National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for resolve problems respondents

  1. Expansion-loop enclosure resolves subsea line problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, S.K.; Alleyne, A.G.

    1998-08-03

    Recent design and construction of a Gulf of Mexico subsea pipeline illustrate the use of buried, enclosed expansion loops to resolve problems from expansion and upheaval buckling. Buried, subsea pipelines operating at high temperatures and pressures experience extreme compressive loads caused by the axial restraint of the soil. The high axial forces combined with imperfections in the seabed may overstress the pipeline or result in upheaval buckling. Typically, expansion loops, or doglegs, are installed to protect the pipeline risers from expansion and to alleviate axial forces. Buried expansion loops, however, are rendered virtually ineffective by the lateral restraint of the soil. Alternative methods to reduce expansion may increase the potential of upheaval buckling or overstressing the pipeline. Therefore, system design must consider expansion and upheaval buckling together. Discussed here are methods of prevention and control of expansion and upheaval buckling, evaluating the impact on the overall system.

  2. responding to emergencies

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1%2A en Responding to Emergencies http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsemergencyoperationscounterterrorismrespondingtoemergencies

  3. responding to emergencies

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1%2A en Responding to Emergencies http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsemergencyoperationscounterterrorismrespondingtoemergencies

  4. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Problem Scarcity of clean water leads to disease, death and often international tension. In many parts of the world, access to potable water is limited. The clean water supply...

  5. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tech Transfer Success Stories * 2012 Problem Optical coatings are ubiquitous, appearing on items that range from electronic devices, photographic lenses, and windows to aircraft sensors, photovoltaic cells, and lightweight plastic goggles for troops in the field. The coatings are applied to materials such as glass and ceramics, which protect or alter the way the material reflects and transmits light. However, the two main methods of applying these coatings - sputtering and chemical vapor

  6. Haier Repair Confusion Resolved | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Haier Repair Confusion Resolved Haier Repair Confusion Resolved April 26, 2010 - 12:28pm Addthis On January 7, 2010, DOE entered into a Consent Decree with Haier America regarding a problem with four models of Haier freezers that resulted in those freezers not achieving their advertised energy efficiency. DOE recently became aware that some consumers eligible for repairs were incorrectly told that they were not eligible. Haier has resolved the problem, and consumers are encouraged to contact

  7. First Responder Initial Response Procedure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this response flow chart is to provide first responders with guidance for response to a transportation accident involving radioactive material.

  8. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  9. LANL responds to radiological incident

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL responds to radiological incident LANL responds to radiological incident Multiple tests indicate no health risks to public or employees. August 27, 2012 Aerial view of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center(LANSCE). Aerial view of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The contamination poses no danger to the public. The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent spread of Technetium 99 by employees and contractors at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center August 27, 2012-The

  10. Cloud-Resolving Model Simulation and Mosaic Treatment of Subgrid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The development of cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and the extensive Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARMs) provide a unique opportunity for shading some lights on this problem. ...

  11. TIME-RESOLVED VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrei Tokmakoff, MIT; Paul Champion, Northeastern University; Edwin J. Heilweil, NIST; Keith A. Nelson, MIT; Larry Ziegler, Boston University

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE’s Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all five of DOE’s grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  12. Homeowners: Respond to Natural Gas Disruptions | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Natural Gas Disruptions Homeowners: Respond to Natural Gas Disruptions Homeowners: Respond to Natural Gas Disruptions Because natural gas is distributed through underground pipelines, delivery disruptions occur less often than electrical outages. Severe storms, flooding, and earthquakes can expose and break pipes, however. When disruptions do occur, it can take weeks or even months to restore. Homeowners should take care in identifying and reporting any problems, as they may pose substantial

  13. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  14. Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet

  15. Respond to the article | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Respond to the article Respond to the article April 15, 2014 - 5:30pm Use the form below to submit a question or comment to Ben Dotson about the article LabChat: The Science of...

  16. Respond to the article | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Respond to the article Respond to the article October 5, 2012 - 1:00pm Use the form below to submit a question or comment to Allison Casey about the article October is Energy...

  17. Time-Resolved FTIR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resolved FTIR - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  18. First Responders | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Responders | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

  19. Respond to the article | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Respond to the article Respond to the article May 27, 2015 - 4:05pm Use the form below to submit a question or comment to Christina Stowers about the article Conserving Water, One Drop at a Time. Your response * Your email (optional) Send message

  20. Respond to the article | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Respond to the article Respond to the article May 11, 2015 - 2:52pm Use the form below to submit a question or comment to Paul Lester about the article #AskEnergySaver: Answering Your Fuel Efficiency Questions. Your response * Your email (optional) Send message

  1. Respond to the article | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Respond to the article Respond to the article July 20, 2011 - 9:58am Use the form below to submit a question or comment about the article Our Commitment to Asian American and Pacific Islanders at the Department of Energy. Your response * Your email (optional) Send message

  2. Respond to the article | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Respond to the article Respond to the article December 10, 2012 - 12:43pm Use the form below to submit a question or comment to John Chu about the article Top 10 Tips to Save Energy and Money in the Winter. Your response * Your email (optional) Send message

  3. Respond to the article | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Respond to the article Respond to the article February 27, 2013 - 9:00am Use the form below to submit a question or comment to The Honorable LaDoris G. Harris about the article Today at 2:30 pm ET: Hangout With Science, Tech, and Innovation Leaders . Your response * Your email (optional) Send message

  4. Respond to the article | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Respond to the article Respond to the article March 21, 2013 - 12:00pm Use the form below to submit a question or comment to Rebecca Matulka about the article Home Energy Audits: Making Homes More Energy Efficient and Comfortable. Your response * Your email (optional) Send message

  5. Respond to the article | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Respond to the article Respond to the article April 22, 2013 - 4:57pm Use the form below to submit a question or comment to April Saylor about the article Ask Your Energy Innovation Hub Questions . Your response * Your email (optional) Send message

  6. Respond to the article | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Respond to the article Respond to the article June 20, 2014 - 12:30pm Use the form below to submit a question or comment to Christina Stowers about the article Making the Connection Between Water and Energy. Your response * Your email (optional) Send message

  7. QTR table of respondents | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    table of respondents QTR table of respondents PDF icon QTR_RFI_Comments_Table _V2.pdf More Documents & Publications Table of QTR comments in response to Federal Register RFI Table of QTR comments in response to Federal Register RFI Table of QTR comments in response to Federal Register RFI

  8. Business Owners: Respond to an Energy Emergency | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Respond to an Energy Emergency Business Owners: Respond to an Energy Emergency Business Owners: Respond to an Energy Emergency Ensure your building is safe to occupy-Initially ...

  9. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  10. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  11. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of wearables, with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  12. Emergency Responder Radioactive Material Quick Reference Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This job aid is a quick reference to assist emergency responders in identifying preliminary safety precautions that should be taken during the initial response phase after arrival at the scene of...

  13. Open Problems, Solved Problems !

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Problems, Solved Problems and Non-Problems in DOE's Big Data Kathy Y elick Professor o f E lectrical E ngineering a nd C omputer S ciences University o f C alifornia a t B...

  14. WIPP First Responders Earn Advanced Training Certifications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 1, 2015 WIPP First Responders Earn Advanced Training Certifications Recovery activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant continue to move in a positive direction. As part of increased emergency response capabilities, the WIPP Fire Department and Emergency Response Team are participating in advanced training, improving overall capabilities and receiving advanced certifications. Training and validation testing has included written examinations, as well as intense physical and practical

  15. First Responders | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Responders | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog

  16. Responding to Emergencies | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Responding to Emergencies | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working

  17. and Respond | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Respond | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home

  18. first responders | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    first responders | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA

  19. responding to emergencies | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    responding to emergencies | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working

  20. Review of Requirements and Capabilities for Analyzing and Responding...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Requirements and Capabilities for Analyzing and Responding to Beyond Design Basis Events, August 2011 Review of Requirements and Capabilities for Analyzing and Responding ...

  1. Homeowners: Respond to Power Outages | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidelines Homeowners: Respond to Power Outages Homeowners: Respond to Power Outages ... Learn more Certify your electrical systems-If your house sustains flood or wind damage ...

  2. Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations- Course Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation slides use in the Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations refresher training course.

  3. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015) (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Technical Report: Responder Technology Alert (February 2015) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Responder Technology Alert (February 2015) As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of "wearables," with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the

  4. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2014 Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2014-03-28

    This report summarizes commercially-available, hand-portable technologies that can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, this report is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use. Information listed in this report is primarily vendor-provided; however, where possible it has been supplemented with additional information obtained from publications, reports, and websites. Manufacturers were given the chance to review summaries of their technologies from August through November 2013 to verify the accuracy of technical specifications, available references, and pricing.

  5. Princeton Professor Resolves Complex Puzzle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    By relating two problems with equations to describe minimum-energy systems, Dr. Torquato found new tools to solve both.

  6. Utilities respond to nuclear station blackout rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, A.M.; Beasley, B.; Tenera, L.P

    1990-02-01

    The authors discuss how nuclear plants in the United States have taken actions to respond to the NRC Station Blackout Rule, 10CFR50.63. The rule requires that each light water cooled nuclear power plant licensed to operate must be able to withstand for a specified duration and recover from a station blackout. Station blackout is defined as the complete loss of a-c power to the essential and non-essential switch-gear buses in a nuclear power plant. A station blackout results from the loss of all off-site power as well as the on-site emergency a-c power system. There are two basic approaches to meeting the station blackout rule. One is to cope with a station blackout independent of a-c power. Coping, as it is called, means the ability of a plant to achieve and maintain a safe shutdown condition. The second approach is to provide an alternate a-c power source (AAC).

  7. Local Leaders: Respond to Fuel Shortages | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fuel Shortages Local Leaders: Respond to Fuel Shortages Local Leaders: Respond to Fuel Shortages Ensuring adequate fuel supplies is a key component in responding to energy emergencies. Fuel powers backup generators and allows emergency responders and utility workers to drive to where they are needed. Monitor petroleum supplies-Seek out accurate and timely information about petroleum supply, wholesale and retail prices, inventories, and production rates for State and regional refineries. Get in

  8. National Hydrogen Safety Training Resource for Emergency Responders Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Slides | Department of Energy Safety Training Resource for Emergency Responders Webinar Slides National Hydrogen Safety Training Resource for Emergency Responders Webinar Slides Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "National Hydrogen Safety Training Resource for Emergency Responders" held on March 24, 2015. PDF icon National Hydrogen Safety Training Resource for Emergency Responders Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications H2 Refuel H-Prize

  9. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library First Responder

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Responder Training NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - First Responder Training The aim of the First Responder Training is to provide a comprehensive, fully integrated system of facilities and capabilities to meet a wide range of combating terrorism requirements. Users of the First Responder Training can accomplish multiple requirements, conduct training and exercises in a variety of complex scenarios, and test new technologies in realistic

  10. Resolving local ambiguity using semantics of shape.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diegert, Carl F.

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate a new semantic method for automatic analysis of wide-area, high-resolution overhead imagery to tip and cue human intelligence analysts to human activity. In the open demonstration, we find and trace cars and rooftops. Our methodology, extended to analysis of voxels, may be applicable to understanding morphology and to automatic tracing of neurons in large-scale, serial-section TEM datasets. We defined an algorithm and software implementation that efficiently finds all combinations of image blobs that satisfy given shape semantics, where image blobs are formed as a general-purpose, first step that 'oversegments' image pixels into blobs of similar pixels. We will demonstrate the remarkable power (ROC) of this combinatorial-based work flow for automatically tracing any automobiles in a scene by applying semantics that require a subset of image blobs to fill out a rectangular shape, with width and height in given intervals. In most applications we find that the new combinatorial-based work flow produces alternative (overlapping) tracings of possible objects (e.g. cars) in a scene. To force an estimation (tracing) of a consistent collection of objects (cars), a quick-and-simple greedy algorithm is often sufficient. We will demonstrate a more powerful resolution method: we produce a weighted graph from the conflicts in all of our enumerated hypotheses, and then solve a maximal independent vertex set problem on this graph to resolve conflicting hypotheses. This graph computation is almost certain to be necessary to adequately resolve multiple, conflicting neuron topologies into a set that is most consistent with a TEM dataset.

  11. Local Leaders: Respond to Natural Gas Disruptions | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Natural Gas Disruptions Local Leaders: Respond to Natural Gas Disruptions Local Leaders: Respond to Natural Gas Disruptions Because natural gas is distributed through underground pipelines, delivery disruptions occur less often than electrical outages. Severe storms, flooding, and earthquakes can expose and break pipes, however. When disruptions do occur, it can take weeks or even months to restore. Communicate effectively with the public, and ensure that first responders and gas companies have

  12. In a mining accident, first responders are working against

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a mining accident, first responders are working against the clock and against a myriad of dangers such as debris, poisonous gases, flooding, explosive vapors, and unstable structures to assess the situation and rescue trapped miners. These unknown and potentially deadly conditions create a challenge for first responders and often limit their ability to assess the situation and respond in a timely matter. There is a need for a robotic system that could be used to support a mine rescue team,

  13. Review of Requirements and Capabilities for Analyzing and Responding to

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Beyond Design Basis Events, August 2011 | Department of Energy Review of Requirements and Capabilities for Analyzing and Responding to Beyond Design Basis Events, August 2011 Review of Requirements and Capabilities for Analyzing and Responding to Beyond Design Basis Events, August 2011 August 2011 Review of Requirements and Capabilities for Analyzing and Responding to Beyond Design Basis Events The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established a rigorous nuclear safety regulatory

  14. Business Owners: Respond to an Energy Emergency | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Respond to an Energy Emergency Business Owners: Respond to an Energy Emergency Business Owners: Respond to an Energy Emergency Ensure your building is safe to occupy-Initially allow only essential, critical-operations staff into restricted areas. Ask your local or State health department for guidance on determining the safety of your building. Decide whether to activate backup power-If your backup generator doesn't automatically turn on during a power outage, you'll have to determine when to

  15. Secretary of Energy's First Biennial Report to Congress Responding...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretary of Energy's First Biennial Report to Congress Responding to Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) Findings and Recommendations during Fiscal Year...

  16. ORISE: REAC/TS trains emergency responders in preparation for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REACTS trains emergency responders in preparation for Pan American Games Workshop in Mexico helps medical professionals prepare for treating victims of radiological or nuclear...

  17. HAZMAT Challenge gives regional emergency responders safe, realistic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improve their skills Simulated disasters give responders an opportunity to improve their skills Contact Community Programs Office Director Kurt Steinhaus Email Editor Linda...

  18. Anticipates and Responds to System Disturbances (Self-Heals)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentanticipates-and-responds-system-distu Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Financial Incentives,Regulations" is not in...

  19. EIA responds to Nature article on shale gas projections

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    EIA has responded to a December 4, 2014 Nature article on projections of shale gas production made by EIA and by the Bureau of Economic Geology of the University of Texas at Austin (BEG/UT) with a letter to the editors of Nature. BEG/UT has also responded to the article in their own letter to the editor.

  20. Known Problems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Known Problems Known Problems No Open Issues There are currently no open issues with Euclid. Read the full post Subscribe via RSS Subscribe Browse by Date January 2016 Last edited: 2016-02-01 08:06:54

  1. Known Problems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Problems Known Problems Viewing entries posted in 2001 There are no blog entries Subscribe via RSS Subscribe Browse by Date January 2016 Last edited: 2016-02-01 08:06:54

  2. Sandia Energy - Time-Resolved FTIR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    these vibrationally or electronically excited molecules, emission-based time-resolved Fourier transform spectroscopy (TR-FTS) can be a fruitful way to study the reaction rate,...

  3. Integrated experimental setup for angle resolved photoemission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Integrated experimental setup for angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy of transuranic materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated experimental setup for...

  4. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (Oct-Nov 2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-01-21

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  5. Webinar: National Hydrogen Safety Training Resource for Emergency Responders

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department's Fuel Cell Technologies Office announces the launch of a new, free, online national hydrogen safety training resource for emergency responders. This webinar will provide additional details about the emergency response hydrogen training resource.

  6. Homeowners: Respond to Fuel Shortages | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fuel Shortages Homeowners: Respond to Fuel Shortages Homeowners: Respond to Fuel Shortages Natural disasters and other hazards can impact the energy industry's ability to produce and distribute petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil. At the same time, the demand for fuel may spike due to evacuations, or because consumers are buying more fuel to power backup generators during electrical outages. All these factors may lead to fuel shortages, which will prompt local

  7. Homeowners: Respond to Power Outages | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Power Outages Homeowners: Respond to Power Outages Homeowners: Respond to Power Outages After a disaster, electric utilities and government officials will first work to restore power to critical infrastructure like power plants and transmission lines, water treatment facilities, and telecommunications networks, and also to hospitals, critical care facilities, and emergency response agencies. It may take several days or even weeks to restore power to individual homeowners, but here's what you can

  8. Local Leaders: Respond to an Energy Emergency | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Respond to an Energy Emergency Local Leaders: Respond to an Energy Emergency Gather information-Tap the energy and emergency contacts you established before the disaster occurred to gather information and assess the nature of the emergency before moving forward with your response. What immediate damage has impacted energy assets? What is the extent of the damage? Who in the community is currently impacted? Is it possible to provide the community access to a place unaffected by the energy

  9. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015) (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Technical Report: Responder Technology Alert (February 2015) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Responder Technology Alert (February 2015) × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also

  10. DOE Monitoring Energy Infrastructure, Responds as Isaac Makes Landfall |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Monitoring Energy Infrastructure, Responds as Isaac Makes Landfall DOE Monitoring Energy Infrastructure, Responds as Isaac Makes Landfall August 29, 2012 - 11:45am Addthis Hurricane Isaac is makes its way toward the Gulf Coast and the Energy Department provides details on the storm’s impact, and the recovery and restoration activities being undertaken. | Photo courtesy of NOAA Hurricane Isaac is makes its way toward the Gulf Coast and the Energy Department provides

  11. Responding to Solicitations Under DOE Work For Others Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RESPONDING TO SOLICITATIONS UNDER DOE WORK FOR OTHERS PROGRAM PURPOSE: To provide guidance on the Department's policy related to DOE's laboratories ability to respond to solicitations from non-DOE sponsors under the Work for Others (WFO) program. SCOPE: This chapter provides guidance on the effect of laws, regulations, and statutes to DOE/NNSA WFO policy related to the prohibition of DOE Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs) and other facilities from competing directly with

  12. Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources

  13. DOE Responds to Advisory Board Recommendation on Groundwater Studies |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Recommendation on Groundwater Studies DOE Responds to Advisory Board Recommendation on Groundwater Studies August 26, 2014 - 3:05pm Addthis The Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM) has responded to a recommendation made earlier this year by the Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board (ORSSAB). In May, the federally appointed citizens' panel recommended that DOE conduct additional groundwater studies to address any potential

  14. DOE Responds to Advisory Board Recommendation | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Recommendation DOE Responds to Advisory Board Recommendation August 12, 2014 - 1:37pm Addthis The Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM) has responded to a recommendation made earlier this year by the Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board (ORSSAB). In May, the federally appointed citizens' panel recommended that DOE continue to plan for additional on-site waste disposal capacity on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for low-level radioactive and

  15. Methodology for Assessing Radiation Detectors Used by Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piotr Wasiolek; April Simpson

    2008-03-01

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction terrorism resulted in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security deploying large quantities of radiation detectors throughout the emergency responder community. However, emergency responders specific needs were not always met by standard health physics instrumentation used in radiation facilities. Several American National Standards Institute standards were developed and approved to evaluate the technical capabilities of detection equipment. Establishing technical capability is a critical step, but it is equally important to emergency responders that the instruments are easy to operate and can withstand the rugged situations they encounter. The System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program (managed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Grants and Training, Systems Support Division) focuses predominantly on the usability, ergonomics, readability, and other features of the detectors, rather than performance controlled by industry standards and the manufacturers. National Security Technologies, LLC, as a SAVER Technical Agent, conducts equipment evaluations using active emergency responders who are familiar with the detection equipment and knowledgeable of situations encountered in the field, which provides more relevant data to emergency responders.

  16. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence and Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, W. K.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Dippo, P.; Geisz, J.; Wanlass, M. W.; Kurtz, S.

    2005-01-01

    The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) technique and its ability to characterize recombination in bulk photovoltaic semiconductor materials are reviewed. Results from a variety of materials and a few recent studies are summarized and compared.

  17. SimTable key tool for preparing, responding to wildfire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SimTable key tool for preparing, responding to wildfire SimTable key tool for preparing, responding to wildfire Camera tracks movement and objects and project them onto a sand table. May 30, 2012 SimTable: Stephen Guerin (L) and Chip Garner (R) with SimTable, a Santa Fe company helping firefighters model and predict where a fire is most likely to spread, received support for their business through Lab economic development programs: VAF, NMSBA, Springboard. SimTable: Stephen Guerin (L) and Chip

  18. Responding To Hurricane Sandy: DOE Situation Reports | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Responding To Hurricane Sandy: DOE Situation Reports Responding To Hurricane Sandy: DOE Situation Reports November 7, 2012 - 11:15am Addthis Sandy made landfall as a post-tropical cyclone on the southern coast of New Jersey near Atlantic City at 8 p.m. on October 29, with top sustained winds of 80 mph. | Photo courtesy of NOAA. Sandy made landfall as a post-tropical cyclone on the southern coast of New Jersey near Atlantic City at 8 p.m. on October 29, with top sustained winds of 80 mph. | Photo

  19. Energy Department Emergency Response Team Ready to Respond to Hurricane

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Irene | Department of Energy Emergency Response Team Ready to Respond to Hurricane Irene Energy Department Emergency Response Team Ready to Respond to Hurricane Irene August 26, 2011 - 12:15pm Addthis Hurricane Irene made landfall at approximately 7:30 am EDT near Cape Lookout, North Carolina with maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (Category 1). This NOAA GOES-13 satellite image captures Irene’s landfall moment. | Image courtesy of NOAA Hurricane Irene made landfall at approximately 7:30

  20. Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations- Instructors Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this program is to provide refresher operations training, as well as in-depth training in radiation, to fire fighters who are currently trained to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials (NFPA 472).

  1. Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations- Student Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this program is to provide refresher operations training, as well as in-depth training in radiation, to fire fighters who are currently trained to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials (NFPA 472).

  2. NNSA Releases New Nuclear Prevent, Counter, and Respond Report | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration New Nuclear Prevent, Counter, and Respond Report | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press

  3. Livermore researchers create new technology for first responders | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration researchers create new technology for first responders | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press

  4. NNSA helps train first responders in Czech Republic | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration helps train first responders in Czech Republic | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo

  5. NNSA participates in nationwide RadResponder drill | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration participates in nationwide RadResponder drill | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo

  6. Showerhead Manufacturer Agrees to Civil Penalty to Resolve Enforcement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Showerhead Manufacturer Agrees to Civil Penalty to Resolve Enforcement Action Showerhead Manufacturer Agrees to Civil Penalty to Resolve Enforcement Action July 18, 2011 - 2:06pm ...

  7. Verifying the Benefits and Resolving the Issues in the Commercializati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Benefits and Resolving the Issues in the Commercialization of Ethanol Containing Diesel Fuels Verifying the Benefits and Resolving the Issues in the Commercialization of...

  8. EGR Spatial Uniformity & Cylinder-Resolved Transients-Measurements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spatial Uniformity & Cylinder-Resolved Transients-Measurements using an Absorption Spectroscopy Probe EGR Spatial Uniformity & Cylinder-Resolved Transients-Measurements using an...

  9. RESOLVED: Projectb filesystem outage July 9, 2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RESOLVED: Projectb filesystem outage July 9, 2012 RESOLVED: Projectb filesystem outage July 9, 2012 July 9, 2012 The projectb filesystem had a hardware failure that potentially generated I/O errors. The filesystem logs indicate that the earliest abnormal event on the filesystem occurred at 9:19AM and the filesystem was taken down for maintenance at 10:42AM. The filesystem returned to service at 11:20AM. Jobs running on the cluster would not have been able to read from or write to the projectb

  10. Apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Wilde, Tyson; Barlow, Jonathan S.

    2010-04-13

    A method of responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a bore hole comprises detecting the anomalous change in downhole pressure, sending a signal along the segmented electromagnetic transmission path, receiving the signal, and performing a automated response. The anomalous change in downhole pressure is detected at a first location along a segmented electromagnetic transmission path, and the segmented electromagnetic transmission path is integrated into the tool string. The signal is received by at least one receiver in communication with the segmented electromagnetic transmission path. The automated response is performed along the tool string. Disclosed is an apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a downhole tool string, comprising a segmented electromagnetic transmission path connecting one or more receivers and at least one pressure sensor.

  11. U.S. First Responder Safety Training for Advanced Electric Drive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    First Responder Safety Training for Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Presentation U.S. First Responder Safety Training for Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Presentation 2010 DOE...

  12. The Sedov Test Problem (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Sedov Test Problem Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sedov Test Problem The Sedov test is classically defined as a point blast problem. The Sedov problem has led us to advances in algorithms and in their understanding. Vorticity generation can be physical or numerical. Both play a role in Sedov calculations. The RAGE code (Eulerian) resolves the shock well, but produces vorticity. The source definition matters. For the FLAG code (Lagrange), CCH is superior to SGH by avoiding

  13. A Global Cloud Resolving Model Goals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Cloud Resolving Model Goals Uniform global horizontal grid spacing of 4 km or better ("cloud permitting") 100 or more layers up to at least the stratopause Parameterizations of microphysics, turbulence (including small clouds), and radiation Execution speed of at least several simulated days per wall-clock day on immediately available systems Annual cycle simulation by end of 2011. Motivations Parameterizations are still problematic. There are no spectral gaps. The equations

  14. Resolved: Hopper /scratch file system slow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hopper /scratch file system slow Resolved: Hopper /scratch file system slow August 6, 2014 Symptom: Users have reported scripts hung when involving file copies from/to the /scratch file system, or jobs running in /scratch are slower than before since late last week. Workaround: If it is convenient, move your workflow to /scratch2 temporarily, avoid any reference to /scratch. It includes setting your input files directory, your batch job submission directory, your executable file location, and

  15. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  16. A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-temperature and ... Title: A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-temperature ...

  17. Civil Penalty Actions For Certification Violations Resolved | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Civil Penalty Actions For Certification Violations Resolved Civil Penalty Actions For Certification Violations Resolved May 6, 2010 - 12:39pm Addthis Today, the Department of Energy announced that it had resolved civil penalty actions against four showerhead manufacturers for having violated the Department's water conservation certification regulations. To resolve these actions Zoe Industries, Altmans Products LLC, EZ-FLO International, and Watermark Designs Ltd. have now certified

  18. Resonant state expansion of the resolvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, T.; Lind, P. )

    1993-02-01

    An analytic method of generating resonant state expansions from the standard completeness relation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is described and shown to reproduce the generalized completeness relations, earlier derived, involving resonant states. The method is then applied to the expansion of the resolvent (the complete Green's function), the symmetry properties of which [ital seem] to be destroyed if a conventional application of the completeness relations is made. These forms of expansions have a continuum term which contains symmetry-restoring contributions and can therefore never vanish identically, nor can it be neglected. The symmetry-conserving form of the expansion has a set of discrete terms which are identical in form to those of the Mittag-Leffler series for the resolvent. In addition, it contains a continuum contribution which in some cases vanishes identically, but in general does not. We illustrate these findings with numerical applictions in which the potential (a square well) is chosen so as to permit analytic evaluation of practically all functions and quantities involved.

  19. High resolving power spectrometer for beam analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moshammer, H.W.; Spencer, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    We describe a system designed to analyze the high energy, closely spaced bunches from individual RF pulses. Neither a large solid angle nor momentum range is required so this allows characteristics that appear useful for other applications such as ion beam lithography. The spectrometer is a compact, double-focusing QBQ design whose symmetry allows the Quads to range between F or D with a correspondingly large range of magnifications, dispersion and resolving power. This flexibility insures the possibility of spatially separating all of the bunches along the focal plane with minimal transverse kicks and bending angle for differing input conditions. The symmetry of the system allows a simple geometric interpretationof the resolving power in terms of thin lenses and ray optics. We discuss the optics and the hardware that is proposed to measure emittance, energy, energy spread and bunch length for each bunch in an RF pulse train for small bunch separations. We also discuss how to use such measurements for feedback and feedforward control of these bunch characteristics as well as maintain their stability. 2 refs.

  20. B&W Y-12 Responds to IG Report; Puts WSI on Notice | Y-12 National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Responds to IG ... B&W Y-12 Responds to IG Report; Puts WSI on Notice Posted: September 5, 2012 - 12:01pm In the weeks since the security incursion at the Y-12 National Security...

  1. B&W Y-12 responds to NNSA's show cause letter | Y-12 National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    responds to ... B&W Y-12 responds to NNSA's show cause letter Posted: September 12, 2012 - 3:29pm On September 10, B&W Y-12 provided its response to the National Nuclear Security...

  2. Can the Quantum Measurement Problem be Resolved within the Framework of Schroedinger Dynamics and Quantum Probability?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sewell, Geoffrey

    2007-12-03

    We provide an affirmative answer to the question posed in the title. Our argument is based on a treatment of the Schroedinger dynamics of the composite, S{sub c}, of a quantum microsystem, S, and a macroscopic measuring apparatus, J, consisting of N interacting particles. The pointer positions of this apparatus are represented by subspaces of its representative Hilbert space that are simultaneous eigenspaces of coarse-grained intercommuting macroscopic observables. By taking explicit account of their macroscopicality, we prove that, for suitably designed apparatus J, the evolution of the composite S{sub c} leads both to the reduction of the wave-packet of S and to a one-to-one correspondence between the resultant state of this microsystem and the pointer position of J, up to utterly neglible corrections that decrease exponentially with N.

  3. Nationwide: National Fire Protection Association Provides Training to First Responders on EVs/PEVs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE is helping develop a strong workforce to support the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles, including first responders.

  4. DOE Office of Enforcement Resolves 20 Energy Efficiency Enforcement Cases |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Resolves 20 Energy Efficiency Enforcement Cases DOE Office of Enforcement Resolves 20 Energy Efficiency Enforcement Cases June 3, 2011 - 5:04pm Addthis The Department of Energy's Office of Enforcement today announced that it has resolved the 20 enforcement cases it brought in April 2011 against companies for failing to certify that their products comply with the Department's energy and water use standards. The certification requirement generates important information

  5. DOE Resolves Nearly All of its September 2010 Certification Enforcement

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Actions | Department of Energy Resolves Nearly All of its September 2010 Certification Enforcement Actions DOE Resolves Nearly All of its September 2010 Certification Enforcement Actions October 19, 2010 - 10:39am Addthis The Energy Department's new Office of Enforcement, part of the General Counsel's Office, announced today that it has now successfully resolved 26 of the 30 certification enforcement cases brought in September 2010 as part of the Department's ongoing enforcement initiative.

  6. DOE Successfully Resolves Three Enforcement Cases and Files Yet Another |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Successfully Resolves Three Enforcement Cases and Files Yet Another DOE Successfully Resolves Three Enforcement Cases and Files Yet Another September 29, 2010 - 5:24pm Addthis The Department has resolved three more of the 27 certification enforcement cases initiated three weeks ago and issued one additional penalty notice to Nordyne, LLC for failure to certify certain air conditioner and heat pump products. These actions reflect the Department's continued aggressive

  7. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, EE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP ...

  8. DOE Resolves Nearly All of its September 2010 Certification Enforcemen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nearly All of its September 2010 Certification Enforcement Actions DOE Resolves Nearly All of its September 2010 Certification Enforcement Actions October 19, 2010 - 10:39am ...

  9. Resolving Material-Specific Structures within Fe[subscript 3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resolving Material-Specific Structures within Fesubscript 3Osubscript 4|gamma-Mnsubscript 2Osubscript 3 Core|Shell Nanoparticles Using Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray ...

  10. Nanosecond Time Resolved and Steady State Infrared Studies of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanosecond Time Resolved and Steady State Infrared Studies of Photoinduced Decomposition of TATB at Ambient and Elevated Pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  11. Time-resolved carrier distributions in graphene (Conference)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Time-resolved carrier distributions in graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ... Save Share this Record Citation Formats MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote ...

  12. Resolving unoccupied electronic states with laser ARPES in bismuth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cuprate superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Resolving unoccupied electronic states with laser ARPES in bismuth-based cuprate superconductors Authors: ...

  13. DOE Successfully Resolves Three Enforcement Cases and Files Yet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Articles DOE Resolves Nearly One-Third of 27 Recently Filed Civil Penalty Cases DOEMitsubishi Enter Consent Decree Dismissing Claims of Certification Violations DOE Collects...

  14. Unified Resolve 2014: A Proof of Concept for Radiological Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in order to effectively manage response operations. Unlike the spectrum of natural disasters which occur with some frequency, and which our nation's first responder community...

  15. Resolved multifrequency radio observations of GG Tau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Sean M.; Birnstiel, T.; Rosenfeld, K. A.; Wilner, D. J.; Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, L. M.; Isella, Andrea; Ricci, L.; Carpenter, J. M.; Calvet, N.; Corder, S. A.; Deller, A. T.; Dullemond, C. P.; Greaves, J. S.; Harris, R. J.; Henning, Th.; Linz, H.; Kwon, W.; Lazio, J.; Mundy, L. G.; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present subarcsecond resolution observations of continuum emission associated with the GG Tau quadruple star system at wavelengths of 1.3, 2.8, 7.3, and 50 mm. These data confirm that the GG Tau A binary is encircled by a circumbinary ring at a radius of 235 AU with a FWHM width of ∼60 AU. We find no clear evidence for a radial gradient in the spectral shape of the ring, suggesting that the particle size distribution is spatially homogeneous on angular scales ≳0.''1. A central point source, likely associated with the primary component (GG Tau Aa), exhibits a composite spectrum from dust and free-free emission. Faint emission at 7.3 mm is observed toward the low-mass star GG Tau Ba, although its origin remains uncertain. Using these measurements of the resolved, multifrequency emission structure of the GG Tau A system, models of the far-infrared to radio spectrum are developed to place constraints on the grain size distribution and dust mass in the circumbinary ring. The non-negligible curvature present in the ring spectrum implies a maximum particle size of 1-10 mm, although we are unable to place strong constraints on the distribution shape. The corresponding dust mass is 30-300 M {sub ⊕}, at a temperature of 20-30 K. We discuss how this significant concentration of relatively large particles in a narrow ring at a large radius might be produced in a local region of higher gas pressures (i.e., a particle 'trap') located near the inner edge of the circumbinary disk.

  16. Letter Responding to Requests for Information Made by Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (DOE) Personnel About Restarting Potomac River After a Shutdown. | Department of Energy Responding to Requests for Information Made by Department of Energy (DOE) Personnel About Restarting Potomac River After a Shutdown. Letter Responding to Requests for Information Made by Department of Energy (DOE) Personnel About Restarting Potomac River After a Shutdown. Docket No. EO-05-01: This letter responds to requests for information made by Department of Energy (DOE) personnel at our meeting about

  17. Education of First Responders at Yale | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Education of First Responders at Yale Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of ...

  18. Webinar March 24: National Hydrogen Safety Training Resource for Emergency Responders

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar titled "National Hydrogen Safety Training Resource for Emergency Responders" on Tuesday, March 24, from 12 to 1 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. This webinar will describe a new, free, online national hydrogen safety training resource for emergency responders.

  19. Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Randal L. (Tijeras, NM); Hargis, Jr., Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-10

    A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

  20. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the...

  1. Resolved: "error while loading shared libraries: libalpslli.so...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "error while loading shared libraries: libalpslli.so.0" with serial codes on login nodes Resolved: "error while loading shared libraries: libalpslli.so.0" with serial codes on...

  2. Development of a Spatially Resolving X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fusion Links Development of a spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer for measurement of ion-temperature "T i ... and rotation-velocity "v... profiles in ITER a... ...

  3. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lindenberg, O.R. Monteiro, Z. Chang, R.W. Lee, and R.W. Falcone, "Bonding in liquid carbon studied by time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 057407 (2005...

  4. Nanosecond Time Resolved and Steady State Infrared Studies of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at elevated pressure (i.e. 8 GPa). Ultrafast time-resolved infrared and steady state Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopies were used to probe TATB and its products after...

  5. DOE Resolves Avanti Refrigerator and Freezer Civil Penalty Case

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, the Department of Energy announced that it has resolved the civil penalty action against Mackle Company for its failure to certify that refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers sold under the...

  6. Thick diffusion limit boundary layer test problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, T. S.; Warsa, J. S.; Chang, J. H.; Adams, M. L.

    2013-07-01

    We develop two simple test problems that quantify the behavior of computational transport solutions in the presence of boundary layers that are not resolved by the spatial grid. In particular we study the quantitative effects of 'contamination' terms that, according to previous asymptotic analyses, may have a detrimental effect on the solutions obtained by both discontinuous finite element (DFEM) and characteristic-method (CM) spatial discretizations, at least for boundary layers caused by azimuthally asymmetric incident intensities. Few numerical results have illustrated the effects of this contamination, and none have quantified it to our knowledge. Our test problems use leading-order analytic solutions that should be equal to zero in the problem interior, which means the observed interior solution is the error introduced by the contamination terms. Results from DFEM solutions demonstrate that the contamination terms can cause error propagation into the problem interior for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal grids, and that this error is much worse for non-orthogonal grids. This behavior is consistent with the predictions of previous analyses. We conclude that these boundary layer test problems and their variants are useful tools for the study of errors that are introduced by unresolved boundary layers in diffusive transport problems. (authors)

  7. Nanosecond Time Resolved and Steady State Infrared Studies of Photoinduced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Decomposition of TATB at Ambient and Elevated Pressures (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Nanosecond Time Resolved and Steady State Infrared Studies of Photoinduced Decomposition of TATB at Ambient and Elevated Pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanosecond Time Resolved and Steady State Infrared Studies of Photoinduced Decomposition of TATB at Ambient and Elevated Pressures The timescale and/or products of photo-induced decomposition of

  8. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for high energy density physics and light source experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically

  9. Chromatic-aberration diagnostic based on a spectrally resolved

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lateral-shearing interferometer (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Chromatic-aberration diagnostic based on a spectrally resolved lateral-shearing interferometer This content will become publicly available on March 18, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: Chromatic-aberration diagnostic based on a spectrally resolved lateral-shearing interferometer Authors: Bahk, Seung-Whan ; Dorrer, Christophe ; Roides, Rick G. ; Bromage, Jake Publication Date: 2016-03-18 OSTI Identifier:

  10. Breakthrough antibacterial approach could resolve serious skin infections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Antibacterial approach could resolve skin infections Breakthrough antibacterial approach could resolve serious skin infections Like a protective tent over a colony of harmful bacteria, biofilms make the treatment of skin infections especially difficult. August 26, 2014 Artist's rendition of a cross section of skin layers (stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis) showing topical application of an ionic liquid for combating a skin-borne bacterial infection. The ionic liquid can be formulated with

  11. Spatially resolved temperature mapping of electro-thermal actuators by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    surface Raman scattering. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Spatially resolved temperature mapping of electro-thermal actuators by surface Raman scattering. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatially resolved temperature mapping of electro-thermal actuators by surface Raman scattering. Abstract not provided. Authors: Kearney, Sean Patrick ; Phinney, Leslie Mary ; Baker, Michael Sean Publication Date: 2005-07-01 OSTI Identifier: 1145164 Report Number(s):

  12. Towards time-resolved serial crystallography in a microfluidic device

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Towards time-resolved serial crystallography in a microfluidic device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards time-resolved serial crystallography in a microfluidic device Authors: Pawate, Ashtamurthy S. ; Srajer, Vukica ; Schieferstein, Jeremy ; Guha, Sudipto ; Henning, Robert ; Kosheleva, Irina ; Schmidt, Marius ; Ren, Zhong ; Kenis, Paul J.A. ; Perry, Sarah L. [1] ; UC) [2] ; Renz) [2] ; UIUC) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (UW) ( Publication

  13. Showerhead Manufacturer Agrees to Civil Penalty to Resolve Enforcement

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Action | Department of Energy Showerhead Manufacturer Agrees to Civil Penalty to Resolve Enforcement Action Showerhead Manufacturer Agrees to Civil Penalty to Resolve Enforcement Action July 18, 2011 - 2:06pm Addthis The Department of Energy has settled a civil penalty action it initiated against "Showerheadpower" for the manufacture and online sale of showerheads that used more water than allowed by federal law. As enacted by Congress, showerheads may not consume water in excess

  14. Resolving Code and Standard Barriers to Building America Innovations - 2014

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    BTO Peer Review | Department of Energy Resolving Code and Standard Barriers to Building America Innovations - 2014 BTO Peer Review Resolving Code and Standard Barriers to Building America Innovations - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Pam Cole, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory This project is developing processes and resources for a Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) team to assist research partners and industry in overcoming codes and standards barriers to high-performance

  15. Building America Webinar: Resolving Codes and Standards Issues to Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Innovations | Department of Energy Resolving Codes and Standards Issues to Energy Innovations Building America Webinar: Resolving Codes and Standards Issues to Energy Innovations This webinar provided an overview of how Building America has impacted codes and standards in the past through technical and market innovations. The presenter also described new content on the Building America Solution Center that will help builders meet code requirements and will help code officials apply codes to

  16. Spatially Resolved Ionic Diffusion and Electrochemical Reactions in Solids:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Spatially Resolved Ionic Diffusion and Electrochemical Reactions in Solids: Spatially Resolved Ionic Diffusion and Electrochemical Reactions in Solids: 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es153_balke_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT)

  17. Resolve to Save Energy This Year | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resolve to Save Energy This Year Resolve to Save Energy This Year January 2, 2014 - 8:50am Addthis Looking for ways to save energy? Check out these tips that every homeowner should try. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Updated January 2, 2014. Looking for ways to save energy? Check out these tips that every homeowner should try. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Updated January 2, 2014. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist,

  18. Lightweight Technology Resolved Challenge Facing the Chevy Spark EV Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tray and Enclosure | Department of Energy Lightweight Technology Resolved Challenge Facing the Chevy Spark EV Battery Tray and Enclosure Lightweight Technology Resolved Challenge Facing the Chevy Spark EV Battery Tray and Enclosure August 18, 2015 - 11:34am Addthis The Chevy Spark EV at the Washington Auto Show. The Chevy Spark EV at the Washington Auto Show. Technology innovation comes in many forms - sometimes, it's as simple as adapting a recent but un-commercialized innovation to a

  19. and Respond

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    nuclear materials and the security implications of the global deployment of civil nuclear power.

    The FY 2015 NPCR is available for download

  20. RESPONDENT INFORMATION

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fax No.: Questions? Call the EIA-64A Coordinator 1-800-879-1470 Email: OOG.SURVEYS@eia.doe.gov 3.1 Plant Name: City: Street / PO Box: 3.4 Room / Suite Number: Fax: 202-586-1076 3.2 Geographic Location: 3.3 Operating Co. Name: Secure File Transfer: Zip Code: Ben Franklin Station 0 ORIGIN OF NATURAL GAS RECEIVED AND NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS PRODUCED Line 3.5 Operating Co. Contact Name: between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. Eastern Time 4.7 4.8 TOTAL 0 4.5 4.6 4.3 Gas Shrinkage Resulting from Natural Gas

  1. RESPONDENT INFORMATION

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    201X Use Area of Origin Codes on page 6 Fax No.: Questions? Call the EIA-64A Coordinator 1-800-879-1470 Email: OOG.SURVEYS@eia.doe.gov 3.1 Plant Name: City: Street / PO Box: 3.4 Room / Suite Number: Fax: 202-586-1076 3.2 Geographic Location: 3.3 Operating Co. Name: Submit completed form by April 19, 201X via: EIA ID NUMBER: 2.0 Submission Status: Original Amended Secure File Transfer: Ben Franklin Station 0 ORIGIN OF NATURAL GAS RECEIVED AND NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS PRODUCED Line 3.5 Operating Co.

  2. NEW - DOE G 444.1 1, Guide on Preventing and Responding to All...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NEW - DOE G 444.1 1, Guide on Preventing and Responding to All Forms of Violence in the Workplace by Website Administrator This guide is a broad overview of the basic tools for a...

  3. Guide on Preventing and Responding to All Forms of Violence in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    G 444.1-1, Guide on Preventing and Responding to All Forms of Violence in the Workplace by Beau Newman Functional areas: Violence, Workplace Safety This guide is a broad overview...

  4. Guide on Preventing and Responding to All Forms of Violence in the Workplace

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-04-22

    This guide is a broad overview of the basic tools for development of site specific procedures for responding to workplace violence. Supports implementation of DOE P 444.1. Does not cancel/supersede other directives.

  5. Westinghouse Pays $50,000 Civil Penalty to Resolve Light Bulb...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Westinghouse Pays 50,000 Civil Penalty to Resolve Light Bulb Efficiency Violations Westinghouse Pays 50,000 Civil Penalty to Resolve Light Bulb Efficiency Violations December 13, ...

  6. V-172: ISC BIND RUNTIME_CHECK Error Lets Remote Users Deny Service Against Recursive Resolvers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A defect exists which allows an attacker to crash a BIND 9 recursive resolver with a RUNTIME_CHECK error in resolver.c

  7. Two New Studies Show How Energy Consumers Respond to Smart Grid Technology

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy New Studies Show How Energy Consumers Respond to Smart Grid Technology Two New Studies Show How Energy Consumers Respond to Smart Grid Technology February 14, 2011 - 3:24pm Addthis Home-energy display mobile phone application that shows how much energy an appliance is consuming. | Photo courtesy of Pecan Street Project. Home-energy display mobile phone application that shows how much energy an appliance is consuming. | Photo courtesy of Pecan Street Project. Matt

  8. Nearly 3,000 Emergency Responders Receive EM Training | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Nearly 3,000 Emergency Responders Receive EM Training Nearly 3,000 Emergency Responders Receive EM Training February 26, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis In a mock scenario, firefighters work with an accident victim during a Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program full field exercise In a mock scenario, firefighters work with an accident victim during a Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program full field exercise Students learn to identify labels and use instruments during a

  9. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print Wednesday, 28 September 2005 00:00 We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms

  10. Toroidally resolved radiation dynamics during a gas jet mitigated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    disruption on Alcator C-Mod (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Toroidally resolved radiation dynamics during a gas jet mitigated disruption on Alcator C-Mod Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toroidally resolved radiation dynamics during a gas jet mitigated disruption on Alcator C-Mod Measurements of the radiation dynamics during an Alcator C-Mod disruption induced by a high pressure He/Ar gas jet are presented. Data are analysed from four 22-channel Absolute eXtreme UltraViolet

  11. EERE Success Story—Nationwide: National Fire Protection Association Provides Training to First Responders on EVs/PEVs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is helping develop a strong workforce to support the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles, including first responders.

  12. The Guderley problem revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, Scott D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kamm, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolstad, John H [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    The self-similar converging-diverging shock wave problem introduced by Guderley in 1942 has been the source of numerous investigations since its publication. In this paper, we review the simplifications and group invariance properties that lead to a self-similar formulation of this problem from the compressible flow equations for a polytropic gas. The complete solution to the self-similar problem reduces to two coupled nonlinear eigenvalue problems: the eigenvalue of the first is the so-called similarity exponent for the converging flow, and that of the second is a trajectory multiplier for the diverging regime. We provide a clear exposition concerning the reflected shock configuration. Additionally, we introduce a new approximation for the similarity exponent, which we compare with other estimates and numerically computed values. Lastly, we use the Guderley problem as the basis of a quantitative verification analysis of a cell-centered, finite volume, Eulerian compressible flow algorithm.

  13. Overview of Hazard Assessment and Emergency Planning Software of Use to RN First Responders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waller, E; Millage, K; Blakely, W F; Ross, J A; Mercier, J R; Sandgren, D J; Levine, I H; Dickerson, W E; Nemhauser, J B; Nasstrom, J S; Sugiyama, G; Homann, S; Buddemeier, B R; Curling, C A; Disraelly, D S

    2008-08-26

    There are numerous software tools available for field deployment, reach-back, training and planning use in the event of a radiological or nuclear (RN) terrorist event. Specialized software tools used by CBRNe responders can increase information available and the speed and accuracy of the response, thereby ensuring that radiation doses to responders, receivers, and the general public are kept as low as reasonably achievable. Software designed to provide health care providers with assistance in selecting appropriate countermeasures or therapeutic interventions in a timely fashion can improve the potential for positive patient outcome. This paper reviews various software applications of relevance to radiological and nuclear (RN) events that are currently in use by first responders, emergency planners, medical receivers, and criminal investigators.

  14. Fact #777: April 29, 2013 For the Second Year in a Row, Survey Respondents

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Consider Fuel Economy Most Important When Purchasing a Vehicle | Department of Energy 77: April 29, 2013 For the Second Year in a Row, Survey Respondents Consider Fuel Economy Most Important When Purchasing a Vehicle Fact #777: April 29, 2013 For the Second Year in a Row, Survey Respondents Consider Fuel Economy Most Important When Purchasing a Vehicle A 2012 survey asked the question "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next

  15. New Flood Risk Management Standard Responds to Effects of Climate Change |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy New Flood Risk Management Standard Responds to Effects of Climate Change New Flood Risk Management Standard Responds to Effects of Climate Change March 2, 2015 - 1:38pm Addthis E.O.13690 explains that incorporating the FFRMS “will ensure that agencies expand management from the current base flood level to a higher vertical elevation and corresponding horizontal floodplain to address current and future flood risk.” E.O.13690 explains that incorporating the FFRMS

  16. Sandia National Laboratories Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Problem Natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans and the tsunami in Japan in 2011 create emergency situations that must be dealt with quickly and effectively in...

  17. Guide on Preventing and Responding to All Forms of Violence in the Workplace

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-10-21

    To ensure all sites have the tools to implement processes, we have created this guide. Each site is expected to develop its own site specific set of procedures/process to implement DOE Policy 444.1 Preventing and Responding to all forms of violence in the Workplace.

  18. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  19. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  20. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  1. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  2. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  3. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  4. Resolving to Make Earth Day Last All Year

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    What was your New Year's resolution this year? Maybe you resolved to get back into the gym and finally lose those last pesky pounds. Maybe, like me, you resolved to finally break down and buy that new furnace. Or maybe you liked Chris' idea, and you resolved do whatever you could to save energy and money this year. When we talk about saving energy throughout the year, it's easy to forget that we're not just energy users when we're at home. Many of us spend a large part of our days at work, and the energy we use there is significant. According to ENERGY STAR, the energy needed to support just one office worker for a day produces twice as much greenhouse gas emissions as that person's drive to work. Handily, there are a lot of resources available to help you tackle that energy usage at work, and Earth Day (coming up on April 22nd) can be the perfect time to launch a campaign to make the change.

  5. Resolving and measuring diffusion in complex interfaces: Exploring new capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, Todd M.

    2015-09-01

    This exploratory LDRD targeted the use of a new high resolution spectroscopic diffusion capabilities developed at Sandia to resolve transport processes at interfaces in heterogeneous polymer materials. In particular, the combination of high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion experiments were used to directly explore interface diffusion within heterogeneous polymer composites, including measuring diffusion for individual chemical species in multi-component mixtures. Several different types of heterogeneous polymer systems were studied using these HRMAS NMR diffusion capabilities to probe the resolution limitations, determine the spatial length scales involved, and explore the general applicability to specific heterogeneous systems. The investigations pursued included a) the direct measurement of the diffusion for poly(dimethyl siloxane) polymer (PDMS) on nano-porous materials, b) measurement of penetrant diffusion in additive manufactures (3D printed) processed PDMS composites, and c) the measurement of diffusion in swollen polymers/penetrant mixtures within nano-confined aluminum oxide membranes. The NMR diffusion results obtained were encouraging and allowed for an improved understanding of diffusion and transport processes at the molecular level, while at the same time demonstrating that the spatial heterogeneity that can be resolved using HRMAS NMR PFG diffusion experiment must be larger than ~?m length scales, expect for polymer transport within nanoporous carbons where additional chemical resolution improves the resolvable heterogeneous length scale to hundreds of nm.

  6. Dynamical impurity problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class.

  7. Education of First Responders at Yale | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Education of First Responders at Yale Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation / Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301)

  8. Prevent, Counter, and Respond-A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Threats (FY 2016-2020) | National Nuclear Security Administration Prevent, Counter, and Respond-A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2016-2020) | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our

  9. Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod A new energy...

  10. High-harmonic XUV source for time- and angle-resolved photoemission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-harmonic XUV source for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-harmonic XUV source for time- and angle-resolved...

  11. Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayoola, B.O.; Kaminski, C.F.; Balachandran, R.; Mastorakos, E.; Frank, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Heat release rate is a fundamental property of great importance for the theoretical and experimental elucidation of unsteady flame behaviors such as combustion noise, combustion instabilities, and pulsed combustion. Investigations of such thermoacoustic interactions require a reliable indicator of heat release rate capable of resolving spatial structures in turbulent flames. Traditionally, heat release rate has been estimated via OH or CH radical chemiluminescence; however, chemiluminescence suffers from being a line-of-sight technique with limited capability for resolving small-scale structures. In this paper, we report spatially resolved two-dimensional measurements of a quantity closely related to heat release rate. The diagnostic technique uses simultaneous OH and CH{sub 2}O planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), and the pixel-by-pixel product of the OH and CH{sub 2}O PLIF signals has previously been shown to correlate well with local heat release rates. Results from this diagnostic technique, which we refer to as heat release rate imaging (HR imaging), are compared with traditional OH chemiluminescence measurements in several flames. Studies were performed in lean premixed ethylene flames stabilized between opposed jets and with a bluff body. Correlations between bulk strain rates and local heat release rates were obtained and the effects of curvature on heat release rate were investigated. The results show that the heat release rate tends to increase with increasing negative curvature for the flames investigated for which Lewis numbers are greater than unity. This correlation becomes more pronounced as the flame gets closer to global extinction.

  12. THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY: PROSPECTS FOR RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Baslio X.; Girardi, Lo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Pellegrini, Paulo S.; Ramos, Beatriz; de Simoni, Fernando; Armstrong, R.; Bertin, E.; Desai, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lin, H.; Mohr, J. J.; Tucker, D. L.

    2011-06-01

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  13. THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY: PROSPECTS FOR RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATIONS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Baslio X.; Girardi, Lo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; et al

    2011-06-01

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of themoreGalaxy.less

  14. A compact electron gun for time-resolved electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Matthew S.; Lane, Paul D.; Wann, Derek A.

    2015-01-15

    A novel compact time-resolved electron diffractometer has been built with the primary goal of studying the ultrafast molecular dynamics of photoexcited gas-phase molecules. Here, we discuss the design of the electron gun, which is triggered by a Ti:Sapphire laser, before detailing a series of calibration experiments relating to the electron-beam properties. As a further test of the apparatus, initial diffraction patterns have been collected for thin, polycrystalline platinum samples, which have been shown to match theoretical patterns. The data collected demonstrate the focusing effects of the magnetic lens on the electron beam, and how this relates to the spatial resolution of the diffraction pattern.

  15. Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements for flowing particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deka, C.; Steinkamp, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements are disclosed for flowing particles. An apparatus and method for the measurement and analysis of fluorescence for individual cells and particles in flow are described, wherein the rapid measurement capabilities of flow cytometry and the robust measurement and analysis procedures of time-domain fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy are combined. A pulse-modulated CW laser is employed for excitation of the particles. The characteristics and the repetition rate of the excitation pulses can be readily adjusted to accommodate for fluorescence decays having a wide range of lifetimes. 12 figs.

  16. Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements for flowing particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deka, Chiranjit (Miami, FL); Steinkamp, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements for flowing particles. An apparatus and method for the measurement and analysis of fluorescence for individual cells and particles in flow are described, wherein the rapid measurement capabilities of flow cytometry and the robust measurement and analysis procedures of time-domain fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy are combined. A pulse-modulated cw laser is employed for excitation of the particles. The characteristics and the repetition rate of the excitation pulses can be readily adjusted to accommodate for fluorescence decays having a wide range of lifetimes.

  17. The inhibiting bisection problem.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinar, Ali

    2010-11-01

    Given a graph where each vertex is assigned a generation or consumption volume, we try to bisect the graph so that each part has a significant generation/consumption mismatch, and the cutsize of the bisection is small. Our motivation comes from the vulnerability analysis of distribution systems such as the electric power system. We show that the constrained version of the problem, where we place either the cutsize or the mismatch significance as a constraint and optimize the other, is NP-complete, and provide an integer programming formulation. We also propose an alternative relaxed formulation, which can trade-off between the two objectives and show that the alternative formulation of the problem can be solved in polynomial time by a maximum flow solver. Our experiments with benchmark electric power systems validate the effectiveness of our methods.

  18. GRAND CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GRAND CHALLENGE PROBLEMS Time is the biggest issue. Materials typically become critical in a matter of months, but solutions take years or decades to develop and implement. Our first two grand challenges address this discrepancy. Anticipating Which Materials May Go Critical In an ideal world, users of materials would anticipate supply-chain disruptions before they occur. They would undertake activities to manage the risks of disruption, including R&D to diversify and increase supplies or to

  19. An Investigation to Resolve the Interaction Between Fuel Cell, Power Conditioning System and Application Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudip K. Mazumder

    2005-12-31

    Development of high-performance and durable solidoxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a SOFC power-generating system requires knowledge of the feedback effects from the power-conditioning electronics and from application-electrical-power circuits that may pass through or excite the power-electronics subsystem (PES). Therefore, it is important to develop analytical models and methodologies, which can be used to investigate and mitigate the effects of the electrical feedbacks from the PES and the application loads (ALs) on the reliability and performance of SOFC systems for stationary and non-stationary applications. However, any such attempt to resolve the electrical impacts of the PES on the SOFC would be incomplete unless one utilizes a comprehensive analysis, which takes into account the interactions of SOFC, PES, balance-of-plant system (BOPS), and ALs as a whole. SOFCs respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry, which is not true for the thermal and mechanical time constants of the BOPS, where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy can affect the lifetime and durability of the SOFCSs and limit the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications. Furthermore, without validated analytical models and investigative design and optimization methodologies, realizations of cost-effective, reliable, and optimal PESs (and power-management controls), in particular, and SOFC systems, in general, are difficult. On the whole, the research effort can lead to (a) cost-constrained optimal PES design for high-performance SOFCS and high energy efficiency and power density, (b) effective SOFC power-system design, analyses, and optimization, and (c) controllers and modulation schemes for mitigation of electrical impacts and wider-stability margin and enhanced system efficiency.

  20. Time-resolved fluorometric determination of terbium in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmilae, I.

    1985-07-01

    The fluorescent properties of water-soluble binary and ternary complexes of terbium(III) were studied and their applications in time-resolved fluorometric analysis were tested. Solutions composed of different ..beta..-diketones, tri-n-octylphosphine oxide as the synergistic agent, and Triton X-100 as the detergent were optimized to maximize fluorescence emission in Tb measurement. The results were then compared with seven published methods which included the use of the following respective solutions, ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis((o-hydroxy-phenyl)acetic acid), dipicolinic acid, iminodiacetic acid with Tiron, EDTA with Tiron, EDTA with 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, EDTA with sulfosalicylic acid, and EDTA with salicylate. Fluorinated aliphatic ..beta..-diketones showed the most promising properties in acidic solution. They were especially suitable for use in time-resolved fluorometric analyses where Tb was used as the label after being conjugated to the analyte via bifunctional complexones. An acidic pH is required for Tb release before conversion into a fluorescent chelate. The applicability of the developed measurement solutions to the measurement of Eu was also tested. 22 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  1. A Simulation Learning Approach to Training First Responders for Radiological Emergencies ? A Continuation of Work

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lake, Joe E; Cross, Butch; Sanders, Robert Lon

    2008-01-01

    Real-time gaming engines, such as Epic Game's Unreal Engine[1], provide an excellent resource as a training environment. These engines provide an alternate reality that can accurately depict not only real world geometry, but they can also achieve realistic physical effects such as radiation fields and blast physics. The real time photorealistic graphics available through the Unreal Engine add to its applicability to this project's needs. Moreover, this engine provides a very efficient means to modify the game's physics modeling, visual effects, and game play structure to fit the ever-evolving needs of a training curriculum. To this end, we have worked to extend the Unreal Engine to incorporate radiation effects dependent on distance from a radiological source, similar to what one would experience in the real world. In order to help better prepare first responders for using the radiological detection equipment vital for mission success, we have continued work, previously described by Sanders and Rhodes [2], on a Geiger counter readout display being implemented and added to the interface's Heads Up Display (HUD) as well as incorporating a physically accurate model within the engine that will allow the first responder to acclimate themselves to the sounds and possible size of the device. Moreover, the Karma Physics Engine, which works in conjunction with the Unreal Engine 2, accurately simulates fluid physics, blast effects, and basic player movements. It is this physics engine that has been the focus of our continued efforts and has been extended to include realistic modeling of radiological effects.

  2. The Inhibiting Bisection Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinar, Ali; Fogel, Yonatan; Lesieutre, Bernard

    2006-12-18

    Given a graph where each vertex is assigned a generation orconsumption volume, we try to bisect the graph so that each part has asignificant generation/consumption mismatch, and the cutsize of thebisection is small. Our motivation comes from the vulnerability analysisof distribution systems such as the electric power system. We show thatthe constrained version of the problem, where we place either the cutsizeor the mismatch significance as a constraint and optimize the other, isNP-complete, and provide an integer programming formulation. We alsopropose an alternative relaxed formulation, which can trade-off betweenthe two objectives and show that the alternative formulation of theproblem can be solved in polynomial time by a maximum flow solver. Ourexperiments with benchmark electric power systems validate theeffectiveness of our methods.

  3. 21PF overpack problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovac, F.M.

    1995-12-31

    The 21PF overpack has had severe metal corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for many years. The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have disallowed the use of overpacks containing high chloride foam. Corrosion and SCC of 21PF overpacks have been documented and papers have been presented at conferences about these issues. Regulatory agencies have restricted 21PF overpack use and have requested data to determine if phenolic foam overpacks not meeting original design specifications will be authorized for continued use. This paper details some of the problems experienced by users and relates actions of the DOT and NRC concerning these packages. Industry is working to correct deficiencies, but if they are not successful, the entire uranium enrichment industry will be severely impacted.

  4. Smoothing of mixed complementarity problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel, S.A.; More, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The authors introduce a smoothing approach to the mixed complementarity problem, and study the limiting behavior of a path defined by approximate minimizers of a nonlinear least squares problem. The main result guarantees that, under a mild regularity condition, limit points of the iterates are solutions to the mixed complementarity problem. The analysis is applicable to a wide variety of algorithms suitable for large-scale mixed complementarity problems.

  5. NEW - DOE G 444.1 1, Guide on Preventing and Responding to All Forms of Violence in the Workplace

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    This guide is a broad overview of the basic tools for a site to develop its site specific procedures for responding to workplace violence. Supports implementation of DOE P 444.1.

  6. RESOLVING THE BARYON-FRACTION PROFILE IN LENSING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leier, Dominik; Ferreras, Ignacio; Saha, Prasenjit; Falco, Emilio E.

    2011-10-20

    The study of the distribution of baryonic matter within dark halos enriches our understanding of galaxy formation. We show the radial dependence of stellar baryon-fraction curves derived for 21 lensing galaxies from the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey (CASTLES) by means of stellar population synthesis and pixel-based mass reconstruction. The sample covers a stellar mass range of M{sub s} {approx_equal} 2 x 10{sup 9}-3 x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} (solar masses) which corresponds to a total enclosed mass range of M{sub L} {approx_equal} 7 x 10{sup 9}-3 x 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} on radial scales from 0.25R{sub e} to 5R{sub e} (effective radii). By examining the M{sub s} and M{sub L} dependence on radial distance to the center of each galaxy, we find that there are pairs of lenses on small to intermediate mass scales which approach at large radii the same values for their enclosed total mass but exhibit very different stellar masses and stellar baryon fractions. This peculiar behavior subsides for the most massive lensing galaxies. All the baryon-fraction profiles show that the dark matter halo overtakes the stellar content between 1.5 and 2.5R{sub e}. At 3R{sub e} most of the stellar component is enclosed. We find evidence for a stellar baryon fraction steadily declining over the full mass range. Furthermore, we shed light on the Fundamental Plane puzzle by showing that the slope of the M{sub L} (< R)-to-M{sub s} (< R) relation approaches the mass-to-light relation of recent Fundamental Plane studies at large radii. We also introduce novel concentration indices c = R90/R50 for stellar and total mass profiles (i.e., the ratio of radii enclosing 90% and 50% of the stellar or total mass). We show that the value c = 2.6 originally determined by light profiles which separates early-type galaxies from late-type galaxies also holds for stellar mass. In particular, less massive dark matter halos turn out to be influenced by the distribution of stellar matter on resolved scales below 10 kpc. The ongoing study of resolved baryon-fraction profiles will make it possible to evaluate the validity of star formation models as well as adiabatic contraction prescriptions commonly used in simulations.

  7. A Radar-based Observing System for Validation of Cloud Resolving Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radar System Designed for Validation of Cloud Resolving Models Pavlos Kollias Atmospheric Science Division Brookhaven National Laboratory Cloud REsolving MOdel Radar (CREMORA) Scientific Justification Why do we need to know 3-D structure of cloud systems? Slide provided by Tom Ackerman -Evaluation of *Cloud System Resolving Models (one pathway to parameterization development and to climate models) *Satellite retrievals of cloud system properties -Lifecycle of convective systems - all phases of

  8. High-harmonic XUV source for time- and angle-resolved photoemission

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectroscopy (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: High-harmonic XUV source for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-harmonic XUV source for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy We present a laser-based apparatus for visible pump/XUV probe time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TRARPES) utilizing high-harmonic generation from a noble gas. Femtosecond temporal resolution for each selected harmonic

  9. Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Diffraction Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate Diffraction Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate Diffraction Crystals This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure

  10. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    diffraction crystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to

  11. EGR Spatial Uniformity & Cylinder-Resolved Transients-Measurements using an

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Spectroscopy Probe | Department of Energy Spatial Uniformity & Cylinder-Resolved Transients-Measurements using an Absorption Spectroscopy Probe EGR Spatial Uniformity & Cylinder-Resolved Transients-Measurements using an Absorption Spectroscopy Probe This poster describes development and application of an EGR probe for assessing steady-state spatial uniformity and cylinder-resolved EGR dynamics. PDF icon p-27_yoo.pdf More Documents & Publications Cummins/ORNL-FEERC

  12. Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diffraction Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate Diffraction Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate Diffraction Crystals This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort

  13. Sandia Corporation Agrees to Pay $4.7 Million to Resolve Allegations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Related to Lobbying Activities | Department of Energy Sandia Corporation Agrees to Pay $4.7 Million to Resolve Allegations Related to Lobbying Activities Sandia Corporation Agrees to Pay $4.7 Million to Resolve Allegations Related to Lobbying Activities PDF icon Sandia Corporation Agrees to Pay $4.7 Million to Resolve Allegations Related to Lobbying Activities More Documents & Publications Special Inquiry: DOE/IG-0927 Special Inquiry: DOE/IG-0927 Special Report: OIG-SR-16-01

  14. DOE Resolves Nearly One-Third of 27 Recently Filed Civil Penalty Cases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department has successfully resolved eight of the 27 enforcement cases brought just two weeks ago against companies for selling products without properly certifying their compliance with the...

  15. Time-Resolved Picosecond Pure-Rotational Coherent anti-Stokes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Time-Resolved Picosecond Pure-Rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy for Thermometry and Species Concentration in Flames. Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  16. Sandia Corporation Agrees to Pay $4.7 Million to Resolve Allegations...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Million to Resolve Allegations Related to Lobbying Activities More Documents & Publications Special Inquiry: DOEIG-0927 Special Inquiry: DOEIG-0927 Special Report: OIG-SR-16-01...

  17. Spectrally Resolved Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the XenonBiosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilty, Christian; Lowery, Thomas; Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander

    2005-07-15

    Due to its ability to non-invasively record images, as well as elucidate molecular structure, nuclear magnetic resonance is the method of choice for applications as widespread as chemical analysis and medical diagnostics. Its detection threshold is, however, limited by the small polarization of nuclear spins in even the highest available magnetic fields. This limitation can, under certain circumstances, be alleviated by using hyper-polarized substances. Xenon biosensors make use of the sensitivity gain of hyperpolarized xenon to provide magnetic resonance detection capability for a specific low-concentration target. They consist of a cryptophane cage, which binds one xenon atom, and which has been connected via a linker to a targeting moiety such as a ligand or antibody. Recent work has shown the possibility of using the xenon biosensor to detect small amounts of a substance in a heterogeneous environment by NMR. Here, we demonstrate that magnetic resonance (MR) provides the capability to obtain spectrally and spatially resolved images of the distribution of immobilized biosensor, opening the possibility for using the xenon biosensor for targeted imaging.

  18. RESOLVING THE RADIO SOURCE BACKGROUND: DEEPER UNDERSTANDING THROUGH CONFUSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Fomalont, E. B.; Kellermann, K. I.; Miller, N.; Perley, R. A.; Scott, D.; Vernstrom, T.; Wall, J. V.

    2012-10-10

    We used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image one primary beam area at 3 GHz with 8'' FWHM resolution and 1.0 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms noise near the pointing center. The P(D) distribution from the central 10 arcmin of this confusion-limited image constrains the count of discrete sources in the 1 < S({mu}Jy) < 10 range. At this level, the brightness-weighted differential count S {sup 2} n(S) is converging rapidly, as predicted by evolutionary models in which the faintest radio sources are star-forming galaxies; and Almost-Equal-To 96% of the background originating in galaxies has been resolved into discrete sources. About 63% of the radio background is produced by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the remaining 37% comes from star-forming galaxies that obey the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation and account for most of the FIR background at {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 160 {mu}m. Our new data confirm that radio sources powered by AGNs and star formation evolve at about the same rate, a result consistent with AGN feedback and the rough correlation of black hole and stellar masses. The confusion at centimeter wavelengths is low enough that neither the planned Square Kilometre Array nor its pathfinder ASKAP EMU survey should be confusion limited, and the ultimate source detection limit imposed by 'natural' confusion is {<=}0.01 {mu}Jy at {nu} = 1.4 GHz. If discrete sources dominate the bright extragalactic background reported by ARCADE 2 at 3.3 GHz, they cannot be located in or near galaxies and most are {<=}0.03 {mu}Jy at 1.4 GHz.

  19. Chandra resolves the T Tauri binary system RW Aur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Gdel, Manuel E-mail: manuel.guedel@univie.ac.at

    2014-06-20

    RW Aur is a multiple T Tauri system consisting of an early-K type primary (A) and a K5 companion (B) at a separation of 1.''4. RW Aur A drives a bipolar optical jet that is well characterized optically. We present results of a sensitive Chandra observation whose primary objective was to search for evidence of soft extended X-ray emission along the jet, as has been seen for a few other nearby T Tauri stars. The binary is clearly resolved by Chandra and both stars are detected as X-ray sources. The X-ray spectra of both stars reveal evidence for cool and hot plasma. Surprisingly, the X-ray luminosity of the less-massive secondary is at least twice that of the primary and is variable. The disparity is attributed to the primary whose X-ray luminosity is at the low end of the range for classical T Tauri stars of similar mass based on established correlations. Deconvolved soft-band images show evidence for slight outward elongation of the source structure of RW Aur A along the blueshifted jet axis inside the central arcsecond. In addition, a faint X-ray emission peak is present on the redshifted axis at an offset of 1.''2 0.''2 from the star. Deprojected jet speeds determined from previous optical studies are too low to explain this faint emission peak as shock-heated jet plasma. Thus, unless flow speeds in the redshifted jet have been underestimated, other mechanisms such as magnetic jet heating may be involved.

  20. Time-resolved x-ray imaging of high-power laser-irradiated under-dense silica aerogels and agar foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J.A.; Estabrook, K.G.; Bauer, J.D. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments in which a high-power laser was used to irradiate low density (4 - 9 mg/cm{sup 3}) silica aerogel and agar foam targets. The laser-solid interaction and energy transport through the material were monitored with time-resolved imaging diagnostics, and the data show the production and propagation of an x-ray emission front in the plasma. The emission-front trajectory data are found to be in significant disagreement with detailed simulations, which predict a much more rapid heating of the cold material, and the data suggest that this discrepancy is not explainable by target inhomogeneities. Evidence suggests that energy transport into the cold material may be dominated by thermal conduction; however, no completely satisfactory explanation for the discrepancies is identified, and further experimental and theoretical research is necessary in order to resolve this important problem in laser-plasma interaction physics.

  1. Time resolved electron microscopy for in situ experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Geoffrey H. McKeown, Joseph T.; Santala, Melissa K.

    2014-12-15

    Transmission electron microscopy has functioned for decades as a platform for in situ observation of materials and processes with high spatial resolution. Yet, the dynamics often remain elusive, as they unfold too fast to discern at these small spatial scales under traditional imaging conditions. Simply shortening the exposure time in hopes of capturing the action has limitations, as the number of electrons will eventually be reduced to the point where noise overtakes the signal in the image. Pulsed electron sources with high instantaneous current have successfully shortened exposure times (thus increasing the temporal resolution) by about six orders of magnitude over conventional sources while providing the necessary signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic imaging. We describe here the development of this new class of microscope and the principles of its operation, with examples of its application to problems in materials science.

  2. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoBanksPhotos. A...

  3. Finite-dimensional approximations of the resolvent of an infinite band matrix and continued fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrios, Dolores; Lopez, Guillermo L; Martinez-Finkelshtein, A; Torrano, Emilio

    1999-04-30

    The approximability of the resolvent of an operator induced by a band matrix by the resolvents of its finite-dimensional sections is studied. For bounded perturbations of self-adjoint matrices a positive result is obtained. The convergence domain of the sequence of resolvents can be described in this case in terms of matrices involved in the representation. This result is applied to tridiagonal complex matrices to establish conditions for the convergence of Chebyshev continued fractions on sets in the complex domain. In the particular case of compact perturbations this result is improved and a connection between the poles of the limit function and the eigenvalues of the tridiagonal matrix is established.

  4. A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ion-temperature and Rotation-velocity Profiles on the AlcatorC-Mod Tokamak (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-temperature and Rotation-velocity Profiles on the AlcatorC-Mod Tokamak Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-temperature and Rotation-velocity Profiles on the AlcatorC-Mod Tokamak A new spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer

  5. A class of ejecta transport test problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerberg, James E; Buttler, William T; Oro, David M; Rousculp, Christopher L; Morris, Christopher; Mariam, Fesseha G

    2011-01-31

    Hydro code implementations of ejecta dynamics at shocked interfaces presume a source distribution function ofparticulate masses and velocities, f{sub 0}(m, v;t). Some of the properties of this source distribution function have been determined from extensive Taylor and supported wave experiments on shock loaded Sn interfaces of varying surface and subsurface morphology. Such experiments measure the mass moment of f{sub o} under vacuum conditions assuming weak particle-particle interaction and, usually, fully inelastic capture by piezo-electric diagnostic probes. Recently, planar Sn experiments in He, Ar, and Kr gas atmospheres have been carried out to provide transport data both for machined surfaces and for coated surfaces. A hydro code model of ejecta transport usually specifies a criterion for the instantaneous temporal appearance of ejecta with source distribution f{sub 0}(m, v;t{sub 0}). Under the further assumption of separability, f{sub 0}(m,v;t{sub 0}) = f{sub 1}(m)f{sub 2}(v), the motion of particles under the influence of gas dynamic forces is calculated. For the situation of non-interacting particulates, interacting with a gas via drag forces, with the assumption of separability and simplified approximations to the Reynolds number dependence of the drag coefficient, the dynamical equation for the time evolution of the distribution function, f(r,v,m;t), can be resolved as a one-dimensional integral which can be compared to a direct hydro simulation as a test problem. Such solutions can also be used for preliminary analysis of experimental data. We report solutions for several shape dependent drag coefficients and analyze the results of recent planar dsh experiments in Ar and Xe.

  6. DRAFT - DOE G 444.1-1, Guide on Preventing and Responding to All Forms of Violence in the Workplace

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    To ensure all sites have the tools to implement processes, we have created this guide. Each site is expected to develop its own site specific set of procedures/process to implement DOE Policy 444.1 Preventing and Responding to all forms of violence in the Workplace.

  7. Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2015-10-21

    Observed and projected trends in large scale wind speed over the oceans prompt the question: how might marine stratocumulus clouds and their radiative properties respond to future changes in large scale wind speed? Wind speed drives the surface fluxes of sensible heat, moisture, and momentum, and thereby acts on cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud radiative properties. We present an investigation of the dynamical response of non-precipitating, overcast marine stratocumulus clouds to different wind speeds, all else equal. In cloud-system resolving simulations, we find that higher wind speed leads to faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment. The dynamicalmoredriver is enhanced buoyant production of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) from latent heat release in cloud updrafts. LWP is enhanced during the night and in the morning at higher wind speed, and more strongly suppressed later in the day. Wind speed hence accentuates the diurnal LWP cycle by expanding the morning afternoon contrast. The higher LWP at higher wind speed does not, however, enhance cloud top cooling because in clouds with LWP ⪆ 50 g m?2, long wave emissions are very insensitive to LWP. This leads to the more general conclusion that in sufficiently thick stratocumulus clouds, additional boundary layer growth and entrainment due to a boundary layer moistening arises by stronger production of TKE from latent heat release in cloud updrafts, rather than from enhanced longwave cooling. We find furthermore that large scale wind modulates boundary layer decoupling. At nighttime and at low wind speed during daytime, it enhances decoupling in part by faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment, and in part because circulation driven by shear from large scale wind in the sub-cloud layer hinders vertical moisture transport between the surface and cloud base. With increasing wind speed, however, in decoupled daytime conditions, shear-driven circulation due to large scale wind takes over from buoyancy-driven circulation in transporting moisture from the surface to cloud base, and thereby reduces decoupling and helps maintain LWP. The cloud radiative effect (CRE) responds to changes in LWP and cloud fraction, and higher wind speed translates to a stronger diurnally averaged CRE. However, the sensitivity of the diurnally averaged CRE to wind speed decreases with increasing wind speed.less

  8. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy solutions, Sandia and Princeton Power Systems have teamed up to develop the Demand Response Inverter (DRI). Innovative Edge The DRI is a power flow control system...

  9. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Los Angeles (UCLA), has developed the Micro Power Source, a system that integrates a lithium-ion- based solid electrolyte battery with an ultra- thin PV cell, producing a...

  10. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multifunctional Optical Coatings by Rapid Self-Assembly process takes place at room temperature using ambient conditions, yet produces a coating competitive with current...

  11. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    They can reduce the size and weight of existing next-generation smart grid power electronics systems, allowing greater application in such areas as weapons systems and pulsed...

  12. Surrogate Guderley Test Problem Definition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, Scott D.; Shashkov, Mikhail J.

    2012-07-06

    The surrogate Guderley problem (SGP) is a 'spherical shock tube' (or 'spherical driven implosion') designed to ease the notoriously subtle initialization of the true Guderley problem, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity. In this problem (similar to the Guderley problem), an infinitely strong shock wave forms and converges in one-dimensional (1D) cylindrical or spherical symmetry through a polytropic gas with arbitrary adiabatic index {gamma}, uniform density {rho}{sub 0}, zero velocity, and negligible pre-shock pressure and specific internal energy (SIE). This shock proceeds to focus on the point or axis of symmetry at r = 0 (resulting in ostensibly infinite pressure, velocity, etc.) and reflect back out into the incoming perturbed gas.

  13. Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center

    2009-09-01

    One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.

  14. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  15. Resolving Cancer Heterogeneity by Single Cell Sequencing (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Xu, Xun [BGI

    2013-02-11

    Xun Xu on "Resolving Cancer Heterogeneity by Single Cell Sequencing" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  16. Resolving Carbon's Rainbow from Uplands to the Deep-sea | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resolving Carbon's Rainbow from Uplands to the Deep-sea Event Sponsor: Environmental Science Division Seminar Start Date: Sep 17 2015 - 11:00am BuildingRoom: Building 240Room...

  17. 3D Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Cloud System-Resolving Models: Forward Modelling and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Barker; Jason Cole

    2012-05-17

    Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.

  18. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations: HIGH CLOUD IN CRM Citation Details In-Document Search This content will ...

  19. Aspects of Electron-Phonon Self-Energy Revealed From Angle-Resolved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aspects of Electron-Phonon Self-Energy Revealed From Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aspects of Electron-Phonon Self-Energy...

  20. Evaluation of Long-Term Cloud-Resolving Modeling with ARM Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Long-Term Cloud-Resolving Modeling with ARM Data Zeng, Xiping NASAGSFC Tao, Wei-Kuo NASAGoddard Space Flight Center Zhang, Minghua State University of New York at Stony...

  1. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    diffraction across water-ices VIVII transformations using dynamic-DAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VIVII ...

  2. Detection of spin-resolved electronic structures from a buried ferromagnetic layer utilizing forward Mott scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueda, S.; Mizuguchi, M.; Kojima, T.; Takanashi, K.; Ishimaru, S.; Tsujikawa, M.; Shirai, M.

    2014-03-31

    We report ultrahigh-resolution spin-resolved hard X-ray photoemission (HAXPES) for a buried FeNi alloy film. By utilizing the forward Mott scattering in a Au layer on FeNi, our spin-resolved HAXPES method does not require a standard spin detector and allows us to use the multi-channel electron detection system for the high-efficient electron detection as used in conventional photoemission spectroscopy. A combination of the forward Mott scattering and multi-channel detection leads us to measure a clear spin polarization as well as spin-resolved majority and minority states in the Fe 2p core-level spectra without using the standard spin detector. This method enables us to measure spin-resolved core-level spectra for buried ferromagnetic materials.

  3. Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser Authors: ... protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser Source: OPTICS EXPRESS ...

  4. Direct Observation of Phase Transformations in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds Using In-situ Spatially Resolved and Time-resolved X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmer, J.; Wong, J.; Ressler, T.

    1999-09-23

    Spatially resolved x-ray diffraction (SRXRD) and time resolved x-ray diffraction (TRXRD) were used to investigate real time solid state phase transformations and solidification in AISI type 304 stainless steel gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds. These experiments were conducted at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) using a high flux beam line. Spatially resolved observations of {gamma} {leftrightarrow} {delta} solid state phase transformations were performed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of moving welds and time-resolved observations of the solidification sequence were performed in the fusion zone (FZ) of stationary welds after the arc had been terminated. Results of the moving weld experiments showed that the kinetics of the {gamma}{yields}{delta} phase transformation on heating in the HAZ were sufficiently rapid to transform a narrow region surrounding the liquid weld pool to the {delta} ferrite phase. Results of the stationary weld experiments showed, for the first time, that solidification can occur directly to the {delta} ferrite phase, which persisted as a single phase for 0.5s. Upon solidification to {delta}, the {delta} {yields} {gamma} phase transformation followed and completed in 0.2s as the weld cooled further to room temperature.

  5. Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils Tuesday, July 16, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Kelly Cone, PhD Engineering, Dept. of Applied Science, University of California, Davis The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. The copper target was heated by a plasma produced using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET)

  6. CORPES 11: International Workshop on Strong Correlations and Angle-Resolved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photoemission Spectroscopy CORPES 11: International Workshop on Strong Correlations and Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy July 18-22, 2011 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California More information Attendees participated in a poster session Thursday on the ALS patio, engaging in conversations over lunch and at the posters. An international workshop entitled "Strong Correlations and Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy", or CORPES11 , was held at Berkeley Lab

  7. Aspects of Electron-Phonon Self-Energy Revealed From Angle-Resolved

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photoemission Spectroscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Aspects of Electron-Phonon Self-Energy Revealed From Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aspects of Electron-Phonon Self-Energy Revealed From Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy No abstract prepared. Authors: Lee, W.S. ; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL ; Johnston, S. ; Devereaux, T.P. ; /Waterloo U. ; Shen, Z.X. ; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

  8. New Code Compliance Briefs Assist in Resolving Codes and Standards Concerns

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in Energy Innovations | Department of Energy New Code Compliance Briefs Assist in Resolving Codes and Standards Concerns in Energy Innovations New Code Compliance Briefs Assist in Resolving Codes and Standards Concerns in Energy Innovations The Building America Program is hosting a free webinar that will provide an overview of new Code Compliance Brief content on the Building America Solution Center. These briefs help builders understand and meet code requirements while helping code

  9. Unified Resolve 2014: A Proof of Concept for Radiological Support to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Incident Commanders | Department of Energy Unified Resolve 2014: A Proof of Concept for Radiological Support to Incident Commanders Unified Resolve 2014: A Proof of Concept for Radiological Support to Incident Commanders Daniel Blumenthal*, U.S. Department of Energy ; John Crapo, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Gerard Vavrina, U.S. Department of Energy; Katharine McLellan McLellan, U.S. Department of Energy; Michael J. Gresalfi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Abstract: In

  10. Verifying the Benefits and Resolving the Issues in the Commercialization of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ethanol Containing Diesel Fuels | Department of Energy the Benefits and Resolving the Issues in the Commercialization of Ethanol Containing Diesel Fuels Verifying the Benefits and Resolving the Issues in the Commercialization of Ethanol Containing Diesel Fuels Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_kaufman.pdf More Documents & Publications

  11. Resolving unoccupied electronic states with laser ARPES in bismuth-based

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cuprate superconductors (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Resolving unoccupied electronic states with laser ARPES in bismuth-based cuprate superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Resolving unoccupied electronic states with laser ARPES in bismuth-based cuprate superconductors Authors: Miller, Tristan L. ; Ärrälä, Minna ; Smallwood, Christopher L. ; Zhang, Wentao ; Hafiz, Hasnain ; Barbiellini, Bernardo ; Kurashima, Koshi ; Adachi, Tadashi ; Koike, Yoji ; Eisaki,

  12. Time-resolved carrier distributions in graphene (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Conference: Time-resolved carrier distributions in graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-resolved carrier distributions in graphene Authors: Gilbertson, Steve Michael [1] ; Durakiewicz, Tomasz [1] ; Zhu, Jian - Xin [1] ; Mohite, Aditya D [1] ; Dattelbaum, Andrew M [1] ; Rodtiguez, George [1] ; Dakovski, Georgi [2] ; Dani, Keshav M [3] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory SLAC OKINAWA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Publication Date:

  13. f-electron correlations in nonmagnetic Ce studied by means of spin-resolved

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    resonant photoemission (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect f-electron correlations in nonmagnetic Ce studied by means of spin-resolved resonant photoemission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: f-electron correlations in nonmagnetic Ce studied by means of spin-resolved resonant photoemission Authors: Yu, S. -W. ; Komesu, T. ; Chung, B. W. ; Waddill, G. D. ; Morton, S. A. ; Tobin, J. G. [1] ; MUST) [2] + Show Author Affiliations LLNL ( Publication Date: 2015-10-15 OSTI Identifier:

  14. AN INVESTIGATION TO RESOLVE THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FUEL CELL, POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPLICATION LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudip K. Mazumder; Chuck McKintyre; Dan Herbison; Doug Nelson; Comas Haynes; Michael von Spakovsky; Joseph Hartvigsen; S. Elangovan

    2003-11-03

    Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry. However, this is not true for the thermal, mechanical, and chemical balance-of-plant subsystem (BOPS), where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy diminishes the reliability and performance of the electrode with increasing demand of load. Because these unwanted phenomena are not well understood, the manufacturers of SOFC use conservative schemes (such as, delayed load-following to compensate for slow BOPS response or expensive inductor filtering) to control stack responses to load variations. This limits the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications from a cost standpoint. Thus, a need exists for the synthesis of component- and system-level models of SOFC power-conditioning systems and the development of methodologies for investigating the system-interaction issues (which reduce the lifetime and efficiency of a SOFC) and optimizing the responses of each subsystem, leading to optimal designs of power-conditioning electronics and optimal control strategies, which mitigate the electrical-feedback effects. Equally important are ''multiresolution'' finite-element modeling and simulation studies, which can predict the impact of changes in system-level variables (e.g., current ripple and load-transients) on the local current densities, voltages, and temperature (these parameters are very difficult or cumbersome, if not impossible to obtain) within a SOFC cell. Towards that end, for phase I of this project, sponsored by the U.S. DOE (NETL), we investigate the interactions among fuel cell, power-conditioning system, and application loads and their effects on SOFC reliability (durability) and performance. A number of methodologies have been used in Phase I to develop the steady-state and transient nonlinear models of the SOFC stack subsystem (SOFCSS), the power-electronics subsystem (PES), and the BOPS. Such an approach leads to robust and comprehensive electrical, electrochemical, thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, and geometric models of the SOFSS, PES and application loads, and BOPS. A comprehensive methodology to resolve interactions among SOFCSS, PES and application loads and to investigate the impacts of the fast- and slow-scale dynamics of the power-conditioning system (PCS) on the SOFCSS has been developed by this team. Parametric studies on SOFCSS have been performed and the effects of current ripple and load transients on SOFC material properties are investigated. These results are used to gain insights into the long-term performance and reliability of the SOFCSS. Based on this analysis, a novel, efficient, and reliable PES for SOFC has been developed. Impacts of SOFC PCS control techniques on the transient responses, flow parameters, and current densities have also been studied and a novel nonlinear hybrid controller for single/parallel DC-DC converter has been developed.

  15. King has no clothes: The role of the military in responding to a terrorist chemical/biological attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osterman, J.L.

    1996-06-14

    The United States has begun a program of counterproliferation in order to preempt the use of WMD by such elements, however, the ability to respond to the terrorist employment of biological/chemical weapons is absent. Given the structure, capability and technical expertise in the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Department of Defense (DoD) will be tasked to conduct the response to such an incident. The geographical Commander in Chief (CINC) and the appointed Joint Task Force (JTF) commander will ultimately be assigned the response mission. Planning, training and coordination is required to develop a force capable of responding in a timely and coordinated manner.

  16. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  17. AVTA: Battery Testing- Best Practices for Responding to Emergency Incidents in Plug-in Electric Vehicles (EV)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report describes best practices for responding to emergency incidents involving plug-in electric vehicle batteries, based on the AVTA's testing of PEV batteries. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  18. Request for Proposal No. DE-SOL-0007749 SECTION L INSTRUCTIONS, CONDITIONS, AND NOTICES TO OFFERORS OR RESPONDENTS

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    SECTION L INSTRUCTIONS, CONDITIONS, AND NOTICES TO OFFERORS OR RESPONDENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS L-1 FAR 52.204-7 SYSTEM FOR AWARD MANAGEMENT (JUL 2013) ................................................... 1 L-2 FAR 52.215-1 INSTRUCTIONS TO OFFERORS -- COMPETITIVE ACQUISITION (JAN 2004) ... 3 L-3 FAR 52.216-1 TYPE OF CONTRACT (APR 1984) ................................................................................... 8 L-4 FAR 52.222-24 PREAWARD ON-SITE EQUAL OPPORTUNITY COMPLIANCE EVALUATION (FEB

  19. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  20. Retrofitting and the mu Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Daniel; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    One of the challenges of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and mediation is generating a {mu} term consistent with the requirements of electro-weak symmetry breaking. The most common approach to the problem is to generate the {mu} term through a SUSY breaking F-term. Often these models produce unacceptably large B{mu} terms as a result. We will present an alternate approach, where the {mu} term is generated directly by non-perturtative effects. The same non-perturbative effect will also retrofit the model of SUSY breaking in such a way that {mu} is at the same scale as masses of the Standard Model superpartners. Because the {mu} term is not directly generated by SUSY breaking effects, there is no associated B{mu} problem. These results are demonstrated in a toy model where a stringy instanton generates {mu}.

  1. Tsirelson's problem and asymptotically commuting unitary matrices...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tsirelson's problem and asymptotically commuting unitary matrices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tsirelson's problem and asymptotically commuting unitary matrices In ...

  2. Development Of a Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer For

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement Of Ion-temperature (Ti) And Rotation-velocity (v) Profiles in ITER (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Development Of a Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer For Measurement Of Ion-temperature (Ti) And Rotation-velocity (v) Profiles in ITER Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development Of a Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer For Measurement Of Ion-temperature (Ti) And Rotation-velocity (v) Profiles in ITER Imaging x-ray crystal

  3. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of PrFeAsO0.7: Comparison

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with LaFePO (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of PrFeAsO0.7: Comparison with LaFePO Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of PrFeAsO0.7: Comparison with LaFePO Authors: Nishi, I. ; Ishikado, M. ; Ideta, S. ; Malaeb, W. ; Yoshida, T. ; Fujimori, A. ; Kotani, Y. ; Kubota, M. ; Ono, K. ; Yi, M. ; Lu, D. H. ; Moore, R. ; Shen, Z.-X. ; Iyo, A. ; Kihou, K. ; Kito, H. ; Eisaki, H. ; Shamoto, S. ;

  4. Resolving Material-Specific Structures within Fe[subscript 3]O[subscript

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    4]|[gamma]-Mn[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] Core|Shell Nanoparticles Using Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Resolving Material-Specific Structures within Fe[subscript 3]O[subscript 4]|[gamma]-Mn[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] Core|Shell Nanoparticles Using Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Resolving Material-Specific Structures within Fe[subscript 3]O[subscript 4]|[gamma]-Mn[subscript 2]O[subscript 3]

  5. STUDY OF THE RHIC BPM SMA CONNECTOR FAILURE PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LIAW,C.; SIKORA, R.; SCHROEDER, R.

    2007-06-25

    About 730 BPMs are mounted on the RHIC CQS and Triplet super-conducting magnets. Semi-rigid coaxial cables are used to bring the electrical signal from the BPM feedthroughs to the outside flanges. at the ambient temperature. Every year around 10 cables will lose their signals during the operation. The connection usually failed at the warm end of the cable. The problems were either the solder joint failed or the center conductor retracted out of the SMA connector. Finite element analyses were performed to understand the failure mechanism of the solder joint. The results showed that (1) The SMA center conductor can separate from the mating connector due to the thermal retraction. (2) The maximum thermal stress at the warm end solder joint can exceed the material strength of the Pb37/Sn63 solder material and (3) The magnet ramping frequency (-10 Hz), during the machine startup, can possibly resonant the coaxial cable and damage the solder joints, especially when a fracture is initiated. Test results confirmed that by using the silver bearing solder material (a higher strength material) and by crimping the cable at the locations close to the SMA connector (to prevent the center conductor from retracting) can effectively resolve the connector failure problem.

  6. Solving the Dark Matter Problem

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Baltz, Ted

    2009-09-01

    Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.

  7. Vibrationally resolved transitions in ion-molecule and atom-molecular ion slow collisions

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The data tables and interactive graphs made available here contain theoretical integral cross sections for vibrational excitation and vibrationally resolved charge transfer from vibrationally excited states of H2 and H2+ with protons and hydrogen atoms, respectively. [From http://www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/h2mol/home.html] (Specialized Interface)

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions.

  9. Direct Phase-resolved strain Measurements in Cementitious materials (Prop.2001-061)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, Thomas R; BIernacki, Joseph J.; Wang, R; Bai, J.; Lance, Michael J; Parnham, C. J.; Hubbard, Camden R; Mikel, Sean

    2007-01-01

    J. J. Biernacki, S. E. Mikel, C. J. Parnham, R. Wang, J. Bai, T. R. Watkins, M. Lance and C. R. Hubbard, "Direct Phase-Resolved Strain Measurements in Cementitious Materials," pp. 57-72 in Transport Properties and Concrete Quality: Materials Science of Concrete, Special Volume. Edited by B. Mobasher and J. P Skalny, ACerS, Westerville, OH, 2007.

  10. PCx: Optimization Problem Solver | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PCx: Optimization Problem Solver PCx: Optimization Problem Solver PCx is a highly efficient code for solving linear programming optimization problems. In addition to being a useful tool for mathematical computation, the PCx package lends itself readily to a wide array of optimization problems in business and industry, helping decision-makers to find optimal solutions to problems with numerous constraints and variants. PCx is based on the Mehrotra predictor-corrector interior-point algorithm. PCx

  11. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. One of the most common air conditioning problems is improper operation. If your air conditioner is on, be sure to close your home's windows and outside doors. For room air conditioners, isolate the room or a group of

  12. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.; Kimmel, M.W.; Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-10

    A system for detecting objects in a turbid media utilizes an optical parametric amplifier as an amplifying gate for received light from the media. An optical gating pulse from a second parametric amplifier permits the system to respond to and amplify only ballistic photons from the object in the media. 13 figs.

  13. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cameron, Stewart M.; Bliss, David E.; Kimmel, Mark W.; Neal, Daniel R.

    1999-01-01

    A system for detecting objects in a turbid media utilizes an optical parametric amplifier as an amplifying gate for received light from the media. An optical gating pulse from a second parametric amplifier permits the system to respond to and amplify only ballistic photons from the object in the media.

  14. Quantum simulations of physics problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somma, R. D.; Ortiz, G.; Knill, E. H.; Gubernatis, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    If a large Quantum Computer (QC) existed today, what type of physical problems could we efficiently simulate on it that we could not efficiently simulate on a classical Turing machine? In this paper we argue that a QC could solve some relevant physical 'questions' more efficiently. The existence of one-to-one mappings between different algebras of observables or between different Hilbert spaces allow us to represent and imitate any physical system by any other one (e.g., a bosonic system by a spin-1/2 system). We explain how these mappings can be performed, and we show quantum networks useful for the efficient evaluation of some physical properties, such as correlation functions and energy spectra.

  15. WORKSHEET AND RESPONDENT QUESTIONS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... For the 2003 CBECS, a new methodology was undertaken for interviewing strip shopping ... Non-profit or social services office Research and development office City hall or city ...

  16. Time and spectrum-resolving multiphoton correlator for 300900 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnsen, Kelsey D.; Thibault, Marilyne; Jennewein, Thomas; Kolenderski, Piotr; Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto

    2014-10-14

    We demonstrate a single-photon sensitive spectrometer in the visible range, which allows us to perform time-resolved and multi-photon spectral correlation measurements at room temperature. It is based on a monochromator composed of two gratings, collimation optics, and an array of single photon avalanche diodes. The time resolution can reach 110 ps and the spectral resolution is 2 nm/pixel, limited by the design of the monochromator. This technique can easily be combined with commercial monochromators and can be useful for joint spectrum measurements of two photons emitted in the process of parametric down conversion, as well as time-resolved spectrum measurements in optical coherence tomography or medical physics applications.

  17. Method for enhancing the resolving power of ion mobility separations over a limited mobility range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D

    2014-09-23

    A method for raising the resolving power, specificity, and peak capacity of conventional ion mobility spectrometry is disclosed. Ions are separated in a dynamic electric field comprising an oscillatory field wave and opposing static field, or at least two counter propagating waves with different parameters (amplitude, profile, frequency, or speed). As the functional dependencies of mean drift velocity on the ion mobility in a wave and static field or in unequal waves differ, only single species is equilibrated while others drift in either direction and are mobility-separated. An ion mobility spectrum over a limited range is then acquired by measuring ion drift times through a fixed distance inside the gas-filled enclosure. The resolving power in the vicinity of equilibrium mobility substantially exceeds that for known traveling-wave or drift-tube IMS separations, with spectra over wider ranges obtainable by stitching multiple segments. The approach also enables low-cutoff, high-cutoff, and bandpass ion mobility filters.

  18. Time-Resolved Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Studies Revealed Three Kinetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stages of a T=4 Virus Maturation June 2010 Time-Resolved Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Studies Revealed Three Kinetic Stages of a T=4 Virus Maturation Most eukaryotic viruses, including HIV, influenza and herpes viruses, undergo maturation when transitioning from the noninfectious provirion to the infectious virion. Maturation processes involve reorganization of viral quaternary structure to defend viral gene from the cellular defense mechanism and lead to effective transfection. Nudaurelia

  19. Resolved: "error while loading shared libraries: libalpslli.so.0" with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    serial codes on login nodes "error while loading shared libraries: libalpslli.so.0" with serial codes on login nodes Resolved: "error while loading shared libraries: libalpslli.so.0" with serial codes on login nodes December 13, 2013 by Helen He Symptom: Dynamic executables built with compiler wrappers running directly on the external login nodes are getting the following error message: % ftn -dynamic -o testf testf.f % ./testf ./testf: error while loading shared

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  2. Ferroelectricity - Ambiguity Clarified, and Resolved | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) Ferroelectricity - Ambiguity Clarified, and Resolved Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 12.14.15 Ferroelectricity -

  3. Serial time-resolved crystallography of photosystem II using a femtosecond

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray laser Serial time-resolved crystallography of photosystem II using a femtosecond X-ray laser Authors: Kupitz, Christopher; Basu, Shibom; Grotjohann, Ingo; Fromme, Raimund; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Rendek, Kimberly N.; Hunter, Mark; Shoeman, Robert L.; White, Thomas A.; Wang, Dingjie; James, Daniel; Yang, Jay-How; Cobb, Danielle E.; Brenda, Reeder; Raymond, G. Sierra; Liu, Haiguang; Barty, Anton; Aquila, Andrew L.; Deponte, Daniel; Kirian, Richard A.; Bari, Sadia; Bergkamp, Jesse J.;

  4. New Code Compliance Briefs Assist in Resolving Codes and Standards Concerns in Energy Innovations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Code Compliance Briefs Assist in Resolving Codes and Standards Concerns in Energy Innovations Pam Cole Pacific Northwest National Laboratory February 24, 2016 PNNL-SA-116487 2 | Building America eere.energy.gov Relevant to BTO Objectives The Building America Program is designed to compliment and support the work done by other Building Technologies Office (BTO) programs. It supports codes and standards by identifying and filling gaps in building science and system knowledge that may limit

  5. Time-Resolved Picosecond Pure-Rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectroscopy for Thermometry and Species Concentration in Combustion Environments. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Combustion Environments. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-Resolved Picosecond Pure-Rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy for Thermometry and Species Concentration in Combustion Environments. Abstract not provided. Authors: Kliewer, Christopher Jesse ; Settersten, Thomas B. ; Patterson, Brian D. ; Seeger, Thomas ; Kiefer, Johannes ; Leipertz, Alfred

  6. Time-Resolved Picosecond Pure-Rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectroscopy for Thermometry and Species Concentration in Flames. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Flames. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-Resolved Picosecond Pure-Rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy for Thermometry and Species Concentration in Flames. Abstract not provided. Authors: Kliewer, Christopher Jesse ; Farrow, Roger L. ; Settersten, Thomas B. ; Patterson, Brian D. ; Kiefer, Johannes ; Seeger, Thomas ; Gao, Yi Publication Date: 2009-12-01 OSTI

  7. Time-resolved far-infrared experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, D.B.; Reitze, D.H.; Carr, G.L.

    1999-10-12

    A facility for time-resolved infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy has been built and commissioned at the National Synchrotron Light Source. This facility permits the study of time dependent phenomena over a frequency range from 2-8000cm{sup {minus}1} (0.25 meV-1 eV). Temporal resolution is approximately 200 psec and time dependent phenomena in the time range out to 100 nsec can be investigated.

  8. Westinghouse Pays $50,000 Civil Penalty to Resolve Light Bulb Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Violations | Department of Energy Department of Energy has successfully resolved the enforcement case against Westinghouse Lighting Corporation for failure to certify its light bulbs as compliant with DOE's federal efficiency requirements and for the sale of at least 29,000 general service fluorescent and medium base compact fluorescent lamps that used more energy than permitted by law. This case reflects DOE's renewed commitment to enforce the federal efficiency requirements systematically

  9. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugh, M. J. Jacoby, K. D.; Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-11-15

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  10. A time-resolved spectroscopic diagnostic based on fast scintillator and optical fiber array for z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Fan; Qin Yi; Jiang Shuqing; Xue Feibiao; Li Zhenghong; Yang Jianlun; Xu Rongkun; Anan'ev, S. S.; Dan'ko, S. A.; Kalinin, Yu. G.

    2009-10-15

    We report a specially designed type of temporal resolved x-ray spectroscopic diagnostic using a spherically bent quartz crystal for z-pinch plasmas. Registration of time-resolved spectra was accomplished by coupling fast plastic scintillator, an optical fiber array, an optical streak camera, and a charge coupled device as the recording medium of this diagnostic. The diagnostic has been tested in imploding wire array experiments on S-300 pulsed power facility. Time-resolved K-shell lines were successfully obtained for aluminum wire array implosion plasmas.

  11. Cloud Feedbacks on Climate: A Challenging Scientific Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Joel

    2010-05-10

    One reason it has been difficult to develop suitable social and economic policies to address global climate change is that projected global warming during the coming century has a large uncertainty range. The primary physical cause of this large uncertainty range is lack of understanding of the magnitude and even sign of cloud feedbacks on the climate system. If Earth's cloudiness responded to global warming by reflecting more solar radiation back to space or allowing more terrestrial radiation to be emitted to space, this would mitigate the warming produced by increased anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Contrastingly, a cloud response that reduced solar reflection or terrestrial emission would exacerbate anthropogenic greenhouse warming. It is likely that a mixture of responses will occur depending on cloud type and meteorological regime, and at present, we do not know what the net effect will be. This presentation will explain why cloud feedbacks have been a challenging scientific problem from the perspective of theory, modeling, and observations. Recent research results on observed multidecadal cloud-atmosphere-ocean variability over the Pacific Ocean will also be shown, along with suggestions for future research.

  12. Cloud Feedbacks on Climate: A Challenging Scientific Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Joe

    2010-05-12

    One reason it has been difficult to develop suitable social and economic policies to address global climate change is that projected global warming during the coming century has a large uncertainty range. The primary physical cause of this large uncertainty range is lack of understanding of the magnitude and even sign of cloud feedbacks on the climate system. If Earth's cloudiness responded to global warming by reflecting more solar radiation back to space or allowing more terrestrial radiation to be emitted to space, this would mitigate the warming produced by increased anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Contrastingly, a cloud response that reduced solar reflection or terrestrial emission would exacerbate anthropogenic greenhouse warming. It is likely that a mixture of responses will occur depending on cloud type and meteorological regime, and at present, we do not know what the net effect will be. This presentation will explain why cloud feedbacks have been a challenging scientific problem from the perspective of theory, modeling, and observations. Recent research results on observed multidecadal cloud-atmosphere-ocean variability over the Pacific Ocean will also be shown, along with suggestions for future research.

  13. Cloud Feedbacks on Climate: A Challenging Scientific Problem

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Norris, Joe [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California, USA

    2010-09-01

    One reason it has been difficult to develop suitable social and economic policies to address global climate change is that projected global warming during the coming century has a large uncertainty range. The primary physical cause of this large uncertainty range is lack of understanding of the magnitude and even sign of cloud feedbacks on the climate system. If Earth's cloudiness responded to global warming by reflecting more solar radiation back to space or allowing more terrestrial radiation to be emitted to space, this would mitigate the warming produced by increased anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Contrastingly, a cloud response that reduced solar reflection or terrestrial emission would exacerbate anthropogenic greenhouse warming. It is likely that a mixture of responses will occur depending on cloud type and meteorological regime, and at present, we do not know what the net effect will be. This presentation will explain why cloud feedbacks have been a challenging scientific problem from the perspective of theory, modeling, and observations. Recent research results on observed multidecadal cloud-atmosphere-ocean variability over the Pacific Ocean will also be shown, along with suggestions for future research.

  14. The conflict of interest problem in EIS preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States); Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCold, L.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federal agencies prepare environmental impact statements (EISs) on proposals for major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations require that EISs be prepared directly by the lead agency or a contractor it selects. EIS contractors must execute a disclosure statement specifying that they have ``no financial or other interest`` in the outcome of the project. The intent of the ``conflict of interest`` prohibition is to ensure that the EIS is defensible, free of self-serving bias, and credible to the public. Those coming to the federal government for money, permits, or project approvals must not be placed in the position of analyzing the environmental consequences of their own proposals. This paper analyzes the conflict of interest problem faced by government contractors who maintain and operate government-owned or-controlled facilities for which EISs are required. In the US Department of Energy (DOE) system, these are referred to as ``M and O`` contractors. It also examines organizational conflicts presented by current or prospective government contractors who have a financial or other interest in the outcome of a project or program for which an EIS is prepared. In responding to these and related questions, the paper discusses and interprets the CEQ regulations and guidance on EIS preparation conflict of interest as well as leading federal court opinions. It also distinguishes ``preparers`` from ``participants`` in the EIS preparation process.

  15. Spatially resolved spectra of the 'teacup' active galactic nucleus: tracing the history of a dying quasar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagne, J. P.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Fischer, T. C.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Keel, W. C.; Rafter, S.; Bennert, V. N.; Schawinski, K.

    2014-09-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Galaxy Zoo project has revealed a number of spectacular galaxies possessing extended emission-line regions (EELRs), the most famous being Hanny's Voorwerp galaxy. We present another EELR object discovered in the SDSS endeavor: the Teacup active galactic nucleus (AGN). Nicknamed for its EELR, which has a 'handle'-like structure protruding 15 kpc into the northeast quadrant of the galaxy. We analyze the physical conditions of this galaxy with long-slit, ground-based spectroscopy from the Lowell, Lick, and KPNO observatories. With the Lowell 1.8 m Perkin's telescope we took multiple observations at different offset positions, allowing us to recover spatially resolved spectra across the galaxy. Line diagnostics indicate the ionized gas is photoionized primarily by the AGN. Additionally we are able to derive the hydrogen density from the [S II] ?6716/?6731 ratio. We generated two-component photoionization models for each spatially resolved Lowell spectrum. These models allow us to calculate the AGN bolometric luminosity seen by the gas at different radii from the nuclear center of the Teacup. Our results show a drop in bolometric luminosity by more than two orders of magnitude from the EELR to the nucleus, suggesting that the AGN has decreased in luminosity by this amount in a continuous fashion over 46,000 yr, supporting the case for a dying AGN in this galaxy independent of any IR based evidence. We demonstrate that spatially resolved photoionization modeling could be applied to EELRs to investigate long timescale variability.

  16. Pixel Array Detector for Time-Resolved X-ray Science, September 1, 1997 - September 14, 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruner, Sol M.

    2000-11-07

    Progress on the design, fabrication, testing and assembly of two-layer Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) is described. The PADs are developed for challenging time-resolved X-ray imaging applications at synchrotron radiation X-ray sources.

  17. Student's algorithm solves real-world problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Student's algorithm solves real-world problem Supercomputing Challenge: student's algorithm solves real-world problem Students learn how to use powerful computers to analyze, model, and solve real-world problems. April 3, 2012 Jordon Medlock of Albuquerque's Manzano High School won the 2012 Lab-sponsored Supercomputing Challenge Jordon Medlock of Albuquerque's Manzano High School won the 2012 Lab-sponsored Supercomputing Challenge by creating a computer algorithm that automates the process of

  18. Nonlinear Raman Techniques in Femtosecond Time Resolved Spectroscopy for the Analysis and Control of Molecular Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Materny, Arnulf; Konradi, Jakow; Namboodiri, Vinu; Namboodiri, Mahesh; Scaria, Abraham

    2008-11-14

    The use of four-wave mixing techniques in femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy has considerable advantages. Due to the many degrees of freedom offered e.g. by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), the dynamics even of complex systems can be analyzed in detail. Using pulse shaping techniques in combination with a self-learning loop approach, molecular mode excitation can be controlled very efficiently in a multi-photon excitation process. Results obtained from the optimal control of CARS on {beta}-carotene are discussed.

  19. Scientists Mix Matter and Anti-Matter Results to Resolve Decade-Old Proton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Puzzle | Jefferson Lab Scientists Mix Matter and Anti-Matter to Resolve Decade-Old Proton Puzzle Hall B The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, or CLAS, in Jefferson Lab's Experimental Hall B was used to measure electrons during the experiment. Fans of science and science fiction have been warned that mixing matter with anti-matter can yield explosive results. And that's just what physicists were counting on, in hopes of blowing wide open a puzzle that has confounded them for the last

  20. Workshop: Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate Saturday, October 22, 2011 - 8:30am SSRL Conference Room 137-322 In conjunction with the 2011 LCLS/SSRL User Meeting, SSRL and the APS will jointly host a two-day workshop focused on opportunities with short-pulse, high-repetition rate X-ray Science. The workshop will feature international speakers and panel experts presenting the scientific basis, preliminary results and future potential of high rep-rate

  1. Time Resolved Collapse of a Folding Protein Observed with Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollack, L.; Tate, M. W.; Finnefrock, A. C.; Kalidas, C.; Trotter, S.; Darnton, N. C.; Lurio, L.; Austin, R. H.; Batt, C. A.; Gruner, S. M. (and others)

    2001-05-21

    High-intensity, ''pink'' beam from an undulator was used in conjunction with microfabricated rapid-fluid mixing devices to monitor the early events in protein folding with time resolved small angle x-ray scattering. This Letter describes recent work on the protein bovine {beta} -lactoglobulin where collapse from an expanded to a compact set of states was directly observed on the millisecond time scale. The role of chain collapse, one of the initial stages of protein folding, is not currently understood. The characterization of transient, compact states is vital in assessing the validity of theories and models of the folding process.

  2. Development of a Fast Time-Resolved Aerosol Collector (Fast TRAC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yu & James Cowin PNNL Fast Time-Resolved Aerosol Collector ......Fast TRAC...... Xiao-Ying Yu, Ali Hashim, Martin Iedema, and James Cowin Atmospheric Sciences, Chemical Sciences Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA Research is supported by NOAA & DOE. *Patent Pending Xiao-Ying Yu & James Cowin PNNL Cloud Microstructures ≤ 1 m Want to know the aerosols at this resolution Aircraft flies at 150 m/s Need time resolution 1 m/150 m/s = 6 ms (!!!!!) Xiao-Ying Yu & James

  3. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. A. E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W. E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S.; Cotlet, M.; Petrone, N.; Hone, J.; Gu, T.; Gesuele, F.

    2014-04-28

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4 reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  4. Month-Long 2D Cloud-Resolving Model Simulation and Resultant Statistics of Cloud Systems Over the ARM SGP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Month-Long 2D Cloud-Resolving Model Simulation and Resultant Statistics of Cloud Systems Over the ARM SGP X. Wu Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Iowa State University Ames, Iowa X.-Z. Liang Illinois State Water Survey University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Illinois Introduction The cloud-resolving model (CRM) has recently emerged as a useful tool to develop improved representations of convections, clouds, and cloud-radiation interactions in general circulation models (GCMs).

  5. Statewide Power Problems May Affect SSRL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Statewide Power Problems May Affect SSRL The power crisis affecting California and the northwestern US may have some implication for SSRL users during the current run. As the...

  6. Engineering report standard hydrogen monitoring system problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golberg, R.L.

    1996-09-25

    Engineering Report to document moisture problems found during the sampling of the vapors in the dome space for hydrogen in the storage tanks and a recommended solution.

  7. VERA Core Physics Benchmark Progression Problems Specifications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VERA Core Physics Benchmark Progression Problem Specifications Revision 4 August 29, 2014 Andrew T. Godfrey Physics Integration Oak Ridge National Laboratory CASL-U-2012-0131-004 ...

  8. design problem | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    design problem Home Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(266) Contributor 15 November, 2013 - 13:26 Living Walls ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu...

  9. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  10. A table-top femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leone, Stephen; Loh, Zhi-Heng; Khalil, Munira; Correa, Raoul E.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-05-21

    A laser-based, table-top instrument is constructed to perform femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy. Ultrashort soft x-ray pulses produced via high-order harmonic generation of the amplified output of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system are used to probe atomic core-level transient absorptions in atoms and molecules. The results provide chemically specific, time-resolved dynamics with sub-50-fs time resolution. In this setup, high-order harmonics generated in a Ne-filled capillary waveguide are refocused by a gold-coated toroidal mirror into the sample gas cell, where the soft x-ray light intersects with an optical pump pulse. The transmitted high-order harmonics are spectrally dispersed with a home-built soft x-ray spectrometer, which consists of a gold-coated toroidal mirror, a uniform-line spaced plane grating, and a soft x-ray CCD camera. The optical layout of the instrument, design of the soft x-ray spectrometer, and spatial and temporal characterization of the high-order harmonics are described. Examples of static and time-resolved photoabsorption spectra collected on this apparatus are presented.

  11. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, David C. Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Wishart, James F.; Bernstein, Herbert J.

    2015-04-15

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330 to 1051 cm{sup ?1}. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ?40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ?100 ?OD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. This new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  12. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-27

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of amore » unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm⁻¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.« less

  13. Millifluidics for time-resolved mapping of the growth of gold nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai Krishna, Katla; Navin, Chelliah; Biswas, Sanchita; Singh, Varshni; Ham, Kyungmin; Bovencamp, L. S.; Theegala, Chandra; Miller, Jeffrey T; Spivey, James J.; Kumar, Challa S.S.R.

    2013-04-10

    Innovative in situ characterization tools are essential for understanding the reaction mechanisms leading to the growth of nanoscale materials. Though techniques, such as in situ transmission X-ray microscopy, fast single-particle spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, etc., are currently being developed, these tools are complex, not easily accessible, and do not necessarily provide the temporal resolution required to follow the formation of nanomaterials in real time. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the utility of a simple millifluidic chip for an in situ real time analysis of morphology and dimension-controlled growth of gold nano- and microstructures with a time resolution of 5 ms. The structures formed were characterized using synchrotron radiation-based in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, 3-D X-ray tomography, and high-resolution electron microscopy. These gold nanostructures were found to be catalytically active for conversion of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol, providing an example of the potential opportunities for time-resolved analysis of catalytic reactions. While the investigations reported here are focused on gold nanostructures, the technique can be applied to analyze the time-resolved growth of other types of nanostructured metals and metal oxides. With the ability to probe at least a 10-fold higher concentrations, in comparison with traditional microfluidics, the tool has potential to revolutionize a broad range of fields from catalysis, molecular analysis, biodefense, and molecular biology.

  14. Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica extracted from oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumada, Takayuki Akagi, Hiroshi; Itakura, Ryuji; Otobe, Tomohito; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2014-03-14

    Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica is examined via time-resolved reflectivity measurements. After optical breakdown was caused by irradiation of a pump pulse with fluence F{sub pump}?=?3.314.9?J/cm{sup 2}, the reflectivity oscillated with a period of 63??2 ps for a wavelength ??=?795?nm. The period was reduced by half for ??=?398?nm. We ascribe the oscillation to the interference between the probe pulses reflected from the front and rear surfaces of the photo-excited molten fused silica layer. The time-resolved reflectivity agrees closely with a model comprising a photo-excited layer which expands due to the formation of voids, and then separates into two parts, one of which is left on the sample surface and the other separated as a molten thin layer from the surface by the spallation mechanism. Such oscillations were not observed in the reflectivity of soda-lime glass. Whether the reflectivity oscillates or not probably depends on the layer viscosity while in a molten state. Since viscosity of the molten fused silica is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the soda-lime glass at the same temperature, fused silica forms a molten thin layer that reflects the probe pulse, whereas the soda-lime glass is fragmented into clusters.

  15. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-27

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm?. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 OD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  16. Time-resolved photoemission apparatus achieving sub-20-meV energy resolution and high stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishida, Y.; Togashi, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kiss, T.; Otsu, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shin, S.

    2014-12-15

    The paper describes a time- and angle-resolved photoemission apparatus consisting of a hemispherical analyzer and a pulsed laser source. We demonstrate 1.48-eV pump and 5.92-eV probe measurements at the ?10.5-meV and ?240-fs resolutions by use of fairly monochromatic 170-fs pulses delivered from a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser system operating typically at 250 kHz. The apparatus is capable to resolve the optically filled superconducting peak in the unoccupied states of a cuprate superconductor, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+?}. A dataset recorded on Bi(111) surface is also presented. Technical descriptions include the followings: A simple procedure to fine-tune the spatio-temporal overlap of the pump-and-probe beams and their diameters; achieving a long-term stability of the system that enables a normalization-free dataset acquisition; changing the repetition rate by utilizing acoustic optical modulator and frequency-division circuit.

  17. Time-Resolved Infrared Reflectance Studies of the Dehydration-Induced Transformation of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to the Trihydrate Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2015-10-01

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparation and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm-1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm-1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. The phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with but one in the hexahydrate.

  18. Time-resolved infrared reflectance studies of the dehydration-induced transformation of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to the trihydrate form

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Edward J. Mausolf; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; Bruce K. McNamara

    2015-09-08

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s, the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparationmore » and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm–1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm–1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. As a result, the phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with only one in the hexahydrate.« less

  19. Mitigating PQ Problems in Legacy Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilinets, Boris; /SLAC

    2011-06-01

    The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Problems with PQ in legacy data centers still exist and need to be mitigated; (2) Harmonics generated by non-linear IT load can be lowered by passive, active and hybrid cancellation methods; (3) Harmonic study is necessary to find the best way to treat PQ problems; (4) AHF's and harmonic cancellation transformers proved to be very efficient in mitigating PQ problems; and (5) It is important that IT leaders partner with electrical engineering to appropriate ROI statements, justifying many of these expenditures.

  20. SIENA Customer Problem Statement and Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Sauer; R. Clay; C. Adams; H. Walther; B. Allan; R. Mariano; C. Poore; B. Whiteside; B. Boughton; J. Dike; E. Hoffman; R. Hogan; C. LeGall

    2000-08-01

    This document describes the problem domain and functional requirements of the SIENA framework. The software requirements and system architecture of SIENA are specified in separate documents (called SIENA Software Requirement Specification and SIENA Software Architecture, respectively). While currently this version of the document describes the problems and captures the requirements within the Analysis domain (concentrating on finite element models), it is our intention to subsequent y expand this document to describe problems and capture requirements from the Design and Manufacturing domains. In addition, SIENA is designed to be extendible to support and integrate elements from the other domains (see SIENA Software Architecture document).

  1. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Studies of the Human Microbiome (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Knight, Rob [University of Colorado

    2011-06-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Rob Knight of the University of Colorado gives a presentation on "Spatially and Temporally Resolved Studies of the Human Microbiome" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  2. Time resolved photo-luminescent decay characterization of mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Soehnel, Grant

    2015-01-20

    The minority carrier lifetime is a measurable material property that is an indication of infrared detector device performance. To study the utility of measuring the carrier lifetime, an experiment has been constructed that can time resolve the photo-luminescent decay of a detector or wafer sample housed inside a liquid nitrogen cooled Dewar. Motorized stages allow the measurement to be scanned over the sample surface, and spatial resolutions as low as 50m have been demonstrated. A carrier recombination simulation was developed to analyze the experimental data. Results from measurements performed on 4 mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays show strong correlationmorebetween spatial maps of the lifetime, dark current, and relative response.less

  3. A strategy for resolving high-priority Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank safety issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babad, H.; DeFigh-Price, C.; Fulton, J.C.

    1993-02-01

    High-activity radioactive waste has been stored in large underground storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Eastern Washington State since 1944. Since then, more than 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 Mgal) of waste have been accumulated in 177 tanks. These caustic wastes consist of many different chemicals. The waste forms include liquids, slurries, salt cakes, and sludges. A number of safety issues have been raised about these wastes, and resolution of these issues is a top priority of DOE. A Waste Tank Safety Program has been established to resolve these high-priority safety issues. This paper will deal with three of these issues. The issues described are the release of flammable vapors from single- and double-shell tanks, the existence of organic chemicals, and/or ferrocyanide ion-containing fuel-rich mixtures of nitrate and nitrite salts in single-shell tanks.

  4. Time-resolved observation of thermally activated rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bak, Wan; Sung, Baekman; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Jhe, Wonho

    2015-01-05

    The capillary-condensed liquid bridge is one of the most ubiquitous forms of liquid in nature and contributes significantly to adhesion and friction of biological molecules as well as microscopic objects. Despite its important role in nanoscience and technology, the rupture process of the bridge is not well understood and needs more experimental works. Here, we report real-time observation of rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge in ambient condition. During slow and stepwise stretch of the nanobridge, we measured the activation time for rupture, or the latency time required for the bridge breakup. By statistical analysis of the time-resolved distribution of activation time, we show that rupture is a thermally activated stochastic process and follows the Poisson statistics. In particular, from the Arrhenius law that the rupture rate satisfies, we estimate the position-dependent activation energies for the capillary-bridge rupture.

  5. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Studies of the Human Microbiome (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Rob [University of Colorado] [University of Colorado

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Rob Knight of the University of Colorado gives a presentation on "Spatially and Temporally Resolved Studies of the Human Microbiome" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  6. Introduction to theory and analysis of resolved (and unresolved) neutron resonances via SAMMY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, N.M.

    1998-07-01

    Neutron cross-section data are important for two distinct purposes: first, they provide insight into the nature of matter, thus assisting in the understanding of fundamental physics; second, they are needed for practical applications (e.g., for calculating when and how a reactor will become critical, or how much shielding is needed for storage of nuclear materials, and for medical applications). Neutron cross section data in the resolved-resonance region are generally obtained by time-of-flight experiments, which must be carefully analyzed if they are to be properly understood and utilized. In this paper, important features of the analysis process are discussed, with emphasis on the particular technique used in the analysis code SAMMY. Other features of the code are also described; these include such topics as calculation of group cross sections (including covariance matrices), generation and fitting of integral quantities, and extensions into the unresolved-resonance region and higher-energy regions.

  7. Substrate interactions with suspended and supported monolayer MoS2: Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jin, Wencan; Yeh, Po -Chun; Zaki, Nader; Zhang, Datong; Liou, Jonathan T.; Dadap, Jerry I.; Barinov, Alexey; Yablonskikh, Mikhail; Sadowski, Jerzy T.; Sutter, Peter; et al

    2015-03-17

    We report the directly measured electronic structure of exfoliated monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) using micrometer-scale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Measurements of both suspended and supported monolayer MoS₂ elucidate the effects of interaction with a substrate. Thus, a suggested relaxation of the in-plane lattice constant is found for both suspended and supported monolayer MoS₂ crystals. For suspended MoS₂, a careful investigation of the measured uppermost valence band gives an effective mass at Γ¯ and Κ¯ of 2.00m₀ and 0.43m₀, respectively. We also measure an increase in the band linewidth from the midpoint of Γ¯Κ¯ to the vicinity of Κ¯ and briefly discussmore » its possible origin.« less

  8. A tunable low-energy photon source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harter, John W.; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Nie Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Burganov, Bulat; Chatterjee, Shouvik; King, Philip D. C.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2012-11-15

    We describe a tunable low-energy photon source consisting of a laser-driven xenon plasma lamp coupled to a Czerny-Turner monochromator. The combined tunability, brightness, and narrow spectral bandwidth make this light source useful in laboratory-based high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The source supplies photons with energies up to {approx}7 eV, delivering under typical conditions >10{sup 12} ph/s within a 10 meV spectral bandwidth, which is comparable to helium plasma lamps and many synchrotron beamlines. We first describe the lamp and monochromator system and then characterize its output, with attention to those parameters which are of interest for photoemission experiments. Finally, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data using the light source and compare its performance to a conventional helium plasma lamp.

  9. MONSTIR II: A 32-channel, multispectral, time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Robert J. Magee, Elliott; Everdell, Nick; Magazov, Salavat; Varela, Marta; Airantzis, Dimitrios; Gibson, Adam P.; Hebden, Jeremy C.

    2014-05-15

    We detail the design, construction and performance of the second generation UCL time-resolved optical tomography system, known as MONSTIR II. Intended primarily for the study of the newborn brain, the system employs 32 source fibres that sequentially transmit picosecond pulses of light at any four wavelengths between 650 and 900 nm. The 32 detector channels each contain an independent photo-multiplier tube and temporally correlated photon-counting electronics that allow the photon transit time between each source and each detector position to be measured with high temporal resolution. The system's response time, temporal stability, cross-talk, and spectral characteristics are reported. The efficacy of MONSTIR II is demonstrated by performing multi-spectral imaging of a simple phantom.

  10. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yankelevich, Diego R.; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, California 95616 ; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Marcu, Laura; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-03-15

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 μm diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores.

  11. Creative problem solving at Rocky Reach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, B.M.; Garrison, D.H.

    1997-04-01

    Tainter gate inspection and thrust bearing cooling system problems at the 1287-MW Rocky Reach hydroelectric project on the Columbia River in Washington are described. Gate inspection was initiated in response to a failure of similar gates at Folsom Dam. The approach involved measuring the actual forces on the gates and comparing them to original model study parameters, rather than the traditional method of building a hydraulic model. Measurement and visual inspection was completed in one day and had no effect on migration flows. Two problems with the thrust bearing cooling system are described. First, whenever a generating unit was taken off line, cooling water continued circulating and lowered oil temperatures. The second problem involved silt buildup in flow measuring device tubes on the cooling water system. Modifications to correct cooling system problems and associated costs are outlined.

  12. Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections May 1, 2011 DOE/NETL-2011/1473 Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness

  13. Amy Bauer-Problem-solving fuels passion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Problem-solving fuels passion Amy Bauer-Problem-solving fuels passion She works on a broad range of nuclear counterterrorism projects, including post-detonation nuclear forensics. March 11, 2014 Amy Bauer She works on a broad range of nuclear counterterrorism projects, including post-detonation nuclear forensics. Bauer's career advice? "Do something that you are passionate about. Don't wait for opportunities-position yourself right and create them! Adhere to a strong work ethic and always

  14. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  15. Computational Cell Environment: A Problem Solving Environment for integrating diverse biological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klicker, Kyle R.; Singhal, Mudita; Stephan, Eric G.; Trease, Lynn L.; Gracio, Deborah K.

    2004-06-22

    Biologists and bioinformaticists face the ever-increasing challenge of managing large datasets queried from diverse data sources. Genomics and proteomics databases such as the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) are becoming the standard biological data department stores that biologists visit on a regular basis to obtain the supplies necessary for conducting their research. However, much of the data that biologists retrieve from these databases needs to be further managed and organized in a meaningful way so that the researcher can focus on the problem that they are trying to investigate and share their data and findings with other researchers. We are working towards developing a problem-solving environment called the Computational Cell Environment (CCE) that provides connectivity to these diverse data stores and provides data retrieval, management, and analysis through all aspects of biological study. In this paper we discuss the system and database design of CCE. We also outline a few problems encountered at various stages of its development and the design decisions taken to resolve them.

  16. DYNA3D example problem manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-10-10

    This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA3D are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA3D analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA3D on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA3D to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA3D. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. A monitoring campaign for Luhman 16AB. I. Detection of resolved near-infrared spectroscopic variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Gillon, Michal; Jehin, E.; Delrez, L.; Opitom, C.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Radigan, Jacqueline; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Plavchan, Peter

    2014-04-10

    We report resolved near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of the nearby L dwarf/T dwarf binary WISE J104915.57531906.1AB (Luhman 16AB), as part of a broader campaign to characterize the spectral energy distribution and temporal variability of this system. A continuous 45 minute sequence of low-resolution IRTF/SpeX data spanning 0.8-2.4 ?m were obtained, concurrent with combined-light optical photometry with ESO/TRAPPIST. Our spectral observations confirm the flux reversal of this binary, and we detect a wavelength-dependent decline in the relative spectral fluxes of the two components coincident with a decline in the combined-light optical brightness of the system over the course of the observation. These data are successfully modeled as a combination of achromatic (brightness) and chromatic (color) variability in the T0.5 Luhman 16B, consistent with variations in overall cloud opacity; and no significant variability was found in L7.5 Luhman 16A, consistent with recent resolved photometric monitoring. We estimate a peak-to-peak amplitude of 13.5% at 1.25 ?m over the full light curve. Using a simple two-spot brightness temperature model for Luhman 16B, we infer an average cold covering fraction of ?30%-55%, varying by 15%-30% over a rotation period assuming a ?200-400 K difference between hot and cold regions. We interpret these variations as changes in the covering fraction of a high cloud deck and corresponding 'holes' which expose deeper, hotter cloud layers, although other physical interpretations are possible. A Rhines scale interpretation for the size of the variable features explains an apparent correlation between period and amplitude for Luhman 16B and the variable T dwarfs SIMP 0136+0933 and 2MASS J2139+0220, and predicts relatively fast winds (1-3 km s{sup 1}) for Luhman 16B consistent with light curve evolution on an advective time scale (1-3 rotation periods). The strong variability observed in this flux reversal brown dwarf pair supports the model of a patchy disruption of the mineral cloud layer as a universal feature of the L dwarf/T dwarf transition.

  18. Particle physics confronts the solar neutrino problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, P.B.

    1991-06-01

    This review has four parts. In Part I, we describe the reactions that produce neutrinos in the sun and the expected flux of those neutrinos on the earth. We then discuss the detection of these neutrinos, and how the results obtained differ from the theoretical expectations, leading to what is known as the solar neutrino problem. In Part II, we show how neutrino oscillations can provide a solution to the solar neutrino problem. This includes vacuum oscillations, as well as matter enhanced oscillations. In Part III, we discuss the possibility of time variation of the neutrino flux and how a magnetic moment of the neutrino can solve the problem. WE also discuss particle physics models which can give rise to the required values of magnetic moments. In Part IV, we present some concluding remarks and outlook for the recent future.

  19. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2011-12-28

    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  20. Phase-resolved nanosecond spectrofluorometry: theory, instrumentation, and new applications of multicomponent analysis by subnanosecond fluorescence lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattheis, J.R.; Mitchell, G.W.; Spencer, R.D.

    1982-03-01

    We describe a new method, phase-resolved subnanosecond spectroscopy (PRS), for the spectral differentiation of fluorophores in a mixture. The technique required adding a phase-variable rectifying detector to the SLM 4800S phasespectrofluorometer. The theory of PRS is based on the sinusoidal fluorescence emission of a population of molecules in response to sinusodially modulated exicitation light. The total a-c fluorescence signal is passed through the phase-variable detector which nulls the emission signal of any component in quadrature with the reference angle. The emission characteristics of the remaining component, or components, are more readily and accurately revealed. We investigated the sensitivity and selectivity of PRS. The sensitivity of PRS was demonstrated by nulling the contribution of the Raman scatter band of a nanomolar solution of quinine bisulfate to the real-time emission spectrum resolved at 8-nm bandpass. We demonstrated the selectivity of PRS by resolving the emission spectrum of anthracene and perylene from a 1 : 1 mixture with a lifetime differential of only 600 ps. The emission spectra of 2.2-phenylene bis-(5-phenyloxazole) and dimethyl 2.2-phenylene bis-(5-phenyloxazole) were also resolved from a 1 : 1 mixture in ethanol. The lifetime differential here was only 200 ps.

  1. FULLY RESOLVED QUIET-SUN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE OBSERVED WITH THE SUNRISE/IMAX INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Borrero, J. M.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    Until today, the small size of magnetic elements in quiet-Sun areas has required the application of indirect methods, such as the line-ratio technique or multi-component inversions, to infer their physical properties. A consistent match to the observed Stokes profiles could only be obtained by introducing a magnetic filling factor that specifies the fraction of the observed pixel filled with magnetic field. Here, we investigate the properties of a small magnetic patch in the quiet Sun observed with the IMaX magnetograph on board the balloon-borne telescope SUNRISE with unprecedented spatial resolution and low instrumental stray light. We apply an inversion technique based on the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation to retrieve the temperature stratification and the field strength in the magnetic patch. The observations can be well reproduced with a one-component, fully magnetized atmosphere with a field strength exceeding 1 kG and a significantly enhanced temperature in the mid to upper photosphere with respect to its surroundings, consistent with semi-empirical flux tube models for plage regions. We therefore conclude that, within the framework of a simple atmospheric model, the IMaX measurements resolve the observed quiet-Sun flux tube.

  2. Studies of combustion reactions at the state-resolved differential cross section level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, P.L.; Suits, A.G.; Bontuyan, L.S.; Whitaker, B.J.

    1993-12-01

    State-resolved differential reaction cross sections provide perhaps the most detailed information about the mechanism of a chemical reaction, but heretofore they have been extremely difficult to measure. This program explores a new technique for obtaining differential cross sections with product state resolution. The three-dimensional velocity distribution of state-selected reaction products is determined by ionizing the appropriate product, waiting for a delay while it recoils along the trajectory imparted by the reaction, and finally projecting the spatial distribution of ions onto a two dimensional screen using a pulsed electric field. Knowledge of the arrival time allows the ion position to be converted to a velocity, and the density of velocity projections can be inverted mathematically to provide the three-dimensional velocity distribution for the selected product. The main apparatus has been constructed and tested using photodissociations. The authors report here the first test results using crossed beams to investigate collisions between Ar and NO. Future research will both develop further the new technique and employ it to investigate methyl radical, formyl radical, and hydrogen atom reactions which are important in combustion processes. The authors intend specifically to characterize the reactions of CH{sub 3} with H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO; of HCO with O{sub 2}; and of H with CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}.

  3. Mean-state acceleration of cloud-resolving models and large eddy simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jones, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Pritchard, M. S.

    2015-10-29

    In this study, large eddy simulations and cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are routinely used to simulate boundary layer and deep convective cloud processes, aid in the development of moist physical parameterization for global models, study cloud-climate feedbacks and cloud-aerosol interaction, and as the heart of superparameterized climate models. These models are computationally demanding, placing practical constraints on their use in these applications, especially for long, climate-relevant simulations. In many situations, the horizontal-mean atmospheric structure evolves slowly compared to the turnover time of the most energetic turbulent eddies. We develop a simple scheme to reduce this time scale separation to accelerate themore » evolution of the mean state. Using this approach we are able to accelerate the model evolution by a factor of 2–16 or more in idealized stratocumulus, shallow and deep cumulus convection without substantial loss of accuracy in simulating mean cloud statistics and their sensitivity to climate change perturbations. As a culminating test, we apply this technique to accelerate the embedded CRMs in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model by a factor of 2, thereby showing that the method is robust and stable to realistic perturbations across spatial and temporal scales typical in a GCM.« less

  4. A microreactor array for spatially resolved measurement of catalytic activity for high-throughput catalysis science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondratyuk, Petro; Gumuslu, Gamze; Shukla, Shantanu; Miller, James B.; Morreale, Bryan D.; Gellman, Andrew J.

    2013-04-01

    We describe a 100 channel microreactor array capable of spatially resolved measurement of catalytic activity across the surface of a flat substrate. When used in conjunction with a composition spread alloy film (CSAF, e.g. Pd{sub x}Cu{sub y}Au{sub 1-x-y}) across which component concentrations vary smoothly, such measurements permit high-throughput analysis of catalytic activity and selectivity as a function of catalyst composition. In the reported implementation, the system achieves spatial resolution of 1 mm{sup 2} over a 1010 mm{sup 2} area. During operation, the reactant gases are delivered at constant flow rate to 100 points of differing composition on the CSAF surface by means of a 100-channel microfluidic device. After coming into contact with the CSAF catalyst surface, the product gas mixture from each of the 100 points is withdrawn separately through a set of 100 isolated channels for analysis using a mass spectrometer. We demonstrate the operation of the device on a Pd{sub x}Cu{sub y}Au{sub 1-x-y} CSAF catalyzing the H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} exchange reaction at 333 K. In essentially a single experiment, we measured the catalytic activity over a broad swathe of concentrations from the ternary composition space of the Pd{sub x}Cu{sub y}Au{sub 1-x-y} alloy.

  5. Detection of nonlinear picosecond acoustic pulses by time-resolved Brillouin scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusev, Vitalyi E.

    2014-08-14

    In time-resolved Brillouin scattering (also called picosecond ultrasonic interferometry), the time evolution of the spatial Fourier component of an optically excited acoustic strain distribution is monitored. The wave number is determined by the momentum conservation in photon-phonon interaction. For linear acoustic waves propagating in a homogeneous medium, the detected time-domain signal of the optical probe transient reflectivity shows a sinusoidal oscillation at a constant frequency known as the Brillouin frequency. This oscillation is a result of heterodyning the constant reflection from the sample surface with the Brillouin-scattered field. Here, we present an analytical theory for the nonlinear reshaping of a propagating, finite amplitude picosecond acoustic pulse, which results in a time-dependence of the observed frequency. In particular, we examine the conditions under which this information can be used to study the time-evolution of the weak-shock front speed. Depending on the initial strain pulse parameters and the time interval of its nonlinear transformation, our theory predicts the detected frequency to either be monotonically decreasing or oscillating in time. We support these theoretical predictions by comparison with available experimental data. In general, we find that picosecond ultrasonic interferometry of nonlinear acoustic pulses provides access to the nonlinear acoustic properties of a medium spanning most of the GHz frequency range.

  6. Spatially resolving the very high energy emission from MGRO J2019+37 with VERITAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Federici, S. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dwarkadas, V. V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: ealiu@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: nahee@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-06-10

    We present very high energy (VHE) imaging of MGRO J2019+37 obtained with the VERITAS observatory. The bright extended (?2) unidentified Milagro source is located toward the rich star formation region Cygnus-X. MGRO J2019+37 is resolved into two VERITAS sources. The faint, point-like source VER J2016+371 overlaps CTB 87, a filled-center remnant (SNR) with no evidence of a supernova remnant shell at the present time. Its spectrum is well fit in the 0.65-10 TeV energy range by a power-law model with photon index 2.3 0.4. VER J2019+378 is a bright extended (?1) source that likely accounts for the bulk of the Milagro emission and is notably coincident with PSR J2021+3651 and the star formation region Sh 2104. Its spectrum in the range 1-30 TeV is well fit with a power-law model of photon index 1.75 0.3, among the hardest values measured in the VHE band, comparable to that observed near Vela-X. We explore the unusual spectrum and morphology in the radio and X-ray bands to constrain possible emission mechanisms for this source.

  7. Position and energy-resolved particle detection using phonon-mediated microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, D. C.; Golwala, S. R.; Cornell, B. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Bumble, B.; Day, P. K.; LeDuc, H. G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Zmuidzinas, J. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2012-06-04

    We demonstrate position and energy-resolved phonon-mediated detection of particle interactions in a silicon substrate instrumented with an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). The relative magnitude and delay of the signal received in each sensor allow the location of the interaction to be determined with < or approx. 1mm resolution at 30 keV. Using this position information, variations in the detector response with position can be removed, and an energy resolution of {sigma}{sub E} = 0.55 keV at 30 keV was measured. Since MKIDs can be fabricated from a single deposited film and are naturally multiplexed in the frequency domain, this technology can be extended to provide highly pixelized athermal phonon sensors for {approx}1 kg scale detector elements. Such high-resolution, massive particle detectors would be applicable to rare-event searches such as the direct detection of dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay, or coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  8. Resolving Radiological Classification and Release Issues for Many DOE Solid Wastes and Salvageable Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1999-06-14

    The cost effective radiological classification and disposal of solid materials with potential volume contamination, in accordance with applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, suffers from an inability to unambiguously distinguish among transuranic waste, low-level waste, and unconditional-release materials. Depending on the classification, disposal costs can vary by a hundred-fold. But in many cases, the issues can be easily resolved by a combination of process information, some simple measurements, and calculational predictions from a computer model for radiation shielding.The proper classification and disposal of many solid wastes requires a measurement regime that is able to show compliance with a variety of institutional and regulatory contamination limits. Although this is not possible for all solid wastes, there are many that do lend themselves to such measures. Several examples are discussed which demonstrate the possibilities, including one which was successfully applied to bulk contamination.The only barriers to such broader uses are the slow-to-change institutional perceptions and procedures. For many issues and materials, the measurement tools are available; they need only be applied.

  9. Spatially resolved and observer-free experimental quantification of spatial resolution in tomographic images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsekenis, S. A.; McCann, H.; Tait, N.

    2015-03-15

    We present a novel framework and experimental method for the quantification of spatial resolution of a tomography system. The framework adopts the black box view of an imaging system, considering only its input and output. The tomography system is locally stimulated with a step input, viz., a sharp edge. The output, viz., the reconstructed images, is analysed by Fourier decomposition of their spatial frequency components, and the local limiting spatial resolution is determined using a cut-off threshold. At no point is an observer involved in the process. The framework also includes a means of translating the quantification region in the imaging space, thus creating a spatially resolved map of objectively quantified spatial resolution. As a case-study, the framework is experimentally applied using a gaseous propane phantom measured by a well-established chemical species tomography system. A spatial resolution map consisting of 28 regions is produced. In isolated regions, the indicated performance is 4-times better than that suggested in the literature and varies by 57% across the imaging space. A mechanism based on adjacent but non-interacting beams is hypothesised to explain the observed behaviour. The mechanism suggests that, as also independently concluded by other methods, a geometrically regular beam array maintains maximum objectivity in reconstructions. We believe that the proposed framework, methodology, and findings will be of value in the design and performance evaluation of tomographic imaging arrays and systems.

  10. New Resolved Resonance Region Evaluation for 63Cu and 65Cu for Nuclear Criticality Safety Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobes, Vladimir; Leal, Luiz C; Guber, Klaus H; Forget, Benoit; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Siegler, P.

    2014-01-01

    A new resolved resonance region evaluation of 63Cu and 65Cu was done in the energy region from 10-5 eV to 99.5 keV. The R-Matrix SAMMY method using the Reich-Moore approximation was used to create a new set of consistent resonance parameters. The new evaluation was based on three experimental transmission data sets; two measured at ORELA and one from MITR, and two radiative capture experimental data sets from GELINA. A total of 141 new resonances were identied for 63Cu and 117 for 65Cu. The corresponding set of external resonances for each isotope was based on the identied resonances above 99.5 keV from the ORELA transmission data. The negative external levels (bound levels) were determined to match the dierential thermal cross section measured at the MITR. Double dierential elastic scattering cross sections were calculated from the new set of resonance parameters. Benchmarking calculations were carried out on a set of ICSBEP benchmarks. This work is in support of the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.

  11. Fixed target matrix for femtosecond time-resolved and in situ serial micro-crystallography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mueller, C.; Marx, A.; Epp, S. W.; Zhong, Y.; Kuo, A.; Balo, A. R.; Soman, J.; Schotte, F.; Lemke, H. T.; Owen, R. L.; et al

    2015-08-18

    We present a crystallography chip enabling in situ room temperature crystallography at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron laser (X-FEL) sources. Compared to other in situ approaches, we observe extremely low background and high diffraction data quality. The chip design is robust and allows fast and efficient loading of thousands of small crystals. The ability to load a large number of protein crystals, at room temperature and with high efficiency, into prescribed positions enables high throughput automated serial crystallography with microfocus synchrotron beamlines. In addition, we demonstrate the application of this chip for femtosecond time-resolved serial crystallography at the Linacmore » Coherent Light Source (LCLS, Menlo Park, California, USA). As a result, the chip concept enables multiple images to be acquired from each crystal, allowing differential detection of changes in diffraction intensities in order to obtain high signal-to-noise and fully exploit the time resolution capabilities of XFELs.« less

  12. The scattering problem for nonlocal potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolotarev, V A

    2014-11-30

    We solve the direct and inverse scattering problems for integro-differential operators which are one-dimensional perturbations of the self-adjoint second derivative operator on the half-axis. We also describe the scattering data for this class of operators. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  13. Solving the problems of infectious waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, S.L.; Cabral, N.J. )

    1989-06-01

    Lawmakers are increasing pressures to ensure safe, appropriate disposal of infectious waste. This article discusses the problems, the regulatory climate, innovative approaches, and how to pay for them. The paper discusses the regulatory definition of infectious waste, federal and state regulations, and project finance.

  14. Time-resolved infrared reflectance studies of the dehydration-induced transformation of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to the trihydrate form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Edward J. Mausolf; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; Bruce K. McNamara

    2015-09-08

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s, the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparation and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm–1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm–1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. As a result, the phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with only one in the hexahydrate.

  15. 1979 revenue growth belies utility industry problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincicome, R.

    1980-06-01

    Despite growth in revenues during 1979, electric utilities are greatly troubled by high inflation, restricted capital, and the lack of rate relief from utility commissions. The growth, although smaller than normal, will likely convince commissions to respond to rate increase requests by authorizing only the smallest possible increases. With inflationary pressures eroding utility companies' financial base, the benefits of rate increases are wiped out after a year or so, necessitating a return to the commissions for futher adjustments. This up-down cycling is reflected in the report of the performances of the top one hundred utility companies. Earning growth statistics, sales data, financial statistics, and company performances (electric sales, customers served, revenues, and after-tax net income) of top one hundred electric utilities are given in separate tables for 1979. Overall, kWh sales were up 2.9%; revenues were up 13.4%; net income was up 8.1%; and overall earnings performance was a weak increase of 9.4%. (SAC)

  16. Dose calculation for permanent prostate implants incorporating spatially anisotropic linearly time-resolving edema

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monajemi, T. T.; Clements, Charles M.; Sloboda, Ron S.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a dose calculation method for permanent prostate implants that incorporates a clinically motivated model for edema and (ii) to illustrate the use of the method by calculating the preimplant dosimetry error for a reference configuration of {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 137}Cs seeds subject to edema-induced motions corresponding to a variety of model parameters. Methods: A model for spatially anisotropic edema that resolves linearly with time was developed based on serial magnetic resonance imaging measurements made previously at our center to characterize the edema for a group of n=40 prostate implant patients [R. S. Sloboda et al., ''Time course of prostatic edema post permanent seed implant determined by magnetic resonance imaging,'' Brachytherapy 9, 354-361 (2010)]. Model parameters consisted of edema magnitude, {Delta}, and period, T. The TG-43 dose calculation formalism for a point source was extended to incorporate the edema model, thus enabling calculation via numerical integration of the cumulative dose around an individual seed in the presence of edema. Using an even power piecewise-continuous polynomial representation for the radial dose function, the cumulative dose was also expressed in closed analytical form. Application of the method was illustrated by calculating the preimplant dosimetry error, RE{sub preplan}, in a 5x5x5 cm{sup 3} volume for {sup 125}I (Oncura 6711), {sup 103}Pd (Theragenics 200), and {sup 131}Cs (IsoRay CS-1) seeds arranged in the Radiological Physics Center test case 2 configuration for a range of edema relative magnitudes ({Delta}=[0.1,0.2,0.4,0.6,1.0]) and periods (T=[28,56,84] d). Results were compared to preimplant dosimetry errors calculated using a variation of the isotropic edema model developed by Chen et al. [''Dosimetric effects of edema in permanent prostate seed implants: A rigorous solution,'' Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 47, 1405-1419 (2000)]. Results: As expected, RE{sub preplan} for our edema model indicated underdosage in the calculation volume with a clear dependence on seed and calculation point positions, and increased with increasing values of {Delta} and T. Values of RE{sub preplan} were generally larger near the ends of the virtual prostate in the RPC phantom compared with more central locations. For edema characteristics similar to the population average values previously measured at our center, i.e., {Delta}=0.2 and T=28 d, mean values of RE{sub preplan} in an axial plane located 1.5 cm from the center of the seed distribution were 8.3% for {sup 131}Cs seeds, 7.5% for {sup 103}Pd seeds, and 2.2% for {sup 125}I seeds. Maximum values of RE{sub preplan} in the same plane were about 1.5 times greater. Note that detailed results strictly apply only for loose seed implants where the seeds are fixed in tissue and move in synchrony with that tissue. Conclusions: A dose calculation method for permanent prostate implants incorporating spatially anisotropic linearly time-resolving edema was developed for which cumulative dose can be written in closed form. The method yields values for RE{sub preplan} that differ from those for spatially isotropic edema. The method is suitable for calculating pre- and postimplant dosimetry correction factors for clinical seed configurations when edema characteristics can be measured or estimated.

  17. Final Report Spacially-Resolved Diagnostics and Modeling of Micro-Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent M. Donnelly; Demetre J. Economou

    2012-08-09

    Optical emission spectroscopy measurements were performed with added trace probe gases in an atmospheric pressure direct current (DC) helium microplasma. Spatially resolved measurements (resolution {approx} 6 {micro}m) were taken across a 200 {micro}m slot-type discharge. Stark splitting of the hydrogen Balmer-line was used to investigate the electric field distribution in the cathode sheath region. Electron densities were evaluated from the analysis of the spectral line broadenings of H-{beta} emission. The electron density in the bulk plasma was in the range 3-8 x 1013 cm-3. The electric field peaked at the cathode ({approx}60 kV/cm) and decayed to small values over a distance of {approx} 50 {micro}m (sheath edge) from the cathode. These experimental data were in good agreement with a self-consistent one-dimensional model of the discharge. The dependence of gas temperature on gas flow through the slot-type, atmospheric pressure microplasma in helium or argon was investigated by a combination of experiments and modeling. Spatially-resolved gas temperature profiles across the gap between the two electrodes were obtained from rotational analysis of N{sub 2} (C{sup 3}II{sub u} {yields} B{sup 3} II{sub g}) emission spectra, with small amounts of N{sub 2} added as actinometer gas. Under the same input power of 20 kW/cm{sup 3}, the peak gas temperature in helium ({approx}650 K) was significantly lower than that in argon (over 1200 K). This reflects the much higher thermal conductivity of helium gas. The gas temperature decreased with increasing gas flow rate, more so in argon compared to helium. This was consistent with the fact that conductive heat losses dominate in helium microplasmas, while convective heat losses play a major role in argon microplasmas. A plasma-gas flow simulation of the microdischarge, including a chemistry set, a compressible Navier-Stokes (and mass continuity) equation, and a convective heat transport equation, was also performed. Experimental measurements were in good agreement with simulation predictions. Finally, laser scattering experiments were performed at pressures of 100s of Torr in argon or nitrogen. Laser Thomson Scattering (LTS) and Rotational Raman Scattering were employed in a novel, backscattering, confocal configuration. LTS allows direct and simultaneous measurement of both electron density (ne) and electron temperature (Te). For 50 mA current and over the pressure range of 300-700 Torr, LTS yielded Te = 0.9 {+-} 0.3 eV and ne = (6 {+-} 3) 1013 cm-3, in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a mathematical model. Rotational Raman spectroscopy (RRS) was employed for absolute calibration of the LTS signal. RRS was also applied to measure the 3D gas temperature (Tg) in nitrogen DC microdischarges. In addition, diode laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the density of argon metastables (1s5 in Paschen notations) in argon microdischarges. The gas temperature, extracted from the width of the absorption profile, was compared with Tg values obtained by optical emission spectroscopy.

  18. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore » data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  19. Spatially resolved characterization of biogenic manganese oxideproduction within a bacterial biofilm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toner, Brandy; Fakra, Sirine; Villalobos, Mario; Warwick, Tony; Sposito, Garrison

    2004-10-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain MnB1, a biofilm forming bacteria, was used as a model for the study of bacterial Mn oxidation in freshwater and soil environments. The oxidation of Mn{sub (aq)}{sup +2} by P. putida was characterized by spatially and temporally resolving the oxidation state of Mn in the presence of a bacterial biofilm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) combined with near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the Mn-L{sub 2,3} absorption edges. Subsamples were collected from growth flasks containing 0.1 mM and 1 mM total Mn at 16, 24, 36 and 48 hours after inoculation. Immediately after collection, the unprocessed hydrated subsamples were imaged at 40 nm resolution. Manganese NEXAFS spectra were extracted from x-ray energy sequences of STXM images (stacks) and fit with linear combinations of well characterized reference spectra to obtain quantitative relative abundances of Mn(II), Mn(III) and Mn(IV). Careful consideration was given to uncertainty in the normalization of the reference spectra, choice of reference compounds, and chemical changes due to radiation damage. The STXM results confirm that Mn{sub (aq)}{sup +2} was removed from solution by P. putida and was concentrated as Mn(III) and Mn(IV) immediately adjacent to the bacterial cells. The Mn precipitates were completely enveloped by bacterial biofilm material. The distribution of Mn oxidation states was spatially heterogeneous within and between the clusters of bacterial cells. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy is a promising tool to advance the study of hydrated interfaces between minerals and bacteria, particularly in cases where the structure of bacterial biofilms needs to be maintained.

  20. Perturbed Physics Ensemble Simulations of Cirrus on the Cloud System-resolving Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhlbauer, Andreas; Berry, Elizabeth; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mace, Gerald G.

    2014-04-16

    In this study, the effect of uncertainties in the parameterization of ice microphysical processes and initial conditions on the variability of cirrus microphysical and radiative properties are investigated in a series of cloud system-resolving perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) and initial condition ensemble (ICE) simulations. Three cirrus cases representative of mid-latitude, subtropical and tropical cirrus are examined. It is found that the variability in cirrus properties induced by perturbing uncertain parameters in ice microphysics parameterizations outweighs the variability induced by perturbing the initial conditions in midlatitude and subtropical cirrus. However, in tropical anvil cirrus the variability in the PPE and ICE simulations is about the same order of magnitude. The cirrus properties showing the largest sensitivity are ice water content (IWC) and cloud thickness whereas the averaged high cloud cover is only marginally affected. Changes in cirrus ice water path and outgoing longwave radiation are controlled primarily by changes in IWC and cloud thickness but not by changes is the averaged high cloud cover. The change in the vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud thickness is caused by changes in cirrus cloud base whereas cloud top is not sensitive to either perturbed physics or perturbed initial conditions. In all cirrus cases, the top three parameters controlling the microphysical variability and radiative impact of cirrus clouds are ice fall speeds, ice autoconversion size thresholds and heterogeneous ice nucleation. Changes in the ice deposition coefficient do not affect the ice water path and outgoing longwave radiation. Similarly, changes in the number concentration of aerosols available for homogeneous freezing have virtually no effect on the microphysical and radiative properties of midlatitude and subtropical cirrus but only little impact on tropical anvil cirrus. Overall, the sensitivity of cirrus microphysical and radiative properties to uncertainties in ice microphysics is largest for midlatitude cirrus and smallest for tropical anvil cirrus.

  1. Resolving the tips of the tree of life: How much mitochondrialdata doe we need?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonett, Ronald M.; Macey, J. Robert; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Chippindale, Paul T.

    2005-04-29

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences are used extensively to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among recently diverged animals,and have constituted the most widely used markers for species- and generic-level relationships for the last decade or more. However, most studies to date have employed relatively small portions of the mt-genome. In contrast, complete mt-genomes primarily have been used to investigate deep divergences, including several studies of the amount of mt sequence necessary to recover ancient relationships. We sequenced and analyzed 24 complete mt-genomes from a group of salamander species exhibiting divergences typical of those in many species-level studies. We present the first comprehensive investigation of the amount of mt sequence data necessary to consistently recover the mt-genome tree at this level, using parsimony and Bayesian methods. Both methods of phylogenetic analysis revealed extremely similar results. A surprising number of well supported, yet conflicting, relationships were found in trees based on fragments less than {approx}2000 nucleotides (nt), typical of the vast majority of the thousands of mt-based studies published to date. Large amounts of data (11,500+ nt) were necessary to consistently recover the whole mt-genome tree. Some relationships consistently were recovered with fragments of all sizes, but many nodes required the majority of the mt-genome to stabilize, particularly those associated with short internal branches. Although moderate amounts of data (2000-3000 nt) were adequate to recover mt-based relationships for which most nodes were congruent with the whole mt-genome tree, many thousands of nucleotides were necessary to resolve rapid bursts of evolution. Recent advances in genomics are making collection of large amounts of sequence data highly feasible, and our results provide the basis for comparative studies of other closely related groups to optimize mt sequence sampling and phylogenetic resolution at the ''tips'' of the Tree of Life.

  2. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zheng; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we evaluate high-level clouds in a cloud resolving model during two convective cases, ARM9707 and KWAJEX. The simulated joint histograms of cloud occurrence and radar reflectivity compare well with cloud radar and satellite observations when using a two-moment microphysics scheme. However, simulations performed with a single moment microphysical scheme exhibit low biases of approximately 20 dB. During convective events, two-moment microphysical overestimate the amount of high-level cloud and one-moment microphysics precipitate too readily and underestimate the amount and height of high-level cloud. For ARM9707, persistent large positive biases in high-level cloud are found, which are not sensitivemore » to changes in ice particle fall velocity and ice nuclei number concentration in the two-moment microphysics. These biases are caused by biases in large-scale forcing and maintained by the periodic lateral boundary conditions. The combined effects include significant biases in high-level cloud amount, radiation, and high sensitivity of cloud amount to nudging time scale in both convective cases. The high sensitivity of high-level cloud amount to the thermodynamic nudging time scale suggests that thermodynamic nudging can be a powerful ‘‘tuning’’ parameter for the simulated cloud and radiation but should be applied with caution. The role of the periodic lateral boundary conditions in reinforcing the biases in cloud and radiation suggests that reducing the uncertainty in the large-scale forcing in high levels is important for similar convective cases and has far reaching implications for simulating high-level clouds in super-parameterized global climate models such as the multiscale modeling framework.« less

  3. Scalable Adaptive Multilevel Solvers for Multiphysics Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jinchao

    2014-12-01

    In this project, we investigated adaptive, parallel, and multilevel methods for numerical modeling of various real-world applications, including Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), complex fluids, Electromagnetism, Navier-Stokes equations, and reservoir simulation. First, we have designed improved mathematical models and numerical discretizaitons for viscoelastic fluids and MHD. Second, we have derived new a posteriori error estimators and extended the applicability of adaptivity to various problems. Third, we have developed multilevel solvers for solving scalar partial differential equations (PDEs) as well as coupled systems of PDEs, especially on unstructured grids. Moreover, we have integrated the study between adaptive method and multilevel methods, and made significant efforts and advances in adaptive multilevel methods of the multi-physics problems.

  4. Diabaticity of nuclear motion: problems and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarewicz, W [Joint Inst. for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [Joint Inst. for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The assumption of adiabatic motion lies in foundations of many models of nuclear collective motion. To what extend can nuclear modes be treated adiabatically? Due to the richness and complexity of the nuclear many-body problem there is no unique answer to this question. The challenges of nuclear collective dynamics invite exciting interactions between several areas of physics such as nuclear structure, field theory, nonlinear dynamics, transport theory, and quantum chaos.

  5. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.

    1995-03-01

    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  6. CMI Grand Challenge Problems | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CMI Grand Challenge Problems Time is the biggest issue. Materials typically become critical in a matter of months, but solutions take years or decades to develop and implement. Our first two grand challenges address this discrepancy. Anticipating Which Materials May Go Critical In an ideal world, users of materials would anticipate supply-chain disruptions before they occur. They would undertake activities to manage the risks of disruption, including R&D to diversify and increase supplies or

  7. Are shorted pipeline casings a problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, W.F. )

    1994-11-01

    The pipeline industry has many road and railroad crossings with casings which have been in service for more than 50 years without exhibiting any major problems, regardless of whether the casing is shorted to or isolated from the carrier pipe. The use of smart pigging and continual visual inspection when retrieving a cased pipeline segment have shown that whether shorted or isolated, casings have no significant bearing on the presence or absence of corrosion on the carrier pipe.

  8. Approaching Problems in Particle and Nuclear Physics with Time...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Approaching Problems in Particle and Nuclear Physics with Time-Dependent Quantum Mechanics (Wednesday, Jan 20) Approaching Problems in Particle and Nuclear Physics with...

  9. Two-dimensional lift-up problem for a rigid porous bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y.; Huang, L. H.; Yang, F. P. Y.

    2015-05-15

    The present study analytically reinvestigates the two-dimensional lift-up problem for a rigid porous bed that was studied by Mei, Yeung, and Liu [Lifting of a large object from a porous seabed, J. Fluid Mech. 152, 203 (1985)]. Mei, Yeung, and Liu proposed a model that treats the bed as a rigid porous medium and performed relevant experiments. In their model, they assumed the gap flow comes from the periphery of the gap, and there is a shear layer in the porous medium; the flow in the gap is described by adhesion approximation [D. J. Acheson, Elementary Fluid Dynamics (Clarendon, Oxford, 1990), pp. 243-245.] and the pore flow by Darcys law, and the slip-flow condition proposed by Beavers and Joseph [Boundary conditions at a naturally permeable wall, J. Fluid Mech. 30, 197 (1967)] is applied to the bed interface. In this problem, however, the gap flow initially mainly comes from the porous bed, and the shear layer may not exist. Although later the shear effect becomes important, the empirical slip-flow condition might not physically respond to the shear effect, and the existence of the vertical velocity affects the situation so greatly that the slip-flow condition might not be appropriate. In contrast, the present study proposes a more general model for the problem, applying Stokes flow to the gap, the Brinkman equation to the porous medium, and Song and Huangs [Laminar poroelastic media flow, J. Eng. Mech. 126, 358 (2000)] complete interfacial conditions to the bed interface. The exact solution to the problem is found and fits Meis experiments well. The breakout phenomenon is examined for different soil beds, mechanics that cannot be illustrated by Meis model are revealed, and the theoretical breakout times obtained using Meis model and our model are compared. The results show that the proposed model is more compatible with physics and provides results that are more precise.

  10. Fiber-fed time-resolved photoluminescence for reduced process feedback time on thin-film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repins, I. L.; Egaas, B.; Mansfield, L. M.; Contreras, M. A.; Beall, C.; Glynn, S.; Carapella, J.; Kuciauskas, D.; Muzzillo, C. P.

    2015-01-15

    Fiber-fed time-resolved photoluminescence is demonstrated as a tool for immediate process feedback after deposition of the absorber layer for CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} photovoltaic devices. The technique uses a simplified configuration compared to typical laboratory time-resolved photoluminescence in the delivery of the exciting beam, signal collection, and electronic components. Correlation of instrument output with completed device efficiency is demonstrated over a large sample set. The extraction of the instrument figure of merit, depending on both the initial luminescence intensity and its time decay, is explained and justified. Limitations in the prediction of device efficiency by this method, including surface effect, are demonstrated and discussed.

  11. Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy of the light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from the photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Fuciman, Marcel; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Frank, Harry A.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2011-10-08

    The light-harvesting complex 2 from the thermophilic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum was purified and studied by steady-state absorption and fluorescence, sub-nanosecond-time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The measurements were performed at room temperature and at 10 K. The combination of both ultrafast and steady-state optical spectroscopy methods at ambient and cryogenic temperatures allowed the detailed study of carotenoid (Car)-to-bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) as well BChl-to-BChl excitation energy transfer in the complex. The studies show that the dominant Cars rhodopin (N = 11) and spirilloxanthin (N = 13) do not play a significant role as supportive energy donors for BChl a. This is related with their photophysical properties regulated by long ?-electron conjugation. On the other hand, such properties favor some of the Cars, particularly spirilloxanthin (N = 13) to play the role of the direct quencher of the excited singlet state of BChl.

  12. Design of a High Resolution and High Flux Beam line for VUV Angle-Resolved Photoemission at UVSOR-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro

    2007-01-19

    A high-energy-resolution angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been designed for a 750 MeV synchrotron light source UVSOR-II. The beamline equips an APPLE-II-type undulator with the horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a modified Wadsworth-type monochromator and a high-resolution photoelectron analyzer. The monochromator covers the photon energy range of 6 - 40 eV. The energy resolution (hv/{delta}hv) and the photon flux on samples are expected to be 2 x 104 and 1012 photons/sec at 10 eV, 4 x 104 and 5 x 1011 photons/sec at 20 eV, and 6 x 104 and 1011 photons/sec at 40 eV, respectively. The beamline provides the high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy less than 1 meV in the whole VUV energy range.

  13. Improving the accuracy and efficiency of time-resolved electronic spectra calculations: Cellular dephasing representation with a prefactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zambrano, Eduardo; ulc, Miroslav; Van?ek, Ji?

    2013-08-07

    Time-resolved electronic spectra can be obtained as the Fourier transform of a special type of time correlation function known as fidelity amplitude, which, in turn, can be evaluated approximately and efficiently with the dephasing representation. Here we improve both the accuracy of this approximationwith an amplitude correction derived from the phase-space propagatorand its efficiencywith an improved cellular scheme employing inverse Weierstrass transform and optimal scaling of the cell size. We demonstrate the advantages of the new methodology by computing dispersed time-resolved stimulated emission spectra in the harmonic potential, pyrazine, and the NCO molecule. In contrast, we show that in strongly chaotic systems such as the quartic oscillator the original dephasing representation is more appropriate than either the cellular or prefactor-corrected methods.

  14. Phased-Resolved Strain Measuremetns in Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement Using Synchrotron x-Rays (Prop. 2003-033)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BIernacki, Joseph J.; Watkins, Thomas R; Parnham, C. J.; Hubbard, Camden R; Bai, J.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray diffraction methods developed for the determination of residual stress states in crystalline materials have been applied to study residual strains and strains because of mechanical loading of ordinary portland cement paste. Synchrotron X-rays were used to make in situ measurements of interplanar spacings in the calcium hydroxide (CH) phase of hydrated neat portland cement under uniaxial compression. The results indicate that strains on the order of 1/100 000 can be resolved providing an essentially new technique by which to measure the phase-resolved meso-scale mechanical behavior of cement under different loading conditions. Evaluation of these strain data in view of published elastic parameters for CH suggests that the CH carries a large fraction of the applied stress and that plastic interactions with the matrix are notable.

  15. Spatially resolved determination of the short-circuit current density of silicon solar cells via lock-in thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fertig, Fabian Greulich, Johannes; Rein, Stefan

    2014-05-19

    We present a spatially resolved method to determine the short-circuit current density of crystalline silicon solar cells by means of lock-in thermography. The method utilizes the property of crystalline silicon solar cells that the short-circuit current does not differ significantly from the illuminated current under moderate reverse bias. Since lock-in thermography images locally dissipated power density, this information is exploited to extract values of spatially resolved current density under short-circuit conditions. In order to obtain an accurate result, one or two illuminated lock-in thermography images and one dark lock-in thermography image need to be recorded. The method can be simplified in a way that only one image is required to generate a meaningful short-circuit current density map. The proposed method is theoretically motivated, and experimentally validated for monochromatic illumination in comparison to the reference method of light-beam induced current.

  16. Evaluation of Cloud Type Occurrences and Radiative Forcings Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Using Observations from Sa...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Type Occurrences and Radiative Forcings Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Using Observations from Satellite and Cloud Radar Y. Luo and S. K. Krueger University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Introduction Because of both the various effects clouds exert on the earth-atmospheric system and the cloud feedback, correct representations of clouds in numerical models are critical for accurate climate modeling and weather forecast. Unfortunately, determination of clouds and their radiative

  17. SAMRAI: A novel variably polarized angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the VUV region at UVSOR-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro; Sakai, Masahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Kondo, Naonori; Horigome, Toshio; Hayashi, Kenji; Goto, Tomohiro; Ejima, Takeo; Soda, Kazuo

    2010-05-15

    A novel variably polarized angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been installed at the UVSOR-II 750 MeV synchrotron light source. The beamline is equipped with a 3 m long APPLE-II type undulator with horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a 10 m Wadsworth type monochromator covering a photon energy range of 6-43 eV, and a 200 mm radius hemispherical photoelectron analyzer with an electron lens of a {+-}18 deg. acceptance angle. Due to the low emittance of the UVSOR-II storage ring, the light source is regarded as an entrance slit, and the undulator light is directly led to a grating by two plane mirrors in the monochromator while maintaining a balance between high-energy resolution and high photon flux. The energy resolving power (h{nu}/{Delta}h{nu}) and photon flux of the monochromator are typically 1x10{sup 4} and 10{sup 12} photons/s, respectively, with a 100 {mu}m exit slit. The beamline is used for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with an energy resolution of a few meV covering the UV-to-VUV energy range.

  18. A high-efficiency spin-resolved photoemission spectrometer combining time-of-flight spectroscopy with exchange-scattering polarimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jozwiak, Chris M.; Graff, Jeff; Lebedev, Gennadi; Andresen, Nord; Schmid, Andreas; Fedorov, Alexei; El Gabaly, Farid; Wan, Weishi; Lanzara, Alessandra; Hussain, Zahid

    2010-04-13

    We describe a spin-resolved electron spectrometer capable of uniquely efficient and high energy resolution measurements. Spin analysis is obtained through polarimetry based on low-energy exchange scattering from a ferromagnetic thin-film target. This approach can achieve a similar analyzing power (Sherman function) as state-of-the-art Mott scattering polarimeters, but with as much as 100 times improved efficiency due to increased reflectivity. Performance is further enhanced by integrating the polarimeter into a time-of-flight (TOF) based energy analysis scheme with a precise and flexible electrostatic lens system. The parallel acquisition of a range of electron kinetic energies afforded by the TOF approach results in an order of magnitude (or more) increase in efficiency compared to hemispherical analyzers. The lens system additionally features a 90 degrees bandpass filter, which by removing unwanted parts of the photoelectron distribution allows the TOF technique to be performed at low electron drift energy and high energy resolution within a wide range of experimental parameters. The spectrometer is ideally suited for high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES), and initial results are shown. The TOF approach makes the spectrometer especially ideal for time-resolved spin-ARPES experiments.

  19. Studies in nonlinear problems of energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matkowsky, B.J.

    1992-07-01

    Emphasis has been on combustion and flame propagation. The research program was on modeling, analysis and computation of combustion phenomena, with emphasis on transition from laminar to turbulent combustion. Nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation were investigated in the transition. Stability of combustion waves, and transitions to complex waves are described. Combustion waves possess large activation energies, so that chemical reactions are significant only in thin layers, or reaction zones. In limit of infinite activation energy, the zones shrink to moving surfaces, (fronts) which must be found during the analysis, so that (moving free boundary problems). The studies are carried out for limiting case with fronts, while the numerical studies are carried out for finite, though large, activation energy. Accurate resolution of the solution in the reaction zones is essential, otherwise false predictions of dynamics are possible. Since the the reaction zones move, adaptive pseudo-spectral methods were developed. The approach is based on a synergism of analytical and computational methods. The numerical computations build on and extend the analytical information. Furthermore, analytical solutions serve as benchmarks for testing the accuracy of the computation. Finally, ideas from analysis (singular perturbation theory) have induced new approaches to computations. The computational results suggest new analysis to be considered. Among the recent interesting results, was spatio-temporal chaos in combustion. One goal is extension of the adaptive pseudo-spectral methods to adaptive domain decomposition methods. Efforts have begun to develop such methods for problems with multiple reaction zones, corresponding to problems with more complex, and more realistic chemistry. Other topics included stochastics, oscillators, Rysteretic Josephson junctions, DC SQUID, Markov jumps, laser with saturable absorber, chemical physics, Brownian movement, combustion synthesis, etc.

  20. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R. [Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Yeates, Todd O., E-mail: yeates@mbi.ucla.edu [Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); University of California, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The idea of attacking the phase problem by crowdsourcing is introduced. Using an interactive, multi-player, web-based system, participants work simultaneously to select phase sets that correspond to better electron-density maps in order to solve low-resolution phasing problems. The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as crowdsourcing. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of individuals, each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30 phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it possible to extract meaningful information in cases where limited resolution might otherwise prevent initial phasing.

  1. Analytical solutions to matrix diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keklinen, Pekka

    2014-10-06

    We report an analytical method to solve in a few cases of practical interest the equations which have traditionally been proposed for the matrix diffusion problem. In matrix diffusion, elements dissolved in ground water can penetrate the porous rock surronuding the advective flow paths. In the context of radioactive waste repositories this phenomenon provides a mechanism by which the area of rock surface in contact with advecting elements is greatly enhanced, and can thus be an important delay mechanism. The cases solved are relevant for laboratory as well for in situ experiments. Solutions are given as integral representations well suited for easy numerical solution.

  2. Public problems: Still waiting on the marketplace for solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gover, J.; Carayannis, E.; Huray, P.

    1997-10-01

    This report addresses the need for government sponsored R and D to address real public problems. The motivation is that a public benefit of the money spent must be demonstrated. The areas identified as not having appropriate attention resulting in unmet public needs include healthcare cost, cost and benefits of regulations, infrastructure problems, defense spending misaligned with foreign policy objectives, the crime problem, energy impact on the environment, the education problem, low productivity growth industry sectors, the income distribution problem, the aging problem, the propagation of disease and policy changes needed to address the solution of these problems.

  3. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 1: Deep Convective Updraft Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, A. C.; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Collis, Scott M.; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observed radar reflectivity fields and dual-Doppler retrievals of vertical wind speeds in an attempt to explain published results showing a high bias in simulated convective radar reflectivity aloft. This high bias results from ice water content being large, which is a product of large, strong convective updrafts, although hydrometeor size distribution assumptions modulate the size of this bias. Snow reflectivity can exceed 40 dBZ in a two-moment scheme when a constant bulk density of 100 kg m-3 is used. Making snow mass more realistically proportional to area rather than volume should somewhat alleviate this problem. Graupel, unlike snow, produces high biased reflectivity in all simulations. This is associated with large amounts of liquid water above the freezing level in updraft cores. Peak vertical velocities in deep convective updrafts are greater than dual-Doppler retrieved values, especially in the upper troposphere. Freezing of large rainwater contents lofted above the freezing level in simulated updraft cores greatly contributes to these excessive upper tropospheric vertical velocities. Strong simulated updraft cores are nearly undiluted, with some showing supercell characteristics. Decreasing horizontal grid spacing from 900 meters to 100 meters weakens strong updrafts, but not enough to match observational retrievals. Therefore, overly intense simulated updrafts may partly be a product of interactions between convective dynamics, parameterized microphysics, and large-scale environmental biases that promote different convective modes and strengths than observed.

  4. DYNA3D Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions - Test Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zywicz, E

    2006-09-28

    Two verification problems were developed to test non-reflecting boundary segments in DYNA3D (Whirley and Engelmann, 1993). The problems simulate 1-D wave propagation in a semi-infinite rod using a finite length rod and non-reflecting boundary conditions. One problem examines pure pressure wave propagation, and the other problem explores pure shear wave propagation. In both problems the non-reflecting boundary segments yield results that differ only slightly (less than 6%) during a short duration from their corresponding theoretical solutions. The errors appear to be due to the inability to generate a true step-function compressive wave in the pressure wave propagation problem and due to segment integration inaccuracies in the shear wave propagation problem. These problems serve as verification problems and as regression test problems for DYNA3D.

  5. The PHEV Charging Infrastructure Planning (PCIP) Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dashora, Yogesh [University of Texas, Austin; Barnes, J. Wesley [University of Texas, Austin; Pillai, Rekha S [ORNL; Combs, Todd E [ORNL; Hilliard, Michael R [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Increasing debates over a gasoline independent future and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has led to a surge in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) being developed around the world. The majority of PHEV related research has been directed at improving engine and battery operations, studying future PHEV impacts on the grid, and projecting future PHEV charging infrastructure requirements. Due to the limited all-electric range of PHEVs, a daytime PHEV charging infrastructure will be required for most PHEV daily usage. In this paper, for the first time, we present a mixed integer mathematical programming model to solve the PHEV charging infrastructure planning (PCIP) problem for organizations with thousands of people working within a defined geographic location and parking lots well suited to charging station installations. Our case study, based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) campus, produced encouraging results, indicates the viability of the modeling approach and substantiates the importance of considering both employee convenience and appropriate grid connections in the PCIP problem.

  6. Engineering problems of tandem-mirror reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Boghosian, B.M.

    1981-10-22

    We have completed a comparative evaluation of several end plug configurations for tandem mirror fusion reactors with thermal barriers. The axi-cell configuration has been selected for further study and will be the basis for a detailed conceptual design study to be carried out over the next two years. The axi-cell end plug has a simple mirror cell produced by two circular coils followed by a transition coil and a yin-yang pair, which provides for MHD stability. This paper discusses some of the many engineering problems facing the designer. We estimated the direct cost to be 2$/W/sub e/. Assuming total (direct and indirect) costs to be twice this number, we need to reduce total costs by factors between 1.7 and 2.3 to compete with future LWRs levelized cost of electricity. These reductions may be possible by designing magnets producing over 20T made possible by use of combinations of superconducting and normal conducting coils as well as improvements in performance and cost of neutral beam and microwave power systems. Scientific and technological understanding and innovation are needed in the area of thermal barrier pumping - a process by which unwanted particles are removed (pumped) from certain regions of velocity and real space in the end plug. Removal of exhaust fuel ions, fusion ash and impurities by action of a halo plasma and plasma dump in the mirror end region is another challenging engineering problem discussed in this paper.

  7. Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar abundance problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Keady, John; Kilcrease, David

    2009-01-01

    Solar models calibrated with the new element abundance mixture of Asplund et al. published in 2005 no longer produce good agreement with the sound speed, convection zone depth, and convection zone helium abundance inferred from solar oscillation data. Attempts to modify the input physics of the standard model, for example, by including enhanced diffusion, increased opacities, accretion, convective overshoot, or gravity waves have not restored the good agreement attained with the prior abundances. Here we present new models including early mass loss via a stronger solar wind. Early mass loss has been investigated prior to the solar abundance problem to deplete lithium and resolve the 'faint early sun problem'. We find that mass loss modifies the core structure and deepens the convection zone, and so improves agreement with oscillation data using the new abundances: however the amount of mass loss must be small to avoid destroying all of the surface lithium, and agreement is not fully restored. We also considered the prospects for increasing solar interior opacities. In order to increase mixture opacities by the 30% required to mitigate the abundance problem, the opacities of individual elements (e.g., O, N, C, and Fe) must be revised by a factor of two to three for solar interior conditions: we are investigating the possibility of broader calculated line wings for bound-bound transitions at the relevant temperatures to enhance opacity. We find that including all of the elements in the AGS05 opacity mixture (through uranium at atomic number Z=92) instead of only the 17 elements in the OPAL opacity mixture increases opacities by a negligible 0.2%.

  8. LANL responds to radiological incident

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center(LANSCE). Aerial view of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The contamination poses no danger to the public. The Laboratory is investigating the inadvertent...

  9. Hydrogen Safety: First Responder Education

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  10. Rotationally resolved spectroscopy of a librational fundamental band of hydrogen fluoride tetramer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2000-07-08

    The rotationally resolved spectrum of a fundamental band of hydrogen fluoride tetramer has been recorded using a pulsed slit-jet, diode laser spectrometer. The band has a parallel rotational structure and is assigned as the H-F out-of-plane libration fundamental with A{sub u} symmetry. Ninety-five ground state combination differences were fit to a symmetric top Hamiltonian to give the following ground state rotational constants: B{sup ''}=0.132 081(7) cm{sup -1}, D{sub J}{sup ''}=7.1(7)x10{sup -7} cm{sup -1}, D{sub JK}{sup ''}=-9(2)x10{sup -7} cm{sup -1}, H{sub JJJ}{sup ''}=6(2)x10{sup -10} cm{sup -1}, H{sub JJK}{sup ''}=9(7)x10{sup -10} cm{sup -1}, H{sub JKK}{sup ''}=-1.3(8)x10{sup -10} cm{sup -1}. A total of 190 transitions were fit to determine the upper state spectroscopic constants: v{sub 4}=714.7849(1) cm{sup -1}, B{sup '}=0.129 634(5) cm{sup -1}, {delta}(C-B)=0.001 344 cm{sup -1}, D{sub J}{sup '}=6.4(5)x10{sup -7} cm{sup -1}, D{sub JK}{sup '}=-4.5(6)x10{sup -7} cm{sup -1}, {delta}D{sub K}=2.92(8)x10{sup -6} cm{sup -1}, H{sub JJJ}{sup '}=3(1)x10{sup -10} cm{sup -1}, H{sub JKK}{sup '}=-1.55(6)x10{sup -8} cm{sup -1}; {delta}H{sub KKK}=-4.65(6)x10{sup -8} cm{sup -1}. Furthermore, a perpendicular band centered at 752.7 cm{sup -1} was observed. The band has a rotational line spacing that gives an approximate B{sup ''} value of 0.132 cm{sup -1}; it has been assigned as the E{sub u} symmetry, H-F in-plane libration fundamental of the HF tetramer. Finally, a parallel band was observed at 741.0 cm{sup -1} with B{sup ''}=0.076 cm{sup -1} and has been assigned as the A{sup ''} symmetry, H-F out-of-plane libration fundamental of the HF pentamer. Structural parameters and harmonic vibrational frequencies are estimated from first-principles, correlated MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations. These are the largest calculations performed to date for this system with respect to both orbital basis set and level of electron correlation. The CCSD(T) harmonic frequencies are, in particular, the first reported for the tetramer at this level of theory. Based on our results, we suggest ''best estimates'' of R{sub FF}=2.51 Aa, r{sub HF}=0.947 Aa, and {theta}{sub HFF}=9.7 degree sign for the structural parameters and a range for D{sub e} of 27.4 to 28.1 kcal/mol (D{sub 0}=19.7 to 20.4 kcal/mol) for the parameters and for the energy of the tetramer dissociating into four monomers. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Permafrost problems as they affect gas pipelines (the frost heave problem)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipsett, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    The major problems associated with the construction of a large diameter gas pipeline in a permafrost region are outlined in this presentation. Data pertains to the design and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline Project. One of the main problems is maintaining the permafrost in its frozen state. Large diameter pipelines operating at high capacity are heat generators. Therefore, it is necessary to refrigerate the gas to ensure that it remains below 0/sup 0/C at all points in the pipeline system. The pipeline also passes through unfrozen ground where the potential for frost heave exists. The conditions under which frost heave occurs are listed. The extent and location of potential frost heave problem areas must be determined and a frost heave prediction method must be established before construction begins. Another task involves development of design criteria for the pipeline/soil interaction analysis. Remedial methods for use during the operational phase are also discussed. (DMC)

  12. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P.

    1991-12-31

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of ``Plasma Spray Processing`` is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  13. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. . Thermal Spray Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of Plasma Spray Processing'' is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  14. Municipal solid waste (garbage): problems and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, G.I.

    1983-05-01

    The average person in the USA generates from 3 1/2 to 7 lb of garbage/day. The combustible portion of garbage consists primarily of paper products, plastics, textiles, and wood. Problems connected with energy production from municipal solid waste (garbage), and the social, economic, and environmental factors associated with this technology are discussed. The methods for using garbage as a fuel for a combustion process are discussed. One method processes the garbage to produce a fuel that is superior to raw garbage, the other method of using garbage as a fuel is to burn it directly - the mass burning approach. The involvement of the Power Authority of the State of New York in garbage-to-energy technology is discussed.

  15. Stochastic inverse problems: Models and metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabbagh, Elias H.; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Aldrin, John C.; Annis, Charles; Knopp, Jeremy S.

    2015-03-31

    In past work, we introduced model-based inverse methods, and applied them to problems in which the anomaly could be reasonably modeled by simple canonical shapes, such as rectangular solids. In these cases the parameters to be inverted would be length, width and height, as well as the occasional probe lift-off or rotation. We are now developing a formulation that allows more flexibility in modeling complex flaws. The idea consists of expanding the flaw in a sequence of basis functions, and then solving for the expansion coefficients of this sequence, which are modeled as independent random variables, uniformly distributed over their range of values. There are a number of applications of such modeling: 1. Connected cracks and multiple half-moons, which we have noted in a POD set. Ideally we would like to distinguish connected cracks from one long shallow crack. 2. Cracks of irregular profile and shape which have appeared in cold work holes during bolt-hole eddy-current inspection. One side of such cracks is much deeper than other. 3. L or C shaped crack profiles at the surface, examples of which have been seen in bolt-hole cracks. By formulating problems in a stochastic sense, we are able to leverage the stochastic global optimization algorithms in NLSE, which is resident in VIC-3D, to answer questions of global minimization and to compute confidence bounds using the sensitivity coefficient that we get from NLSE. We will also address the issue of surrogate functions which are used during the inversion process, and how they contribute to the quality of the estimation of the bounds.

  16. SU-E-I-77: A Noise Reduction Technique for Energy-Resolved Photon-Counting Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam Ng, A; Ding, H; Cho, H; Molloi, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Finding the optimal energy threshold setting for an energy-resolved photon-counting detector has an important impact on the maximization of contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR). We introduce a noise reduction method to enhance CNR by reducing the noise in each energy bin without altering the average gray levels in the projection and image domains. Methods: We simulated a four bin energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on Si with a 10 mm depth of interaction. TASMIP algorithm was used to simulate a spectrum of 65 kVp with 2.7 mm Al filter. A 13 mm PMMA phantom with hydroxyapatite and iodine at different concentrations (100, 200 and 300 mg/ml for HA, and 2, 4, and 8 mg/ml for Iodine) was used. Projection-based and Image-based energy weighting methods were used to generate weighted images. A reference low noise image was used for noise reduction purposes. A Gaussian-like weighting function which computes the similarity between pixels of interest was calculated from the reference image and implemented on a pixel by pixel basis for the noisy images. Results: CNR improvement compared to different methods (Charge-Integrated, Photon-Counting and Energy-Weighting) and after noise reduction was highly task-dependent. The CNR improvement with respect to the Charge-Integrated CNR for hydroxyapatite and iodine were 1.8 and 1.5, respectively. In each of the energy bins, the noise was reduced by approximately factor of two without altering their respective average gray levels. Conclusion: The proposed noise reduction technique for energy-resolved photon-counting detectors can significantly reduce image noise. This technique can be used as a compliment to the current energy-weighting methods in CNR optimization.

  17. Probing Reaction Dynamics of Transition-Metal Complexes in Solution via Time-Resolved X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huse, Nils; Khalil, Munira; Kim, Tae Kyu; Smeigh, Amanda L.; Jamula, Lindsey; McCusker, James K.; Schoenlein, Robert W.

    2009-05-24

    We report measurements of the photo-induced Fe(II) spin crossover reaction dynamics in solution via time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy. EXAFS measurements reveal that the iron?nitrogen bond lengthens by 0.21+-0.03 Angstrom in the high-spin transient excited state relative to the ground state. XANES measurements at the Fe L-edge show directly the influence of the structural change on the ligand-field splitting of the Fe(II) 3d orbitals associated with the spin transition.

  18. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/?E of order 10?000 and spatial resolution better than 10 ?m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  19. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Chanthbouala, Andre; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji

    2013-12-09

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600 m/s) at current densities below 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (≈1 ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  20. Highly polarized emission in spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of alpha-Fe(001)/GaAs(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, James; Yu, Sung Woo; Morton, Simon; Waddill, George; Thompson, Jamie; Neal, James; Spangenberg, Matthais; Shen, T.H.

    2009-05-19

    Highly spin-polarized sources of electrons, Integrated into device design, remain of great interest to the spintronic and magneto-electronic device community Here, the growth of Fe upon GaAs(001) has been studied with photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), including Spin Resolved PES. Despite evidence of atomic level disorder such as intermixing, an over-layer with the spectroscopic signature of alpha-Fe(001), with a bcc real space ordering, Is obtained The results will be discussed in light of the possibility of using such films as a spin-polarized source in device applications.

  1. Wall current probe: A non-invasive in situ plasma diagnostic for space and time resolved current density distribution measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baude, R.; Gaboriau, F.; Hagelaar, G. J. M. [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion dnergie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062, Toulouse (France)] [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion dnergie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062, Toulouse (France)

    2013-08-15

    In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas.

  2. Resolving the Impact of Biological Processes on Water Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media Through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Micro-Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, Joseph D.

    2005-06-01

    The magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) work at Montana State University has extended the imaging of a single biofilm in a 1 mm capillary reactor to correlate T2 magnetic relaxation maps displaying biofilm structure with the corresponding velocity patterns in three dimensions in a Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm fouled square capillary. A square duct geometry is chosen to provide correlation with existing experiments and simulations, as research bioreactors tend to be of square or rectangular cross section for optical or microelectrode access. The spatially resolved velocity data provide details on the impact of biofilm induced advection on mass transport from the bulk fluid to the biofilm and through the capillary bioreactor.

  3. Fundamental Scientific Problems in Magnetic Recording

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulthess, T.C.; Miller, M.K.

    2007-06-27

    Magnetic data storage technology is presently leading the high tech industry in advancing device integration--doubling the storage density every 12 months. To continue these advancements and to achieve terra bit per inch squared recording densities, new approaches to store and access data will be needed in about 3-5 years. In this project, collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT) at University of Alabama (UA), Imago Scientific Instruments, and Seagate Technologies, was undertaken to address the fundamental scientific problems confronted by the industry in meeting the upcoming challenges. The areas that were the focus of this study were to: (1) develop atom probe tomography for atomic scale imaging of magnetic heterostructures used in magnetic data storage technology; (2) develop a first principles based tools for the study of exchange bias aimed at finding new anti-ferromagnetic materials to reduce the thickness of the pinning layer in the read head; (3) develop high moment magnetic materials and tools to study magnetic switching in nanostructures aimed at developing improved writers of high anisotropy magnetic storage media.

  4. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  5. The Sedov Test Problem (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Sedov Test Problem Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sedov Test Problem You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This...

  6. Verification Method for SSI Problems with Extended Parameter Ranges |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Verification Method for SSI Problems with Extended Parameter Ranges Verification Method for SSI Problems with Extended Parameter Ranges Verification Method for SSI Problems with Extended Parameter Ranges 2014 U.S. DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Meeting Carl J. Costantino and Associates www.cjcassoc.com PDF icon Verification Method for SSI Problems with Extended Parameter Ranges More Documents & Publications A Study of SSI Effects Incorporating Seismic Wave Incoherence

  7. Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 (Conference)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STATE PHYSICS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; SUPERCONDUCTIVITY; CRITICAL TEMPERATURE; FERMIONS; FRACTALS; HALL EFFECT; MAGNETIC FIELDS; METASTABLE STATES; NONLINEAR PROBLEMS; ELECTRIC ...

  8. Depth-resolved confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy for characterizing GaN-based light emitting diode structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei-Liang; Lee, Yu-Yang; Chang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ymchang@ntu.edu.tw [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chiao-Yun; Huang, Huei-Min; Lu, Tien-Chang [Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, 30010 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, 30010 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we demonstrate that depth-resolved confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy can be used to characterize the active layer of GaN-based LEDs. By taking the depth compression effect due to refraction index mismatch into account, the axial profiles of Raman peak intensities from the GaN capping layer toward the sapphire substrate can correctly match the LED structural dimension and allow the identification of unique Raman feature originated from the 0.3 ?m thick active layer of the studied LED. The strain variation in different sample depths can also be quantified by measuring the Raman shift of GaN A{sub 1}(LO) and E{sub 2}(high) phonon peaks. The capability of identifying the phonon structure of buried LED active layer and depth-resolving the strain distribution of LED structure makes this technique a potential optical and remote tool for in operando investigation of the electronic and structural properties of nitride-based LEDs.

  9. Space and time resolved spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas: A study of density-sensitive x-ray transitions in helium-like and neon-like ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Bruce Kai Fong

    1988-09-01

    The determination of level populations and detailed population mechanisms in dense plasmas has become an increasingly important problem in atomic physics. In this work, the density variation of line intensities and level populations in aluminum K-shell and molybdenum and silver L-shell emission spectra have been measured from high-powered, laser-produced plasmas. For each case, the density dependence of the observed line emission is due to the effect of high frequency electron-ion collisions on metastable levels. The density dependent line intensities vary greatly in laser-produced plasmas and can be used to extract detailed information concerning the population kinetics and level populations of the ions. The laser-plasmas had to be fully characterized in order to clearly compare the observed density dependence with atomic theory predictions. This has been achieved through the combined use of new diagnostic instruments and microdot targets which provided simultaneously space, time, and spectrally resolved data. The plasma temperatures were determined from the slope of the hydrogen-like recombination continuum. The time resolved electron density profiles were measured using multiple frame holographic interferometry. Thus, the density dependence of K-shell spectral lines could be clearly examined, independent of assumptions concerning the dynamics of the plasma. In aluminum, the electron density dependence of various helium-like line intensity ratios were measured. Standard collisional radiative equilibrium models fail to account for the observed density dependence measured for the ''He/sub ..cap alpha..//IC'' ratio. Instead, a quasi-steady state atomic model based on a purely recombining plasma is shown to accurately predict the measured density dependence. This same recombining plasma calculation successfully models the density dependence of the high-n ''He/sub ..gamma..//He/sub ..beta../'' and ''He/sub delta//He/sub ..beta../'' helium-like resonance line intensity ratios.

  10. Data bases for rapid response to power reactor problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maskewitz, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    The urgency of the TMI-2 incident demanded prompt answers to an imperious situation. In responding to these challenging circumstances, both government and industry recognized deficiencies in both availability of essential retrievable data and calculational capabilities designed to respond immediately to actual abnormal events. Each responded by initiating new programs to provide a remedy for the deficiencies and to generally improve all safety measures in the nuclear power industry. Many data bases and information centers offer generic data and other technology resources which are generally useful in support of nuclear safety programs. A few centers can offer rapid access to calculational methods and associated data and more will make an effort to do so. As a beneficial spin-off from the lessons learned from TMI-2, more technical effort and financial resources will be devoted to the prevention of accidents, and to improvement of safety measures in the immediate future and for long term R and D programs by both government and the nuclear power industry.

  11. EERE Success Story—Lightweight Technology Resolved Challenge Facing the Chevy Spark EV Battery Tray and Enclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Technology innovation comes in many forms – sometimes, it’s as simple as adapting a recent but un-commercialized innovation to a seemingly-unrelated problem.  That’s what happened when General...

  12. Super-resolving quantum radar: Coherent-state sources with homodyne detection suffice to beat the diffraction limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Kebei; Lee, Hwang; Gerry, Christopher C.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2013-11-21

    There has been much recent interest in quantum metrology for applications to sub-Raleigh ranging and remote sensing such as in quantum radar. For quantum radar, atmospheric absorption and diffraction rapidly degrades any actively transmitted quantum states of light, such as N00N states, so that for this high-loss regime the optimal strategy is to transmit coherent states of light, which suffer no worse loss than the linear Beer's law for classical radar attenuation, and which provide sensitivity at the shot-noise limit in the returned power. We show that coherent radar radiation sources, coupled with a quantum homodyne detection scheme, provide both longitudinal and angular super-resolution much below the Rayleigh diffraction limit, with sensitivity at shot-noise in terms of the detected photon power. Our approach provides a template for the development of a complete super-resolving quantum radar system with currently available technology.

  13. Spatially resolved high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of high-current plasma-focus discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZajaPc, S.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Scholz, M.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Rosmej, O.; Yongtao, Zhao; Gojska, A.

    2010-10-15

    Soft x-ray emission from a Mather-type plasma-focus device (PF-1000) operated at {approx}400 kJ was measured. The high density and temperature plasma were generated by the discharge in the deuterium-argon gas mixture in the modified (high-current) plasma-focus configuration. A spherically bent mica crystal spectrograph viewing the axial output of the pinch region was used to measure the x-ray spectra. Spatially resolved spectra including the characteristic x-ray lines of highly ionized Ar and continua were recorded by means of an x-ray film. The x-ray emission of PF-1000 device was studied at different areas of the pinch.

  14. Spatially resolved penetration depth measurements and vortex manipulation in the ferromagnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Yang, Jinho; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Yeom, Han Woong; Kim, Jeehoon

    2015-07-31

    We present a local probe study of the magnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C, using magnetic force microscopy at sub-Kelvin temperatures. ErNi2B2C is an ideal system to explore the effects of concomitant superconductivity and ferromagnetism. At 500 mK, far below the transition to a weakly ferromagnetic state, we directly observe a structured magnetic background on the micrometer scale. We determine spatially resolved absolute values of the magnetic penetration depth λ and study its temperature dependence as the system undergoes magnetic phase transitions from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic, and to weak ferromagnetic, all within the superconducting regime. We estimate the absolute pinning force of Abrikosovmore » vortices, which shows a position dependence and temperature dependence as well, and discuss the possibility of the purported spontaneous vortex formation.« less

  15. Spectrally resolved hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light emitting diodes: Magneto-electroluminescence studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crooker, S. A.; Kelley, M. R.; Martinez, N. J. D.; Nie, W.; Mohite, A.; Nayyar, I. H.; Tretiak, S.; Smith, D. L.; Liu, F.; Ruden, P. P.

    2014-10-13

    We use spectrally resolved magneto-electroluminescence (EL) measurements to study the energy dependence of hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light-emitting diodes. Using layered devices that generate bright exciplex emission, we show that the increase in EL emission intensity I due to small applied magnetic fields of order 100?mT is markedly larger at the high-energy blue end of the EL spectrum (?I/I???11%) than at the low-energy red end (?4%). Concurrently, the widths of the magneto-EL curves increase monotonically from blue to red, revealing an increasing hyperfine coupling between polarons and nuclei and directly providing insight into the energy-dependent spatial extent and localization of polarons.

  16. Non-thermal effects on femtosecond laser ablation of polymers extracted from the oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumada, Takayuki Akagi, Hiroshi; Itakura, Ryuji; Otobe, Tomohito; Nishikino, Masaharu; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of femtosecond laser ablation of transparent polymers were examined using time-resolved reflectivity. When these polymers were irradiated by a pump pulse with fluence above the ablation threshold of 0.82.0?J/cm{sup 2}, we observed the oscillation of the reflectivity caused by the interference between the reflected probe pulses from the sample surface and the thin layer due to the non-thermal photomechanical effects of spallation. As the fluence of the pump pulse increased, the separation velocity of the thin layer increased from 6?km/s to the asymptotic value of 11?km/s. It is suggested that the velocities are determined by shock-wave velocities of the photo-excited layer.

  17. TIME-RESOLVED 1-10 keV CRYSTAL SPECTROMETER FOR THE Z MACHINE AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. V. Morgan; S. Gardner; R. Liljestrand; M. Madlener; S. Slavin; M. Wu

    2003-06-01

    We have designed, fabricated, calibrated, and fielded a fast, time-resolved 1-10 keV crystal spectrometer to observe the evolution of wire pinch spectra at the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. The instrument has two convex cylindrical crystals (PET and KAP). Both crystals Bragg reflect x-rays into an array of ten silicon diodes, providing continuous spectral coverage in twenty channels from 1.0 to 10 keV. The spectral response of the instrument has been calibrated from 1.0 to 6.3 keV at beamline X8A at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The time response of the 1-mm2 silicon detectors was measured with the Pulsed X-ray Source at Bechtel Nevada's Los Alamos Operations, where 2-nanosecond full-width half-maximum (FWHM) waveforms with 700-picosecond rise times typically were observed. The spectrometer has been fielded recently on several experimental runs at the Z Machine. In this paper, we present the time-resolved spectra resulting from the implosions of double-nested tungsten wire arrays onto 5-mm diameter foam cylinders. We also show the results obtained for a double-nested stainless steel wire array with no target cylinder. The spectrometer was located at the end of a 7.1-meter beamline on line-of sight (LOS)21/22, at an angle 12{sup o} above the equatorial plane, and was protected from the debris field by a customized dual-slit fast valve. The soft detector channels below 2.0 keV recorded large signals at pinch time coinciding with signals recorded on vacuum x-ray diodes (XRDs). On experiment Z993, the spectrometer channels recorded a second pulse with a hard x-ray emission spectrum several nanoseconds after pinch time.

  18. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE?0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  19. On the computational complexity of sequence design problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, W.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Inverse protein folding concerns the identification of an amino acid sequence that folds to a given structure. Sequence design problems attempt to avoid the apparant difficulty of inverse protein folding by defining an energy that can be minimized to find protein-like sequences. We evaluate the practical relevance of two sequence design problems by analyzing their computational complexity. We show that the canonical method of sequence design is intractable and describe approximation algorithms for this problem. We also describe an efficient algorithm that exactly solves the grand canonical method. Our analysis shows how sequence design problems can fail to reduce the difficulty of the inverse protein folding problem and highlights the need to analyze these problems to evaluate their practical relevance. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  20. On the computational complexity of sequence design problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, W.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Algorithms and Discrete Mathematics Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Inverse protein folding concerns the identification of an amino acid sequence that folds to a given structure. Sequence design problems attempt to avoid the apparent difficulty of inverse protein folding by defining an energy that can be minimized to find protein-like sequences. The authors evaluate the practical relevance of two sequence design problems by analyzing their computation complexity. They show that the canonical method of sequence design is intractable, and describe approximation algorithms for this problem. The authors also describe an efficient algorithm that exactly solves the grand canonical method. The analysis shows how sequence design problems can fail to reduce the difficulty of the inverse protein folding problem, and highlights the need to analyze these problems to evaluate their practical relevance.

  1. Crowdsourcing Initiative Seeks Buildings-Related Problems to Solve |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Crowdsourcing Initiative Seeks Buildings-Related Problems to Solve Crowdsourcing Initiative Seeks Buildings-Related Problems to Solve June 30, 2015 - 9:00am Addthis Calling all building technology innovators! The Building Technologies Office is partnering with the successful SunShot Catalyst crowdsourcing initiative to identify and solve problems related to software development, data, and/or automation. In the first, "Ideation" phase of the initiative, those

  2. Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method We examine the possibility of using the standard Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems arising from electronic structure calculation. We show that the Jacobian matrix associated with this nonlinear system has a special structure that can be

  3. Tsirelson's problem and asymptotically commuting unitary matrices (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Tsirelson's problem and asymptotically commuting unitary matrices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tsirelson's problem and asymptotically commuting unitary matrices In this paper, we consider quantum correlations of bipartite systems having a slight interaction, and reinterpret Tsirelson's problem (and hence Kirchberg's and Connes's conjectures) in terms of finite-dimensional asymptotically commuting positive operator valued measures. We also consider the

  4. Angle-resolved environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: A new laboratory setup for photoemission studies at pressures up to 0.4 Torr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangolini, F.; Wabiszewski, G. E.; Egberts, P.; Ahlund, J.; Backlund, K.; Karlsson, P. G.; Adiga, V. P.; Streller, F.; Wannberg, B.; Carpick, R. W.

    2012-09-15

    The paper presents the development and demonstrates the capabilities of a new laboratory-based environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system incorporating an electrostatic lens and able to acquire spectra up to 0.4 Torr. The incorporation of a two-dimensional detector provides imaging capabilities and allows the acquisition of angle-resolved data in parallel mode over an angular range of 14 Degree-Sign without tilting the sample. The sensitivity and energy resolution of the spectrometer have been investigated by analyzing a standard Ag foil both under high vacuum (10{sup -8} Torr) conditions and at elevated pressures of N{sub 2} (0.4 Torr). The possibility of acquiring angle-resolved data at different pressures has been demonstrated by analyzing a silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO{sub 2}) sample. The collected angle-resolved spectra could be effectively used for the determination of the thickness of the native silicon oxide layer.

  5. European Geothermal Drilling Experience-Problem Areas and Case...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Drilling Experience-Problem Areas and Case Studies Baron, G.; Ungemach, P. 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; BOREHOLES; DRILLING; EVALUATION; EXPLORATION; GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES; ITALY;...

  6. On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer properties using tracer data Authors: Kowalsky, M. B. ; Finsterle, S. ; Commer, M. ; Williams, K. H. ; ...

  7. History, Applications, Numerical Values and Problems with the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Numerical Values and Problems with the Calculation of EROI (Energy Return on Energy Investment) Professor Charles Hall State University of NY College of Environmental Science and...

  8. Crowdsourcing Initiative Seeks Buildings-Related Problems to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office is partnering with the successful SunShot Catalyst crowdsourcing initiative to identify and solve problems related to software development, data, andor automation. ...

  9. FELIX: advances in modeling forward and inverse icesheet problems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    icesheet problems. Authors: Perego, Mauro ; Eldred, Michael S. ; Gunazburger, Max ; Salinger, Andrew G. ; Kalashnikova, Irina ; Ju, L. ; Hoffman, M. ; Leng, W. ; Price, S ;...

  10. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

  11. Observation of coupled vortex gyrations by 70-ps-time and 20-nm-space- resolved full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hyunsung; Yu, Young-Sang; Lee, Ki-Suk; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Bocklage, Lars; Vogel, Andreas; Bolte, Markus; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2010-09-01

    We employed time-and space-resolved full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy to observe vortex-core gyrations in a pair of dipolar-coupled vortex-state Permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) disks. The 70 ps temporal and 20 nm spatial resolution of the microscope enabled us to simultaneously measure vortex gyrations in both disks and to resolve the phases and amplitudes of both vortex-core positions. We observed their correlation for a specific vortex-state configuration. This work provides a robust and direct method of studying vortex gyrations in dipolar-coupled vortex oscillators.

  12. Military and diplomatic roles and options for managing and responding to the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. Final report: Program on Stability and the Offense/Defense Relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallenbeck, R.A.; Gill, J.M.; Murray, B.L.

    1993-05-26

    The March seminar, ``Military and Diplomatic Roles and Options`` for managing and responding to proliferation, featured three presentations: the military and diplomatic implications of preemptive force as a counterproliferation option; an in-depth assessment of the threat posed by biological weapons; and, a new proposed US counterproliferation policy.

  13. Integrated network design and scheduling problems : optimization algorithms and applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurre, Sarah G.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the class of integrated network design and scheduling problems. These problems focus on selecting and scheduling operations that will change the characteristics of a network, while being speci cally concerned with the performance of the network over time. Motivating applications of INDS problems include infrastructure restoration after extreme events and building humanitarian distribution supply chains. While similar models have been proposed, no one has performed an extensive review of INDS problems from their complexity, network and scheduling characteristics, information, and solution methods. We examine INDS problems under a parallel identical machine scheduling environment where the performance of the network is evaluated by solving classic network optimization problems. We classify that all considered INDS problems as NP-Hard and propose a novel heuristic dispatching rule algorithm that selects and schedules sets of arcs based on their interactions in the network. We present computational analysis based on realistic data sets representing the infrastructures of coastal New Hanover County, North Carolina, lower Manhattan, New York, and a realistic arti cial community CLARC County. These tests demonstrate the importance of a dispatching rule to arrive at near-optimal solutions during real-time decision making activities. We extend INDS problems to incorporate release dates which represent the earliest an operation can be performed and exible release dates through the introduction of specialized machine(s) that can perform work to move the release date earlier in time. An online optimization setting is explored where the release date of a component is not known.

  14. Domain wall and isocurvature perturbation problems in axion models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yoshino, Kazuyoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. E-mail: tsutomu.tyanagida@ipmu.jp

    2013-11-01

    Axion models have two serious cosmological problems, domain wall and isocurvature perturbation problems. In order to solve these problems we investigate the Linde's model in which the field value of the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) scalar is large during inflation. In this model the fluctuations of the PQ field grow after inflation through the parametric resonance and stable axionic strings may be produced, which results in the domain wall problem. We study formation of axionic strings using lattice simulations. It is found that in chaotic inflation the axion model is free from both the domain wall and the isocurvature perturbation problems if the initial misalignment angle ?{sub a} is smaller than O(10{sup ?2}). Furthermore, axions can also account for the dark matter for the breaking scale v ? 10{sup 12?16}GeV and the Hubble parameter during inflation H{sub inf}?<10{sup 11?12}GeV in general inflation models.

  15. Shell Element Verification & Regression Problems for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zywicz, E

    2008-02-01

    A series of quasi-static regression/verification problems were developed for the triangular and quadrilateral shell element formulations contained in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's explicit finite element program DYNA3D. Each regression problem imposes both displacement- and force-type boundary conditions to probe the five independent nodal degrees of freedom employed in the targeted formulation. When applicable, the finite element results are compared with small-strain linear-elastic closed-form reference solutions to verify select aspects of the formulations implementation. Although all problems in the suite depict the same geometry, material behavior, and loading conditions, each problem represents a unique combination of shell formulation, stabilization method, and integration rule. Collectively, the thirty-six new regression problems in the test suite cover nine different shell formulations, three hourglass stabilization methods, and three families of through-thickness integration rules.

  16. STATE RESOLVED DATA FOR RADIATIVE ASSOCIATION OF H AND H{sup +} AND FOR PHOTODISSOCIATION OF H{sub 2}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babb, James F.

    2015-01-01

    The matrix elements and energies needed to calculate vibrational-rotational state resolved cross sections and rate coefficients for radiative association of H and H{sup +} and for photodissociation of H{sub 2}{sup +} are presented for applications to simulations of chemistry in the early universe and to stellar atmospheres.

  17. Investigation of the possibility to use a fine-mesh solver for resolving coupled neutronics and thermal-hydraulics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jareteg, K.; Vinai, P.; Demaziere, C.

    2013-07-01

    The development of a fine-mesh coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic solver is touched upon in this paper. The reported work investigates the feasibility of using finite volume techniques to discretize a set of conservation equations modeling neutron transport, fluid dynamics, and heat transfer within a single numerical tool. With the long-term objective of developing fine-mesh computing capabilities for a few selected fuel assemblies in a nuclear core, this preliminary study considers an infinite array of a single fuel assembly having a finite height. Thermal-hydraulic conditions close to the ones existing in PWRs are taken as a first test case. The neutronic modeling relies on the diffusion approximation in a multi-energy group formalism, with cross-sections pre-calculated and tabulated at the sub-pin level using a Monte Carlo technique. The thermal-hydraulics is based on the Navier-Stokes equations, complemented by an energy conservation equation. The non-linear coupling terms between the different conservation equations are fully resolved using classical iteration techniques. Early tests demonstrate that the numerical tool provides an unprecedented level of details of the coupled solution estimated within the same numerical tool and thus avoiding any external data transfer, using fully consistent models between the neutronics and the thermal-hydraulics. (authors)

  18. Early stages of spinodal decomposition in Fe–Cr resolved by in-situ small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hörnqvist, M. Thuvander, M.; Steuwer, A.; King, S.; Odqvist, J.; Hedström, P.

    2015-02-09

    In-situ, time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigations of the early stages of the spinodal decomposition process in Fe–35Cr were performed at 773 and 798 K. The kinetics of the decomposition, both in terms of characteristic distance and peak intensity, followed a power-law behaviour from the start of the heat treatment (a′{sup  }= 0.10–0.11 and a″ = 0.67–0.86). Furthermore, the method allows tracking of the high–Q slope, which is a sensitive measure of the early stages of decomposition. Ex-situ SANS and atom probe tomography were used to verify the results from the in-situ investigations. Finally, the in-situ measurement of the evolution of the characteristic distance at 773 K was compared with the predictions from the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook model, which showed good agreement with the experimental data (a′{sup  }= 0.12–0.20 depending on the assumed mobility)

  19. A hemispherical Langmuir probe array detector for angular resolved measurements on droplet-based laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambino, Nadia Brandsttter, Markus; Rollinger, Bob; Abhari, Reza

    2014-09-15

    In this work, a new diagnostic tool for laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) is presented. The detector is based on a multiple array of six motorized Langmuir probes. It allows to measure the dynamics of a LPP in terms of charged particles detection with particular attention to droplet-based LPP sources for EUV lithography. The system design permits to temporally resolve the angular and radial plasma charge distribution and to obtain a hemispherical mapping of the ions and electrons around the droplet plasma. The understanding of these dynamics is fundamental to improve the debris mitigation techniques for droplet-based LPP sources. The device has been developed, built, and employed at the Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zrich. The experimental results have been obtained on the droplet-based LPP source ALPS II. For the first time, 2D mappings of the ion kinetic energy distribution around the droplet plasma have been obtained with an array of multiple Langmuir probes. These measurements show an anisotropic expansion of the ions in terms of kinetic energy and amount of ion charge around the droplet target. First estimations of the plasma density and electron temperature were also obtained from the analysis of the probe current signals.

  20. Large-scale Environmental Variables and Transition to Deep Convection in Cloud Resolving Model Simulations: A Vector Representation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2012-11-01

    Cloud resolving model simulations and vector analysis are used to develop a quantitative method of assessing regional variations in the relationships between various large-scale environmental variables and the transition to deep convection. Results of the CRM simulations from three tropical regions are used to cluster environmental conditions under which transition to deep convection does and does not take place. Projections of the large-scale environmental variables on the difference between these two clusters are used to quantify the roles of these variables in the transition to deep convection. While the transition to deep convection is most sensitive to moisture and vertical velocity perturbations, the details of the profiles of the anomalies vary from region to region. In comparison, the transition to deep convection is found to be much less sensitive to temperature anomalies over all three regions. The vector formulation presented in this study represents a simple general framework for quantifying various aspects of how the transition to deep convection is sensitive to environmental conditions.

  1. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; Ivancic, S.; Jarrott, L. C.; Marshall, F. J.; McKiernan, G.; McLean, H. S.; Mileham, C.; Nilson, P. M.; Patel, P. K.; Pérez, F.; Sangster, T. C.; Santos, J. J.; Sawada, H.; Shvydky, A.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M. S.

    2014-12-12

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achieve areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm#2;-2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse -- the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.

  2. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction and Raman studies of the phase transition mechanisms of methane hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirai, Hisako Kadobayashi, Hirokazu; Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo; Ohtake, Michika; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Nakano, Satoshi

    2015-01-14

    The mechanisms by which methane hydrate transforms from an sI to sH structure and from an sH to filled-ice Ih structure were examined using time-resolved X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with charge-coupled device camera observation under fixed pressure conditions. The XRD data obtained for the sIsH transition at 0.8 GPa revealed an inverse correlation between sI and sH, suggesting that the sI structure is replaced by sH. Meanwhile, the Raman analysis demonstrated that although the 12-hedra of sI are retained, the 14-hedra are replaced sequentially by additional 12-hedra, modified 12-hedra, and 20-hedra cages of sH. With the sH to filled-ice Ih transition at 1.8 GPa, both the XRD and Raman data showed that this occurs through a sudden collapse of the sH structure and subsequent release of solid and fluid methane that is gradually incorporated into the filled-ice Ih to complete its structure. This therefore represents a typical reconstructive transition mechanism.

  3. Demonstration of space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering capability for warm dense matter experiments on the Z accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ao, T.; Harding, E. C.; Bailey, J. E.; Lemke, R. W.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Hansen, S. B.; Smith, I. C.; Geissel, M.; Maurer, A.; Reneker, J.; et al

    2016-01-13

    Experiments on the Sandia Z pulsed-power accelerator demonstrated the ability to produce warm dense matter (WDM) states with unprecedented uniformity, duration, and size, which are ideal for investigations of fundamental WDM properties. For the first time, space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) spectra from shocked carbon foams were recorded on Z. The large (> 20 MA) electrical current produced by Z was used to launch Al flyer plates up to 25 km/s. The impact of the flyer plate on a CH2 foam target produced a shocked state with an estimated pressure of 0.75 Mbar, density of 0.52 g/cm3, and temperature ofmore » 4.3 eV. Both unshocked and shocked portions of the foam target were probed with 6.2 keV x-rays produced by focusing the Z-Beamlet laser onto a nearby Mn foil. The data is composed of three spatially distinct spectra that were simultaneously captured with a single spectrometer with high spectral (4.8 eV) and spatial (190 μm) resolutions. Furthermore, these spectra provide detailed information on three target locations: the laser spot, the unshocked foam, and the shocked foam.« less

  4. Fixed target matrix for femtosecond time-resolved and in situ serial micro-crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C.; Marx, A.; Epp, S. W.; Zhong, Y.; Kuo, A.; Balo, A. R.; Soman, J.; Schotte, F.; Lemke, H. T.; Owen, R. L.; Pai, E. F.; Pearson, A. R.; Olson, J. S.; Anfinrud, P. A.; Ernst, O. P.; Miller, R. J. Dwayne

    2015-08-18

    We present a crystallography chip enabling in situ room temperature crystallography at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron laser (X-FEL) sources. Compared to other in situ approaches, we observe extremely low background and high diffraction data quality. The chip design is robust and allows fast and efficient loading of thousands of small crystals. The ability to load a large number of protein crystals, at room temperature and with high efficiency, into prescribed positions enables high throughput automated serial crystallography with microfocus synchrotron beamlines. In addition, we demonstrate the application of this chip for femtosecond time-resolved serial crystallography at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS, Menlo Park, California, USA). As a result, the chip concept enables multiple images to be acquired from each crystal, allowing differential detection of changes in diffraction intensities in order to obtain high signal-to-noise and fully exploit the time resolution capabilities of XFELs.

  5. Protein Folding Dynamics Detected By Time-Resolved Synchrotron X-ray Small-Angle Scattering Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Satoshi [RIKEN Harima Institute, SPring-8 Center, Laboratory for Biometal Science, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University Suita Osaka 565-0871/CREST, JST (Japan)

    2007-03-30

    The polypeptide collapse is an essential dynamics in protein folding. To understand the mechanism of the collapse, in situ observation of folding by various probes is necessary. The changes in secondary and tertiary structures in the folding process of globular proteins, whose chain lengths are less than 300 polypeptides, were observed by circular dichrosim and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopies, respectively. On the other hand, those in protein compactness could be only detected by using time-resolved synchrotron x-ray small-angle scattering technique. The observed dynamics for several proteins with different topologies suggested a common folding mechanism termed 'collapse and search' dynamics, in which the polypeptide collapse precedes the formation of the native contact formation. In 'collapse and search' dynamics, the most outstanding feature lied in the compactness of the initial intermediates. The collapsed intermediates demonstrated the scaling relationship between radius of gyration (Rg) and chain length with a scaling exponent of 0.35 {+-} 0.11, which is close to the value (1/3) predicted by mechano-statistical theory for the collapsed globules of polymers in poor solvent. Thus, it was suggested that the initial collapse is caused by the coil-globule transition of polymers. Since the collapse is essential to the folding of larger proteins, further investigations on the collapse likely lead to an important insight into the protein folding phenomena.

  6. Laser-induced temperature jump/time-resolved infrared study of the fast events in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, W.H.; Dyer, R.B.; Williams, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Callender, H.; Gilmanshin, R. [CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Laser-induced temperature jump followed by time-resolved infrared probe of reaction dynamics are used to study the temporal evolution of polypeptide structure during protein folding and unfolding. Reactions are initiated in times of 50 ps or longer by T-jumps of 10`s of degrees, obtained by laser excitation of water overtone absorbances. Observation of the Amide I transient absorbances reveal melting lifetimes of helices unconstrained by tertiary structure to be ca. 160 ns in a model 21-peptide and ca. 30 ns in {open_quotes}molten globule{close_quotes} apomyoglobin. No other processes are observed in these systems over the timescale 50 ps to 2 ms. Equilibrium data suggest the corresponding helix formation lifetimes to be ca. 16 and 1 ns, respectively. In {open_quotes}native{close_quotes} apomyoglobin two helix melting lifetimes are observed and we infer that a third occurs on a timescale inaccessible to our experiment (> 1 ms). The shorter observed lifetime, as in the molten globule, is ca. 30 ns. The longer lifetime is ca. 70 {mu}s. We suggest that the slower process is helix melting that is rate-limited by the unfolding of tertiary structure. Equilibrium data suggest a lifetime of ca. 1 {mu}s for the development of these tertiary folds.

  7. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; et al

    2014-12-12

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achievemore » areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm#2;-2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse -- the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.« less

  8. Time-Resolved Imaging of Material Response Following Laser-Induced Breakdown in the Bulk and Surface of Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, R N; Negres, R A; DeMange, P; Demos, S G

    2010-02-04

    Optical components within high energy laser systems are susceptible to laser-induced material modification when the breakdown threshold is exceeded or damage is initiated by pre-existing impurities or defects. These modifications are the result of exposure to extreme conditions involving the generation of high temperatures and pressures and occur on a volumetric scale of the order of a few cubic microns. The response of the material following localized energy deposition, including the timeline of events and the individual processes involved during this timeline, is still largely unknown. In this work, we investigate the events taking place during the entire timeline in both bulk and surface damage in fused silica using a set of time-resolved microscopy systems. These microscope systems offer up to 1 micron spatial resolution when imaging static or dynamic effects, allowing for imaging of the entire process with adequate temporal and spatial resolution. These systems incorporate various pump-probe geometries designed to optimize the sensitivity for detecting individual aspects of the process such as the propagation of shock waves, near-surface material motion, the speed of ejecta, and material transformations. The experimental results indicate that the material response can be separated into distinct phases, some terminating within a few tens of nanoseconds but some extending up to about 100 microseconds. Overall the results demonstrate that the final characteristics of the modified region depend on the material response to the energy deposition and not on the laser parameters.

  9. Spatially-Resolved Analysis of Glycolipids and Metabolites in Living Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Konopka, Allan; Laskin, Julia

    2013-04-07

    Microorganisms release a diversity of organic compounds that couple interspecies metabolism, enable communication, or provide benefits to other microbes. Increased knowledge of microbial metabolite production will contribute to understanding of the dynamic microbial world and can potentially lead to new developments in drug discovery, biofuel production, and clinical research. Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) is an ambient ionization technique that enables detailed chemical characterization of molecules from a specific location on a surface without special sample pretreatment. Due to its ambient nature, living bacterial colonies growing on agar plates can be rapidly and non-destructively analyzed. We performed spatially resolved nano-DESI analysis of living Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 colonies on agar plates. We use high resolution mass spectrometry and MS/MS analysis of the living Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 colonies to detect metabolites and lipids, and confirm their identities. We found that despite the high salt content of the agar (osmolarity ca. 700 mM), nano-DESI analysis enables detailed characterization of metabolites produced by the colony. Using this technique, we identified several glycolipids found on the living colonies and examined the effect of the age of the colony on the chemical gradient of glucosylglycerol secreted onto agar.

  10. TEMPO: a New Insertion Device Beamline at SOLEIL for Time Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy Experiments on Solids and Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polack, F.; Silly, M.; Chauvet, C.; Lagarde, B.; Bergeard, N.; Izquierdo, M.; Chubar, O.; Krizmancic, D.; Ribbens, M.; Duval, J.-P.; Basset, C.; Kubsky, S.; Sirotti, F.

    2010-06-23

    A new insertion device beamline is now operational on straight section 8 at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source in France. The beamline and the experimental station were developed to optimize the study of the dynamics of electronic and magnetic properties of materials. Here we present the main technical characteristics of the installation and the general principles behind them. The source is composed of two APPLE II type insertion devices. The monochromator with plane gratings and spherical mirrors is working in the energy range 40-1500 eV. It is equipped with VLS, VGD gratings to allow the user optimization of flux or higher harmonics rejection. The observed resonance structures measured in gas phase enable us to determine the available energy resolution: a resolving power higher than 10000 is obtained at the Ar 2p, N 1s and Ne K-edges when using all the optical elements at full aperture. The total flux as a function of the measured photon energy and the characterization of the focal spot size complete the beamline characterization.

  11. Absolute Time-Resolved Emission of Non-LTE L-Shell Spectra from Ti-Doped Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back,C.; Feldman, U.; Weaver, J.; Seely, J.; Constantin, C.; Holland, G.; Lee, R.; Chung, H.; Scott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Outstanding discrepancies between data and calculations of laser-produced plasmas in recombination have been observed since the 1980s. Although improvements in hydrodynamic modeling may reduce the discrepancies, there are indications that non-LTE atomic kinetics may be the dominant cause. Experiments to investigate non-LTE effects were recently performed at the NIKE KrF laser on low-density Ti-doped aerogels. The laser irradiated a 2 mm diameter, cylindrical sample of various lengths with a 4-ns square pulse to create a volumetrically heated plasma. Ti L-shell spectra spanning a range of 0.47-3 keV were obtained with a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. The diagnostic can be configured to provide 1-dimensional spatial resolution at a single photon energy, or 18 discrete energies with a resolving power, {gamma}/{delta}{gamma} of 3-20. The data are examined and compared to calculations to develop absolute emission measurements that can provide new tests of the non-LTE physics.

  12. Time-Resolved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter X-Ray Imaging of...

  13. Time-Resolved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and time) three correspond to the three broad categories of synchrotron experimental measurement techniques: spectroscopy (energy), scattering (momentum), and imaging...

  14. Various forms of indexing HDMR for modelling multivariate classification problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aksu, a?r?; Tunga, M. Alper

    2014-12-10

    The Indexing HDMR method was recently developed for modelling multivariate interpolation problems. The method uses the Plain HDMR philosophy in partitioning the given multivariate data set into less variate data sets and then constructing an analytical structure through these partitioned data sets to represent the given multidimensional problem. Indexing HDMR makes HDMR be applicable to classification problems having real world data. Mostly, we do not know all possible class values in the domain of the given problem, that is, we have a non-orthogonal data structure. However, Plain HDMR needs an orthogonal data structure in the given problem to be modelled. In this sense, the main idea of this work is to offer various forms of Indexing HDMR to successfully model these real life classification problems. To test these different forms, several well-known multivariate classification problems given in UCI Machine Learning Repository were used and it was observed that the accuracy results lie between 80% and 95% which are very satisfactory.

  15. H??? as a Triangle Anomaly: Possible Implications for the Hierarchy Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Gouvea, Andre; Kile, Jennifer; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2013-06-24

    The Standard Model calculation of H??? has the curious feature of being finite but regulator-dependent. While dimensional regularization yields a result which respects the electromagnetic Ward identities, additional terms which violate gauge invariance arise if the calculation is done setting d = 4. This discrepancy between the d=4 ? and d = 4 results is recognized as a true ambiguity which must be resolved using physics input; as dimensional regularization respects gauge invariance, the d = 4 ? calculation is accepted as the correct SM result. However, here we point out another possibility; working in analogy with the gauge chiral anomaly, we note that it is possible that the individual diagrams do violate the electromagnetic Ward identities, but that the gauge-invariance-violating terms cancel when all contributions to H???, both from the SM and from new physics, are included. We thus examine the consequences of the hypothesis that the d = 4 calculation is valid, but that such a cancellation occurs. We work in general renormalizable gauge, thus avoiding issues with momentum routing ambiguities. We point out that the gauge-invariance-violating terms in d = 4 arise not just for the diagram containing a SM $W^{\\pm}$ boson, but also for general fermion and scalar loops, and relate these terms to a lack of shift invariance in Higgs tadpole diagrams. We then derive the analogue of "anomaly cancellation conditions", and find consequences for solutions to the hierarchy problem. In particular, we find that supersymmetry obeys these conditions, even if it is softly broken at an arbitrarily high scale.

  16. Accelerating PDE-Constrained Optimization Problems using Adaptive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerating PDE-Constrained Optimization Problems using Adaptive Reduced-Order Models January 15, 2016 10:30AM to 11:30AM Presenter Matthew Zahr, Wilkinson Interviewee Location...

  17. "Upcycling": A Green Solution to the Problem of Plastic - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search "Upcycling": A Green Solution to the Problem of ... At Argonne, chemist Vilas Pol has devised an environmentally green method that breaks down ...

  18. Simulation and Analysis of Converging Shock Wave Test Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, Scott D.; Shashkov, Mikhail J.

    2012-06-21

    Results and analysis pertaining to the simulation of the Guderley converging shock wave test problem (and associated code verification hydrodynamics test problems involving converging shock waves) in the LANL ASC radiation-hydrodynamics code xRAGE are presented. One-dimensional (1D) spherical and two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric geometric setups are utilized and evaluated in this study, as is an instantiation of the xRAGE adaptive mesh refinement capability. For the 2D simulations, a 'Surrogate Guderley' test problem is developed and used to obviate subtleties inherent to the true Guderley solution's initialization on a square grid, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity to the original problem, and minimally straining the general credibility of associated analysis and conclusions.

  19. The problem of living in a world contaminated with chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metcalf, R.L.

    1990-12-31

    The proliferation of xenobiotic chemicals in the global environment poses living problems for each of us aboard {open_quotes}spaceship earth.{close_quotes} Seven case studies are presented that illustrate the magnitude of the problem that can result from waiting to identify toxic hazards until there have been decades of {open_quotes}human guinea pig{close_quotes} exposure. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Modeling icesheets dynamics: forward and inverse problems. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Modeling icesheets dynamics: forward and inverse problems. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling icesheets dynamics: forward and inverse problems. Abstract not provided. Authors: Perego, Mauro ; Salinger, Andrew G. ; Guzburger, Max ; Hoffman, M. ; Stadler, G. Publication Date: 2013-09-01 OSTI Identifier: 1115048 Report Number(s): SAND2013-7435C 477301 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Laboratory for

  1. On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    properties using tracer data (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer properties using tracer data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer properties using tracer data Authors: Kowalsky, M. B. ; Finsterle, S. ; Commer, M. ; Williams, K. H. ; Murray, C. ; Newcomer, D. ; Englert, A. ; Steefel, C. I. ; Hubbard, S. S. Publication Date: 2012-01-01 OSTI Identifier:

  2. Low-energy supersymmetry breaking without the gravitino problem (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Low-energy supersymmetry breaking without the gravitino problem Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 8, 2016 Title: Low-energy supersymmetry breaking without the gravitino problem Authors: Hook, Anson ; Murayama, Hitoshi Publication Date: 2015-07-09 OSTI Identifier: 1198646 Grant/Contract Number: SC0009988; AC03-76SF00098 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review D Additional Journal

  3. Fast, purely growing collisionless reconnection as an eigenfunction problem

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    related to but not involving linear whistler waves (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Fast, purely growing collisionless reconnection as an eigenfunction problem related to but not involving linear whistler waves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast, purely growing collisionless reconnection as an eigenfunction problem related to but not involving linear whistler waves If either finite electron inertia or finite resistivity is included in 2D magnetic

  4. A Stieltjes-Lanczos procedure for parameterized matrix problems.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Stieltjes-Lanczos procedure for parameterized matrix problems. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Stieltjes-Lanczos procedure for parameterized matrix problems. Abstract not provided. Authors: Gleich, David Francis ; Constantine, Paul Publication Date: 2011-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106443 Report Number(s): SAND2011-5534C 464127 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: ICIAM 2011 held July 18-22, 2011

  5. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 2: Rain Microphysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, Adam; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben; Williams, Christopher R.

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observations and retrievals from a scanning polarimetric radar, co-located UHF and VHF vertical profilers, and a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in an attempt to explain published results showing a low bias in simulated stratiform rainfall. Despite different forcing methodologies, similar precipitation microphysics errors appear in CRMs and LAMs with differences that depend on the details of the bulk microphysics scheme used. One-moment schemes produce too many small raindrops, which biases Doppler velocities low, but produces rain water contents (RWCs) that are similar to observed. Two-moment rain schemes with a gamma shape parameter (?) of 0 produce excessive size sorting, which leads to larger Doppler velocities than those produced in one-moment schemes, but lower RWCs than observed. Two moment schemes also produce a convective median volume diameter distribution that is too broad relative to observations and thus, may have issues balancing raindrop formation, collision coalescence, and raindrop breakup. Assuming a ? of 2.5 rather than 0 for the raindrop size distribution improves one-moment scheme biases, and allowing ? to have values greater than 0 may improve two-moment schemes. Under-predicted stratiform rain rates are associated with under-predicted ice water contents at the melting level rather than excessive rain evaporation, in turn likely associated with convective detrainment that is too high in the troposphere and mesoscale circulations that are too weak. In addition to stronger convective updrafts than observed, limited domain size prevents a large, well-developed stratiform region from developing in CRMs, while a dry bias in ECMWF analyses does the same to the LAMs.

  6. Evaluation of Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison Simulations Using TWP-ICE Observations: Precipitation and Cloud Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, Adam C.; Fridlind, Ann; Zipser, Ed; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; McFarlane, Sally A.; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Shipway, Ben

    2011-06-24

    The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) provided high quality model forcing and observational datasets through which detailed model and observational intercomparisons could be performed. In this first of a two part study, precipitation and cloud structures within nine cloud-resolving model simulations are compared with scanning radar reflectivity and satellite infrared brightness temperature observations during an active monsoon period from 19 to 25 January 2006. Most simulations slightly overestimate volumetric convective rainfall. Overestimation of simulated convective area by 50% or more in several simulations is somewhat offset by underestimation of mean convective rain rates. Stratiform volumetric rainfall is underestimated by 13% to 53% despite overestimation of stratiform area by up to 65% because stratiform rain rates in every simulation are much lower than observed. Although simulations match the peaked convective radar reflectivity distribution at low levels, they do not reproduce the peaked distributions observed above the melting level. Simulated radar reflectivity aloft in convective regions is too high in most simulations. 29 In stratiform regions, there is a large spread in model results with none resembling 30 observed distributions. Above the melting level, observed radar reflectivity decreases 31 more gradually with height than simulated radar reflectivity. A few simulations produce 32 unrealistically uniform and cold 10.8-?m infrared brightness temperatures, but several 33 simulations produce distributions close to observed. Assumed ice particle size 34 distributions appear to play a larger role than ice water contents in producing incorrect 35 simulated radar reflectivity distributions aloft despite substantial differences in mean 36 graupel and snow water contents across models. 37

  7. Resolving the structure of Ti3C2Tx MXenes through multilevel structural modeling of the atomic pair distribution function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wesolowski, David J.; Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Page, Katharine L.; Naguib, Michael; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-12-08

    MXenes are a recently discovered family of two-dimensional (2D) early transition metal carbides and carbonitrides, which have already shown many attractive properties and a great promise in energy storage and many other applications. However, a complex surface chemistry and small coherence length has been an obstacle in some applications of MXenes, also limiting accuracy of predictions of their properties. In this study, we describe and benchmark a novel way of modeling layered materials with real interfaces (diverse surface functional groups and stacking order between the adjacent monolayers) against experimental data. The structures of three kinds of Ti3C2Tx MXenes (T standsmore » for surface terminating species, including O, OH, and F) produced under different synthesis conditions were resolved for the first time using atomic pair distribution function obtained by high-quality neutron total scattering. The true nature of the material can be easily captured with the sensitivity of neutron scattering to the surface species of interest and the detailed third-generation structure model we present. The modeling approach leads to new understanding of MXene structural properties and can replace the currently used idealized models in predictions of a variety of physical, chemical and functional properties of Ti3C2-based MXenes. Furthermore, the developed models can be employed to guide the design of new MXene materials with selected surface termination and controlled contact angle, catalytic, optical, electrochemical and other properties. We suggest that the multi-level structural modeling should form the basis for a generalized methodology on modeling diffraction and pair distribution function data for 2D and layered materials.« less

  8. A split-beam probe-pump-probe scheme for femtosecond time resolved protein X-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Thor, Jasper J.; Madsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to exploit the femtosecond pulse duration of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFEL) operating in the hard X-ray regime for ultrafast time-resolved protein crystallography experiments, critical parameters that determine the crystallographic signal-to-noise (I/σI) must be addressed. For single-crystal studies under low absorbed dose conditions, it has been shown that the intrinsic pulse intensity stability as well as mode structure and jitter of this structure, significantly affect the crystallographic signal-to-noise. Here, geometrical parameters are theoretically explored for a three-beam scheme: X-ray probe, optical pump, X-ray probe (or “probe-pump-probe”) which will allow experimental determination of the photo-induced structure factor amplitude differences, ΔF, in a ratiometric manner, thereby internally referencing the intensity noise of the XFEL source. In addition to a non-collinear split-beam geometry which separates un-pumped and pumped diffraction patterns on an area detector, applying an additional convergence angle to both beams by focusing leads to integration over mosaic blocks in the case of well-ordered stationary protein crystals. Ray-tracing X-ray diffraction simulations are performed for an example using photoactive yellow protein crystals in order to explore the geometrical design parameters which would be needed. The specifications for an X-ray split and delay instrument that implements both an offset angle and focused beams are discussed, for implementation of a probe-pump-probe scheme at the European XFEL. We discuss possible extension of single crystal studies to serial femtosecond crystallography, particularly in view of the expected X-ray damage and ablation due to the first probe pulse.

  9. A split-beam probe-pump-probe scheme for femtosecond time resolved protein X-ray crystallography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van Thor, Jasper J.; Madsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to exploit the femtosecond pulse duration of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFEL) operating in the hard X-ray regime for ultrafast time-resolved protein crystallography experiments, critical parameters that determine the crystallographic signal-to-noise (I/σI) must be addressed. For single-crystal studies under low absorbed dose conditions, it has been shown that the intrinsic pulse intensity stability as well as mode structure and jitter of this structure, significantly affect the crystallographic signal-to-noise. Here, geometrical parameters are theoretically explored for a three-beam scheme: X-ray probe, optical pump, X-ray probe (or “probe-pump-probe”) which will allow experimental determination of the photo-induced structure factor amplitude differences, ΔF,more » in a ratiometric manner, thereby internally referencing the intensity noise of the XFEL source. In addition to a non-collinear split-beam geometry which separates un-pumped and pumped diffraction patterns on an area detector, applying an additional convergence angle to both beams by focusing leads to integration over mosaic blocks in the case of well-ordered stationary protein crystals. Ray-tracing X-ray diffraction simulations are performed for an example using photoactive yellow protein crystals in order to explore the geometrical design parameters which would be needed. The specifications for an X-ray split and delay instrument that implements both an offset angle and focused beams are discussed, for implementation of a probe-pump-probe scheme at the European XFEL. We discuss possible extension of single crystal studies to serial femtosecond crystallography, particularly in view of the expected X-ray damage and ablation due to the first probe pulse.« less

  10. In Situ Time-Resolved Characterization of Ni-MoO2 Catalysts for the Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen,W.; Calderon, J.; Brito, J.; Marinkovic, N.; Hanson, J.; Rodriquez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Active catalysts for the water-gas shift (WGS, CO + H2O ? H2 + CO2) reaction were synthesized from nickel molybdates ({beta}-NiMoO4 and nH2O{center_dot}NiMoO4) as precursors, and their structural transformations were monitored using in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. In general, the nickel molybdates were not stable and underwent partial reduction in the presence of CO or CO/H2O mixtures at high temperatures. The interaction of {beta}-NiMoO4 with the WGS reactants at 500 C led to the formation of a mixture of Ni (24 nm particle size) and MoO2 (10 nm particle size). These Ni-MoO2 systems displayed good catalytic activity at 350, 400, and 500 C. At 350 and 400 C, catalytic tests revealed that the Ni-MoO2 system was much more active than isolated Ni (some activity) or isolated MoO2 (negligible activity). Thus, cooperative interactions between the admetal and oxide support were probably responsible for the high WGS activity of Ni-MoO2. In a second synthetic approach, the NiMoO4 hydrate was reduced to a mixture of metallic Ni, NiO, and amorphous molybdenum oxide by direct reaction with H2 gas at 350 C. In the first pass of the water-gas shift reaction, MoO2 appeared gradually at 500 C with a concurrent increase of the catalytic activity. For these catalysts, the particle size of Ni (4 nm) was much smaller than that of the MoO2 (13 nm). These systems were found to be much more active WGS catalysts than Cu-MoO2, which in turn is superior to commercial low-temperature Cu-ZnO catalysts.

  11. Application of the FETI Method to ASCI Problems: Scalability Results on One Thousand Processors and Discussion of Highly Heterogeneous Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhardwaj, M.; Day, D.; Farhat, C.; Lesoinne, M; Pierson, K.; Rixen, D.

    1999-04-01

    We report on the application of the one-level FETI method to the solution of a class of substructural problems associated with the Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). We focus on numerical and parallel scalability issues, and on preliminary performance results obtained on the ASCI Option Red supercomputer configured with as many as one thousand processors, for problems with as many as 5 million degrees of freedom.

  12. COMPLEXITY & APPROXIMABILITY OF QUANTIFIED & STOCHASTIC CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. B. HUNT; M. V. MARATHE; R. E. STEARNS

    2001-06-01

    Let D be an arbitrary (not necessarily finite) nonempty set, let C be a finite set of constant symbols denoting arbitrary elements of D, and let S and T be an arbitrary finite set of finite-arity relations on D. We denote the problem of determining the satisfiability of finite conjunctions of relations in S applied to variables (to variables and symbols in C) by SAT(S) (by SATc(S).) Here, we study simultaneously the complexity of decision, counting, maximization and approximate maximization problems, for unquantified, quantified and stochastically quantified formulas. We present simple yet general techniques to characterize simultaneously, the complexity or efficient approximability of a number of versions/variants of the problems SAT(S), Q-SAT(S), S-SAT(S),MAX-Q-SAT(S) etc., for many different such D,C,S,T. These versions/variants include decision, counting, maximization and approximate maximization problems, for unquantified, quantified and stochastically quantified formulas. Our unified approach is based on the following two basic concepts: (i) strongly-local replacements/reductions and (ii) relational/algebraic representability. Some of the results extend the earlier results in [Pa85,LMP99,CF+93,CF+94] Our techniques and results reported here also provide significant steps towards obtaining dichotomy theorems, for a number of the problems above, including the problems MAX-Q-SAT(S), and MAX-S-SAT(S). The discovery of such dichotomy theorems, for unquantified formulas, has received significant recent attention in the literature [CF+93, CF+94, Cr95, KSW97]. Keywords: NP-hardness; Approximation Algorithms; PSPACE-hardness; Quantified and Stochastic Constraint Satisfaction Problems.

  13. Employing time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to analyze carrier dynamics in thin-film Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} absorber layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guglietta, Glenn W.; Baxter, Jason B.; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy; Caspar, Jonathan V.

    2014-06-23

    We report the application of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) to measure photoexcited carrier lifetimes and mobility, and to determine recombination mechanisms in Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTSSe) thin films fabricated from nanocrystal inks. Ultrafast time resolution permits tracking the evolution of carrier density to determine recombination rates and mechanisms. The carrier generation profile was manipulated by varying the photoexcitation wavelength and fluence to distinguish between surface, Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH), radiative, and Auger recombination mechanisms and determine rate constants. Surface and SRH recombination are the dominant mechanisms for the air/CZTSSe/SiO{sub 2}/Si film stack. Diffusion to, and then recombination at, the air-CZTSSe interface occurred on the order of 100 picoseconds, while SRH recombination lifetimes were 12 nanoseconds. TRTS measurements can provide information that is complementary to conventional time-resolved photoluminescence measurements and can direct the design of efficient thin film photovoltaics.

  14. Time-resolved Kα spectroscopy measurements of hot-electron equilibration dynamics in thin-foil solid targets: Collisional and collective effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nilson, P. M.; Solodov, A. A.; Davies, J. R.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Zuegel, J. D.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; et al

    2015-09-25

    Time-resolved Kα spectroscopy measurements from high-intensity laser interactions with thin-foil solid targets are reviewed. Thin Cu foils were irradiated with 1- to 10-J, 1-ps pulses at focused intensities from 1018 to 1019 W/cm2. The experimental data show Kα-emission pulse widths from 3 to 6 ps, increasing with laser intensity. The time-resolved Kα-emission data are compared to a hot-electron transport and Kα-production model that includes collisional electron-energy coupling, resistive heating, and electromagnetic field effects. The experimental data show good agreement with the model when a reduced ponderomotive scaling is used to describe the initial mean hot-electron energy over the relevant intensitymore » range.« less

  15. In-situ characterization of femtosecond laser-induced crystallization in borosilicate glass using time-resolved surface third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Weimin; Wang, Liang; Han, Fangyuan; Fang, Chong

    2013-11-11

    Coherent phonon dynamics in condensed-phase medium are responsible for important material properties including thermal and electrical conductivities. We report a structural dynamics technique, time-resolved surface third-harmonic generation (TRSTHG) spectroscopy, to capture transient phonon propagation near the surface of polycrystalline CaF{sub 2} and amorphous borosilicate (BK7) glass. Our approach time-resolves the background-free, high-sensitivity third harmonic generation (THG) signal in between the two crossing near-IR pulses. Pronounced intensity quantum beats reveal the impulsively excited low-frequency Raman mode evolution on the femtosecond to picosecond timescale. After amplified laser irradiation, danburite-crystal-like structure units form at the glass surface. This versatile TRSTHG setup paves the way to mechanistically study and design advanced thermoelectrics and photovoltaics.

  16. Temporally and spatially resolved photoluminescence investigation of (112{sup }2) semi-polar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nanorod templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, B.; Smith, R.; Athanasiou, M.; Yu, X.; Bai, J.; Wang, T.

    2014-12-29

    By means of time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) and confocal PL measurements, temporally and spatially resolved optical properties have been investigated on a number of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) structures with a wide range of indium content alloys from 13% to 35% on (112{sup }2) semi-polar GaN with high crystal quality, obtained through overgrowth on nanorod templates. With increasing indium content, the radiative recombination lifetime initially increases as expected, but decreases if the indium content further increases to 35%, corresponding to emission in the green spectral region. The reduced radiative recombination lifetime leads to enhanced optical performance for the high indium content MQWs as a result of strong exciton localization, which is different from the behaviour of c-plane InGaN/GaN MQWs, where quantum confined Stark effect plays a dominating role in emission process.

  17. Economic penalties of problems and errors in solar energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, K.; Sparkes, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Experience with a large number of installed solar energy systems in the HUD Solar Program has shown that a variety of problems and design/installation errors have occurred in many solar systems, sometimes resulting in substantial additional costs for repair and/or replacement. In this paper, the effect of problems and errors on the economics of solar energy systems is examined. A method is outlined for doing this in terms of selected economic indicators. The method is illustrated by a simple example of a residential solar DHW system. An example of an installed, instrumented solar energy system in the HUD Solar Program is then discussed. Detailed results are given for the effects of the problems and errors on the cash flow, cost of delivered heat, discounted payback period, and life-cycle cost of the solar energy system. Conclusions are drawn regarding the most suitable economic indicators for showing the effects of problems and errors in solar energy systems. A method is outlined for deciding on the maximum justifiable expenditure for maintenance on a solar energy system with problems or errors.

  18. The inverse problems of wing panel manufacture processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleinikov, A. I.; Bormotin, K. S.

    2013-12-16

    It is shown that inverse problems of steady-state creep bending of plates in both the geometrically linear and nonlinear formulations can be represented in a variational formulation. Steady-state values of the obtained functionals corresponding to the solutions of the problems of inelastic deformation and springback are determined by applying a finite element procedure to the functionals. Optimal laws of creep deformation are formulated using the criterion of minimizing damage in the functionals of the inverse problems. The formulated problems are reduced to the problems solved by the finite element method using MSC.Marc software. Currently, forming of light metals poses tremendous challenges due to their low ductility at room temperature and their unusual deformation characteristics at hot-cold work: strong asymmetry between tensile and compressive behavior, and a very pronounced anisotropy. We used the constitutive models of steady-state creep of initially transverse isotropy structural materials the kind of the stress state has influence. The paper gives basics of the developed computer-aided system of design, modeling, and electronic simulation targeting the processes of manufacture of wing integral panels. The modeling results can be used to calculate the die tooling, determine the panel processibility, and control panel rejection in the course of forming.

  19. Comparison of the Vertical Velocity Used to Calculate the Cloud Droplet Number Concentration in a Cloud Resolving and a Global Climate Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of the Vertical Velocity used to Calculate the Cloud Droplet Number Concentration in a Cloud-Resolving and a Global Climate Model H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and X. Liu Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Introduction Anthropogenic aerosols are effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The availability of CCN affects the initial cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and droplet size; therefore, cloud optical

  20. Measurement and Modeling of Vertically Resolved Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Fluxes Over the ARM SGP Site During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement and Modeling of Vertically Resolved Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Fluxes Over the ARM SGP Site During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP B. Schmid and J. Redemann Bay Area Environmental Research Institute National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center Moffett Field, California W. P. Arnott Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada A. Bucholtz and J. Reid Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, California P. Colarco Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center

  1. Time resolved spectroscopy of SGR J15505418 bursts detected with Fermi/gamma-ray burst monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, G. [Universities Space Research Association, 6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 450, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); Kouveliotou, C.; Collazzi, A. [Astrophysics Office, ZP 12, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Van der Horst, A. J.; Watts, A. L.; Huppenkothen, D.; Van der Klis, M.; Van Putten, T. [Astronomical Institute "Anton Pannekoek," University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ranana 43537 (Israel); Bhat, P. N.; Gorgone, N. [University of Alabama in Huntsville CSPAR, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Gehrels, N.; Mcenery, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); G??, E.; Kaneko, Y.; Lin, L. [Sabanc? University, Orhanl?-Tuzla, ?stanbul 34956 (Turkey); Gruber, D.; Von Kienlin, A. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Grunblatt, S. [University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2500 Campus Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2014-04-10

    We report on a time-resolved spectroscopy of the 63 brightest bursts of SGR J15505418, detected with the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor during its 2008-2009 intense bursting episode. We performed spectral analysis down to 4 ms timescales to characterize the spectral evolution of the bursts. Using a Comptonized model, we find that the peak energy, E {sub peak}, anti-correlates with flux, while the low-energy photon index remains constant at ? 0.8 up to a flux limit F ? 10{sup 5} erg s{sup 1} cm{sup 2}. Above this flux value, the E {sub peak}flux correlation changes sign, and the index positively correlates with the flux reaching ?1 at the highest fluxes. Using a two blackbody model, we find that the areas and fluxes of the two emitting regions correlate positively. Further, we study here for the first time the evolution of the temperatures and areas as a function of flux. We find that the areakT relation follows the lines of constant luminosity at the lowest fluxes, R {sup 2}?kT {sup 4}, with a break at the higher fluxes (F > 10{sup 5.5} erg s{sup 1} cm{sup 2}). The area of the high-kT component increases with the flux while its temperature decreases, which we interpret as being due to an adiabatic cooling process. The area of the low-kT component, on the other hand, appears to saturate at the highest fluxes, toward R {sub max} ? 30 km. Assuming that crust quakes are responsible for soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts and considering R {sub max} as the maximum radius of the emitting photon-pair plasma fireball, we relate this saturation radius to a minimum excitation radius of the magnetosphere, and we put a lower limit on the internal magnetic field of SGR J15505418, B {sub int} ? 4.5 10{sup 15} G.

  2. A survey of problems in divertor and edge plasma theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boozer, A. ); Braams, B.; Weitzner, H. . Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences); Cohen, R. ); Hazeltine, R. . Inst. for Fusion Studies); Hinton, F. ); Houlberg, W. (Oak

    1992-12-22

    Theoretical physics problems related to divertor design are presented, organized by the region in which they occur. Some of the open questions in edge physics are presented from a theoretician's point of view. After a cursory sketch of the fluid models of the edge plasma and their numerical realization, the following topics are taken up: time-dependent problems, non-axisymmetric effects, anomalous transport in the scrape-off layer, edge kinetic theory, sheath effects and boundary conditions in divertors, electric field effects, atomic and molecular data issues, impurity transport in the divertor region, poloidally localized power dissipation (MARFEs and dense gas targets), helium ash removal, and neutral transport. The report ends with a summary of selected problems of particular significance and a brief bibliography of survey articles and related conference proceedings.

  3. A survey of problems in divertor and edge plasma theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boozer, A.; Braams, B.; Weitzner, H.; Cohen, R.; Hazeltine, R.; Hinton, F.; Houlberg, W.; Oktay, E.; Sadowski, W.; Post, D.; Sigmar, D.; Wootton, A.

    1992-12-22

    Theoretical physics problems related to divertor design are presented, organized by the region in which they occur. Some of the open questions in edge physics are presented from a theoretician`s point of view. After a cursory sketch of the fluid models of the edge plasma and their numerical realization, the following topics are taken up: time-dependent problems, non-axisymmetric effects, anomalous transport in the scrape-off layer, edge kinetic theory, sheath effects and boundary conditions in divertors, electric field effects, atomic and molecular data issues, impurity transport in the divertor region, poloidally localized power dissipation (MARFEs and dense gas targets), helium ash removal, and neutral transport. The report ends with a summary of selected problems of particular significance and a brief bibliography of survey articles and related conference proceedings.

  4. Rekindle the Fire: Building Supercomputers to Solve Dynamic Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studham, Scott S. )

    2004-02-16

    Seymour Cray had a Lets go to the moon attitude when it came to building high-performance computers. His drive was to create architectures designed to solve the most challenging problems. Modern high-performance computer architects, however, seem to be focusing on building the largest floating-point-generation machines by using truckloads of commodity parts. Don't get me wrong; current clusters can solve a class of problems that are untouchable by any other system in the world, including the supercomputers of yesteryear. Many of the worlds fastest clusters provide new insights into weather forecasting, our understanding of fundamental sciences and provide the ability to model our nuclear stockpiles. Lets call this class of problem a first-principles simulation because the simulations are based on a fundamental physical understanding or model.

  5. Operating experience review of service water system problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent paper, selected results of a comprehensive review and evaluation of service water system problems conducted by the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) were presented. The results of this review and evaluation indicated that service water system problems have significant safety implications. These system problems are attributable to a great variety of causes and have adverse impacts on a large number of safety-related systems and components. To provide additional feedback of operating experience, this paper presents an overview of the dominant mechanisms leading to service water system degradations and failures. The failures and degradations of service water systems observed in the 276 operating events are grouped into six general categories. The six general categories are (1) fouling due to various mechanisms, (2) single-failure and other design deficiencies, (3) flooding, (4) equipment failures, (5) personnel and procedural errors, and (6) seismic deficiencies.

  6. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  7. COMPLEXITY&APPROXIMABILITY OF QUANTIFIED&STOCHASTIC CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, H. B.; Marathe, M. V.; Stearns, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    Let D be an arbitrary (not necessarily finite) nonempty set, let C be a finite set of constant symbols denoting arbitrary elements of D, and let S and T be an arbitrary finite set of finite-arity relations on D. We denote the problem of determining the satisfiability of finite conjunctions of relations in S applied to variables (to variables and symbols in C) by SAT(S) (by SATc(S).) Here, we study simultaneously the complexity of decision, counting, maximization and approximate maximization problems, for unquantified, quantified and stochastically quantified formulas. We present simple yet general techniques to characterize simultaneously, the complexity or efficient approximability of a number of versions/variants of the problems SAT(S), Q-SAT(S), S-SAT(S),MAX-Q-SAT(S) etc., for many different such D,C ,S, T. These versions/variants include decision, counting, maximization and approximate maximization problems, for unquantified, quantified and stochastically quantified formulas. Our unified approach is based on the following two basic concepts: (i) strongly-local replacements/reductions and (ii) relational/algebraic represent ability. Some of the results extend the earlier results in [Pa85,LMP99,CF+93,CF+94O]u r techniques and results reported here also provide significant steps towards obtaining dichotomy theorems, for a number of the problems above, including the problems MAX-&-SAT( S), and MAX-S-SAT(S). The discovery of such dichotomy theorems, for unquantified formulas, has received significant recent attention in the literature [CF+93,CF+94,Cr95,KSW97

  8. How to Solve Schroedinger Problems by Approximating the Potential Function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledoux, Veerle; Van Daele, Marnix

    2010-09-30

    We give a survey over the efforts in the direction of solving the Schroedinger equation by using piecewise approximations of the potential function. Two types of approximating potentials have been considered in the literature, that is piecewise constant and piecewise linear functions. For polynomials of higher degree the approximating problem is not so easy to integrate analytically. This obstacle can be circumvented by using a perturbative approach to construct the solution of the approximating problem, leading to the so-called piecewise perturbation methods (PPM). We discuss the construction of a PPM in its most convenient form for applications and show that different PPM versions (CPM,LPM) are in fact equivalent.

  9. Problems of millipound thrust measurement. The "Hansen Suspension"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carta, David G.

    2014-03-31

    Considered in detail are problems which led to the need and use of the 'Hansen Suspension'. Also discussed are problems which are likely to be encountered in any low level thrust measuring system. The methods of calibration and the accuracies involved are given careful attention. With all parameters optimized and calibration techniques perfected, the system was found capable of a resolution of 10 {mu} lbs. A comparison of thrust measurements made by the 'Hansen Suspension' with measurements of a less sophisticated device leads to some surprising results.

  10. National Energy Software Center: benchmark problem book. Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1985-12-01

    Computational benchmarks are given for the following problems: (1) Finite-difference, diffusion theory calculation of a highly nonseparable reactor, (2) Iterative solutions for multigroup two-dimensional neutron diffusion HTGR problem, (3) Reference solution to the two-group diffusion equation, (4) One-dimensional neutron transport transient solutions, (5) To provide a test of the capabilities of multi-group multidimensional kinetics codes in a heavy water reactor, (6) Test of capabilities of multigroup neutron diffusion in LMFBR, and (7) Two-dimensional PWR models.

  11. Channeling problem for charged particles produced by confining environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A.; Derbov, V. L.; Krassovitskiy, P. M.; Vinitsky, S. I.

    2009-05-15

    Channeling problem produced by confining environment that leads to resonance scattering of charged particles via quasistationary states imbedded in the continuum is examined. Nonmonotonic dependence of physical parameters on collision energy and/or confining environment due to resonance transmission and total reflection effects is confirmed that can increase the rate of recombination processes. The reduction of the model for two identical charged ions to a boundary problem is considered together with the asymptotic behavior of the solution in the vicinity of pair-collision point and the results of R-matrix calculations. Tentative estimations of the enhancement factor and the total reflection effect are discussed.

  12. Scale-Invariance and the Strong Coupling Problem (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Scale-Invariance and the Strong Coupling Problem Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scale-Invariance and the Strong Coupling Problem Authors: Baumann, Daniel ; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study ; Senatore, Leonardo ; /Stanford U., ITP /KIPAC, Menlo Park ; Zaldarriaga, Matias ; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study Publication Date: 2013-06-06 OSTI Identifier: 1082791 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15530 arXiv:1101.3320 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal

  13. Tackling Energy Problems For America's Tribal Nations | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Energy Problems For America's Tribal Nations Tackling Energy Problems For America's Tribal Nations June 20, 2012 - 6:07pm Addthis Julia Bovey, First Wind; Tracey LeBeau; Neil Kiely, First Wind; and Bob Springer (NREL) at First Wind's new Rollins project near Lincoln, Maine. Julia Bovey, First Wind; Tracey LeBeau; Neil Kiely, First Wind; and Bob Springer (NREL) at First Wind's new Rollins project near Lincoln, Maine. Tracey A. LeBeau Former Director, Office of Indian Energy Policy

  14. New Perspective on a Corrosive Problem | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Perspective on a Corrosive Problem New Perspective on a Corrosive Problem March 28, 2014 - 2:44pm Addthis Most times, the effects of corrosion are studied with regard to the metal surface. In a new study, researchers looked at the effects that corrosion has on the water and dissolved ions doing the corroding. | Photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory. Most times, the effects of corrosion are studied with regard to the metal surface. In a new study, researchers looked at the effects that

  15. A VLSI structure for the deadlock avoidance problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertolazzi, P.; Bongiovanni, G.

    1985-11-01

    In this paper the authors present two VLSI structures implementing the banker's algorithm for the deadlock avoidance problem, and we derive the area x (time)/sup 2/ lower bound for such an algorithm. The first structure is based on the VLSI mesh of trees. The second structure is a modification of the first one, and it approaches more closely the theoretical lower bound.

  16. DYNA3D Material Model 71 - Solid Element Test Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zywicz, E

    2008-01-24

    A general phenomenological-based elasto-plastic nonlinear isotropic strain hardening material model was implemented in DYNA3D for use in solid, beam, truss, and shell elements. The constitutive model, Model 71, is based upon conventional J2 plasticity and affords optional temperature and rate dependence (visco-plasticity). The expressions for strain hardening, temperature dependence, and rate dependence allow it to represent a wide variety of material responses. Options to capture temperature changes due to adiabatic heating and thermal straining are incorporated into the constitutive framework as well. The verification problem developed for this constitutive model consists of four uni-axial right cylinders subject to constant true strain-rate boundary conditions. Three of the specimens have different constant strain rates imposed, while the fourth specimen is subjected to several strain rate jumps. The material parameters developed by Fehlmann (2005) for 21-6-9 Nitronic steel are utilized. As demonstrated below, the finite element (FE) simulations are in excellent agreement with the theoretical responses and indicated the model is functioning as desired. Consequently, this problem serves as both a verification problem and regression test problem for DYNA3D.

  17. Practical control strategy eliminates FCCU compressor surge problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campos, M.C.M.M.; Rodriques, P.S.B. )

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that the control system originally designed for the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) compressor at Petroleo Brasileiro SA's (Petrobras) Presidente Bernardes refinery, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, was inadequate. The system required almost permanent flow recirculation to prevent surge. An improved antisurge control strategy was implemented in mid-1990. Since then, the unit has operated without the former surge problems.

  18. Navier-Stokes Solvers and Generalizations for Reacting Flow Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elman, Howard C

    2013-01-27

    This is an overview of our accomplishments during the final term of this grant (1 September 2008 -- 30 June 2012). These fall mainly into three categories: fast algorithms for linear eigenvalue problems; solution algorithms and modeling methods for partial differential equations with uncertain coefficients; and preconditioning methods and solvers for models of computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  19. EPA Environmental Justice Collaborative Problem-Solving Cooperative Agreement RFP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a request for proposals for the Environmental Justice Collaborative Problem-Solving (EJCPS) Cooperative Agreement to support community-based organization to collaborate and partner with industry, government, academia, and other stakeholders to develop and implement solutions that address local environmental and public health issues.

  20. On the RA research reactor fuel management problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matausek, M.V.; Marinkovic, N.

    1997-12-01

    After 25 yr of operation, the Soviet-origin 6.5-MW heavy water RA research reactor was shut down in 1984. Basic facts about RA reactor operation, aging, reconstruction, and spent-fuel disposal have been presented and discussed in earlier papers. The following paragraphs present recent activities and results related to important fuel management problems.

  1. Development of an Immersed Boundary Method to Resolve Complex Terrain in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunquist, K A; Chow, F K; Lundquist, J K; Mirocha, J D

    2007-09-04

    Flow and dispersion processes in urban areas are profoundly influenced by the presence of buildings which divert mean flow, affect surface heating and cooling, and alter the structure of turbulence in the lower atmosphere. Accurate prediction of velocity, temperature, and turbulent kinetic energy fields are necessary for determining the transport and dispersion of scalars. Correct predictions of scalar concentrations are vital in densely populated urban areas where they are used to aid in emergency response planning for accidental or intentional releases of hazardous substances. Traditionally, urban flow simulations have been performed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes which can accommodate the geometric complexity inherent to urban landscapes. In these types of models the grid is aligned with the solid boundaries, and the boundary conditions are applied to the computational nodes coincident with the surface. If the CFD code uses a structured curvilinear mesh, then time-consuming manual manipulation is needed to ensure that the mesh conforms to the solid boundaries while minimizing skewness. If the CFD code uses an unstructured grid, then the solver cannot be optimized for the underlying data structure which takes an irregular form. Unstructured solvers are therefore often slower and more memory intensive than their structured counterparts. Additionally, urban-scale CFD models are often forced at lateral boundaries with idealized flow, neglecting dynamic forcing due to synoptic scale weather patterns. These CFD codes solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and include limited options for representing atmospheric processes such as surface fluxes and moisture. Traditional CFD codes therefore posses several drawbacks, due to the expense of either creating the grid or solving the resulting algebraic system of equations, and due to the idealized boundary conditions and the lack of full atmospheric physics. Meso-scale atmospheric boundary layer simulations, on the other hand, are performed by numerical weather prediction (NWP) codes, which cannot handle the geometry of the urban landscape, but do provide a more complete representation of atmospheric physics. NWP codes typically use structured grids with terrain-following vertical coordinates, include a full suite of atmospheric physics parameterizations, and allow for dynamic synoptic scale lateral forcing through grid nesting. Terrain following grids are unsuitable for urban terrain, as steep terrain gradients cause extreme distortion of the computational cells. In this work, we introduce and develop an immersed boundary method (IBM) to allow the favorable properties of a numerical weather prediction code to be combined with the ability to handle complex terrain. IBM uses a non-conforming structured grid, and allows solid boundaries to pass through the computational cells. As the terrain passes through the mesh in an arbitrary manner, the main goal of the IBM is to apply the boundary condition on the interior of the domain as accurately as possible. With the implementation of the IBM, numerical weather prediction codes can be used to explicitly resolve urban terrain. Heterogeneous urban domains using the IBM can be nested into larger mesoscale domains using a terrain-following coordinate. The larger mesoscale domain provides lateral boundary conditions to the urban domain with the correct forcing, allowing seamless integration between mesoscale and urban scale models. Further discussion of the scope of this project is given by Lundquist et al. [2007]. The current paper describes the implementation of an IBM into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is an open source numerical weather prediction code. The WRF model solves the non-hydrostatic compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and employs an isobaric terrain-following vertical coordinate. Many types of IB methods have been developed by researchers; a comprehensive review can be found in Mittal and Iaccarino [2005]. To the authors knowledge, this is the first IBM approach that is able to

  2. Complexity analysis of pipeline mapping problems in distributed heterogeneous networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Ying; Wu, Qishi; Zhu, Mengxia; Rao, Nageswara S

    2009-04-01

    Largescale scientific applications require using various system resources to execute complex computing pipelines in distributed networks to support collaborative research. System resources are typically shared in the Internet or over dedicated connections based on their location, availability, capability, and capacity. Optimizing the network performance of computing pipelines in such distributed environments is critical to the success of these applications. We consider two types of largescale distributed applications: (1) interactive applications where a single dataset is sequentially processed along a pipeline; and (2) streaming applications where a series of datasets continuously flow through a pipeline. The computing pipelines of these applications consist of a number of modules executed in a linear order in network environments with heterogeneous resources under different constraints. Our goal is to find an efficient mapping scheme that allocates the modules of a pipeline to network nodes for minimum endtoend delay or maximum frame rate. We formulate the pipeline mappings in distributed environments as optimization problems and categorize them into six classes with different optimization goals and mapping constraints: (1) Minimum Endtoend Delay with No Node Reuse (MEDNNR), (2) Minimum Endtoend Delay with Contiguous Node Reuse (MEDCNR), (3) Minimum Endtoend Delay with Arbitrary Node Reuse (MEDANR), (4) Maximum Frame Rate with No Node Reuse or Share (MFRNNRS), (5) Maximum Frame Rate with Contiguous Node Reuse and Share (MFRCNRS), and (6) Maximum Frame Rate with Arbitrary Node Reuse and Share (MFRANRS). Here, 'contiguous node reuse' means that multiple contiguous modules along the pipeline may run on the same node and 'arbitrary node reuse' imposes no restriction on node reuse. Note that in interactive applications, a node can be reused but its resource is not shared. We prove that MEDANR is polynomially solvable and the rest are NP-complete. MEDANR, where either contiguous or noncontiguous modules in the pipeline can be mapped onto the same node, is essentially the Maximum n-hop Shortest Path problem, and can be solved using a dynamic programming method. In MEDNNR and MFRNNRS, any network node can be used only once, which requires selecting the same number of nodes for onetoone onto mapping. We show its NP-completeness by reducing from the Hamiltonian Path problem. Node reuse is allowed in MEDCNR, MFRCNRS and MFRANRS, which are similar to the Maximum n-hop Shortest Path problem that considers resource sharing. We prove their NP-completeness by reducing from the Disjoint-Connecting-Path Problem and Widest path with the Linear Capacity Constraints problem, respectively.

  3. Genetic algorithms and their use in Geophysical Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Paul B.

    1999-04-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs), global optimization methods that mimic Darwinian evolution are well suited to the nonlinear inverse problems of geophysics. A standard genetic algorithm selects the best or ''fittest'' models from a ''population'' and then applies operators such as crossover and mutation in order to combine the most successful characteristics of each model and produce fitter models. More sophisticated operators have been developed, but the standard GA usually provides a robust and efficient search. Although the choice of parameter settings such as crossover and mutation rate may depend largely on the type of problem being solved, numerous results show that certain parameter settings produce optimal performance for a wide range of problems and difficulties. In particular, a low (about half of the inverse of the population size) mutation rate is crucial for optimal results, but the choice of crossover method and rate do not seem to affect performance appreciably. Optimal efficiency is usually achieved with smaller (< 50) populations. Lastly, tournament selection appears to be the best choice of selection methods due to its simplicity and its autoscaling properties. However, if a proportional selection method is used such as roulette wheel selection, fitness scaling is a necessity, and a high scaling factor (> 2.0) should be used for the best performance. Three case studies are presented in which genetic algorithms are used to invert for crustal parameters. The first is an inversion for basement depth at Yucca mountain using gravity data, the second an inversion for velocity structure in the crust of the south island of New Zealand using receiver functions derived from teleseismic events, and the third is a similar receiver function inversion for crustal velocities beneath the Mendocino Triple Junction region of Northern California. The inversions demonstrate that genetic algorithms are effective in solving problems with reasonably large numbers of free parameters and with computationally expensive objective function calculations. More sophisticated techniques are presented for special problems. Niching and island model algorithms are introduced as methods to find multiple, distinct solutions to the nonunique problems that are typically seen in geophysics. Finally, hybrid algorithms are investigated as a way to improve the efficiency of the standard genetic algorithm.

  4. Progress on PRONGHORN Application to NGNP Related Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana A. Knoll

    2009-08-01

    We are developing a multiphysics simulation tool for Very High-Temperature gascooled Reactors (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly in parallel. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated by the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to improve the convergence. The initial development of PRONGHORN has been focused on the pebble bed corec concept. However, extensions required to simulate prismatic cores are underway. In this progress report we highlight progress on application of PRONGHORN to PBMR400 benchmark problems, extension and application of PRONGHORN to prismatic core reactors, and progress on simulations of 3-D transients.

  5. MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE FABRICATION PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, C; Allen Smith, A

    2008-05-07

    The Model 9975 Shipping Package is the latest in a series (9965, 9968, etc.) of radioactive material shipping packages that have been the mainstay for shipping radioactive materials for several years. The double containment vessels are relatively simple designs using pipe and pipe cap in conjunction with the Chalfont closure to provide a leak-tight vessel. The fabrication appears simple in nature, but the history of fabrication tells us there are pitfalls in the different fabrication methods and sequences. This paper will review the problems that have arisen during fabrication and precautions that should be taken to meet specifications and tolerances. The problems and precautions can also be applied to the Models 9977 and 9978 Shipping Packages.

  6. Combined UHV/high-pressure catalysis setup for depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization and catalytic testing of model catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayr, Lukas; Kltzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon; Rameshan, Raffael; Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin ; Rameshan, Christoph; Institute of Materials Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/BC/01, 1060 Vienna

    2014-05-15

    An ultra-high vacuum (UHV) setup for real and inverse model catalyst preparation, depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization, and quantification of catalytic activity and selectivity under technologically relevant conditions is described. Due to the all-quartz reactor attached directly to the UHV-chamber, transfer of the catalyst for in situ testing without intermediate contact to the ambient is possible. The design of the UHV-compatible re-circulating batch reactor setup allows the study of reaction kinetics under close to technically relevant catalytic conditions up to 1273 K without contact to metallic surfaces except those of the catalyst itself. With the attached differentially pumped exchangeable evaporators and the quartz-microbalance thickness monitoring equipment, a reproducible, versatile, and standardised sample preparation is possible. For three-dimensional near-surface sample characterization, the system is equipped with a hemispherical analyser for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron-beam or X-ray-excited Auger-electron spectroscopy, and low-energy ion scattering measurements. Due the dedicated geometry of the X-ray gun (54.7, magic angle) and the rotatable sample holder, depth analysis by angle-resolved XPS measurements can be performed. Thus, by the combination of characterisation methods with different information depths, a detailed three-dimensional picture of the electronic and geometric structure of the model catalyst can be obtained. To demonstrate the capability of the described system, comparative results for depth-resolved sample characterization and catalytic testing in methanol steam reforming on PdGa and PdZn near-surface intermetallic phases are shown.

  7. Shell stability and conditions analyzed using a new method of extracting shell areal density maps from spectrally resolved images of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johns, H. M.; Mancini, R. C.; Nagayama, T.; Mayes, D. C.; Tommasini, R.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Regan, S. P.; Delettrez, J. A.

    2016-01-25

    In warm target direct-drive ICF implosion experiments performed at the OMEGA laser facility, plastic microballoons doped with a titanium tracer layer in the shell and filled with deuterium gas were imploded using a low-adiabat shaped laser pulse. Continuum radiation emitted in the core is transmitted through the tracer layer and the resulting spectrum recorded with a gated multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI). Titanium K-shell line absorption spectra observed in the data are due to transitions in L-shell titanium ions driven by the backlighting continuum. The MMI data consist of an array of spectrally resolved images of the implosion. These 2-D space-resolvedmore » titanium spectral features constrain the plasma conditions and areal density of the titanium doped region of the shell. The MMI data were processed to obtain narrow-band images and space resolved spectra of titanium spectral features. Shell areal density maps, ρL(x,y), extracted using a new method using both narrow-band images and space resolved spectra are confirmed to be consistent within uncertainties. We report plasma conditions in the titanium-doped region of electron temperature (Te) = 400±28eV, electron number density (Ne) = 8.5x1024±2.5x1024 cm-3, and average areal density <ρR> = 86±7mg/cm2. Fourier analysis of areal density maps reveals shell modulations caused by hydrodynamic instability growth near the fuel-shell interface in the deceleration phase. We observe significant structure in modes l = 2-9, dominated by l = 2. We extract a target breakup fraction of 7.1±1.5% from our Fourier analysis. A new method for estimating mix width is evaluated against existing literature and our target breakup fraction. We estimate a mix width of 10.5±1μm.« less

  8. Quality problems in waters used for drinking purposes in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funari, E.; Bastone, A.; Bottoni, P.; De Donno, D.; Donati, L. )

    1991-12-01

    With a grant from the Italian Ministry of the Environment, the National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita) promoted and coordinated some activities aimed at determining the extent and the intensity of contamination of waters used for human consumption by some chemical agents, and describing causes and modalities of contamination and human health implications. The chemical agents examined were herbicides, nitrates, trihalomethanes, asbestos, manganese and fluoride. In this paper a first nationwide picture of these problems is reported.

  9. A Lie algebraic approach to the Kondo problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajeev, S.G.

    2010-04-15

    The Kondo problem is approached using the unitary Lie algebra of spin-singlet fermion bilinears. In the limit when the number of values of the spin N goes to infinity the theory approaches a classical limit, which still requires a renormalization. We determine the ground state of this renormalized theory. Then we construct a quantum theory around this classical limit, which amounts to recovering the case of finite N.

  10. General Solution of the Kenamond HE Problem 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaul, Ann

    2015-12-15

    A general solution for programmed burn calculations of the light times produced by a singlepoint initiation of a single HE region surrounding an inert region has been developed. In contrast to the original solutions proposed in References 1 and 2, the detonator is no longer restricted to a location on a Cartesian axis and can be located at any point inside the HE region. This general solution has been implemented in the ExactPack suite of exact solvers for verification problems.

  11. Combined approach to the inverse protein folding problem. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruben A. Abagyan

    2000-06-01

    The main scientific contribution of the project ''Combined approach to the inverse protein folding problem'' submitted in 1996 and funded by the Department of Energy in 1997 is the formulation and development of the idea of the multilink recognition method for identification of functional and structural homologues of newly discovered genes. This idea became very popular after they first announced it and used it in prediction of the threading targets for the CASP2 competition (Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction).

  12. Reduced Order Modeling of the Forward Eigenvalue Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Forward Eigenvalue Problem Congjian Wang and Hany S. Abdel-Khalik Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 {cwang21,abdelkhalik}@ncsu.edu INTRODUCTION The construction of reduced order models for high fidelity models is now considered an important objective in support of all engineering activities which require repeated execution of the simulation. The reduced model must be computationally inexpensive to allow its repeated execution, and must

  13. Devising Efficient HDG Methods for Diffusion Problems | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility Devising Efficient HDG Methods for Diffusion Problems Event Sponsor: Mathematics and Computing Science Seminar Start Date: Jan 22 2016 - 10:30am Building/Room: Building 240/Room 1404-1405 Location: Argonne National Laboratory Speaker(s): Guosheng Fu Speaker(s) Title: University of Minnesota Host: Sven Leyffer We present an HDG formulation for a model Possion's equation on a polygonal/polyhedral mesh. We then discuss two approaches to devise HDG methods with optimal

  14. COLLOQUIUM: History, Applications, Numerical Values and Problems with the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calculation of EROI - Energy Return on (Energy) Investment | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab March 2, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: History, Applications, Numerical Values and Problems with the Calculation of EROI - Energy Return on (Energy) Investment Professor Charles Hall State University of NY College of Environmental Science and Forestry Plants and animals are subjected to fierce selective pressure to do the "right thing" energetically, that is to

  15. Tensile strengths of problem shales and clays. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechner, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The greatest single expense faced by oil companies involved in the exploration for crude oil is that of drilling wells. The most abundant rock drilled is shale. Some of these shales cause wellbore stability problems during the drilling process. These can range from slow rate of penetration and high torque up to stuck pipe and hole abandonment. The mechanical integrity of the shale must be known when the shalers are subjected to drilling fluids to develop an effective drilling plan.

  16. Strengthened MILP formulation for certain gas turbine unit commitment problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Kai; Guan, Yongpei; Watson, Jean -Paul; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-05-22

    In this study, we derive a strengthened MILP formulation for certain gas turbine unit commitment problems, in which the ramping rates are no smaller than the minimum generation amounts. This type of gas turbines can usually start-up faster and have a larger ramping rate, as compared to the traditional coal-fired power plants. Recently, the number of this type of gas turbines increases significantly due to affordable gas prices and their scheduling flexibilities to accommodate intermittent renewable energy generation. In this study, several new families of strong valid inequalities are developed to help reduce the computational time to solve these types of problems. Meanwhile, the validity and facet-defining proofs are provided for certain inequalities. Finally, numerical experiments on a modified IEEE 118-bus system and the power system data based on recent studies verify the effectiveness of applying our formulation to model and solve this type of gas turbine unit commitment problems, including reducing the computational time to obtain an optimal solution or obtaining a much smaller optimality gap, as compared to the default CPLEX, when the time limit is reached with no optimal solutions obtained.

  17. The coincidence problem and interacting holographic dark energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karwan, Khamphee

    2008-05-15

    We study the dynamical behaviour of the interacting holographic dark energy model whose interaction term is Q = 3H({lambda}{sub d}{rho}{sub d}+{lambda}{sub c}{rho}{sub c}), where {rho}{sub d} and {rho}{sub c} are the energy densities of dark energy and cold dark matter respectively. To satisfy the observational constraints from type Ia supernovae, the cosmic microwave background shift parameter and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, if {lambda}{sub c} = {lambda}{sub d} or {lambda}{sub d},{lambda}{sub c}>0, the cosmic evolution will only reach the attractor in the future and the ratio {rho}{sub c}/{rho}{sub d} cannot be slowly varying at present. Since the cosmic attractor can be reached in the future even when the present values of the cosmological parameters do not satisfy the observational constraints, the coincidence problem is not really alleviated in this case. However, if {lambda}{sub c}{ne}{lambda}{sub d} and they are allowed to be negative, the ratio {rho}{sub c}/{rho}{sub d} can be slowly varying at present and the cosmic attractor can be reached near the present epoch. Hence, the alleviation of the coincidence problem is attainable in this case. The alleviation of the coincidence problem in this case is still attainable when confronting this model with Sloan Digital Sky Survey data.

  18. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  19. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  20. Strengthened MILP formulation for certain gas turbine unit commitment problems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pan, Kai; Guan, Yongpei; Watson, Jean -Paul; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-05-22

    In this study, we derive a strengthened MILP formulation for certain gas turbine unit commitment problems, in which the ramping rates are no smaller than the minimum generation amounts. This type of gas turbines can usually start-up faster and have a larger ramping rate, as compared to the traditional coal-fired power plants. Recently, the number of this type of gas turbines increases significantly due to affordable gas prices and their scheduling flexibilities to accommodate intermittent renewable energy generation. In this study, several new families of strong valid inequalities are developed to help reduce the computational time to solve these typesmore » of problems. Meanwhile, the validity and facet-defining proofs are provided for certain inequalities. Finally, numerical experiments on a modified IEEE 118-bus system and the power system data based on recent studies verify the effectiveness of applying our formulation to model and solve this type of gas turbine unit commitment problems, including reducing the computational time to obtain an optimal solution or obtaining a much smaller optimality gap, as compared to the default CPLEX, when the time limit is reached with no optimal solutions obtained.« less