atmospheric CO2 and may be substantially influenced by warming and changing wildfire regimes. In this study we applied a large-scale ecosystem model that included dynamics of organic soil horizons and soil organic matter characteristics of multiple pools to assess forest C stock changes of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) in Alaska, USA, and Canada from 1960 through 2006, a period characterized by substantial climate warming and increases in wildfire. The model was calibrated for major forests with data from long-term research sites and evaluated using a forest inventory database. The regional assessment indicates that forest vegetation C storage increased by 46 Tg C, but that total soil C storage did not change appreciably during this period. However, further analysis suggests that C has been continuously lost from the mineral soil horizon since warming began in the 1970s, but has increased in the amorphous organic soil horizon. Based on a factorial experiment, soil C stocks would have increased by 158 Tg C if the YRB had not undergone warming and changes in fire regime. The analysis also identified that warming and changes in fire regime were approximately equivalent in their effects on soil C storage, and interactions between these two suggests that the loss of organic horizon thickness associated with increases in wildfire made deeper soil C stocks more vulnerable to loss via decomposition. Subbasin analyses indicate that C stock changes were primarily sensitive to the fraction of burned forest area within each subbasin and that boreal forest ecosystems in the YRB are currently transitioning from being sinks to sources at ;0.7% annual area burned. We conclude that it is important for international mitigation efforts focused on controlling atmospheric CO2 to consider how climate warming and changes in fire regime may concurrently affect the CO2 sink

  14. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. The role of tropical forests on the world carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Lugo, A. E.; Liegel, B.

    1980-08-01

    Tropical forests constitute about half of the world's forest and are characterized by rapid rates of organic matter turnover and high storages of organic matter. Tropical forests are considered to be one of the most significant terrestrial elements in the equation that balances the carbon cycle of the world. As discussed in the paper by Tosi, tropical and subtropical latitudes are more complex in terms of climate and vegetation composition than temperate and boreal latitudes. The implications of the complexity of the tropics and the disregard of this complexity by many scientists is made evident in the paper by Brown and Lugo which shows that biomass estimates for tropical ecosystems have been overestimated by at least 100%. The paper by Brown shows that that rates of succession in the tropics are extremely rapid in terms of the ability of moist and wet forests to accumulate organic matter. Yet, in arid tropical Life Zones succession is slow. This leads to the idea that the question of whether tropical forests are sinks or sources of carbon must be analyzed in relation to Life Zones and to intensities of human activity in these Zones. The paper by Lugo presents conceptual models to illustrate this point and the paper by Tosi shows how land uses in the tropics also correspond to Life Zone characteristics. The ultimate significance of land use to the question of the carbon balance in a large region is addressed in the paper by Detwiler and Hall.

  15. Ecosystem-Atmosphere Exchange of Carbon, Water and Energy over a Mixed Deciduous Forest in the Midwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilo Dragoni; Hans Peter Schmid; C.S.B. Grimmond; J.C. Randolph; J.R. White

    2012-12-17

    During the project period we continued to conduct long-term (multi-year) measurements, analysis, and modeling of energy and mass exchange in and over a deciduous forest in the Midwestern United States, to enhance the understanding of soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon. At the time when this report was prepared, results from nine years of measurements (1998 - 2006) of above canopy CO2 and energy fluxes at the AmeriFlux site in the Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA (see Table 1), were available on the Fluxnet database, and the hourly CO2 fluxes for 2007 are presented here (see Figure 1). The annual sequestration of atmospheric carbon by the forest is determined to be between 240 and 420 g C m-2 a-1 for the first ten years. These estimates are based on eddy covariance measurements above the forest, with a gap-filling scheme based on soil temperature and photosynthetically active radiation. Data gaps result from missing data or measurements that were rejected in qua)lity control (e.g., during calm nights). Complementary measurements of ecological variables (i.e. inventory method), provided an alternative method to quantify net carbon uptake by the forest, partition carbon allocation in each ecosystem components, and reduce uncertainty on annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Biometric datasets are available on the Fluxnext database since 1998 (with the exclusion of 2006). Analysis for year 2007 is under completion.

  16. Temporal Scattering And Response

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided tomore » easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.« less

  17. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  18. Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software - Detector Response Function

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-05-13

    GADRAS-DRF uses a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the response of gamma-ray detectors incident radiation. The application includes provision for plotting measured and computed spectra and for characterizing detector response parameters based on measurements of a series of calibration sources (e.g., Ba-133, Cs-137, Co-60, and Th-228). An application program interface enables other programs to access the dynamic-link library that is used to compute spectra.

  19. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Fearnside, P.M. , Manaus, AM . Departmento de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  20. Toward A National Early Warning System for Forest Disturbances Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Phenology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HargroveJr., William Walter; Spruce, Joe; Gasser, Gerry; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2009-12-01

    We are using a statistical clustering method for delineating homogeneous ecoregions as a basis for identifying disturbances in forests through time over large areas, up to national and global extents. Such changes can be shown relative to past conditions, or can be predicted relative to present conditions, as with forecasts of future climatic change. This quantitative ecoregion approach can be used to predict destinations for populations whose local environments are forecast to become unsuitable and are forced to migrate as their habitat shifts, and is also useful for predicting the susceptibility of new locations to invasive species like Sudden Oak Death. EFETAC and our sister western center WWETAC, along with our NASA and ORNL collaborators, are designing a new national-scale early warning system for forest threats, called FIRST. Envisioned as a change-detection system, FIRST will identify all land surface cover changes at the MODIS observational scale, and then try to discriminate normal, expected seasonal changes from locations having unusual activity that may represent potential forest threats. As a start, we have developed new national data sets every 16 days from 2002 through 2008, based on land surface phenology, or timing of leaf-out in the spring and brown-down in the fall. Changes in such phenological maps will be shown to contain important information about vegetation health status across the United States. The standard deviation of the duration of fall can be mapped, showing places where length of fall is relatively constant or is variable in length from year to year.