Three-Dimensional Laser Cooling
Okamato, H.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-Dimensional Laser Cooling H. Okamoto, A.M. Sessler,effective transverse laser cooling simultaneously withlongitudinal laser cooling, two possibilities are
High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmoreresolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.less
High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; Weierstall, Uwe; Beetz, Tobias; Jacobsen, Chris; Shapiro, David
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.
Three-dimensional grain boundary spectroscopy in transparent high power ceramic laser
Byer, Robert L.
Three-dimensional grain boundary spectroscopy in transparent high power ceramic laser materials across grain boundaries (GBs) in Nd3+ :YAG laser ceramics. It is clearly shown that Nd3+ segregation point the way to further improvements in what is already an impressive class of ceramic laser materials
Rapid three-dimensional manufacturing of microfluidic structures using a scanning laser system
Rapid three-dimensional manufacturing of microfluidic structures using a scanning laser system Biao-dimensional manufacturing approach to the rapid processing of microfluidic structures using a scanning laser system. The scanning laser manufacturing technique could be potentially applied to a wide range of materials,10
Optics & Laser Technology 40 (2008) 625631 Three-dimensional non-destructive optical evaluation
Chen, Zhongping
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. A pyrometer, an infrared radiation sensor, is used to monitor surface temperature variation in laser brazingOptics & Laser Technology 40 (2008) 625631 Three-dimensional non-destructive optical evaluation of laser-processing performance using optical coherence tomography Youngseop Kima , Eun Seo Choia
Three-dimensional whispering gallery modes in InGaAs nanoneedle lasers on silicon
Tran, T.-T. D.; Chen, R.; Ng, K. W.; Ko, W. S.; Lu, F.; Chang-Hasnain, C. J., E-mail: cch@berkeley.edu [Applied Science and Technology Group and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
As-grown InGaAs nanoneedle lasers, synthesized at complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible temperatures on polycrystalline and crystalline silicon substrates, were studied in photoluminescence experiments. Radiation patterns of three-dimensional whispering gallery modes were observed upon optically pumping the needles above the lasing threshold. Using the radiation patterns as well as finite-difference-time-domain simulations and polarization measurements, all modal numbers of the three-dimensional whispering gallery modes could be identified.
Three-Dimensional Momentum Imaging of Electron Wave Packet Interference in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses
Gopal, R.; Simeonidis, K.; Moshammer, R.; Ergler, Th.; Duerr, M.; Kurka, M.; Kuehnel, K.-U.; Tschuch, S.; Schroeter, C.-D.; Bauer, D.; Ullrich, J.; Rudenko, A.; Herrwerth, O.; Uphues, Th.; Schultze, M.; Goulielmakis, E.; Uiberacker, M.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck Advanced Study Group at CFEL, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
Using a reaction microscope, three-dimensional (3D) electron (and ion) momentum (P) spectra have been recorded for carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) stabilized few-cycle (approx5 fs), intense (approx4x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses (740 nm) impinging on He. Preferential emission of low-energy electrons (E{sub e}<15 eV) to either hemisphere is observed as a function of the CEP. Clear interference patterns emerge in P space at CEPs with maximum asymmetry, interpreted as attosecond interferences of rescattered and directly emitted electron wave packets by means of a simple model.
High-resolution ab initio Three-dimensional X-ray Diffraction Microscopy
Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Cui, C; Howells, M R; Rosen, R; He, H; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Shapiro, D
2005-08-19T23:59:59.000Z
Coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging non-periodic isolated objects at resolutions only limited, in principle, by the largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate X-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the 3D diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a non-periodic object. We also construct 2D images of thick objects with infinite depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution using X-ray undulator radiation, and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at X-ray free-electron laser sources.
Reconstructing Three-dimensional Helical Structure With an X-Ray Free Electron Laser
M. Uddin
2015-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
Recovery of three-dimensional structure from single particle X-ray scattering of completely randomly oriented diffraction patterns as predicted few decades back has been real due to advent of the new emerging X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) technology. As the world's first XFEL is in operation starting from June 2009 at SLAC National Lab at Stanford, the very first few experiments being conducted on larger objects such as viruses. Many of the important structures of nature such as helical viruses or deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) consist of helical repetition of biological subunits. Hence development of method for reconstructing helical structure from collected XFEL data has been a top priority research. In this work we have developed a method for solving helical structure such as TMV from a set of randomly oriented simulated diffraction patterns exploiting symmetry and Fourier space constraint of the diffraction volume.
High-resolution three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae in multiple progenitors
Couch, Sean M. [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); O'Connor, Evan P., E-mail: smc@flash.uchicago.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)
2014-04-20T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional (3D) simulations of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are granting new insight into the as-yet-uncertain mechanism that drives successful explosions. While there is still debate about whether explosions are obtained more easily in 3D than in 2D, it is undeniable that there exist qualitative and quantitative differences between the results of 3D and 2D simulations. We present an extensive set of high-resolution 1D, 2D, and 3D CCSN simulations with multispecies neutrino leakage carried out in two different progenitors. Our simulations confirm the results of Couch indicating that 2D explodes more readily than 3D. We argue that this is due to the inadequacies of 2D to accurately capture important aspects of the 3D dynamics. We find that without artificially enhancing the neutrino heating rate, we do not obtain explosions in 3D. We examine the development of neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and find that, in separate regimes, either instability can dominate. We find evidence for growth of the SASI for both 15 M {sub ?} and 27 M {sub ?} progenitors; however, it is weaker in 3D exploding models. The growth rate of both instabilities is artificially enhanced along the symmetry axis in 2D as compared with our axis-free 3D Cartesian simulations. Our work highlights the growing consensus that CCSNe must be studied in 3D if we hope to solve the mystery of how the explosions are powered.
Three-dimensional folding of pre-strained polymer sheets via absorption of laser light
Liu, Ying; Genzer, Jan, E-mail: mjescuti@ncsu.edu, E-mail: mddickey@ncsu.edu, E-mail: jan-genzer@ncsu.edu; Dickey, Michael D., E-mail: mjescuti@ncsu.edu, E-mail: mddickey@ncsu.edu, E-mail: jan-genzer@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Miskiewicz, Matthew; Escuti, Michael J., E-mail: mjescuti@ncsu.edu, E-mail: mddickey@ncsu.edu, E-mail: jan-genzer@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2410 Campus Shore Drive, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)
2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
Patterned light from a laser can induce rapid self-folding of pre-strained polymer sheets. Black ink coated on the sheet absorbs the light, which converts the photon energy into thermal energy that heats the sheet locally; the temperature of the sheet is highest at the surface where the light impinges on the sheet and decreases through the sheet thickness. The gradient of temperature induces a gradient of strain relaxation through the depth of the sheet, which causes folding within seconds of irradiation. The pattern of laser light that irradiates the compositionally homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) substrate dictates the resulting three-dimensional (3D) shape. Unlike most approaches to self-folding, the methodology described here requires no patterning of pre-defined hinges. It opens up the possibility of using a patterning technique that is inherently 2D to form 3D shapes. The use of lasers also enables systematic control of key process parameters such as power, intensity, and the pattern of light (i.e., beam width and shape). The rate of folding and folding angle measured with respect to these parameters provide an indirect quantification of heat loss in the sample and thereby identify the threshold power and power intensity that must be delivered to the hinge for folding to occur.
Yao, Y. Lawrence
Proceedings of the Second International WLT-Conference on Lasers in Manufacturing 2003,Munich, June 2003 1 Process Design Of Laser Forming For Three Dimensional Thin Plates J. G. Cheng1 and Y. L. Yao2 1 Engineering, Columbia University Abstract Extensive efforts have been made in analyzing and predicting laser
Chen, Yu
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology that enables high-resolution, noninvasive, cross-sectional imaging of microstructure in biological tissues in situ and in real time. When combined ...
Peterson, J. L., E-mail: peterson76@llnl.gov; Michel, P.; Thomas, C. A.; Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Achieving symmetric hohlraum radiation drive is an important aspect of indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments. However, when experimentally delivered laser powers deviate from ideal conditions, the resultant radiation field can become asymmetric. Two situations in which this may arise are random uncorrelated fluctuations, in as-delivered laser power and laser beams that do not participate in the implosion (either intentionally or unintentionally). Furthermore, laser plasma interactions in the hohlraum obfuscate the connection between laser powers and radiation drive. To study the effect of these situations on drive symmetry, we develop a simplified model for crossed-beam energy transfer, laser backscatter, and plasma absorption that can be used in conjunction with view factor calculations to expediently translate laser powers into three-dimensional capsule flux symmetries. We find that crossed-beam energy transfer can alter both the statistical properties of uncorrelated laser fluctuations and the impact of missing laser beams on radiation symmetry. A method is proposed to mitigate the effects of missing laser beams.
Three-Dimensional Model on Thermal Response of Skin Subject to Laser Heating
Zhang, Jun
in human skin [3]. The #12;rst medical lasers were continuous beam lasers such as CO 2 laser, argon laser and Jun Zhang z Laboratory for High Performance Scienti#12;c Computing and Computer Simulation, Department to investigate the transient thermal response of human skin subject to laser heating. The temperature
Hamann, Bernd
JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: OCEANS, VOL. 118, 17591 , doi:10.1002/jgrc.20155, 2013 A three-dimensional eddy census of a high-resolution global ocean simulation Mark R. Petersen,1 Sean J. Williams,1,2 Mathew from a global ocean simulation with one-tenth degree resolution and a duration of 7 years. The census
Three-dimensional theory of Smith-Purcell free-electron laser with dielectric loaded grating
Cao, Miaomiao, E-mail: mona486@yeah.net; Li, Ke, E-mail: like3714@163.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Electronic Science and Technology, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Wenxin, E-mail: lwenxin@mail.ie.ac.cn; Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong3845@sina.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z
A dielectric loaded rectangular grating for Smith-Purcell devices is proposed in this paper. Regarding the electron beam as a moving plasma dielectric, a three dimensional (3D) linear theory of beam-wave interaction is developed. The first and second order growth rates are calculated, which are obtained by expanding hot dispersion equation at synchronous point. The results show that the cutoff frequency is affected by grating width. The dispersion curve becomes flatter and shifts towards lower frequency by loading dielectric in grooves. The simulation results, which are obtained by a 3D particle-in-cell code, are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Compared the first and second order growth rate, it shows that the discrepancy is large when beam parameters are selected with high values. In this case, it is necessary to apply the second order growth rate, which can accurately describe the process of beam-wave interaction.
Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter
2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).
Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter
2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).
Vertes, Akos (Reston, VA); Nemes, Peter (Silver Spring, MD)
2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).
Ramis, R., E-mail: rafael.ramis@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Aeronuticos, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, P. Cardenal Cisneros 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Temporal, M. [Centre de Mathmatiques et de Leurs Applications, ENS Cachan and CNRS, 61 Av. du President Wilson, F-94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Canaud, B.; Brandon, V. [CEA, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)
2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The symmetry of a Direct-Drive (DD) irradiation scheme has been analyzed by means of three-dimensional (3D) simulations carried out by the code MULTI (R. Ramis et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 475 (1988)) that includes hydrodynamics, heat transport, and 3D laser ray-tracing. The implosion phase of a target irradiated by the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility in the context of the Shock Ignition scheme has been considered. The LMJ facility has been designed for Indirect-Drive, and by this reason that the irradiation scheme must be modified when used for DD. Thus, to improve the implosion uniformity to acceptable levels, the beam centerlines should be realigned and the beam power balance should be adjusted. Several alternatives with different levels of complexity are presented and discussed.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
I: data acquisition pipeline The electronic version of thiswe describe an integrated pipeline of methods for studyingA three-dimensional analysis pipeline To be able to analyze
van Vliet, Lucas J.
the meander belt in the up- and downstream direction. High-resolution three-dimensional seismic (3D HRS) data caused by post-depositional processes. A method called GeoTime cube is presented that over- comes study of a fluvio-estuarine reservoir from Suriname demonstrates how fluvial point bars, channel fills
Bryan, W A; Newell, W R; Sanderson, J H
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The two- and three-body Coulomb explosion of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) by 790 nm, 50 fs laser pulses focussed to $\\approx $ 10$^{16}$ Wcm$^{-2}$ has been investigated by three-dimensional covariance mapping technique. For the first time in a triatomic molecule, a single charge state, in this case the trication, has been observed to dissociate into two distinct energy channels. With the aid of a three dimensional visualization technique to reveal the ionization hierarchy, evidence is presented for the existence of two sets of ionization pathways resulting from these two initial states. While one group of ions can be modeled using a Classical enhanced ionization model, the second group, consisting of mainly asymmetric channels, can not. The results provide clear evidence that an enhanced ionization approach must also be accompanied by an appreciation of the effects of excited ionic states and multi-electronic processes.
W. A. Bryan; W. R. Newell; J. H. Sanderson; A. J. Langley
2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
The two- and three-body Coulomb explosion of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) by 790 nm, 50 fs laser pulses focussed to $\\approx $ 10$^{16}$ Wcm$^{-2}$ has been investigated by three-dimensional covariance mapping technique. For the first time in a triatomic molecule, a single charge state, in this case the trication, has been observed to dissociate into two distinct energy channels. With the aid of a three dimensional visualization technique to reveal the ionization hierarchy, evidence is presented for the existence of two sets of ionization pathways resulting from these two initial states. While one group of ions can be modeled using a Classical enhanced ionization model, the second group, consisting of mainly asymmetric channels, can not. The results provide clear evidence that an enhanced ionization approach must also be accompanied by an appreciation of the effects of excited ionic states and multi-electronic processes.
Bryan, W. A.; Newell, W. R.; Sanderson, J. H.; Langley, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)
2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The two- and three-body Coulomb explosion of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) by 790 nm, 50 fs laser pulses focused to {approx_equal}10{sup 16} W cm{sup -2} has been investigated by the three-dimensional covariance mapping technique. In a triatomic molecule, a single charge state, in this case the trication, has been observed to dissociate into two distinct energy channels. With the aid of a three-dimensional visualization technique to reveal the ionization hierarchy, evidence is presented for the existence of two sets of ionization pathways resulting from these two initial states. While one group of ions can be modeled using a classical enhanced ionization model, the second group, consisting of mainly asymmetric channels, cannot. The results provide clear evidence that an enhanced ionization approach must also be accompanied by an appreciation of the effects of excited ionic states and multielectronic processes.
Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.; Tucek, J.; Sumant, A.; Jayatissa, A.; Moldovan, N.; Mancini, D. C.; Gardos, M. N.
2000-01-17T23:59:59.000Z
Silicon is currently the most commonly used material for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, silicon-based MEMS will not be suitable for long-endurance devices involving components rotating at high speed, where friction and wear need to be minimized, components such as 2-D cantilevers that may be subjected to very large flexural displacements, where stiction is a problem, or components that will be exposed to corrosive environments. The mechanical, thermal, chemical, and tribological properties of diamond make it an ideal material for the fabrication of long-endurance MEMS components. Cost-effective fabrication of these components could in principle be achieved by coating Si with diamond films and using conventional lithographic patterning methods in conjunction with e. g. sacrificial Ti or SiO{sub 2} layers. However, diamond coatings grown by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods exhibit a coarse-grained structure that prevents high-resolution patterning, or a fine-grained microstructure with a significant amount of intergranular non-diamond carbon. The authors demonstrate here the fabrication of 2-D and 3-D phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) MEMS components by coating Si with UNCD films, coupled with lithographic patterning methods involving sacrificial release layers. UNCD films are grown by microwave plasma CVD using C{sub 60}-Ar or CH{sub 4}-Ar gas mixtures, which result in films that have 3--5 nm grain size, are 10--20 times smoother than conventionally grown diamond films, are extremely resistant to corrosive environments, and are predicted to have a brittle fracture strength similar to that of single crystal diamond.
Mori, Warren, B.
2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present results from the grant entitled, ???¢????????Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions.???¢??????? The research significantly advanced the understanding of basic high-energy density science (HEDS) on ultra intense laser and particle beam plasma interactions. This advancement in understanding was then used to to aid in the quest to make 1 GeV to 500 GeV plasma based accelerator stages. The work blended basic research with three-dimensions fully nonlinear and fully kinetic simulations including full-scale modeling of ongoing or planned experiments. The primary tool was three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations provided a test bed for theoretical ideas and models as well as a method to guide experiments. The research also included careful benchmarking of codes against experiment. High-fidelity full-scale modeling provided a means to extrapolate parameters into regimes that were not accessible to current or near term experiments, thereby allowing concepts to be tested with confidence before tens to hundreds of millions of dollars were spent building facilities. The research allowed the development of a hierarchy of PIC codes and diagnostics that is one of the most advanced in the world.
Three-dimensional photovoltaics
Myers, Bryan
The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint ...
Timofeev, V. I.; Smirnova, E. A., E-mail: inna@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Chupova, L. A.; Esipov, R. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kuranova, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)
2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Recombinant phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPAT Mt), which was produced by a high-producing strain and purified to 99%, was used for the crystal growth of the complex of the enzyme with coenzyme A (CoA). Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction study were obtained by cocrystallization. The crystals belong to sp. gr. R32 and have the unit-cell parameters a = b = 98.840 A, c = 112.880 A, {alpha} = {beta} = 90.00{sup o}, and {gamma} = 120.00{sup o}. The three-dimensional structure of the complex was determined based on X-ray diffraction data collected from the crystals to 2.1 A resolution and refined to Rf = 22.7% and Rfree = 25.93%. Active-site bound coenzyme A was found, and its nearest environment was described. The conformational changes of the enzyme due to ligand binding were revealed. The binding of CoA by tuberculosis phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase was characterized by comparing the structures of the title complex to a similar complex of PPAT from E. coli (PPAT Ec).
Three-dimensional metamaterials
Burckel, David Bruce (Albuquerque, NM)
2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z
A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.
California at Davis, University of
of a high-resolution1 global ocean simulation2 Mark R. Petersen, 1 Sean J. Williams, 1,2 Mathew E. Maltrud census data set was obtained from3 a global ocean simulation with one-tenth degree resolution are at least 1000m tall, and many penetrate the14 full depth of the water column. The Antarctic Circumpolar
Three-Dimensional Characterization of
Rohrer, Gregory S.
Three-Dimensional Characterization of Microstructure by Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction Anthony D scanning, statistical reconstruction, microscopy, texture, EBSD Abstract The characterization;MOTIVATION We review briefly the motivation for the characterization of materials in three dimen- sions. Most
Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichart, Anke (Albany, CA)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Vargas, M.; Schumaker, W.; He, Z.-H.; Zhao, Z.; Behm, K.; Chvykov, V.; Hou, B.; Krushelnick, K.; Maksimchuk, A.; Yanovsky, V.; Thomas, A. G. R., E-mail: agrt@umich.edu [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
High intensity, short pulse lasers can be used to accelerate electrons to ultra-relativistic energies via laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) [T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1979)]. Recently, it was shown that separating the injection and acceleration processes into two distinct stages could prove beneficial in obtaining stable, high energy electron beams [Gonsalves et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 862 (2011); Liu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 035001 (2011); Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045001 (2011)]. Here, we use a stereolithography based 3D printer to produce two-stage gas targets for LWFA experiments on the HERCULES laser system at the University of Michigan. We demonstrate substantial improvements to the divergence, pointing stability, and energy spread of a laser wakefield accelerated electron beam compared with a single-stage gas cell or gas jet target.
Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography
Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J. [327 Votey Building, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States); 1011 Richardson Building, Photon Migration Laboratories, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); 327 Votey Building, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States)
2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores.
Parallel finite element algorithm for three dimensional ...
methods for electromagnetic induction. INTRODUCTION. N umerical modelling of three dimensional conductivity structures in the earth has experienced a rapid...
Zhang, Shi-Chang [Research Center for Advanced Computation, Xihua University, Chengdu SC610039, China and Institute of Photoelectronics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu SC610031 (China)] [Research Center for Advanced Computation, Xihua University, Chengdu SC610039, China and Institute of Photoelectronics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu SC610031 (China)
2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Analytical formulas of the Larmor rotation are derived in detail for the equilibrium electrons motion in a free-electron laser with combination of a three-dimensional (3-D) helical wiggler and a positive or a reversed guide magnetic field. Generally, the Larmor radius in the configuration of a reversed guide field is much smaller than that in a positive guide field. At non-resonance, a helical orbit governed by the zero-order component of a 3-D wiggler field could hold; meanwhile, the higher-harmonic effect definitely influences those electrons with off-axis guiding centers and induces the electron-beam spreads. At resonance, the Larmor radius in the configuration of a positive guide field has a singularity with a limit tending to infinite, which causes all the electrons to hit the waveguide wall before the exit of the wiggler. Although Larmor-radius singularity does not exist in the configuration of a reversed guide field, at anti-resonance, the first-order harmonic of a 3-D wiggler field induces a transverse displacement which rapidly grows in proportion to a square of time, and leads part of the electron beam to hit the waveguide wall before reaching the wiggler exit, which depends on the specific parameters of the individual electrons. The analytical conclusions derived in the present paper are examined by the nonlinear simulations and the experimental observation. Disagreement with the previous literatures is discussed in detail.
Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope
Anderson, R. Rox (Lexington, MA); Webb, Robert H. (Lincoln, MA); Rajadhyaksha, Milind (Charlestown, MA)
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.
Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Acoustical Holography
Niu, Yaying
2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an acoustic field visualization technique that can be used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3-D) acoustic fields by projecting two-dimensional (2-D) data measured on a hologram surface. However, linear NAH...
Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in...
Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichert, Anke (Albany, CA)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Towards Three-Dimensional Bethe Ansatz
M. Bellon; S. Boukraa; J-M. Maillard; C-M. Viallet
1993-05-05T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce a ``pre-Bethe-Ansatz'' system of equations for three dimensional vertex models. We bring to the light various algebraic curves of high genus and discuss some situations where these curves simplify. As a result we describe remarkable subvarieties of the space of parameters.
Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells
Kaschmitter, J.L.
1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.
Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells
Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/.mu.c-Si) solar cells which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell.
Real time three dimensional sensing system
Gordon, S.J.
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.
Real time three dimensional sensing system
Gordon, Steven J. (Boston, MA)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.
Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers
Worstell, W.A.
1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z
A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions. 11 figs.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA); York, Jeremy (Bothell, WA)
2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-Dimensional Dispaly Of Document Set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA)
2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA)
2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may e transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA) [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wise, James A. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA
2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Ritchie, Robert
Characterizing Three-Dimensional Textile Ceramic Composites Using Synchrotron X-Ray Micro-Computed-Tomography captured by X-ray micron-resolution com- puted tomography (lCT) on a synchrotron beamline. Com- pared-resolution com- puted micro-tomography (lCT) images captured on a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline. The composites
Two component-three dimensional catalysis
Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This invention relates to catalytic reactor membranes having a gas-impermeable membrane for transport of oxygen anions. The membrane has an oxidation surface and a reduction surface. The membrane is coated on its oxidation surface with an adherent catalyst layer and is optionally coated on its reduction surface with a catalyst that promotes reduction of an oxygen-containing species (e.g., O.sub.2, NO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, etc.) to generate oxygen anions on the membrane. The reactor has an oxidation zone and a reduction zone separated by the membrane. A component of an oxygen containing gas in the reduction zone is reduced at the membrane and a reduced species in a reactant gas in the oxidation zone of the reactor is oxidized. The reactor optionally contains a three-dimensional catalyst in the oxidation zone. The adherent catalyst layer and the three-dimensional catalyst are selected to promote a desired oxidation reaction, particularly a partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon.
Experimental and theoretical investigation of three-dimensional...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
theoretical investigation of three-dimensional nitrogen-doped aluminum clusters AI8N- and AI8N. Experimental and theoretical investigation of three-dimensional nitrogen-doped...
Molecular Cell The Three-Dimensional Architecture of a Bacterial
Church, George M.
Molecular Cell Article The Three-Dimensional Architecture of a Bacterial Genome and Its Alteration have determined the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the Caulobacter crescentus genome segregation. INTRODUCTION The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the genome both reflects and regulates
Three dimensional characterization and archiving system
Clark, R.; Gallman, P.; Gaudreault, J.; Mosehauer, R.; Slotwinski, A.; Jarvis, G.; Griffiths, P.
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
This system (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. It is in the final phase of a 3-phase program to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and radioactive and organic contamination is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of dangerous inorganic materials such as asbestos and transite. 3D-ICAS robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected, using coherent laser radar tracking, which also provides 3D facility maps. High-speed automated organic analysis is provided by means of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer sensor which can process a sample without contact in one minute. Volatile organics are extracted directly from contaminated surfaces without sample removal; multiple stage focusing is used for high time resolution. Additional discrimination is obtained through a final stage time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The radionuclide sensors combines {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} counting with energy discrimination of the {alpha} channel; this quantifies isotopes of U, Pu, Th, Tc, Np, and Am in one minute. The Molecular Vibrational Spectrometry sensor is used to characterize substrate material such as concrete, transite, wood, or asbestos; this can be used to provide estimates of the depth of contamination. The 3D-ICAS will be available for real-time monitoring immediately after each 1 to 2 minute sample period. After surface mapping, 3-D displays will be provided showing contours of detected contaminant concentrations. Permanent measurement and contaminant level archiving will be provided, assuring data integrity and allowing regulatory review before and after D&D operations.
Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues
Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)] [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)
2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.
Numerical analysis of BoseEinstein condensation in a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential
Ligare, Martin
Numerical analysis of BoseEinstein condensation in a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator 24 March 1997; accepted 12 May 1997 BoseEinstein condensation is the anomalous accumulation the conditions of the recent experiments achieving BoseEinstein condensation in laser-cooled alkali vapors
The three-dimensional morphology of growing dendrites
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Gibbs, J. W.; Mohan, K. A.; Gulsoy, E. B.; Shahani, A. J.; Xiao, X.; Bouman, C. A.; De Graef, M.; Voorhees, P. W.
2015-07-03T23:59:59.000Z
The processes controlling the morphology of dendrites have been of great interest to a wide range of communities, since they are examples of an out-of-equilibrium pattern forming system, there is a clear connection with battery failure processes, and their morphology sets the properties of many metallic alloys. We determine the three-dimensional morphology of free growing metallic dendrites using a novel X-ray tomographic technique that improves the temporal resolution by more than an order of magnitude compared to conventional techniques. These measurements show that the growth morphology of metallic dendrites is surprisingly different from that seen in model systems, the morphologymoreis not self-similar with distance back from the tip, and that this morphology can have an unexpectedly strong influence on solute segregation in castings. These experiments also provide benchmark data that can be used to validate simulations of free dendritic growth.less
High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Mapping of Semiconductor Dopant
Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
,2 The electrical properties of nanoscale semiconductor structures are strongly dependent on the presence of interfaces and surfaces. Near such features, the electrical properties of the semiconductor may deviate substantially from its bulk properties. Many semiconductor characterization techniques, for example, scanning
High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of
Cai, Long
absorption and scattering within the sample are suppressed. Here we report the ability of SPIM to acquire deconvolution of data acquired along multiple directions. Deconvolution algorithms use a priori knowledge
Three-dimensional charge coupled device
Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.
Isotropic three-dimensional MRI-Fricke-infused gel dosimetry
Cho, Nai-Yu; Chu, Woei-Chyn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Huang, Sung-Cheng [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chung, Wen-Yuh [Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Guo, Wan-Yuo [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China)
2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Fricke-infused gel has been shown to be a simple and attainable method for the conformal measurement of absorbed radiation dose. Nevertheless, its accuracy is seriously hindered by the irreversible ferric ion diffusion during magnetic resonance imaging, particularly when three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement in radiosurgery is considered. In this study, the authors developed a fast three-dimensional spin-echo based Fricke gel dosimetry technique to reduce the adverse effects of ferric ion diffusion and to obtain an accurate isotropic 3D dose measurement. Methods: A skull shaped phantom containing Fricke-infused gel was irradiated using Leksell Gamma Knife. The rapid image-based dosimetry technique was applied with the use of a 3D fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence. The authors mathematically derived and experimentally validated the correlations between dose-response characteristics and parameters of the 3D fast spin-echo MR imaging sequence. Absorbed dose profiles were assessed and compared to the calculated profiles given by the Gamma Knife treatment planning system. Coefficient of variance (CV%) and coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) were used to evaluate the precision of dose-response curve estimation. The agreement between the measured and the planned 3D dose distributions was quantified by gamma-index analysis of two acceptance criteria. Results: Proper magnetic resonance imaging parameters were explored to render an accurate three-dimensional absorbed dose mapping with a 1 mm{sup 3} isotropic image resolution. The efficacy of the dose-response estimation was approved by an R{sup 2} > 0.99 and an average CV% of 1.6%. Average gamma pass-rate between the experimentally measured and GammaPlan calculated dose distributions were 83.8% and 99.7% for 2%/2 and 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. Conclusions: With the designed MR imaging sequence and parameters, total 3D MR acquisition time was confined to within 20 min postirradiation, during which time ferric ion diffusion effects were negligible, thus enabling an accurate 3D radiation dose measurement.
Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts...
Superconducting properties in tantalum decorated three-dimensional...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Journal Article: Superconducting properties in tantalum decorated three-dimensional graphene and carbon structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Superconducting...
Optically Fabricated Three Dimensional Nanofluidic Mixers for Microfluidic
Rogers, John A.
Optically Fabricated Three Dimensional Nanofluidic Mixers for Microfluidic Devices Seokwoo Jeon in which large numbers (>2000) of lithographically defined 3D nanofluidic pathways (50-300 nm wide
Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast...
Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control...
Modeling Mitral Valve Leaflets from Three-Dimensional Ultrasound
Modeling Mitral Valve Leaflets from Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Robert J. Schneider1 , William C for mechani- cal models predicting valve closure. Current methods for leaflet modeling from ultrasound either. The presented method for modeling the mitral leaflets from three-dimensional ultrasound of an open mitral valve
Synthetic Spectrum Methods for Three-Dimensional Supernova Models
R. C. Thomas
2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
Current observations stimulate the production of fully three-dimensional explosion models, which in turn motivates three-dimensional spectrum synthesis for supernova atmospheres. We briefly discuss techniques adapted to address the latter problem, and consider some fundamentals of line formation in supernovae without recourse to spherical symmetry. Direct and detailed extensions of the technique are discussed, and future work is outlined.
Parallel phase-sensitive three-dimensional imaging camera
Smithpeter, Colin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoover, Eddie R. (Sandia Park, NM); Pain, Bedabrata (Los Angeles, CA); Hancock, Bruce R. (Altadena, CA); Nellums, Robert O. (Albuquerque, NM)
2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z
An apparatus is disclosed for generating a three-dimensional (3-D) image of a scene illuminated by a pulsed light source (e.g. a laser or light-emitting diode). The apparatus, referred to as a phase-sensitive 3-D imaging camera utilizes a two-dimensional (2-D) array of photodetectors to receive light that is reflected or scattered from the scene and processes an electrical output signal from each photodetector in the 2-D array in parallel using multiple modulators, each having inputs of the photodetector output signal and a reference signal, with the reference signal provided to each modulator having a different phase delay. The output from each modulator is provided to a computational unit which can be used to generate intensity and range information for use in generating a 3-D image of the scene. The 3-D camera is capable of generating a 3-D image using a single pulse of light, or alternately can be used to generate subsequent 3-D images with each additional pulse of light.
Three dimensional, multi-chip module
Bernhardt, A.F.; Petersen, R.W.
1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow dummy chips'' are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned on the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.
Three dimensional, multi-chip module
Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Petersen, Robert W. (Pleasanton, CA)
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow "dummy chips" are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned o the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.
Convection Heat Transfer in Three-Dimensional Turbulent Separated/Reattached Flow
Bassem F. Armaly
2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
The measurements and the simulation of convective heat transfer in separated flow have been a challenge to researchers for many years. Measurements have been limited to two-dimensional flow and simulations failed to predict accurately turbulent heat transfer in the separated and reattached flow region (prediction are higher than measurements by more than 50%). A coordinated experimental and numerical effort has been initiated under this grant for examining the momentum and thermal transport in three-dimensional separated and reattached flow in an effort to provide new measurements that can be used for benchmarking and for improving the simulation capabilities of 3-D convection in separated/reattached flow regime. High-resolution and non-invasive measurements techniques are developed and employed in this study to quantify the magnitude and the behavior of the three velocity components and the resulting convective heat transfer. In addition, simulation capabilities are developed and employed for improving the simulation of 3-D convective separated/reattached flow. Such basic measurements and simulation capabilities are needed for improving the design and performance evaluation of complex (3-D) heat exchanging equipment. Three-dimensional (3-D) convective air flow adjacent to backward-facing step in rectangular channel is selected for the experimental component of this study. This geometry is simple but it exhibits all the complexities that appear in any other separated/reattached flow, thus making the results generated in this study applicable to any other separated and reattached flow. Boundary conditions, inflow, outflow, and wall thermal treatment in this geometry can be well measured and controlled. The geometry can be constructed with optical access for non-intrusive measurements of the flow and thermal fields. A three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) is employed to measure simultaneously the three-velocity components and their turbulent fluctuations. Infrared thermography is utilized to measure the wall temperature and that information is used to determine the local convective heat transfer coefficient. FLUENT CFD code is used as the platform in the simulation effort and User Defined Functions are developed for incorporating advanced turbulence models into this simulation code. Predictions of 3-D turbulent convection in separated flow, using the developed simulation capabilities under this grant, compared well with measured results. Results from the above research can be found in the seventeen refereed journal articles, and thirteen refereed publications and presentations in conference proceedings that have been published by the PI during the this grant period. The research effort is still going on and several publications are being prepared for reporting recent results.
Three-dimensional laser micromachining and imaging of biocompatible polymers
Oldenburg, Amy
lamination [3], and 3D printing [4]. All of these methods, with the exception of melt molding, require
Progress in Three-Dimensional Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging
Marchesini, S; Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Howells, M R; Cui, C; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Noy, A; Hau-Riege, S P; Kinney, J M; Shapiro, D; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Lima, E; Minor, A M; He, H
2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
The Fourier inversion of phased coherent diffraction patterns offers images without the resolution and depth-of-focus limitations of lens-based tomographic systems. We report on our recent experimental images inverted using recent developments in phase retrieval algorithms, and summarize efforts that led to these accomplishments. These include ab-initio reconstruction of a two-dimensional test pattern, infinite depth of focus image of a thick object, and its high-resolution ({approx}10 nm resolution) three-dimensional image. Developments on the structural imaging of low density aerogel samples are discussed.
Three Dimensional Molecular Imaging for Lignocellulosic Materials
Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.
2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z
The development of high efficiency, inexpensive processing protocols to render biomass components into fermentable substrates for the sequential processing of cell wall components into fuels and important feedstocks for the biorefinery of the future is a key goal of the national roadmap for renewable energy. Furthermore, the development of such protocols depends critically on detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal infiltration of reagents designed to remove and separate the phenylpropenoid heteropolymer (lignin) from the processable sugar components sequestered in the rigid cell walls of plants. A detailed chemical and structural understanding of this pre-enzymatic processing in space and time was the focus of this program. We worked to develop new imaging strategies that produce real-time molecular speciation information in situ; extract sub-surface information about the effects of processing; and follow the spatial and temporal characteristics of the molecular species in the matrix and correlate this complex profile with saccharification. Spatially correlated SIMS and Raman imaging were used to provide high quality, high resolution subcellular images of Miscanthus cross sections. Furthermore, the combination of information from the mass spectrometry and Raman scattering allows specific chemical assignments of observed structures, difficult to assign from either imaging approach alone and lays the foundation for subsequent heterocorrelated imaging experiments targeted at more challenging biological systems, such as the interacting plant-microbe systems relevant to the rhizosphere.
Coupled models and parallel simulations for three-dimensional full-Stokes ice sheet modeling
Zhang, Huai [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Ju, Lili [University of South Carolina; Gunzburger, Max [Florida State University; Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Price, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional full-Stokes computational model is considered for determining the dynamics, temperature, and thickness of ice sheets. The governing thermomechanical equations consist of the three-dimensional full-Stokes system with nonlinear rheology for the momentum, an advective-diffusion energy equation for temperature evolution, and a mass conservation equation for icethickness changes. Here, we discuss the variable resolution meshes, the finite element discretizations, and the parallel algorithms employed by the model components. The solvers are integrated through a well-designed coupler for the exchange of parametric data between components. The discretization utilizes high-quality, variable-resolution centroidal Voronoi Delaunay triangulation meshing and existing parallel solvers. We demonstrate the gridding technology, discretization schemes, and the efficiency and scalability of the parallel solvers through computational experiments using both simplified geometries arising from benchmark test problems and a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry.
Tungsten carbide-cobalt by Three Dimensional Printing
Kelley, Andrew, III
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing is an additive manufacturing process for rapid prototyping ceramic and metallic parts [Sachs, et al, 1990]. Green (not sintered) tungsten carbide-cobalt parts must have a density greater than 50% ...
Title of dissertation: THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISSIPATION SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF
Lathrop, Daniel P.
ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISSIPATION SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF TURBULENT FLOWS Benjamin Wolf Zeff, Doctor of Philosophy, 2002 Dissertation directed by: Professor Daniel P. Lathrop the smallest relevant spatial and temporal scales in three dimensions. This dissertation details
Validation of a Three Dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry Software
Goumnerov, Hristo
2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the present research, the three dimensional particle tracking software OpenPTV is validated with synthetic images from the Standard PIV project by the Visualization Society of Japan, and with experimental data from the twin-jet facility...
Reactive binders for metal parts produced by Three Dimensional Printing
Yoo, Helen Jean
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a solid free form fabrication process which enables the construction of parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. In the current process, metal parts are produced by printing ...
Design and transformation of three dimensional pupils : diffractive and subwavelength
Gao, Hanhong
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional pupils are investigated in both diffractive and subwavelength regimes and in various applications to shape the flow of light. In diffractive regime, volume holograms are good candidates for pupils of ...
Copper wafer bonding in three-dimensional integration
Chen, Kuan-Neng, 1974-
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional (3D) integration, in which multiple layers of devices are stacked with high density of interconnects between the layers, offers solutions for problems when the critical dimensions in integrated circuits ...
Three-dimensional object registration using wavelet features
Chalfant, Julie Steele
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recent developments in shape-based modeling and data acquisition have brought three-dimensional models to the forefront of computer graphics and visualization research. New data acquisition methods are producing large ...
Origami nanofabrication of three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage devices
In, Hyun Jin
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Nanostructured (TM) 3D Fabrication and Assembly Process was developed as a novel method of creating three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured devices using two- dimensional micro- and nanopatterning tools and techniques. ...
Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)
Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.
2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.
Porosity in millimeter-scale welds of stainless steel : three-dimensional characterization.
Aagesen, Larry K. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Madison, Jonathan D.
2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
A variety of edge joints utilizing a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser have been produced and examined in a 304-L stainless steel to advance fundamental understanding of the linkage between processing and resultant microstructure in high-rate solidification events. Acquisition of three-dimensional reconstructions via micro-computed tomography combined with traditional metallography has allowed for qualitative and quantitative characterization of weld joints in a material system of wide use and broad applicability. The presence, variability and distribution of porosity, has been examined for average values, spatial distributions and morphology and then related back to fundamental processing parameters such as weld speed, weld power and laser focal length.
Three-dimensional induced polarization data inversion for complex resistivity
Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Williams, K.H.; Hubbard, S.S.
2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
The conductive and capacitive material properties of the subsurface can be quantified through the frequency-dependent complex resistivity. However, the routine three-dimensional (3D) interpretation of voluminous induced polarization (IP) data sets still poses a challenge due to large computational demands and solution nonuniqueness. We have developed a flexible methodology for 3D (spectral) IP data inversion. Our inversion algorithm is adapted from a frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) inversion method primarily developed for large-scale hydrocarbon and geothermal energy exploration purposes. The method has proven to be efficient by implementing the nonlinear conjugate gradient method with hierarchical parallelism and by using an optimal finite-difference forward modeling mesh design scheme. The method allows for a large range of survey scales, providing a tool for both exploration and environmental applications. We experimented with an image focusing technique to improve the poor depth resolution of surface data sets with small survey spreads. The algorithm's underlying forward modeling operator properly accounts for EM coupling effects; thus, traditionally used EM coupling correction procedures are not needed. The methodology was applied to both synthetic and field data. We tested the benefit of directly inverting EM coupling contaminated data using a synthetic large-scale exploration data set. Afterward, we further tested the monitoring capability of our method by inverting time-lapse data from an environmental remediation experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Similar trends observed in both our solution and another 2D inversion were in accordance with previous findings about the IP effects due to subsurface microbial activity.
Ray tracing a three dimensional scene using a grid
Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago; Parker, Steven G; Knoll, Aaron
2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z
Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. In this example method, the three-dimensional scene is made up of objects that are spatially partitioned into a plurality of cells that make up the grid. The method includes a first act of computing a bounding frustum of a packet of rays, and a second act of traversing the grid slice by slice along a major traversal axis. Each slice traversal includes a first act of determining one or more cells in the slice that are overlapped by the frustum and a second act of testing the rays in the packet for intersection with any objects at least partially bounded by the one or more cells overlapped by the frustum.
Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detector
Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Graff, Robert T.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F.; Cheung, Chin Li; Heineck, Daniel
2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detectors utilize neutron sensitive conversion materials in the form of nano-powders and micro-sized particles, as opposed to thin films, suspensions, paraffin, etc. More specifically, methods to infiltrate, intersperse and embed the neutron nano-powders to form two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional charge sensitive platforms are specified. The use of nano-powders enables conformal contact with the entire charge-collecting structure regardless of its shape or configuration.
Bootstrapping the Three-Dimensional Supersymmetric Ising Model
Bobev, Nikolay; Mazac, Dalimil; Paulos, Miguel F
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We implement the conformal bootstrap program for three-dimensional CFTs with $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetry and find universal constraints on the spectrum of operator dimensions in these theories. By studying the bounds on the dimension of the first scalar appearing in the OPE of a chiral and an anti-chiral primary, we find a kink at the expected location of the critical three-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Wess-Zumino model, which can be thought of as a supersymmetric analog of the critical Ising model. Focusing on this kink, we determine, to high accuracy, the low-lying spectrum of operator dimensions of the theory.
Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications
F. Castles; F. V. Day; S. M. Morris; D. -H. Ko; D. J. Gardiner; M. M. Qasim; S. Nosheen; P. J. W. Hands; S. S. Choi; R. H. Friend; H. J. Coles
2013-10-27T23:59:59.000Z
A promising approach to the fabrication of materials with nanoscale features is the transfer of liquid-crystalline structure to polymers. However, this has not been achieved in systems with full three-dimensional periodicity. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of self-assembled three-dimensional nanostructures by polymer templating blue phase I, a chiral liquid crystal with cubic symmetry. Blue phase I was photopolymerized and the remaining liquid crystal removed to create a porous free-standing cast which retains the chiral three-dimensional structure of the blue phase, yet contains no chiral additive molecules. The cast may in turn be used as a hard template for the fabrication of new materials. By refilling the cast with an achiral nematic liquid crystal, we created templated blue phases which have unprecedented thermal stability in the range -125 to 125 [degrees symbol]C, and that act both as mirrorless lasers and switchable electro-optic devices. Blue-phase templated materials will facilitate advances in device architectures for photonics applications in particular.
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of
Ng, Chung-Sang
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Coronal Heating Chung-Sang Ng-dimensional direct simulations due to obvious numerical difficulties. We will present energy distributions and other;3D Simulation of Parker's model Magnetic energy limited by disruptions. ==0.000625(64x64x16) =0
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of
Ng, Chung-Sang
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Coronal Heating Chung-Sang Ng difficulties. We will present energy distributions and other statistics based on our simulations, calculated simulation results. Parker's nanoflare heating model vs observations Energy distributions of nanoflares
Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations?
Blackledge, Todd
LETTER Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations? Todd A. Blackledge1 *, Jonathan A-mail: tab42@cornell.edu Abstract Spider webs result from complex behaviours that have evolved under many selective pressures. Webs have been primarily considered to be foraging adaptations, neglecting
Three-Dimensional and Multilayer Nanostructures Formed by Nanotransfer
Rogers, John A.
ABSTRACT This letter describes the use of nanotransfer printing (nTP) for forming three-dimensional (3D to as nanotransfer printing (nTP),8-11 can be used to build a range of complex 3D structures with feature sizes patterning. Furthermore, the purely additive nature of nTP allows these 2D and 3D printing steps
Computational adaptive optics for live three-dimensional biological imaging
Agard, David
Computational adaptive optics for live three- dimensional biological imaging Z. Kam*, B. Hanser , M. Under their design conditions, modern microscope optics produce nearly ideal aberration-free imaging to the coverslip. When focusing into thick samples, the 3D optical characteristics of the sample itself must
New examples of three-dimensional dilational materials
Graeme Walter Milton
2015-04-29T23:59:59.000Z
Two-dimensional dilational materials, for which the only easy mode of deformation is a dilation are reviewed and connections are drawn between models previously proposed in the literature. Some models which appear to be dilational materials, but which in fact are not, are also discussed. Finally, four new examples of three-dimensional dilational materials are given.
Structure Preserving Optimal Control of Three-Dimensional Compass Gait
Leyendecker, Sigrid
Structure Preserving Optimal Control of Three-Dimensional Compass Gait Sigrid Leyendecker, David con- siders the optimal control of a bipedal compass gait by modeling the double stance configuration compass biped model. This control task has been previously addressed with various biped models
Three-dimensional wave propagation through single crystal solidliquid interfaces
Wadley, Haydn
Three-dimensional wave propagation through single crystal solidliquid interfaces Yichi Lua solid liquid interfaces during single crystal growth. A previously developed two-dimensional ray across solidliquid interfaces in cylindrical bodies where the receiver is located at an arbitrary
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of
Ng, Chung-Sang
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Coronal Heating Chung-Sang Ng]. While there have been many observations of the energy distribution of solar flares, there have not been difficulties. We will present energy distributions and other statistics based on our simulations, calculated
Three Dimensional Dielectrophoretic Assembly of Nanostructures on a Micromachined Platform
Dokmeci, Mehmet
Three Dimensional Dielectrophoretic Assembly of Nanostructures on a Micromachined Platform University, Boston, MA-02115, USA ABSTRACT In this paper, we introduce a novel platform for selectively. The microfabricated platform based nanoscale assembly is quite versatile and has potential applications in fabricating
Three-dimensional stability of Burgers vortices Thierry Gallay
Gallay, Thierry
Three-dimensional stability of Burgers vortices Thierry Gallay Institut Fourier Universit´e de Grenoble I BP 74 38402 Saint-Martin-d'H`eres, France Thierry.Gallay@ujf-grenoble.fr Yasunori Maekawa and then in the general case by Gallay and Wayne [9], see also [2, 12, 13]. Moreover, a lot is known about the spectrum
Three-dimensional stability of Burgers vortices Thierry Gallay
Three-dimensional stability of Burgers vortices Thierry Gallay Institut Fourier Universit´e de Grenoble I BP 74 38402 Saint-Martin-d'H`eres, France Thierry.Gallay@ujf-grenoble.fr Yasunori Maekawa and then by Gallay and Wayne [11] in the general case. Moreover, a lot is known about the spectrum of the linearized
The Coverage Problem in Three-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks
Tseng, Yu-Chee
The Coverage Problem in Three-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks Chi-Fu Huang, Yu-Chee Tseng- bedded micro-sensing MEMS technologies has made wireless sensor networks possible. Such environments may protocols [7], [8], [9]. Localization and positioning applications of wireless sensor networks are discussed
Submillimeter-resolution radiography of shielded structures with laser-accelerated electron beams
Umstadter, Donald
Submillimeter-resolution radiography of shielded structures with laser-accelerated electron beams (Received 24 March 2010; published 14 October 2010) We investigate the use of energetic electron beams-wakefield accelera- tors have been shown to produce electron beams with source sizes comparable to the laser beam
Correlation buildup during recrystallization in three-dimensional dusty plasma clusters
Schella, Andr; Mulsow, Matthias; Melzer, Andr [Institut fr Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitt Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)] [Institut fr Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitt Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The recrystallization process of finite three-dimensional dust clouds after laser heating is studied experimentally. The time-dependent Coulomb coupling parameter is presented, showing that the recrystallization starts with an exponential cooling phase where cooling is slower than damping by the neutral gas friction. At later times, the coupling parameter oscillates into equilibrium. It is found that a large fraction of cluster states after recrystallization experiments is in metastable states. The temporal evolution of the correlation buildup shows that correlation occurs on even slower time scale than cooling.
Three-dimensional effects on energetic particle confinement and stability
Spong, D. A. [One Bethel Valley Road, Bldg. 5700, P. O. Box 2008, MS-6169, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States)
2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Energetic particle populations in magnetic confinement systems are sensitive to symmetry-breaking effects due to their low collisionality and long confined path lengths. Broken symmetry is present to some extent in all toroidal devices. As such effects preclude the existence of an ignorable coordinate, a fully three-dimensional analysis is necessary, beginning with the lowest order (equilibrium) magnetic fields. Three-dimensional techniques that have been extensively developed for stellarator configurations are readily adapted to other devices such as rippled tokamaks and helical states in reversed field pinches. This paper will describe the methods and present an overview of recent examples that use these techniques for the modeling of energetic particle confinement, Alfven mode structure and fast ion instabilities.
Dynamics of empty homogeneous isotropic three-dimensional spaces
A. V. Klimenko; V. A. Klimenko
2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that there are seven types of solutions described in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT), the dynamics of empty homogeneous isotropic three-dimensional spaces. Solution of the equations of GRT, which describes the dynamics of a homogeneous isotropic universe, in the limiting case of vanishingly small effect of matter on the metric properties of space must go to one of them.
A new three-dimensional general-relativistic hydrodynamics code
Luca Baiotti; Ian Hawke; Pedro J. Montero; Luciano Rezzolla
2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new three-dimensional general relativistic hydrodynamics code, the Whisky code. This code incorporates the expertise developed over the past years in the numerical solution of Einstein equations and of the hydrodynamics equations in a curved spacetime, and is the result of a collaboration of several European Institutes. We here discuss the ability of the code to carry out long-term accurate evolutions of the linear and nonlinear dynamics of isolated relativistic stars.
Three-dimensional virtual environment for spatial development
Bateman, Kathleen Suzanne
2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
called Java Web Start (JWS) exists to simplify the download process for Java applications. JWS keeps track of the files needed for the software to run and downloads them automatically. Then it stores these files locally for future use. Thus, unlike many... an imagined space and gain knowledge of how spatial transformations work. The developed software, called Viewpoints, presents a virtual three-dimensional environment to be explored and modified by the user. Object and camera manipulations are illustrated...
Three-Dimensional Simulations of Deep-Water Breaking Waves
Brucker, Kyle A; Dommermuth, Douglas G; Adams, Paul
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The formulation of a canonical deep-water breaking wave problem is introduced, and the results of a set of three-dimensional numerical simulations for deep-water breaking waves are presented. In this paper fully nonlinear progressive waves are generated by applying a normal stress to the free surface. Precise control of the forcing allows for a systematic study of four types of deep-water breaking waves, characterized herein as weak plunging, plunging, strong plunging, and very strong plunging.
Three-dimensional virtual environment for spatial development
Bateman, Kathleen Suzanne
2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
virtual three-dimensional scene and move through it, I developed a computer program called Viewpoints. The program's graphical interface presents a 3D perspective view of an environment. Simple geometric objects such as boxes and spheres can be placed... manipulations. Functions with similar purposes act and look similar. When appropriate, menu options matched in word choice and purpose to standard menu options available in other computer programs. Consistent use of color plays an important role in revealing...
Three-dimensional Dirac oscillator in a thermal bath
M. H. Pacheco; R. V. Maluf; C. A. S. Almeida; R. R. Landim
2014-10-11T23:59:59.000Z
The thermal properties of the three-dimensional Dirac oscillator are considered. The canonical partition function is determined, and the high-temperature limit is assessed. The degeneracy of energy levels and their physical implications on the main thermodynamic functions are analyzed, revealing that these functions assume values greater than the one-dimensional case. So that at high temperatures, the limit value of the specific heat is three times bigger.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISCRETE ORDINATES REACTOR ASSEMBLY CALCULATIONS ON GPUS
Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Joubert, Wayne [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL; Johnson, Seth R [ORNL; Turner, John A [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Pandya, Tara M [ORNL
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we describe and demonstrate a discrete ordinates sweep algorithm on GPUs. This sweep algorithm is nested within a multilevel comunication-based decomposition based on energy. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this algorithm on detailed three-dimensional critical experiments and PWR lattice problems. For these problems we show improvement factors of 4 6 over conventional communication-based, CPU-only sweeps. These sweep kernel speedups resulted in a factor of 2 total time-to-solution improvement.
Three dimensional electromagnetic wavepackets in a plasma: Spatiotemporal modulational instability
Borhanian, J.; Hosseini Faradonbe, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P. O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P. O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
The nonlinear interaction of an intense electromagnetic beam with relativistic collisionless unmagnetized plasma is investigated by invoking the reductive perturbation technique, resting on the model of three-dimensional nonlinear Schrdinger (NLS) equation with cubic nonlinearity which incorporates the effects of self-focusing, self-phase modulation, and diffraction on wave propagation. Relying on the derived NLS equation, the occurrence of spatiotemporal modulational instability is investigated in detail.
Particle acceleration in three-dimensional tearing configurations
Christoph Nodes; Guido T. Birk; Harald Lesch; R. Schopper
2003-01-17T23:59:59.000Z
In three-dimensional electromagnetic configurations that result from unstable resistive tearing modes particles can efficiently be accelerated to relativistic energies. To prove this resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations are used as input configurations for successive test particle simulations. The simulations show the capability of three-dimensional non-linearly evolved tearing modes to accelerate particles perpendicular to the plane of the reconnecting magnetic field components. The simulations differ considerably from analytical approaches by involving a realistic three-dimensional electric field with a non-homogenous component parallel to the current direction. The resulting particle spectra exhibit strong pitch-angle anisotropies. Typically, about 5-8 % of an initially Maxwellian distribution is accelerated to the maximum energy levels given by the macroscopic generalized electric potential structure. Results are shown for both, non-relativistic particle acceleration that is of interest, e.g., in the context of auroral arcs and solar flares, and relativistic particle energization that is relevant, e.g., in the context of active galactic nuclei.
Three Dimensioanl Free Electron Laser Dispersion Relation Including Betatron Oscillations
Chin, Y.H.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-Dimensional Free Electron Laser Dispersion RelationInternational Free Electron Laser Conference, Santa Fe, NM,International Free Electron Laser Conference, held in Santa
Rita Kirchhofer; Melissa C. Teague; Brian P. Gorman
2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Cerium oxide (CeO2) is an ideal surrogate material for trans-uranic elements and fission products found in nuclear fuels due to similarities in their thermal properties; therefore, cerium oxide was used to determine the best run condition for atom probe tomography (APT). Laser pulse APT is a technique that allows for spatial resolution in the nm scale and isotopic/elemental chemical identification. A systematic study of the impact of laser pulse energy and specimen base temperature on the mass resolution, measurement of stoichiometry, multiples, and evaporation mechanisms are reported in this paper. It was demonstrated that using laser pulse APT stoichiometric field evaporation of cerium oxide was achieved at 1 pJ laser pulse energy and 20 K specimen base temperature.
Staggered grids discretization in three-dimensional Darcy convection
B. Karasozen; A. D. Nemtsev; V. G. Tsybulin
2008-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
We consider three-dimensional convection of an incompressible fluid saturated in a parallelepiped with a porous medium. A mimetic finite-difference scheme for the Darcy convection problem in the primitive variables is developed. It consists of staggered nonuniform grids with five types of nodes, differencing and averaging operators on a two-nodes stencil. The nonlinear terms are approximated using special schemes. Two problems with different boundary conditions are considered to study scenarios of instability of the state of rest. Branching off of a continuous family of steady states was detected for the problem with zero heat fluxes on two opposite lateral planes.
Three-dimensional asymptotically flat Einstein-Maxwell theory
Glenn Barnich; Pierre-Henry Lambert; Pujian Mao
2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory with non trivial asymptotics at null infinity is solved. The symmetry algebra is a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra that extends the bms3 algebra of the purely gravitational case. Solution space involves logarithms and provides a tractable example of a polyhomogeneous solution space. The associated surface charges are non-integrable and non-conserved due to the presence of electromagnetic news. As in the four dimensional purely gravitational case, their algebra involves a field-dependent central charge.
Methods for preparation of three-dimensional bodies
Mulligan, Anthony C. (Tucson, AZ); Rigali, Mark J. (Carlsbad, NM); Sutaria, Manish P. (Malden, MA); Artz, Gregory J. (Tucson, AZ); Gafner, Felix H. (Tucson, AZ); Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji (Tucson, AZ)
2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
Processes for mechanically fabricating two and three-dimensional fibrous monolith composites include preparing a fibrous monolith filament from a core composition of a first powder material and a boundary material of a second powder material. The filament includes a first portion of the core composition surrounded by a second portion of the boundary composition. One or more filaments are extruded through a mechanically-controlled deposition nozzle onto a working surface to create a fibrous monolith composite object. The objects may be formed directly from computer models and have complex geometries.
Heat pulse propagation in chaotic three-dimensional magnetic fields
Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blazevski, Daniel [Institute for Mechanical Systems, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Heat pulse propagation in three-dimensional chaotic magnetic fields is studied by numerically solving the parallel heat transport equation using a Lagrangian Green's function (LG) method. The main two problems addressed are: the dependence of the radial transport of heat pulses on the level of magnetic field stochasticity (controlled by the amplitude of the magnetic field perturbation, ?), and the role of reversed shear magnetic field configurations on heat pulse propagation. The role of separatrix reconnection of resonant modes in the shear reversal region, and the role of shearless Cantori in the observed phenomena are also discussed.
Discrete canonical analysis of three dimensional gravity with cosmological constant
J. Berra-Montiel; J. E. Rosales-Quintero
2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the interplay between standard canonical analysis and canonical discretization in three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant. By using the Hamiltonian analysis, we find that the continuum local symmetries of the theory are given by the on-shell space-time diffeomorphisms, which at the action level, corresponds to the Kalb-Ramond transformations. At the time of discretization, although this symmetry is explicitly broken, we prove that the theory still preserves certain gauge freedom generated by a constant curvature relation in terms of holonomies and the Gauss's law in the lattice approach.
Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of Slapper Initiation Systems
Christensen, J S; Hrousis, C A
2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
Although useful information can be gleaned from 2D and even 1D simulations of slapper type initiation systems, these systems are inherently three-dimensional and therefore require full 3D representation to model all relevant details. Further, such representation provides additional insight into optimizing the design of such devices from a first-principles perspective and can thereby reduce experimental costs. We discuss in this paper several ongoing efforts in modeling these systems, our pursuit of validation, and extension of these methods to other systems. Our results show the substantial dependence upon highly accurate global equations of state and resistivity models in these analyses.
Three-dimensional "Mercedes-Benz" model for water
Cristiano L. Dias; Tapio Ala-Nissila; Martin Grant; Mikko Karttunen
2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: the anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility.
Three-dimensional magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso geothermal
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP a gHigh4-FD-a < RAPID |SpaceThe German Windfield | Open Energy Information Three-dimensional
Three-dimensional simulations of type Ia supernovae
M. Reinecke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer
2002-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
We present the results of three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the subsonic thermonuclear burning phase in type Ia supernovae. The burning front model contains no adjustable parameters so that variations of the explosion outcome can be linked directly to changes in the initial conditions. In particular, we investigate the influence of the initial flame geometry on the explosion energy and find that it appears to be weaker than in 2D. Most importantly, our models predict global properties such as the produced nickel masses and ejecta velocities within their observed ranges without any fine tuning.
Three-dimensional simulations of type Ia supernovae
Reinecke, M; Niemeyer, J C
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present the results of three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the subsonic thermonuclear burning phase in type Ia supernovae. The burning front model contains no adjustable parameters so that variations of the explosion outcome can be linked directly to changes in the initial conditions. In particular, we investigate the influence of the initial flame geometry on the explosion energy and find that it appears to be weaker than in 2D. Most importantly, our models predict global properties such as the produced nickel masses and ejecta velocities within their observed ranges without any fine tuning.
Lasers, Electron Beams and New Years Resolutions | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasma | Department of EnergyBrakingDepartment ofProgram Management Bioenergy TechnologiesLocatedLasers,
Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles
Neal, D.R.
1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z
A system is disclosed for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focused beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focused beams creates a ``light cage`` and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained. 10 figs.
Development and Validation of a Two-phase, Three-dimensional...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
and Validation of a Two-phase, Three-dimensional Model for PEM Fuel Cells Development and Validation of a Two-phase, Three-dimensional Model for PEM Fuel Cells Presented at the...
Pandoe, Wahyu Widodo
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
provides a basis for determining how the water circulation three-dimensionally controls the hydrodynamics of the system and ultimately transports the suspended and soluble materials due to combined currents and waves. A three-dimensional circulation model...
Stochastic multiscale fracture analysis of three-dimensional functionally graded composites
Rahman, Sharif
Stochastic multiscale fracture analysis of three-dimensional functionally graded composites Sharif: Probabilistic fracture mechanics Polynomial dimensional decomposition Random microstructure Reliability a b for stochastic multiscale fracture analysis of three-dimensional, particle-matrix, functionally graded materials
Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering
Sacks, Rafael
Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering Rafael (IT); Concrete, precast; Economic factors; Three-dimensional models. Introduction "The application to this; but the funda- mental reason undoubtedly was economic." (Mitchell 1977). Intuitive assessments
Bubble transport in three-dimensional laminar gravity-driven flow mathematical formulation
Pilon, Laurent
Bubble transport in three-dimensional laminar gravity-driven flow mathematical formulation, growth and shrinkage in three-dimensional flows. The flow is assumed to be laminar for the sake
Su, Jianping; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Linfeng; Chen, Zhongping
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,three-dimensional microelectromechanical endoscopic swepton a rotational microelectromechanical system (MEMS) probe [
Protein crystallography: From X-ray diffraction spots to a three dimensional image
Terwilliger, T.C.; Berendzen, J.
1998-02-25T23:59:59.000Z
Proteins are remarkable molecular machines that are essential for life. They can do many things ranging from the precise control of blood clotting to synthesizing complex organic compounds. Pictures of protein molecules are in high demand in biotechnology because they are important for applications such as drug discovery and for engineering enzymes for commercial use. X-ray crystallography is the most common method for determining the three-dimensional structures of protein molecules. When a crystal of a protein is placed in an X-ray beam, scattering of X-rays off the ordered molecules produces a diffraction pattern that can be measured on a position-sensitive CCD or image-plate detector. Protein crystals typically contain thousands of atoms and the diffraction data are generally measured to relatively low resolution. Consequently the direct methods approaches generally cannot be applied. Instead, if the crystal is modified by adding metal atoms at specific sites or by tuning the wavelength of the X-rays to cross an absorption edge of a metal atom in the crystal, then the information from these additional measurements is sufficient to first identify the /locations of the metal atoms. This information is then used along with the diffraction data to make a three-dimensional picture of electron densities. This picture can be used to determine the position of most or all of the atoms in the protein.
Three dimensional winds: A maximum cross-correlation application to elastic lidar data
Buttler, W.T.
1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Maximum cross-correlation techniques have been used with satellite data to estimate winds and sea surface velocities for several years. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently using a variation of the basic maximum cross-correlation technique, coupled with a deterministic application of a vector median filter, to measure transverse winds as a function of range and altitude from incoherent elastic backscatter lidar (light detection and ranging) data taken throughout large volumes within the atmospheric boundary layer. Hourly representations of three-dimensional wind fields, derived from elastic lidar data taken during an air-quality study performed in a region of complex terrain near Sunland Park, New Mexico, are presented and compared with results from an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved laser doppler velocimeter. The wind fields showed persistent large scale eddies as well as general terrain-following winds in the Rio Grande valley.
Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains Y. Chen,1,2
Liou, K. N.
Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains Y. Chen,1,2 A. Hall,1 and K November 2006. [1] We developed a three-dimensional radiative transfer model simulating solar fluxes over (2006), Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D
Dynamics of Three-Dimensional Vesicles in DC Electric fields
Ebrahim M. Kolahdouz; David Salac
2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
A numerical and systematic parameter study of three-dimensional vesicle electrohydrodynamics is presented to investigate the effects of different fluid and membrane properties. The dynamics of vesicles in the presence of DC electric fields is considered, both in the presence and absence of linear shear flow. For suspended vesicles it is shown that the conductivity ratio and viscosity ratio between the interior and exterior fluids, as well as the vesicle membrane capacitance, substantially affect the minimum electric field strength required to induce a full Prolate-Oblate-Prolate transition.In addition, there exists a critical electric field strength above which a vesicle will no longer tumble when exposed to linear shear flow.
Higher Derivative Terms in Three Dimensional Supersymmetric Theories
Adel Awad; Mir Faizal
2015-03-30T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, we systematically analyze higher derivative terms in the effective actions for three dimensional scalar field theories with $\\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetry. In these effective actions, we show that the auxiliary fields do not acquire kinetic terms and their effective actions can be expressed in terms of physical fields. We use the derivative expansion to generate four, five and six dimensional terms for $\\phi^6$ scalar field theory with $\\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetry. We show that along with pure fermionic terms, there are various five and six dimensional topological terms that contain bosonic and fermionic fields. Finally, we use these results to obtain higher derivative topological terms in the effective action for two M2-branes. Thus, using an off-shell formalism, we obtain several higher derivative topological terms, which we compare with an earlier study that was done using an on-shell formalism.
Higher Derivative Terms in Three Dimensional Supersymmetric Theories
Awad, Adel
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, we systematically analyze higher derivative terms in the effective actions for three dimensional scalar field theories with $\\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetry. In these effective actions, we show that the auxiliary fields do not acquire kinetic terms and their effective actions can be expressed in terms of physical fields. We use the derivative expansion to generate four, five and six dimensional terms for $\\phi^6$ scalar field theory with $\\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetry. We show that along with pure fermionic terms, there are various five and six dimensional topological terms that contain bosonic and fermionic fields. Finally, we use these results to obtain higher derivative topological terms in the effective action for two M2-branes. Thus, using an off-shell formalism, we obtain several higher derivative topological terms, which we compare with an earlier study that was done using an on-shell formalism.
Three-dimensional Radiative Transfer with Multilevel Atoms
P. Fabiani Bendicho; J. Trujillo Bueno
2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z
The efficient numerical solution of Non-LTE multilevel transfer problems requires the combination of highly convergent iterative schemes with fast and accurate formal solution methods of the radiative transfer (RT) equation. This contribution begins presenting a method for the formal solution of the RT equation in three-dimensional (3D) media with horizontal periodic boundary conditions. This formal solver is suitable for both, unpolarized and polarized 3D radiative transfer and it can be easily combined with the iterative schemes for solving non-LTE multilevel transfer problems that we have developed over the last few years. We demonstrate this by showing some schematic 3D multilevel calculations that illustrate the physical effects of horizontal radiative transfer. These Non-LTE calculations have been carried out with our code MUGA 3D, a 3D multilevel Non-LTE code based on the Gauss-Seidel iterative scheme that Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho (1995) developed for RT applications.
Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).
Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul
2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.
Axionic superconductivity in three dimensional doped narrow gap semiconductors
Pallab Goswami; Bitan Roy
2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the competition between the conventional s-wave and the triplet Balian-Werthamer or the B-phase pairings in the doped three dimensional narrow gap semiconductors, such as $\\mathrm{Cu}_x\\mathrm{Bi}_2\\mathrm{Se}_3$ and $\\mathrm{Sn}_{1-x}\\mathrm{In}_x\\mathrm{Te}$. When the coupling constants of the two contending channels are comparable, we find a simultaneously time-reversal and parity violating $p + is$ state at low temperatures, which provides an example of dynamic axionic state of matter. In contradistinction to the time-reversal invariant, topological B-phase, the $p + is$ state possesses gapped Majorana fermions as the surface Andreev bound states, which give rise to an anomalous surface thermal Hall effect. The anomalous gravitational and electrodynamic responses of the $p+is$ state can be described by the $\\theta$ vacuum structure, where $\\theta \
Accurate complex scaling of three dimensional numerical potentials
Cerioni, Alessandro [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Horowitz, BP220 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Genovese, Luigi; Duchemin, Ivan; Deutsch, Thierry [Laboratoire de simulation atomistique (L-Sim), SP2M, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble F-38054 (France)
2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
The complex scaling method, which consists in continuing spatial coordinates into the complex plane, is a well-established method that allows to compute resonant eigenfunctions of the time-independent Schroedinger operator. Whenever it is desirable to apply the complex scaling to investigate resonances in physical systems defined on numerical discrete grids, the most direct approach relies on the application of a similarity transformation to the original, unscaled Hamiltonian. We show that such an approach can be conveniently implemented in the Daubechies wavelet basis set, featuring a very promising level of generality, high accuracy, and no need for artificial convergence parameters. Complex scaling of three dimensional numerical potentials can be efficiently and accurately performed. By carrying out an illustrative resonant state computation in the case of a one-dimensional model potential, we then show that our wavelet-based approach may disclose new exciting opportunities in the field of computational non-Hermitian quantum mechanics.
3DD - Three Dimensional Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 12449
Dvorakova, Marketa; Slovak, Jiri [Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA), Prague (Czech Republic)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional disposal is being considered as a way in which to store long-term spent nuclear fuel in underground disposal facilities in the Czech Republic. This method involves a combination of the two most common internationally recognised disposal methods in order to practically apply the advantages of both whilst, at the same time, eliminating their weaknesses; the method also allows easy removal in case of potential re-use. The proposed method for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel will reduce the areal requirements of future deep geological repositories by more than 30%. It will also simplify the container handling process by using gravitational forces in order to meet requirements concerning the controllability of processes and ensuring operational and nuclear safety. With regard to the issue of the efficient potential removal of waste containers, this project offers an ingenious solution which does not disrupt the overall stability of the original disposal complex. (authors)
Structures with three dimensional nanofences comprising single crystal segments
Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun
2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z
An article includes a substrate having a surface and a nanofence supported by the surface. The nanofence includes a multiplicity of primary nanorods and branch nanorods, each of the primary nanorods being attached to said substrate, and each of the branch nanorods being attached to a primary nanorods and/or another branch nanorod. The primary and branch nanorods are arranged in a three-dimensional, interconnected, interpenetrating, grid-like network defining interstices within the nanofence. The article further includes an enveloping layer supported by the nanofence, disposed in the interstices, and forming a coating on the primary and branch nanorods. The enveloping layer has a different composition from that of the nanofence and includes a radial p-n single junction solar cell photovoltaic material and/or a radial p-n multiple junction solar cell photovoltaic material.
THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE ? ANDROMEDAE PLANETARY SYSTEM
Deitrick, Russell; Barnes, Rory; Quinn, Thomas R.; Luger, Rodrigo; Antonsen, Adrienne [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); McArthur, Barbara; Fritz Benedict, G., E-mail: deitrr@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The ? Andromedae system is the first exoplanetary system to have the relative inclination of two planets' orbital planes directly measured, and therefore offers our first window into the three-dimensional configurations of planetary systems. We present, for the first time, full three-dimensional, dynamically stable configurations for the three planets of the system consistent with all observational constraints. While the outer two planets, c and d, are inclined by ?30, the inner planet's orbital plane has not been detected. We use N-body simulations to search for stable three-planet configurations that are consistent with the combined radial velocity and astrometric solution. We find that only 10 trials out of 1000 are robustly stable on 100Myr timescales, or ?8 billion orbits of planet b. Planet b's orbit must lie near the invariable plane of planets c and d, but can be either prograde or retrograde. These solutions predict that b's mass is in the range of 2-9 M {sub Jup} and has an inclination angle from the sky plane of less than 25. Combined with brightness variations in the combined star/planet light curve ({sup p}hase curve{sup )}, our results imply that planet b's radius is ?1.8 R {sub Jup}, relatively large for a planet of its age. However, the eccentricity of b in several of our stable solutions reaches >0.1, generating upward of 10{sup 19} W in the interior of the planet via tidal dissipation, possibly inflating the radius to an amount consistent with phase curve observations.
Rapid Prototyping of Solid ThreeDimensional Parts
McMains, Sara
, 3D printing, fused deposition modeling, ballistic particle manufacturing, selective laser sintering : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 4 Fused Deposition Modeling : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12 5 3D Printing
Oscillatory cellular patterns in three-dimensional directional solidification
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Tourret, D.; Debierre, J. -M.; Song, Y.; Mota, F. L.; Bergeon, N.; Guerin, R.; Trivedi, R.; Billia, B.; Karma, A.
2015-09-11T23:59:59.000Z
We present a phase-field study of oscillatory breathing modes observed during the solidification of three-dimensional cellular arrays in micro-gravity. Directional solidification experiments conducted onboard the International Space Station have allowed for the first time to observe spatially extended homogeneous arrays of cells and dendrites while minimizing the amount of gravity-induced convection in the liquid. In situ observations of transparent alloys have revealed the existence, over a narrow range of control parameters, of oscillations in cellular arrays with a period ranging from about 25 to 125 minutes. Cellular patterns are spatially disordered, and the oscillations of individual cells are spatiotemporally uncorrelatedmoreat long distance. However, in regions displaying short-range spatial ordering, groups of cells can synchronize into oscillatory breathing modes. Quantitative phase-field simulations show that the oscillatory behavior of cells in this regime is linked to a stability limit of the spacing in hexagonal cellular array structures. For relatively high cellular front undercooling (\\ie low growth velocity or high thermal gradient), a gap appears in the otherwise continuous range of stable array spacings. Close to this gap, a sustained oscillatory regime appears with a period that compares quantitatively well with experiment. For control parameters where this gap exist, oscillations typically occur for spacings at the edge of the gap. However, after a change of growth conditions, oscillations can also occur for nearby values of control parameters where this gap just closes and a continuous range of spacings exists. In addition, sustained oscillations at to the opening of this stable gap exhibit a slow periodic modulation of the phase-shift among cells with a slower period of several hours. While long-range coherence of breathing modes can be achieved in simulations for a perfect spatial arrangement of cells as initial condition, global disorder is observed in both three-dimensional experiments and simulations from realistic noisy initial conditions. The, erratic tip splitting events promoted by large amplitude oscillations contribute to maintaining the long-range array disorder, unlike in thin sample experiments where long-range coherence of oscillations is experimentally observable.less
Effective viscosity of active suspensions: Three-dimensional numerical modeling
Levan Jibuti; Walter Zimmermann; Salima Rafa; Philippe Peyla
2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional model is proposed for Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii swimming with a breaststroke-like beating of its two flagella. The model reveals unusual angular orbits of the active swimmer under a linear shear flow. Namely, the swimmer sustains orientation transiently across the flow when flagella plane is perpendicular to the shear plane, and amplify the shear-induced rotation along the flow. Such behavior is a result of the interplay between shear-induced deformation and swimmer's periodic beating motion that exerts internal torques on the torque-free swimmer. This particular behavior has some significant consequences on the rheological properties of the suspension that tends to confirm previous experimental results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 098102 (2010)]. We calculated the intrinsic viscosity of the suspension with such isolated modeled microswimmers (dilute case) in shear flow using numerical simulations based on Rotne-Prager approximation. The results show an increased intrinsic viscosity for active swimmer suspensions in comparison to non-active ones in accordance with previous experimental measurements. A major enhancement of the active swimmer viscosity occurs due to the effectively extended shape of the deformable swimming cells. We also recover the experimentally observed shear thinning behavior.
Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.
Warne, Larry K.; Jorgenson, Roy E.
2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank
A novel three dimensional semimetallic MoS{sub 2}
Tang, Zhen-Kun [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Departments of Physics and Electronics, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Zhang, Hui; Liu, Li-Min, E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Hao [Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Lau, Woon-Ming [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China)
2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have many potential applications, while the performances of TMDs are generally limited by the less surface active sites and the poor electron transport efficiency. Here, a novel three-dimensional (3D) structure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) with larger surface area was proposed based on first-principle calculations. 3D layered MoS{sub 2} structure contains the basal surface and joint zone between the different nanoribbons, which is thermodynamically stable at room temperature, as confirmed by first principles molecular dynamics calculations. Compared the two-dimensional layered structures, the 3D MoS{sub 2} not only owns the large surface areas but also can effectively avoid the aggregation. Interestingly, although the basal surface remains the property of the intrinsic semiconductor as the bulk MoS{sub 2}, the joint zone of 3D MoS{sub 2} exhibits semimetallic, which is derived from degenerate 3d orbitals of the Mo atoms. The high stability, large surface area, and high conductivity make 3D MoS{sub 2} have great potentials as high performance catalyst.
Resonant Interactions in Rotating Homogeneous Three-dimensional Turbulence
Q. Chen; S. Chen; G. L. Eyink; D. D. Holm
2004-04-29T23:59:59.000Z
Direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous turbulence under rapid rigid rotation are conducted to examine the predictions of resonant wave theory for both small Rossby number and large Reynolds number. The simulation results reveal that there is a clear inverse energy cascade to the large scales, as predicted by 2D Navier-Stokes equations for resonant interactions of slow modes. As the rotation rate increases, the vertically-averaged horizontal velocity field from 3D Navier-Stokes converges to the velocity field from 2D Navier-Stokes, as measured by the energy in their difference field. Likewise, the vertically-averaged vertical velocity from 3D Navier-Stokes converges to a solution of the 2D passive scalar equation. The energy flux directly into small wave numbers in the $k_z=0$ plane from non-resonant interactions decreases, while fast-mode energy concentrates closer to that plane. The simulations are consistent with an increasingly dominant role of resonant triads for more rapid rotation.
THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF CASSIOPEIA A
DeLaney, Tracey [Department of Physics and Engineering, West Virginia Wesleyan College, 59 College Avenue, Buckhannon, WV 26201 (United States); Rudnick, Lawrence; Isensee, Karl, E-mail: delaney_t@wvwc.ed, E-mail: larry@astro.umn.ed, E-mail: isensee@astro.umn.ed [Astronomy Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)
2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
We used the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph to map nearly the entire extent of Cassiopeia A between 5 and 40 {mu}m. Using infrared and Chandra X-ray Doppler velocity measurements, along with the locations of optical ejecta beyond the forward shock, we constructed a three-dimensional model of the remnant. The structure of Cas A can be characterized into a spherical component, a tilted thick disk, and multiple ejecta jets/pistons and optical fast-moving knots all populating the thick disk plane. The Bright Ring in Cas A identifies the intersection between the thick plane/pistons and a roughly spherical reverse shock. The ejecta pistons indicate a radial velocity gradient in the explosion. Some ejecta pistons are bipolar with oppositely directed flows about the expansion center while some ejecta pistons show no such symmetry. Some ejecta pistons appear to maintain the integrity of the nuclear burning layers while others appear to have punched through the outer layers. The ejecta pistons indicate a radial velocity gradient in the explosion. In three dimensions, the Fe jet in the southeast occupies a 'hole' in the Si-group emission and does not represent 'overturning', as previously thought. Although interaction with the circumstellar medium affects the detailed appearance of the remnant and may affect the visibility of the southeast Fe jet, the bulk of the symmetries and asymmetries in Cas A are intrinsic to the explosion.
The thermodynamics of Fermi gases in three dimensional fuzzy space
Scholtz, F G; Groenewald, H W
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We use the recently derived density of states for a particle confined to a spherical well in three dimensional fuzzy space to compute the thermodynamics of a gas of non-interacting fermions confined to such a well. Special emphasis is placed on non-commutative effects and in particular non-commutative corrections to the thermodynamics at low densities and temperatures are computed where the non-relativistic approximation used here is valid. Non-commutative effects at high densities are also identified, the most prominent being the existence of a minimal volume at which the gas becomes incompressible. The latter is closely related to a low/high density duality exhibited by these systems, which in turn is a manifestation of an infra-red/ultra violet duality in the single particle spectrum. Both non-rotating and slowly rotating gasses are studied. Approximations are benchmarked against exact numerical computations for the non-rotating case and several other properties of the gas are demonstrated with numerical c...
Interactive graphical tools for three-dimensional mesh redistribution
Dobbs, L.A.
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional meshes modeling nonlinear problems such as sheet metal forming, metal forging, heat transfer during welding, the propagation of microwaves through gases, and automobile crashes require highly refined meshes in local areas to accurately represent areas of high curvature, stress, and strain. These locally refined areas develop late in the simulation and/or move during the course of the simulation, thus making it difficult to predict their exact location. This thesis is a systematic study of new tools scientists can use with redistribution algorithms to enhance the solution results and reduce the time to build, solve, and analyze nonlinear finite element problems. Participatory design techniques including Contextual Inquiry and Design were used to study and analyze the process of solving such problems. This study and analysis led to the in-depth understanding of the types of interactions performed by FEM scientists. Based on this understanding, a prototype tool was designed to support these interactions. Scientists participated in evaluating the design as well as the implementation of the prototype tool. The study, analysis, prototype tool design, and the results of the evaluation of the prototype tool are described in this thesis.
Lyapunov modes in three-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluids
M. Romero-Bastida; E. Braun
2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Recent studies on the phase-space dynamics of a one-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid reveal the existence of regular collective perturbations associated with the smallest positive Lyapunov exponents of the system, called hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, which previously could only be identified in hard-core fluids. In this work we present a systematic study of the Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov vectors, i.e. perturbations along each direction of phase space, of a three-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid. By performing the Fourier transform of the spatial density of the coordinate part of the Lyapunov vector components and then time-averaging this result we find convincing signatures of longitudinal modes, with inconclusive evidence of transverse modes for all studied densities. Furthermore, the longitudinal modes can be more clearly identified for the higher density values. Thus, according to our results, the mixing of modes induced both by the dynamics and the dimensionality induce a hitherto unknown type of order in the tangent space of the model herein studied at high density values.
Validation of a Three Dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry Software
Goumnerov, Hristo
2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
reconstruction. For the experimental assessment, the OpenPTV results are compared with a Laser Doppler Velocimetry study, as well as results from the in-house two dimensional particle tracking velocimetry software. As contributions to the consortium, the author...
Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera
Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen
2008-09-20T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.
Three-dimensional P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso...
search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Three-dimensional P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso geothermal area, California, from...
TURBULENT HEAT TRANSPORT IN TWO-AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL TEMPERATURE FIELDS
Samaraweera, D.S.A.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
convective heat and mass transport in pipes, which arisesof three-dimensional heat transfer in pipes by QUARMBY andFully developed pipe flow: Streamwise heat flux profiles
High Resolution Angle Resolved Photoemission with Tabletop 11eV Laser
He, Yu; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Liu, Zhongkai; Lee, James; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko; Leuenberger, Dominik; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, Michael; Moore, Robert; Kirchmann, Patrick; Merriam, Andrew; Shen, Zhixun
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with $113.778$nm wavelength (10.897eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10MHz, provides a flux of 2$\\times$10$^{12}$ photons/second, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2meV and 0.012\\AA$^{-1}$, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2\\AA$^{-1}$, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source, and sho...
Aramaki, Mitsutoshi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ogiwara, Kohei; Etoh, Shuzo [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Yoshimura, Shinji [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Tanaka, Masayoshi Y. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
A high resolution laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed to measure the flow velocity field of neutral particles in an electron-cyclotron-resonance argon plasma. The flow velocity has been determined by the Doppler shift of the LIF spectrum, which is proportional to the velocity distribution function. Very high accuracy in velocity determination has been achieved by installing a saturated absorption spectroscopy unit into the LIF system, where the absolute value and scale of laser wavelength are determined by using the Lamb dip and the fringes of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The minimum detectable flow velocity of a newly developed LIF system is {+-}2 m/s, and this performance remains unchanged in a long-time experiment. From the radial measurements of LIF spectra of argon metastable atoms, it is found that there exists an inward flow of neutral particles associated with neutral depletion.
High-resolution multi-heterodyne spectroscopy based on Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers
Wang, Yin; Wang, Wen; Wysocki, Gerard, E-mail: gwysocki@princeton.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Soskind, Michael G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersy 08901 (United States)
2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z
In this Letter, we present a method of performing broadband mid-infrared spectroscopy with conventional, free-running, continuous wave Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers (FP-QCLs). The measurement method is based on multi-heterodyne down-conversion of optical signals. The sample transmission spectrum probed by one multi-mode FP-QCL is down-converted to the radio-frequency domain through an optical multi-heterodyne process using a second FP-QCL as the local oscillator. Both a broadband multi-mode spectral measurement as well as high-resolution (?15?MHz) spectroscopy of molecular absorption are demonstrated and show great potential for development of high performance FP-laser-based spectrometers for chemical sensing.
Liu, Hongyu
Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical. (2006), Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical frequencies are calculated using the Fast-J radiative transfer algorithm. The GEOS-3 global cloud optical
Ewing, Richard E.
A ThreeDimensional Finite Element Simulation for Transport of Nuclear Waste Contamination of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina ABSTRACT: Model equations for transport of nuclearwaste based up on the inherent physics. A threedimensional finite element method for nuclear waste
MICROFABRICATED, ULTRA-DENSE, THREE-DIMENSIONAL METAL COILS F. Herrault1*
to form a three-dimensional coil device. The MEMS- fabricated, ultra-dense coils exhibited a 62% improvement in packing density over conventional wire-wound coils. KEYWORDS Micro-coils, chemical vapor of these microstructures to form a three-dimensional coil device. The polymer material provides electrical insulation
Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals
Fan, Shanhui
Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals that allows the design of single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals the regions of maximal electric-field intensity, and placing the air defects to enclose these regions
A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE VOLUME APPROACH TO THE THERMO-MECHANICAL
Taylor, Gary
A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE VOLUME APPROACH TO THE THERMO-MECHANICAL MODELLING OF THE SHAPE CASTING a three dimensional, thermo-mechanical modelling approach to the cooling and solidi cation phases the non-linear material phenomena of creep and thermo-elasto-visco-plasticity at high temperatures
RIS-M-2256 INPUT DESCRIPTION FOR THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL
RIS-M-2256 INPUT DESCRIPTION FOR THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE ANTI E. Falcon Nielsen A calculations for the PWR core. It combines a nodal theory neutron kinetics calculation with transient sub, PWR TYPE REACTORS, REACTOR KINETICS, THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS, TRANSIENTS. UDC 621.039.514 : 621
Three-dimensional scapulothoracic motion during active and passive arm elevation
Karduna, Andrew
Three-dimensional scapulothoracic motion during active and passive arm elevation D. David Ebaugh a (active versus passive arm elevation) on three-dimensional scapulothoracic motion. Methods. Twenty during active and passive arm elevation. Muscle activity was recorded from surface electrodes over
Three-dimensional mapping of optical near field of a nanoscale bowtie antenna
Xu, Xianfan
Three-dimensional mapping of optical near field of a nanoscale bowtie antenna Rui Guo*, Edward C. This paper describes an experimental three-dimensional optical near-field mapping of a bowtie nano. The experimental results also demonstrate the polarization dependence of the transmission through the bowtie
Wang, Yuqing
"ventilation" flow over the TC core), Rossby waves emit energy east- ward and equatorward. As a resultTropical Cyclone Energy Dispersion in a Three-Dimensional Primitive Equation Model: Upper The three-dimensional (3D) Rossby wave energy dispersion of a tropical cyclone (TC) is studied using
Relation Between Structure, Function, and Imaging in a Three-Dimensional Model of the Lung
Lutchen, Kenneth
Relation Between Structure, Function, and Imaging in a Three-Dimensional Model of the Lung NORA T morphometric mod- els to predict function relations in the lung. These models, however, are not anatomically explicit. We have advanced a three-dimensional airway tree model to relate dynamic lung function
Evans, Peter
on the table rolls of a Fourdrinier machine.6 A similar instability in the phosphor coating inside fluorescentThree-dimensional solutions for coating flow on a rotating horizontal cylinder: Theory 2005 We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flow of a thin liquid coating
Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy
Wang, Lihong
Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy Jung to noninvasively obtain three-dimensional 3-D images of subcutaneous melanomas and their surrounding vasculature in nude mice in vivo. The absorption coefficients of blood and melanin- pigmented melanomas vary greatly
DETERMINATION OF UNSTEADY CONTAINER TEMPERATURES DURING FREEZING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL ORGANS WITH
Dennis, Brian
DETERMINATION OF UNSTEADY CONTAINER TEMPERATURES DURING FREEZING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL ORGANS local freezing rate in an organ while maintaining the local thermal stresses below a specified level on the walls of the three-dimensional freezing container. A time-accurate finite element computer program
A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels
Victoria, University of
A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels by Phong ABSTRACT A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels is presented in this thesis. This comprehensive model
Divall, Marta Csatari; Divall, Edwin J; Hauri, Christoph P
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Intense ultrashort pulse lasers are used for fs resolution pumpprobe experiments more and more at large scale facilities, such as free electron lasers (FEL). Measurement of the arrival time of the laser pulses and stabilization to the machine or other sub-systems on the target, is crucial for high time-resolution measurements. In this work we report on a single shot, spectrally resolved, non-collinear cross-correlator with sub-fs resolution. With a feedback applied we keep the output of the TW class Ti:sapphire amplifier chain in time with the seed oscillator to ~3 fs RMS level for several hours. This is well below the typical pulse duration used at FELs and supports fs resolution pump-probe experiments. Short term jitter and long term timing drift measurements are presented. Applicability to other wavelengths and integration into the timing infrastructure of the FEL are also covered to show the full potential of the device.
Lin, Yu; Huang, Chong; Irwin, Daniel; He, Lian; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang, E-mail: guoqiang.yu@uky.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)
2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z
This study extended our recently developed noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flowmetry system into noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) for three-dimensional (3-D) flow imaging of deep tissue. A linear array of 15 photodetectors and two laser sources connected to a mobile lens-focusing system enabled automatic and noncontact scanning of flow in a region of interest. These boundary measurements were combined with a finite element framework for DCT image reconstruction implemented into an existing software package. This technique was tested in computer simulations and using a tissue-like phantom with anomaly flow contrast design. The cylindrical tube-shaped anomaly was clearly reconstructed in both simulation and phantom. Recovered and assigned flow contrast changes in anomaly were found to be highly correlated: regression slope?=?1.00, R{sup 2}?=?1.00, and p?
Ultrahigh performance three-dimensional electromagnetic relativistic kinetic plasma simulation
Bowers, K. J.; Albright, B. J.; Yin, L.; Bergen, B.; Kwan, T. J. T. [Plasma Theory and Applications (X-1-PTA), Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F699, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The algorithms, implementation details, and applications of VPIC, a state-of-the-art first principles 3D electromagnetic relativistic kinetic particle-in-cell code, are discussed. Unlike most codes, VPIC is designed to minimize data motion, as, due to physical limitations (including the speed of light{exclamation_point}), moving data between and even within modern microprocessors is more time consuming than performing computations. As a result, VPIC has achieved unprecedented levels of performance. For example, VPIC can perform {approx}0.17 billion cold particles pushed and charge conserving accumulated per second per processor on IBM's Cell microprocessor--equivalent to sustaining Los Alamos's planned Roadrunner supercomputer at {approx}0.56 petaflop (quadrillion floating point operations per second). VPIC has enabled previously intractable simulations in numerous areas of plasma physics, including magnetic reconnection and laser plasma interactions; next generation supercomputers like Roadrunner will enable further advances.
Amber T. Krummel; Sujit S. Datta; Stefan Mnster; David A. Weitz
2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z
We report an approach to fully visualize the flow of two immiscible fluids through a model three-dimensional (3D) porous medium at pore-scale resolution. Using confocal microscopy, we directly image the drainage of the medium by the non-wetting oil and subsequent imbibition by the wetting fluid. During imbibition, the wetting fluid pinches off threads of oil in the narrow crevices of the medium, forming disconnected oil ganglia. Some of these ganglia remain trapped within the medium. By resolving the full 3D structure of the trapped ganglia, we show that the typical ganglion size, and the total amount of residual oil, decreases as the capillary number Ca increases; this behavior reflects the competition between the viscous pressure in the wetting fluid and the capillary pressure required to force oil through the pores of the medium. This work thus shows how pore-scale fluid dynamics influence the trapped fluid configurations in multiphase flow through 3D porous media.
Gent, F. A.; Erdlyi, R. [SP"2RC, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Fedun, V., E-mail: f.gent@shef.ac.uk [Space Systems Laboratory, Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modeled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the solar surface to the corona. We apply magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure, and temperature distributions consistent with observational and theoretical estimates for the lower solar atmosphere. Although each flux tube is identical in construction apart from the location of the radial axis, combinations can be applied to generate a non-axisymmetric magnetic field with multiple non-uniform flux tubes. This is a considerable step forward in modeling the realistic magnetized three-dimensional equilibria of the solar atmosphere.
Three dimensional thermal-solute phase field simulation of binary alloy solidification
P. C. Bollada; C. E. Goodyer; P. K. Jimack; A. M. Mullis; F. W. Yang
2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z
We employ adaptive mesh refinement, implicit time stepping, a nonlinear multigrid solver and parallel computation, to solve a multi-scale, time dependent, three dimensional, nonlinear set of coupled partial differential equations for three scalar field variables. The mathematical model represents the non-isothermal solidification of a metal alloy into a melt substantially cooled below its freezing point at the microscale. Underlying physical molecular forces are captured at this scale by a specification of the energy field. The time rate of change of the temperature, alloy concentration and an order parameter to govern the state of the material (liquid or solid) is controlled by the diffusion parameters and variational derivatives of the energy functional. The physical problem is important to material scientists for the development of solid metal alloys and, hitherto, this fully coupled thermal problem has not been simulated in three dimensions, due to its computationally demanding nature. By bringing together state of the art numerical techniques this problem is now shown here to be tractable at appropriate resolution with relatively moderate computational resources.
Lee, H.R.
1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object. 5 figs.
High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (CXIDB ID 15)
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Chapman, Henry N.
The file contains 125 images corresponding to different tilts of the sample around the y axis at 1 degree intervals. Each image is the result of 4 exposures merged together. For more details see the citation.
de Jonge, Niels (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN
2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z
A confocal scanning transmission electron microscope which includes an electron illumination device providing an incident electron beam propagating in a direction defining a propagation axis, and a precision specimen scanning stage positioned along the propagation axis and movable in at least one direction transverse to the propagation axis. The precision specimen scanning stage is configured for positioning a specimen relative to the incident electron beam. A projector lens receives a transmitted electron beam transmitted through at least part of the specimen and focuses this transmitted beam onto an image plane, where the transmitted beam results from the specimen being illuminated by the incident electron beam. A detection system is placed approximately in the image plane.
A Multi-Layer Three Dimensional Superconducting Nanowire Photon Detector
A. Matthew Smith
2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
Here we propose a new design paradigm for a superconducting nanowire single photon detector that uses a multi-layer architecture that places the electric leads beneath the nanowires. This allows for a very large number of detector elements, which we will call pixels in analogy to a conventional CCD camera, to be placed in close proximity. This leads to significantly better photon number resolution than current single and multi-nanowire meanders, while maintaining similar detection areas. We discuss the reset time of the pixels and how the design can be modified to avoid the latching failure seen in extremely short superconducting nanowires. These advantages give a multi-layer superconducting number-resolving photon detector significant advantages over the current design paradigm of long superconducting nanowire meanders. Such advantages are desirable in a wide array of photonics applications.
Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold
Farmer, Joseph C; Stadermann, Michael
2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z
A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.
Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold
Farmer, Joseph Collin; Stadermann, Michael
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.
Three-dimensional cardiac architecture determined by two-photon microtomy
Huang, Hayden
Cardiac architecture is inherently three-dimensional, yet most characterizations rely on two-dimensional histological slices or dissociated cells, which remove the native geometry of the heart. We previously developed a ...
Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for sub-nanometer three-dimensional positioning
Moon, Euclid E. (Euclid Eberle), 1965-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Current alignment technology is incapable of satisfying the needs of imminent generations of lithography. This dissertation delineates a novel method of alignment and three-dimensional position metrology that is compatible ...
THREE-DIMENSIONAL METALLIC ARCHITECTURES FOR PHOTONIC AND ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS
Braun, Paul
THREE-DIMENSIONAL METALLIC ARCHITECTURES FOR PHOTONIC AND ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS BY KEVIN interesting for photonic and energy storage applications. Sacrificial templates are commonly used metamaterial, and energy storage applications. 3D metallic architectures are useful for solar
Electrons Move Like Light in Three-Dimensional Solid | U.S. DOE...
Office of Science (SC) Website
Electrons Move Like Light in Three-Dimensional Solid Tracking electronic motion in a graphene-like bulk material shows fast electrons in all dimensions. Print Text Size: A A A...
Esmen, Ekrem Alp, 1977-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional mixed-mode linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis is presented using domain interaction integrals. An out-of-plane sinusoidal crack was analyzed using a commercially available finite element package ...
An interactive three-dimensional computer graphic simulation of the upper extremity
Pickard, Julie Marie
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional computer graphic simulation which hics. allows for the arbitrary placement of axes of motion with respect to skeletal structures is described. The simulation, developed on a Sum UItraSPARC high performance workstation integrated...
Ensemble Analysis of Angiogenic Growth in Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Cell Cultures
Farahat, Waleed A.
We demonstrate ensemble three-dimensional cell cultures and quantitative analysis of angiogenic growth from uniform endothelial monolayers. Our approach combines two key elements: a micro-fluidic assay that enables ...
Bimetallic bars with local control of composition by three-dimensional printing
Techapiesancharoenkij, Ratchatee, 1979-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a process that enables the fabrication of geometrically complex parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. The success of 3DP as an alternative manufacturing technology to ...
Membrane technology for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals
Patel, Amil Ashok, 1979-
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional photonic crystals hold tremendous promise toward the realization of truly integrated photonic circuits on a single substrate. Nanofabrication techniques currently limit the ability to create the multilayer ...
A gradient optimization method for efficient design of three-dimensional deformation processes
Zabaras, Nicholas J.
A gradient optimization method for efficient design of three-dimensional deformation processes Swagato Acharjee and Nicholas Zabaras Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory, Sibley School processes. The optimization is based on the continuum sensitivity method (CSM). CSM involves differentiation
E. Paal; J. Virkepu
2010-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
Operadic Lax representations for the harmonic oscillator are used to construct the quantum counterparts of three-dimensional real Lie algebras. The Jacobi operators of these quantum algebras are explicitly calculated.
Three-dimensional modeling of the plasma arc in arc welding
Xu, G.; Tsai, H. L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Hu, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, Connecticut 06604 (United States)
2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Most previous three-dimensional modeling on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) focuses on the weld pool dynamics and assumes the two-dimensional axisymmetric Gaussian distributions for plasma arc pressure and heat flux. In this article, a three-dimensional plasma arc model is developed, and the distributions of velocity, pressure, temperature, current density, and magnetic field of the plasma arc are calculated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, as well as part of the Maxwell's equations. This three-dimensional model can be used to study the nonaxisymmetric plasma arc caused by external perturbations such as an external magnetic field. It also provides more accurate boundary conditions when modeling the weld pool dynamics. The present work lays a foundation for true three-dimensional comprehensive modeling of GTAW and GMAW including the plasma arc, weld pool, and/or electrode.
Calabro, Joshua D.
Fundamental to the development of three-dimensional microelectronic fabrication is a material that enables vertical geometries. Here we show low-melting-point metal alloys containing iron dispersions that can be remotely ...
Ko, Min Seok
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
This dissertation presents a numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow and heat transfer in a channel with a backward-facing step. Flow was considered to be steady, incompressible, and laminar. The flow medium was treated to be radiatively...
Waveguiding at the Edge of a Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal
Joannopoulos, John D.
We find that electromagnetic waves can be guided at the edge of a three-dimensional photonic crystal in air. When the waveguide is defined by the intersection of two surface planes, the edge modes are associated with the ...
A three dimensional corner balance method for spatial discretization of the transport equation
Richardson, Rebecca Lynn
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The three-dimensional comer balance method is a new spatial discretization scheme for solving the transport equation on meshes consisting of "layers" of arbitrary polygonal meshes in the x-y plane. It is a conceptually and algebraically simple...
Fabrication of complex oral drug delivery forms by Three Dimensional Printing (tm)
Katstra, Wendy E. (Wendy Ellen), 1974-
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing 3DPTM is a novel solid freeform fabrication technology that has been applied to the fabrication of complex pharmaceutical drug devices. Limitations of the technology as relating to pharmaceuticals ...
Characterization and requirements for Cu-Cu bonds for three-dimensional integrated circuits
Tadepalli, Rajappa, 1979-
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) technology enables heterogeneous integration of devices fabricated from different technologies, and reduces global RC delay by increasing the device density per unit chip area. ...
Gregorski, Steven Joseph
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The material properties and dimensional accuracy of metal tooling produced by the Three Dimensional Printing process can be enhanced by increasing the green density of the 3D printed part. Green density is the ratio of ...
Shmelev, Alexey Alexandrovich
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis describes the physics of fully three-dimensional low frequency acoustic interaction with internal waves, bottom sediment waves and surface swell waves that are often observed in shallow waters and on continental ...
Fucetola, Corey Patrick
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis considers the viability of nanomembrane handling and stacking approaches to enable the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) nano-structured materials. Sequentially stacking previously-patterned membranes to ...
Hybrid Geometric Feedback Control of Three-Dimensional Bipedal Robotic Walkers with Knees and Feet
Sinnet, Ryan Wesley
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
HYBRID GEOMETRIC FEEDBACK CONTROL OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIPEDAL ROBOTIC WALKERS WITH KNEES AND FEET A Thesis by RYAN WESLEY SINNET Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2011 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering HYBRID GEOMETRIC FEEDBACK CONTROL OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIPEDAL ROBOTIC WALKERS WITH KNEES AND FEET A Thesis by RYAN WESLEY SINNET Submitted to the Office of Graduate...
Yang, Yu-Hsiang
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BUBBLE COLLAPSE PHENOMENA IN SUBCOOLED WATER WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY A Thesis by YU-HSIANG YANG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1998 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BUBBLE COLLAPSE PHENOMENA IN SUBCOOLED WATER WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY A Thesis by YU-HSIANG YANG Submitted...
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes D. Gostovic,*,z
Florida, University of
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes D. Gostovic,*,z J. R. Smith,* D. P In this initial study the electrochemically active region of a La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3- LSCF cathode an actual three-dimensional 3D model of a La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3- LSCF cathode and its interface
Guo, David, 1976-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a solid freeform fabrication process used to generate solid parts directly from three-dimensional computer models. A part geometry is created by selectively depositing binder into ...
Three-dimensional simulations of pure deflagration models for thermonuclear supernovae
Long, Min; Jordan, George C. IV; Van Rossum, Daniel R.; Diemer, Benedikt; Graziani, Carlo; Kessler, Richard; Rich, Paul; Lamb, Don Q. [Flash Center for Computational Science, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Meyer, Bradley, E-mail: long@flash.uchicago.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)
2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present a systematic study of the pure deflagration model of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using three-dimensional, high-resolution, full-star hydrodynamical simulations, nucleosynthetic yields calculated using Lagrangian tracer particles, and light curves calculated using radiation transport. We evaluate the simulations by comparing their predicted light curves with many observed SNe Ia using the SALT2 data-driven model and find that the simulations may correspond to under-luminous SNe Iax. We explore the effects of the initial conditions on our results by varying the number of randomly selected ignition points from 63 to 3500, and the radius of the centered sphere they are confined in from 128 to 384 km. We find that the rate of nuclear burning depends on the number of ignition points at early times, the density of ignition points at intermediate times, and the radius of the confining sphere at late times. The results depend primarily on the number of ignition points, but we do not expect this to be the case in general. The simulations with few ignition points release more nuclear energy E{sub nuc}, have larger kinetic energies E{sub K}, and produce more {sup 56}Ni than those with many ignition points, and differ in the distribution of {sup 56}Ni, Si, and C/O in the ejecta. For these reasons, the simulations with few ignition points exhibit higher peak B-band absolute magnitudes M{sub B} and light curves that rise and decline more quickly; their M{sub B} and light curves resemble those of under-luminous SNe Iax, while those for simulations with many ignition points are not.
Yoshimatsu, Katsunori; Kawahara, Yasuhiro [Department of Computational Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Schneider, Kai [M2P2-CNRS and CMI, Universite de Provence, 39 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Okamoto, Naoya [Center for Computational Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Farge, Marie [LMD-IPSL-CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)
2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Scale-dependent and geometrical statistics of three-dimensional incompressible homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence without mean magnetic field are examined by means of the orthogonal wavelet decomposition. The flow is computed by direct numerical simulation with a Fourier spectral method at resolution 512{sup 3} and a unit magnetic Prandtl number. Scale-dependent second and higher order statistics of the velocity and magnetic fields allow to quantify their intermittency in terms of spatial fluctuations of the energy spectra, the flatness, and the probability distribution functions at different scales. Different scale-dependent relative helicities, e.g., kinetic, cross, and magnetic relative helicities, yield geometrical information on alignment between the different scale-dependent fields. At each scale, the alignment between the velocity and magnetic field is found to be more pronounced than the other alignments considered here, i.e., the scale-dependent alignment between the velocity and vorticity, the scale-dependent alignment between the magnetic field and its vector potential, and the scale-dependent alignment between the magnetic field and the current density. Finally, statistical scale-dependent analyses of both Eulerian and Lagrangian accelerations and the corresponding time-derivatives of the magnetic field are performed. It is found that the Lagrangian acceleration does not exhibit substantially stronger intermittency compared to the Eulerian acceleration, in contrast to hydrodynamic turbulence where the Lagrangian acceleration shows much stronger intermittency than the Eulerian acceleration. The Eulerian time-derivative of the magnetic field is more intermittent than the Lagrangian time-derivative of the magnetic field.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC BONDI-HOYLE ACCRETION. IV. SPECIFIC HEAT RATIO 4/3.
M. Ruffert
1995-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the hydrodynamics of three-dimensional classical Bondi-Hoyle accretion. A totally absorbing sphere of different sizes (1, 0.1 and 0.02 accretion radii) exerts gravity on and moves at different Mach numbers (0.6, 1.4, 3.0 and 10) relative to a homogeneous and slightly perturbed medium, which is taken to be an ideal gas ($\\gamma=4/3$). We examine the influence of Mach number of the flow and size of the accretor upon the physical behaviour of the flow and the accretion rates. The hydrodynamics is modeled by the ``Piecewise Parabolic Method'' (PPM). The resolution in the vicinity of the accretor is increased by multiply nesting several $32^3$-zone grids around the sphere, each finer grid being a factor of two smaller in zone dimension than the next coarser grid. This allows us to include a coarse model for the surface of the accretor (vacuum sphere) on the finest grid while at the same time evolving the gas on the coarser grids. For small Mach numbers (0.6 and~1.4) the flow patterns tend towards a steady state, while in the case of supersonic flow (Mach~3 and~10) and small enough accretors, (radius of~0.1 and~0.02 accretion radii) an unstable Mach cone develops, destroying axisymmetry. Our 3D models do not show the highly dynamic flip-flop flow so prominent in 2D calculations performed by other authors. In the gamma=4/3 models, the shock front remains closer to the accretor and the mass accretion rates are higher than in the gamma=5/3 models, whereas the rms of the specific angular momentum accreted does not change.
Markus Herz
2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z
Laser frequency stabilization is notably one of the major challenges on the way to a space-borne gravitational wave observatory. The proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is presently under development in an ESA, NASA collaboration. We present a novel method for active laser stabilization and phase noise suppression in such a gravitational wave detector. The proposed approach is a further evolution of the "arm locking" method, which in essence consists of using an interferometer arm as an optical cavity, exploiting the extreme long-run stability of the cavity size in the frequency band of interest. We extend this method by using the natural interferometer arm length differences and existing interferometer signals as additional information sources for the reconstruction and active suppression of the quasi-periodic laser frequency noise, enhancing the resolution power of space-borne gravitational wave detectors.
Nonlinear electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of three dimensional current shear instability
Jain, Neeraj [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Das, Amita; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)
2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper deals with detailed nonlinear electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a three dimensional current shear driven instability in slab geometry. The simulations show the development of the instability in the current shear layer in the linear regime leading to the generation of electromagnetic turbulence in the nonlinear regime. The electromagnetic turbulence is first generated in the unstable shear layer and then spreads into the stable regions. The turbulence spectrum shows a new kind of anisotropy in which power transfer towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow. Results of the present three dimensional simulations of the current shear instability are compared with those of our earlier two dimensional simulations of sausage instability. It is found that the flattening of the mean velocity profile and thus reduction in the electron current due to generation of electromagnetic turbulence in the three dimensional case is more effective as compared to that in the two dimensional case.
Karasick, M.S.; Strip, D.R.
1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
A parallel computing system is described that comprises a plurality of uniquely labeled, parallel processors, each processor capable of modeling a three-dimensional object that includes a plurality of vertices, faces and edges. The system comprises a front-end processor for issuing a modeling command to the parallel processors, relating to a three-dimensional object. Each parallel processor, in response to the command and through the use of its own unique label, creates a directed-edge (d-edge) data structure that uniquely relates an edge of the three-dimensional object to one face of the object. Each d-edge data structure at least includes vertex descriptions of the edge and a description of the one face. As a result, each processor, in response to the modeling command, operates upon a small component of the model and generates results, in parallel with all other processors, without the need for processor-to-processor intercommunication. 8 figs.
Karasick, Michael S. (Ridgefield, CT); Strip, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A parallel computing system is described that comprises a plurality of uniquely labeled, parallel processors, each processor capable of modelling a three-dimensional object that includes a plurality of vertices, faces and edges. The system comprises a front-end processor for issuing a modelling command to the parallel processors, relating to a three-dimensional object. Each parallel processor, in response to the command and through the use of its own unique label, creates a directed-edge (d-edge) data structure that uniquely relates an edge of the three-dimensional object to one face of the object. Each d-edge data structure at least includes vertex descriptions of the edge and a description of the one face. As a result, each processor, in response to the modelling command, operates upon a small component of the model and generates results, in parallel with all other processors, without the need for processor-to-processor intercommunication.
Zaleski, T. A.; Polak, T. P. [Institute of Low Temperatures and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, POB 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw 2 (Poland); Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Faculty of Physics, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)
2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss a system of dilute Bose gas confined in a layered structure of stacked square lattices (slab geometry). A derived phase diagram reveals a nonmonotonic dependence of the ratio of tunneling to on-site repulsion on the artificial magnetic field applied to the system. The effect is reduced when more layers are added, which mimics a two- to quasi-three-dimensional geometry crossover. Furthermore, we establish a correspondence between anisotropic infinite (quasi-three-dimensional) and isotropic finite (slab geometry) systems that share exactly the same critical values, which can be an important clue for choosing experimental setups that are less demanding, but still leading to the identical results. Finally, we show that the properties of the ideal Bose gas in a three-dimensional optical lattice can be closely mimicked by finite (slab) systems when the number of two-dimensional layers is larger than 10 for isotropic interactions, or even less when the layers are weakly coupled.
Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Vermeul, V.R.; Webber, W.D.
1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The ground water underlying parts of the Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) contains radioactive and chemical contaminants at concentrations exceeding regulatory standards (Dresel et al. 1993). The Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is responsible for monitoring the movement of these contaminants to ensure that public health and the environment are protected. To support the monitoring effort, a sitewide three-dimensional ground-water flow model is being developed. This report provides an update on the status of the conceptual model that will form the basis for constructing a numerical three-dimensional flow model for, the site. Thorne and Chamness (1992) provide additional information on the initial development of the three-dimensional conceptual model.
Geometry and scaling of tangled vortex lines in three-dimensional random wave fields
Alexander J. Taylor; Mark R. Dennis
2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z
The short- and long-scale behaviour of tangled wave vortices (nodal lines) in random three-dimensional wave fields is studied via computer experiment. The zero lines are tracked in numerical simulations of periodic superpositions of three-dimensional complex plane waves. The probability distribution of local geometric quantities such as curvature and torsion are compared to previous analytical and new Monte Carlo results from the isotropic Gaussian random wave model. We further examine the scaling and self-similarity of tangled wave vortex lines individually and in the bulk, drawing comparisons with other physical systems of tangled filaments.
Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a hierarchical data structure
Wald, Ingo; Boulos, Solomon; Shirley, Peter
2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z
Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene made up of geometric primitives that are spatially partitioned into a hierarchical data structure. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene made up of geometric primitives that are spatially partitioned into a hierarchical data structure. In this example embodiment, the hierarchical data structure includes at least a parent node and a corresponding plurality of child nodes. The method includes a first act of determining that a first active ray in the packet hits the parent node and a second act of descending to each of the plurality of child nodes.
Landy, N I; Smith, D R
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce an approach to the design of three-dimensional transformation optical (TO) media based on a generalized quasi-conformal mapping approach. The generalized quasi-conformal TO (QCTO) approach enables the design of media that can, in principle, be broadband and low-loss, while controlling the propagation of waves with arbitrary angles of incidence and polarization. We illustrate the method in the design of a three-dimensional "carpet" ground plane cloak and of a flattened Luneburg lens. Ray-trace studies provide a confirmation of the performance of the QCTO media, while also revealing the limited performance of index-only versions of these devices.
Three-dimensional NDE of VHTR core components via simulation-based testing
Guzina, Bojan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Kunerth, Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
A next generation, simulation-driven-and-enabled testing platform is developed for the 3D detection and characterization of defects and damage in nuclear graphite and composite structures in Very High Tempera- ture Reactors (VHTRs). The proposed work addresses the critical need for the development of high-fidelity Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) technologies for as-manufactured and replaceable in-service VHTR com- ponents. Centered around the novel use of elastic (sonic and ultrasonic) waves, this project deploys a robust, non-iterative inverse solution for the 3D defect reconstruction together with a non-contact, laser-based ap- proach to the measurement of experimental waveforms in VHTR core components. In particular, this research (1) deploys three-dimensional Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometry (3D SLDV) as a means to accurately and remotely measure 3D displacement waveforms over the accessible surface of a VHTR core component excited by mechanical vibratory source; (2) implements a powerful new inverse technique, based on the concept of Topological Sensitivity (TS), for non-iterative elastic waveform tomography of internal defects that permits robust 3D detection, reconstruction and characterization of discrete damage (e.g. holes and fractures) in nuclear graphite from limited-aperture NDE measurements; (3) implements state-of-the art computational (finite element) model that caters for accurately simulating elastic wave propagation in 3D blocks of nuclear graphite; (4) integrates the SLDV testing methodology with the TS imaging algorithm into a non-contact, high-fidelity NDE platform for the 3D reconstruction and characterization of defects and damage in VHTR core components; and (5) applies the proposed methodology to VHTR core component samples (both two- and three-timensional) with a priori induced, discrete damage in the form of holes and fractures. Overall, the newly established SLDV-TS testing platform represents a next-generation NDE tool that surpasses all exist- ing techniques for the 3D ultrasonic imaging of material damage from non-contact, limited-aperture waveform measurements. Outlook. The next stage in the development of this technology includes items such as (a) non-contact generation of mechanical vibrations in VHTR components via thermal expansion created by high-intensity laser; (b) development and incorporation of Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) for elevating the accuracy of 3D imaging in highly noisy environments with minimal accessible surface; (c) further analytical and computational developments to facilitate the reconstruction of diffuse damage (e.g. microcracks) in nuclear graphite as they lead to the dispersion of elastic waves, (d) concept of model updating for accurate tracking of the evolution of material damage via periodic inspections; (d) adoption of the Bayesian framework to obtain information on the certainty of obtained images; and (e) optimization of the computational scheme toward real-time, model-based imaging of damage in VHTR core components.
DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501973 Direct Laser Writing of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals with
John, Sajeev
ago. However, the fabrication of high- quality 3D structures for the optical regime still remains-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs) and photonic bandgap materials[1,2] was introduced nearly twenty years to be suitable for the fabrication of 3D PCs with an omni-direc- tional photonic bandgap (PBG): i) the material
Three-Dimensional Momentum Imaging of Electron Wave Packet Interference in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses
Kling, Matthias
Heidelberg, Germany A. Rudenko Max-Planck Advanced Study Group at CFEL, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany O. Herrwerth
Bouaynaya, Nidhal
is an opportunistic human pathogen and a causative agent of a wide range of diseases. Its hallmark feature-dimensional segmentation. 1. Introduction Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for diseases shield microorganisms from stressful environmental conditions including the defensive mechanisms
Partial and complete spheromak merging: three-dimensional reconnection and FRC studies at SSX
Washington at Seattle, University of
1 Partial and complete spheromak merging: three-dimensional reconnection and FRC studies at SSX restrictions to merging have been removed, and studies of FRC formation and stability by complete counter indicates the formation of a null- helicity object consistent with an untilted FRC, while other shots show
Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional
Kandlikar, Satish
Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits and integrated cooling systems. For heat fluxes of 50100 W/cm2 on each side of a chip in a 3D IC package outstanding issues in the cooling system design were outlined. Before reviewing available literature
THREE-DIMENSIONAL FIB-OIM OF CERAMIC MATERIALS Shen J. Dillon
Rohrer, Gregory S.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL FIB-OIM OF CERAMIC MATERIALS Shen J. Dillon Carnegie Mellon University 5000 materials to be performed more routinely. However, limited work has been performed on ceramics. Examples employed to characterize metallic systems, and metallic systems with ceramic second-phases. Several studies
Fast three-dimensional terahertz computed tomography using real-time line projection of
Paris-Sud XI, Universit de
Fast three-dimensional terahertz computed tomography using real-time line projection of intense terahertz computed tomography by using real-time line projection of intense terahertz beam generated). 4. B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray computed tomography," Opt. Lett
Powles, Rebecca
Carbon three-dimensional architecture formed by intersectional collision of graphene patches architectures constructed from those unit structures are expected to have various applications with lightweight of fullerenes and nanotubes, architectures consisting of sp2 network are getting a lot of attention. The most
Review of Three-Dimensional Holographic Imaging by Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holograms
Rosen, Joseph
010103-1 Review of Three-Dimensional Holographic Imaging by Fresnel Incoherent Correlation our recently proposed single-channel optical system for generating digital Fresnel holograms of 3-D of spherical beams creates the Fresnel hologram of the observed 3-D object. When this hologram is reconstructed
Rosen, Joseph
Fourier, Fresnel and Image CGHs of three-dimensional objects observed from many different of synthesizing three types of computer-generated hologram (CGH); Fourier, Fresnel and image CGHs. These holograms in the computer as a Fourier hologram. Then, it can be converted to either Fresnel or image holograms by computing
Photodeposition Method For Fabricating A Three-Dimensional, Patterned Polymer Microstructure
Walt, David R. (Lexington, MA); Healey, Brian G. (Sommerville, MA)
2001-03-13T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention is a photodeposition methodology for fabricating a three-dimensional patterned polymer microstructure. A variety of polymeric structures can be fabricated on solid substrates using unitary fiber optic arrays for light delivery. The methodology allows micrometer-scale photopatterning for the fabricated structures using masks substantially larger than the desired dimensions of the microstructure.
An H-Formulation for the Three-Dimensional Eddy Current Problem in Laminated Structures
Zheng, Weiying
An H- Formulation for the Three-Dimensional Eddy Current Problem in Laminated Structures Peijun Li-dimensional eddy currents in grain-oriented (GO) silicon steel laminations since the coating film is only several to the smallest scale can be up to 106. In this paper, we study an H- formulation for the nonlinear eddy current
Jablonowski, Christiane
Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models for Atmospheric Research 1. Introduction One of the most important advances needed in global climate models of this project is a parallel adaptive grid library, which is currently under development at the University
Kelley, Kirk Lee
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The goal of this study is to demonstrate how the use of three-dimensional computer reconstruction of architecture from an archaelogical site can be used to gain a better understanding of the culture represented. To demonstrate this process, a three...
Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Agrobacterium VirE2 Protein with Single-stranded DNA*
Citovsky, Vitaly
for publication, February 18, 2004, and in revised form, March 29, 2004 Published, JBC Papers in Press, March 30 ("telephone coil") organization of the VirE2- DNA complex. Here we report a three-dimensional re- construction breeding (1618). Upon induction of the vir region by detection of plant-specific wound signals, the VirD1
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of straight channel PEM fuel cells *, S. SHIMPALEE1
Van Zee, John W.
distribution, fuel cell, mass transfer, PEM Abstract The need to model three-dimensional ow in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is discussed by developing an integrated ow and current density model anode inlet (m) XwYK mole fraction of water in stream K Greek symbols l dynamic viscosity (kg s m2
PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF RECONNECTING CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS
Isliker, Heinz
PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF RECONNECTING CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS PETER J in final form 18 October 2005) Abstract. Particle acceleration in large-scale turbulent coronal magnetic to be addressed, such as feedback between particle acceleration and MHD, are discussed. Keywords: particle
Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials for particle-accelerator on a
Byer, Robert L.
Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials for particle-accelerator on a chip@physics.anu.edu.au Abstract: The quest for less costly and more compact high-energy particle accelerators," in Proceedings of Particle Accelerator Conference 2011, (2011) pp. 277279. 12. M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M
Method to Analyze Three-Dimensional Cell Distribution and Infiltration in Degradable Scaffolds
Yang, Jian
Method to Analyze Three-Dimensional Cell Distribution and Infiltration in Degradable Scaffolds Paul a quick, convenient, and efficient method to quantify cell survival, distribution, and infiltration is the inability to observe the distribution and migration of seeded cells throughout the scaffold.8 This study
Direct reconstruction of three-dimensional atomic adsorption sites by holographic LEED D. K. Saldin
Saldin, Dilano
Direct reconstruction of three-dimensional atomic adsorption sites by holographic LEED D. K. Saldin on the application to measured data of an algorithm for holographic low-energy electron diffrac- tion LEED , which LEED intensities due to possible long-range order among the adsorbates. The only experimental input
Three-dimensional Modeling of Acid Transport and Etching in a Fracture
Oeth, Cassandra V
2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z
s conductivity, which is based on the etched width created by the injected acid. Etching occurs along the fracture surface but is based on acid flowing through the fracture, so an evaluation tool should describe three-dimensional physics and chemistry. Current...
MICROSCALE THREE-DIMENSIONAL HEMISPHERICAL SHELL RESONATORS FABRICATED FROM METALLIC GLASS
M'Closkey, Robert T.
MICROSCALE THREE-DIMENSIONAL HEMISPHERICAL SHELL RESONATORS FABRICATED FROM METALLIC GLASS M. Kanik.S. Abstract-- A novel use of bulk metallic glasses in microresonator applications is reported and a method scale glass blowmolding using quartz [2] and Pyrex [3], as well as the isotropic etching of silicon
Kelley, Kirk Lee
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The goal of this study is to demonstrate how the use of three-dimensional computer reconstruction of architecture from an archaelogical site can be used to gain a better understanding of the culture represented. To demonstrate this process, a three...
THREE-DIMENSIONAL LUNG DENSITOMETER USING CdTe DETECTORS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND
Paris-Sud XI, Universit de
369 THREE-DIMENSIONAL LUNG DENSITOMETER USING CdTe DETECTORS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND EVALUATION is optimized for lung densitometry, similar configurations can be used for bone densito- metry. - The measurement of absolute lung density by a non-invasive technique is of impor- tance in assessing the status
Huang, Yanyi
is limited by the size of the devices. Stacking PLCs to make three-dimensional (3D) structures will effi- ciently increase the density of photonic circuits. Several polymer 3D integrated optical devices have been alternate fabrication methods to generate 3D multilayer structures.10,11 In this letter, we describe
Three-Dimensional Nanostructures Formed by Single Step, Two-Photon
Rogers, John A.
patterning of 3D structures is possible, with simple setups in which all of the optics can be contained describe the fabrication of unusual classes of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures using single step, two. Confocal imaging, computational studies, and 3D reconstructions reveal the essential aspects of the flow
Rogers, John A.
phase mask, can generate highly periodic 3D structures in photosensitive materials through optical density-graded 3D structures that result from computational modeling are demonstrated. Re- sults of x for three-dimensional (3D) patterning of photosensitive polymers and other materials has potential applica
Utah, University of
of a non-proprietary, optical three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system for the simultaneous cameras and software for calculating the 3D coordinates of contrast markers. System precision was5 assessed by examining the variation in the coordinates of static markers over time. 3D strain measurement
Cao, Guozhong
Three-Dimensional Coherent Titania-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Lithium-Ion Storage nanocomposites demonstrated high rate capability and good cycling properties. KEYWORDS: TiO2, Li4Ti5O12, ordered as one of the most promising candidates for applications in electric and hybrid vehicles
Three-dimensional, fully adaptive simulations of phase-field fluid models
Bigelow, Stephen
interface [1317] is compatible with the observation that physically there is a rapid but smooth transition a thin transition layer and is mostly uniform in the bulk phases. The models have an appealingThree-dimensional, fully adaptive simulations of phase-field fluid models Hector D. Ceniceros
Ris-M-2209 THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE
Ris-M-2209 THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE ANTI; ROD EJECTION TEST CALCULATION A neutronics and thermal-hydraulics descrip- tion of a PWR core under transient conditions. In this report and with closed hydraulic channels. INIS descriptors. A CODES, CONTROL ELEMENTS, HYDRAULICS, PWR TYPE REACTORS
Multiplex Three-Dimensional Brain Gene Expression Mapping in a Mouse Model
Smith, Desmond J.
Multiplex Three-Dimensional Brain Gene Expression Mapping in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease model of Parkinson's disease (PD) had been induced by methamphetamine. Quality-control analyses obscure (Owen et al. 2000). These diseases frequently have important genetic contributions, but it has
A Three-Dimensional Geographic and Storm Surge Data Integration System for Evacuation Planning
Chen, Shu-Ching
@fiu.edu Abstract The rise of offshore water caused by the high winds of a low pressure weather system, or storm to construct a three-dimensional ocean po- sitioned over the terrain models. Ambient details such as wind, vegetation, ocean waves, and traffic are animated based on up-to-date wind and storm surge data. Videos
Gapless layered three-dimensional fractional quantum Hall states Michael Levin1
2D , anisotropic three-dimensional 3D electron systems--such as multilayer systems in a perpen of experiments on 3D semiconductor multilayers have explored the behavior of stacked integer quantum Hall states effect in graphene,2023 and future pros- pects for graphene multilayers, provides further impetus
Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model for Prediction of Falling Cylinder Through Water Column
Chu, Peter C.
1 1 Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model for Prediction of Falling Cylinder Through Water Column-coordinate), cylinder's main-axis following coordinate (M-coordinate), and hydrodynamic force following coordinate (F-coordinate system. The hydrodynamic forces (such as the drag and lift forces) and their moments are easily computed
expense between a one-dimensional (1-D) advection-dispersion model and a fully three-dimensional (3-D-dimensional fractional derivative, and multirate transient storage models Eric J. Anderson1 and Mantha S. Phanikumar2] Large rivers are major conduits for sediment and nutrient transport and play an important role in global
Yang, Hui
Identification and Applications of Three-dimensional Non-local Structural Motifs in Protein Folding Francisco State University, U.S.A. 1 Background How does a protein fold into its biologically functional]. The product of such simulations is a collection of folding trajectories of the protein under study, where each
Ezer,Tal
Entrainment, diapycnal mixing and transport in three-dimensional bottom gravity current simulations Abstract The diapycnal mixing, entrainment and bottom boundary layer (BBL) dynamics in simulations of dense structure. Strong diapycnal mixing and large entrainment result in more than doubling the plume transport
THREE-DIMENSIONAL CLOUD STRUCTURE OBSERVED DURING DOE ARM'S 2009 CLOUD TOMOGRAPHY FIELD EXPERIMENT
THREE-DIMENSIONAL CLOUD STRUCTURE OBSERVED DURING DOE ARM'S 2009 CLOUD TOMOGRAPHY FIELD EXPERIMENT on Cloud Physics, Portland, OR June 28-July 2, 2010 Environmental Sciences Department/Atmospheric Sciences Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)'s cloud tomography Intensive Observation Period (IOP
Three dimensional reconstruction of aerogels from TEM images Florence Despetis1,2
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Three dimensional reconstruction of aerogels from TEM images Florence Despetis1,2 ,Nadjette to compute their physical properties. We focus here on base catalyzed and colloidal silica aerogels, which are fractal materials and we use an original method for the reconstruction of these aerogels from TEM images
Three-dimensional study of cylindrical morphology in a styrene-butadiene-styrene
Agard, David
Three-dimensional study of cylindrical morphology in a styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer electron microscopy (TEM), we have obtained projections ofa styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)copolymer (30wt component. Figure 1, for example, depicts for a styrene (S)-butadiene (B) triblock copolymer either
An Effective Approach for Identifying Evolving Three-Dimensional Structural Motifs in Protein
Yang, Hui
have been employed to study the protein folding process, in which a protein acquires its func- tional three-dimensional structure. This has resulted in a large number of protein folding trajectories of the protein folding mechanism. In this paper, we focus on identifying im- portant 3D structural motifs
Bennett, Gisele
Simulations of absorbance efficiency and power production of three dimensional tower arrays for use in photovoltaics Jack Flicker1 and Jud Ready2,a 1 Materials Science and Eng., Georgia Institute of Technology. Major strides must be made in solar cell efficiency, including increasing absorbance efficiency
Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell
Victoria, University of
Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell by Torsten or other means, without permission of the author. #12;Supervisor: Dr. N. Djilali Abstract Fuel cells-isothermal computational model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The model was developed to improve
THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF NiO ZrO2(CUBIC) INTERFACES
Pennycook, Steve
THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF NiO ZrO2(CUBIC) INTERFACES E. C. DICKEY{1 , V. P. DRAVID1-dimensional atomic structure of low-energy NiOZrO2(cubic) interfaces is determined through a combination of electron the structural and chemical aspects of the interface and associ- ated interfacial relaxation mechaubic) interface
Exact sequence analysis for three-dimensional hydrophobic-polar lattice proteins
Janke, Wolfhard
Exact sequence analysis for three-dimensional hydrophobic-polar lattice proteins Reinhard Schiemann 17 March 2005 We have exactly enumerated all sequences and conformations of hydrophobic-polar HP sequences, i.e., sequences that have a nondegenerate ground state. Furthermore we were interested
A numerical model of convective heat transfer in a three dimensional channel with baffles
Lopez Buso, Jorge Ricardo
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the experimental results of Goldstein and Kreid (1967) and Beavers et. al. (1970) for a three-dimensional laminar flow in a channel without baffles. Parametric runs were made for Reynolds Numbers (Re) of 150, 250, 3 50, and 450, for blockage ratios (H/Dy) of 0. 5...
Small divisor problem in the theory of three-dimensional water gravity waves
Iooss, Grard
Small divisor problem in the theory of three-dimensional water gravity waves Gerard Iooss , Pavel of Sciences, Lavryentyev pr. 15, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia gerard.iooss@inln.cnrs.fr, plotnikov@hydro of small divisors, the main difficulty is the inversion of the linearized operator at a non trivial point
Liu, Yijun
Adaptive fast multipole boundary element method for three-dimensional half-space acoustic wave: Acoustics 3D half space Fast multipole BEM Windmill models a b s t r a c t A new adaptive fast multipole. This procedure simplifies the implementation of the adaptive fast multipole BEM and reduces the CPU time
An Innovative Three-Dimensional User Interface for Exploring Music Collections Enriched with
Widmer, Gerhard
in this collection. This is accomplished by automatically extracting features from the audio signal and training, a Smoothed Data Histogram (SDH) is calculated on the SOM and interpreted as a three-dimensional height that is founded in the sounds of one's digital audio collection. Using intelligent audio analysis, the pieces
Three dimensional controlled assembly of gold nanoparticles using a micromachined platform
Dokmeci, Mehmet
Three dimensional controlled assembly of gold nanoparticles using a micromachined platform Nishant By using optical lithographic procedures, the authors present a micromachined platform for large scale to vary the height of the 3D platform for meeting different application requirements. This research
The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells
Schmidt, Volker
1 The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells Stefan D.a.j.janssen@tue.nl #12;2 Abstract: The efficiency of polymer solar cells critically depends on the intimacy of mixing and quantitative correlation between solar cell performance, photophysical data and the three
Experimental Study of Tsunami Generation by Three-Dimensional Rigid Underwater Landslides
Grilli, Stphan T.
Experimental Study of Tsunami Generation by Three-Dimensional Rigid Underwater Landslides Franois are performed to study tsunami generation by rigid underwater land- slides. The main purpose of these experiments is to both gain insight into landslide tsunami generation processes and provide data
Three-dimensional waveform modeling of ionospheric signature induced by the 2004 Sumatra tsunami
Occhipinti, Giovanni "Ninto"
Three-dimensional waveform modeling of ionospheric signature induced by the 2004 Sumatra tsunami, 2004, tsunami produced internal gravity waves in the neutral atmosphere and large disturbances reproduce, with a 3D numerical modeling of the ocean-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, the tsunami signature
Three-dimensional simulation of tsunami generation and propagation: Application to intraplate events
Furumura, Takashi
Three-dimensional simulation of tsunami generation and propagation: Application to intraplate simulation program based on the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations is developed for simulating 3-D tsunami generation and propagation. We can simulate tsunami propagation over more than 1000 km using this program
Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal
John, Sajeev
Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal Ping Kuang,1-cubic photonic-crystal. PIR is an acutely negative refraction of light inside a photonic- crystal, leading to light-bending by nearly 90 deg over broad wavelengths (). The consequence is a longer path length
Kley, Willy
ORBITAL MIGRATION AND MASS ACCRETION OF PROTOPLANETS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL GLOBAL COMPUTATIONS masses, approximately above 0.1 MJ, migration rates are relatively constant, as expected in a type II migration regime and in good agreement with previous two-dimensional calculations. In a range between 7
Pizurica, Aleksandra
Three-Dimensional Quantitative Microwave Imaging of Realistic Numerical Breast Phantoms Using Huber detection with microwaves is based on the difference in dielectric properties between normal and malignant microwave scattering is a nonlinear, ill-posed inverse problem. We proposed to use the Huber regularization
Self-Organizing Fault-Tolerant Topology Control in Large-Scale Three-Dimensional
Wang, Yu
be deployed in three-dimensional (3D) space, such as under water wireless sensor networks in ocean or mobile to investigate self-organizing fault-tolerant topology control protocols for large- scale 3D wireless networks networks. Our simulation confirms our theoretical proofs for all proposed 3D topologies. Categories
JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, NO. , PAGES 125, Three Dimensional Coronal Density
California at Berkeley, University of
the dominance of magnetic forces in most of the corona, recent studies show that plasma beta in the core Abstract. The three-dimensional density structure of the solar corona is a fundamental boundary condition dependence of the neutral lines implicit beneath the streamer cores. Nonradiality of streamers and solar B
On the eective thermal conductivity of a three-dimensionally structured uid-saturated metal foam
Daraio, Chiara
thermal conductivity to a large extent, a fact that must be dealt with in the foam manufacturing process thermal conductivity in the volume averaged homogeneous energy equation. Antohe et al. [11] also requiredOn the eective thermal conductivity of a three- dimensionally structured uid-saturated metal foam
Three Dimensional Time Theory: to Unify the Principles of Basic Quantum Physics and Relativity
Xiaodong Chen
2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
Interpreting quantum mechanics(QM) by classical physics seems like an old topic; And unified theory is in physics frontier; But because the principles of quantum physics and relativity are so different, any theories of trying to unify 4 nature forces should not be considered as completed without truly unifying the basic principles between QM and relativity. This paper will interpret quantum physics by using two extra dimensional time as quantum hidden variables. I'll show that three dimensional time is a bridge to connect basics quantum physics, relativity and string theory. ``Quantum potential'' in Bohm's quantum hidden variable theory is derived from Einstein Lagrangian in 6-dimensional time-space geometry. Statistical effect in the measurement of single particle, non-local properties, de Broglie wave can be naturally derived from the natural properties of three dimensional time. Berry phase, double-slit interference of single particle, uncertainty relation, wave-packet collapse are discussed. The spin and g factor are derived from geometry of extra two time dimensions. Electron can be expressed as time monopole. In the last part of this paper, I'll discuss the relation between three dimensional time and unified theory. Key words: Quantum hidden variable, Interpreting of quantum physics, Berry phase, three dimensional time, unified theory
A novel three-dimensional model to quantify metastatic melanoma invasion
George, Steven C.
A novel three-dimensional model to quantify metastatic melanoma invasion Cyrus M. Ghajar,1 Vinod. Culturing melanomas of different meta- static capacities within the system showed that each cell type (i.e., matrix components, interstitial cell presence) on planar and vertical melanoma invasion. We
Some three-dimensional problems related to dielectric breakdown and polycrystal plasticity
Some three-dimensional problems related to dielectric breakdown and polycrystal plasticity Adriana estimate which scales differently when the yield set of the basic crystal is highly eccentric. For 3D. In both settings the Sachs bound is optimal. 1 Introduction The analysis of rigid, perfectly-plastic
Wong, Kenneth K.Y.
ForReview Only Quantification of Mitral Valve Morphology with Three- dimensional Echocardiography. of Medicine & Therapeutics Keywords: mitral valve, echocardiography, imaging Category: Diagnostic imaging/Nuclear medicine Japanese Circulation Society Circulation Journal #12;ForReview Only Quantification of Mitral Valve
Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Characterize Mitral Valve Motion
Ayache, Nicholas
Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Characterize Mitral Valve Motion Paul M. Novotnya results aim to fully characterize the four-dimensional (3D + time) movement of the mitral valve for better understanding of its behavior prior to surgical interventions, such as mitral valve repair. A behavior model
A numerical model of convective heat transfer in a three dimensional channel with baffles
Lopez Buso, Jorge Ricardo
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the experimental results of Goldstein and Kreid (1967) and Beavers et. al. (1970) for a three-dimensional laminar flow in a channel without baffles. Parametric runs were made for Reynolds Numbers (Re) of 150, 250, 3 50, and 450, for blockage ratios (H/Dy) of 0. 5...
A laminar cortical model of stereopsis and three-dimensional surface perception
Grossberg, Stephen
A laminar cortical model of stereopsis and three-dimensional surface perception Stephen Grossberg University 677 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA Running title: Laminar cortical model of depth perception;1 Abstract A laminar cortical model of stereopsis and later stages of 3D surface perception is developed
Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow
Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow V. Langlois and A. Valance laminar shear flow using a process-based stability approach. The hydrodynamics of the problem is solved under steady laminar shear flow, J. Geophys. Res., 110, F04S09, doi:10.1029/2004JF000278. 1
Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Wenpeng Liu*,a
Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Wenpeng Liu*,a and Chao that performance and design of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is controlled not only by electrochemical kinetics and methanol crossover but also by water transport and by their complex interactions
Ryan, Dominic
Monte Carlo simulations of transverse spin freezing in the three-dimensional frustrated Heisenberg of the spins freeze leading to a noncollinear spin structure dominated by ferromagnetic correlations. The phase as the transverse degrees of freedom order.' Theoretical support for a transverse spin freezing tran- sition
Jesus, Srgio M.
Classification of Cabo Frio (Brazil) three-dimensional ocean features using single-slice acoustic-000 Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil, {lcalado, ana.claudia}@ieapm.mar.mil.br Acoustic tomography is now a well for an instantaneous sound speed field constructed from dynamical predictions for Cabo Frio, Brazil. The results show
Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the
Simons, Mark
Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip on seismogenic faults. We derive the full vector displacement field due to the Bam, Iran, earthquake of moment on deformation associated with the Mw 6.5 Bam earthquake in Iran determined using the SAR data from the ERS
An Exact, Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Wave Solution in Local Keplerian Flow
Steven A. Balbus; John F. Hawley
2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z
We present an exact three-dimensional wave solution to the shearing sheet equations of motion. The existence of this solution argues against transient amplification as a route to turbulence in unmagnetized disks. Moreover, because the solution covers an extensive dynamical range in wavenumber space, it is an excellent test of the dissipative properties of numerical codes.
Sun, Yu
and electroplating This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article of three-dimensional helical nanobelts through angular winding and electroplating D J Bell1 , T E Bauert1. In a subsequent Au electroplating step, contacts are electroformed and the batch assembly is completed, while
Ecology Letters, (2003) 6: 13-18 Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive
Mathis, Wayne N.
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
LETTER Ecology Letters, (2003) 6: 13-18 Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations? Abstract Spider webs result from complex behaviours that have evolved under many selective pressures. Webs risk in the evolution of web architecture. The ecological success of spiders has been attributed to key
Salvaggio, Carl
. These routines require a sequence of images to evaluate tracking algorithms. The evaluation of sensor performanceTHREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR Memorial Drive Rochester, New York 14623-0887 ABSTRAO A technique for longwave infrared (LWIR) synthetic
Tilborg, J. van
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
a Longitudinal Electron Beam Diagnostic Beyond the LaserBeam diagnostics, electro-optic sampling, ultra-short electron
Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Oyabu, Noriaki; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kei [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)] [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)
2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
Surface charges on nanoscale structures in liquids, such as biomolecules and nano-micelles, play an essentially important role in their structural stability as well as their chemical activities. These structures interact with each other through electric double layers (EDLs) formed by the counter ions in electrolyte solution. Although static-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) including colloidal-probe AFM is a powerful technique for surface charge density measurements and EDL analysis on a submicron scale in liquids, precise surface charge density analysis with single-nanometer resolution has not been made because of its limitation of the resolution and the detection sensitivity. Here we demonstrate molecular-scale surface charge measurements of self-assembled micellar structures, molecular hemicylinders of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), by three-dimensional (3D) force mapping based on frequency modulation AFM. The SDS hemicylindrical structures with a diameter of 4.8 nm on a graphite surface were clearly imaged. We have succeeded in visualizing 3D EDL forces on the SDS hemicylinder surfaces and obtaining the molecular-scale charge density for the first time. The results showed that the surface charge on the trench regions between the hemicylinders was much smaller than that on the hemicylinder tops. The method can be applied to a wide variety of local charge distribution studies, such as spatial charge variation on a single protein molecule.
Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Suwa, Yudai [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2014-05-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present numerical results on two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic core-collapse simulations of an 11.2 M {sub ?} star. By changing numerical resolutions and seed perturbations systematically, we study how the postbounce dynamics are different in 2D and 3D. The calculations were performed with an energy-dependent treatment of the neutrino transport based on the isotropic diffusion source approximation scheme, which we have updated to achieve a very high computational efficiency. All of the computed models in this work, including nine 3D models and fifteen 2D models, exhibit the revival of the stalled bounce shock, leading to the possibility of explosion. All of them are driven by the neutrino-heating mechanism, which is fostered by neutrino-driven convection and the standing-accretion-shock instability. Reflecting the stochastic nature of multi-dimensional (multi-D) neutrino-driven explosions, the blast morphology changes from model to model. However, we find that the final fate of the multi-D models, whether an explosion is obtained or not, is little affected by the explosion stochasticity. In agreement with some previous studies, higher numerical resolutions lead to slower onset of the shock revival in both 2D and 3D. Based on the self-consistent supernova models leading to the possibility of explosions, our results systematically show that the revived shock expands more energetically in 2D than in 3D.
Numerical study of three-dimensional PIC for the surface plasmon excitation based on Drude model
Liu, La-Qun; Wang, Hui-Hui; Liu, Da-Gang
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper explores the time-domain equations of noble metals, in which Drude model is adopted to describe the dielectric constant, to implement three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the surface plasmon excitation with the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD). A three-dimensional model for an electron bunch movement near the metal film is constructed, and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out with various metal films of different thicknesses. The frequency of surface plasmon obtained from PIC simulation is agreed with that from theory. Furthermore, the surface plasmon wave properties of excitation and propagation with the metal film is summarized by PIC results.
Micrometer-scale fabrication of complex three dimensional lattice + basis structures in silicon
Burckel, D. Bruce [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Resnick, Paul J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finnegan, Patrick S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sinclair, Michael B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davids, Paul S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible version of membrane projection lithography (MPL) for fabrication of micrometer-scale three-dimensional structures is presented. The approach uses all inorganic materials and standard CMOS processing equipment. In a single layer, MPL is capable of creating all 5 2D-Bravais lattices. Furthermore, standard semiconductor processing steps can be used in a layer-by-layer approach to create fully three dimensional structures with any of the 14 3D-Bravais lattices. The unit cell basis is determined by the projection of the membrane pattern, with many degrees of freedom for defining functional inclusions. Here we demonstrate several unique structural motifs, and characterize 2D arrays of unit cells with split ring resonators in a silicon matrix. The structures exhibit strong polarization dependent resonances and, for properly oriented split ring resonators (SRRs), coupling to the magnetic field of a normally incident transverse electromagnetic wave, a response unique to 3D inclusions.
Bettarini, Lapo [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Plasma Astrofysica, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi, 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Landi, Simone [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi, 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Velli, Marco [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi, 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Londrillo, Pasquale [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via C. Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)
2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
The problem of three-dimensional combined magnetic and velocity shear driven instabilities of a compressible magnetized jet modeled as a plane neutral/current double vortex sheet in the framework of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics is addressed. The resulting dynamics given by the stream+current sheet interaction is analyzed and the effects of a variable geometry of the basic fields are considered. Depending on the basic asymptotic magnetic field configuration, a selection rule of the linear instability modes can be obtained. Hence, the system follows a two-stage path developing either through a fully three-dimensional dynamics with a rapid evolution of kink modes leading to a final turbulent state, or rather through a driving two-dimensional instability pattern that develops on parallel planes on which a reconnection+coalescence process takes place.
Reversible gelling culture media for in-vitro cell culture in three-dimensional matrices
An, Yuehuei H. (Charleston, SC); Mironov, Vladimir A. (Mt. Pleasant, SC); Gutowska, Anna (Richland, WA)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A gelling cell culture medium useful for forming a three dimensional matrix for cell culture in vitro is prepared by copolymerizing an acrylamide derivative with a hydrophilic comonomer to form a reversible (preferably thermally reversible) gelling linear random copolymer in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff, mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent to form a reversible gelling solution and adding a cell culture medium to the gelling solution to form the gelling cell culture medium. Cells such as chondrocytes or hepatocytes are added to the culture medium to form a seeded culture medium, and temperature of the medium is raised to gel the seeded culture medium and form a three dimensional matrix containing the cells. After propagating the cells in the matrix, the cells may be recovered by lowering the temperature to dissolve the matrix and centrifuging.
Non-linear dynamics of Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetized jets three-dimensional effects
Keppens, R
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A numerical study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in compressible magnetohydrodynamics is presented. The three-dimensional simulations consider shear flow in a cylindrical jet configuration, embedded in a uniform magnetic field directed along the jet axis. The growth of linear perturbations at specified poloidal and axial mode numbers demonstrate intricate non-linear coupling effects. The physical mechanims leading to induced secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at higher mode numbers are identified. The initially weak magnetic field becomes locally dominant in the non-linear dynamics before and during saturation. Thereby, it controls the jet deformation and eventual breakup. The results are obtained using the Versatile Advection Code [G. Toth, Astrophys. Lett. Comm. 34, 245 (1996)], a software package designed to solve general systems of conservation laws. An independent calculation of the same Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable jet configuration using a three-dimensional pseudo-spectral code gives important ...
Three dimensional finite element analysis of the flow of polymer melts
Jimack, Peter
Three dimensional finite element analysis of the flow of polymer melts R. Tencheva , T. Goughb , O.G, LS2 9JT, UK. b School of Engineering, Design & Technology, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP.g.harlen@leeds.ac.uk (O.G. Harlen), p.k.jimack@leeds.ac.uk (P.K. Jimack), h.klein@leeds.ac.uk (D.H. Klein), m
Analysis and verification of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model
Abraham, David Daniel
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. P. James A three-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model (RMA10) was analyized and verified. The verification process involved the comparison of model and measured water surface elevations, velocities, and depth averaged... velocities. The verification (measured) data were obtained from a large (200 cfs) flume. The numerical grid was set up such that the spacial location of the computational points was as close as practical to that of the measured data. The model computed...
Volume-scalable high-brightness three-dimensional visible light source
Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur J; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming
2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
A volume-scalable, high-brightness, electrically driven visible light source comprises a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) comprising one or more direct bandgap semiconductors. The improved light emission performance of the invention is achieved based on the enhancement of radiative emission of light emitters placed inside a 3DPC due to the strong modification of the photonic density-of-states engendered by the 3DPC.
Simulation of three-dimensional laminar flow and heat transfer in an array of parallel microchannels
Mlcak, Justin Dale
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
and variables...................31 Figure 4.2. One dimensional case for discretizing the generalized transport equation [6]..................................................................................................32 Figure 4.3. Staggered grid... on the bulk temperature for one case of aspect ratio. 1.3 Thesis Outline This thesis is a documentation of the creation, implementation, and results of a numerical study that solves for velocity, pressure, and temperature in a three dimensional...
Three-dimensional Background Field Gravity: A Hamilton-Jacobi analysis
N. T. Maia; B. M. Pimentel; C. E. Valcrcel
2015-03-14T23:59:59.000Z
We analyse the constraint structure of the Background Field model for three dimensional gravity including a cosmological term via the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. We find the complete set of involutive Hamiltonians that assures the integrability of the system and calculate the characteristic equations of the system. We established the equivalence between these equations and the field equations and also obtain the generators of canonical and gauge transformations.
Perception of Three-Dimensional Shape from Structure-from-Motion (SFM) Stimuli in Infancy
Hirshkowitz, Amy
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
presentations were controlled by an experimenter behind a curtain from a Dell Precision M6400 laptop computer with a Windows XP operating system. The Tobii T60 XL monitor was set to 32-bit color and screen size to 12 1024 x 768 pixels. A Logitech Webcam Pro... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2012 Major Subject: Psychology Perception of Three-Dimensional Shape from Structure-from-Motion (SFM) Stimuli in Infancy Copyright 2012 Amy Hirshkowitz...
CARS polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals
A. V. Kachynski; A. N. Kuzmin; P. N. Prasad; I. I. Smalyukh
2007-10-18T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate three-dimensional vibrational imaging of director structures in liquid crystals using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) polarized microscopy. Spatial mapping of the structures is based on sensitivity of a polarized CARS signal to orientation of anisotropic molecules in liquid crystals. As an example, we study structures in a smectic material and demonstrate that single-scan CARS and two-photon fluorescence images of molecular orientation patterns are consistent with each other and with the structure model.
A finite element model of the quasi-three-dimensional viscous flow through airfoil cascades
McArthur, Dwight Roger
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
by Orthogonal Collocation, " Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 22, 1967, pp. 1483-1501. [15] Cook, R. D. , Concepts and Apphcations of the Finite Element Analysis. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1981. [16] Hood, P. snd Taylor, C. , "Navier ? Stokes...A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF THE QUASI-THREE ? DIMENSIONAL VISCOUS FLOW THROUGH AIRFOIL CASCADES A Thesis by DWIGHT ROGER MCARTHUR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...
Robert, Pincus
The Accuracy of Determining Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Effects in Cumulus Clouds Using. Three-dimensional radiative transfer effects and why one might estimate them in two-dimensional clouds expensive independent column approximation is called the 3D radiative transfer effect. Assessing
Ewing, Richard E.
A ThreeDimensional Finite Element Simulation for Transport of Nuclear Waste Contamination for transport of nuclearwaste contamination in threedimensional porous media are presented with a description of contamination of groundwater by highlevel nuclear waste and a wide variety of other sources makes a proper
Pilon, Laurent
Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structures in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part II: Effect of Batch and thermal structure in glass melting furnaces with a throat. The effects of the following parameters This is a second part of a study concerned with the three-dimensional natural circulation in glass melting furnaces
Three-dimensional morphology evolution of SiO2 patterned films under MeV ion irradiation
Hutchinson, John W.
Three-dimensional morphology evolution of SiO2 patterned films under MeV ion irradiation Kan OtaniO2 stripes on Si substrates induced by 3 MeV O++ ion irradiation. We develop a 3D constitutive evolution in complex three-dimensional structures under MeV ion irradiation. 2006 American Institute
Three-dimensional morphology of cementite in steel studied by X-ray phase-contrast tomography
Stallinga, Sjoerd
Three-dimensional morphology of cementite in steel studied by X-ray phase-contrast tomography-destructive, in-line X-ray phase-contrast tomography (PCT) can be used to study the three-dimensional mor- phology- and cold-forming operations of the steel. Studying the evolution of the morphology of cement- ite in 3-D
MHD Field Line Resonances and Global Modes in Three-Dimensional Magnetic Fields
C.Z. Cheng
2002-05-30T23:59:59.000Z
By assuming a general isotropic pressure distribution P = P (y,a), where y and a are three-dimensional scalar functions labeling the field lines with B = -y x -a, we have derived a set of MHD eigenmode equations for both global MHD modes and field line resonances (FLR). Past MHD theories are restricted to isotropic pressures with P = P (y only). The present formulation also allows the plasma mass density to vary along the field line. The linearized ideal-MHD equations are cast into a set of global differential equations from which the field line resonance equations of the shear Alfvin waves and slow magnetosonic modes are naturally obtained for general three-dimensional magnetic field geometries with flux surfaces. Several new terms associated with the partial derivative of P with respect to alpha are obtained. In the FLR equations, a new term is found in the shear Alfvin FLR equation due to the geodesic curvature and the pressure gradient in the poloidal flux surface. The coupling between the shear Alfvin waves and the magnetosonic waves is through the combined effects of geodesic magnetic field curvature and plasma pressure as previously derived. The properties of the FLR eigenfunctions at the resonance field lines are investigated, and the behavior of the FLR wave solutions near the FLR surface are derived. Numerical solutions of the FLR equations for three-dimensional magnetospheric fields in equilibrium with high plasma pressure will be presented in a future publication.
Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H. [Institut fr Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universitt Dsseldorf, D-40225 Dsseldorf (Germany)] [Institut fr Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universitt Dsseldorf, D-40225 Dsseldorf (Germany)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses may be generated up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime due to parametric processes in plasmas. The minimization of unwanted plasma processes leads to operational limits which are discussed here with respect to filamentation. Transverse filamentation, which originally was derived for plane waves, is being investigated for seed pulse propagation in the so called ?-pulse limit. A three-dimensional (3D) three-wave-interaction model is the basis of the present investigation. To demonstrate the applicability of the three-wave-interaction model, the 1D pulse forms are compared with those obtained from 1D particle in cell and Vlasov simulations. Although wave-breaking may occur, the kinetic simulations show that the leading pumped pulse develops a form similar to that obtained from the three-wave-interaction model. In the main part, 2D and 3D filamentation processes of (localized) pulses are investigated with the three-wave-interaction model. It is shown that the leading pulse front can stay filamentation-free, whereas the rear parts show transverse modulations.
Fu, Yong; Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Ye, Fanghao; Lou, Cunguang, E-mail: louchg@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)
2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Previous studies demonstrated that thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) has great potential for breast tumor detection. However, large field of view (FOV) imaging remains a long-standing challenge for three-dimensional (3D) breast tumor localization. Here, the authors propose a practical TAI system for noninvasive 3D localization of breast tumors with large FOV through the use of ultrashort microwave pulse (USMP). Methods: A USMP generator was employed for TAI. The energy density required for quality imaging and the corresponding microwave-to-acoustic conversion efficiency were compared with that of conventional TAI. The microwave energy distribution, imaging depth, resolution, and 3D imaging capabilities were then investigated. Finally, a breast phantom embedded with a laboratory-grown tumor was imaged to evaluate the FOV performance of the USMP TAI system, under a simulated clinical situation. Results: A radiation energy density equivalent to just 1.6%2.2% of that for conventional submicrosecond microwave TAI was sufficient to obtain a thermoacoustic signal with the required signal-to-noise ratio. This result clearly demonstrated a significantly higher microwave-to-acoustic conversion efficiency of USMP TAI compared to that of conventional TAI. The USMP TAI system achieved 61 mm imaging depth and 12 12 cm{sup 2} microwave radiation area. The volumetric image of a copper target measured at depth of 46 cm matched well with the actual shape and the resolution reaches 230 ?m. The TAI of the breast phantom was precisely localized to an accuracy of 0.1 cm over an 8 8 cm{sup 2} FOV. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrated that the USMP TAI system offered significant potential for noninvasive clinical detection and 3D localization of deep breast tumors, with low microwave radiation dose and high spatial resolution over a sufficiently large FOV.
Attosecond Resolution Timing Jitter Characterization of Diode Pumped Femtosecond Cr:Lisaf Lasers
Demirbas, Umit
Two diode pumped Cr:LiSAF lasers are synchronized using a balanced nonlinear optical cross correlator. An integrated timing jitter of less than 156 as in the 10 kHz to 10 MHz range is measured.
Irfan, Bushra; Chatterjee, Ratnamala, E-mail: rmala@physics.iitd.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India); Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Gaur, Anand P. S.; Ahmadi, Majid; Katiyar, Ram S. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931 (United States); Guinel, Maxime J.-F. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States)
2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the temperature dependent (83?K?T?523?K) frequency shift of 2A{sub g}{sup 1} and 1E{sub g}{sup 2} phonon modes in the three dimensional topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, using Raman spectroscopy. The high quality single crystals of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} were grown using a modified Bridgman technique and characterized by Laue diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. A significant broadening in the line shape and red-shift in the frequencies were observed with increase in temperature. Polarized Raman scattering measurement shows a strong polarization effect of A{sub g}{sup 1} and A{sub g}{sup 2} phonon modes which confirms the good quality single crystals of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. Temperature co-efficient for A{sub 1g}{sup 1},?E{sub g}{sup 2}, and A{sub 1g}{sup 2} modes was estimated to be ?1.44??10{sup ?2}, ?1.94??10{sup ?2}, and ?1.95??10{sup ?2}?cm{sup ?1}?K, respectively. Our results shed light on anharmonic properties of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}.
Three-dimensional mapping techniques in the analysis of a mature steam drive
Barrett, R.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing, Denver, CO (USA))
1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The use of interactive volumetric modeling (IVM), a three-dimensional mapping software package that employs a three-dimensional gridding algorithm, greatly assisted in evaluating the efficiency of a mature steam drive in the South Belridge field, Kern County, California. The productive horizon consists of Pleistocene-aged unconsolidated oil sands interbedded with impermeable shales. The sand-shale architecture is controlled by a prograding of fluviodeltaic depositional system. For mapping convenience, the Tulare reservoir has been divided into five zones, the lowermost E zone to the uppermost A zone. In ascending order the reservoir can be characterized by the following description: lowest in the section are isolated to coalescing mouth bars, followed by fairly continuous lower delta plain interdistributary channels, isolated meandering stream channels of the upper delta plain, and uppermost, a braided stream complex of amalgamated channel sands. A drilling program consisting of 68 wells evenly distributed over 100 acres supplied ample log and core information and in effect presented a snap-shot of the reservoir in its maturity. Drilling revealed zones with excellent sweep and, conversely, zones that had been bypassed by the steam drive. By using well-log data tied to core data three-dimensional maps of individual sands incorporating structure, sand thicknesses in a multicolored format were generated to show the changing oil saturation values throughout the reservoir. The graphic presentation of these data on the CRT allows the user to rotate and cut through the sand body of interest revealing virtually an infinite number of perspectives. A hard copy option gives the user a printed map of any perspective of interest. The software is also capable of precise volumetric calculations of the oil remaining in the reservoir.
Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels
Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott
2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z
Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear fuels are critical to understand the burnup, and thus the fuel efficiency.
Photonic band gaps in three-dimensional network structures with short-range order
Liew, Seng Fatt; Noh, Heeso [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Yang, Jin-Kyu [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Optical Engineering, Kongju National University, Kongju 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Schreck, Carl F. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Dufresne, Eric R. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Cell Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); O'Hern, Corey S. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Cao, Hui [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)
2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a systematic study of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in three-dimensional (3D) photonic amorphous structures (PASs) with short-range order. From calculations of the density of optical states (DOS) for PASs with different topologies, we find that tetrahedrally connected dielectric networks produce the largest isotropic PBGs. Local uniformity and tetrahedral order are essential to the formation of PBGs in PASs, in addition to short-range geometric order. This work demonstrates that it is possible to create broad, isotropic PBGs for vector light fields in 3D PASs without long-range order.
All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range
Yin, Ming; Yong Tian, Xiao, E-mail: leoxyt@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ling Wu, Ling; Chen Li, Di [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)
2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
We proposed a method to realize three-dimensional (3D) gradient index (GRIN) devices requiring large refractive index (RI) range with broadband performance. By combining non-resonant GRIN woodpile photonic crystals structure in the metamaterial regime with a compound liquid medium, a wide RI range (16.32) was fulfilled flexibly. As a proof-of-principle for the low-loss and non-dispersive method, a 3D Eaton lens was designed and fabricated based on 3D printing process. Full-wave simulation and experiment validated its omnidirectional wave bending effects in a broad bandwidth covering Ku band (12?GHz18?GHz)
Perception of Three-Dimensional Shape from Structure-from-Motion (SFM) Stimuli in Infancy
Hirshkowitz, Amy
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
shape perception is the grouping of the random dots. To make the boundary percept stronger, the density (number of random dot elements) can be increased (Anderson & Cortese, 1989; Bex, Simmers, & Dakin, 2003). A second factor that affects 2D shape... object shape. Perception & Psychophysics, 44(1), 1-6. Arterberry, M. & Yonas, A. (2000). Perception of three-dimensional shape specified by optic flow by 8-week-old infants. Perception & Psychophysics, 62(3), 550-556. Bex, P., Simmers, A., & Dakin, S...
Real-time, interactive animation of deformable two- and three-dimensional objects
Desbrun, Mathieu; Schroeder, Peter; Meyer, Mark; Barr, Alan H.
2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z
A method of updating in real-time the locations and velocities of mass points of a two- or three-dimensional object represented by a mass-spring system. A modified implicit Euler integration scheme is employed to determine the updated locations and velocities. In an optional post-integration step, the updated locations are corrected to preserve angular momentum. A processor readable medium and a network server each tangibly embodying the method are also provided. A system comprising a processor in combination with the medium, and a system comprising the server in combination with a client for accessing the server over a computer network, are also provided.
Direct Observations of Three Dimensional Growth of Hydrates Hosted in Porous Media
Kerkar, P.; Jones, K; Kleinberg, R; Lindquist, W; Tomov, S; Feng, H; Mahajan, D
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The visualization of time-resolved three-dimensional growth of tetrahydrofuran hydrates with glass spheres of uniform size as porous media using synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography is presented. The images of hydrate patches, formed from excess tetrahydrofuran in aqueous solution, show random nucleation and growth concomitant with grain movement but independent of container-wall effect. Away from grain surfaces, hydrate surface curvature was convex showing that liquid, not hydrate, was the wetting phase, similar to ice growth in porous media. The extension of the observed behavior to methane hydrates could have implications in understanding their role in seafloor stability and climate change.
Kim, Dukmin
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of the well inflow equation for a partially perforated well is written as J model 0. 00708 kh ln(ro/rw) + s3D (4) where h is thickness of layer perforated. Fjerstad also pre- sented a new equation for the proper shut-in time including s3D as ro e D 2(ht.../h - 1) 67. 5 dsctdx e At' - [ ] ( ] . (5) rw k This equation reduces to Eq. 3 for a fully penetrating well. The current work investigates how the actual pwf is related to the po obtained in the three-dimensional reservoir simulation model...
Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.
2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This study describes a detailed three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated wall assemblies accounting for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. The model allows for material properties variations with temperature. Parameters that were varied in the study include ambient outdoor temperature and cavity surface emissivity. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated wall cavities is essential for accurate prediction of energy use in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of homes with uninsulated walls.
Three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic calculations using SOLA-PTS
Daly, B.J.; Torrey, M.D.
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The transient, three-dimensional SOLA-PTS code has been used to study the thermal-hydraulic mixing of HPI and ambient fluids in the cold leg and downcomer with application to the pressurized thermal-shock problem. Comparisons of calculated results with 1/5th-scale experimental data are presented and shown to be in good agreement. Also shown are results obtained at full scale for a Combustion Engineering plant (Calvert Cliffs-1) following an assumed main-streamline-break accident.
Coleman-Weinberg mechanism in a three-dimensional supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter model
Ferrari, A. F. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adelia, 166, 09210-170, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Gallegos, E. A.; Gomes, M.; Silva, A. J. da [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lehum, A. C. [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-970, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)
2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Using the superfield formalism, we study the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry and superconformal invariance in the N=1 three-dimensional supersymmetric Chern-Simons model, coupled to a complex scalar superfield with a quartic self-coupling. This is an analogue of the conformally invariant Coleman-Weinberg model in four spacetime dimensions. We show that a mass for the gauge and matter superfields are dynamically generated after two-loop corrections to the effective superpotential. We also discuss the N=2 extension of our work, showing that the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism in such model is not feasible, because it is incompatible with perturbation theory.
Nelson, G.J.; Chu, Y.; Harris, W.M.; Izzo, J.R.; Grew, K.N., Chiu, W.K.S.; Yi, J.; Andrews, J.C.; Liu, Y., Pierro, P.
2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.
High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas
Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A
2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.
Micrometer-scale fabrication of complex three dimensional lattice + basis structures in silicon
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Burckel, D. Bruce; Resnick, Paul J.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davids, Paul S.
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible version of membrane projection lithography (MPL) for fabrication of micrometer-scale three-dimensional structures is presented. The approach uses all inorganic materials and standard CMOS processing equipment. In a single layer, MPL is capable of creating all 5 2D-Bravais lattices. Furthermore, standard semiconductor processing steps can be used in a layer-by-layer approach to create fully three dimensional structures with any of the 14 3D-Bravais lattices. The unit cell basis is determined by the projection of the membrane pattern, with many degrees of freedom for defining functional inclusions. Here we demonstrate several unique structural motifs, andmorecharacterize 2D arrays of unit cells with split ring resonators in a silicon matrix. The structures exhibit strong polarization dependent resonances and, for properly oriented split ring resonators (SRRs), coupling to the magnetic field of a normally incident transverse electromagnetic wave, a response unique to 3D inclusions.less
Element-based concrete design with three-dimensional finite element models
O'Leary, M.; Huberty, K.; Winch, S. [Nuclear Power Technologies Div., Sargent and Lundy, 55 East Monroe, Chicago, IL 60603 (United States)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A shell element based design of a typical shear wall using analytical results from a three-dimensional finite element model subjected to a combination of vertical and lateral loads is evaluated. The axial and flexural force resultants from each element for every load combination are used to calculate the required reinforcing for each element. Strength for axial loads (P) and out-of-plane flexure (M) in structural walls is determined according to the same P-M interaction procedures used for columns. After each element has been evaluated, a required reinforcing map for each face of each element in the wall is presented along with a constructible reinforcement pattern enveloping the required reinforcing. In order to determine whether the element-based approach meets the requirements of the section cut approach to design, which is typically employed in manual calculations, the total in-plane moment (M) and total vertical axial force (P) across the entire length of the wall is calculated and the P-M points are plotted on an in-plane P-M interaction diagram. It is concluded that element-based design for a structural wall ensures that reinforcement is provided where required by the three-dimensional finite element analysis while still providing sufficient reinforcing to satisfy the section cut approach to design. (authors)
Image system for three dimensional, 360{degree}, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects
Lu, S.Y.
1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest. Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360{degree} all around coverage of the object-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120{degree} apart from one another. 20 figs.
Tracker: A three-dimensional raytracing program for ionospheric radio propagation
Argo, P.E.; DeLapp, D.; Sutherland, C.D.; Farrer, R.G.
1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
TRACKER is an extension of a three-dimensional Hamiltonian raytrace code developed some thirty years ago by R. Michael Jones. Subsequent modifications to this code, which is commonly called the {open_quotes}Jones Code,{close_quotes} were documented by Jones and Stephensen (1975). TRACKER incorporates an interactive user`s interface, modern differential equation integrators, graphical outputs, homing algorithms, and the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) ionosphere. TRACKER predicts the three-dimensional paths of radio waves through model ionospheres by numerically integrating Hamilton`s equations, which are a differential expression of Fermat`s principle of least time. By using continuous models, the Hamiltonian method avoids false caustics and discontinuous raypath properties often encountered in other raytracing methods. In addition to computing the raypath, TRACKER also calculates the group path (or pulse travel time), the phase path, the geometrical (or {open_quotes}real{close_quotes}) pathlength, and the Doppler shift (if the time variation of the ionosphere is explicitly included). Computational speed can be traded for accuracy by specifying the maximum allowable integration error per step in the integration. Only geometrical optics are included in the main raytrace code; no partial reflections or diffraction effects are taken into account. In addition, TRACKER does not lend itself to statistical descriptions of propagation -- it requires a deterministic model of the ionosphere.
Three-dimensional structure of the flow inside the left ventricle of the human heart
Fortini, S; Espa, S; Cenedese, A
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The laboratory models of the human heart left ventricle developed in the last decades gave a valuable contribution to the comprehension of the role of the fluid dynamics in the cardiac function and to support the interpretation of the data obtained in vivo. Nevertheless, some questions are still open and new ones stem from the continuous improvements in the diagnostic imaging techniques. Many of these unresolved issues are related to the three-dimensional structure of the left-ventricular flow during the cardiac cycle. In this paper we investigated in detail this aspect using a laboratory model. The ventricle was simulated by a flexible sack varying its volume in time according to a physiologically shaped law. Velocities measured during several cycles on series of parallel planes, taken from two orthogonal points of view, were combined together in order to reconstruct the phase averaged, three-dimensional velocity field. During the diastole, three main steps are recognized in the evolution of the vortical str...
Energetics and structural properties of three-dimensional bosonic clusters near threshold
Hanna, G. J.; Blume, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States)
2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We treat three-dimensional bosonic clusters with up to N=40 atoms, interacting additively through two-body van der Waals potentials, in the near-threshold regime. Our study includes super-borromean systems with N atoms for which all subsystems are unbound. We determine the energetics and structural properties such as the expectation value of the interparticle distance as a function of the coupling strength. It has been shown that the coupling strength g{sub *}{sup (N)}, for which the N-body system becomes unbound, is bounded by the coupling constant g{sub *}{sup (N-1)}, for which the next smaller system with N-1 atoms becomes unbound, i.e., g{sub *}{sup (N)}{>=}(N-1)g{sub *}{sup (N-1)}/N. By fitting our numerically determined ground-state energies to a simple functional form with three fitting parameters, we determine the relationship between g{sub *}{sup (N)} and g{sub *}{sup (N-1)}. Our trimer and tetramer energies fall on the so-called Tjon line, which has been studied in nuclear physics. We confirm the existence of generalized Tjon lines for larger clusters. Signatures of the universal behavior of weakly bound three-dimensional clusters can possibly be observed in ultracold Bose gases.
Non-linear dynamics of Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetized jets: three-dimensional effects
R. Keppens; G. Toth
1999-01-27T23:59:59.000Z
A numerical study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in compressible magnetohydrodynamics is presented. The three-dimensional simulations consider shear flow in a cylindrical jet configuration, embedded in a uniform magnetic field directed along the jet axis. The growth of linear perturbations at specified poloidal and axial mode numbers demonstrate intricate non-linear coupling effects. The physical mechanims leading to induced secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at higher mode numbers are identified. The initially weak magnetic field becomes locally dominant in the non-linear dynamics before and during saturation. Thereby, it controls the jet deformation and eventual breakup. The results are obtained using the Versatile Advection Code [G. Toth, Astrophys. Lett. Comm. 34, 245 (1996)], a software package designed to solve general systems of conservation laws. An independent calculation of the same Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable jet configuration using a three-dimensional pseudo-spectral code gives important insights into the coupling and excitation events of the various linear mode numbers.
Image system for three dimensional, 360 DEGREE, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects
Lu, Shin-Yee (Pleasanton, CA)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360.degree. all around coverage of theobject-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120.degree. apart from one another.
Griggs, D. P.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The development of a three-dimensional coupled neutronics/thermalhydraulics code for LWR safety analysis has been initiated. The transient neutronics code QUANDRY has been joined to the two-fluid thermal-hydraulics code ...
Swigler, David Townley
2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
A laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the three-dimensional turbulence and kinematic properties that develop due to a breaking solitary and an irregular shallow water bathymetry. A large basin equipped with a piston-type wavemaker...
van der Hilst, Robert D.
We apply a three-dimensional (3D) generalized Radon transform (GRT) to scattered P-waves from 575 local earthquakes recorded at 68 temporary network stations for passive-source imaging of (near-vertical) structures close ...
Furukawa, Toru
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional bubble reconstruction method is proposed in this thesis to analyze two-phase bubbly flows. Gas/liquid two-phase flows have important roles in the nuclear and chemical industries and other engineering fields...
Lee, Howon
The rapid manufacture of complex three-dimensional micro-scale components has eluded researchers for decades. Several additive manufacturing options have been limited by either speed or the ability to fabricate true ...
Hill, Samuel L. (Samuel Lincoln), 1978-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The number of three-dimensional displays available is escalating and yet the capturing devices for multiple view content are focused on either single camera precision rigs that are limited to stationary objects or the use ...
Simon, Hlne A.; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit P.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
G. Rau. Leakage ?ow at mechanical heart valve prostheses:and the valve housing and forms two strong leakage jets onleakage ?ow rate Simulation of the Three-Dimensional Hinge Flow Fields through the closed valve
A. Rezaei-Aghdam; M. Sephid
2015-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
We obtain the classical r-matrices of real two and three dimensional Jacobi-Lie bialgebras. In this way, we classify all non-isomorphic real two and three dimensional coboundary Jacobi-Lie bialgebras and their types (triangular and quasitriangular). Also, we obtain the generalized Sklyanin bracket formula and then using it, we calculate the Jacobi structures on the related Jacobi-Lie groups. Finally, we present a new method for constructing classical integrable systems using coboundary Jacobi-Lie bialgebras.
Karsilayan, Nur
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS IN LAYERED MEDIA A Dissertation by NUR KURT KARSILAYAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS...
A Genetic Algorithm for Packing ThreeDimensional NonConvex Objects Having Cavities and Holes
Coello, Carlos A. Coello
packing, non convex objects, selective laser sintering, rapid proto typing 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 SELECTIVE, the selective laser sintering (SLS) machine produces parts directly from CAD files through an additive manufac tions of parts at each layer. Selective laser sintering uses fine, heatfusible powder to build a part
Waltz, J., E-mail: jwaltz@lanl.gov [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, T.R. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morgan, N.R. [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Risinger, L.D.; Wohlbier, J.G. [Computational and Computer Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a set of manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional (3D) Euler equations. The purpose of these solutions is to allow for code verification against true 3D flows with physical relevance, as opposed to 3D simulations of lower-dimensional problems or manufactured solutions that lack physical relevance. Of particular interest are solutions with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules. While ICF capsules are designed for spherical symmetry, they are hypothesized to become highly 3D at late time due to phenomena such as RayleighTaylor instability, drive asymmetry, and vortex decay. ICF capsules also involve highly nonlinear coupling between the fluid dynamics and other physics, such as radiation transport and thermonuclear fusion. The manufactured solutions we present are specifically designed to test the terms and couplings in the Euler equations that are relevant to these phenomena. Example numerical results generated with a 3D Finite Element hydrodynamics code are presented, including mesh convergence studies.
Disorder driven itinerant quantum criticality of three dimensional massless Dirac fermions
Pixley, J H; Sarma, S Das
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The experimentally observed non-Fermi liquid behavior in many strange metals over a broad range of energy and temperature can often be understood by invoking their close proximity to a zero-temperature quantum critical point (e.g. high-temperature cuprate superconductors). Progress in our understanding of such quantum critical properties of itinerant electrons has been hindered by the lack of effective models which are amenable to controlled analytical and numerically exact calculations. Here we establish that the disorder driven semimetal to metal quantum phase transition of three dimensional massless Dirac fermions could serve as a paradigmatic toy model for studying itinerant quantum criticality, which is solved by exact numerical calculations and a controlled field theoretic analysis. As a result, we establish the robust existence of a non-Gaussian universality class, and also construct the relevant low energy effective field theory that could guide the understanding of quantum critical scaling for many s...
Bouncing ball orbits and symmetry breaking effects in a three-dimensional chaotic billiard
B. Dietz; B. Moessner; T. Papenbrock; U. Reif; A. Richter
2008-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
We study the classical and quantum mechanics of a three-dimensional stadium billiard. It consists of two quarter cylinders that are rotated with respect to each other by 90 degrees, and it is classically chaotic. The billiard exhibits only a few families of nongeneric periodic orbits. We introduce an analytic method for their treatment. The length spectrum can be understood in terms of the nongeneric and unstable periodic orbits. For unequal radii of the quarter cylinders the level statistics agree well with predictions from random matrix theory. For equal radii the billiard exhibits an additional symmetry. We investigated the effects of symmetry breaking on spectral properties. Moreover, for equal radii, we observe a small deviation of the level statistics from random matrix theory. This led to the discovery of stable and marginally stable orbits, which are absent for un equal radii.
Higgs Mechanism and Anomalous Hall Effect in Three-Dimensional Topological Superconductors
Nogueira, Flavio S; Eremin, Ilya
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate that the Higgs mechanism in three-dimensional topological superconductors exhibits unique features with experimentally observable consequences. The Higgs model we discuss has two superconducting components and an axion-like magnetoelectric term with the phase difference of the superconducting order parameters playing the role of the axion field. Due to this additional term, quantum electromagnetic and phase fluctuations lead to a robust topologically non-trivial state that cannot be continuously deformed into a topologically non-trivial one. In the low frequency London regime an anomalous Hall effect is induced in the presence of an applied electric field parallel to the surface. This anomalous Hall current is induced by a Lorentz-like force arising from the axion term, and it involves the relative superfluid velocity of the superconducting components. The anomalous Hall current has a negative sign, a situation reminiscent, but quite distinct in physical origin, of the anomalous Hall effect obs...
User's manual for PELE3D: a computer code for three-dimensional incompressible fluid dynamics
McMaster, W H
1982-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
The PELE3D code is a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics computer program for the solution of incompressible fluid flow coupled to a structure. The fluid and coupling algorithms have been adapted from the previously developed two-dimensional code PELE-IC. The PELE3D code is written in both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is general enough to handle a variety of structural shapes. The free surface algorithm is able to accommodate a top surface and several independent bubbles. The code is in a developmental status since all the intended options have not been fully implemented and tested. Development of this code ended in 1980 upon termination of the contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Current in a three-dimensional periodic tube with unbiased forces
Bao-quan Ai; Liang-gang Liu
2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Transport of a Brownian particle moving along the axis of a three-dimensional asymmetric periodic tube is investigated in the presence of asymmetric unbiased forces. The reduction of the coordinates may involve not only the appearance of entropic barrier but also the effective diffusion coefficient. It is found that in the presence of entropic barrier, the asymmetry of the tube shape and the asymmetry of the unbiased forces are the two ways of inducing a net current. The current is a peaked function of temperature which indicates that the thermal noise may facilitate the transport even in the presence of entropic barrier. There exists an optimized radius at the bottleneck at which the current takes its maximum value. Competition between the two opposite driving factors may induce current reversal.
Biologically Inspired Synthesis Route to Three-Dimensionally Structured Inorganic Thin Films
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Schwenzer, Birgit; Morse, Daniel E.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Inorganic thin films (hydroxide, oxide, and phosphate materials) that are textured on a submicron scale have been prepared from aqueous metal salt solutions at room temperature using vapor-diffusion catalysis. This generic synthesis approach mimics the essential advantages of the catalytic and structure-directing mechanisms observed for the formation of silica skeletons of marine sponges. Chemical composition, crystallinity, and the three-dimensional morphology of films prepared by this method are extremely sensitive to changes in the synthesis conditions, such as concentrations, reaction times, and the presence and nature of substrate materials. Focusing on different materials systems, the reaction mechanism for the formation ofmorethese thin films and the influence of different reaction parameters on the product are explained.less
Atomic Scale Design and Three-Dimensional Simulation of Ionic Diffusive Nanofluidic Channels
Park, Jin Kyoung; We, Guo-Wei
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recent advance in nanotechnology has led to rapid advances in nanofluidics, which has been established as a reliable means for a wide variety of applications, including molecular separation, detection, crystallization and biosynthesis. Although atomic and molecular level consideration is a key ingredient in experimental design and fabrication of nanfluidic systems, atomic and molecular modeling of nanofluidics is rare and most simulations at nanoscale are restricted to one- or two-dimensions in the literature, to our best knowledge. The present work introduces atomic scale design and three-dimensional (3D) simulation of ionic diffusive nanofluidic systems. We propose a variational multiscale framework to represent the nanochannel in discrete atomic and/or molecular detail while describe the ionic solution by continuum. Apart from the major electrostatic and entropic effects, the non-electrostatic interactions between the channel and solution, and among solvent molecules are accounted in our modeling. We deriv...
Large scale three-dimensional topology optimisation of heat sinks cooled by natural convection
Alexandersen, Joe; Aage, Niels
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This work presents the application of density-based topology optimisation to the design of three-dimensional heat sinks cooled by natural convection. The governing equations are the steady-state incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the thermal convection-diffusion equation through the Bousinessq approximation. The fully coupled non-linear multiphysics system is solved using stabilised trilinear equal-order finite elements in a parallel framework allowing for the optimisation of large scale problems with order of 40-330 million state degrees of freedom. The flow is assumed to be laminar and several optimised designs are presented for Grashof numbers between $10^3$ and $10^6$. Interestingly, it is observed that the number of branches in the optimised design increases with increasing Grashof numbers, which is opposite to two-dimensional optimised designs.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Tourret, D.; Karma, A.; Clarke, A. J.; Gibbs, P. J.; Imhoff, S. D.
2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
We present a three-dimensional (3D) extension of a previously proposed multi-scale Dendritic Needle Network (DNN) approach for the growth of complex dendritic microstructures. Using a new formulation of the DNN dynamics equations for dendritic paraboloid-branches of a given thickness, one can directly extend the DNN approach to 3D modeling. We validate this new formulation against known scaling laws and analytical solutions that describe the early transient and steady-state growth regimes, respectively. Finally, we compare the predictions of the model to in situ X-ray imaging of Al-Cu alloy solidification experiments. The comparison shows a very good quantitative agreement between 3D simulationsmoreand thin sample experiments. It also highlights the importance of full 3D modeling to accurately predict the primary dendrite arm spacing that is significantly over-estimated by 2D simulations.less
Striation pattern of target particle and heat fluxes in three dimensional simulations for DIII-D
Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Reiter, D. [Institute of Energy and Climate ResearchPlasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Jlich (Germany)] [Institute of Energy and Climate ResearchPlasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Jlich (Germany); Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
The application of resonant magnetic perturbations results in a non-axisymmetric striation pattern of magnetic field lines from the plasma interior which intersect the divertor targets. The impact on related particle and heat fluxes is investigated by three dimensional computer simulations for two different recycling conditions (controlled via neutral gas pumping). It is demonstrated that a mismatch between the particle and heat flux striation pattern (splitting vs. no splitting), as is repeatedly observed in ITER similar shape H-mode plasmas at DIII-D, can be reproduced by the simulations for high recycling conditions at the onset of partial detachment. These results indicate that a detailed knowledge of the particle and energy balance is at least as important for realistic simulations as the consideration of a change in the magnetic field structure by plasma response effects.
Specific heat and energy for the three-dimensional O(2) model
Holtmann, S; Schulze, T
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the three-dimensional O(2) model on lattices of size 8^3 to 160^3 close to the critical point at zero magnetic field. We confirm explicitly the value of the critical coupling J_c found by Ballesteros et al. and estimate there the universal values of g_r and xi/L. At the critical point we study the finite size dependencies of the energy density epsilon and the specific heat C. We find that the nonsingular part of the specific heat C_{ns} is linearly dependent on 1/alpha. From the critical behaviour of the specific heat for T not T_c on the largest lattices we determine the universal amplitude ratio A+/A-. The alpha- dependence of this ratio is close to the phenomenological relation A+/A- = 1-4alpha.
O'Neill, S M
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report on a series of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet propagation in realistic models of magnetized galaxy clusters. We are primarily interested in the details of energy transfer between jets and the intracluster medium (ICM) to help clarify what role such flows could have in the reheating of cluster cores. Our simulated jets feature a range of intermittency behaviors, including intermittent jets that periodically switch on and off and one model jet that shuts down completely, naturally creating a relic plume. The ICM into which these jets propagate incorporates tangled magnetic field geometries and density substructure designed to mimic some likely features of real galaxy clusters. We find that our jets are characteristically at least 60% efficient at transferring thermal energy to the ICM. Irreversible heat energy is not uniformly distributed, however, instead residing preferentially in regions very near the jet/cocoon boundaries. While intermittency...
CONSTRAINING THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETIC FIELD EXTRAPOLATIONS USING THE TWIN PERSPECTIVES OF STEREO
Conlon, Paul A.; Gallagher, Peter T. [Astrophysics Research Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
The three-dimensional magnetic topology of a solar active region (NOAA 10956) was reconstructed using a linear force-free field extrapolation constrained using the twin perspectives of STEREO. A set of coronal field configurations was initially generated from extrapolations of the photospheric magnetic field observed by the Michelson Doppler Imager on SOHO. Using an EUV intensity-based cost function, the extrapolated field lines that were most consistent with 171 A passband images from the Extreme UltraViolet Imager on STEREO were identified. This facilitated quantitative constraints to be placed on the twist ({alpha}) of the extrapolated field lines, where {nabla} x B = {alpha}B. Using the constrained values of {alpha}, the evolution in time of twist, connectivity, and magnetic energy were then studied. A flux emergence event was found to result in significant changes in the magnetic topology and total magnetic energy of the region.
Three-dimensional architecture of hair-cell linkages as revealedby electron-microscopic tomography
Auer, Manfred; Koster, Bram; Ziese, Ulrike; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Volkmann, Niels; Wang, Da Neng; Hudspeth, A. James
2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
The senses of hearing and balance rest upon mechanoelectrical transduction by the hair bundles of hair cells in the inner ear. Located at the apical cellular surface, each hair bundle comprises several tens of stereocilia and a single kinocilium that are interconnected by extracellular proteinaceous links. Using electron-microscopic tomography of bullfrog saccular sensory epithelia, we examined the three-dimensional structures of ankle or basal links, kinociliary links, and tip links. We observed clear differences in the dimensions and appearances of the three links. We found two distinct populations of tip links suggestive of the involvement of two proteins or splice variants. We noted auxiliary links connecting the upper portions of tip links to the taller stereocilia. Tip links and auxiliary links show a tendency to adopt a globular conformation when disconnected from the membrane surface.
Yuya Sasai; Naoki Sasakura
2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the unitarity of three dimensional noncommutative scalar field theory in the Lie algebraic noncommutative spacetime [x^i,x^j]=2i kappa epsilon^{ijk}x_k. This noncommutative field theory possesses a SL(2,R)/Z_2 group momentum space, which leads to a Hopf algebraic translational symmetry. We check the Cutkosky rule of the one-loop self-energy diagrams in the noncommutative phi^3 theory when we include a braiding, which is necessary for the noncommutative field theory to possess the Hopf algebraic translational symmetry at quantum level. Then, we find that the Cutkosky rule is satisfied if the mass is less than 1/(2^(1/2)kappa).
Three-dimensional carbon fibers and method and apparatus for their production
Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)
2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
This invention relates to novel three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibers which are original (or primary) carbon fibers (OCF) with secondary carbon filaments (SCF) grown thereon, and, if desired, tertiary carbon filaments (TCF) are grown from the surface of SCF forming a filamentous carbon network with high surface area. The methods and apparatus are provided for growing SCF on the OCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases (CG) over the hot surface of the OCF without use of metal-based catalysts. The thickness and length of SCF can be controlled by varying operational conditions of the process, e.g., the nature of CG, temperature, residence time, etc. The optional activation step enables one to produce 3D activated carbon fibers with high surface area. The method and apparatus are provided for growing TCF on the SCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases over the hot surface of the SCF using metal catalyst particles.
The Three Dimensional Evolution to Core Collapse of a Massive Star
Couch, Sean M; Arnett, W David; Timmes, F X
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present the first three dimensional (3D) simulation of the final minutes of iron core growth in a massive star, up to and including the point of core gravitational instability and collapse. We self-consistently capture the development of strong convection driven by violent Si burning in the shell surrounding the iron core. This convective burning builds the iron core to its critical (Chandrasekhar) mass and collapse ensues, driven by electron capture and photodisintegration. The non-spherical structure and motion (turbulent fluctuations) generated by 3D convection is substantial at the point of collapse. We examine the impact of such physically-realistic 3D initial conditions on the core-collapse supernova mechanism using 3D simulations including multispecies neutrino leakage. We conclude that non-spherical progenitor structure should not be ignored, and has a significant and favorable impact on the likelihood for neutrino-driven explosions.
Particle Acceleration in three dimensional Reconnection Regions: A New Test Particle Approach
Rudiger Schopper; Guido T. Birk; Harald Lesch
2001-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
Magnetic Reconnection is an efficient and fast acceleration mechanism by means of direct electric field acceleration parallel to the magnetic field. Thus, acceleration of particles in reconnection regions is a very important topic in plasma astrophysics. This paper shows that the conventional analytical models and numerical test particle investigations can be misleading concerning the energy distribution of the accelerated particles, since they oversimplify the electric field structure by the assumption that the field is homogeneous. These investigations of the acceleration of charged test particles are extended by considering three-dimensional field configurations characterized by localized field-aligned electric fields. Moreover, effects of radiative losses are discussed. The comparison between homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric field acceleration in reconnection regions shows dramatic differences concerning both, the maximum particle energy and the form of the energy distribution.
Conversion of the Big Hill geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.
Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur
2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Big Hill salt dome, located in southeastern Texas, is home to one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Big Hill site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 14 oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the Big Hill site that can be used in support of future work.
Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.
2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The West Hackberry salt dome, in southwestern Louisiana, is one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the West Hackberry site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary layers, mapped faults, and a portion of the oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the West Hackberry site that can be used in support of future work.
Malone, R.C.; Auer, L.H.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Wood, M.C.; Toon, O.B.
1986-01-20T23:59:59.000Z
We reexamine the ''nuclear winter'' hypothesis with a three-dimensional global model modified to allow for localized injection of smoke, its transport by the simulated winds, its absorption of sunlight, and its removal by model-simulated precipitation. Smoke injected into the troposphere is driven upward by solar heating. The tropopause, initially above the smoke, reforms below the heated smoke layer and separates it from precipitation below. Although much smoke is scavenged while the thermal structure is being altered, the residence time of the remaining smoke is greatly increased. We find, particularly for July conditions, a longer-lasting ''nuclear winter'' effect than was found in earlier modeling studies in which normal tropospheric residence times were assumed. In January the smaller solar flux in the northern hemisphere allows faster removal of smoke than in July. Significant cooling of the northern hemisphere continents is predicted; its dependence on season and injected smoke mass is described.
Elastodynamic behavior of the three dimensional layer-by-layer metamaterial structure
Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Economou, E. N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and TechnologyHellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion GR-71110, Greece and Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion GR-71003 (Greece)
2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, we numerically investigate for the first time the elastodynamic behavior of a three dimensional layer-by-layer rod structure, which is easy to fabricate and has already proved to be very efficient as a photonic crystal. The Finite Difference Time Domain method was used for the numerical calculations. For the rods, several materials were examined and the effects of all the geometric parameters of the structure were also numerically investigated. Additionally, two modifications of the structure were included in our calculations. The results obtained here (for certain geometric parameters), exhibiting a high ratio of longitudinal over transverse sound velocity and therefore a close approach to ideal pentamode behavior over a frequency range, clearly show that the layer-by-layer rod structure, besides being an efficient photonic crystal, is a very serious contender as an elastodynamic metamaterial.
Conversion of the Bryan Mound geological site characterization reports to a three-dimensional model.
Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur
2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Bryan Mound salt dome, located near Freeport, Texas, is home to one of four underground crude oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Bryan Mound site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 20 oil-storage caverns at the site. This work provides an internally consistent geologic model of the Bryan Mound site that can be used in support of future work.
The quintic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation on three-dimensional Zoll manifolds
Herr, Sebastian
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Let (M,g) be a three-dimensional smooth compact Riemannian manifold such that all geodesics are simple and closed with a common minimal period, such as the 3-sphere S^3 with canonical metric. In this work the global well-posedness problem for the quintic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation i\\partial_t u+\\Delta u=\\pm|u|^4u, u|_{t=0}=u_0 is solved for small initial data u_0 in the energy space H^1(M), which is the scaling-critical space. Moreover, local well-posedness is shown for large data, as well as persistence of higher initial Sobolev regularity. This extends previous results of Burq-G\\'erard-Tzvetkov to the endpoint case.
Specific heat and energy for the three-dimensional O(2) model
S. Holtmann; J. Engels; T. Schulze
2001-09-19T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the three-dimensional O(2) model on lattices of size 8^3 to 160^3 close to the critical point at zero magnetic field. We confirm explicitly the value of the critical coupling J_c found by Ballesteros et al. and estimate there the universal values of g_r and xi/L. At the critical point we study the finite size dependencies of the energy density epsilon and the specific heat C. We find that the nonsingular part of the specific heat C_{ns} is linearly dependent on 1/alpha. From the critical behaviour of the specific heat for T not T_c on the largest lattices we determine the universal amplitude ratio A+/A-. The alpha- dependence of this ratio is close to the phenomenological relation A+/A- = 1-4alpha.
Conformal invariance predictions for the three-dimensional self-avoiding walk
Tom Kennedy
2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z
If the three dimensional self-avoiding walk (SAW) is conformally invariant, then one can compute the hitting densities for the SAW in a half-space and in a sphere. The ensembles of SAW's used to define these hitting densities involve walks of arbitrary lengths, and so these ensembles cannot be directly studied by the pivot Monte Carlo algorithm for the SAW. We show that these mixed length ensembles should have the same scaling limit as certain weighted ensembles that only involve walks with a single length, thus providing a fast method for simulating these ensembles. Preliminary simulations which found good agreement between the predictions and Monte Carlo simulations for the SAW were reported in [14]. In this paper we present more accurate simulations testing the predictions and find even stronger support for the prediction that the SAW is conformally invariant in three dimensions.
Three-dimensional field map of the Fermilab D0 detector
Ostiguy, J.; Yamada, R.
1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The D0 detector is a general purpose hadron collider detector presently under construction at Fermilab and scheduled to be put in operation in the fall of 1991. The D0 muon detection system is composed of three major toroids referred to respectively as the Central Field (CF) toroid and the End Field (EF) toroids. The complete detector weighs in excess of 4000 metric tons and rests on a steel platform. The muon detection system was designed using standard 2D codes and flux maps inside were obtained for each of the toroids taken separately. Various magnetic field measurements were performed; discrepancies with the design calculations have been observed and attributed to three dimensional effects. In this paper, we compare the predictions of the 2D computations to 3D calculations for a fully assembled detector. We also estimate the electromagnetic forces between the toroids and discuss other 3D effects, in particular, the effect of the supporting platform. 4 refs., 3 figs.
Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Vermeul, V.R.; Macdonald, Q.C.; Schubert, S.E.
1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report documents work conducted during the fiscal year 1994 to development an improved three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system across the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, which is managed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The main objective of the ongoing effort to develop an improved conceptual model of ground-water flow is to provide the basis for improved numerical report models that will be capable of accurately predicting the movement of radioactive and chemical contaminant plumes in the aquifer beneath Hanford. More accurate ground-water flow models will also be useful in assessing the impacts of changes in facilities and operations. For example, decreasing volumes of operational waste-water discharge are resulting in a declining water table in parts of the unconfined aquifer. In addition to supporting numerical modeling, the conceptual model also provides a qualitative understanding of the movement of ground water and contaminants in the aquifer.
Two-dimensional excitons in three-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride
Cao, X. K.; Lin, J. Y., E-mail: hx.jiang@ttu.edu; Jiang, H. X., E-mail: jingyu.lin@ttu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Clubine, B.; Edgar, J. H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)
2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z
The recombination processes of excitons in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) have been probed using time-resolved photoluminescence. It was found that the theory for two-dimensional (2D) exciton recombination describes well the exciton dynamics in three-dimensional hBN. The exciton Bohr radius and binding energy deduced from the temperature dependent exciton recombination lifetime is around 8? and 740?meV, respectively. The effective masses of electrons and holes in 2D hBN deduced from the generalized relativistic dispersion relation of 2D systems are 0.54m{sub o}, which are remarkably consistent with the exciton reduced mass deduced from the experimental data. Our results illustrate that hBN represents an ideal platform to study the 2D optical properties as well as the relativistic properties of particles in a condensed matter system.
M. Ruffert
1995-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the hydrodynamics of three-dimensional classical Bondi-Hoyle accretion. A totally absorbing sphere of different sizes (1, 0.1 and 0.02 accretion radii) moves at different Mach numbers (0.6, 1.4, 3.0 and 10) relative to a homogeneous and slightly perturbed medium, which is taken to be an ideal, nearly isothermal, gas ($\\gamma=1.01$). The hydrodynamics is modeled by the ``Piecewise Parabolic Method'' (PPM). The resolution in the vicinity of the accretor is increased by multiply nesting several $32^3$-zone grids around the sphere, each finer grid being a factor of two smaller in zone size than the next coarser grid. grids. For small Mach numbers (0.6 and~1.4) the flow patterns tend towards a steady state, while in the case of supersonic flow (Mach~3 and~10) and small enough accretors (radius of~0.1 and~0.02 accretion radii), an unstable Mach cone develops, destroying axisymmetry. The shock cones in the supersonic models never clear the surface of the accretors (they are tail shocks, not bow shocks) and the opening angle is smaller (compared to models with larger $\\gamma$) especially for the highly supersonic models. The densities in the shock cone is larger for models with smaller $\\gamma$. The fluctuations of the accretion rates and flow structures are weaker than in the corresponding models with larger $\\gamma$. The hydrodynamic drag of all models with accretor sizes of 0.1~$R_{\\rm A}$ or smaller acts in an accelerating direction, while the gravitational drag is always decelerating and larger than the hydrodynamic drag (thus the net force is decelerating).
Le, T.L.
1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
TRIMHX is a fundamental Reactor Analysis tool in use at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and is an integral part of the Generalized Reactor Analysis Subsystem (GRASS). TRIMHX solves the time dependent multigroup neutron diffusion equation in two and three dimensional hexagonal geometry by standard and coarse mesh finite difference methods. The TRIMHX implementation assumes the solution to this equation can be discretized in space, energy, and time. These are industry accepted approaches which can be found in many nuclear engineering books. This report concerns the verification and validation of TRIMHX, a transient two and three dimensional hex-z diffusion theory code. The validation was performed to determine the accuracy of the code, and the verification was performed to determine if the code was correctly using the correct theory and that all the subroutines function as required. For TRIMHX, the validation requirement was satisfied by comparing the results of the code with experiments and benchmarking the code against other standard or validated code results. The verification requirement for TRIMHX was performed indirectly since it is impossible and not necessary to reverify a large code like TRIMHX line by line. The extensive operations history of TRIMHX in conjunction with the comparisons against many numerical experiments (exact solutions) and other diffusion theory codes is sufficient to establish that the code is functioning as intended and therefore it is verified. This report summarizes four sets of experiments performed in 1974, 1977, and 1988, two DIF3D/TRIMHX comparison problems performed in 1991, a DIF3D/FX2-TH/TRIMHX comparison problem produced for this report, and the comparison of TRIMHX/GRIMHX initial static calculations. The results of these experiments show that TRIMHX was correctly implemented and is ready to submit into SCMS production mode.
Hadron Optics in Three-Dimensional Invariant Coordinate Space from Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering
S. J. Brodsky; D. Chakrabarti; A. Harindranath; A. Mukherjee; J. P. Vary
2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z
The Fourier transform of the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude (DVCS) with respect to the skewness parameter \\zeta= Q^2/ 2 p.q can be used to provide an image of the target hadron in the boost-invariant variable \\sigma, the coordinate conjugate to light-front time \\tau=t+ z/ c. As an illustration, we construct a consistent covariant model of the DVCS amplitude and its associated generalized parton distributions using the quantum fluctuations of a fermion state at one loop in QED, thus providing a representation of the light-front wavefunctions of a lepton in \\sigma space. A consistent model for hadronic amplitudes can then be obtained by differentiating the light-front wavefunctions with respect to the bound-state mass. The resulting DVCS helicity amplitudes are evaluated as a function of \\sigma and the impact parameter \\vec b_\\perp, thus providing a light-front image of the target hadron in a frame-independent three-dimensional light-front coordinate space. Models for the LFWFs of hadrons in (3+1) dimensions displaying confinement at large distances and conformal symmetry at short distances have been obtained using the AdS/CFT method. We also compute the LFWFs in this model in invariant three dimensional coordinate space. We find that in the models studied, the Fourier transform of the DVCS amplitudes exhibit diffraction patterns. The results are analogous to the diffractive scattering of a wave in optics where the distribution in \\sigma measures the physical size of the scattering center in a one-dimensional system.
Dynamics of impurities in a three-dimensional volume-preserving map
Swetamber Das; Neelima Gupte
2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
We study the dynamics of inertial particles in three dimensional incompressible maps, as representations of volume preserving flows. The impurity dynamics has been modeled, in the Lagrangian framework, by a six-dimensional dissipative bailout embedding map. The fluid-parcel dynamics of the base map is embedded in the particle dynamics governed by the map. The base map considered for the present study is the Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) map. We consider the behavior of the system both in the aerosol regime, where the density of the particle is larger than that of the base flow, as well as the bubble regime, where the particle density is less than that of the base flow. The phase spaces in both the regimes show rich and complex dynamics with three type of dynamical behaviors - chaotic structures, regular orbits and hyperchaotic regions. In the one-action case, the aerosol regime is found to have periodic attractors for certain values of the dissipation and inertia parameters. For the aerosol regime of the two-action ABC map, an attractor merging and widening crises is identified using the bifurcation diagram and the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents. After the crisis an attractor with two parts is seen, and trajectories hop between these parts with period 2. The bubble regime of the embedded map shows strong hyperchaotic regions as well as crisis induced intermittency with characteristic times between bursts that scale as a power law behavior as a function of the dissipation parameter. Furthermore, we observe riddled basin of attraction and unstable dimension variability in the phase space in the bubble regime. The bubble regime in one-action shows similar behavior. This study of a simple model of impurity dynamics may shed light upon the transport properties of passive scalars in three dimensional flows. We also compare our results with those seen earlier in two dimensional flows.
High-resolution multi-MeV x-ray radiography using relativistic laser-solid interaction
Courtois, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Barbotin, M.; Bazzoli, S.; Brebion, D.; Bourgade, J. L.; Gazave, J.; Lagrange, J. M.; Landoas, O.; Le Dain, L.; Lefebvre, E.; Pichoff, N. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Edwards, R.; Aedy, C.; Biddle, L.; Drew, D.; Gardner, M.; Ramsay, M.; Simons, A.; Sircombe, N. [AWE Plc., Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)
2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
When high intensity ({>=}10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}) laser light interacts with matter, multi-MeV electrons are produced. These electrons can be utilized to generate a MeV bremsstrahlung x-ray emission spectrum as they propagate into a high-Z solid target positioned behind the interaction area. The short duration (<10 ps) and the small diameter (<500 {mu}m) of the x-ray pulse combined with the MeV x-ray spectrum offers an interesting alternative to conventional bremsstrahlung x-ray sources based on an electron accelerator used to radiograph dense, rapidly moving objects. In experiments at the Omega EP laser, a multi-MeV x-ray source is characterized consistently with number of independent diagnostics. An unfiltered x-ray dose of approximately 2 rad in air at 1 m and a source diameter of less than 350 {mu}m are inferred. Radiography of a complex and high area density (up to 61 g/cm{sup 2}) object is then performed with few hundred microns spatial resolution.
High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors
Chen, Diana C. (Fremont, CA); Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Jones; Steven M. (Livermore, CA)
2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z
An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A BID was built to manage and store of all the data andBID) was employed to track and manage the raw images and PointCloud datameta- data produced by this project [10]. BID tracks the
Walter, Nils G.
-dimensional (3D) pathway taken by mRNPs as they transit through the NPC, and the kinetics and selectivity. A 3D reconstruction of the export route indicates that mRNPs primarily interact with the periphery to facilitate mRNP export by interacting with the FG Nups22,23. After shuttling through the NPC, m
NIMS3D: An Autonomous Three-Dimensional Cabled Robot for Actuated Sensing Applications (MAS 3)
Per Henrik Borgstrom; Nils Peter Borgstrom; Michael J. Stealey; Maxim A. Batalin; William J. Kaiser
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Laser Rangefinder Topographic Lab Test: 12/2/05 z-pos (m)y-pos (m)x-pos (m) Piecewise linear trajectory Trace of x
Sensors and Actuators A 127 (2006) 228234 Fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures based on
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
laser system. Compared to existing manufacturing techniques, our direct UV laser writing method greatly Zhanga, a Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary's Street, Boston, MA Available online 3 October 2005 Abstract This paper introduces a novel 3D manufacturing approach
Sajjadi, Shahrdad G; Drullion, Frederique
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A review of three-dimensional waves on deep-water is presented. Three forms of three dimensionality, namely oblique, forced and spontaneous type, are identified. An alternative formulation for these three-dimensional waves is given through cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The periodic solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation are found using Weierstrass elliptic $\\wp$ functions. It is shown that the classification of solutions depends on the boundary conditions, wavenumber and frequency. For certain parameters, Weierstrass $\\wp$ functions are reduced to periodic, hyperbolic or Jacobi elliptic functions. It is demonstrated that some of these solutions do not have any physical significance. An analytical solution of cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with wind forcing is also obtained which results in how groups of waves are generated on the surface of deep water in the ocean. In this case the dependency on the energy-transfer parameter, from wind to waves, make either the groups of wav...
Sorenson, Danny S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pazuchanics, Peter D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malone, Robert M [NSTEC; Cox, Brian C [NSTEC; Frogget, Brent C [NSTEC; Kaufman, Morris I [NSTEC; Capelle, Gene A [NSTEC/SB; Grover, M [NSTEC/SB; Stevens, Gerald D [NSTEC/SB; Turley, William D [NSTEC/SB
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 1p/mm resolution at a 355-nm wavelength (ultraviolet) has been completed. By adding a doublet to this lens system, operation at a 532-nm wavelength (green) with > 1100 1p/mm resolution is achieved. This lens is used with high-power laser light to record holograms of fast-moving ejecta particles from a shocked metal surface located inside a test package. Part of the lens and the entire test package are under vacuum with a 1-cm air gap separation. Holograms have been recorded with both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser light. The UV operation is very sensitive to the package window's tilt. If this window is tilted by more than 0.1 degrees, the green operation performs with better resolution than that of the UV operation. The setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording can be done with either UV light or green light. A resolution plate can be temporarily placed inside the test package so that a television microscope located beyond the hologram position can archive images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires., interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens are presented. Resolution variation across the 12-mm field of view and throughout the 5-mm depth of field is discussed for both wavelengths.
Burke, Micheal, E-mail: micheal.burke@tyndall.ie; Blake, Alan; Djara, Vladimir; O'Connell, Dan; Povey, Ian M.; Cherkaoui, Karim; Monaghan, Scott; Scully, Jim; Murphy, Richard; Hurley, Paul K.; Pemble, Martyn E.; Quinn, Aidan J., E-mail: aidan.quinn@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The authors report on the structural and electrical properties of TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiN metalinsulatormetal (MIM) capacitor structures in submicron three-dimensional (3D) trench geometries with an aspect ratio of ?30. A simplified process route was employed where the three layers for the MIM stack were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a single run at a process temperature of 250?C. The TiN top and bottom electrodes were deposited via plasma-enhanced ALD using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor. 3D trench devices yielded capacitance densities of 36 fF/?m{sup 2} and quality factors >65 at low frequency (200?Hz), with low leakage current densities (<3 nA/cm{sup 2} at 1 V). These devices also show strong optical iridescence which, when combined with the covert embedded capacitance, show potential for system in package (SiP) anticounterfeiting applications.
Chang Hyun Baek; Hyesung Kang; Jongsoo Kim; Dongsu Ryu
2005-06-08T23:59:59.000Z
We study thermal-gravitational instability in simplified models for protogalactic halos using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. The simulations followed the evolution of gas with radiative cooling down to T = 10^4 K, background heating, and self-gravity. Then cooled and condensed clouds were identified and their physical properties were examined in detail. During early stage clouds start to form around initial density peaks by thermal instability. Small clouds appear first and they are pressure-bound. Subsequently, the clouds grow through compression by the background pressure as well as gravitational infall. During late stage cloud-cloud collisions become important, and clouds grow mostly through gravitational merging. Gravitationally bound clouds with mass M_c > ~6 X 10^6 Msun are found in the late stage. They are approximately in virial equilibrium and have radius R_c = \\~150 - 200 pc. Those clouds have gained angular momentum through tidal torque as well as merging, so they have large angular momentum with the spin parameter ~ 0.3. The clouds formed in a denser background tend to have smaller spin parameters. We discuss briefly the implications of our results on the formation of protoglobular cluster clouds in protogalactic halos. (abridged)
Kouker, W. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)
1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere is introduced. The model is based on the full set of the primitive equations. It is designed to simulate a yearly cycle of the middle atmosphere. Results are presented for the solstice and equinox conditions. The model reproduces the main observed features of the middle atmospheric circulation: the stratospheric-mesospheric jet streams and the cold summer mesopause region at solstice with reversed zonal wind especially in the summer mesosphere, and the weak westerly circulation at equinox. The parameterized effects of breaking gravity waves in the mesosphere drive the atmosphere out of radiative balance. They lead to a meridional circulation with a one-cell structure at solstice with upward (downward) motion over the summer (winter) pole and a meridional flow towards the winter hemisphere and a two-cell structure at equinox with upward motion over the tropics and downward motion over the polar regions. Potential fields are presented for horizontal vector fields. They suggest that the stratospheric circulation can is dominated by horizontally nondivergent flow. This is modified by the results of a more quantitative view at the interaction of planetary waves on the zonal mean flow, which clearly identifies the essential role of horizontal divergence on the stratospheric circulation.
Puthen-Veettil, B., E-mail: b.puthen-veettil@unsw.edu.au; Patterson, R.; Knig, D.; Conibeer, G.; Green, M. A. [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, UNSW, Sydney 2052 (Australia)
2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z
Efficient iso-entropic energy filtering of electronic waves can be realized through nanostructures with three dimensional confinement, such as quantum dot resonant tunneling structures. Large-area deployment of such structures is useful for energy selective contacts but such configuration is susceptible to structural disorders. In this work, the transport properties of quantum-dot-based wide-area resonant tunneling structures, subject to realistic disorder mechanisms, are studied. Positional variations of the quantum dots are shown to reduce the resonant transmission peaks while size variations in the device are shown to reduce as well as broaden the peaks. Increased quantum dot size distribution also results in a peak shift to lower energy which is attributed to large dots dominating transmission. A decrease in barrier thickness reduces the relative peak height while the overall transmission increases dramatically due to lower series resistance. While any shift away from ideality can be intuitively expected to reduce the resonance peak, quantification allows better understanding of the tolerances required for fabricating structures based on resonant tunneling phenomena/.
Electric charge in the field of a magnetic event in three-dimensional spacetime
Claudio Bunster; Cristian Martinez
2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the motion of an electric charge in the field of a magnetically charged event in three-dimensional spacetime. We start by exhibiting a first integral of the equations of motion in terms of the three conserved components of the spacetime angular momentum, and then proceed numerically. After crossing the light cone of the event, an electric charge initially at rest starts rotating and slowing down. There are two lengths appearing in the problem: (i) the characteristic length $\\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, where $q$ and $m$ are the electric charge and mass of the particle, and $g$ is the magnetic charge of the event; and (ii) the spacetime impact parameter $r_0$. For $r_0 \\gg \\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, after a time of order $r_0$, the particle makes sharply a quarter of a turn and comes to rest at the same spatial position at which the event happened in the past. This jump is the main signature of the presence of the magnetic event as felt by an electric charge. A derivation of the expression for the angular momentum that uses Noether's theorem in the magnetic representation is given in the Appendix.
The Joint Cascade of Energy and Helicity in Three-Dimensional Turbulence
Qiaoning Chen; Shiyi Chen; Gregory L. Eyink
2002-06-18T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional (3D) turbulence has both energy and helicity as inviscid constants of motion. In contrast to two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, where a second inviscid invariant--the enstrophy--blocks the energy cascade to small scales, in 3D there is a joint cascade of both energy and helicity simultaneously to small scales. The basic cancellation mechanism which permits a joint cascade of energy and helicity is illuminated by means of the helical decomposition of the velocity into positively and negatively polarized waves. This decomposition is employed in the present study both theoretically and also in a numerical simulation of homogeneous and isotropic 3D turbulence. It is shown that the transfer of energy to small scales produces a tremendous growth of helicity separately in the + and - helical modes at high wavenumbers, diverging in the limit of infinite Reynolds number. However, because of a tendency to restore reflection invariance at small scales, the net helicity from both modes remains finite in that limit. The net helicity flux is shown to be constant all the way up to the Kolmogorov wavenumber: there is no shorter inertial-range for helicity cascade than for energy cascade. The transfer of energy and helicity between + and - modes, which permits the joint cascade, is shown to be due to two distinct physical processes, advection and vortex stretching.
Three dimensional SPH simulations of radiation-driven warped accretion discs
Stephen B. Foulkes; Carole A. Haswell; James R. Murray
2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z
We present three dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) calculations of warped accretion discs in X-ray binary systems. Geometrically thin, optically thick accretion discs are illuminated by a central radiation source. This illumination exerts a non-axisymmetric radiation pressure on the surface of the disc resulting in a torque that acts on the disc to induce a twist or warp. Initially planar discs are unstable to warping driven by the radiation torque and in general the warps also precess in a retrograde direction relative to the orbital flow. We simulate a number of X-ray binary systems which have different mass ratios using a number of different luminosities for each. Radiation-driven warping occurs for all systems simulated. For mass ratios q ~ 0.1 a moderate warp occurs in the inner disc while the outer disc remains in the orbital plane (c.f. X 1916-053). For less extreme mass ratios the entire disc tilts out of the orbital plane (c.f. Her X-1). For discs that are tilted out of the orbital plane in which the outer edge material of the disc is precessing in a prograde direction we obtain both positive and negative superhumps simultaneously in the dissipation light curve (c.f. V603 Aql).
Impacts of rotation on three-dimensional hydrodynamics of core-collapse supernovae
Nakamura, Ko; Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Takiwaki, Tomoya [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2014-09-20T23:59:59.000Z
We perform a series of simplified numerical experiments to explore how rotation impacts the three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics of core-collapse supernovae. For our systematic study, we employ a light-bulb scheme to trigger explosions and a three-flavor neutrino leakage scheme to treat deleptonization effects and neutrino losses from the proto-neutron-star interior. Using a 15 M {sub ?} progenitor, we compute 30 models in 3D with a wide variety of initial angular momentum and light-bulb neutrino luminosity. We find that the rotation can help the onset of neutrino-driven explosions for the models in which the initial angular momentum is matched to that obtained in recent stellar evolutionary calculations (?0.3-3 rad s{sup 1} at the center). For the models with larger initial angular momentum, the shock surface deforms to be more oblate due to larger centrifugal force. This not only makes the gain region more concentrated around the equatorial plane, but also makes the mass larger in the gain region. As a result, buoyant bubbles tend to be coherently formed and rise in the equatorial region, which pushes the revived shock toward ever larger radii until a global explosion is triggered. We find that these are the main reasons that the preferred direction of the explosion in 3D rotating models is often perpendicular to the spin axis, which is in sharp contrast to the polar explosions around the axis that were obtained in previous two-dimensional simulations.
Atomic Scale Design and Three-Dimensional Simulation of Ionic Diffusive Nanofluidic Channels
Jin Kyoung Park; Kelin Xia; Guo-Wei We
2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
Recent advance in nanotechnology has led to rapid advances in nanofluidics, which has been established as a reliable means for a wide variety of applications, including molecular separation, detection, crystallization and biosynthesis. Although atomic and molecular level consideration is a key ingredient in experimental design and fabrication of nanfluidic systems, atomic and molecular modeling of nanofluidics is rare and most simulations at nanoscale are restricted to one- or two-dimensions in the literature, to our best knowledge. The present work introduces atomic scale design and three-dimensional (3D) simulation of ionic diffusive nanofluidic systems. We propose a variational multiscale framework to represent the nanochannel in discrete atomic and/or molecular detail while describe the ionic solution by continuum. Apart from the major electrostatic and entropic effects, the non-electrostatic interactions between the channel and solution, and among solvent molecules are accounted in our modeling. We derive generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations for nanofluidic systems. Mathematical algorithms, such as Dirichlet to Neumann mapping and the matched interface and boundary (MIB) methods are developed to rigorously solve the aforementioned equations to the second-order accuracy in 3D realistic settings. Three ionic diffusive nanofluidic systems, including a negatively charged nanochannel, a bipolar nanochannel and a double-well nanochannel are designed to investigate the impact of atomic charges to channel current, density distribution and electrostatic potential. Numerical findings, such as gating, ion depletion and inversion, are in good agreements with those from experimental measurements and numerical simulations in the literature.
Uniform electron gases: III. Low-density gases on three-dimensional spheres
Agboola, Davids; Gill, Peter M W; Loos, Pierre-Franois
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
By combining variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and complete-basis-set limit Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations, we have obtained near-exact correlation energies for low-density same-spin electrons on a three-dimensional sphere (3-sphere), i.e.~the surface of a four-dimensional ball. In the VMC calculations, we compare the efficacies of two types of one-electron basis functions for these strongly correlated systems, and analyze the energy convergence with respect to the quality of the Jastrow factor. The HF calculations employ spherical Gaussian functions (SGFs) which are the curved-space analogs of cartesian Gaussian functions. At low densities, the electrons become relatively localized into Wigner crystals, and the natural SGF centers are found by solving the Thomson problem (i.e. the minimum-energy arrangement of $n$ point charges) on the 3-sphere for various values of $n$. We have found 11 special values of $n$ whose Thomson sites are equivalent. Three of these are the vertices of four-dimensional Platonic solids ...
Revealing the escape mechanism of three-dimensional orbits in a tidally limited star cluster
Euaggelos E. Zotos
2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z
The aim of this work is to explore the escape process of three-dimensional orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit. The gravitational field of the cluster is represented by a smooth, spherically symmetric Plummer potential, while the tidal approximation was used to model the steady tidal field of the galaxy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins towards the two exit channels and relate them with the corresponding escape times of the orbits. For this purpose, we split our investigation into three cases depending on the initial value of the $z$ coordinate which was used for launching the stars. The most noticeable finding is that the majority of stars initiated very close to the primary $(x,y)$ plane move in chaotic orbits and they remain trapped for vast time intervals, while orbits with relatively high values of $z_0$ on the other hand, form well-defined basins of escape. It was also observed, that for energy levels close to the critical escape energy the escape rates of orbits are large, while for much higher values of energy most of the orbits have low escape periods or they escape immediately to infinity. We hope our outcomes to be useful for a further understanding of the dissolution process and the escape mechanism in open star clusters.
Short- and Long- Time Transport Structures in a Three Dimensional Time Dependent Flow
Rodolphe Chabreyrie; Stefan G. Llewellyn Smith
2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z
Lagrangian transport structures for three-dimensional and time-dependent fluid flows are of great interest in numerous applications, particularly for geophysical or oceanic flows. In such flows, chaotic transport and mixing can play important environmental and ecological roles, for examples in pollution spills or plankton migration. In such flows, where simulations or observations are typically available only over a short time, understanding the difference between short-time and long-time transport structures is critical. In this paper, we use a set of classical (i.e. Poincar\\'e section, Lyapunov exponent) and alternative (i.e. finite time Lyapunov exponent, Lagrangian coherent structures) tools from dynamical systems theory that analyze chaotic transport both qualitatively and quantitatively. With this set of tools we are able to reveal, identify and highlight differences between short- and long-time transport structures inside a flow composed of a primary horizontal contra-rotating vortex chain, small lateral oscillations and a weak Ekman pumping. The difference is mainly the existence of regular or extremely slowly developing chaotic regions that are only present at short time.
Stein, Joshua S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Rautman, Christopher Arthur
2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The geologic model implicit in the original site characterization report for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, has been converted to a numerical, computer-based three-dimensional model. The original site characterization model was successfully converted with minimal modifications and use of new information. The geometries of the salt diapir, selected adjacent sedimentary horizons, and a number of faults have been modeled. Models of a partial set of the several storage caverns that have been solution-mined within the salt mass are also included. Collectively, the converted model appears to be a relatively realistic representation of the geology of the Bayou Choctaw site as known from existing data. A small number of geometric inconsistencies and other problems inherent in 2-D vs. 3-D modeling have been noted. Most of the major inconsistencies involve faults inferred from drill hole data only. Modem computer software allows visualization of the resulting site model and its component submodels with a degree of detail and flexibility that was not possible with conventional, two-dimensional and paper-based geologic maps and cross sections. The enhanced visualizations may be of particular value in conveying geologic concepts involved in the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site to a lay audience. A Microsoft WindowsTM PC-based viewer and user-manipulable model files illustrating selected features of the converted model are included in this report.
Pirgazi, Hadi, E-mail: Hadi.pirgazi@ugent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Gent (Belgium); Ghodrat, Sepideh, E-mail: s.ghodrat@tudelft.nl [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands); Kestens, Leo A.I., E-mail: leo.kestens@ugent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Gent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands)
2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
In cylinder heads made of compacted graphitic iron (CGI), heating and cooling cycles can lead to localized cracking due to thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). To meticulously characterize the complex crack path morphology of CGI under TMF condition, in relation to microstructural features and to find out how and by which mechanisms the cracks predominantly develop, three-dimensional electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) was employed. Based on the precise quantitative microstructural analysis, it is found that graphite particles not only play a crucial role in the crack initiation, but also are of primary significance for crack propagation, i.e. crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles. Furthermore, the density of graphite particles on the fracture plane is more than double as high as in any other arbitrary plane of the structure. The obtained results did not indicate a particular crystallographic preference of fracture plane, i.e. the crystal plane parallel to the fracture plane was nearly of random orientation. - Highlights: Crystallographic features of a thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) crack were studied. Wide-field 3D EBSD is used to characterize the TMF crack morphology. Data processing was applied on a large length scale of the order of millimeters. Graphite density in the fracture plane is much higher than any other random plane. It is revealed that crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles.
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion of a neutron star into a quark star
Matthias Herzog; Friedrich K. Roepke
2011-09-02T23:59:59.000Z
We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent combustion converting a neutron star into a quark star. Hadronic matter, described by a micro-physical finite-temperature equation of state, is converted into strange quark matter. We assume this phase, represented by a bag-model equation of state, to be absolutely stable. Following the example of thermonuclear burning in white dwarfs leading to Type Ia supernovae, we treat the conversion process as a potentially turbulent deflagration. Solving the non-relativistic Euler equations using established numerical methods we conduct large eddy simulations including an elaborate subgrid scale model, while the propagation of the conversion front is modeled with a level-set method. Our results show that for large parts of the parameter space the conversion becomes turbulent and therefore significantly faster than in the laminar case. Despite assuming absolutely stable strange quark matter, in our hydrodynamic approximation an outer layer remains in the hadronic phase, because the conversion front stops when it reaches conditions under which the combustion is no longer exothermic.
Establishment of three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells
Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Menter, David G. [Department of Thoracic Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Abbruzzese, James L. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Reddy, Shrikanth A.G. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)]. E-mail: sa08366@wotan.mdacc.tmc.edu
2007-07-06T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of epithelial cells offer singular advantages for studies of morphogenesis or the role of cancer genes in oncogenesis. In this study, as part of establishing a 3D culture system of pancreatic duct epithelial cells, we compared human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE-E6E7) with pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results show, that in contrast to cancer cells, HPDE-E6E7 organized into spheroids with what appeared to be apical and basal membranes and a luminal space. Immunostaining experiments indicated that protein kinase Akt was phosphorylated (Ser473) and CTMP, a negative Akt regulator, was expressed in both HPDE-E6E7 and cancer cells. However, a nuclear pool of CTMP was detectable in HPDE-E6E7 cells that showed a dynamic concentrated expression pattern, a feature that further distinguished HPDE-E637 cells from cancer cells. Collectively, these data suggest that 3D cultures of HPDE-E6E7 cells are useful for investigating signaling and morphological abnormalities in pancreatic cancer cells.
SOLA-DM: A numerical solution algorithm for transient three-dimensional flows
Wilson, T.L.; Nichols, B.D.; Hirt, C.W.; Stein, L.R.
1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
SOLA-DM is a three-dimensional time-explicit, finite-difference, Eulerian, fluid-dynamics computer code for solving the time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution algorithm (SOLA) evolved from the marker-and-cell (MAC) method, and the code is highly vectorized for efficient performance on a Cray computer. The computational domain is discretized by a mesh of parallelepiped cells in either cartesian or cylindrical geometry. The primary hydrodynamic variables for approximating the solution of the momentum equations are cell-face-centered velocity components and cell-centered pressures. Spatial accuracy is selected by the user to be first or second order; the time differencing is first-order accurate. The incompressibility condition results in an elliptic equation for pressure that is solved by a conjugate gradient method. Boundary conditions of five general types may be chosen: free-slip, no-slip, continuative, periodic, and specified pressure. In addition, internal mesh specifications to model obstacles and walls are provided. SOLA-DM also solves the equations for discrete particle dynamics, permitting the transport of marker particles or other solid particles through the fluid to be modeled. 7 refs., 7 figs.
Verification of coronal loop diagnostics using realistic three-dimensional hydrodynamic models
Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Miki?, Zoran [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121-2910 (United States); Mok, Yung, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov, E-mail: lionel@predsci.com, E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com, E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com, E-mail: ymok@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 4129 Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)
2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z
Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure distributions. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the background. We then determine the density, temperature, and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare these with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to a limitation of the analysis methods, but also to inadequate background subtraction.
Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Labbe, Nicole [ORNL; Wagner, Rebekah J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This chapter details the application of LIBS in a number of environmental areas of research such as carbon sequestration and climate change. LIBS has also been shown to be useful in other high resolution environmental applications for example, elemental mapping and detection of metals in plant materials. LIBS has also been used in phytoremediation applications. Other biological research involves a detailed understanding of wood chemistry response to precipitation variations and also to forest fires. A cross-section of Mountain pine (pinceae Pinus pungen Lamb.) was scanned using a translational stage to determine the differences in the chemical features both before and after a fire event. Consequently, by monitoring the elemental composition pattern of a tree and by looking for abrupt changes, one can reconstruct the disturbance history of a tree and a forest. Lastly we have shown that multivariate analysis of the LIBS data is necessary to standardize the analysis and correlate to other standard laboratory techniques. LIBS along with multivariate statistical analysis makes it a very powerful technology that can be transferred from laboratory to field applications with ease.
Advances in three-dimensional rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices for biological applications
Chang, Hsueh-Chia
. #12;2 Abstract The capability of 3D printing technologies for direct production of complex 3D 3D printing technologies and direct internal 3D laser writing fabrication methods. Current
Kim, Daekeun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The availability of lasers with femtosecond, ultrafast light pulses provides new opportunities and challenges in instrument design. This thesis addresses three aspects of utilizing ultrafast light pulses in two-photon ...
century as in the 19th century. In this paper I use finite element analysis to address the question, how element analysis Tom Parsons U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California, USA Received 23 August 2001 area seismic hazard assessment. This study presents a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element simulation
Mueller, Karl
for the mechanics and kinematics of compressive wedges Phaedra Upton,1,2 Karl Mueller,3 and Yue-Gau Chen4 Received develop three-dimensional mechanical models of a compressive wedge and investigate how the form and kinematics of the outboard wedge are affected by variation in initial topography, material properties
Occhipinti, Giovanni "Ninto"
LETTER Earth Planets Space, 63, 847851, 2011 Three-dimensional numerical modeling of tsunami, 2011; Accepted June 30, 2011; Online published September 27, 2011) The tremendous tsunami following, to reproduce the tsunami signature observed in the airglow by the imager located in Hawaii and clearly showing
Komatitsch, Dimitri
Three-dimensional mechanical models for the June 2000 earthquake sequence in the south Iceland, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland A B S T R A C TA R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 11 Keywords: South Iceland seismic zone Lithospheric heterogeneity influences Finite-element method Co
Pilon, Laurent
Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structures in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part I. Effects in the molten glass bath of a typical glass melting furnace with a throat but without air bubblers or electric constant. The main purpose of the work is to evaluate the capability of the furnace operators to control
Three Dimensional Structure of the MqsR:MqsA Complex: A Novel TA Pair Comprised of a Toxin
Wood, Thomas K.
Kim3 , Jennifer M. Arruda2 , Andrew Davenport1 , Thomas K. Wood3,4,5 , Wolfgang Peti1 , Rebecca Page2 S, Kim Y, Arruda JM, Davenport A, et al. (2009) Three Dimensional Structure of the MqsR:MqsA Complex
Brown, Michael R.
when two bodies of highly conductive plasma bearing oppositely directed, embedded magnetic fields mergeThree-dimensional structure of magnetic reconnection in a laboratory plasma C. D. Cothran, M-dimensional structure of magnetic reconnection has been measured for the first time in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD
Turbulent flow and drag over fixed two-and three-dimensional dunes Jeremy G. Venditti1,2
Venditti, Jeremy G.
measurements of turbulent flow were obtained over a fixed flat bed, two- dimensional (2-D) dunes and four types over 2-D dunes conforms with previous observations of flow over mobile and fixed bed forms. Bed formTurbulent flow and drag over fixed two- and three-dimensional dunes Jeremy G. Venditti1,2 Received
Hitchcock, Adam P.
as low-cost three- dimensional (3D) photonic crystals. Although a high degree of perfection is crucial for the properties of these materials, little is known about their exact structure and internal defects structure,5 even including defect regions that can be used as circuits to build all-optical logical elements
Swan II, J. Edward
visualization software to obtain a 3D reconstruction of the material. We describe how we applied this technique materials [11]. In recognition of these problems, early attempts at 3D visu- alization combined serial for the three-dimensional analysis of the internal microscopic structure ("microstructure") of materials
Lim, Sang-Hyun
materials are described by the director field n r , and noninvasive three-dimensional 3D imaging that align homogeneously with LC molecules. Label- free 3D optical imaging of LCs has been demonstrated provide 3D structural information but the interpretation of a THG image is complicated due
So, Peter
Quantitative Analysis of Three-Dimensional-Resolved Fiber Architecture in Heterogeneous Skeletal Muscle Tissue Using NMR and Optical Imaging Methods Vitaly J. Napadow,* Qun Chen, Vu Mai, Peter T. C. So Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts ABSTRACT The determination of principal fiber
cytometry, this can be achieved by focusing the cell solution at the centre of the flow tube horizontal (parallel to the device plane) sheath flows. One may readily fabricate the device for 2DSingle-layer planar on-chip flow cytometer using microfluidic drifting based three-dimensional (3D
Abbett, Bill
THE DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONVECTING FLOW. I. UNIFORMLY BUOYANT HORIZONTAL TUBES Y. Fan High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric-dimensional numerical simulations of the dynamic evolution of uniformly buoyant, twisted horizontal magnetic flux tubes
Wijngaarden, Rinke J.
Extremal Dynamics and the Approach to the Critical State: Experiments on a Three Dimensional Pile in three dimensions. With time, the pile approaches a critical state with a certain slope. Assuming extremal dynamics in the evolution of the pile, the way the critical state is approached is dictated
Boyer, Edmond
is therefore needed. Therefore highly heterogeneous temperature fields and heat fluxes can be evaluating. Asymptotic developments enable to take into account variations of thermal properties depending on temperatureInverse three-dimensional method for fast evaluation of temperature and heat flux fields during
Raman, Sethu
Three-dimensional Simulations of the Mean Air Transport During the 1997 Forest Fires in Kalimantan-related forest fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia from 00 UTC 21 September to 00 UTC 25 September, 1997. The Fifth responsible for the transport of air pollutants during forest fires in Kalimantan in September, 1997
van der Hilst, Robert Dirk
the generalized Radon transform Haijiang Zhang,1 Ping Wang,1 Robert D. van der Hilst,1 M. Nafi Toksoz,1 Clifford; published 9 December 2009. [1] We apply a three-dimensional (3D) generalized Radon transform (GRT passive seismic waveform imaging around the SAFOD site, California, using the generalized Radon transform
Bazant, Martin Z.
Design principle for improved three-dimensional ac electro-osmotic pumps Damian Burch and Martin Z-dimensional 3D ac electro-osmotic ACEO pumps have recently been developed that are much faster and more robust electro-osmotic slip in opposite directions along different sections of each electrode, and Ajdari's idea
Kerr, H.G.; White, N. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
A general, automatic method for determining the three-dimensional geometry of a normal fault of any shape and size is applied to a three-dimensional seismic reflection data set from the Nun River field, Nigeria. In addition to calculating fault geometry, the method also automatically retrieves the extension direction without requiring any previous information about either the fault shape or the extension direction. Solutions are found by minimizing the misfit between sets of faults that are calculated from the observed geometries of two or more hanging-wall beds. In the example discussed here, the predicted fault surface is in excellent agreement with the shape of the seismically imaged fault. Although the calculated extension direction is oblique to the average strike of the fault, the value of this parameter is not well resolved. Our approach differs markedly from standard section-balancing models in two important ways. First, we do not assume that the extension direction is known, and second, the use of inverse theory ensures that formal confidence bounds can be determined for calculated fault geometries. This ability has important implications for a range of geological problems encountered at both exploration and production scales. In particular, once the three-dimensional displacement field has been constrained, the difficult but important problem of three-dimensional palinspastic restoration of hanging-wall structures becomes tractable.
1302. P6.51. Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound To Characterize Mitral Valve Motion P results aim to fully characterize the four-dimensional (3D + time) movement of the mitral valve for better understanding of its behavior prior to surgical interventions, such as mitral valve repair. A behavior model
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R. Wilson,a
Kalies, William D.
of interconnectivity of solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode phases. The method was applied to the three1 Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R, and hence was not electrochemically active. #12;2 1. Introduction Attempts to understand solid oxide fuel
Fialko, Yuri
Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip (Iran) earth- quake using radar data from the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency. Analysis. In this paper we report on deformation associated with the Mw6.5 Bam (Iran) earthquake determined using
Aickelin, Uwe
residential energy consumers in the UK by considering property energy efficiency levels, the greenness1 A Three-Dimensional Model of Residential Energy Consumer Archetypes for Local Energy Policy lines of research in residential energy consumption in the UK, i.e. economic/infrastructure, behaviour
Wave EnergyFocusing in aThree-dimensional Numerical WaveTank C. Fochesato*, F. Dias**, S. Grilli***
Grilli, Stphan T.
Wave EnergyFocusing in aThree-dimensional Numerical WaveTank C. Fochesato*, F. Dias**, S. Grilli Department (University of Rhode Island), Narragansett, RI, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Directional wave energy focusing in space is one of the mechanisms that may contribute to the generation of a rogue wave in the ocean
Berlin,Technische Universitt
1 Modeling of Laser Cutting and Related Processes A considerable proportion of laser processing. Modeling laser cutting and its features Recent modeling work has concentrated on the implementation and numerical evaluation of a transient three-dimensional computer simulation of the CO2 laser cutting process
Imaging an aligned polyatomic molecule with laser-induced electron diffraction
Pullen, Michael; Le, Anh-Thu; Baudisch, Matthias; Hemmer, Michal; Senftleben, Arne; Schrter, Claus Dieter; Ullrich, Joachim; Moshammer, Robert; Lin, Chii-Dong; Biegert, Jens
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Laser-induced electron diffraction is an evolving tabletop method, which aims to image ultrafast structural changes in gas-phase polyatomic molecules with sub-{\\AA}ngstr\\"om spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution. Here, we provide the general foundation for the retrieval of multiple bond lengths from a polyatomic molecule by simultaneously measuring the C-C and C-H bond lengths in aligned acetylene. Our approach takes the method beyond the hitherto achieved imaging of simple diatomic molecules and is based upon the combination of a 160 kHz mid-IR few-cycle laser source with full three-dimensional electron-ion coincidence detection. Our technique provides an accessible and robust route towards imaging ultrafast processes in complex gas phase molecules with atto- to femto-second temporal resolution.
FORMATION AND RECONNECTION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL CURRENT SHEETS IN THE SOLAR CORONA
Edmondson, J. K. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Antiochos, S. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); DeVore, C. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zurbuchen, T. H., E-mail: jkedmond@umich.ed [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States)
2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z
Current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection are believed to be the basic physical processes responsible for much of the activity observed in astrophysical plasmas, such as the Sun's corona. We investigate these processes for a magnetic configuration consisting of a uniform background field and an embedded line dipole, a topology that is expected to be ubiquitous in the corona. This magnetic system is driven by a uniform horizontal flow applied at the line-tied photosphere. Although both the initial field and the driver are translationally symmetric, the resulting evolution is calculated using a fully three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic simulation with adaptive mesh refinement that resolves the current sheet and reconnection dynamics in detail. The advantage of our approach is that it allows us to directly apply the vast body of knowledge gained from the many studies of two-dimensional (2D) reconnection to the fully 3D case. We find that a current sheet forms in close analogy to the classic Syrovatskii 2D mechanism, but the resulting evolution is different than expected. The current sheet is globally stable, showing no evidence for a disruption or a secondary instability even for aspect ratios as high as 80:1. The global evolution generally follows the standard Sweet-Parker 2D reconnection model except for an accelerated reconnection rate at a very thin current sheet, due to the tearing instability and the formation of magnetic islands. An interesting conclusion is that despite the formation of fully 3D structures at small scales, the system remains close to 2D at global scales. We discuss the implications of our results for observations of the solar corona.
A THREE-DIMENSIONAL VIEW OF THE REMNANT OF NOVA PERSEI 1901 (GK Per)
Liimets, T.; Verro, K.; Kolka, I. [Tartu Observatory, 61602 Toravere (Estonia); Corradi, R. L. M.; Rodriguez-Gil, P. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Santander-Garcia, M. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Ap. de Correos 112, E-28803 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Villaver, E. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)
2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present a kinematical study of the optical ejecta of GK Per. It is based on proper-motion measurements of 282 knots from {approx}20 images spanning 25 years. Doppler shifts are also computed for 217 knots. The combination of proper motions and radial velocities allows a unique three-dimensional view of the ejecta to be obtained. The main results are as follows: (1) the outflow is a thick shell in which knots expand with a significant range of velocities, mostly between 600 and 1000 km s{sup -1}, (2) kinematical ages indicate that knots have suffered only a modest deceleration since their ejection a century ago, (3) no evidence for anisotropy in the expansion rate is found, (4) velocity vectors are generally aligned along the radial direction, but a symmetric pattern of non-radial velocities is also observed at specific directions, and (5) the total H{alpha}+[N II] flux has been linearly decreasing at a rate of 2.6% per year in the past decade. The eastern nebular side is fading at a slower rate than the western side. Some of the knots were displayed a rapid change of brightness during the 2004-2011 period. Over a longer timescale, a progressive circularization and homogenization of the nebula are taking place; (6) a kinematic distance of 400 {+-} 30 pc is determined. These results raise some problems with the previous interpretations of the evolution of GK Per. In particular, the idea of a strong interaction of the outflow with the surrounding medium in the southwest quadrant is not supported by our data.
Three-dimensional braid-plain architecture, Bulgo Formation, Sydney basin, Australia
Reynolds, S.A.; Glasford, J.L.
1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Triassic Bulgo Formation of the Sydney basin was deposited by a basin-wide braid-plain system. Detailed outcrop analysis of facies relationships and correlation with subsurface data allow for recognition of three-dimensional facies architecture and paleogeography reconstruction. The Lachlan foldbelt was the primary source for the Bulgo Formation. Three outcrop sites in varying proximity to the source area were examined: (1) Blue Mountains, (2) Burragorrang Walls, and (3) Royal National Park. Proximal deposits of the Blue Mountains consist of two members. Both the lower and upper Bulgo are coarse-grained, tabular sandstone sheets. They are separated by a paleosoil horizon which is the only criterion for separation. Medial deposits at Burrangorang Walls can be distinguished on the basis of shale content. The lower Bulgo remains a coarse-grained, tabular sandstone sheet. The upper Bulgo is also a coarse-grained, tabular sandstone sheet. The upper Bulgo is also a coarse-grained, tabular sandstone sheet. The upper Bulgo is also a coarse-grained sandstone sheet but contains a significant proportion of interchannel shale deposits and mud plugs. Distal deposits of the Royal National Park are characterized by a similar coarse-grained lower member which was deposited by a large braid-plain system where smaller braided systems coalesced into a basin-wide tabular sandstone sheet. However, the upper Bulgo member shows a further downdip evolution to a fine-grained sandstone sheet deposited by small, interconnected braided streams which were separated by numerous flood-plain and paludal deposits. This upsection and lateral evolution reflects waning sediment supply and denudation of the Lachlan foldbelt source area.
GENERAL-RELATIVISTIC SIMULATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE
Ott, Christian D.; Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Moesta, Philipp; Haas, Roland; Drasco, Steve; O'Connor, Evan P.; Reisswig, Christian [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Meakin, Casey A. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schnetter, Erik, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)
2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z
We study the three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics of the post-core-bounce phase of the collapse of a 27 M{sub Sun} star and pay special attention to the development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and neutrino-driven convection. To this end, we perform 3D general-relativistic simulations with a three-species neutrino leakage scheme. The leakage scheme captures the essential aspects of neutrino cooling, heating, and lepton number exchange as predicted by radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. The 27 M{sub Sun} progenitor was studied in 2D by Mueller et al., who observed strong growth of the SASI while neutrino-driven convection was suppressed. In our 3D simulations, neutrino-driven convection grows from numerical perturbations imposed by our Cartesian grid. It becomes the dominant instability and leads to large-scale non-oscillatory deformations of the shock front. These will result in strongly aspherical explosions without the need for large-scale SASI shock oscillations. Low-l-mode SASI oscillations are present in our models, but saturate at small amplitudes that decrease with increasing neutrino heating and vigor of convection. Our results, in agreement with simpler 3D Newtonian simulations, suggest that once neutrino-driven convection is started, it is likely to become the dominant instability in 3D. Whether it is the primary instability after bounce will ultimately depend on the physical seed perturbations present in the cores of massive stars. The gravitational wave signal, which we extract and analyze for the first time from 3D general-relativistic models, will serve as an observational probe of the postbounce dynamics and, in combination with neutrinos, may allow us to determine the primary hydrodynamic instability.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS ON HIGHLY ECCENTRIC ORBITS
Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Lewis, N. K. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fortney, J. J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S., E-mail: tkataria@lpl.arizona.edu [NASA Ames Research Center 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)
2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
Of the over 800 exoplanets detected to date, over half are on non-circular orbits, with eccentricities as high as 0.93. Such orbits lead to time-variable stellar heating, which has major implications for the planet's atmospheric dynamical regime. However, little is known about the fundamental dynamical regime of such planetary atmospheres, and how it may influence the observations of these planets. Therefore, we present a systematic study of hot Jupiters on highly eccentric orbits using the SPARC/MITgcm, a model which couples a three-dimensional general circulation model (the MITgcm) with a plane-parallel, two-stream, non-gray radiative transfer model. In our study, we vary the eccentricity and orbit-average stellar flux over a wide range. We demonstrate that the eccentric hot Jupiter regime is qualitatively similar to that of planets on circular orbits; the planets possess a superrotating equatorial jet and exhibit large day-night temperature variations. As in Showman and Polvani, we show that the day-night heating variations induce momentum fluxes equatorward to maintain the superrotating jet throughout its orbit. We find that as the eccentricity and/or stellar flux is increased (corresponding to shorter orbital periods), the superrotating jet strengthens and narrows, due to a smaller Rossby deformation radius. For a select number of model integrations, we generate full-orbit light curves and find that the timing of transit and secondary eclipse viewed from Earth with respect to periapse and apoapse can greatly affect what we see in infrared (IR) light curves; the peak in IR flux can lead or lag secondary eclipse depending on the geometry. For those planets that have large temperature differences from dayside to nightside and rapid rotation rates, we find that the light curves can exhibit 'ringing' as the planet's hottest region rotates in and out of view from Earth. These results can be used to explain future observations of eccentric transiting exoplanets.
Dual-spacecraft reconstruction of a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope at the Earth's magnetopause
Hasegawa, H. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara (Japan). Institute of Space and Astronautical Science.] (ORCID:000000021172021X); Sonnerup, B. U. . [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Eriksson, S. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nakamura, T. K. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kawano, H. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria)
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present the first results of a data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2011), for reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D), magnetohydrostatic structures from data taken as two closely spaced satellites traverse the structures. The method is applied to a magnetic flux transfer event (FTE), which was encountered on 27 June 2007 by at least three (TH-C, TH-D, and TH-E) of the five THEMIS probes near the subsolar magnetopause. The FTE was sandwiched between two oppositely directed reconnection jets under a southward interplanetary magnetic field condition, consistent with its generation by multiple X-line reconnection. The recovered 3-D field indicates that a magnetic flux rope with a diameter of ~ 3000 km was embedded in the magnetopause. The FTE flux rope had a significant 3-D structure, because the 3-D field reconstructed from the data from TH-C and TH-D (separated by ~ 390 km) better predicts magnetic field variations actually measured along the TH-E path than does the 2-D GradShafranov reconstruction using the data from TH-C (which was closer to TH-E than TH-D and was at ~ 1250 km from TH-E). Such a 3-D nature suggests that the field lines reconnected at the two X-lines on both sides of the flux rope are entangled in a complicated way through their interaction with each other. The generation process of the observed 3-D flux rope is discussed on the basis of the reconstruction results and the pitch-angle distribution of electrons observed in and around the FTE.
SASI ACTIVITY IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL NEUTRINO-HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF SUPERNOVA CORES
Hanke, Florian; Mueller, Bernhard; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Marek, Andreas; Janka, Hans-Thomas, E-mail: fhanke@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: annop@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: amarek@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
The relevance of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) compared to neutrino-driven convection in three-dimensional (3D) supernova-core environments is still highly controversial. Studying a 27 M{sub Sun} progenitor, we demonstrate, for the first time, that violent SASI activity can develop in 3D simulations with detailed neutrino transport despite the presence of convection. This result was obtained with the PROMETHEUS-VERTEX code with the same sophisticated neutrino treatment so far used only in one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) models. While buoyant plumes initially determine the nonradial mass motions in the postshock layer, bipolar shock sloshing with growing amplitude sets in during a phase of shock retraction and turns into a violent spiral mode whose growth is only quenched when the infall of the Si/SiO interface leads to strong shock expansion in response to a dramatic decrease of the mass accretion rate. In the phase of large-amplitude SASI sloshing and spiral motions, the postshock layer exhibits nonradial deformation dominated by the lowest-order spherical harmonics (l = 1, m = 0, {+-}1) in distinct contrast to the higher multipole structures associated with neutrino-driven convection. We find that the SASI amplitudes, shock asymmetry, and nonradial kinetic energy in three dimensions can exceed those of the corresponding 2D case during extended periods of the evolution. We also perform parameterized 3D simulations of a 25 M{sub Sun} progenitor, using a simplified, gray neutrino transport scheme, an axis-free Yin-Yang grid, and different amplitudes of random seed perturbations. They confirm the importance of the SASI for another progenitor, its independence of the choice of spherical grid, and its preferred growth for fast accretion flows connected to small shock radii and compact proto-neutron stars as previously found in 2D setups.
Effect of magnetic field on the wave dispersion relation in three-dimensional dusty plasma crystals
Yang Xuefeng [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang Zhengxiong [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional plasma crystals under microgravity condition are investigated by taking into account an external magnetic field. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the body centered cubic (bcc) and the face centered cubic (fcc) plasma crystals are obtained explicitly when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the wave motion. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the bcc and fcc plasma crystals are calculated numerically when the magnetic field is in an arbitrary direction. The numerical results show that one longitudinal mode and two transverse modes are coupled due to the Lorentz force in the magnetic field. Moreover, three wave modes, i.e., the high frequency phonon mode, the low frequency phonon mode, and the optical mode, are obtained. The optical mode and at least one phonon mode are hybrid modes. When the magnetic field is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the primitive wave motion, all the three wave modes are hybrid modes and do not have any intersection points. It is also found that with increasing the magnetic field strength, the frequency of the optical mode increases and has a cutoff at the cyclotron frequency of the dust particles in the limit of long wavelength, and the mode mixings for both the optical mode and the high frequency phonon mode increase. The acoustic velocity of the low frequency phonon mode is zero. In addition, the acoustic velocity of the high frequency phonon mode depends on the angle of the magnetic field and the wave motion but does not depend on the magnetic field strength.
Equilibrium vortex motion in two- and three-dimensional superconductors studied with a dc SQUID
Shaw, T.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.
1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The equilibrium motion of vortices in two- and three-dimensional superconductors has been studied with a dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID). This technique has the advantage of probing the system in a non-invasive manner as well as providing dynamic information over many decades in frequency. Through measurements of the spectral density of magnetic flux noise, S{sub {Phi}}({omega}), as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field, the effects of proton and heavy ion irradiation on flux noise in crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} have been measured and compared with the effects on the critical current, J{sub c}. Both proton and heavy ion irradiation proved effective at reducing S{sub {Phi}}({omega}), with proton irradiation having a larger effect. Measurement of S{sub {Phi}}({omega}) due to the equilibrium Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii transition in two-dimensional Josephson Junction Arrays (JJAs) was studied as a function of temperature for three different arrays and using three different sensors. S{sub {Phi}} is shown to obey dynamic scaling over as many as five decades in frequency, and estimates are made for the dynamic critical exponent z. An analytic theory for the high- and low-frequency behavior of S{sub {Phi}}({omega}) is presented and compared to the measured data, with the result that the low-frequency behavior is well described by the theory but the high-frequency behavior is not. Other theories and numerical simulations are described and compared with the data, but none are completely satisfactory. Lastly, suggestions for necessary further theoretical work and possible future experimental work are suggested.
Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)
2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on board Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the 'true' distributions from the model, we assess the limitations of the diagnostics as a function of the plasma parameters and the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with significantly different density overlap along the line of sight. When using AIA synthetic data the derived EMDs reproduce the true EMDs much less accurately, especially for broad EMDs. The differences between the two instruments are due to the: (1) smaller number of constraints provided by AIA data and (2) broad temperature response function of the AIA channels which provide looser constraints to the temperature distribution. Our results suggest that EMDs derived from current observatories may often show significant discrepancies from the true EMDs, rendering their interpretation fraught with uncertainty. These inherent limitations to the method should be carefully considered when using these distributions to constrain coronal heating.
Dual-spacecraft reconstruction of a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope at the Earth's magnetopause
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Hasegawa, H.; Sonnerup, B. U. .; Eriksson, S.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Kawano, H.
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present the first results of a data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2011), for reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D), magnetohydrostatic structures from data taken as two closely spaced satellites traverse the structures. The method is applied to a magnetic flux transfer event (FTE), which was encountered on 27 June 2007 by at least three (TH-C, TH-D, and TH-E) of the five THEMIS probes near the subsolar magnetopause. The FTE was sandwiched between two oppositely directed reconnection jets under a southward interplanetary magnetic field condition, consistent with its generation by multiple X-line reconnection. The recovered 3-D field indicates that amoremagnetic flux rope with a diameter of ~ 3000 km was embedded in the magnetopause. The FTE flux rope had a significant 3-D structure, because the 3-D field reconstructed from the data from TH-C and TH-D (separated by ~ 390 km) better predicts magnetic field variations actually measured along the TH-E path than does the 2-D GradShafranov reconstruction using the data from TH-C (which was closer to TH-E than TH-D and was at ~ 1250 km from TH-E). Such a 3-D nature suggests that the field lines reconnected at the two X-lines on both sides of the flux rope are entangled in a complicated way through their interaction with each other. The generation process of the observed 3-D flux rope is discussed on the basis of the reconstruction results and the pitch-angle distribution of electrons observed in and around the FTE.less
Malinauskas, M.; Purlys, V.; Zukauskas, A.; Rutkauskas, M.; Danilevicius, P.; Paipulas, D.; Bickauskaite, G.; Gadonas, R.; Piskarskas, A. [Vilnius University, Physics Faculty, Department of Quantum Electronics, Laser Research Center, Sauletekio ave. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania); Bukelskis, L.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskiene, V. [Institute of Biochemistry, Vivarium, Mokslininkuo str. 12, LT-08662 Vilnius (Lithuania); Sirmenis, R. [Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiuo Klinikos, Santariskiuo g. 2, LT-08661 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gaidukeviciute, A. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Sirvydis, V. [Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Heart Surgery Center, Santariskiuo 2, LT-08661, Vilnius (Lithuania)
2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present a femtosecond Laser Two-Photon Polymerization (LTPP) system of large scale three-dimensional structuring for applications in tissue engineering. The direct laser writing system enables fabrication of artificial polymeric scaffolds over a large area (up to cm in lateral size) with sub-micrometer resolution which could find practical applications in biomedicine and surgery. Yb:KGW femtosecond laser oscillator (Pharos, Light Conversion. Co. Ltd.) is used as an irradiation source (75 fs, 515 nm (frequency doubled), 80 MHz). The sample is mounted on wide range linear motor driven stages having 10 nm sample positioning resolution (XY--ALS130-100, Z--ALS130-50, Aerotech, Inc.). These stages guarantee an overall travelling range of 100 mm into X and Y directions and 50 mm in Z direction and support the linear scanning speed up to 300 mm/s. By moving the sample three-dimensionally the position of laser focus in the photopolymer is changed and one is able to write complex 3D (three-dimensional) structures. An illumination system and CMOS camera enables online process monitoring. Control of all equipment is automated via custom made computer software ''3D-Poli'' specially designed for LTPP applications. Structures can be imported from computer aided design STereoLihography (stl) files or programmed directly. It can be used for rapid LTPP structuring in various photopolymers (SZ2080, AKRE19, PEG-DA-258) which are known to be suitable for bio-applications. Microstructured scaffolds can be produced on different substrates like glass, plastic and metal. In this paper, we present microfabricated polymeric scaffolds over a large area and growing of adult rabbit myogenic stem cells on them. Obtained results show the polymeric scaffolds to be applicable for cell growth practice. It exhibit potential to use it for artificial pericardium in the experimental model in the future.
Rogers, John A.
enable additional important classes of 3D nano- structured materials to be formed with PnP. In particular to large areas, they can define three di- mensional 3D nanostructured materials in a single step, this simple method was used to form a variety of 3D nanostructured materials, using exposure light from lasers
Nogrette, F; Chang, R; Bouton, Q; Westbrook, C I; Sellem, R; Clment, D
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report on the development of a novel FPGA-based Time-to-Digital Converter and its implementation in a detection chain that records the coordinates of single particles along three dimensions. The detector is composed of Micro-Channel Plates mounted on top of a cross delay line and connected to fast electronics. We demonstrate continuous recording of the timing signals from the cross delay line at rates up to 4.1x10^6 per second and three-dimensional reconstruction of the coordinates up to 2.5x10^6 particles per second. From the imaging of a calibrated structure we measure the in-plane resolution of the detector to be 140(20) um. In addition we analyze a method to measure the resolution without placing any structure under vacuum, a significant practical improvement. While we use UV photons here, the results of this work directly apply to the detection of other kinds of particles.
Three-dimensional x-ray fluorescence mapping of a gold nanoparticle-loaded phantom
Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong, E-mail: liu@ou.edu [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)] [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Wang, Ge [Biomedical Imaging Cluster and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)] [Biomedical Imaging Cluster and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Wu, Xizeng [Department of Radiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35233 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35233 (United States)
2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose : X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a promising technique with sufficient specificity and sensitivity for identifying and quantifying features in small samples containing high atomic number (Z) materials such as iodine, gadolinium, and gold. In this study, the feasibility of applying XRF to early breast cancer diagnosis and treatment is studied using a novel approach for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray fluorescence mapping (XFM) of gold nanoparticle (GNP)-loaded objects in a physical phantom at the technical level. Methods : All the theoretical analysis and experiments are conducted under the condition of using x-ray pencil beam and a compactly integrated x-ray spectrometer. The penetrability of the fluorescence x-rays from GNPs is first investigated by adopting a combination of BR12 with 70 mm/50 mm in thickness on the excitation/emission path to mimic the possible position of tumor goldin vivo. Then, a physical phantom made of BR12 is designed to translate in 3D space with three precise linear stages and subsequently the step by step XFM scanning is performed. The experimental technique named as background subtraction is applied to isolate the gold fluorescence from each spectrum obtained by the spectrometer. Afterwards, the attenuations of both the incident primary x-ray beam with energies beyond the gold K-edge energy (80.725 keV) and the isolated gold K{sub ?} fluorescence x-rays (65.99 69.80 keV) acquired after background subtraction are well calibrated, and finally the unattenuated K{sub ?} fluorescence counts are used to realize mapping reconstruction and to describe the linear relationship between gold fluorescence counts and corresponding concentration of gold solutions. Results : The penetration results show that the goldK{sub ?} fluorescence x-rays have sufficient penetrability for this phantom study, and the reconstructed mapping results indicate that both the spatial distribution and relative concentration of GNPs within the designed BR12 phantom can be well identified and quantified. Conclusions : Although the XFM method in this investigation is still studied at the technical level and is not yet practical for routinein vivo mapping tasks with GNPs, the current penetrability measurements and phantom study strongly suggest the feasibility to establish and develop a 3D XFM system.
W. Steven Holbrook
2004-11-11T23:59:59.000Z
This report contains a summary of work conducted and results produced under the auspices of award DE-FC26-00NT40921, ''DOE Three-Dimensional Structure and Physical Properties of a Methane Hydrate Deposit and Gas Reservoir, Blake Ridge.'' This award supported acquisition, processing, and interpretation of two- and three-dimensional seismic reflection data over a large methane hydrate reservoir on the Blake Ridge, offshore South Carolina. The work supported by this project has led to important new conclusions regarding (1) the use of seismic reflection data to directly detect methane hydrate, (2) the migration and possible escape of free gas through the hydrate stability zone, and (3) the mechanical controls on the maximum thickness of the free gas zone and gas escape.
Boris Buffoni; Mark D. Groves; Shu-Ming Sun; Erik Wahln
2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we show that the hydrodynamic problem for three-dimensional water waves with strong surface-tension effects admits a fully localised solitary wave which decays to the undisturbed state of the water in every horizontal direction. The proof is based upon the classical variational principle that a solitary wave of this type is a critical point of the energy subject to the constraint that the momentum is fixed. We prove the existence of a minimiser of the energy subject to the constraint that the momentum is fixed and small. The existence of a small-amplitude solitary wave is thus assured, and since the energy and momentum are both conserved quantities a standard argument may be used to establish the stability of the set of minimisers as a whole. `Stability' is however understood in a qualified sense due to the lack of a global well-posedness theory for three-dimensional water waves.
Karsilayan, Nur
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
. Michalski Committee Members, Kai Chang Weiping Shi Mark E. Everett Head of Department, Costas N. Georghiades May 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Full-Wave Surface Integral Equation Method for Electromagnetic...-1 FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS IN LAYERED MEDIA A Dissertation by NUR KURT KARSILAYAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...
Williams, M. L.; Gehin, J. C.; Clarno, K. T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Bldg. 5700, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6170 (United States)
2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The TSUNAMI computational sequences currently in the SCALE 5 code system provide an automated approach to performing sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for eigenvalue responses, using either one-dimensional discrete ordinates or three-dimensional Monte Carlo methods. This capability has recently been expanded to address eigenvalue-difference responses such as reactivity changes. This paper describes the methodology and presents results obtained for an example advanced CANDU reactor design. (authors)
Foukzon, Jaykov
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Advanced numerical-analytical study of the three-dimensional nonlinear stochastic partial differential equation, analogous to that proposed by V. N. Nikolaevski to describe longitudinal seismic waves, is presented. The equation has a threshold of short-wave instability and symmetry, providing long-wave dynamics. Proposed new mechanism for quantum "super chaos" generating in nonlinear dynamical systems. The hypothesis is said, that strong physical turbulence could be identified with quantum chaos of considered type.
Cao, Guozhong
-5 The anatase TiO2 has become a highly promising anode material for LIBs. The titanium dioxide offers a greatDesign and Tailoring of a Three-Dimensional TiO2-Graphene- Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite for Fast a three- dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure for fast lithium storage. CNTs in the unique hybrid
Ortiz, Michael
Three-dimensional fracture and fragmentation of artificial kidney stones This article has been IOPscience #12;Three-dimensional fracture and fragmentation of artificial kidney stones Alejandro Mota1 Laboratory Livermore, CA 94550, USA July 25, 2006 Abstract The brittle fracture of a gypsum cylinder, which
Fredrich, J.T. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States); Argueello, J.G.; Thorne, B.J.; Wawersik, W.R. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others
1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper describes an integrated geomechanics analysis of well casing damage induced by compaction of the diatomite reservoir at the Belridge Field, California. Historical data from the five field operators were compiled and analyzed to determine correlations between production, injection, subsidence, and well failures. The results of this analysis were used to develop a three-dimensional geomechanical model of South Belridge, Section 33 to examine the diatomite reservoir and overburden response to production and injection at the interwell scale and to evaluate potential well failure mechanisms. The time-dependent reservoir pressure field was derived from a three-dimensional finite difference reservoir simulation and used as input to three-dimensional non-linear finite element geomechanical simulations. The reservoir simulation included -200 wells and covered 18 years of production and injection. The geomechanical simulation contained 437,100 nodes and 374,130 elements with the overburden and reservoir discretized into 13 layers with independent material properties. The results reveal the evolution of the subsurface stress and displacement fields with production and injection and suggest strategies for reducing the occurrence of well casing damage.
THREE DIMENSIONAL INTEGRATED CHARACTERIZATION AND ARCHIVING SYSTEM (3D-ICAS)
George Jarvis
2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z
The overall objective of this project is to develop an integrated system that remotely characterizes, maps, and archives measurement data of hazardous decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) areas. The system will generate a detailed 3-dimensional topography of the area as well as real-time quantitative measurements of volatile organics and radionuclides. The system will analyze substrate materials consisting of concrete, asbestos, and transite. The system will permanently archive the data measurements for regulatory and data integrity documentation. Exposure limits, rest breaks, and donning and removal of protective garments generate waste in the form of contaminated protective garments and equipment. Survey times are increased and handling and transporting potentially hazardous materials incur additional costs. Off-site laboratory analysis is expensive and time-consuming, often necessitating delay of further activities until results are received. The Three Dimensional Integrated Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) has been developed to alleviate some of these problems. 3D-ICAS provides a flexible system for physical, chemical and nuclear measurements reduces costs and improves data quality. Operationally, 3D-ICAS performs real-time determinations of hazardous and toxic contamination. A prototype demonstration unit is available for use in early 2000. The tasks in this Phase included: (1) Mobility Platforms: Integrate hardware onto mobility platforms, upgrade surface sensors, develop unit operations and protocol. (2) System Developments: Evaluate metals detection capability using x-ray fluorescence technology. (3) IWOS Upgrades: Upgrade the IWOS software and hardware for compatibility with mobility platform. The system was modified, tested and debugged during 1999 and 2000. The 3D-ICAS was shipped on 11 May 2001 to FIU-HCET for demonstration and validation of the design modifications. These modifications included simplifying the design from a two-vehicle system to a single mobile platform, integration of the XRF sensor for enhanced substrate analysis and upgrading of the IWOS operating system. Several of the system's power supplies were accidentally damaged upon power on because FIU wired 3 phase AC power to the system instead of the requested single phase. Repairs were made in the field to the damaged power supplies but 3 of 5 days time were lost to complete the repairs. Once the repairs were made CyTerra was able to demonstrate the CLR mapping and the movement of the sensor probe to selected locations on the test wall. The XRF sensor was also demonstrated on a stainless steel substrate. A surrogate solution was determined to be below the detection threshold. The radionuclide and GCMS sensors were not demonstrated due to either failed power supply or lack of time remaining in the schedule. The GCMS failure was partially the result of the debugging activities that took place during the week for assessing electrical damage. Specifically, GCMS electronic modules, which control the heating of two of gas transfer elements, may have been damaged during field debugging that was required. Given the financial constraints of the program, CyTerra Corporation decided to return the equipment to Waltham facilities for further assessment. We believe the principles of operation were shown, however a complete demonstration did not occur due to these difficulties.
Soft-Lithographical Fabrication of Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals in the Optical Regime
Jae-Hwang Lee
2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z
This dissertation describes several projects to realize low-cost and high-quality three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication using non-photolithographic techniques for layer-by-layer photonic crystals. Low-cost, efficient 3D microfabrication is a demanding technique not only for 3D photonic crystals but also for all other scientific areas, since it may create new functionalities beyond the limit of planar structures. However, a novel 3D microfabrication technique for photonic crystals implies the development of a complete set of sub-techniques for basic layer-by-layer stacking, inter-layer alignment, and material conversion. One of the conventional soft lithographic techniques, called microtransfer molding ({mu}TM), was developed by the Whitesides group in 1996. Although {mu}TM technique potentially has a number of advantages to overcome the limit of conventional photolithographic techniques in building up 3D microstructures, it has not been studied intensively after its demonstration. This is mainly because of technical challenges in the nature of layer-by-layer fabrication, such as the demand of very high yield in fabrication. After two years of study on conventional {mu}TM, We have developed an advanced microtransfer molding technique, called two-polymer microtransfer molding (2P-{mu}TM) that shows an extremely high yield in layer-by-layer microfabrication sufficient to produce highly layered microstructures. The use of two different photo-curable prepolymers, a filler and an adhesive, allows for fabrication of layered microstructures without thin films between layers. The capabilities of 2P-{mu}TM are demonstrated by the fabrication of a wide-area 12-layer microstructure with high structural fidelity. Second, we also had to develop an alignment technique. We studied the 1st-order diffracted moire fringes of transparent multilayered structures comprised of irregularly deformed periodic patterns. By a comparison study of the diffracted moire fringe pattern and detailed microscopy of the structure, we show that the diffracted moire fringe can be used as a nondestructive tool to analyze the alignment of multilayered structures. We demonstrate the alignment method for the case of layer-by-layer microstructures using soft lithography. The alignment method yields high contrast of fringes even when the materials being aligned have very weak contrasts. The imaging method of diffracted moire fringes is a versatile visual tool for the microfabrication of transparent deformable microstructures in layer-by-layer fashion. Third, we developed several methods to convert a polymer template to dielectric or metallic structures, for instance, metallic infiltration using electrodeposition, metallic coating using sputter deposition, dielectric infiltration using titania nano-slurry, and dielectric coating using atomic layer deposition of Titania. By several different developed techniques, high quality photonic crystals have been successfully fabricated; however, I will focus on a line of techniques to reach metallic photonic crystals in this dissertation since they are completely characterized at this moment. In addition to the attempts for photonic crystal fabrication, our non-photolithographic technique is applied for other photonic applications such as small optical waveguides whose diameter is comparable to the wavelength of guided light. Although, as guiding medium, polymers have tremendous potential because of their enormous variation in optical, chemical and mechanical properties, their application for optical waveguides is limited in conventional photolithography. By 2P-{mu}TM, we achieve low cost, high yield, high fidelity, and tailorable fabrication of small waveguides. Embedded semiconductor quantum-dots and grating couplers are used for efficient internal and external light source, respectively.
Turbulence in a three-dimensional deflagration model for Type Ia supernovae: I. Scaling properties
Ciaraldi-Schoolmann, F; Niemeyer, J C; Roepke, F K; Hillebrandt, W
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the statistical properties of the turbulent velocity field in the deflagration model for Type Ia supernovae. In particular, we consider the question of whether turbulence is isotropic and consistent with the Kolmogorov theory at small length scales. Using numerical data from a high-resolution simulation of a thermonuclear supernova explosion, spectra of the turbulence energy and velocity structure functions are computed. We show that the turbulent velocity field is isotropic at small length scales and follows a scaling law that is consistent with the Kolmogorov theory until most of the nuclear fuel is burned. At length scales greater than a certain characteristic scale, turbulence becomes anisotropic. Here, the radial velocity fluctuations follow the scaling law of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, whereas the angular component still obeys Kolmogorov scaling. In the late phase of the explosion, this characteristic scale drops below the numerical resolution of the simulation. The analysis confirms th...
Goyal, Amit
2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.
Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN), Kang; Sukill (Knoxville, TN)
2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.
Zucca, J J; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J; Richards, P; Pasyanos, M E; Myers, S C; Lay, T; Harris, D; Antoun, T
2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
The last ten years have brought rapid growth in the development and use of three-dimensional (3D) seismic models of Earth structure at crustal, regional and global scales. In order to explore the potential for 3D seismic models to contribute to important societal applications, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a 'Workshop on Multi-Resolution 3D Earth Models to Predict Key Observables in Seismic Monitoring and Related Fields' on June 6 and 7, 2007 in Berkeley, California. The workshop brought together academic, government and industry leaders in the research programs developing 3D seismic models and methods for the nuclear explosion monitoring and seismic ground motion hazard communities. The workshop was designed to assess the current state of work in 3D seismology and to discuss a path forward for determining if and how 3D Earth models and techniques can be used to achieve measurable increases in our capabilities for monitoring underground nuclear explosions and characterizing seismic ground motion hazards. This paper highlights some of the presentations, issues, and discussions at the workshop and proposes two specific paths by which to begin quantifying the potential contribution of progressively refined 3D seismic models in critical applied arenas. Seismic monitoring agencies are tasked with detection, location, and characterization of seismic activity in near real time. In the case of nuclear explosion monitoring or seismic hazard, decisions to further investigate a suspect event or to launch disaster relief efforts may rely heavily on real-time analysis and results. Because these are weighty decisions, monitoring agencies are regularly called upon to meticulously document and justify every aspect of their monitoring system. In order to meet this level of scrutiny and maintain operational robustness requirements, only mature technologies are considered for operational monitoring systems, and operational technology necessarily lags contemporary research. Current monitoring practice is to use relatively simple Earth models that generally afford analytical prediction of seismic observables (see Examples of Current Monitoring Practice below). Empirical relationships or corrections to predictions are often used to account for unmodeled phenomena, such as the generation of S-waves from explosions or the effect of 3-dimensional Earth structure on wave propagation. This approach produces fast and accurate predictions in areas where empirical observations are available. However, accuracy may diminish away from empirical data. Further, much of the physics is wrapped into an empirical relationship or correction, which limits the ability to fully understand the physical processes underlying the seismic observation. Every generation of seismology researchers works toward quantitative results, with leaders who are active at or near the forefront of what has been computationally possible. While recognizing that only a 3-dimensional model can capture the full physics of seismic wave generation and propagation in the Earth, computational seismology has, until recently, been limited to simplifying model parameterizations (e.g. 1D Earth models) that lead to efficient algorithms. What is different today is the fact that the largest and fastest machines are at last capable of evaluating the effects of generalized 3D Earth structure, at levels of detail that improve significantly over past efforts, with potentially wide application. Advances in numerical methods to compute travel times and complete seismograms for 3D models are enabling new ways to interpret available data. This includes algorithms such as the Fast Marching Method (Rawlison and Sambridge, 2004) for travel time calculations and full waveform methods such as the spectral element method (SEM; Komatitsch et al., 2002, Tromp et al., 2005), higher order Galerkin methods (Kaser and Dumbser, 2006; Dumbser and Kaser, 2006) and advances in more traditional Cartesian finite difference methods (e.g. Pitarka, 1999; Nilsson et al., 2007). The ability to compute seis
Mass, Clifford F.
-Resolution Weather Prediction?4 5 Clifford F. Mass1 and Luke E. Madaus6 Department of Atmospheric Sciences7 1 Corresponding author Professor Clifford F. Mass Department of Atmospheric Sciences Box 351640 about three-dimensional55 atmosph
Xiao, Qingmei; Li, Cong; Hai, Ran; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Chunlei; Ding, Hongbin, E-mail: hding@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhou, Yan; Yan, Longwen; Duan, Xuru [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, No. 3 South Section 3, Circle Road 2, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
A laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LAM-TOF-MS) system with high spatial resolution, ?20 nm in depth and ?500 ?m or better on the surface, is developed to analyze the composition distributions of deposition layers on the first wall materials or first mirrors in tokamak. The LAM-TOF-MS system consists of a laser ablation microprobe combined with a TOF-MS and a data acquisition system based on a LabVIEW program software package. Laser induced ablation combined with TOF-MS is an attractive method to analyze the depth profile of deposited layer with successive laser shots, therefore, it can provide information for composition reconstruction of the plasma wall interaction process. In this work, we demonstrate that the LAM-TOF-MS system is capable of characterizing the depth profile as well as mapping 2D composition of deposited film on the molybdenum first mirror retrieved from HL-2A tokamak, with particular emphasis on some of the species produced during the ablation process. The presented LAM-TOF-MS system provides not only the 3D characterization of deposition but also the removal efficiency of species of concern.
Three dimensional simulations of Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in shock-tube experiments
Gowardhan, Akshay A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grinstein, Fernando F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wachtor, Adam J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the large eddy simulation (LES) approach large-scale energy-containing structures are resolved, smaller (presumably) more isotropic structures are filtered out, and unresolved subgrid effects are modeled. Extensive recent work has demonstrated that predictive simulations of turbulent velocity fields are possible based on subgrid scale modeling implicitly provided by a class of high-resolution finite-volume algorithms. This strategy is called implicit LES. The extension of the approach to the substantially more difficult problem of material mixing IS addressed, and progress in representative shock-driven turbulent mixing studies is reported.
Three-Dimensional EBSD Analysis of YSZ, NiO-YSZ and Ni-Alloy
Saraf, Laxmikant V.
2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z
In this report, a method is discussed to perform successive milling on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), NiO-YSZ and Ni-alloy at the intervals of 85 nm 50 nm and 100 nm, respectively using a focused ion beam (FIB) followed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis on each slice. The EBSD data is then reconstructed to generate 3D volume. The 3D-EBSD band quality data is superimposed on inverse pole figure (IPF) grain orientation analysis to get a correlation with quality of band indexing. For the NiO-YSZ case, grain orientations and band quality factors were matched for grains {approx}250 nm diameters producing a high resolution 3D-EBSD data. For this case, a pore space in 3D volume was visible due to nanocrystalline NiO-YSZ grain network. The advantages of 3D EBSD are discussed in the context of its applications to SOFC research community.
Three-Dimensional Simulations of SASI- and Convection-Dominated Core-Collapse Supernovae
Fernndez, Rodrigo
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the effect of dimensionality on the transition to explosion in neutrino-driven core-collapse supernovae. Using parameterized hydrodynamic simulations of the stalled supernova shock in one-, two- (2D), and three spatial dimensions (3D), we systematically probe the extent to which hydrodynamic instabilities alone can tip the balance in favor of explosion. In particular, we focus on systems that are well into the regimes where the Standing Accretion Shock Instability (SASI) or neutrino-driven convection dominate the dynamics, and characterize the difference between them. We find that SASI-dominated models can explode with up to ~20% lower neutrino luminosity in 3D than in 2D, with the magnitude of this difference decreasing with increasing resolution. This improvement in explosion conditions originates in the ability of spiral modes to generate more non-radial kinetic energy than a single sloshing mode, increasing the size of the average shock radius, and hence generating better conditions for the...
P. Chung; P. Danielewicz
2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z
A model-independent, three-dimensional source function for pion pairs has been extracted from Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt s_{NN}=17.3$ AGeV. The extracted sourc e exhibits long-range non-Gaussian tails in the directions of the pion-pair net transverse-momentum and of the beam. Comparison with the Therminator model allow s for an extraction of the pion source proper breakup time and of emission durat ion in the collisions.
Coexistence of Two- and Three-dimensional Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in Ar^+ -irradiated KTaO_3
Harashima, S.; Bell, C.; Kim, M.; Yajima, T.; Hikita, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.
2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z
We report the electron doping in the surface vicinity of KTaO{sub 3} by inducing oxygen-vacancies via Ar{sup +}-irradiation. The doped electrons have high mobility (> 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/Vs) at low temperatures, and exhibit Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations with both two- and three-dimensional components. A disparity of the extracted in-plane effective mass, compared to the bulk values, suggests mixing of the orbital characters. Our observations demonstrate that Ar{sup +}-irradiation serves as a flexible tool to study low dimensional quantum transport in 5d semiconducting oxides.
Nelson, George J.; Harris, William M.; Izzo, John R. Jr.; Grew, Kyle N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S. [HeteroFoaM Center, a DOE Energy Frontier Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Rd., Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3139 (United States); Chu, Yong S. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 703 Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Yi, Jaemock [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Bldg. 438-B007 Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Andrews, Joy C.; Liu Yijin; Pianetta, Piero [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., MS 69 Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)
2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.
Three-Dimensional Simulations of SASI- and Convection-Dominated Core-Collapse Supernovae
Rodrigo Fernndez
2015-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the effect of dimensionality on the transition to explosion in neutrino-driven core-collapse supernovae. Using parameterized hydrodynamic simulations of the stalled supernova shock in one-, two- (2D), and three spatial dimensions (3D), we systematically probe the extent to which hydrodynamic instabilities alone can tip the balance in favor of explosion. In particular, we focus on systems that are well into the regimes where the Standing Accretion Shock Instability (SASI) or neutrino-driven convection dominate the dynamics, and characterize the difference between them. We find that SASI-dominated models can explode with up to ~20% lower neutrino luminosity in 3D than in 2D, with the magnitude of this difference decreasing with increasing resolution. This improvement in explosion conditions is related to the ability of spiral modes to generate more non-radial kinetic energy than a single sloshing mode, increasing the size of the average shock radius, and hence generating better conditions for the formation of large-scale, high-entropy bubbles. In contrast, convection-dominated explosions show a smaller difference in their critical heating rate between 2D and 3D (paths in a realistic supernova environment.
Foxall, W.
1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Crystal fault zones exhibit spatially heterogeneous slip behavior at all scales, slip being partitioned between stable frictional sliding, or fault creep, and unstable earthquake rupture. An understanding the mechanisms underlying slip segmentation is fundamental to research into fault dynamics and the physics of earthquake generation. This thesis investigates the influence that large-scale along-strike heterogeneity in fault zone lithology has on slip segmentation. Large-scale transitions from the stable block sliding of the Central 4D Creeping Section of the San Andreas, fault to the locked 1906 and 1857 earthquake segments takes place along the Loma Prieta and Parkfield sections of the fault, respectively, the transitions being accomplished in part by the generation of earthquakes in the magnitude range 6 (Parkfield) to 7 (Loma Prieta). Information on sub-surface lithology interpreted from the Loma Prieta and Parkfield three-dimensional crustal velocity models computed by Michelini (1991) is integrated with information on slip behavior provided by the distributions of earthquakes located using, the three-dimensional models and by surface creep data to study the relationships between large-scale lithological heterogeneity and slip segmentation along these two sections of the fault zone.
Bradley, M.M.; Peterson, K.R.; Rodriguez, D.J.
1988-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
During the hours immediately following a nuclear exchange, large fires could inject enormous quantities of smoke into the atmosphere. This smoke, together with dust from surface bursts, would severely restrict visibilities and darken the skies over large areas for days. This, in turn, could impact surface and air operations and systems. These effects could be mitigated by various scavenging mechanisms within the convective clouds that form above the fires. In order to evaluate impacts of post-nuclear-exchange smoke injection, we are developing a three-dimensional numerical smoke plume model (OCTET) to simulate the dynamics and microphysical processes within smoke plumes and convective clouds above large fires. This model is based on the dynamic framework of the Klemp-Wilhelmson (1978) convective storm model and includes parameterizations of scavenging processes. In addition, we are combining results of laboratory research, field experiments, and detailed numerical modeling of cloud microphysical processes in order to better understand smoke scavenging mechanisms. In this brief demonstration of capabilities, we present results from the OCTET model and from a three-dimensional mesoscale model. The smoke plume and fire-induced cloud simulations demonstrate the effects of nucleation scavenging, seasonal variation of atmospheric stability, and various fuel sources. The mesoscale simulations (that use the plume model output as input) demonstrate the mesoscale transport and diffusion of smoke and predict optical depths over the hypothetical target area. No dust effects have been included in these simulations. 2 refs., 8 figs.
Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.
1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The COMMIX-PPC computer pregrain is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex Industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy on the tube stile and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous-medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient. Three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer tn a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications. Volume I (Equations and Numerics) of this report describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for a phenomena. Volume II (User's Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, flow charts, sample problems, and descriptions of available options and boundary conditions.
Iskander, S.K.
1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Two finite element (FE) approaches were used to calculate opening mode I stress intensity factors (K/sub I/) in two- or three-dimensional (2-D and 3-D) problems for the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) program. For problems that can be modeled in two dimensions, two techniques were used. One of these may be termed an ''energy release rate'' technique, and the other is based on the classical near-tip displacement and stress field equations. For three-dimensional problems, only the latter technique was used. In the energy release technique, K/sub I/ is calculated as the change in potential energy of the structure due to a small change in crack length. The potential energy is calculated by the FE method but without completely solving the system of linear equations for the displacements. Furthermore, the system of linear equations is only slightly perturbed by the change in crack length and, therefore, many computations need not be repeated for the second structure with the slight change in crack length. Implementation of these last two items has resulted in considerable savings in the calculation of K/sub I/ as compared to two complete FE analyses. These ideas are incorporated in the FMECH code. The accuracy of the methods has been checked by comparing the results of the two approaches with each other and with closed form solutions. It is estimated that the accuracy of the results is about +-5%.