National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for resolution laser imaging

  1. D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PBS SR-0040 The robotically deployed laser surveying system was demonstrated in the ... Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization Challenge The ...

  2. A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma Experiments on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray ...

  3. A versatile high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) for laser-plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed...

  4. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plasma interaction experiments (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Authors: Chen, H ; Bitter, M ; Hazi, A ; Hill, K ; Kerr, S ; Magee, E ; Nagel, S ; Park, J ; Schneider, M ; Stone, G ; Williams, G ; Beiersdorfer, P Publication Date:

  5. Ultrahigh-spatial-resolution chemical and magnetic imaging by laser-based photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taniuchi, Toshiyuki Kotani, Yoshinori; Shin, Shik

    2015-02-15

    We report the first experiments carried out on a new chemical and magnetic imaging system, which combines the high spatial resolution of a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) with a continuous-wave deep-ultraviolet laser. Threshold photoemission is sensitive to the chemical and magnetic structures of the surface of materials. The spatial resolution of PEEM is limited by space charging when using pulsed photon sources as well as aberrations in the electron optics. We show that the use of a continuous-wave laser enabled us to overcome such a limit by suppressing the space-charge effect, allowing us to obtain a resolution of approximately 2.6 nm. With this system, we demonstrated the imaging of surface reconstruction domains on Si(001) by linear dichroism with normal incidence of the laser beam. We also succeeded in magnetic imaging of thin films with the use of magnetic circular dichroism near the Fermi level. The unique features of the ultraviolet laser will give us fast switching of the incident angles and polarizations of the photon source, which will be useful for the characterization of antiferromagnetic materials as well as ferromagnetic materials.

  6. Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2008-09-20

    In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

  7. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma ...

  8. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    intense laser plasma interaction experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma interaction ...

  9. High-resolution ophthalmic imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Carrano, Carmen J. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-12-04

    A system for providing an improved resolution retina image comprising an imaging camera for capturing a retina image and a computer system operatively connected to the imaging camera, the computer producing short exposures of the retina image and providing speckle processing of the short exposures to provide the improved resolution retina image. The system comprises the steps of capturing a retina image, producing short exposures of the retina image, and speckle processing the short exposures of the retina image to provide the improved resolution retina image.

  10. Atomic resolution images of graphite in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Shedd, G.M.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    One sample used for proof of operation for atomic resolution in STM is highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). This sample has been imaged with many different STM`s obtaining similar results. Atomic resolution images of HOPG have now been obtained using an STM designed and built at the Precision Engineering Center. This paper discusses the theoretical predictions and experimental results obtained in imaging of HOPG.

  11. Lasers, Electron Beams and New Years Resolutions | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lasers, Electron Beams and New Years Resolutions Lasers, Electron Beams and New Years Resolutions March 2, 2011 - 3:43pm Addthis Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Communications Specialist (detailee) What are the key facts? The electron beam that powers Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser pumped out a record power input of 500 kilvolts using an innovative energy-recovery system that amplifies energy with far less power. A sufficiently powerful laser could make an effective defensive

  12. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resolution Imaging Science Experiment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment Author University of...

  13. Range imaging laser radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Marion W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  14. Resolution enhancement in nonlinear photoacoustic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goy, Alexandre S.; Fleischer, Jason W.

    2015-11-23

    Nonlinear processes can be exploited to gain access to more information than is possible in the linear regime. Nonlinearity modifies the spectra of the excitation signals through harmonic generation, frequency mixing, and spectral shifting, so that features originally outside the detector range can be detected. Here, we present an experimental study of resolution enhancement for photoacoustic imaging of thin metal layers immersed in water. In this case, there is a threshold in the excitation below which no acoustic signal is detected. Above threshold, the nonlinearity reduces the width of the active area of the excitation beam, resulting in a narrower absorption region and thus improved spatial resolution. This gain is limited only by noise, as the active area of the excitation can be arbitrarily reduced when the fluence becomes closer to the threshold. Here, we demonstrate a two-fold improvement in resolution and quantify the image quality as the excitation fluence goes through threshold.

  15. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  16. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-28

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest inmore » an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.« less

  17. High-resolution imaging and target designation through clouds or smoke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    A method and system of combining gated intensifiers and advances in solid-state, short-pulse laser technology, compact systems capable of producing high resolution (i.e., approximately less than 20 centimeters) optical images through a scattering medium such as dense clouds, fog, smoke, etc. may be achieved from air or ground based platforms. Laser target designation through a scattering medium is also enabled by utilizing a short pulse illumination laser and a relatively minor change to the detectors on laser guided munitions.

  18. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  19. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, C.S.

    1993-08-31

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  20. Prospects for Electron Imaging with Ultrafast Time Resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Many pivotal aspects of material science, biomechanics, and chemistry would benefit from nanometer imaging with ultrafast time resolution....

  1. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K.

    1999-12-07

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  2. Camera system resolution and its influence on digital image correlation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reu, Phillip L.; Sweatt, William; Miller, Timothy; Fleming, Darryn

    2014-09-21

    Digital image correlation (DIC) uses images from a camera and lens system to make quantitative measurements of the shape, displacement, and strain of test objects. This increasingly popular method has had little research on the influence of the imaging system resolution on the DIC results. This paper investigates the entire imaging system and studies how both the camera and lens resolution influence the DIC results as a function of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). It will show that when making spatial resolution decisions (including speckle size) the resolution limiting component should be considered. A consequence of the loss ofmore » spatial resolution is that the DIC uncertainties will be increased. This is demonstrated using both synthetic and experimental images with varying resolution. The loss of image resolution and DIC accuracy can be compensated for by increasing the subset size, or better, by increasing the speckle size. The speckle-size and spatial resolution are now a function of the lens resolution rather than the more typical assumption of the pixel size. The study will demonstrate the tradeoffs associated with limited lens resolution.« less

  3. High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1998-08-01

    We have developed an improved x-ray imaging system based on spherically curve crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 {Angstrom}, R=200 mm) has been used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the x-ray optical system is 1.7 {mu}m in selected places and 2{endash}3 {mu}m over a larger area. Time-resolved backlit monochromatic images of polystyrene planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with a spatial resolution of 2.5 {mu}m in selected places and 5 {mu}m over the focal spot of the Nike laser. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  4. Laser image recording on detonation nanodiamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikheev, G M; Mikheev, K G; Mogileva, T N; Puzyr, A P; Bondar, V S

    2014-01-31

    A focused He Ne laser beam is shown to cause local blackening of semitransparent detonation nanodiamond (DND) films at incident power densities above 600 W cm{sup -2}. Data obtained with a Raman spectrometer and low-power 632.8-nm laser source indicate that the blackening is accompanied by a decrease in broadband background luminescence and emergence of sharp Raman peaks corresponding to the structures of nanodiamond and sp{sup 2} carbon. The feasibility of image recording on DND films by a focused He Ne laser beam is demonstrated. (letters)

  5. 3-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2010-03-09

    An apparatus and method for enabling precise, 3-dimensional, photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) using selective, two-photon activation of fluorophores in a single z-slice of a sample in cooperation with time-gated imaging for reducing the background radiation from other image planes to levels suitable for single-molecule detection and spatial location, are described.

  6. High resolution resonance ionization imaging detector and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winefordner, James D.; Matveev, Oleg I.; Smith, Benjamin W.

    1999-01-01

    A resonance ionization imaging device (RIID) and method for imaging objects using the RIID are provided, the RIID system including a RIID cell containing an ionizable vapor including monoisotopic atoms or molecules, the cell being positioned to intercept scattered radiation of a resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1 from the object which is to be detected or imaged, a laser source disposed to illuminate the RIID cell with laser radiation having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 or wavelengths .lambda..sub.2, .lambda..sub.3 selected to ionize atoms in the cell that are in an excited state by virtue of having absorbed the scattered resonance laser radiation, and a luminescent screen at the back surface of the RIID cell which presents an image of the number and position of charged particles present in the RIID cell as a result of the ionization of the excited state atoms. The method of the invention further includes the step of initially illuminating the object to be detected or imaged with a laser having a wavelength selected such that the object will scatter laser radiation having the resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1.

  7. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells ...

  8. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C. M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-05

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 A, R=200 mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3-4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6-7 {mu}m spatial resolution.

  9. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser [1,2]. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687{Angstrom}, R=200mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3{endash}4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6{endash}7 {mu}m spatial resolution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Synthetic aperture radar images with composite azimuth resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bielek, Timothy P; Bickel, Douglas L

    2015-03-31

    A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is produced by using all phase histories of a set of phase histories to produce a first pixel array having a first azimuth resolution, and using less than all phase histories of the set to produce a second pixel array having a second azimuth resolution that is coarser than the first azimuth resolution. The first and second pixel arrays are combined to produce a third pixel array defining a desired SAR image that shows distinct shadows of moving objects while preserving detail in stationary background clutter.

  11. HRTEM Imaging of Atoms at Sub-Angstrom Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, Michael A.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Blom, Douglas A.

    2005-04-06

    John Cowley and his group at Arizona State University pioneered the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for high-resolution imaging. Images were achieved three decades ago showing the crystal unit cell content at better than 4 Angstrom resolution. This achievement enabled researchers to pinpoint the positions of heavy atom columns within the unit cell. Lighter atoms appear as resolution is improved to sub-Angstrom levels. Currently, advanced microscopes can image the columns of the light atoms (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen) that are present in many complex structures, and even the lithium atoms present in some battery materials. Sub-Angstrom imaging, initially achieved by focal-series reconstruction of the specimen exit surface wave, will become common place for next-generation electron microscopes with CS-corrected lenses and monochromated electron beams. Resolution can be quantified in terms of peak separation and inter-peak minimum, but the limits imposed on the attainable resolution by the properties of the micro-scope specimen need to be considered. At extreme resolution the ''size'' of atoms can mean that they will not be resolved even when spaced farther apart than the resolution of the microscope.

  12. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  13. Imaging Lithium Atoms at Sub-Angstrom Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, Michael A.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2005-01-03

    John Cowley and his group at ASU were pioneers in the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for high-resolution imaging. Three decades ago they achieved images showing the crystal unit cell content at better than 4A resolution. Over the years, this achievement has inspired improvements in resolution that have enabled researchers to pinpoint the positions of heavy atom columns within the cell. More recently, this ability has been extended to light atoms as resolution has improved. Sub-Angstrom resolution has enabled researchers to image the columns of light atoms (carbon, oxygen and nitrogen) that are present in many complex structures. By using sub-Angstrom focal-series reconstruction of the specimen exit surface wave to image columns of cobalt, oxygen, and lithium atoms in a transition metal oxide structure commonly used as positive electrodes in lithium rechargeable batteries, we show that the range of detectable light atoms extends to lithium. HRTEM at sub-Angstrom resolution will provide the essential role of experimental verification for the emergent nanotech revolution. Our results foreshadow those to be expected from next-generation TEMs with CS-corrected lenses and monochromated electron beams.

  14. Full aperture backscatter station imager diagnostics system for far-field imaging of laser plasma instabilities on Nova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilke, M.D.; Fernandez, J.C.; Berggren, R.R.; Horton, R.F.; Montgomery, D.S.; Faulkner, J.A.; Looney, L.D.; Jimerson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    In ICF, the understanding of laser plasma scattering processes is essential for laser target coupling and for controlling the symmetry of indirect drive implosions. The existing Nova full aperture backscatter station has been useful in understanding laser plasma instabilities occurring in hohlraums by measuring the quantity, spectral distribution, and near-field spatial distributions of Brillouin and more recently Raman backscatter. Equally important is an understanding of the far-field spatial intensity distribution which could help in understanding filamentation, threshold and saturation processes. This article describes a broadband, color-corrected far-field imager and associated diagnostics capable of imaging the source of scattered light to better than 25 {mu}m resolution. Brillouin and Raman backscatter can be imaged through the Nova beam-7 focusing lens or the imager can be used like a microscope to image side scatter from other beams. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Unsupervised Feature Learning for High-Resolution Satellite Image Classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    The rich data provided by high-resolution satellite imagery allow us to directly model geospatial neighborhoods by understanding their spatial and structural patterns. In this paper we explore an unsupervised feature learning approach to model geospatial neighborhoods for classification purposes. While pixel and object based classification approaches are widely used for satellite image analysis, often these approaches exploit the high-fidelity image data in a limited way. In this paper we extract low-level features to characterize the local neighborhood patterns. We exploit the unlabeled feature measurements in a novel way to learn a set of basis functions to derive new features. The derived sparse feature representation obtained by encoding the measured features in terms of the learned basis function set yields superior classification performance. We applied our technique on two challenging image datasets: ORNL dataset representing one-meter spatial resolution satellite imagery representing five land-use categories and, UCMERCED dataset consisting of 21 different categories representing sub-meter resolution overhead imagery. Our results are highly promising and, in the case of UCMERCED dataset we outperform the best results obtained for this dataset. We show that our feature extraction and learning methods are highly effective in developing a detection system that can be used to automatically scan large-scale high-resolution satellite imagery for detecting large-facility.

  16. allows researchers to capture high-resolution images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    allows researchers to capture high-resolution images - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  17. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  18. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  19. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer ...

  20. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal ...

  1. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals Title: High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses ...

  2. Laser radiography forming bremsstrahlung radiation to image an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2004-01-13

    A method of imaging an object by generating laser pulses with a short-pulse, high-power laser. When the laser pulse strikes a conductive target, bremsstrahlung radiation is generated such that hard ballistic high-energy electrons are formed to penetrate an object. A detector on the opposite side of the object detects these electrons. Since laser pulses are used to form the hard x-rays, multiple pulses can be used to image an object in motion, such as an exploding or compressing object, by using time gated detectors. Furthermore, the laser pulses can be directed down different tubes using mirrors and filters so that each laser pulse will image a different portion of the object.

  3. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  4. Collimator application for microchannel plate image intensifier resolution improvement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Stanley W.

    1996-02-27

    A collimator is included in a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI). Collimators can be useful in improving resolution of MCPIs by eliminating the scattered electron problem and by limiting the transverse energy of electrons reaching the screen. Due to its optical absorption, a collimator will also increase the extinction ratio of an intensifier by approximately an order of magnitude. Additionally, the smooth surface of the collimator will permit a higher focusing field to be employed in the MCP-to-collimator region than is currently permitted in the MCP-to-screen region by the relatively rough and fragile aluminum layer covering the screen. Coating the MCP and collimator surfaces with aluminum oxide appears to permit additional significant increases in the field strength, resulting in better resolution.

  5. Collimator application for microchannel plate image intensifier resolution improvement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, S.W.

    1996-02-27

    A collimator is included in a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI). Collimators can be useful in improving resolution of MCPIs by eliminating the scattered electron problem and by limiting the transverse energy of electrons reaching the screen. Due to its optical absorption, a collimator will also increase the extinction ratio of an intensifier by approximately an order of magnitude. Additionally, the smooth surface of the collimator will permit a higher focusing field to be employed in the MCP-to-collimator region than is currently permitted in the MCP-to-screen region by the relatively rough and fragile aluminum layer covering the screen. Coating the MCP and collimator surfaces with aluminum oxide appears to permit additional significant increases in the field strength, resulting in better resolution. 2 figs.

  6. Practical high resolution detection method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew J. Effenberger Jr; Jill R. Scott

    2012-02-01

    A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer to acquire high-resolution measurements in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The spectrometer was built using an inexpensive etalon coupled to a standard 0.5-m imaging spectrometer. The Hg emission doublet at 313.2 nm was used to evaluate instrument performance because it has a splitting of 29 pm. The 313.2 nm doublet was chosen due to the similar splitting seen in isotope splitting from uranium at 424.437 nm, which is 25 pm. The Hg doublet was easily resolved from a continuous source Hg-lamp with a 2 s acquisition. The doublet was also resolved in LIBS spectra of cinnabar (HgS) from the accumulation of 600 laser shots at rate of 10 Hz, or 1 min, under a helium atmosphere. In addition to observed spitting of the 313.2 nm Hg doublet, the FWHM of the 313.1844 nm line from the doublet is reported at varying He atmospheric pressures. The high performance, low cost, and compact footprint makes this system highly competitive with 2-m double pass Czerny-Turner spectrometers.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE): Evaluation of a new method to look at high resolution spatial/temporal distributions of carbon over key sub km sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael; Perninit, Timothy; McGregor, Doug; Botos, Chris; Dobeck, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Recently a new laser based approach for measuring area with potential for producing 2D estimates of the concentration spatial distribution has been developed through a cooperative agreement with the National Energy and Technology Laboratory of the Department of Energy, Exelis Inc. and AER Inc. The new approach is based on a pair of continuous wave intensity modulated laser absorption spectrometer transceivers, combined with a series of retro reflectors located around the perimeter of the area being monitored. The main goal of this cooperative agreement is monitoring, reporting and verification for ground carbon capture and storage projects. The system was recently tested at the Zero Emission Research and Technology site in Bozeman, MT, with underground leak rates ranging from 0.1 – 0.3 metric ton per day (T/d), as well as a 0.8 T/d surface release. Over 200 hours of data were collected over a rectangular grid 180m x 200m between August 18th and September 9th. In addition, multiple days of in situ data were acquired for the same site, using a Licor gas analyzer systems. Initial comparisons between the laser-based system and the in situ agree very well. The system is designed to operate remotely and transmit the data via a 3G/4G connection along with weather data for the site. An all web-based system ingests the data, populates a database, performs the inversion to ppm CO2 using the Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), and displays plots and statistics for the retrieved data. We will present an overview of the GreenLITE measurement system, outline the retrieval and reconstruction approach, and discuss results from extensive field testing.

  8. Imaging System With Confocally Self-Detecting Laser.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Robert H.; Rogomentich, Fran J.

    1996-10-08

    The invention relates to a confocal laser imaging system and method. The system includes a laser source, a beam splitter, focusing elements, and a photosensitive detector. The laser source projects a laser beam along a first optical path at an object to be imaged, and modulates the intensity of the projected laser beam in response to light reflected from the object. A beam splitter directs a portion of the projected laser beam onto a photodetector. The photodetector monitors the intensity of laser output. The laser source can be an electrically scannable array, with a lens or objective assembly for focusing light generated by the array onto the object of interest. As the array is energized, its laser beams scan over the object, and light reflected at each point is returned by the lens to the element of the array from which it originated. A single photosensitive detector element can generate an intensity-representative signal for all lasers of the array. The intensity-representative signal from the photosensitive detector can be processed to provide an image of the object of interest.

  9. Pulsed laser linescanner for a backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Schmitt, Randal L.; Bambha, Ray P.

    2004-02-10

    An active (laser-illuminated) imaging system is described that is suitable for use in backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI). A BAGI imager operates by imaging a scene as it is illuminated with radiation that is absorbed by the gas to be detected. Gases become "visible" in the image when they attenuate the illumination creating a shadow in the image. This disclosure describes a BAGI imager that operates in a linescanned manner using a high repetition rate pulsed laser as its illumination source. The format of this system allows differential imaging, in which the scene is illuminated with light at least 2 wavelengths--one or more absorbed by the gas and one or more not absorbed. The system is designed to accomplish imaging in a manner that is insensitive to motion of the camera, so that it can be held in the hand of an operator or operated from a moving vehicle.

  10. Structure recognition from high resolution images of ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Loring, Burlen; Bale, Hrishikesh; Parkinson, Dilworth; Sethian, James

    2015-01-05

    Fibers provide exceptional strength-to-weight ratio capabilities when woven into ceramic composites, transforming them into materials with exceptional resistance to high temperature, and high strength combined with improved fracture toughness. Microcracks are inevitable when the material is under strain, which can be imaged using synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography (mu-CT) for assessment of material mechanical toughness variation. An important part of this analysis is to recognize fibrillar features. This paper presents algorithms for detecting and quantifying composite cracks and fiber breaks from high-resolution image stacks. First, we propose recognition algorithms to identify the different structures of the composite, including matrix cracks and fibers breaks. Second, we introduce our package F3D for fast filtering of large 3D imagery, implemented in OpenCL to take advantage of graphic cards. Results show that our algorithms automatically identify micro-damage and that the GPU-based implementation introduced here takes minutes, being 17x faster than similar tools on a typical image file.

  11. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser coagulation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as

  12. Study of fish response using particle image velocimetry and high-speed, high-resolution imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Z.; Richmond, M. C.; Mueller, R. P.; Gruensch, G. R.

    2004-10-01

    Fish swimming has fascinated both engineers and fish biologists for decades. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging are recently developed analysis tools that can help engineers and biologists better understand how fish respond to turbulent environments. This report details studies to evaluate DPIV. The studies included a review of existing literature on DPIV, preliminary studies to test the feasibility of using DPIV conducted at our Flow Biology Laboratory in Richland, Washington September through December 2003, and applications of high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging with advanced motion analysis to investigations of fish injury mechanisms in turbulent shear flows and bead trajectories in laboratory physical models. Several conclusions were drawn based on these studies, which are summarized as recommendations for proposed research at the end of this report.

  13. Full aperture backscatter station imager (FABSI) diagnostics system for far-field imaging of laser plasma instabilities on Nova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilke, M.D.; Fernandez, J.C.; Berggren, R.R.; Montgomery, D.; Faulkner, J.; Looney, L.; Jimerson, J.; Horton, R.F.

    1996-06-01

    In ICF, the understanding of laser plasma scattering processes is essential for laser target coupling and in controlling the symmetry of indirect drive implosions. The existing Nova Full Aperture Backscatter Station (FABS) has been useful in understanding laser plasma instabilities occurring in hohlraums by measuring the quantity, spectral distribution and near-field spatial distributions of Brillouin and more recently Raman backscatter. Equally important is an understanding of the farfield spatial intensity distribution which provides information on density, temperature and velocity gradient distributions, and which affect capsule implosion symmetry in hohlraums. Such information could potentially help in understanding processes such as filamentation and saturation mechanism. This paper describes a broad-band, color-corrected far-field imager and associated diagnostics capable of imaging the source of scattered light to better than 25 {micro}m resolution. The imager can either image Brillouin or Raman backscatter through the Nova beam 7 focusing lens or be used like a microscope to image side scatter from other beams.

  14. Laser hazard analysis for LASIRIS Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45[degree]-K diode laser associated with high resolution pulsed scanner.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-11-01

    A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the LASIRISTM Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45o-K diode laser associated with the High Resolution Pulse Scanner based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The laser was evaluated for both indoor and outdoor use.

  15. Experimental techniques for subnanosecond resolution of laser-launched plates and impact studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Warnes, R.H.; Stahl, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Miniature laser-launched plates have applications in shock wave physics, studying dynamic properties of materials and can be used to generate experimental data in a manner similar to a laboratory gas gun for one-dimensional impact experiments. Laser-launched plates have the advantage of small size, low kinetic energy, and can be launched with ubiquitous laboratory lasers. Because of the small size and high accelerations (10{sup 7}--10{sup 10} g`s), improved temporal resolution and optical non-contact methods to collect data are required. Traditional mechanical in-situ gauges would significantly impair the data quality and do not have the required time response.

  16. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 ?m for the commercial configuration down to ~9 ?m for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-?m spatial resolution using an oversampling method. There are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.

  17. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 μm for the commercial configuration down to ~9 μm for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-μm spatial resolution using an oversampling method. Theremore » are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.« less

  18. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-01-05

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.

  19. Improvement of lateral resolution of spectral domain optical coherence tomography images in out-of-focus regions with holographic data processing techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moiseev, A A; Gelikonov, G V; Terpelov, D A; Shilyagin, P A; Gelikonov, V M

    2014-08-31

    An analogy between spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) data and broadband digital holography data is considered. Based on this analogy, a method for processing SD OCT data, which makes it possible to construct images with a lateral resolution in the whole investigated volume equal to the resolution in the in-focus region, is developed. Several issues concerning practical application of the proposed method are discussed. (laser biophotonics)

  20. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mechanically bent crystals (Patent) | DOEPatents High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals Title: High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and

  1. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal ...

  2. Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the large helical device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging ...

  3. Atomic Resolution Imaging and Quantification of Chemical Functionality of Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Udo

    2014-12-10

    The work carried out from 2006-2014 under DoE support was targeted at developing new approaches to the atomic-scale characterization of surfaces that include species-selective imaging and an ability to quantify chemical surface interactions with site-specific accuracy. The newly established methods were subsequently applied to gain insight into the local chemical interactions that govern the catalytic properties of model catalysts of interest to DoE. The foundation of our work was the development of three-dimensional atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM), a new measurement mode that allows the mapping of the complete surface force and energy fields with picometer resolution in space (x, y, and z) and piconewton/millielectron volts in force/energy. From this experimental platform, we further expanded by adding the simultaneous recording of tunneling current (3D-AFM/STM) using chemically well-defined tips. Through comparison with simulations, we were able to achieve precise quantification and assignment of local chemical interactions to exact positions within the lattice. During the course of the project, the novel techniques were applied to surface-oxidized copper, titanium dioxide, and silicon oxide. On these materials, defect-induced changes to the chemical surface reactivity and electronic charge density were characterized with site-specific accuracy.

  4. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2010-12-28

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  5. Laser ultrasonic multi-component imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Thomas K.; Telschow, Kenneth

    2011-01-25

    Techniques for ultrasonic determination of the interfacial relationship of multi-component systems are discussed. In implementations, a laser energy source may be used to excite a multi-component system including a first component and a second component at least in partial contact with the first component. Vibrations resulting from the excitation may be detected for correlation with a resonance pattern indicating if discontinuity exists at the interface of the first and second components.

  6. Development of an x-ray imaging system for the Laser Megajoule...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of an x-ray imaging system for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of an x-ray imaging system for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) ...

  7. Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, Michelle L.; Hofmeister, William H.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Smugeresky, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

  8. Imaging of the surface resistance of an SRF cavity by low-temperature laser scanning microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Ciovati, S.M. Anlage, A.V. Gurevich

    2013-06-01

    Temperature mapping of the outer surface of a superconducting radio-frequency cavity is a technique that is often used to identify lossy areas on the cavity surface. In this contribution, we present 2-D images of the superconducting state surface resistance R{sub s} of the inner surface of a superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity obtained by low-temperature laser scanning microscopy. This technique, which is applied for the first time to study lossy regions in an operating SRF cavity, allows identifying 'hotspots' with about one order of magnitude better spatial resolution ( ~2 mm) than by thermometry. The R{sub s}-resolution is of the order of 1 {micro}{Ohm} at 3.3 GHz. Surface resistance maps with different laser power and optical images of the cavity surface are discussed in this contribution. It is also shown that the thermal gradient on the niobium surface created by the laser beam can move some of the hotspots, which are identified as locations of trapped bundle of fluxoids. The prospects for this microscope to identify defects that limit the performance of SRF cavities will also be discussed.

  9. Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V.

    2011-08-09

    A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.

  10. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  11. Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectrometer for the large helical device (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the large helical device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the large helical device A high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, whose concept was tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, is being designed for the large helical device (LHD).

  12. Decreasing range resolution of a SAR image to permit correction of motion measurement errors beyond the SAR range resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM); Heard, Freddie E. (Albuquerque, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-07-20

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  13. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for high energy density (HED) plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas ...

  14. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  15. High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey to Image Shallow Faults,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Image Shallow Faults, Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada Abstract NA Author V. J. S. Grauch Published U.S. Geological Survey, 2002 Report Number 02-384 DOI Not Provided...

  16. Untangling the contributions of image charge and laser profile for optimal photoemission of high-brightness electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portman, J.; Zhang, H.; Makino, K.; Ruan, C. Y.; Berz, M.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2014-11-07

    Using our model for the simulation of photoemission of high brightness electron beams, we investigate the virtual cathode physics and the limits to spatio-temporal and spectroscopic resolution originating from the image charge on the surface and from the profile of the exciting laser pulse. By contrasting the effect of varying surface properties (leading to expanding or pinned image charge), laser profiles (Gaussian, uniform, and elliptical), and aspect ratios (pancake- and cigar-like) under different extraction field strengths and numbers of generated electrons, we quantify the effect of these experimental parameters on macroscopic pulse properties such as emittance, brightness (4D and 6D), coherence length, and energy spread. Based on our results, we outline optimal conditions of pulse generation for ultrafast electron microscope systems that take into account constraints on the number of generated electrons and on the required time resolution.

  17. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  18. Local Optical Spectroscopies for Subnanometer Spatial Resolution Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20

    The evanescently coupled photon scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) have special requirements in terms of stability and optical access. We have made substantial improvements to the stability, resolution, and noise floor of our custom-built visible-photon STM, and will translate these advances to our infrared instrument. Double vibration isolation of the STM base with a damping system achieved increased rigidity, giving high tunneling junction stability for long-duration and high-power illumination. Light frequency modulation with an optical chopper and phase-sensitive detection now enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the tunneling junction during irradiation.

  19. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution and wave-equation ultrasound imaging: a numerical phantom study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lianjie; Simonetti, Francesco; Huthwaite, Peter; Rosenberg, Robert; Williamson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound image resolution and quality need to be significantly improved for breast microcalcification detection. Super-resolution imaging with the factorization method has recently been developed as a promising tool to break through the resolution limit of conventional imaging. In addition, wave-equation reflection imaging has become an effective method to reduce image speckles by properly handling ultrasound scattering/diffraction from breast heterogeneities during image reconstruction. We explore the capabilities of a novel super-resolution ultrasound imaging method and a wave-equation reflection imaging scheme for detecting breast microcalcifications. Super-resolution imaging uses the singular value decomposition and a factorization scheme to achieve an image resolution that is not possible for conventional ultrasound imaging. Wave-equation reflection imaging employs a solution to the acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media to backpropagate ultrasound scattering/diffraction waves to scatters and form images of heterogeneities. We construct numerical breast phantoms using in vivo breast images, and use a finite-difference wave-equation scheme to generate ultrasound data scattered from inclusions that mimic microcalcifications. We demonstrate that microcalcifications can be detected at full spatial resolution using the super-resolution ultrasound imaging and wave-equation reflection imaging methods.

  20. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M. E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Kerr, S.

    2014-11-15

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  1. Real-Time High Resolution Quantitative Imaging by Three Wavelength Digital

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holography - Energy Innovation Portal Real-Time High Resolution Quantitative Imaging by Three Wavelength Digital Holography Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary An optical system capable of reproducing three-dimensional images was invented at ORNL. This system can detect height changes of a few nanometers or less and render clear, single shot images. These types of precise, high speed measurements are important for a variety of

  2. Holographic Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downer, Michael; Shvets, G.

    2014-07-31

    In the 1870s, English photographer Eadweard Muybridge captured motion pictures within one cycle of a horses gallop, which settled a hotly debated question of his time by showing that the horse became temporarily airborne. In the 1940s, Manhattan project photographer Berlin Brixner captured a nuclear blast at a million frames per second, and resolved a dispute about the explosions shape and speed. In this project, we developed methods to capture detailed motion pictures of evolving, light-velocity objects created by a laser pulse propagating through matter. These objects include electron density waves used to accelerate charged particles, laser-induced refractive index changes used for micromachining, and ionization tracks used for atmospheric chemical analysis, guide star creation and ranging. Our movies, like Muybridges and Brixners, are obtained in one shot, since the laser-created objects of interest are insufficiently repeatable for accurate stroboscopic imaging. Our high-speed photographs have begun to resolve controversies about how laser-created objects form and evolve, questions that previously could be addressed only by intensive computer simulations based on estimated initial conditions. Resolving such questions helps develop better tabletop particle accelerators, atmospheric ranging devices and many other applications of laser-matter interactions. Our photographic methods all begin by splitting one or more probe pulses from the laser pulse that creates the light-speed object. A probe illuminates the object and obtains information about its structure without altering it. We developed three single-shot visualization methods that differ in how the probes interact with the object of interest or are recorded. (1) Frequency-Domain Holography (FDH). In FDH, there are 2 probes, like object and reference beams in conventional holography. Our object probe surrounds the light-speed object, like a fleas swarming around a sprinting animal. The object modifies the probe, imprinting information about its structure. Meanwhile, our reference probe co-propagates ahead of the object, free of its influence. After the interaction, object and reference combine to record a hologram. For technical reasons, our recording device is a spectrometer (a frequency-measuring device), hence the name frequency-domain holography. We read the hologram electronically to obtain a snapshot of the objects average structure as it transits the medium. Our published work shows numerous snapshots of electron density waves (laser wakes) in ionized gas (plasma), analogous to a water wake behind a boat. Such waves are the basis of tabletop particle accelerators, in which charged particles surf on the light-speed wave, gaining energy. Comparing our snapshots to computer simulations deepens understanding of laser wakes. FDH takes snapshots of objects that are quasi-static --- i.e. like Muybridges horse standing still on a treadmill. If the object changes shape, FDH images blur, as when a subject moves while a camera shutter is open. Many laser-generated objects of interest do evolve as they propagate. To overcome this limit of FDH, we developed .... (2) Frequency-Domain Tomography (FDT). In FDT, 5 to 10 probe pulses are fired simultaneously across the objects path at different angles, like a crossfire of bullets. The object imprints a streaked record of its evolution on each probe, which we record as in FDH, then recover a multi-frame movie of the objects evolving structure using algorithms of computerized tomography. When propagation distance exceeds a few millimeters, reconstructed FDT images distort. This is because the lenses that image probes to detector have limited depth of field, like cameras that cannot focus simultaneously on both nearby and distant objects. But some laser-generated objects of interest propagate over meters. For these applications we developed (3) Multi-Object-Plane Phase-Contrast Imaging (MOP-PCI). In MOP-PCI, we image FDT-like probes to the detector from multiple object planes --- like recording an event simultaneously with several cameras, some focused on nearby, others on distant, objects. To increase sensitivity, we exploit a phase-contrast imaging technique developed by Dutch Nobel laureate Fritz Zernike in the 1930s. Using MOP-PCI we recorded single-shot movies of laser pulse tracks through more than 10 cm of air. We plan to record images of meter-long tracks of electron bunches propagating through plasma in an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This will help SLAC scientists understand, optimize and scale small plasma-based particle accelerators that have applications in medicine, industry, materials science and high-energy physics.

  3. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Diana C.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones; Steven M.

    2010-02-23

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.

  4. Three Dimensional Speckle Imaging Employing a Frequency-Locked Tunable Diode Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, Bret D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Mendoza, Albert

    2015-09-01

    We describe a high accuracy frequency stepping method for a tunable diode laser to improve a three dimensional (3D) imaging approach based upon interferometric speckle imaging. The approach, modeled after Takeda, exploits tuning an illumination laser in frequency as speckle interferograms of the object (specklegrams) are acquired at each frequency in a Michelson interferometer. The resulting 3D hypercube of specklegrams encode spatial information in the x-y plane of each image with laser tuning arrayed along its z-axis. We present laboratory data of before and after results showing enhanced 3D imaging resulting from precise laser frequency control.

  5. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian K.; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; et al

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioningmore » it.« less

  6. Isotopic imaging via nuclear resonance fluorescence with laser-based Thomson radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P. J.; Hartemann, Frederic V.; McNabb, Dennis P.; Pruet, Jason A.

    2009-07-21

    The present invention utilizes novel laser-based, high-brightness, high-spatial-resolution, pencil-beam sources of spectrally pure hard x-ray and gamma-ray radiation to induce resonant scattering in specific nuclei, i.e., nuclear resonance fluorescence. By monitoring such fluorescence as a function of beam position, it is possible to image in either two dimensions or three dimensions, the position and concentration of individual isotopes in a specific material configuration. Such methods of the present invention material identification, spatial resolution of material location and ability to locate and identify materials shielded by other materials, such as, for example, behind a lead wall. The foundation of the present invention is the generation of quasimonochromatic high-energy x-ray (100's of keV) and gamma-ray (greater than about 1 MeV) radiation via the collision of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons. Such a process as utilized herein, i.e., Thomson scattering or inverse-Compton scattering, produces beams having diameters from about 1 micron to about 100 microns of high-energy photons with a bandwidth of .DELTA.E/E of approximately 10E.sup.-3.

  7. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K.

    2008-12-23

    A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

  8. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    density (HED) plasmas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas Authors: Chen, H ; Bitter, M ; Hill, K W ; Kerr, S ; Magee, E ; Nagel, S R ; Park, J ; Schneider, M B ; Stone, G ; Williams, G J ; Beiersdorfer, P Publication Date: 2014-05-29 OSTI Identifier:

  9. Imaging shock waves in diamond with both high temporal and spatial resolution at an XFEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne; Patommel, Jens; Seiboth, Frank; Ping, Yuan; Hicks, Damien G.; Beckwith, Martha A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Higginbotham, Andrew; Wark, Justin S.; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric C.; Arnold, Brice; Zastrau, Ulf; Hastings, Jerome B.; Schroer, Christian G.

    2015-06-18

    The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under extreme conditions, in this case by using the short XFEL pulse to image an elastic compression wave in diamond. The elastic wave was initiated by an intense optical laser pulse and was imaged at different delay times after the optical pump pulse using magnified x-ray phase-contrast imaging. The temporal evolution of the shock wave can be monitored, yielding detailed information on shock dynamics, such as the shock velocity, the shock front width, and the local compression of the material. The method provides a quantitative perspective on the state of matter in extreme conditions.

  10. Spatially resolved and observer-free experimental quantification of spatial resolution in tomographic images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsekenis, S. A.; McCann, H.; Tait, N.

    2015-03-15

    We present a novel framework and experimental method for the quantification of spatial resolution of a tomography system. The framework adopts the black box view of an imaging system, considering only its input and output. The tomography system is locally stimulated with a step input, viz., a sharp edge. The output, viz., the reconstructed images, is analysed by Fourier decomposition of their spatial frequency components, and the local limiting spatial resolution is determined using a cut-off threshold. At no point is an observer involved in the process. The framework also includes a means of translating the quantification region in the imaging space, thus creating a spatially resolved map of objectively quantified spatial resolution. As a case-study, the framework is experimentally applied using a gaseous propane phantom measured by a well-established chemical species tomography system. A spatial resolution map consisting of 28 regions is produced. In isolated regions, the indicated performance is 4-times better than that suggested in the literature and varies by 57% across the imaging space. A mechanism based on adjacent but non-interacting beams is hypothesised to explain the observed behaviour. The mechanism suggests that, as also independently concluded by other methods, a geometrically regular beam array maintains maximum objectivity in reconstructions. We believe that the proposed framework, methodology, and findings will be of value in the design and performance evaluation of tomographic imaging arrays and systems.

  11. FIRST HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES OF THE SUN IN THE 2796 Mg II k LINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riethmller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Hirzberger, J.; Danilovic, S.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Knlker, M.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

    2013-10-10

    We present the first high-resolution solar images in the Mg II k 2796 line. The images, taken through a 4.8 broad interference filter, were obtained during the second science flight of Sunrise in 2013 June by the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) instrument. The Mg II k images display structures that look qualitatively very similar to images taken in the core of Ca II H. The Mg II images exhibit reversed granulation (or shock waves) in the internetwork regions of the quiet Sun, at intensity contrasts that are similar to those found in Ca II H. Very prominent in Mg II are bright points, both in the quiet Sun and in plage regions, particularly near the disk center. These are much brighter than at other wavelengths sampled at similar resolution. Furthermore, Mg II k images also show fibril structures associated with plage regions. Again, the fibrils are similar to those seen in Ca II H images, but tend to be more pronounced, particularly in weak plage.

  12. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K.

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  13. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

  14. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for themore » analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.« less

  15. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jun, Ji Hyun

    2011-11-30

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 μm) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 μm was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial distribution of targeted metabolites, mainly waxes and flavonoids, was systematically explored on various organs, including flowers, leaves, stems, and roots at high spatial resolution of ~ 12-50 μm and the changes in the abundance level of these metabolites were monitored on the cer1 mutant with respect to the wild-type. This study revealed the metabolic biology of CER1 gene on each individual organ level with very detailed high spatial resolution. The separate MS images of isobaric metabolites, i.e. C29 alkane vs. C28 aldehyde could be constructed on both genotypes from MS imaging at high mass resolution. This allows tracking of abundance changes for those compounds along with the genetic mutation, which is not achievable with low mass resolution mass spectrometry. This study supported previous hypothesis of molecular function of CER1 gene as aldehyde decarbonylase, especially by displaying hyper accumulation of aldehydes and C30 fatty acid and decrease in abundance of alkanes and ketones in several plant organs of cer1 mutant. The scope of analytes was further directed toward internal cell metabolites from the surface metabolites of the plant. MS profiling and imaging of internal cell metabolites were performed on the vibratome section of Arabidopsis leaf. Vibratome sectioning of the leaf was first conducted to remove the surface cuticle layer and it was followed by enzymatic treatment of the section to induce the digestion of primary cell walls, middle lamella, and expose the internal cells underneath to the surface for detection with the laser by LDI-MS. The subsequent MS imaging onto the enzymatically treated vibratome section allowed us to map the distribution of the metabolites in the internal cell layers, linolenic acid (C18:3 FA) and linoleic acid (C18:2 FA). The development of an assay for relative quantification of analytes at the single subcellular/organelle level by LDI-MS imaging was attempted and both plausibility and significant obstacles were seen. As a test system, native plant organelle, chloroplasts isolated from the spinach leaves were used and the localization of isolated chloroplasts dispersed on the target plate in low density was monitored by detecting the ion signal of chlorophyll a (Chl a) degradation products such as pheophytin a and pheophobide a by LDI-MS imaging in combination with fluorescence microscopy. The number of chloroplasts and their localization visualized in the MS image exactly matched those in the fluorescence image especially at low density, which first shows the plausibility of single-organelle level quantification of analytes by LDI-MS. The accumulation level of Chl a within a single chloroplast detected by LDI-MS was compared to the fluorescence signal on a pixel-to-pixel basis to further confirm the correlations of the accumulation levels measured by two methods. The proportional correlation was observed only for the chloroplasts which do not show the significant leakage of chlorophyll indicated by MS ion signal of Chl a degradation products and fluorescence signal, which was presumably caused by the prior fluorescence measurement before MS imaging. Further investigation is necessary to make this method more complete and develop LDI-MS imaging as an effective analytical tool to evaluate a relative accumulation of analytes of interest at the single subcellular/organelle level.

  16. Time-Resolved Imaging of Material Response Following Laser-Induced Breakdown in the Bulk and Surface of Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, R N; Negres, R A; DeMange, P; Demos, S G

    2010-02-04

    Optical components within high energy laser systems are susceptible to laser-induced material modification when the breakdown threshold is exceeded or damage is initiated by pre-existing impurities or defects. These modifications are the result of exposure to extreme conditions involving the generation of high temperatures and pressures and occur on a volumetric scale of the order of a few cubic microns. The response of the material following localized energy deposition, including the timeline of events and the individual processes involved during this timeline, is still largely unknown. In this work, we investigate the events taking place during the entire timeline in both bulk and surface damage in fused silica using a set of time-resolved microscopy systems. These microscope systems offer up to 1 micron spatial resolution when imaging static or dynamic effects, allowing for imaging of the entire process with adequate temporal and spatial resolution. These systems incorporate various pump-probe geometries designed to optimize the sensitivity for detecting individual aspects of the process such as the propagation of shock waves, near-surface material motion, the speed of ejecta, and material transformations. The experimental results indicate that the material response can be separated into distinct phases, some terminating within a few tens of nanoseconds but some extending up to about 100 microseconds. Overall the results demonstrate that the final characteristics of the modified region depend on the material response to the energy deposition and not on the laser parameters.

  17. Heavy resid asphaltene characterization using high resolution and laser desorption mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, J.E.; Kim, Y.; Winans, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    Resid is the nondistillable portion of crude oil, generally thought to consist largely of unsaturated molecules of considerable size and ring number. Such molecules must be upgraded to more saturated compounds if they are to be used as fuel sources. Current processing of resid is performed though coking, thermal and catalytic cracking, deasphalting and hydroprocessing. Thermal treatments, however, produce large quantities of low-value coke and hydroprocessing is expensive. Asphaltenes comprise the most process resistant portion of the resid. They contain high concentrations of heteroatoms and a high degree of unsaturation. Because these undesirable characteristics are concentrated in asphaltenes, finding an improved method of upgrading asphaltenes is a prerequisite to improving the upgrading of whole resid to viable fuel. Asphaltenes have, at present, only an operational definition. They are insoluble in straight chain saturated hydrocarbons. Very little is known about the structure of compounds in asphaltenes. They are a highly diverse group of compounds that are resistant to analysis by conventional methods. Conclusions about the structures of asphaltenes tends to be speculative. In this study desorption electron impact (HREIMS), chemical ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (HRCIMS), and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LD) have been applied to deasphalted oils (DAO) and asphaltenes derived from heavy Maya resid. LD data should yield information on the high molecular weight aromatic compounds, while HRMS can provide molecular characterization.

  18. A high spatial resolution Stokes polarimeter for motional Stark effect imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorman, Alex; Michael, Clive; Howard, John [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    We describe an enhanced temporally switched interfero-polarimeter that has been successfully deployed for high spatial resolution motional Stark effect imaging on the KSTAR superconducting tokamak. The system utilizes dual switching ferroelectric liquid crystal waveplates to image the full Stokes vector of elliptically polarized and Doppler-shifted Stark-Zeeman Balmer-alpha emission from high energy neutral beams injected into the magnetized plasma. We describe the optical system and compare its performance against a Mueller matrix model that takes account of non-ideal performance of the switching ferro-electric liquid crystal waveplates and other polarizing components.

  19. Comparison between beamforming and super resolution imaging algorithms for non-destructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Chengguang; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2014-02-18

    In this paper the performance of total focusing method is compared with the widely used time-reversal MUSIC super resolution technique. The algorithms are tested with simulated and experimental ultrasonic array data, each containing different noise levels. The simulated time domain signals allow the effects of array geometry, frequency, scatterer location, scatterer size, scatterer separation and random noise to be carefully controlled. The performance of the imaging algorithms is evaluated in terms of resolution and sensitivity to random noise. It is shown that for the low noise situation, time-reversal MUSIC provides enhanced lateral resolution when compared to the total focusing method. However, for higher noise levels, the total focusing method shows robustness, whilst the performance of time-reversal MUSIC is significantly degraded.

  20. Atomic-Resolution Spectroscopic Imaging and In Situ Environmental Study of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bimetallic Nanocatalysts by Fast Electrons | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Atomic-Resolution Spectroscopic Imaging and In Situ Environmental Study of Bimetallic Nanocatalysts by Fast Electrons Thursday, October 24, 2013 - 3:30pm SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Huolin Xin Center for Functional Nanomaterials Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) has

  1. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ru-Shan Wu; Xiao-Bi Xie

    2008-06-08

    Our proposed work on high resolution/high fidelity seismic imaging focused on three general areas: (1) development of new, more efficient, wave-equation-based propagators and imaging conditions, (2) developments towards amplitude-preserving imaging in the local angle domain, in particular, imaging methods that allow us to estimate the reflection as a function of angle at a layer boundary, and (3) studies of wave inversion for local parameter estimation. In this report we summarize the results and progress we made during the project period. The report is divided into three parts, totaling 10 chapters. The first part is on resolution analysis and its relation to directional illumination analysis. The second part, which is composed of 6 chapters, is on the main theme of our work, the true-reflection imaging. True-reflection imaging is an advanced imaging technology which aims at keeping the image amplitude proportional to the reflection strength of the local reflectors or to obtain the reflection coefficient as function of reflection-angle. There are many factors which may influence the image amplitude, such as geometrical spreading, transmission loss, path absorption, acquisition aperture effect, etc. However, we can group these into two categories: one is the propagator effect (geometric spreading, path losses); the other is the acquisition-aperture effect. We have made significant progress in both categories. We studied the effects of different terms in the true-amplitude one-way propagators, especially the terms including lateral velocity variation of the medium. We also demonstrate the improvements by optimizing the expansion coefficients in different terms. Our research also includes directional illumination analysis for both the one-way propagators and full-wave propagators. We developed the fast acquisition-aperture correction method in the local angle-domain, which is an important element in the true-reflection imaging. Other developments include the super-wide angle one-way propagator and special full-wave reverse-time migration method. Finally, we studied the theoretical basis of true-reflection imaging and bridges imaging and inversion with the theory of diffraction tomography.

  2. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography using electrons, ions or other particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-01-12

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position. Particle beams, including electrons, ions and neutral particles, may be used as well as electromagnetic radiation.

  3. High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hantke, Max, F.

    2014-11-17

    Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.

  4. Imaging shock waves in diamond with both high temporal and spatial resolution at an XFEL

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne; Patommel, Jens; Seiboth, Frank; Ping, Yuan; Hicks, Damien G.; Beckwith, Martha A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Higginbotham, Andrew; et al

    2015-06-18

    The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under extreme conditions, in this case by using the short XFEL pulse to image an elastic compression wave in diamond. The elastic wave was initiated by an intense optical laser pulse and was imaged at different delay times after the optical pump pulse using magnifiedmore » x-ray phase-contrast imaging. The temporal evolution of the shock wave can be monitored, yielding detailed information on shock dynamics, such as the shock velocity, the shock front width, and the local compression of the material. The method provides a quantitative perspective on the state of matter in extreme conditions.« less

  5. Tip radius preservation for high resolution imaging in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos, Jorge R.

    2014-07-28

    The acquisition of high resolution images in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is correlated to the cantilever's tip shape, size, and imaging conditions. In this work, relative tip wear is quantified based on the evolution of a direct experimental observable in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy, i.e., the critical amplitude. We further show that the scanning parameters required to guarantee a maximum compressive stress that is lower than the yield/fracture stress of the tip can be estimated via experimental observables. In both counts, the optimized parameters to acquire AFM images while preserving the tip are discussed. The results are validated experimentally by employing IgG antibodies as a model system.

  6. Near infrared spectral imaging of explosives using a tunable laser source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klunder, G L; Margalith, E; Nguyen, L K

    2010-03-26

    Diffuse reflectance near infrared hyperspectral imaging is an important analytical tool for a wide variety of industries, including agriculture consumer products, chemical and pharmaceutical development and production. Using this technique as a method for the standoff detection of explosive particles is presented and discussed. The detection of the particles is based on the diffuse reflectance of light from the particle in the near infrared wavelength range where CH, NH, OH vibrational overtones and combination bands are prominent. The imaging system is a NIR focal plane array camera with a tunable OPO/laser system as the illumination source. The OPO is programmed to scan over a wide spectral range in the NIR and the camera is synchronized to record the light reflected from the target for each wavelength. The spectral resolution of this system is significantly higher than that of hyperspectral systems that incorporate filters or dispersive elements. The data acquisition is very fast and the entire hyperspectral cube can be collected in seconds. A comparison of data collected with the OPO system to data obtained with a broadband light source with LCTF filters is presented.

  7. High-resolution x-ray spectrometer based on spherically bent crystals for investigations of femtosecond laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.K.; Osterheld, A.L.; Price, D.F.; Shepherd, R.; Stewart, R.E.; Faenov, A.Y.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Y.; Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Letardi, T.; Grilli, A.; Palladino, L.; Reale, A.; Scafati, A.; Reale, L.

    1998-12-01

    Ultrashort-pulse, laser-produced plasmas have become very interesting laboratory sources to study spectroscopically due to their very high densities and temperatures, and the high laser-induced electromagnetic fields present. Typically, these plasmas are of very small volume and very low emissivity. Thus, studying these near point source plasmas requires advanced experimental techniques. We present a new spectrometer design called the focusing spectrometer with spatial resolution (FSSR-2D) based on a spherically bent crystal which provides simultaneous high spectral ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx}10{sup 4}) and spatial resolution ({approx}10thinsp{mu}m) as well as high luminosity (high collection efficiency). We described in detail the FSSR-2D case in which a small, near point source plasma is investigated. An estimate for the spectral and spatial resolution for the spectrometer is outlined based on geometric considerations. Using the FSSR-2D instrument, experimental data measured from both a 100 fs and a nanosecond pulse laser-produced plasma are presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-19

    This presentation covers data collected on two commercial laser stabilization systems, Guidestar-II and MRC, and two optical imaging systems. Additionally, general information about LCLS-II and how to go about continuing-testing is covered.

  9. Beam collimation with polycapillary x-ray optics for high contrast high resolution monochromatic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiro, Francisca R.; Li Danhong; MacDonald, C.A.

    2004-12-01

    Monochromatic imaging can provide better contrast and resolution than conventional broadband radiography. In broadband systems, low energy photons do not contribute to the image, but are merely absorbed, while high energy photons produce scattering that degrades the image. By tuning to the optimal energy, one can eliminate undesirable lower and higher energies. Monochromatization is achieved by diffraction from a single crystal. A crystal oriented to diffract at a particular energy, in this case the characteristic line energy, diffracts only those photons within a narrow range of angles. The resultant beam from a divergent source is nearly parallel, but not very intense. To increase the intensity, collimation was performed with polycapillary x-ray optics, which can collect radiation from a divergent source and redirect it into a quasi parallel beam. Contrast and resolution measurements were performed with diffracting crystals with both high and low angular acceptance. Testing was first done at 8 keV with an intense copper rotating anode x-ray source, then 17.5 keV measurements were made with a low power molybdenum source. At 8 keV, subject contrast was a factor of five higher than for the polychromatic case. At 17.5 keV, monochromatic contrast was two times greater than the conventional polychromatic contrast. The subject contrasts measured at both energies were in good agreement with theory. An additional factor of two increase in contrast, for a total gain of four, is expected at 17.5 keV from the removal of scatter. Scatter might be simply removed using an air gap, which does not degrade resolution with a parallel beam.

  10. New Strategies for 0.5 mm Resolution, High Sensitivity, Multi- Radionuclide Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levin, Craig S; Levin, Craig

    2015-02-28

    This project constitutes a 0.5-millimeter resolution radionuclide detector system built from CZT. (1) A novel dual-crystal photon detector module design with cross-strip electrode patterns was developed; (2) The module mechanical assembly was built; (3) A data acquisition (DAQ) chain for the module was produced; (4) A software tool was developed to incorporate novel time and energy measurement calibration techniques. (5) A small multi-detector prototype of the radionuclide imaging system was built from this module for system-level characterizations.

  11. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    83 PPPL- 4283 Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas January 2008 K. W. Hill, M. L. Bitter, Ch. Broennimann, E. F. Eikenberry, A. Ince-Cushman, S. G. Lee, J. E. Rice, S. Scott, and R. Barnsley Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report Disclaimers Full Legal Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States

  12. Study of Fish Response Using Particle Image Velocimetry and High-Speed, High-Resolution Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2004-10-23

    Existing literature of previous particle image velocimetry (PIV) studies of fish swimming has been reviewed. Historically, most of the studies focused on the performance evaluation of freely swimming fish. Technological advances over the last decade, especially the development of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique, make possible more accurate, quantitative descriptions of the flow patterns adjacent to the fish and in the wake behind the fins and tail, which are imperative to decode the mechanisms of drag reduction and propulsive efficiency. For flows generated by different organisms, the related scales and flow regimes vary significantly. For small Reynolds numbers, viscosity dominates; for very high Reynolds numbers, inertia dominates, and three-dimensional complexity occurs. The majority of previous investigations dealt with the lower end of Reynolds number range. The fish of our interest, such as rainbow trout and spring and fall chinook salmon, fall into the middle range, in which neither viscosity nor inertia is negligible, and three-dimensionality has yet to dominate. Feasibility tests have proven the applicability of PIV to flows around fish. These tests have shown unsteady vortex shedding in the wake, high vorticity region and high stress region, with the highest in the pectoral area. This evident supports the observations by Nietzel et al. (2000) and Deng et al. (2004) that the operculum are most vulnerable to damage from the turbulent shear flow, because they are easily pried open, and the large vorticity and shear stress can lift and tear off scales, rupture or dislodge eyes, and damage gills. In addition, the unsteady behavior of the vortex shedding in the wake implies that injury to fish by the instantaneous flow structures would likely be much higher than the injury level estimated using the average values of the dynamics parameters. Based on existing literature, our technological capability, and relevance and practicability to Department of Energy's Hydropower Program, we identified three major research areas of interest: free swimming, the boundary layer over fish, and kinematic response of fish. We propose that the highest priority is to characterize the kinematic response of fish to different turbulent environments such as high shear/turbulence and hydrodynamic disturbances created by solid structures such as deflector and turbine runner blade; the next priority is to map the boundary layer over swimming fish; the last is to document the behavior of freely swimming fish, focusing on fish of our interest. Grid turbulence and Karman vortex street will be employed to map the boundary layers over fish and investigate the effects of environmental disturbances on the swimming performance of fish, because they are well established and documented in engineering literature and are representative of fish's swimming environments. Extreme conditions characteristic of turbine environments, such as strong shear environment and collision, will be investigated. Through controlled laboratory studies, the fish injury mechanism from different sources will be evaluated in isolation. The major goals are to: gain first-hand knowledge of the biological effects under such extreme hydraulic environments in which fish could lack the capability to overcome the perturbations and be vulnerable to injury; Better understand field results by integrating the laboratory studies with the responses of sensor fish device; More importantly, provide well-defined validation cases and boundary conditions for geometry-based computational fluid-structure interaction modeling in order to simulate the complex hydraulic environments in advanced hydropower systems and their effects on fish, greatly enhancing the potential to use CFD as a bio-hydraulic design alternative.

  13. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.

    2011-02-02

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.

  14. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 2)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas

    2011-02-02

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 2 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2b in the paper.

  15. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.

  16. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  17. High-resolution multi-band imaging for validation and characterization of small Kepler planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Mark E.; Silva, David R.; Barclay, Thomas; Howell, Steve B.; Ciardi, David R.; Horch, Elliott P.; Crepp, Justin R.

    2015-02-01

    High-resolution ground-based optical speckle and near-infrared adaptive optics images are taken to search for stars in close angular proximity to host stars of candidate planets identified by the NASA Kepler Mission. Neighboring stars are a potential source of false positive signals. These stars also blend into Kepler light curves, affecting estimated planet properties, and are important for an understanding of planets in multiple star systems. Deep images with high angular resolution help to validate candidate planets by excluding potential background eclipsing binaries as the source of the transit signals. A study of 18 Kepler Object of Interest stars hosting a total of 28 candidate and validated planets is presented. Validation levels are determined for 18 planets against the likelihood of a false positive from a background eclipsing binary. Most of these are validated at the 99% level or higher, including five newly validated planets in two systems: Kepler-430 and Kepler-431. The stellar properties of the candidate host stars are determined by supplementing existing literature values with new spectroscopic characterizations. Close neighbors of seven of these stars are examined using multi-wavelength photometry to determine their nature and influence on the candidate planet properties. Most of the close neighbors appear to be gravitationally bound secondaries, while a few are best explained as closely co-aligned field stars. Revised planet properties are derived for each candidate and validated planet, including cases where the close neighbors are the potential host stars.

  18. 100 muas RESOLUTION VLBI IMAGING OF ANISOTROPIC INTERSTELLAR SCATTERING TOWARD PULSAR B0834+06

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisken, W. F.; Deller, A. T.; Macquart, J.-P.; Tingay, S. J.; Gao, J. J.; Rickett, B. J.; Coles, W. A.; West, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    We have invented a novel technique to measure the radio image of a pulsar scattered by the interstellar plasma with 0.1 mas resolution. We extend the 'secondary spectrum' analysis of parabolic arcs by Stinebring et al. to very long baseline interferometry and, when the scattering is anisotropic, we are able to map the scattered brightness astrometrically with much higher resolution than the diffractive limit of the interferometer. We employ this technique to measure an extremely anisotropic scattered image of the pulsar B0834+06 at 327 MHz. We find that the scattering occurs in a compact region about 420 pc from the Earth. This image has two components, both essentially linear and nearly parallel. The primary feature, which is about 16 AU long and less than 0.5 AU in width, is highly inhomogeneous on spatial scales as small as 0.05 AU. The second feature is much fainter and is displaced from the axis of the primary feature by about 9 AU. We find that the velocity of the scattering plasma is 16 +- 10 km s{sup -1} approximately parallel to the axis of the linear feature. The origin of the observed anisotropy is unclear and we discuss two very different models. It could be, as has been assumed in earlier work, that the turbulence on spatial scales of (approx1000 km) is homogeneous but anisotropic. However, it may be that the turbulence on these scales is homogeneous and isotropic but the anisotropy is produced by highly elongated (filamentary) inhomogeneities of scale 0.05-16 AU.

  19. Laser scattered images observed from carbon plasma stagnation and following molecular formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, K.; Shibata, R.; Yabuuchi, T.; Tanaka, K. A.; Sunahara, A.

    2014-06-16

    Two carbon targets were irradiated to create plasma plumes to collide at right angle with two UV laser pulses each other at 10?J/cm{sup 2}/pulse. The collision results in carbon plasma stagnation. Laser scattered imaging indicates that the carbon large molecular formation takes place much later in time after the laser irradiation and stagnation. Compared with the temporal history of electron density (n{sub e}), ion density (n{sub i}), and plasma self-emission dominated by carbon Swan band, it is estimated that the carbon large molecular formation has been initiated with the ion collision followed by the C{sub 2} formation.

  20. High-resolution line-shape spectroscopy during a laser pulse based on Dual-Broad-Band-CARS interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vereschagin, Konstantin A; Vereschagin, Alexey K; Smirnov, Valery V; Stelmakh, O M; Fabelinskii, V I; Clauss, W; Klimenko, D N; Oschwald, M E-mail: Al_Vereshchagin@mail.r E-mail: stelmakh@kapella.gpi.r

    2006-07-31

    A high-resolution spectroscopic method is developed for recording Raman spectra of molecular transitions in transient objects during a laser pulse with a resolution of {approx}0.1 cm{sup -1}. The method is based on CARS spectroscopy using a Fabry-Perot interferometer for spectral analysis of the CARS signal and detecting a circular interferometric pattern on a two-dimensional multichannel photodetector. It is shown that the use of the Dual-Broad-Band-CARS configuration to obtain the CARS process provides the efficient averaging of the spectral-amplitude noise of the CARS signal generated by a laser pulse and, in combination with the angular integration of the two-dimensional interference pattern, considerably improves the quality of interferograms. The method was tested upon diagnostics of the transient oxygen-hydrogen flame where information on the shapes of spectral lines of the Q-branch of hydrogen molecules required for measuring temperature was simultaneously obtained and used. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of a.m. prokhorov)

  1. Compact, high-resolution, gamma ray imaging for scintimammography and other medical diagostic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randolph F.; Steinbach, Daniela

    1999-01-01

    A high resolution gamma ray imaging device includes an aluminum housing, a lead screen collimator at an opened end of the housing, a crystal scintillator array mounted behind the lead screen collimator, a foam layer between the lead screen collimator and the crystal scintillator array, a photomultiplier window coupled to the crystal with optical coupling grease, a photomultiplier having a dynode chain body and a base voltage divider with anodes, anode wire amplifiers each connected to four anodes and a multi pin connector having pin connections to each anode wire amplifier. In one embodiment the crystal scintillator array includes a yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) crystal array. In an alternate embodiment, the crystal scintillator array includes a gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO) crystal array.

  2. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M. Hill, K. W.; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N.; Lu, Jian; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, Hui

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes a new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer, which can be used in combination with gated x-ray detectors to obtain spectra from laser-produced plasmas with a high (sub-ns) time resolution. The spectrometer consists of a convex, spherically bent crystal, which images individual spectral lines as perfectly straight lines across multiple, sequentially gated, strip detectors. Since the Bragg-reflected rays are divergent, the distance between detector and crystal is arbitrary, so that this distance can be appropriately chosen to optimize the experimental arrangement with respect to the detector parameters. The spectrometer concept was verified in proof-of-principle experiments by imaging the L?{sub 1}- and L?{sub 2}-lines of tungsten, at 9.6735 and 9.96150 keV, from a micro-focus x-ray tube with a tungsten target onto a two-dimensional pixilated Pilatus detector, using a convex, spherically bent Si-422 crystal with a radius of curvature of 500 mm.

  3. Imaging thermal conductivity with nanoscale resolution using a scanning spin probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Aycock-Rizzo, Halley; Gao, Yang; Lu, Xi; Riedo, Elisa; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2015-11-20

    The ability to probe nanoscale heat flow in a material is often limited by lack of spatial resolution. Here, we use a diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy centre attached to the apex of a silicon thermal tip as a local temperature sensor. We apply an electrical current to heat up the tip and rely on the nitrogen vacancy to monitor the thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. By combining atomic force and confocal microscopy, we image phantom microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps. The small mass and high thermal conductivity of the diamond host make the time response of our technique short, which we demonstrate by monitoring the tip temperature upon application of a heat pulse. Our approach promises multiple applications, from the investigation of phonon dynamics in nanostructures to the characterization of heterogeneous phase transitions and chemical reactions in various solid-state systems.

  4. Imaging thermal conductivity with nanoscale resolution using a scanning spin probe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Aycock-Rizzo, Halley; Gao, Yang; Lu, Xi; Riedo, Elisa; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2015-11-20

    The ability to probe nanoscale heat flow in a material is often limited by lack of spatial resolution. Here, we use a diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy centre attached to the apex of a silicon thermal tip as a local temperature sensor. We apply an electrical current to heat up the tip and rely on the nitrogen vacancy to monitor the thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. By combining atomic force and confocal microscopy, we image phantom microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps.more » The small mass and high thermal conductivity of the diamond host make the time response of our technique short, which we demonstrate by monitoring the tip temperature upon application of a heat pulse. Our approach promises multiple applications, from the investigation of phonon dynamics in nanostructures to the characterization of heterogeneous phase transitions and chemical reactions in various solid-state systems.« less

  5. Phase-contrast imaging using ultrafast x-rays in laser-shocked materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Workman, Jonathan B; Cobble, James A; Flippo, Kirk; Gautier, Donald C; Montgomery, David S; Offermann, Dustin T

    2010-01-01

    High-energy x-rays, > 10-keV, can be efficiently produced from ultrafast laser target interactions with many applications to dense target materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High-Energy Density Physics (HEDP). These same x-rays can also be applied to measurements of low-density materials inside high-density hohlraum environments. In the experiments presented, high-energy x-ray images of laser-shocked polystyrene are produced through phase contrast imaging. The plastic targets are nominally transparent to traditional x-ray absorption but show detailed features in regions of high density gradients due to refractive effects often called phase contrast imaging. The 200-TW Trident laser is used both to produce the x-ray source and to shock the polystyrene target. X-rays at 17-keV produced from 2-ps, 100-J laser interactions with a 12-micron molybdenum wire are used to produce a small source size, required for optimizing refractive effects. Shocks are driven in the 1-mm thick polystyrene target using 2-ns, 250-J, 532-nm laser drive with phase plates. X-ray images of shocks compare well to 1-D hydro calculations, HELIOS-CR.

  6. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-05-21

    A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

  7. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a

  8. Hubble space telescope high-resolution imaging of Kepler small and cool exoplanet host stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Cartier, Kimberly M. S.; Wright, Jason T.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Ciardi, David R.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution imaging is an important tool for follow-up study of exoplanet candidates found via transit detection with the Kepler mission. We discuss here Hubble Space Telescope imaging with the WFC3 of 23 stars that host particularly interesting Kepler planet candidates based on their small size and cool equilibrium temperature estimates. Results include detections, exclusion of background stars that could be a source of false positives for the transits, and detection of physically associated companions in a number of cases providing dilution measures necessary for planet parameter refinement. For six Kepler objects of interest, we find that there is ambiguity regarding which star hosts the transiting planet(s), with potentially strong implications for planetary characteristics. Our sample is evenly distributed in G, K, and M spectral types. Albeit with a small sample size, we find that physically associated binaries are more common than expected at each spectral type, reaching a factor of 10 frequency excess in M. We document the program detection sensitivities, detections, and deliverables to the Kepler follow-up program archive.

  9. Simulation of High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images on the IBM Blue Gene/L Supercomputer Using SIMRI

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baum, K. G.; Menezes, G.; Helguera, M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging system simulators are tools that provide a means to evaluate system architecture and create artificial image sets that are appropriate for specific applications. We have modified SIMRI, a Bloch equation-based magnetic resonance image simulator, in order to successfully generate high-resolution 3D MR images of the Montreal brain phantom using Blue Gene/L systems. Results show that redistribution of the workload allows an anatomically accurate 256 3 voxel spin-echo simulation in less than 5 hours when executed on an 8192-node partition of a Blue Gene/L system.

  10. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for direct visualization of plant metabolites in situ

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sturtevant, Drew; Lee, Young -Jin; Chapman, Kent D.

    2015-11-22

    Direct visualization of plant tissues by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has revealed key insights into the localization of metabolites in situ. Recent efforts have determined the spatial distribution of primary and secondary metabolites in plant tissues and cells. Strategies have been applied in many areas of metabolism including isotope flux analyses, plant interactions, and transcriptional regulation of metabolite accumulation. Technological advances have pushed achievable spatial resolution to subcellular levels and increased instrument sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it is anticipated that MALDI-MSI and other MSI approaches will bring a new level of understanding tomore » metabolomics as scientists will be encouraged to consider spatial heterogeneity of metabolites in descriptions of metabolic pathway regulation.« less

  11. Enhancement of the resolution of full-field optical coherence tomography by using a colour image sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyanov, A L; Lychagov, V V; Smirnov, I V; Ryabukho, V P [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    The influence of white balance in a colour image detector on the resolution of a full-field optical coherence tomograph (FFOCT) is studied. The change in the interference pulse width depending on the white balance tuning is estimated in the cases of a thermal radiation source (incandescent lamp) and a white light emitting diode. It is shown that by tuning white balance of the detector in a certain range, the FFOCT resolution can be increased by 20 % as compared to the resolution, attained with the use of a monochrome detector. (optical coherence tomography)

  12. Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging of Electron Heated Targets in Petawatt Laser Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, T; MacPhee, A; Key, M; Akli, K; Mackinnon, A; Chen, C; Barbee, T; Freeman, R; King, J; Link, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Stephens, R; VanWoerkom, L; Zhang, B; Beg, F

    2007-11-29

    The study of the transport of electrons, and the flow of energy into a solid target or dense plasma, is instrumental in the development of fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. An extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging diagnostic at 256 eV and 68 eV provides information about heating and energy deposition within petawatt laser-irradiated targets. XUV images of several irradiated solid targets are presented.

  13. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; Patthey, L.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Feng, Y.; David, C.

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy of >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.

  14. Upgrades of the high resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, B.; Wang, F.; Fu, J.; Li, Y.; Wan, B.; Shi, Y.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Lee, S. G.

    2012-10-15

    Two imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers, the so-called 'poloidal' and 'tangential' spectrometers, were recently implemented on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) to provide spatially and temporally resolved impurity ion temperature (T{sub i}), electron temperature (T{sub e}) and rotation velocity profiles. They are derived from Doppler width of W line for Ti, the intensity ratio of Li-like satellites to W line for Te, and Doppler shift of W line for rotation. Each spectrometer originally consisted of a spherically curved crystal and a two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) detector. Both spectrometers have now been upgraded. The layout of the tangential spectrometer was modified, since it had to be moved to a different port, and the spectrometer was equipped with two high count rate Pilatus detectors (Model 100 K) to overcome the count rate limitation of the MWPC and to improve its time resolution. The poloidal spectrometer was equipped with two spherically bent crystals to record the spectra of He-like and H-like argon simultaneously and side by side on the original MWPC. These upgrades are described, and new results from the latest EAST experimental campaign are presented.

  15. Laser speckle-imaging of blood microcirculation in the brain cortex of laboratory rats in stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilensky, M A; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V; Timoshina, P A; Kuznetsova, Jana V; Semyachkin-Glushkovskii, I A; Agafonov, Dmitry N; Tuchin, Valerii V

    2012-06-30

    The results of experimental approbation of the method of laser full-field speckle-imaging for monitoring the changes in blood microcirculation state of the brain cortex of laboratory rats under the conditions of developing stroke and administration of vasodilating and vasoconstrictive agents are presented. The studies aimed at the choice of the optimal conditions of speckle-image formation and recording were performed and the software implementing an adaptive algorithm for processing the data of measurements was created. The transfer of laser radiation to the probed region of the biotissue was implemented by means of a silica-polymer optical fibre. The problems and prospects of speckle-imaging of cerebral microcirculation of blood in laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed.

  16. Systems and methods for imaging using radiation from laser produced plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renard-Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Cowan, Thomas E.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Rassuchine, Jennifer

    2009-06-30

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides systems and methods for imaging a subject using radiation emitted from a laser produced plasma generating by irradiating a target with a laser. In particular examples, the target includes at least one radiation enhancing component, such as a fluor, cap, or wire. In further examples, the target has a metal layer and an internal surface defining an internal apex, the internal apex of less than about 15 .mu.m, such as less than about 1 .mu.m. The targets may take a variety of shapes, including cones, pyramids, and hemispheres. Certain aspects of the present disclosure provide improved imaging of a subject, such as improved medical images of a radiation dose than typical conventional methods and systems.

  17. High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy of ethanol in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatamoto, T.; Pruemper, G.; Okunishi, M.; Ueda, K.; Mathur, D.

    2007-06-15

    High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy is used to (i) map correlations between electrons and ions from atomlike ionization of ethanol by intense 400 and 800 nm light pulses and (ii) disentangle the effects of dissociative multiphoton (MPI) and tunneling (TI) ionization. Electron spectra correlated with C{sup n+} (n=1,2,3) exhibit a continuum structure with a high-energy tail due to inelastic collisions involving rescattered electrons following TI, while those correlated with C{sub 2}H{sub n}O{sup +} have structure characteristic of MPI and above-threshold ionization.

  18. Near Field Intensity Trends of Main Laser Alignment Images in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, R R; Beltsar, I; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Kamm, V M; Salmon, T; Wilhelmsen, K

    2015-01-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) utilizes 192 high-energy laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to potentially initiate a fusion reaction. NIF has been operational for six years; during that time, thousands of successful laser firings or shots have been executed. Critical instrument measurements and camera images are carefully recorded for each shot. The result is a massive and complex database or ‘big data’ archive that can be used to investigate the state of the laser system at any point in its history or to locate and track trends in the laser operation over time. In this study, the optical light throughput for more than 1600 NIF shots for each of the 192 main laser beams and 48 quads was measured over a three year period from January 2009 to October 2012. The purpose was to verify that the variation in the transmission of light through the optics over time performed within design expectations during this time period. Differences between average or integrated intensity from images recorded by the input sensor package (ISP) and by the output sensor package (OSP) in the NIF beam-line were examined. A metric is described for quantifying changes in the integrated intensity measurements and was used to view potential trends. Results are presented for the NIF input and output sensor package trends and changes over the three year time-frame.

  19. Imaging of free carriers in semiconductors via optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezzapesa, F. P. Brambilla, M.; Dabbicco, M.; Scamarcio, G.; Columbo, L. L.; Vitiello, M. S.

    2014-01-27

    To monitor the density of photo-generated charge carriers on a semiconductor surface, we demonstrate a detectorless imaging system based on the analysis of the optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers. Photo-excited free electron carriers are created in high resistivity n-type silicon wafers via low power (?40 mW/cm{sup 2}) continuous wave pump laser in the near infrared spectral range. A spatial light modulator allows to directly reconfigure and control the photo-patterned intensity and the associated free-carrier density distribution. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  20. High-Resolution Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used in Homeland Security and Forensic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Wullschleger, Stan D; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Martin, Rodger Carl; Grissino-Mayer, Henri

    2006-01-01

    The technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to detect elements for a variety of homeland security applications such as nuclear materials identification and inventory,and forensic applications has been demonstrated. For nuclear materials applications, we detected and profiled metals in coatings that were used to encapsulate nuclear fuel. Multivariate analysis has been successfully employed in the quantification of elements present in treated wood and engineered wood composites. These examples demonstrate that LIBS-based techniques are inherently well suited for diverse environmental applications related to homeland security. Three key advantages are evident: (1) small samples (mg) are sufficient; (2) samples can be analyzed by LIBS very rapidly, and (3) biological materials such as human and animal bones and wood can be analyzed with minimal sample preparation. For forensic applications they have used LIBS to determine differences in animal and human bones. They have also applied this technique in the determination of counterfeit and non-counterfeit currency. They recently applied LIBS in helping to solve a murder case.

  1. High Resolution Simulation of Beam Dynamics in Electron Linacs for Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryne, R.D.; Venturini, M.; Zholents, A.A.; Qiang, J.

    2009-01-05

    In this paper we report on large scale multi-physics simulation of beam dynamics in electron linacs for next generation free electron lasers (FELs). We describe key features of a parallel macroparticle simulation code including three-dimensional (3D) space-charge effects, short-range structure wake fields, longitudinal coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wake fields, and treatment of radiofrequency (RF) accelerating cavities using maps obtained from axial field profiles. A macroparticle up-sampling scheme is described that reduces the shot noise from an initial distribution with a smaller number of macroparticles while maintaining the global properties of the original distribution. We present a study of the microbunching instability which is a critical issue for future FELs due to its impact on beam quality at the end of the linac. Using parameters of a planned FEL linac at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we show that a large number of macroparticles (beyond 100 million) is needed to control numerical shot noise that drives the microbunching instability. We also explore the effect of the longitudinal grid on simulation results. We show that acceptable results are obtained with around 2048 longitudinal grid points, and we discuss this in view of the spectral growth rate predicted from linear theory. As an application, we present results from simulations using one billion macroparticles of the FEL linac under design at LBNL. We show that the final uncorrelated energy spread of the beam depends not only on the initial uncorrelated energy spread but also depends strongly on the shape of the initial current profile. By using a parabolic initial current profile, 5 keV initial uncorrelated energy spread at 40 MeV injection energy, and improved linac design, those simulations demonstrate that a reasonable beam quality can be achieved at the end of the linac, with the final distribution having about 100 keV energy spread, 2.4 GeV energy, and 1.2 kA peak current.

  2. Laser

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... currently being devel- oped and tested which will employ a three-wave far-infrared laser. ... Laser polarimetry has been used previously to investi- gate magnetic fluctuations ...

  3. Development of vertically aligned ZnO-nanowires scintillators for high spatial resolution x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu Komori, Jun; Shimidzu, Kaiji; Izaki, Masanobu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2015-02-23

    Newly designed scintillator of (0001)-oriented ZnO vertical nanowires (vnws) for X-ray imaging was prepared on a Ga-doped ZnO/soda-lime glass by electrodeposition, and the light emission feature was estimated in a synchrotron radiation facility. The ZnO-vnws scintillator revealed a strong light emission and improved resolution on CMOS image compared with that for the ZnO-layer scintillator, although the light emission performance was deteriorated in comparison to the Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12:}Ce{sup 3+}. The light emission property closely related to the nanostructure and the resultant photoluminescence characteristic.

  4. D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The characterization of complex and/or hazardous facilities for the purposes of planning D&D projects can be excessively time consuming and present unacceptable hazards for personnel who enter...

  5. Laser radar VI; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 23-25, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becherer, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Topics presented include lidar wind shear detection for commercial aircraft, centroid tracking of range-Doppler images, an analytic approach to centroid performance analysis, simultaneous active/passive IR vehicle detection, and resolution limits for high-resolution imaging lidar. Also presented are laser velocimetry applications, the application of laser radar to autonomous spacecraft landing, 3D laser radar simulation for autonomous spacecraft landing, and ground based CW atmospheric Doppler lidar performamce modeling.

  6. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; et al

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy ofmore » >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.« less

  7. laser | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    laser

  8. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are ... Resource Relation: Related Information: Invention Disclosure. Title X-ray Imaging Crystal ...

  9. Spectroscopic characterization and imaging of laser- and unipolar arc-induced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aussems, Damien U. B.; Nishijima, Daisuke; Brandt, Christian; Doerner, Russell P.; Cardozo, Niek J. Lopes

    2014-08-14

    Tungsten plasmas induced by unipolar arcs were investigated using optical emission spectroscopy and imaging, and compared with laser-induced tungsten plasmas. The unipolar arcs were initiated in the linear-plasma simulator PISCES-A at UCSD under fusion relevant conditions. The electron temperature and density of the unipolar arc plasmas were in the range 0.50.7?eV and 0.72.0??10{sup 20?}m{sup ?3}, respectively, and increased with increasing negative bias voltage, but did not correlate with the surface temperature. In comparison, the electron temperature and density of the laser-induced plasmas were in the range 0.61.4?eV and 7??10{sup 19}1??10{sup 22?}m{sup ?3}, respectively.

  10. High-resolution imaging of selenium in kidneys: a localized selenium pool associated with glutathione peroxidase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinouski, M.; Kehr, S.; Finney, L.; Vogt, S.; Carlson, B.A.; Seravalli, J.; Jin, R.; Handy, D.E.; Park, T.J.; Loscalzo, J.; Hatfield, D.L.; Gladyshev, V.N.

    2012-04-17

    Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Liver showed a uniform selenium distribution that was dependent on selenocysteine tRNA{sup [Ser]Sec} and dietary selenium. In contrast, kidney selenium had both uniformly distributed and highly localized components, the latter visualized as thin circular structures surrounding proximal tubules. Other parts of the kidney, such as glomeruli and distal tubules, only manifested the uniformly distributed selenium pattern that co-localized with sulfur. We found that proximal tubule selenium localized to the basement membrane. It was preserved in Selenoprotein P knockout mice, but was completely eliminated in glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) knockout mice, indicating that this selenium represented GPx3. We further imaged kidneys of another model organism, the naked mole rat, which showed a diminished uniformly distributed selenium pool, but preserved the circular proximal tubule signal. We applied XFM to image selenium in mammalian tissues and identified a highly localized pool of this trace element at the basement membrane of kidneys that was associated with GPx3. XFM allowed us to define and explain the tissue topography of selenium in mammalian kidneys at submicron resolution.

  11. Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-20

    We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location.

  12. High resolution telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  13. Non-intrusive, high-resolution, real-time, two-dimensional imaging of multiphase materials using acoustic array sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassiède, M.; Shaw, J. M.

    2015-04-15

    Two parallel multi-element ultrasonic acoustic arrays combined with sets of focal laws for acoustic signal generation and a classical tomographic inversion algorithm are used to generate real-time two-dimensional micro seismic acoustic images of multiphase materials. Proof of concept and calibration measurements were performed for single phase and two phase liquids, uniform polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plates, and aluminum cylinders imbedded in PVC plates. Measurement artefacts, arising from the limited range of viewing angles, and the compromise between data acquisition rate and image quality are discussed. The angle range of scanning and the image resolution were varied, and the effects on the quality of the reproduction of the speed of sound profiles of model solids and liquids with known geometries and compositions were analysed in detail. The best image quality results were obtained for a scanning angle range of [−35°, 35°] at a step size of 2.5° post processed to generate images on a 40 μm square grid. The data acquisition time for high quality images with a 30 mm × 40 mm view field is 10 min. Representation of two-phase solids with large differences in speed of sound between phases and where one phase is dispersed in the form of macroscopic objects (greater than 1 mm in diameter) proved to be the most difficult to image accurately. Liquid-liquid and liquid-vapor phase boundaries, in micro porous solids by contrast, were more readily defined. Displacement of air by water and water by heptane in natural porous limestone provides illustrative kinetic examples. Measurement results with these realistic cases demonstrate the feasibility of the technique to monitor in real time and on the micrometer length scale local composition and flow of organic liquids in inorganic porous media, one of many envisioned engineering applications. Improvement of data acquisition rate is an area for future collaborative study.

  14. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and vφ on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement

  15. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and vφ on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and uclear-radiation background on the measurement

  16. A resolution analysis of two geophysical imaging methods for characterizing and monitoring hydrologic conditions in the Vadose zone.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brainard, James Robert; Hammond, Gary.; Alumbaugh, David L.; La Brecque, D.J.

    2007-06-01

    This research project analyzed the resolution of two geophysical imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR), for monitoring subsurface flow and transport processes within the vadose zone. The study was based on petrophysical conversion of moisture contents and solute distributions obtained from unsaturated flow forward modeling. This modeling incorporated boundary conditions from a potable water and a salt tracer infiltration experiment performed at the Sandia-Tech Vadose Zone (STVZ) facility, and high-resolution spatial grids (6.25-cm spacing over a 1700-m domain) and incorporated hydraulic properties measured on samples collected from the STVZ. The analysis process involved petrophysical conversion of moisture content and solute concentration fields to geophysical property fields, forward geophysical modeling using the geophysical property fields to obtain synthetic geophysical data, and finally, inversion of this synthetic data. These geophysical property models were then compared to those derived from the conversion of the hydrologic forward modeling to provide an understanding of the resolution and limitations of the geophysical techniques.

  17. High-Resolution Phase-Contrast Imaging of Submicron Particles in Unstained Lung Tissue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schittny, J. C.; Barre, S. F.; Haberthuer, D.; Mokso, R.; Tsuda, A.; Stampanoni, M.

    2011-09-09

    To access the risks and chances of deposition of submicron particles in the gas-exchange area of the lung, a precise three-dimensional (3D)-localization of the sites of deposition is essential--especially because local peaks of deposition are expected in the acinar tree and in individual alveoli. In this study we developed the workflow for such an investigation. We administered 200-nm gold particles to young adult rats by intratracheal instillation. After fixation and paraffin embedding, their lungs were imaged unstained using synchrotron radiation x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) at the beamline TOMCAT (Swiss Light Source, Villigen, Switzerland) at sample detector distances of 2.5 mm (absorption contrast) and of 52.5 mm (phase contrast). A segmentation based on a global threshold of grey levels was successfully done on absorption-contrast images for the gold and on the phase-contrast images for the tissue. The smallest spots containing gold possessed a size of 1-2 voxels of 370-nm side length. We conclude that a combination of phase and absorption contrast SRXTM imaging is necessary to obtain the correct segmentation of both tissue and gold particles. This method will be used for the 3D localization of deposited particles in the gas-exchange area of the lung.

  18. Taheri-Saramad x-ray detector (TSXD): A novel high spatial resolution x-ray imager based on ZnO nano scintillator wires in polycarbonate membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, A. Saramad, S.; Ghalenoei, S.; Setayeshi, S.

    2014-01-15

    A novel x-ray imager based on ZnO nanowires is designed and fabricated. The proposed architecture is based on scintillation properties of ZnO nanostructures in a polycarbonate track-etched membrane. Because of higher refractive index of ZnO nanowire compared to the membrane, the nanowire acts as an optical fiber that prevents the generated optical photons to spread inside the detector. This effect improves the spatial resolution of the imager. The detection quantum efficiency and spatial resolution of the fabricated imager are 11% and <6.8 μm, respectively.

  19. Imaging single cells in a beam of live cyanobacteria with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schot, Gijs, vander

    2015-02-10

    Diffraction pattern of a micron-sized S. elongatus cell at 1,100 eV photon energy (1.13 nm wavelength) with ~10^11 photons per square micron on the sample in ~70 fs. The signal to noise ratio at 4 nm resolution is 3.7 with 0.24 photons per Nyquist pixel. The cell was alive at the time of the exposure. The central region of the pattern (dark red) is saturated and this prevented reliable image reconstruction.

  20. Imaging single cells in a beam of live cyanobacteria with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schot, Gijs, vander

    Diffraction pattern of a micron-sized S. elongatus cell at 1,100 eV photon energy (1.13 nm wavelength) with ~10^11 photons per square micron on the sample in ~70 fs. The signal to noise ratio at 4 nm resolution is 3.7 with 0.24 photons per Nyquist pixel. The cell was alive at the time of the exposure. The central region of the pattern (dark red) is saturated and this prevented reliable image reconstruction.

  1. High spatial resolution mapping of deposition layers on plasma facing materials by laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Qingmei; Li, Cong; Hai, Ran; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Chunlei; Ding, Hongbin, E-mail: hding@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhou, Yan; Yan, Longwen; Duan, Xuru [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, No. 3 South Section 3, Circle Road 2, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China)

    2014-05-15

    A laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LAM-TOF-MS) system with high spatial resolution, ?20 nm in depth and ?500 ?m or better on the surface, is developed to analyze the composition distributions of deposition layers on the first wall materials or first mirrors in tokamak. The LAM-TOF-MS system consists of a laser ablation microprobe combined with a TOF-MS and a data acquisition system based on a LabVIEW program software package. Laser induced ablation combined with TOF-MS is an attractive method to analyze the depth profile of deposited layer with successive laser shots, therefore, it can provide information for composition reconstruction of the plasma wall interaction process. In this work, we demonstrate that the LAM-TOF-MS system is capable of characterizing the depth profile as well as mapping 2D composition of deposited film on the molybdenum first mirror retrieved from HL-2A tokamak, with particular emphasis on some of the species produced during the ablation process. The presented LAM-TOF-MS system provides not only the 3D characterization of deposition but also the removal efficiency of species of concern.

  2. Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction for high-resolution bioimepedance imaging through vector source reconstruction under the static field of MRI magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariappan, Leo; Hu, Gang; He, Bin

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is an imaging modality to reconstruct the electrical conductivity of biological tissue based on the acoustic measurements of Lorentz force induced tissue vibration. This study presents the feasibility of the authors' new MAT-MI system and vector source imaging algorithm to perform a complete reconstruction of the conductivity distribution of real biological tissues with ultrasound spatial resolution. Methods: In the present study, using ultrasound beamformation, imaging point spread functions are designed to reconstruct the induced vector source in the object which is used to estimate the object conductivity distribution. Both numerical studies and phantom experiments are performed to demonstrate the merits of the proposed method. Also, through the numerical simulations, the full width half maximum of the imaging point spread function is calculated to estimate of the spatial resolution. The tissue phantom experiments are performed with a MAT-MI imaging system in the static field of a 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging magnet. Results: The image reconstruction through vector beamformation in the numerical and experimental studies gives a reliable estimate of the conductivity distribution in the object with a ∼1.5 mm spatial resolution corresponding to the imaging system frequency of 500 kHz ultrasound. In addition, the experiment results suggest that MAT-MI under high static magnetic field environment is able to reconstruct images of tissue-mimicking gel phantoms and real tissue samples with reliable conductivity contrast. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that MAT-MI is able to image the electrical conductivity properties of biological tissues with better than 2 mm spatial resolution at 500 kHz, and the imaging with MAT-MI under a high static magnetic field environment is able to provide improved imaging contrast for biological tissue conductivity reconstruction.

  3. High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hnatovsky, C.; Taylor, R.S.; Simova, E.; Bhardwaj, V.R.; Rayner, D.M.; Corkum, P.B.

    2005-07-01

    An ultrahigh-resolution (20 nm) technique of selective chemical etching and atomic force microscopy has been used to study the photoinduced modification in fused silica produced at various depths by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation affected by spherical aberration. We demonstrate that shapes of the irradiated zones near the threshold for modification can be predicted by taking proper account of spherical aberration caused by the refractive index mismatched air-silica interface. We establish a depth dependence of the pulse energy required to initiate modification and characterize the relationship between numerical aperture of the writing lens and practically achievable writing depth. We also show that spatial characteristics of the laser-modified zones can be controlled by a specially designed focusing system which allows correction for a variable amount of spherical aberration.

  4. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore » resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  5. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for direct visualization of plant metabolites in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturtevant, Drew; Lee, Young -Jin; Chapman, Kent D.

    2015-11-22

    Direct visualization of plant tissues by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has revealed key insights into the localization of metabolites in situ. Recent efforts have determined the spatial distribution of primary and secondary metabolites in plant tissues and cells. Strategies have been applied in many areas of metabolism including isotope flux analyses, plant interactions, and transcriptional regulation of metabolite accumulation. Technological advances have pushed achievable spatial resolution to subcellular levels and increased instrument sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it is anticipated that MALDI-MSI and other MSI approaches will bring a new level of understanding to metabolomics as scientists will be encouraged to consider spatial heterogeneity of metabolites in descriptions of metabolic pathway regulation.

  6. Reconstruction of two-dimensional molecular structure with laser-induced electron diffraction from laser-aligned polyatomic molecules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Chao; Wei, Hui; Wang, Xu; Le, Anh -Thu; Lu, Ruifeng; Lin, C. D.

    2015-10-27

    Imaging the transient process of molecules has been a basic way to investigate photochemical reactions and dynamics. Based on laser-induced electron diffraction and partial one-dimensional molecular alignment, here we provide two effective methods for reconstructing two-dimensional structure of polyatomic molecules. We demonstrate that electron diffraction images in both scattering angles and broadband energy can be utilized to retrieve complementary structure information, including positions of light atoms. Lastly, with picometre spatial resolution and the inherent femtosecond temporal resolution of lasers, laser-induced electron diffraction method offers significant opportunities for probing atomic motion in a large molecule in a typical pump-probe measurement.

  7. Improved optical diagnostics for the NOVA laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, J.C.; Berggren, R.R.; Bradley, K.S.; Hsing, W.W.; Gomez, C.C.; Cobble, J.A.

    1994-07-01

    This paper describes three diagnostics for detecting optical scatter from NOVA laser targets. Detecting such scatter can help not only the authors` understanding of plasma instabilities in laser plasmas, but also their efforts at plasma characterization, particularly hohlraum plasmas. These diagnostics are: the Full Aperture Backscatter Station (FABS), presently being built; the Oblique Scatter Array (OSA), just starting operation; and the Axial Imager, also just starting operation. FABS will allow imaging at high resolution of Brillouin and Raman backscatter. The OSA allows a quantitative measurement of Brillouin and Raman scatter in many directions (assuming the target allows the scatter to escape). The axial imager allows high-resolution imaging of Brillouin, Two-Plasmon Decay and Raman scatter emitted towards the East direction, which is along the symmetry axis of the NOVA laser beams.

  8. Improved optical diagnostics for the NOVA laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, J.C.; Berggren, R.R.; Bradley, K.S.; Hsing, W.W.; Gomez, C.C.; Cobble, J.A.; Wilke, M.D. )

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes three diagnostics detecting optical scatter from NOVA laser targets. Detecting such scatter can help to understand instabilities in laser plasmas and to characterize such plasmas, particularly hohlraum plasmas. These diagnostics are the full aperture backscatter station (FABS), presently being built; the oblique scatter array (OSA), just starting operation; and the axial imager, also just starting operation. FABS will allow imaging at high resolution of Brillouin and Raman backscatter. The OSA provides a quantitative measurement of Brillouin and Raman scatter in many directions. The axial imager allows high-resolution imaging of Brillouin, two-plasmon decay and Raman scatter emitted toward the direction of the symmetry axis of the NOVA laser beams.

  9. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Goodman, Claude A.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels.

  10. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Goodman, C.A.

    1996-08-20

    Apparatus is disclosed for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels. 12 figs.

  11. HIGH-RESOLUTION EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY IMAGE OF DIMETHYL ETHER (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O IN ORION-KL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Favre, C.; Wootten, H. A.; Remijan, A. J.; Brouillet, N.; Despois, D.; Baudry, A.; Wilson, T. L. E-mail: brouillet@obs.u-bordeaux1.fr E-mail: baudry@obs.u-bordeaux1.fr E-mail: aremijan@nrao.edu

    2011-09-20

    We report the first subarcsecond (0.''65 x 0.''51) image of the dimethyl ether molecule, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O, toward the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula. The observations were carried at 43.4 GHz with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). The distribution of the lower energy transition 6{sub 1,5}-6{sub 0,6}, EE (E {sub u} = 21 K) mapped in this study is in excellent agreement with the published dimethyl ether emission maps imaged with a lower resolution. The main emission peaks are observed toward the Compact Ridge and Hot Core southwest components, at the northern parts of the Compact Ridge and in an intermediate position between the Compact Ridge and the Hot Core. A notable result is that the distribution of dimethyl ether is very similar to that of another important larger O-bearing species, the methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}), imaged at a lower resolution. Our study shows that higher spectral resolution (WIDAR correlator) and increased spectral coverage provided by the EVLA offer new possibilities for imaging complex molecular species. The sensitivity improvement and the other EVLA improvements make this instrument well suited for high sensitivity, high angular resolution, and molecular line imaging.

  12. Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The scope of our research in laser and related technologies has grown over the years and has attracted a broad user base for applications within DOE, DOD, and private industry. Within the next few years, we expect to begin constructing the National Ignition Facility, to make substantial progress in deploying AVLIS technology for uranium and gadolinium enrichment, and to develop new radar sensing techniques to detect underwater objects. Further, we expect to translate LLNL patent ideas in microlithography into useful industrial products and to successfully apply high-power, diode-based laser technology to industrial and government applications.

  13. Multiparticle imaging technique for two-phase fluid flows using pulsed laser speckle velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The practical use of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry (PLV) requires the use of fast, reliable computer-based methods for tracking numerous particles suspended in a fluid flow. Two methods for performing tracking are presented. One method tracks a particle through multiple sequential images (minimum of four required) by prediction and verification of particle displacement and direction. The other method, requiring only two sequential images uses a dynamic, binary, spatial, cross-correlation technique. The algorithms are tested on computer-generated synthetic data and experimental data which was obtained with traditional PLV methods. This allowed error analysis and testing of the algorithms on real engineering flows. A novel method is proposed which eliminates tedious, undersirable, manual, operator assistance in removing erroneous vectors. This method uses an iterative process involving an interpolated field produced from the most reliable vectors. Methods are developed to allow fast analysis and presentation of sets of PLV image data. Experimental investigation of a two-phase, horizontal, stratified, flow regime was performed to determine the interface drag force, and correspondingly, the drag coefficient. A horizontal, stratified flow test facility using water and air was constructed to allow interface shear measurements with PLV techniques. The experimentally obtained local drag measurements were compared with theoretical results given by conventional interfacial drag theory. Close agreement was shown when local conditions near the interface were similar to space-averaged conditions. However, theory based on macroscopic, space-averaged flow behavior was shown to give incorrect results if the local gas velocity near the interface as unstable, transient, and dissimilar from the average gas velocity through the test facility.

  14. A novel femtosecond-gated, high-resolution, frequency-shifted shearing interferometry technique for probing pre-plasma expansion in ultra-intense laser experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feister, S. Orban, C.; Nees, J. A.; Morrison, J. T.; Frische, K. D.; Chowdhury, E. A.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2014-11-15

    Ultra-intense laser-matter interaction experiments (>10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) with dense targets are highly sensitive to the effect of laser noise (in the form of pre-pulses) preceding the main ultra-intense pulse. These system-dependent pre-pulses in the nanosecond and/or picosecond regimes are often intense enough to modify the target significantly by ionizing and forming a plasma layer in front of the target before the arrival of the main pulse. Time resolved interferometry offers a robust way to characterize the expanding plasma during this period. We have developed a novel pump-probe interferometry system for an ultra-intense laser experiment that uses two short-pulse amplifiers synchronized by one ultra-fast seed oscillator to achieve 40-fs time resolution over hundreds of nanoseconds, using a variable delay line and other techniques. The first of these amplifiers acts as the pump and delivers maximal energy to the interaction region. The second amplifier is frequency shifted and then frequency doubled to generate the femtosecond probe pulse. After passing through the laser-target interaction region, the probe pulse is split and recombined in a laterally sheared Michelson interferometer. Importantly, the frequency shift in the probe allows strong plasma self-emission at the second harmonic of the pump to be filtered out, allowing plasma expansion near the critical surface and elsewhere to be clearly visible in the interferograms. To aid in the reconstruction of phase dependent imagery from fringe shifts, three separate 120 phase-shifted (temporally sheared) interferograms are acquired for each probe delay. Three-phase reconstructions of the electron densities are then inferred by Abel inversion. This interferometric system delivers precise measurements of pre-plasma expansion that can identify the condition of the target at the moment that the ultra-intense pulse arrives. Such measurements are indispensable for correlating laser pre-pulse measurements with instantaneous plasma profiles and for enabling realistic Particle-in-Cell simulations of the ultra-intense laser-matter interaction.

  15. Electron-Heated Target Temperature Measurements in Petawatt Laser Experiments Based on Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging and Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, T; Beg, F; Macphee, A; Chung, H; Key, M; Mackinnon, A; Patel, P; Hatchett, S; Akli, K; Stephens, R; Chen, C; Freeman, R; Link, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; VanWoerkom, L; Zhang, B

    2008-05-02

    Three independent methods (XUV spectroscopy, imaging at 68 eV and 256 eV) have been used to measure planar target rear surface plasma temperature due to heating by hot electrons. The hot electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser plasma interactions using the 150 J, 0.5 ps Titan laser. Soft x-ray spectroscopy in the 50-400 eV region and imaging at the 68 eV and 256 eV photon energies were used to determine the rear surface temperature of planar CD targets. Temperatures were found to be in the 60-150 eV range, with good agreement between the three diagnostics.

  16. Mapping the Ionization State of Laser-Irradiated Ar Gas Jets With Multi-Wavelength Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugland, N L; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Schaeffer, D; Glenzer, S H; Niemann, C

    2010-04-08

    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultra-high intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {micro}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {micro}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry, which images in one dimension, indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {micro}m along the laser axis.

  17. Effects of repetitive pulsing on multi-kHz planar laser-induced incandescence imaging in laminar and turbulent flames

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Michael, James B.; Venkateswaran, Prabhakar; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Meyer, Terrence R.

    2015-04-08

    Planar laser-induced incandescence (LII) imaging is reported at repetition rates up to 100 kHz using a burst-mode laser system to enable studies of soot formation dynamics in highly turbulent flames. Furthermore, to quantify the accuracy and uncertainty of relative soot volume fraction measurements, the temporal evolution of the LII field in laminar and turbulent flames is examined at various laser operating conditions. Under high-speed repetitive probing, it is found that LII signals are sensitive to changes in soot physical characteristics when operating at high laser fluences within the soot vaporization regime. For these laser conditions, strong planar LII signals aremore » observed at measurement rates up to 100 kHz but are primarily useful for qualitative tracking of soot structure dynamics. However, LII signals collected at lower fluences allow sequential planar measurements of the relative soot volume fraction with a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio at repetition rates of 10–50 kHz. Finally, guidelines for identifying and avoiding the onset of repetitive probe effects in the LII signals are discussed, along with other potential sources of measurement error and uncertainty.« less

  18. Laser device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  19. Laser device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2004-11-23

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  20. HIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED IMAGING OF THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS OF HERBIG Ae/Be STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinas, N.; Telesco, C. M.; Packham, C.; Fisher, R. S.

    2011-08-20

    We have imaged the circumstellar environments of 17 Herbig Ae/Be stars at 12 and 18 {mu}m using MICHELLE on Gemini North and T-ReCS on Gemini South. Our sample contained eight Group I sources, those having large rising near- to far-infrared (IR) fluxes, and nine Group II sources, those having more modest mid-IR fluxes relative to their near-IR flux (in the classification of Meeus et al.). We have resolved extended emission from all Group I sources in our target list. The majority of these sources have radially symmetric mid-IR emission extending from a radius of 10 AU to hundreds of AU. Only one of the nine Group II sources is resolved at the FWHM level, with another two Group II sources resolved at fainter levels. Models by Dullemond et al. explain the observed spectral energy distribution of Group II sources using self-shadowed cold disks. If this is the case for all the Group II sources, we do not expect to detect extended emission with this study, since the IR emission measured should arise from a region only a few AU in size, which is smaller than our resolution. The fact that we do resolve some of the Group II sources implies that their disks are not completely flat, and might represent an intermediate stage. We also find that none of the more massive (>3 M{sub sun}) Herbig Ae/Be stars in our sample belongs to Group I, which may point to a relationship between stellar mass and circumstellar dust evolution. Disks around more massive stars might evolve faster so that stars are surrounded by a more evolved flat disk by the time they become optically visible, or they might follow a different evolutionary path altogether.

  1. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2011-06-21

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  2. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2013-07-16

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  3. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, in vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2013-07-16

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  4. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, In vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2011-11-29

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation (LA) with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  5. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, in vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2014-08-19

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  6. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2012-10-30

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  7. Lasers '90: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Lasers and Applications, San Diego, CA, Dec. 10-14, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.G.; Herbelin, J. Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA )

    1991-01-01

    The general topics considered are: x-ray lasers; FELs; solid state lasers; techniques and phenomena of ultrafast lasers; optical filters and free space laser communications; discharge lasers; tunable lasers; applications of lasers in medicine and surgery; lasers in materials processing; high power lasers; dynamics gratings, wave mixing, and holography; up-conversion lasers; lidar and laser radar; laser resonators; excimer lasers; laser propagation; nonlinear and quantum optics; blue-green technology; imaging; laser spectroscopy; chemical lasers; dye lasers; and lasers in chemistry.

  8. Mapping the ionization state of laser-irradiated Ar gas jets with multiwavelength monochromatic x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugland, N. L.; Niemann, C.; Doeppner, T.; Kemp, A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Schaeffer, D.

    2010-10-15

    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx_equal}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultrahigh intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 50 TW) Ti:sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {mu}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {mu}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {mu}m along the laser axis.

  9. A new generic method for the semi-automatic extraction of river and road networks in low and mid-resolution satellite images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grazzini, Jacopo; Dillard, Scott; Soille, Pierre

    2010-10-21

    This paper addresses the problem of semi-automatic extraction of road or hydrographic networks in satellite images. For that purpose, we propose an approach combining concepts arising from mathematical morphology and hydrology. The method exploits both geometrical and topological characteristics of rivers/roads and their tributaries in order to reconstruct the complete networks. It assumes that the images satisfy the following two general assumptions, which are the minimum conditions for a road/river network to be identifiable and are usually verified in low- to mid-resolution satellite images: (i) visual constraint: most pixels composing the network have similar spectral signature that is distinguishable from most of the surrounding areas; (ii) geometric constraint: a line is a region that is relatively long and narrow, compared with other objects in the image. While this approach fully exploits local (roads/rivers are modeled as elongated regions with a smooth spectral signature in the image and a maximum width) and global (they are structured like a tree) characteristics of the networks, further directional information about the image structures is incorporated. Namely, an appropriate anisotropic metric is designed by using both the characteristic features of the target network and the eigen-decomposition of the gradient structure tensor of the image. Following, the geodesic propagation from a given network seed with this metric is combined with hydrological operators for overland flow simulation to extract the paths which contain most line evidence and identify them with the target network.

  10. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jian; Sabau, Adrian S; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Hackett, Alexandra C.; Daniel, Claus; Warren, Charles David

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of lightweight materials, such as aluminum alloys, in auto body structures requires more effective surface cleaning and texturing techniques to improve the quality of the structural components. The present work introduces a novel surface treatment method using laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface structures. The influences of beam size, laser fluence, wavelength, and pulse number per spot are investigated. High resolution optical profiler images reveal the change of the peak-to-valley height on the laser-treated surface.

  11. High-resolution wave-theory-based ultrasound reflection imaging using the split-step fourier and globally optimized fourier finite-difference methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Lianjie

    2013-10-29

    Methods for enhancing ultrasonic reflection imaging are taught utilizing a split-step Fourier propagator in which the reconstruction is based on recursive inward continuation of ultrasonic wavefields in the frequency-space and frequency-wave number domains. The inward continuation within each extrapolation interval consists of two steps. In the first step, a phase-shift term is applied to the data in the frequency-wave number domain for propagation in a reference medium. The second step consists of applying another phase-shift term to data in the frequency-space domain to approximately compensate for ultrasonic scattering effects of heterogeneities within the tissue being imaged (e.g., breast tissue). Results from various data input to the method indicate significant improvements are provided in both image quality and resolution.

  12. Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Dielectric Laser Accelerators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for Dielectric Laser Accelerators You ...

  13. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS THAT METHANOL MASER RINGS TRACE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Buizer, James M.; Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian

    2012-08-01

    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of {approx}150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  14. Imaging the ultrafast Kerr effect, free carrier generation, relaxation and ablation dynamics of Lithium Niobate irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario, E-mail: mario@io.cfmac.csic.es; Siegel, Jan, E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-21

    The interaction of high-power single 130 femtosecond (fs) laser pulses with the surface of Lithium Niobate is experimentally investigated in this work. The use of fs-resolution time-resolved microscopy allows us to separately observe the instantaneous optical Kerr effect induced by the pulse and the generation of a free electron plasma. The maximum electron density is reached 550 fs after the peak of the Kerr effect, confirming the presence of a delayed carrier generation mechanism. We have also observed the appearance of transient Newton rings during the ablation process, related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front and back surface of the ablating layer. Finally, we have analyzed the dynamics of the photorefractive effect on a much longer time scale by measuring the evolution of the transmittance of the irradiated area for different fluences below the ablation threshold.

  15. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, M.; McKay, T.A.

    1998-04-21

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD. 13 figs.

  16. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD.

  17. Highly lead-loaded red plastic scintillators as an X-ray imaging system for the Laser Mega Joule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, M.; Normand, S.; Turk, G.; Darbon, S.

    2011-07-01

    The scope of this project intends to record spatially resolved images of core shape and size of a DT micro-balloon during Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at Laser Mega Joule facility (LMJ). We need to develop an X-ray imaging system which can operate in the radiative background generated by an ignition shot of ICF. The scintillator is a part of the imaging system and has to gather a compromise of scintillating properties (scintillating efficiency, decay time, emission wavelength) so as to both operate in the hard radiative environment and to allow the acquisition of spatially resolved images. Inorganic scintillators cannot be used because no compromise can be found regarding the expected scintillating properties, most of them are not fast enough and emit blue light. Organic scintillators are generally fast, but present low X-ray absorption in the 10 to 40 keV range, that does not permit the acquisition of spatially resolved images. To this aim, we have developed highly lead-loaded and red-fluorescent fast plastic scintillators. Such a combination is not currently available via scintillator suppliers, since they propose only blue-fluorescent plastic scintillators doped with up to 12%w Pb. Thus, incorporation ratio up to 27%w Pb has been reached in our laboratory, which can afford a plastic scintillator with an outstanding Z{sub eff} close to 50. X-rays in the 10 to 40 keV range can thus be detected with a higher probability of photoelectric effect than for classic organic scintillators, such as NE102. The strong orange-red fluorescence can be filtered, so that we can eliminate residual Cerenkov light, generated by {gamma}-ray absorption in glass parts of the imaging system. Decay times of our scintillators evaluated under UV excitation were estimated to be in the range 10 to 13 ns. (authors)

  18. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A.; Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  19. HIGH-RESOLUTION LABORATORY SPECTRA OF THE λ193 CHANNEL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY INSTRUMENT ON BOARD SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Träbert, Elmar; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Golub, Leon

    2014-11-01

    Extreme ultraviolet spectra of C, O, F, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni have been excited in an electron beam ion trap and studied with much higher resolution than available on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in order to ascertain the spectral composition of the SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations. We present our findings in the wavelength range 182-200 Å, which, overall, corroborate the working models of how to interpret the SDO/AIA data. We find, however, that the inclusion of a number of additional lines might improve the data interpretation.

  20. A method to determine fault vectors in 4H-SiC from stacking sequences observed on high resolution transmission electron microscopy images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Fangzhen; Wang, Huanhuan; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Mueller, Stephan G.; Chung, Gil; Sanchez, Edward K.; Hansen, Darren; Loboda, Mark J.; Zhang, Lihua; Su, Dong; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric

    2014-09-14

    A new method has been developed to determine the fault vectors associated with stacking faults in 4H-SiC from their stacking sequences observed on high resolution TEM images. This method, analogous to the Burgers circuit technique for determination of dislocation Burgers vector, involves determination of the vectors required in the projection of the perfect lattice to correct the deviated path constructed in the faulted material. Results for several different stacking faults were compared with fault vectors determined from X-ray topographic contrast analysis and were found to be consistent. This technique is expected to applicable to all structures comprising corner shared tetrahedra.

  1. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    96 PPPL- 4296 Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas February 2008 K.W. HILL, M.L. BITTER, Ch. BROENNIMANN, E.F. EIKENBERRY, A. Ince-CUSHMAN, S.G. LEE, J.E. RICE, S. SCOTT and R. BARNSLEY Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report Disclaimers Full Legal Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government.

  2. Imaging single cells in a beam of live cyanobacteria with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schot, Gijs, vander

    2015-02-10

    This entry contains ten diffraction patterns, and reconstructions images, of individual living Cyanobium gracile cells, imaged using 517 eV X-rays from the LCLS XFEL. The Hawk software package was used for phasing. The Uppsala aerosol injector was used for sample injection, assuring very low noise levels. The cells come from various stages of the cell cycle, and were imaged in random orientations.

  3. Turbulence and combustion interaction: High resolution local flame front structure visualization using simultaneous single-shot PLIF imaging of CH, OH, and CH{sub 2}O in a piloted premixed jet flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z.S.; Li, B.; Sun, Z.W.; Alden, M. [Division of Combustion Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bai, X.S. [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    High resolution planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was applied to investigate the local flame front structures of turbulent premixed methane/air jet flames in order to reveal details about turbulence and flame interaction. The targeted turbulent flames were generated on a specially designed coaxial jet burner, in which low speed stoichiometric gas mixture was fed through the outer large tube to provide a laminar pilot flame for stabilization of the high speed jet flame issued through the small inner tube. By varying the inner tube flow speed and keeping the mixture composition as that of the outer tube, different flames were obtained covering both the laminar and turbulent flame regimes with different turbulent intensities. Simultaneous CH/CH{sub 2}O, and also OH PLIF images were recorded to characterize the influence of turbulence eddies on the reaction zone structure, with a spatial resolution of about 40 {mu}m and temporal resolution of around 10 ns. Under all experimental conditions, the CH radicals were found to exist only in a thin layer; the CH{sub 2}O were found in the inner flame whereas the OH radicals were seen in the outer flame with the thin CH layer separating the OH and CH{sub 2}O layers. The outer OH layer is thick and it corresponds to the oxidation zone and post-flame zone; the CH{sub 2}O layer is thin in laminar flows; it becomes broad at high speed turbulent flow conditions. This phenomenon was analyzed using chemical kinetic calculations and eddy/flame interaction theory. It appears that under high turbulence intensity conditions, the small eddies in the preheat zone can transport species such as CH{sub 2}O from the reaction zones to the preheat zone. The CH{sub 2}O species are not consumed in the preheat zone due to the absence of H, O, and OH radicals by which CH{sub 2}O is to be oxidized. The CH radicals cannot exist in the preheat zone due to the rapid reactions of this species with O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in the inner-layer of the reaction zones. The local PLIF intensities were evaluated using an area integrated PLIF signal. Substantial increase of the CH{sub 2}O signal and decrease of CH signal was observed as the jet velocity increases. These observations raise new challenges to the current flamelet type models. (author)

  4. Optimal experimental design for the detection of light atoms from high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonnissen, J.; De Backer, A.; Martinez, G. T.; Van Aert, S.; Dekker, A. J. den; Rosenauer, A.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-08-11

    We report an innovative method to explore the optimal experimental settings to detect light atoms from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. Since light elements play a key role in many technologically important materials, such as lithium-battery devices or hydrogen storage applications, much effort has been made to optimize the STEM technique in order to detect light elements. Therefore, classical performance criteria, such as contrast or signal-to-noise ratio, are often discussed hereby aiming at improvements of the direct visual interpretability. However, when images are interpreted quantitatively, one needs an alternative criterion, which we derive based on statistical detection theory. Using realistic simulations of technologically important materials, we demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method and compare the results with existing approaches.

  5. Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor; Clear, Robert

    2011-01-11

    The objective of this study was to explore how calibrated high dynamic range (HDR) images (luminance maps) acquired in real world daylit environments can be used to characterize, evaluate, and compare visual comfort conditions of innovative facade shading and light-redirecting systems. Detailed (1536 x 1536 pixel) luminance maps were time-lapse acquired from two view positions in an unoccupied full scale testbed facility. These maps were analyzed using existing visual comfort metrics to quantify how innovative interior and exterior shading systems compare to conventional systems under real sun and sky conditions over a solstice-to-solstice test interval. The results provide a case study in the challenges and potential of methods of visualizing, evaluating and summarizing daily and seasonal variation of visual comfort conditions computed from large sets of image data.

  6. Monochromatic x-ray sampling streak imager for fast-ignitor plasma observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanabe, Minoru; Fujiwara, Takashi; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Mima, Kunioki

    2008-10-15

    Ultrafast two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging is required to investigate the dynamics of fast-heated core plasma in inertial confinement fusion research. A novel x-ray imager, consisting of two toroidally bent Bragg crystals and an ultrafast 2D x-ray imaging camera, has been demonstrated. Sequential and 2D monochromatic x-ray images of laser-imploded core plasma were obtained with a temporal resolution of 20 ps, a spatial resolution of 31 {mu}m, and a spectral resolution of over 200, simultaneously.

  7. The linac coherent light source single particle imaging road map

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aquila, A.; Barty, A.; Bostedt, C.; Boutet, S.; Carini, G.; dePonte, D.; Drell, P.; Doniach, S.; Downing, K. H.; Earnest, T.; et al

    2015-07-01

    Intense femtosecond x-ray pulses from free-electron laser sources allow the imaging of individual particles in a single shot. Early experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have led to rapid progress in the field and, so far, coherent diffractive images have been recorded from biological specimens, aerosols, and quantum systems with a few-tens-of-nanometers resolution. In March 2014, LCLS held a workshop to discuss the scientific and technical challenges for reaching the ultimate goal of atomic resolution with single-shot coherent diffractive imaging. This paper summarizes the workshop findings and presents the roadmap toward reaching atomic resolution, 3D imaging at free-electronmore » laser sources.« less

  8. Application of PILATUS II Detector Modules for High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.L. Bitter, Ch. Borennimann, E.F. Eikenberry, K.W. Hill, A. Ince-Chushman, S.G. Lee, J.E. Rice, and S. Scott.

    2007-07-23

    A new type of X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for Doppler measurements of the radial profiles of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity in tokamak plasmas is presently being developed in a collaboration between various laboratories. The spectrometer will consist of a spherically bent crystal and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector; and it will record temporally and spatially resolved X-ray line spectra from highly-charged ions. The detector must satisfy challenging requirements with respect to count rate and spatial resolution. The paper presents the results from a recent test of a PILATUS II detector module on Alcator C-Mod, which demonstrate that the PILATUS II detector modules will satisfy these requirements.

  9. High-resolution observations of the shock wave behavior for sunspot oscillations with the interface region imaging spectrograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, H.; DeLuca, E.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Golub, L.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Weber, M.; De Pontieu, B.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Kleint, L.; Cheung, M.; Lemen, J.; Title, A.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wuelser, J. P.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.; and others

    2014-05-10

    We present the first results of sunspot oscillations from observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. The strongly nonlinear oscillation is identified in both the slit-jaw images and the spectra of several emission lines formed in the transition region and chromosphere. We first apply a single Gaussian fit to the profiles of the Mg II 2796.35 Å, C II 1335.71 Å, and Si IV 1393.76 Å lines in the sunspot. The intensity change is ∼30%. The Doppler shift oscillation reveals a sawtooth pattern with an amplitude of ∼10 km s{sup –1} in Si IV. The Si IV oscillation lags those of C II and Mg II by ∼6 and ∼25 s, respectively. The line width suddenly increases as the Doppler shift changes from redshift to blueshift. However, we demonstrate that this increase is caused by the superposition of two emission components. We then perform detailed analysis of the line profiles at a few selected locations on the slit. The temporal evolution of the line core is dominated by the following behavior: a rapid excursion to the blue side, accompanied by an intensity increase, followed by a linear decrease of the velocity to the red side. The maximum intensity slightly lags the maximum blueshift in Si IV, whereas the intensity enhancement slightly precedes the maximum blueshift in Mg II. We find a positive correlation between the maximum velocity and deceleration, a result that is consistent with numerical simulations of upward propagating magnetoacoustic shock waves.

  10. Multiparticle imaging technique for two-phase fluid flows using pulsed laser speckle velocimetry. Final report, September 1988--November 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The practical use of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry (PLV) requires the use of fast, reliable computer-based methods for tracking numerous particles suspended in a fluid flow. Two methods for performing tracking are presented. One method tracks a particle through multiple sequential images (minimum of four required) by prediction and verification of particle displacement and direction. The other method, requiring only two sequential images uses a dynamic, binary, spatial, cross-correlation technique. The algorithms are tested on computer-generated synthetic data and experimental data which was obtained with traditional PLV methods. This allowed error analysis and testing of the algorithms on real engineering flows. A novel method is proposed which eliminates tedious, undersirable, manual, operator assistance in removing erroneous vectors. This method uses an iterative process involving an interpolated field produced from the most reliable vectors. Methods are developed to allow fast analysis and presentation of sets of PLV image data. Experimental investigation of a two-phase, horizontal, stratified, flow regime was performed to determine the interface drag force, and correspondingly, the drag coefficient. A horizontal, stratified flow test facility using water and air was constructed to allow interface shear measurements with PLV techniques. The experimentally obtained local drag measurements were compared with theoretical results given by conventional interfacial drag theory. Close agreement was shown when local conditions near the interface were similar to space-averaged conditions. However, theory based on macroscopic, space-averaged flow behavior was shown to give incorrect results if the local gas velocity near the interface as unstable, transient, and dissimilar from the average gas velocity through the test facility.

  11. Range gated imaging experiments using gated intensifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Yates, G.J.; Cverna, F.H.; Gallegos, R.A.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Numkena, D.M.; Payton, J.; Pena-Abeyta, C.R.

    1999-03-01

    A variety of range gated imaging experiments using high-speed gated/shuttered proximity focused microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPII) are reported. Range gated imaging experiments were conducted in water for detection of submerged mines in controlled turbidity tank test and in sea water for the Naval Coastal Sea Command/US Marine Corps. Field experiments have been conducted consisting of kilometer range imaging of resolution targets and military vehicles in atmosphere at Eglin Air Force Base for the US Air Force, and similar imaging experiments, but in smoke environment, at Redstone Arsenal for the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). Wavelength of the illuminating laser was 532 nm with pulse width ranging from 6 to 12 ns and comparable gate widths. These tests have shown depth resolution in the tens of centimeters range from time phasing reflected LADAR images with MCPII shutter opening.

  12. Time-resolved x-ray imaging of high-power laser-irradiated under-dense silica aerogels and agar foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J.A.; Estabrook, K.G.; Bauer, J.D. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments in which a high-power laser was used to irradiate low density (4 - 9 mg/cm{sup 3}) silica aerogel and agar foam targets. The laser-solid interaction and energy transport through the material were monitored with time-resolved imaging diagnostics, and the data show the production and propagation of an x-ray emission front in the plasma. The emission-front trajectory data are found to be in significant disagreement with detailed simulations, which predict a much more rapid heating of the cold material, and the data suggest that this discrepancy is not explainable by target inhomogeneities. Evidence suggests that energy transport into the cold material may be dominated by thermal conduction; however, no completely satisfactory explanation for the discrepancies is identified, and further experimental and theoretical research is necessary in order to resolve this important problem in laser-plasma interaction physics.

  13. Simultaneous near-field and far-field imaging of the 11.9-nm Ni-like Sn soft-x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staub, F.; Braud, M.; Balmer, J.E.; Nilsen, J.; Bajt, S.

    2004-07-01

    We report on two-dimensional near-field imaging experiments of the 11.9-nm Sn x-ray laser that were performed with a set of Mo/Y multilayer mirrors having reflectivities of up to {approx}45% at normal and at 45 deg. incidence. Second-moment analysis of the x-ray laser emission was used to determine values of the x-ray beam propagation factor M{sup 2} for a range of irradiation parameters. The results reveal a reduction of M{sup 2} with increasing prepulse amplitude. The spatial size of the output is a factor of {approx}2 smaller than previously measured for the 14.7-nm Pd x-ray laser, while the distance of the x-ray emission with respect to the target surface remains roughly the same.

  14. Laser-driven flat plate impacts to 100 GPA with sub-nanosecond pulse duration and resolution for material property studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Warnes, R.H.; Kopp, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Miniature laser-driven flat plates (<1-mm diam {times} 0.5--10{mu}m thick, typical) of aluminum, cooper, tungsten, and other materials are accelerated to {le}5 km/s. These miniature plates are used to generate one-dimensional shock waves in solids, liquids, and crystals. Dynamic measurements of spall strength at strain rates {le}10{sup 7} s{sup {minus}1}, elastic-plastic shock wave profiles in 10-{mu}m-thick targets, shocked free-surface acceleration of 10{sup 12} m/s{sup 2}, and laser-driven plate launch accelerations of 10{sup 10} m/s{sup 2} are routinely obtained. The small size of the sample of and projectile mass permits recovery of targets without additional unintended damage or energy deposited into the test specimen. These miniature plates can be launched with conventional 1-J laboratory lasers. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  15. SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Chen, Jian; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Alexandra, Hackett; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Daniel, Claus; Warren, Charles David; Rehkopf, Jackie D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of Carbon Fiber Polymer Composite (CFPC) as a lightweight material in automotive and aerospace industries requires the control of surface morphology. In this study, the composites surface was prepared by ablating the resin in the top fiber layer of the composite using an Nd:YAG laser. The CFPC specimens with T700S carbon fiber and Prepreg - T83 resin (epoxy) were supplied by Plasan Carbon Composites, Inc. as 4 ply thick, 0/90o plaques. The effect of laser fluence, scanning speed, and wavelength was investigated to remove resin without an excessive damage of the fibers. In addition, resin ablation due to the power variation created by a laser interference technique is presented. Optical property measurements, optical micrographs, 3D imaging, and high-resolution optical profiler images were used to study the effect of the laser processing on the surface morphology.

  16. A comprehensive simulation framework for imaging single particles and biomolecules at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Yurkov, Mikhail V.; Schneidmiller, Evgeny A.; Samoylova, Liubov; Buzmakov, Alexey; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Loh, N. Duane; Tschentscher, Thomas; et al

    2016-04-25

    The advent of newer, brighter, and more coherent X-ray sources, such as X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), represents a tremendous growth in the potential to apply coherent X-rays to determine the structure of materials from the micron-scale down to the Angstrom-scale. There is a significant need for a multi-physics simulation framework to perform source-to-detector simulations for a single particle imaging experiment, including (i) the multidimensional simulation of the X-ray source; (ii) simulation of the wave-optics propagation of the coherent XFEL beams; (iii) atomistic modelling of photon-material interactions; (iv) simulation of the time-dependent diffraction process, including incoherent scattering; (v) assembling noisy andmore » incomplete diffraction intensities into a three-dimensional data set using the Expansion-Maximisation-Compression (EMC) algorithm and (vi) phase retrieval to obtain structural information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the framework by simulating a single-particle experiment for a nitrogenase iron protein using parameters of the SPB/SFX instrument of the European XFEL. This exercise demonstrably yields interpretable consequences for structure determination that are crucial yet currently unavailable for experiment design.« less

  17. Turbine imaging technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moursund, R. A.; Carlson, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging technologies for observing juvenile fish within a Kaplan turbine, and specifically that would enable scientists to determine mechanisms of fish injury within an operating turbine unit. This report documents the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. These observations were used to make modifications to dam structures and operations to improve conditions for fish passage while maintaining or improving hydropower production. The physical and hydraulic environment that fish experience as they pass through the hydroelectric plants were studied and the regions with the greatest potential for injury were defined. Biological response data were also studied to determine the probable types of injuries sustained in the turbine intake and what types of injuries are detectable with imaging technologies. The study grouped injury-causing mechanisms into two categories: fluid (pressure/cavitation, shear, turbulence) and mechanical (strike/collision, grinding/pinching, scraping). The physical constraints of the environment, together with the likely types of injuries to fish, provided the parameters needed for a rigorous imaging technology evaluation. Types of technology evaluated included both tracking and imaging systems using acoustic technologies (such as sonar and acoustic tags) and optic technologies (such as pulsed-laser videography, which is high-speed videography using a laser as the flash). Criteria for determining image data quality such as frame rate, target detectability, and resolution were used to quantify the minimum requirements of an imaging sensor.

  18. Enzyme-Directed Assembly of Nanoparticles in Tumors Monitored by In Vivo Whole Animal and Ex Vivo Super-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chien, Miao-Ping; Carlini, Andrea S.; Hu, Dehong; Barback, Christopher V.; Rush, Anthony M.; Hall, David J.; Orr, Galya; Gianneschi, Nathan C.

    2013-12-18

    Matrix metalloproteinase enzymes, overexpressed in HT-1080 human fibrocarcinoma tumors, were used to guide the accumulation and retention of an enzyme-responsive nanoparticle in a xenograft mouse model. The nanoparticles were prepared as micelles from amphiphilic block copolymers bearing a simple hydrophobic block, and a hydrophilic peptide brush. The polymers were end-labeled with Alexa Fluor 647 dyes leading to the formation of labeled micelles upon dialysis of the polymers from DMSO to aqueous buffer. This dye-labeling strategy allowed the presence of the retained material to be visualized via whole animal imaging in vivo, and in ex vivo organ analysis following intratumoral injection into HT-1080 xenograft tumors. We propose that the material is retained by virtue of an enzyme-induced accumulation process whereby particles change morphology from 20 nm spherical micelles to micron-scale aggregates, kinetically trapping them within the tumor. This hypothesis is tested here via an unprecedented super resolution fluorescence analysis of ex vivo tissue slices confirming a particle size increase occurs concomitantly with extended retention of responsive particles compared to unresponsive controls.

  19. Gated monochromatic x-ray imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J.A.; Archuleta, T.; Clark, L.

    1995-09-01

    We have recently developed a gated monochromatic x-ray imaging diagnostic for the national Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This new imaging system will be one of the primary diagnostics to be utilized on University of Rochester`s Omega laser fusion facility. The new diagnostic is based upon a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope dispersed by diffraction crystals, as first described by Marshall and Su. The dispersed images are gated by four individual proximity focused microchannel plates and recorded on film. Spectral coverage is tunable up to 8 keV, spectral resolution has been measured at 20 eV, temporal resolution is 80 ps, and spatial resolution is better than 10 {mu}m.

  20. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  1. Laser Roadshow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    outreach Laser Roadshow The NIF Laser Roadshow includes a number of interactive laser demonstrations (Laser Light Fountain, Laser DJ, and NIF "3D ride") that have traveled across ...

  2. Note: Design and construction of a multi-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-Ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, J. C. E.; Williams, J. J.; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-01-15

    The design and construction of a high resolution modular x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is described. The approach for meeting a specified set of performance goals tailored toward experimental versatility is highlighted. The instrument is unique in its detector and x-ray source configuration, both of which enable elevated optimization of spatial and temporal resolution. The process for component selection is provided. The selected components are specified, the custom component design discussed, and the integration of both into a fully functional XCT instrument is outlined. The novelty of this design is a new lab-scale detector and imaging optimization through x-ray source and detector modularity.

  3. Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S. Ahmed, H.; Doria, D.; Green, A.; Jung, D.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Nersisyan, G.; Krygier, A. G.; Freeman, R. R.; Clarke, R.; Green, J. S.; Notley, M.; Fernandez, J.; Fuchs, J.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M.; Morrison, J. T.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; and others

    2014-09-15

    A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C{sup 6+}, O{sup 8+}, etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser.

  4. Ultrahigh resolution multicolor colocalization of single fluorescent probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Michalet, Xavier; Lacoste, Thilo D.

    2005-01-18

    A novel optical ruler based on ultrahigh-resolution colocalization of single fluorescent probes is described. Two unique families of fluorophores are used, namely energy-transfer fluorescent beads and semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) quantum dots, that can be excited by a single laser wavelength but emit at different wavelengths. A novel multicolor sample-scanning confocal microscope was constructed which allows one to image each fluorescent light emitter, free of chromatic aberrations, by scanning the sample with nanometer scale steps using a piezo-scanner. The resulting spots are accurately localized by fitting them to the known shape of the excitation point-spread-function of the microscope.

  5. Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-06ER15835: Chemical Imaging with 100nm Spatial Resolution: Combining High Resolution Flurosecence Microscopy and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buratto, Steven K.

    2013-09-03

    We have combined, in a single instrument, high spatial resolution optical microscopy with the chemical specificity and conformational selectivity of ion mobility mass spectrometry. We discuss the design and construction of this apparatus as well as our efforts in applying this technique to thin films of molecular semiconductor materials.

  6. Image

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-08-31

    The computer side of the IMAGE project consists of a collection of Perl scripts that perform a variety of tasks; scripts are available to insert, update and delete data from the underlying Oracle database, download data from NCBI's Genbank and other sources, and generate data files for download by interested parties. Web scripts make up the tracking interface, and various tools available on the project web-site (image.llnl.gov) that provide a search interface to the database.

  7. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Print The wavelengths of soft x-ray photons (1-15 nm) are very well matched to the creation of "nanoscopes" capable of probing the interior structure of biological cells and inorganic mesoscopic systems.Topics addressed by soft x-ray imaging techniques include cell biology, nanomagnetism, environmental science, and polymers. The tunability of synchrotron radiation is absolutely essential for the creation of contrast mechanisms. Cell biology CAT scans are performed in the

  8. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Print The wavelengths of soft x-ray photons (1-15 nm) are very well matched to the creation of "nanoscopes" capable of probing the interior structure of biological cells and inorganic mesoscopic systems.Topics addressed by soft x-ray imaging techniques include cell biology, nanomagnetism, environmental science, and polymers. The tunability of synchrotron radiation is absolutely essential for the creation of contrast mechanisms. Cell biology CAT scans are performed in the

  9. High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal evolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temporal evolution of megagauss magnetic fields created in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-resolution measurements...

  10. Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for Dielectric Laser Accelerators Authors: Soong, Ken ; Byer, Robert L. ; Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. SLAC ...

  11. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  12. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  13. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  14. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  15. Laser programs highlights 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    Over the last two decades, the scope of our laser research has grown immensely. The small, low-power laser systems of our early days have given way to laser systems of record-breaking size and power. Now we are focusing our activities within the target physics and laser science programs to support the ignition and gain goals of the proposed glass-laser National Ignition Facility. In our laser isotope separation work, we completed the most important set of experiments in the history of the AVLIS Program in 1993, which culminated in a spectacularly successful run that met or exceeded all our objectives. We are also developing lasers and laser-related technologies for a variety of energy, commercial, and defense uses. On the horizon are transfers of important technologies for waste treatment, x-ray lithography, communications and security, optical imaging, and remote sensing, among others.

  16. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    11 eV laser (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This

  17. Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for Dielectric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laser Accelerators (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for Dielectric Laser Accelerators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for Dielectric Laser Accelerators Authors: Soong, Ken ; Byer, Robert L. ; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC Publication Date: 2013-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1074185 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15383 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource

  18. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamboa, E.J.; Huntington, C.M.; Trantham, M.R.; Keiter, P.A; Drake, R.P.; Montgomery, David; Benage, John F.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    2012-05-04

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  19. Quantitative imaging of turbulent and reacting flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, P.H.

    1993-12-01

    Quantitative digital imaging, using planar laser light scattering techniques is being developed for the analysis of turbulent and reacting flows. Quantitative image data, implying both a direct relation to flowfield variables as well as sufficient signal and spatial dynamic range, can be readily processed to yield two-dimensional distributions of flowfield scalars and in turn two-dimensional images of gradients and turbulence scales. Much of the development of imaging techniques to date has concentrated on understanding the requisite molecular spectroscopy and collision dynamics to be able to determine how flowfield variable information is encoded into the measured signal. From this standpoint the image is seen as a collection of single point measurements. The present effort aims at realizing necessary improvements in signal and spatial dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution in the imaging system as well as developing excitation/detection strategies which provide for a quantitative measure of particular flowfield scalars. The standard camera used for the study is an intensified CCD array operated in a conventional video format. The design of the system was based on detailed modeling of signal and image transfer properties of fast UV imaging lenses, image intensifiers and CCD detector arrays. While this system is suitable for direct scalar imaging, derived quantities (e.g. temperature or velocity images) require an exceptionally wide dynamic range imaging detector. To apply these diagnostics to reacting flows also requires a very fast shuttered camera. The authors have developed and successfully tested a new type of gated low-light level detector. This system relies on fast switching of proximity focused image-diode which is direct fiber-optic coupled to a cooled CCD array. Tests on this new detector show significant improvements in detection limit, dynamic range and spatial resolution as compared to microchannel plate intensified arrays.

  20. Nondestructive Imaging of Individual Biomolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Germann, Matthias; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2010-03-05

    Radiation damage is considered to be the major problem that still prevents imaging an individual biological molecule for structural analysis. So far, all known mapping techniques using sufficient short wavelength radiation, be it x rays or high energy electrons, circumvent this problem by averaging over many molecules. Averaging, however, leaves conformational details uncovered. Even the anticipated use of ultrashort but extremely bright x-ray bursts of a free electron laser shall afford averaging over 10{sup 6} molecules to arrive at atomic resolution. Here, we present direct experimental evidence for nondestructive imaging of individual DNA molecules. In fact, we show that DNA withstands coherent low energy electron radiation with deBroglie wavelength in the Angstrom regime despite a vast dose of 10{sup 8} electrons/nm{sup 2} accumulated over more than one hour.

  1. OCDR guided laser ablation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dasilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A guided laser ablation device. The device includes a mulitmode laser ablation fiber that is surrounded by one or more single mode optical fibers that are used to image in the vicinity of the laser ablation area to prevent tissue damage. The laser ablation device is combined with an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) unit and with a control unit which initializes the OCDR unit and a high power laser of the ablation device. Data from the OCDR unit is analyzed by the control unit and used to control the high power laser. The OCDR images up to about 3 mm ahead of the ablation surface to enable a user to see sensitive tissue such as a nerve or artery before damaging it by the laser.

  2. Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha. X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugland, Nathan; Doeppner, Tilo; Glenzer, Siegfried; Constantin, Carmen; Niemann, Chris; Neumayer, Paul

    2015-04-07

    A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak reflectivity, reflection curve width, and Bragg angle offset) of the K.alpha. emission line reflected narrowly off angle of the direct reflection of a bent crystal and in particular of a spherically bent quartz 200 crystal by analyzing the off-angle x-ray emission from a stronger emission line reflected at angles far from normal incidence. The bent quartz crystal can therefore accurately image argon K.alpha. x-rays at near-normal incidence (Bragg angle of approximately 81 degrees). The method is useful for in-situ calibration of instruments employing the crystal as a grating by first operating the crystal as a high throughput focusing monochromator on the Rowland circle at angles far from normal incidence (Bragg angle approximately 68 degrees) to make a reflection curve with the He-like x-rays such as the He-.alpha. emission line observed from a laser-excited plasma.

  3. Optimization of La{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} complex oxide laser ablation conditions by plume imaging and optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoruso, S.; Bruzzese, R.; Scotti di Uccio, U.; Aruta, C.; Granozio, F. Miletto; Wang, X.; Maccariello, D.; Maritato, L.; Orgiani, P.

    2010-08-15

    The properties of thin films of complex oxides, such as La{sub 1-x}D{sub x}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} (D=Ba, Ca, Sr, etc.), produced by pulsed laser deposition depend critically on the experimental parameters in which laser ablation is carried out. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the pulsed laser ablation process of La{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3-{delta}}, in oxygen background, in the ambient pressure range from 10{sup -2} to 1 mbar, typically employed in pulsed laser deposition of manganites. The laser ablation plume was studied by using time-gated imaging and optical emission spectroscopy techniques. It was found that at a pressure of {approx_equal}10{sup -2} mbar, the plume species arriving at the substrate are characterized by hyperthermal kinetic energy ({approx_equal}10 eV), and high degree of excitation. On the contrary, at larger oxygen pressure (0.1-1 mbar), the velocity of plume species reaching the substrate, and their degree of excitation are much reduced by the confining effects of the background gas. These features explain why an appropriate choice of the experimental conditions in which the deposition process is carried out leads to better quality films, providing helpful indications to improve control over the growth process of both La{sub 1-x}D{sub x}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} and other perovskitic oxides.

  4. Device for translating negative film image to a line scan

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, G.W.

    1998-05-19

    A negative film reader records high-resolution optical density changes across negative film radiographic images to allow precise image dimensions to be determined. A laser light source capable of high-resolution focusing is passed through an intensity control filter, focused by a lens, and reflected off a mirror to focus in the plane of the negative film. The light transmitted through the film is collected by a second lens and directed to a photo diode detector which senses the transmitted intensity. The output of the photo diode signal amplifier is sent to the Y-axis input of an X-Y recorder. The film sample is transported in a plane perpendicular to the beam axis by means of a slide. The film position is monitored, with the signal amplified and recorded as the X-axis on the X-Y recorder. The linear dimensions and positions of image components can be determined by direct measurement of the amplified recording.

  5. Image plates as x-ray detectors in plasma physics experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gales, S.G.; Bentley, C.D.

    2004-10-01

    The performance of image plates based on the photostimulable phosphor BaF(Br,l):Eu{sup 2+} has been investigated and compared with x-ray film. Evaluation of detective quantum efficiency (DQE), sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity was carried out for several types of commercially available image plate, using the Excalibur soft x-ray calibration facility at AWE. Image plate response was found to be linear over a dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude. One type of image plate was found to have a number of advantages for soft x-ray detection, with a measured sensitivity 1 order of magnitude greater than that of Kodak Industrex CX and DEF-5 x-ray film. The DQE of this plate was found to be superior to that of film at low [less than 10{sup 3} photons/(50 {mu}m){sup 2}] and high fluxes [greater than 10{sup 4} photons/(50 {mu}m){sup 2}]. The spatial resolution of image plates, scanned with several models of commercial image plate readers, has been evaluated using a USAF resolution test target. The highest spatial resolution measured is 35 {mu}m. Though this is significantly lower than the resolution possible with film, it is sufficient for many applications. Image plates were fielded in a refractive x-ray lens imaging diagnostic on the 1 TW Helen laser and these results are discussed.

  6. Development of the large neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Kime, S.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.

    2012-03-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a high resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m) neutron imaging system to observe deuterium and tritium (DT) core implosion asymmetries. A new large (150 mm entrance diameter: scaled for Laser MegaJoule [P. A. Holstein, F. Chaland, C. Charpin, J. M. Dufour, H. Dumont, J. Giorla, L. Hallo, S. Laffite, G. Malinie, Y. Saillard, G. Schurtz, M. Vandenboomgaerde, and F. Wagon, Laser and Particle Beams 17, 403 (1999)]) neutron imaging detector has been developed for such ICF experiments. The detector has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. A penumbral aperture was used to observe DT-gas-filled target implosions performed on the OMEGA laser facility. [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] Neutron core images of 14 MeV with a resolution of 15 {mu}m were obtained and are compared to x-ray images of comparable resolution.

  7. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  8. Ultrabright Laser-based MeV-class Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert, F; Anderson, G; Anderson, S; Bayramian, A; Berry, B; Betts, S; Dawson, J; Ebbers, C; Gibson, D; Hagmann, C; Hall, J; Hartemann, F; Hartouni, E; Heebner, J; Hernandez, J; Johnson, M; Messerly, M; McNabb, D; Phan, H; Pruet, J; Semenov, V; Shverdin, M; Sridharan, A; Tremaine, A; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2008-04-02

    We report first light from a novel, new source of 10-ps 0.776-MeV gamma-ray pulses known as T-REX (Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-rays). The MeV-class radiation produced by TREX is unique in the world with respect to its brightness, spectral purity, tunability, pulse duration and laser-like beam character. With T-REX, one can use photons to efficiently probe and excite the isotope-dependent resonant structure of atomic nucleus. This ability will be enabling to an entirely new class of isotope-specific, high resolution imaging and detection capabilities.

  9. Laser-induced metallic nanograined thin films processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosa, Nicoleta E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro; Toadere, Florin E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro; Hojbota, Calin E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro; Tosa, Valer E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro

    2013-11-13

    A direct laser writing method for designing metallic nanograined thin films is presented. This method takes advantage of photon conversion within a chemical process localized at the focal point. A computer controlled positioning system allows the control of experimental parameters and spatial resolution of the pattern. Spectroscopic investigations reveal variable attenuation of the optical properties in UV-visible range and a spectral imaging processing algorithm simulated the functionality of these films in visible light. This could be an important step for obtaining neutral density attenuators.

  10. Investigation of microscale shock phenomena using a line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trott, Wayne M.; Asay, James R.

    1998-07-10

    An optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) can be operated in a line-imaging configuration that effectively combines subnanosecond temporal resolution with high spatial resolution (length scales<10 {mu}m). This technique easily captures very small temporal variations in the onset of motion across the face of a small-scale (400-{mu}m diameter) laser-driven flyer. In another application, line-imaging ORVIS has been used to obtain spatially resolved particle velocity vs. time information at flyer impact on a lithium fluoride witness plate. Subnanosecond differences in flyer arrival time are clearly resolved and the results also show subtle amplitude variations in the pulse delivered at different locations of the acceptor. Observed velocity field variations in laser acceleration of a patterned flyer target demonstrate the feasibility of using line ORVIS in studies of instability formation and growth. These results indicate that this diagnostic can be applied to a wide variety of shock phenomena.

  11. Spatial resolution of diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickens, T.A.; Winbow, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Diffraction tomography is an imaging technique applicable to crosshole seismic data and aimed at achieving optimal spatial resolution away from the borehole. In principle the method can form acoustic images equivalent to extending acoustic well logs away from the wellbore and into the formation with a spatial resolution less than one wavelength of the radiation employed to gather the crosshole data. This paper reports on the capability of diffraction tomography to produce high-resolution reconstructions of simple targets from limited-view-angle data. The goal is to quantify the resolution and velocity-reconstruction capability of diffraction tomography with realistic source{endash}receiver geometries. Simple targets (disks and low-contrast sequences of layers) are used for this study. The scattering from these targets can be calculated without approximation, making them ideal test cases for the algorithm. The resolution capability of diffraction tomography is determined to be on the order of one wavelength for several experimental geometries. It is shown that the image-formation characteristics of diffraction tomography, in terms of its ability to determine object boundaries and velocities, are closely related to the experimental geometry. Reflection and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) experiments tend to reproduce boundaries well, while crosshole experiments give the best overall reconstruction of both target boundaries and velocity. The quantitative accuracy of the velocity reconstruction depends upon the match between the spatial-frequency content of the object and the spatial-frequency response of the algorithm. For some targets, the velocity cannot be correctly reproduced from limited-view-angle data. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  12. Method and apparatus for coherent imaging of infrared energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Donald P.

    1998-01-01

    A coherent camera system performs ranging, spectroscopy, and thermal imaging. Local oscillator radiation is combined with target scene radiation to enable heterodyne detection by the coherent camera's two-dimensional photodetector array. Versatility enables deployment of the system in either a passive mode (where no laser energy is actively transmitted toward the target scene) or an active mode (where a transmitting laser is used to actively illuminate the target scene). The two-dimensional photodetector array eliminates the need to mechanically scan the detector. Each element of the photodetector array produces an intermediate frequency signal that is amplified, filtered, and rectified by the coherent camera's integrated circuitry. By spectroscopic examination of the frequency components of each pixel of the detector array, a high-resolution, three-dimensional or holographic image of the target scene is produced for applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric disturbance monitoring, and military weapons targeting.

  13. Method and apparatus for coherent imaging of infrared energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1998-05-12

    A coherent camera system performs ranging, spectroscopy, and thermal imaging. Local oscillator radiation is combined with target scene radiation to enable heterodyne detection by the coherent camera`s two-dimensional photodetector array. Versatility enables deployment of the system in either a passive mode (where no laser energy is actively transmitted toward the target scene) or an active mode (where a transmitting laser is used to actively illuminate the target scene). The two-dimensional photodetector array eliminates the need to mechanically scan the detector. Each element of the photodetector array produces an intermediate frequency signal that is amplified, filtered, and rectified by the coherent camera`s integrated circuitry. By spectroscopic examination of the frequency components of each pixel of the detector array, a high-resolution, three-dimensional or holographic image of the target scene is produced for applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric disturbance monitoring, and military weapons targeting. 8 figs.

  14. Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat April 10, 2006 Free-Electron Laser Scientists Rox Anderson, right, and Free-Electron Laser Scientist Steve Benson, left, discuss laser beam parameters while conducting the experiment on pig fat. Image courtesy: Greg Adams, Jefferson Lab Boston, Mass. - Fat may have finally met its match: laser light. Researchers at the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School and the Department of

  15. A new compact, high sensitivity neutron imaging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Park, H. S.; Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P.

    2012-10-15

    We have developed a new small neutron imaging system (SNIS) diagnostic for the OMEGA laser facility. The SNIS uses a penumbral coded aperture and has been designed to record images from low yield (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} neutrons) implosions such as those using deuterium as the fuel. This camera was tested at OMEGA in 2009 on a rugby hohlraum energetics experiment where it recorded an image at a yield of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}. The resolution of this image was 54 {mu}m and the camera was located only 4 meters from target chamber centre. We recently improved the instrument by adding a cooled CCD camera. The sensitivity of the new camera has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. The calibration showed that the signal-to-noise ratio could be improved by using raw binning detection.

  16. Laser Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Facilities Current Schedule of Experiments Operation Schedule Janus Titan Europa COMET Facility Floorplan

  17. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  18. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  19. Range determination for scannerless imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muguira, Maritza Rosa; Sackos, John Theodore; Bradley, Bart Davis; Nellums, Robert

    2000-01-01

    A new method of operating a scannerless range imaging system (e.g., a scannerless laser radar) has been developed. This method is designed to compensate for nonlinear effects which appear in many real-world components. The system operates by determining the phase shift of the laser modulation, which is a physical quantity related physically to the path length between the laser source and the detector, for each pixel of an image.

  20. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. The beam from the excitation light source is split with a portion of it going to the ignitor laser and a second portion of it being recombined with the first portion after a delay before injection into the ignitor laser. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones.

  1. Near-electrode imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Woelk, Klaus; Gerald, II, Rex E.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager uses the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

  2. Laser Faraday

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    published 1 October 2004) Far-infrared laser polarimetry with time response up to 1 ... Recently, a new high-speed laser polarimeter system 1 has been developed on the Madison ...

  3. Laser microphone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2000-11-14

    A microphone for detecting sound pressure waves includes a laser resonator having a laser gain material aligned coaxially between a pair of first and second mirrors for producing a laser beam. A reference cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors for transmitting a reference portion of the laser beam between the mirrors. A sensing cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors, and is laterally displaced from the reference cell for transmitting a signal portion of the laser beam, with the sensing cell being open for receiving the sound waves. A photodetector is disposed in optical communication with the first mirror for receiving the laser beam, and produces an acoustic signal therefrom for the sound waves.

  4. Two-bent-crystal schemes for monochromatic x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foerster, E.; Chang, W.Z.; Dirksmoeller, M.

    1995-12-31

    For monochromatic imaging applications the advantages of combining two bent crystals in one system are demonstrated in comparison to a single crystal. The investigation shows that considerable improvements in resolution and spectral selectivity can be achieved by successive reflections from two bent crystals. The x-ray imaging device can be designed to a compact optical device mounted with the detector to a single port of the experimental chamber. This type of arrangement is of particular interest to large laser facilities such as those at LLNL, ILE and CEA where a high X-ray photon flux is available but the space available for diagnostics is restricted. A design for an experimental setup planned for imaging of indirect driven fusion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will be discussed here as an example. In general, improvements of spatial resolution by a factor of about 4 and spectral selectivity by a factor of about 10 can be achieved.

  5. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2004-01-13

    Sequenced pulses of light from an excitation laser with at least two resonator cavities with separate output couplers are directed through a light modulator and a first polarzing analyzer. A portion of the light not rejected by the first polarizing analyzer is transported through a first optical fiber into a first ignitor laser rod in an ignitor laser. Another portion of the light is rejected by the first polarizing analyzer and directed through a halfwave plate into a second polarization analyzer. A first portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer passes through the second polarization analyzer to a second, oscillator, laser rod in the ignitor laser. A second portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer is redirected by the second polarization analyzer to a second optical fiber which delays the beam before the beam is combined with output of the first ignitor laser rod. Output of the second laser rod in the ignitor laser is directed into the first ignitor laser rod which was energized by light passing through the first polarizing analyzer. Combined output of the first ignitor laser rod and output of the second optical fiber is focused into a combustible fuel where the first short duration, high peak power pulse from the ignitor laser ignites the fuel and the second long duration, low peak power pulse directly from the excitation laser sustains the combustion.

  6. Imaging doppler lidar for wind turbine wake profiling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bossert, David J.

    2015-11-19

    An imaging Doppler lidar (IDL) enables the measurement of the velocity distribution of a large volume, in parallel, and at high spatial resolution in the wake of a wind turbine. Because the IDL is non-scanning, it can be orders of magnitude faster than conventional coherent lidar approaches. Scattering can be obtained from naturally occurring aerosol particles. Furthermore, the wind velocity can be measured directly from Doppler shifts of the laser light, so the measurement can be accomplished at large standoff and at wide fields-of-view.

  7. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lianjie

    2012-07-09

    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  8. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaffer, Franklin D. (Library, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.

  9. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2003-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In a third embodiment, alternating short and long pulses of light from the excitation light source are directed into the ignitor laser. Each of the embodiments of the invention can be multiplexed so as to provide laser light energy sequentially to more than one ignitor laser.

  10. Approaching attometer laser vibrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rembe, Christian; Kadner, Lisa; Giesen, Moritz

    2014-05-27

    The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of RF-MEM resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in nowadays systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of a very tiny structure. Thus, noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only possible path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity amplification of our approach.

  11. Acquisition Conflict Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conflict Resolution At the option of the Supplier, a concern may be brought to the Ombuds Office or may be taken to the Internal Conflict Resolution Process Supplier Concern Internal Resolution Primary Discussion Escalation Steps Senior Review Process Special Assistant Senior Review Group Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-

  12. Dispute Resolution Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is any technique for resolving disputes without resorting to litigation in either an administrative or judicial forum.

  13. Conflict Resolution Day

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Conflict Resolution Day takes a look at mediation, conciliation, negotiation, arbitration, the ombudsman, and facilitation to resolve conflict in the workplace. Employees and contractors are...

  14. Video image position determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Wynn; Anderson, Forrest L.; Kortegaard, Birchard L.

    1991-01-01

    An optical beam position controller in which a video camera captures an image of the beam in its video frames, and conveys those images to a processing board which calculates the centroid coordinates for the image. The image coordinates are used by motor controllers and stepper motors to position the beam in a predetermined alignment. In one embodiment, system noise, used in conjunction with Bernoulli trials, yields higher resolution centroid coordinates.

  15. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinn, Diane; Stolz, Christopher J.; Wu, Zhouling; Huber, Robert; Weinzapfel, Carolyn

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  16. Which Bulb Is Right for You? (Low-Resolution JPG Billboard) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Low-Resolution JPG Billboard) Which Bulb Is Right for You? (Low-Resolution JPG Billboard) Low-resolution JPG of billboard reading, 'Which bulb is right for you? Save energy, save money. Energysaver.gov. Image icon DoE_Billboard_Which_Bulb_web.jpg More Documents & Publications Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution EPS Billboard) Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (Low-Resolution

  17. Protective laser beam viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neil, George R.; Jordan, Kevin Carl

    2012-12-18

    A protective laser beam viewing system or device including a camera selectively sensitive to laser light wavelengths and a viewing screen receiving images from the laser sensitive camera. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the camera is worn on the head of the user or incorporated into a goggle-type viewing display so that it is always aimed at the area of viewing interest to the user and the viewing screen is incorporated into a video display worn as goggles over the eyes of the user.

  18. Continuous wave laser irradiation of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative measurements of the levels of continuous wave (CW) laser light that can be safely applied to bare explosives during contact operations were obtained at 532 nm, 785 nm, and 1550 nm wavelengths. A thermal camera was used to record the temperature of explosive pressed pellets and single crystals while they were irradiated using a measured laser power and laser spot size. A visible light image of the sample surface was obtained before and after the laser irradiation. Laser irradiation thresholds were obtained for the onset of any visible change to the explosive sample and for the onset of any visible chemical reaction. Deflagration to detonation transitions were not observed using any of these CW laser wavelengths on single crystals or pressed pellets in the unconfined geometry tested. Except for the photochemistry of DAAF, TATB and PBX 9502, all reactions appeared to be thermal using a 532 nm wavelength laser. For a 1550 nm wavelength laser, no photochemistry was evident, but the laser power thresholds for thermal damage in some of the materials were significantly lower than for the 532 nm laser wavelength. No reactions were observed in any of the studied explosives using the available 300 mW laser at 785 nm wavelength. Tables of laser irradiance damage and reaction thresholds are presented for pressed pellets of PBX9501, PBX9502, Composition B, HMX, TATB, RDX, DAAF, PETN, and TNT and single crystals of RDX, HMX, and PETN for each of the laser wavelengths.

  19. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In the embodiment of the invention claimed herein, the beam from the excitation light source is split with a portion of it going to the ignitor laser and a second portion of it being combined with either the first portion after a delay before injection into the ignitor laser.

  20. Target isolation system, high power laser and laser peening method and system using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Harris, Fritz

    2007-11-06

    A system for applying a laser beam to work pieces, includes a laser system producing a high power output beam. Target delivery optics are arranged to deliver the output beam to a target work piece. A relay telescope having a telescope focal point is placed in the beam path between the laser system and the target delivery optics. The relay telescope relays an image between an image location near the output of the laser system and an image location near the target delivery optics. A baffle is placed at the telescope focal point between the target delivery optics and the laser system to block reflections from the target in the target delivery optics from returning to the laser system and causing damage.

  1. A multipurpose TIM-based optical telescope for Omega and the Trident laser facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J.A.; Murphy, T.J.; Berggren, R.R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors have recently designed and are building a telescope which acts as an imaging light collector relaying the image to an optical table for experiment dependent analysis and recording. The expected primary use of this instrument is a streaked optical pyrometer for witness plate measurements of Hohlraum drive temperature. The telescope is based on University of Rochester`s Ten-Inch Manipulator (TIM) which allows compatibility between Omega, Trident, and the NIF lasers. The optics capture a f/7 cone of light, have a field of view of 6-mm, have a spatial resolution of 5 to 7-{micro}m per line pair at the object plane, and are optimized for operation at 280-nm. The image is at a magnification of 11.7x, which is convenient for many experiments, but can be changed using additional optics that reside outside the TIM.

  2. Multipurpose 10 in. manipulator-based optical telescope for Omega and the Trident laser facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J.A.; Murphy, T.J.; Berggren, R.R.; Faulkner, J.; Schmell, R.; Little, D.; Archuleta, T.; Lopez, J.; Velarde, J.; Horton, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    We have recently designed and are building a telescope which acts as an imaging light collector relaying the image to an optical table for experiment dependent analysis and recording. The expected primary use of this instrument is a streaked optical pyrometer for witness plate measurements of the hohlraum drive temperature. The telescope is based on the University of Rochester{close_quote}s 10 in. manipulator (TIM) which allows compatibility between Omega, Trident, and the NIF lasers. The optics capture a f/7 cone of light, have a field of view of 6 mm, have a spatial resolution of 5{endash}7 {mu}m per line pair at the object plane, and are optimized for operation at 280 nm. The image is at a magnification of 11.7{times}, which is convenient for many experiments, but can be changed using additional optics that reside outside the TIM. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Spatial resolution and the geologic interpretation of Martian morphology - implications for subsurface volatiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimbelman, J.R.

    1987-08-01

    Viking Orbiter images of the Acheron Fossae on Mars are presented and analyzed, with an emphasis on the impact of image resolution on the interpretation. High-resolution (less than 10 m/pixel) images reveal small mounds which can be interpreted as aeolian dunes, but these features are not evident on images with resolution of 50 m/pixel or greater. Also reported are the results of a visual inspection of 527 usable high-resolution images: it is found that all of the morphological features identified can arise in the absence of subsurface volatiles. 21 references.

  4. Fiber Lasers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fiber Lasers NIF & Photon Science physicists are exploring the fundamental limits of traditional round fiber structure and developing alternate solutions to allow scaling to higher powers and pulse energies. Comprehensive models of ribbon fiber structures, or waveguides, are also being developed. The goal is to develop ribbon fiber lasers that can amplify light beams to powers well beyond fundamental limits. Joint research efforts with the Lasers and Optics Research Center at the U.S. Air

  5. Laser apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Owen; Stogran, Edmund M.

    1980-01-01

    Laser apparatus is described wherein an active laser element, such as the disc of a face-pumped laser, is mounted in a housing such that the weight of the element is supported by glass spheres which fill a chamber defined in the housing between the walls of the housing and the edges of the laser element. The uniform support provided by the spheres enable the chamber and the pump side of the laser element to be sealed without affecting the alignment or other optical properties of the laser element. Cooling fluid may be circulated through the sealed region by way of the interstices between the spheres. The spheres, and if desired also the cooling fluid may contain material which absorbs radiation at the wavelength of parasitic emissions from the laser element. These parasitic emissions enter the spheres through the interface along the edge surface of the laser element and it is desirable that the index of refraction of the spheres and cooling fluid be near the index of refraction of the laser element. Thus support, cooling, and parasitic suppression functions are all accomplished through the use of the arrangement.

  6. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source capable of producing alternating beams of light having different wavelengths is used in tandem with one or more ignitor lasers to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using the single remote excitation light source for pumping one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones with alternating wavelengths of light.

  7. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  8. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

  9. Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-11-25

    AXSIA performs automated factor analysis of hyperspectral images. In such images, a complete spectrum is collected an each point in a 1-, 2- or 3- dimensional spatial array. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques have proven effective for extracting the essential information from high dimensional data sets into a limtedmore » number of factors that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the pure components comprising the sample. AXSIA provides tools to estimate different types of factor models including Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), PCA with factor rotation, and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR-ALS). As part of the analysis process, AXSIA can automatically estimate the number of pure components that comprise the data and can scale the data to account for Poisson noise. The data analysis methods are fundamentally based on eigenanalysis of the data crossproduct matrix coupled with orthogonal eigenvector rotation and constrained alternating least squares refinement. A novel method for automatically determining the number of significant components, which is based on the eigenvalues of the crossproduct matrix, has also been devised and implemented. The data can be compressed spectrally via PCA and spatially through wavelet transforms, and algorithms have been developed that perform factor analysis in the transform domain while retaining full spatial and spectral resolution in the final result. These latter innovations enable the analysis of larger-than core-memory spectrum-images. AXSIA was designed to perform automated chemical phase analysis of spectrum-images acquired by a variety of chemical imaging techniques. Successful applications include Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy.« less

  10. 'Erratic' Lasers Pave Way for Tabletop Accelerators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lasers Pave Way for Tabletop Accelerators 'Erratic' Lasers Pave Way for Tabletop Accelerators Simulations at NERSC help researchers simplify design of mini particle accelerators June 9, 2014 Kate Green, KGreene@lbl.gov, 510-486-4404 laserplasmaaccelerator 3D map of the longitudinal wakefield generated by the incoherent combination of 208 low-energy laser beamlets. In the region behind the driver, the wakefield is regular. Image: Carlo Benedetti, Berkeley Lab Making a tabletop particle

  11. Lensless imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures by X-ray Spectro-Holography J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter and J. Stöhr (SSRL) The unprecedented properties of X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) under development world wide will open the door for entirely new classes of experiments. The ultra-short time structure of the ultra-bright x-ray pulses will revolutionize the field of femtosecond x-ray science, since it will become possible to obtain sufficient information about a system from probing it

  12. Heterodyne laser spectroscopy system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A heterodyne laser spectroscopy system utilizes laser heterodyne techniques for purposes of laser isotope separation spectroscopy, vapor diagnostics, processing of precise laser frequency offsets from a reference frequency and the like, and provides spectral analysis of a laser beam.

  13. Heterodyne laser spectroscopy system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A heterodyne laser spectroscopy system utilizes laser heterodyne techniques for purposes of laser isotope separation spectroscopy, vapor diagnostics, processing of precise laser frequency offsets from a reference frequency, and provides spectral analysis of a laser beam.

  14. Active imaging system with Faraday filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, J.J.

    1993-04-13

    An active imaging system has a low to medium powered laser transmitter and receiver wherein the receiver includes a Faraday filter with an ultranarrow optical bandpass and a bare (nonintensified) CCD camera. The laser is locked in the vicinity of the passband of the Faraday filter. The system has high sensitivity to the laser illumination while eliminating solar background.

  15. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  16. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  17. Ablative Laser Propulsion: An Update, Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.; Lin Jun; Thompson, M. Shane

    2004-03-30

    This paper presents an updated review of studies on Ablative Laser Propulsion conducted by the Laser Propulsion Group (LPG) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. In particular, we describe the experimental technique developed for determination of specific impulses from plasma plume imaging with an intensified CCD camera.

  18. Analysis of Picosecond Pulsed Laser Melted Graphite

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Malvezzi, A. M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-12-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm{sup -1} and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm{sup -1}, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nanosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  19. Laser device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2008-08-19

    A laser device includes a virtual source configured to aim laser energy that originates from a true source. The virtual source has a vertical rotational axis during vertical motion of the virtual source and the vertical axis passes through an exit point from which the laser energy emanates independent of virtual source position. The emanating laser energy is collinear with an orientation line. The laser device includes a virtual source manipulation mechanism that positions the virtual source. The manipulation mechanism has a center of lateral pivot approximately coincident with a lateral index and a center of vertical pivot approximately coincident with a vertical index. The vertical index and lateral index intersect at an index origin. The virtual source and manipulation mechanism auto align the orientation line through the index origin during virtual source motion.

  20. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trosseille, C. Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C.; Beck, T.; Gazave, J.

    2014-11-15

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  1. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for high energy density physics and light source experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically

  2. 7 Resolution in Protein 2-Dimentional-Crystal X-Ray Diffraction at Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedrini, Bill; Tsai, Ching-Ju; Capitani, Guido; Padeste, Celestino; Hunter, Mark; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Barty, Anton; Benner, Henry; Boutet, Sebastien; Feld, Geoffrey K.; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Kirian, Rick; Kupitz, Christopher; Messerschmidt, Marc; Ogren, John I.; Pardini, Tommaso; Segelke, Brent; Williams, Garth J.; Spence , John C.; Abela, Rafael; Coleman, Matthew A.; Evans, James E.; Schertler, Gebhard; Frank, Matthias; Li, Xiao-Dan

    2014-06-09

    Membrane proteins arranged as two-dimensional (2D) crystals in the lipid en- vironment provide close-to-physiological structural information, which is essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms of protein function. X-ray diffraction from individual 2D crystals did not represent a suitable investigation tool because of radiation damage. The recent availability of ultrashort pulses from X-ray Free Electron Lasers (X-FELs) has now provided a mean to outrun the damage. Here we report on measurements performed at the LCLS X-FEL on bacteriorhodopsin 2D crystals mounted on a solid support and kept at room temperature. By merg- ing data from about a dozen of single crystal diffraction images, we unambiguously identified the diffraction peaks to a resolution of 7 A, thus improving the observable resolution with respect to that achievable from a single pattern alone. This indicates that a larger dataset will allow for reliable quantification of peak intensities, and in turn a corresponding increase of resolution. The presented results pave the way to further X-FEL studies on 2D crystals, which may include pump-probe experiments at subpicosecond time resolution.

  3. Video Toroid Cavity Imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2004-08-10

    A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.

  4. Wall and laser spot motion in cylindrical hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, G.; Courtois, C.; Monteil, M.-C.

    2009-03-15

    Wall and laser spot motion measurements in empty, propane-filled and plastic (CH)-lined gold coated cylindrical hohlraums were performed on the Omega laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Wall motion was measured using axial two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging and laser spot motion was perpendicularly observed through a thinned wall using streaked hard x-ray imaging. Experimental results and 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that while empty targets exhibit on-axis plasma collision, CH-lined and propane-filled targets inhibit wall expansion, corroborated with perpendicular streaked imaging showing a slower motion of laser spots.

  5. Explosive laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Davis, W.C.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to a laser system wherein reaction products from the detonation of a condensed explosive expand to form a gaseous medium with low translational temperature but high vibration population. Thermal pumping of the upper laser level and de-excitation of the lower laser level occur during the expansion, resulting in a population inversion. The expansion may be free or through a nozzle as in a gas-dynamic configuration. In one preferred embodiment, the explosive is such that its reaction products are CO$sub 2$ and other species that are beneficial or at least benign to CO$sub 2$ lasing. (auth)

  6. Laser goniometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fairer, George M.; Boernge, James M.; Harris, David W.; Campbell, DeWayne A.; Tuttle, Gene E.; McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1993-01-01

    The laser goniometer is an apparatus which permits an operator to sight along a geologic feature and orient a collimated lamer beam to match the attitude of the feature directly. The horizontal orientation (strike) and the angle from horizontal (dip), are detected by rotary incremental encoders attached to the laser goniometer which provide a digital readout of the azimuth and tilt of the collimated laser beam. A microprocessor then translates the square wave signal encoder outputs into an ASCII signal for use by data recording equipment.

  7. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norbert, Massie A.; Yale, Oster

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  8. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norbert, M.A.; Yale, O.

    1992-04-28

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 15 figs.

  9. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominguez, Daniel Peralta, Luis Grave de; Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  10. Laser applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelson, M.C. )

    1989-11-01

    The breadth of current applications of laser technology is described. It is used as the basis for extrapolating to future application in such activities as AVLIS, SIS, ICP-MS, and RIMs.

  11. Short-Pulse Lasers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Short-Pulse Lasers NIF Petawatt Laser Is on Track to Completion The National Ignition Facility's Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC), a petawatt-class laser with peak power ...

  12. X-ray microtomography and laser ablation in the analysis of ink distribution in coated paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myllys, M.; Hkknen, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J.; Backfolk, K.; Sirvi, P.; Timonen, J.

    2015-04-14

    A novel method was developed for studying the ink-paper interface and the structural variations of a deposited layer of ink. Combining high-resolution x-ray tomography with laser ablation, the depth profile of ink (toner), i.e., its varying thickness, could be determined in a paper substrate. X-ray tomography was used to produce the 3D structure of paper with about 1??m spatial resolution. Laser ablation combined with optical imaging was used to produce the 3D structure of the printed layer of ink on top of that paper with about 70?nm depth resolution. Ablation depth was calibrated with an optical profilometer. It can be concluded that a toner layer on a light-weight-coated paper substrate was strongly perturbed by protruding fibers of the base paper. Such fibers together with the surface topography of the base paper seem to be the major factors that control the leveling of toner and its penetration into a thinly coated paper substrate.

  13. Radiology utilizing a gas multiwire detector with resolution enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Majewski, Lucasz A.

    1999-09-28

    This invention relates to a process and apparatus for obtaining filmless, radiological, digital images utilizing a gas multiwire detector. Resolution is enhanced through projection geometry. This invention further relates to imaging systems for X-ray examination of patients or objects, and is particularly suited for mammography.

  14. Jitter debugging two laser experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, D.M.; Hackett, P.A.; Willis, C.

    1982-03-01

    A method to overcome the problem of timing jitter in two laser experiments is described. The technique involves the use of a time-to-pulse height converter to measure the interpulse separation and a data acquisition system capable of recording this and other experimental parameters on a shot-to-shot basis. The method is estimated to be useful in measurement systems with resolution down to 10 ps.

  15. Soft x-ray submicron imaging detector based on point defects in LiF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldacchini, G.; Bollanti, S.; Bonfigli, F.; Flora, F.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Lai, A.; Marolo, T.; Montereali, R.M.; Murra, D.; Faenov, A.; Pikuz, T.; Nichelatti, E.; Tomassetti, G.; Reale, A.; Reale, L.; Ritucci, A.; Limongi, T.; Palladino, L.; Francucci, M.; Martellucci, S.

    2005-11-15

    The use of lithium fluoride (LiF) crystals and films as imaging detectors for EUV and soft-x-ray radiation is discussed. The EUV or soft-x-ray radiation can generate stable color centers, emitting in the visible spectral range an intense fluorescence from the exposed areas. The high dynamic response of the material to the received dose and the atomic scale of the color centers make this detector extremely interesting for imaging at a spatial resolution which can be much smaller than the light wavelength. Experimental results of contact microscopy imaging of test meshes demonstrate a resolution of the order of 400 nm. This high spatial resolution has been obtained in a wide field of view, up to several mm{sup 2}. Images obtained on different biological samples, as well as an investigation of a soft x-ray laser beam are presented. The behavior of the generated color centers density as a function of the deposited x-ray dose and the advantages of this new diagnostic technique for both coherent and noncoherent EUV sources, compared with CCDs detectors, photographic films, and photoresists are discussed.

  16. Imaging bolometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wurden, Glen A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Radiation-hard, steady-state imaging bolometer. A bolometer employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber of plasma radiation in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry is described. The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils from which the absorbing matrix is fabricated by using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. The resulting design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with approximately 100 Hz time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data will be measured via an IR camera. The resulting spatial data may be used to tomographically investigate the profile of plasmas.

  17. Imaging bolometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wurden, G.A.

    1999-01-19

    Radiation-hard, steady-state imaging bolometer is disclosed. A bolometer employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber of plasma radiation in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry is described. The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils from which the absorbing matrix is fabricated by using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. The resulting design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with approximately 100 Hz time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data will be measured via an IR camera. The resulting spatial data may be used to tomographically investigate the profile of plasmas. 2 figs.

  18. Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of Thick Section Ni-base Alloys Advanced Modeling and Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debroy, Tarasankar; Palmer, Todd; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-21

    Hybrid laser-arc welding of nickel-base alloys can increase productivity and decrease costs during construction and repair of critical components in nuclear power plants. However, laser and hybrid welding of nickel-base alloys is not well understood. This project sought to understand the physical processes during hybrid welding necessary to fabricate quality joints in Alloy 690, a Ni- Cr-Fe alloy. This document presents a summary of the data and results collected over the course of the project. The supporting documents are a collection of the research that has been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals along with a report from the partner at the national lab. Understanding the solidification behavior of Alloy 690 is important for knowing the final properties of the weldment. A study was undertaken to calculate the solidification parameters, such as temperature gradient, solidification rate, and cooling rate in Alloy 690 welds. With this information and measured cell and dendrite arm spacings, an Alloy 690 map was constructed to guide process parameter development and interpret fusion zones in later hybrid welds. This research is contained in Solidification Map of a Nickel Base Alloy. The keyhole formed under high laser intensity gives the hybrid welding technique the greater penetration depths compared to arc welding. However, keyhole behavior can form defects in the material, so knowing transient keyhole characteristics is important. With international collaborators, a study was undertaken to validate a new process monitoring tool known as inline coherent imaging (ICI), which is able to measure the keyhole depth with spatial and temporal resolutions on the order of 10 microns and 10 microseconds. ICI was validated for five alloy systems, including Alloy 690. Additionally, the keyhole growth rates at the start of welding were measured with unprecedented accuracy. This research is contained in Real Time Monitoring of Laser Beam Welding Keyhole Depth by Laser Interferometry. During full penetration welding of thick sections, root defects can form, which result in unacceptable weld quality. A study was undertaken to determine the competing forces in root defect formation by independently changing the weight forces and surface tension forces. The weight force was altered by changing the plate thickness, and the surface tension force was altered by changing the surface condition at the bottom surface. Root defects do depend on these two forces. This research is contained in Mitigation of Root Defect in Laser and Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding. Validation of the hybrid laser-arc model is necessary to properly model heat and mass transfer and fluid flow in Alloy 690 hybrid welds. Therefore, the developed model was validated for low carbon steel. Temperatures calculated by the model were included into a microstructural model in order to calculate the phase fractions. Process maps were developed for the selection of welding parameters to avoid martensite formation. This research is contained in Fusion Zone Microstructure in Full Penetration Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of Low Alloy Steel. Alloy 690 suffers from ductility dip cracking, a form of hot cracking. This type of cracking inhibits the use of multipass welding to join Alloy 690. Our partners at ORNL performed some hot ductility testing with Alloy 690 samples using digital image correlation. The results of this work is contained in the report Summary of 690 ductility dip cracking testing using Gleeble and digital image correlation. Macro-porosity is a limiting factor in the widespread deployment of laser and hybrid laser-arc welding for construction and repair of nuclear power plant components. Keyhole instability and fluctuation results in the formation of large bubbles, which become trapped at the advancing solid- liquid interface as pores. Laser and hybrid laser-arc welds were fabricated for a range of conditions. Porosity levels in the welds were measured in X-ray computed tomography (CT), which provides very detailed data on the size and lo

  19. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girolamo, D. Yuan, F. G.; Girolamo, L.

    2015-03-31

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies.

  20. Laser beam monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Bradley S. (Knoxville, TN); Wetherington, Jr., Grady R. (Harriman, TN)

    1985-01-01

    Laser beam monitoring systems include laser-transparent plates set at an angle to the laser beam passing therethrough and light sensor for detecting light reflected from an object on which the laser beam impinges.

  1. Systems for increasing the sensitivity of gamma-ray imagers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.; Chivers, Daniel H.

    2012-12-11

    Systems that increase the position resolution and granularity of double sided segmented semiconductor detectors are provided. These systems increase the imaging resolution capability of such detectors, either used as Compton cameras, or as position sensitive radiation detectors in imagers such as SPECT, PET, coded apertures, multi-pinhole imagers, or other spatial or temporal modulated imagers.

  2. Methods for increasing the sensitivity of gamma-ray imagers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihailescu, Lucian (Pleasanton, CA); Vetter, Kai M. (Alameda, CA); Chivers, Daniel H. (Fremont, CA)

    2012-02-07

    Methods are presented that increase the position resolution and granularity of double sided segmented semiconductor detectors. These methods increase the imaging resolution capability of such detectors, either used as Compton cameras, or as position sensitive radiation detectors in imagers such as SPECT, PET, coded apertures, multi-pinhole imagers, or other spatial or temporal modulated imagers.

  3. Method and apparatus for differential spectroscopic atomic-imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    1990-01-01

    A Method and apparatus for differential spectroscopic atomic-imaging is disclosed for spatial resolution and imaging for display not only individual atoms on a sample surface, but also bonding and the specific atomic species in such bond. The apparatus includes a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that is modified to include photon biasing, preferably a tuneable laser, modulating electronic surface biasing for the sample, and temperature biasing, preferably a vibration-free refrigerated sample mounting stage. Computer control and data processing and visual display components are also included. The method includes modulating the electronic bias voltage with and without selected photon wavelengths and frequency biasing under a stabilizing (usually cold) bias temperature to detect bonding and specific atomic species in the bonds as the STM rasters the sample. This data is processed along with atomic spatial topography data obtained from the STM raster scan to create a real-time visual image of the atoms on the sample surface.

  4. High-resolution spectroscopic probes of collisions and half-collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.E.

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program explores the dynamics of gas phase collisions and photodissociation by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Simultaneous state and velocity detection frequently permits a determination of scalar or vector correlations among products. The correlated product distributions are always more informative, and often easier to interpret than the uncorrelated product state distributions. The authors have recently built an apparatus to record transient absorption spectra with 50 nS time resolution and 20 MHz frequency resolution using a single frequency Ti:sapphire laser. The photodissociation of NCCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SCN at 193 nm is discussed.

  5. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

  6. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  7. Laser barometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abercrombie, Kevin R.; Shiels, David; Rash, Tim

    2001-02-06

    A pressure measuring instrument that utilizes the change of the refractive index of a gas as a function of pressure and the coherent nature of a laser light to determine the barometric pressure within an environment. As the gas pressure in a closed environment varies, the index of refraction of the gas changes. The amount of change is a function of the gas pressure. By illuminating the gas with a laser light source, causing the wavelength of the light to change, pressure can be quantified by measuring the shift in fringes (alternating light and dark bands produced when coherent light is mixed) in an interferometer.

  8. X-ray tests of a two-dimensional stigmatic imaging scheme with variable magnifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, J.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Efthimion, P. C.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Caughey, T. A.; Brunner, J.

    2014-11-15

    A two-dimensional stigmatic x-ray imaging scheme, consisting of two spherically bent crystals, one concave and one convex, was recently proposed [M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E527 (2012)]. The Bragg angles and the radii of curvature of the two crystals of this imaging scheme are matched to eliminate the astigmatism and to satisfy the Bragg condition across both crystal surfaces for a given x-ray energy. In this paper, we consider more general configurations of this imaging scheme, which allow us to vary the magnification for a given pair of crystals and x-ray energy. The stigmatic imaging scheme has been validated for the first time by imaging x-rays generated by a micro-focus x-ray source with source size of 8.4 ?m validated by knife-edge measurements. Results are presented from imaging the tungsten L?1 emission at 8.3976 keV, using a convex Si-422 crystal and a concave Si-533 crystal with 2d-spacings of 2.21707 and 1.65635 and radii of curvature of 500 1 mm and 823 1 mm, respectively, showing a spatial resolution of 54.9 ?m. This imaging scheme is expected to be of interest for the two-dimensional imaging of laser produced plasmas.

  9. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  10. Imaging of the spatial distribution of atoms in an optical-breakdown plasma with one-dimensional coherent hyper-Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akimov, Denis A; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Koroteev, Nikolai I; Naumov, A N; Fedotov, Andrei B; Miles, R B; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A

    1998-12-31

    A technique based on coherent four-wave mixing with a hyper-Raman resonance in wide beams was developed for line-by-line reconstruction of the spatial distribution of excited atoms in a laser-produced plasma. This method was used to study the spatial distribution of excited lead atoms in an optical-breakdown plasma formed on a metal target. A comparison was made of the technique of constructing plasma images line-by-line with a four-photon technique of point-by-point measurements. Estimates were obtained of the spatial resolution of the proposed technique. Potential applications of this approach in plasma diagnostics were analysed. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  11. High speed imaging television system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William O.; Rabenhorst, David W.

    1984-01-01

    A television system for observing an event which provides a composite video output comprising the serially interlaced images the system is greater than the time resolution of any of the individual cameras.

  12. Design process for NIF laser alignment and beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grey, A., LLNL

    1998-06-09

    In a controller for an adaptive optic system designed to correct phase aberrations in a high power laser, the wavefront sensor is a discrete Hartmann-Shack design. It uses an army of lenslets (like a fly` s eye) to focus the laser into 77 spots on a CCD camera. Average local tilt of the wavefront across each lenslet changes the position of its focal spot. The system requires 0.1 pixel accuracy in determining the focal spot location. We determine a small area around each spot` s previous location. Within this area, we calculate the centroid of the light intensity in x and y. This calculation fails if the spot regions overlap. Especially during initial acquisition of a highly distorted beam, distinguishing overlapping spots is difficult. However, low resolution analysis of the overlapping spots allows the system to estimate their positions. With this estimate, it can use the deformable mirror to correct the beam enough so we can detect the spots using conventional image processing.

  13. Laser spectroscopy and dynamics of transient species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clouthier, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to study the vibrational and electronic spectra and excited state dynamics of a number of transient sulfur and oxygen species. A variety of supersonic jet techniques, as well as high resolution FT-IR and intracavity dye laser spectroscopy, have been applied to these studies.

  14. High-resolution diffraction microscopy using the plane-wave field of a nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Yukio; Nishino, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Kubo, Hideto; Furukawa, Hayato; Mimura, Hidekazu; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2009-08-01

    X-ray waves in the center of the beam waist of nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beams can be considered to have amplitude and phase that are both almost uniform, i.e., they are x-ray plane waves. Here we report the results of an experimental demonstration of high-resolution diffraction microscopy using the x-ray plane wave of the synchrotron x-ray beam focused using Kirkpatrik-Baez mirrors. A silver nanocube with an edge length of {approx}100 nm is illuminated with the x-ray beam focused to a {approx}1 {mu}m spot at 12 keV. A high-contrast symmetric diffraction pattern of the nanocube is observed in the forward far field. An image of the nanocube is successfully reconstructed by an iterative phasing method and its half-period resolution is 3.0 nm. This method does not only dramatically improve the spatial resolution of x-ray microscopy but also is a key technology for realizing single-pulse diffractive imaging using x-ray free-electron lasers.

  15. High resolution time interval meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  16. Interpretation of HRTEM images by image simulation: An introduction to theory and practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Keefe, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This tutorial describes the use of image simulation as an aid to interpretation of high-resolution transmission electron microscope images. Topics include some image processing as well as image simulation. Image processing is the manipulation of experimental images in order to extract some desired information. Image simulation is the generation of a computed or simulated image from a model structure. It requires a detailed knowledge of the process of image formation in the high-resolution transmission electron microscope. This tutorial concentrates on image simulation, with examples of image processing appearing only as required as illustrations. Because this is an introduction, the theory of image simulation is described, but not explored in depth. The practice of image simulation is covered in sufficient detail to enable the student to understand the functions of the various steps in the computations, and the parameters necessary for their evaluation.

  17. High-resolution radiography by means of a hodoscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Volpi, Alexander

    1978-01-01

    The fast neutron hodoscope, a device that produces neutron radiographs with coarse space resolution in a short time, is modified to produce neutron or gamma radiographs of relatively thick samples and with high space resolution. The modification comprises motorizing a neutron and gamma collimator to permit a controlled scanning pattern, simultaneous collection of data in a number of hodoscope channels over a period of time, and computerized image reconstruction of the data thus gathered.

  18. Solid-immersion fluorescence microscopy with increased emission and super resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liau, Z. L.; Porter, J. M.; Liau, A. A.; Chen, J. J.; Salmon, W. C.; Sheu, S. S.

    2015-01-07

    We investigate solid-immersion fluorescence microscopy suitable for super-resolution nanotechnology and biological imaging, and have observed limit of resolution as small as 15?nm with microspheres, mitochondria, and chromatin fibers. We have further observed that fluorescence efficiency increases with excitation power density, implicating appreciable stimulated emission and increased resolution. We discuss potential advantages of the solid-immersion microscopy, including combined use with previously established super-resolution techniques for reaching deeper beyond the conventional diffraction limit.

  19. Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2012-07-11

    Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of {approx} 1.0 {mu}m at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi{sub 0.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5{mu}m FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

  20. Heterodyne laser diagnostic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Globig, Michael A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Wyeth, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

  1. imageMCR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-09-27

    imageMCR is a user friendly software package that consists of a variety inputs to preprocess and analyze the hyperspectral image data using multivariate algorithms such as Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR), Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Classical Least Squares (CLS) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). MCR provides a relative quantitative analysis of the hyperspectral image data without the need for standards, and it discovers all the emitting species (spectral pure components) present in an image, even thosemore » in which there is no a priori information. Once the spectral components are discovered, these spectral components can be used for future MCR analyses or used with CLS algorithms to quickly extract concentration image maps for each component within spectral image data sets.« less

  2. Laser decontamination: A new strategy for facility decommissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, H.M.; Lipert, R.J.; Hamrick, Y.M.; Bayrakal, S.; Gaul, K.; Davis, B.; Baldwin, D.P.; Edelson, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Lasers can be employed to remove both surface and bulk contamination from metals. Experiments demonstrate that {approximately}5{mu}m can be removed from an Al surface by one powerful laser pulse. Focusing with cylindrical lenses is shown to result in good surface coverage and reduced surface redeposition. High-resolution laser spectroscopy in a small atomic beam device is demonstrated and discussions of bulk decontamination by AVLIS-like methods are described. A plan for estimating the cost-effectiveness of laser decontamination technology is discussed.

  3. Laser decontamination: A new strategy for facility decommissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, H.M.; Lipert, R.J.; Hamrick, Y.M.; Bayrakal, S.; Gaul, K.; Davis, B.; Baldwin, D.P.; Edelson, M.C.

    1992-06-01

    Lasers can be employed to remove both surface and bulk contamination from metals. Experiments demonstrate that {approximately}5{mu}m can be removed from an Al surface by one powerful laser pulse. Focusing with cylindrical lenses is shown to result in good surface coverage and reduced surface redeposition. High-resolution laser spectroscopy in a small atomic beam device is demonstrated and discussions of bulk decontamination by AVLIS-like methods are described. A plan for estimating the cost-effectiveness of laser decontamination technology is discussed.

  4. Soft x-ray backlighting of cryogenic implosions using a narrowband crystal imaging system (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoeckl, C. Bedzyk, M.; Brent, G.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Guy, D.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hu, S. X.; Ingraham, S.; Jacobs-Perkins, D. W.; Jungquist, R. K.; Marshall, F. J.; Mileham, C.; Nilson, P. M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J.; Theobald, W.

    2014-11-15

    A high-performance cryogenic DT inertial confinement fusion implosion experiment is an especially challenging backlighting configuration because of the high self-emission of the core at stagnation and the low opacity of the DT shell. High-energy petawatt lasers such as OMEGA EP promise significantly improved backlighting capabilities by generating high x-ray intensities and short emission times. A narrowband x-ray imager with an astigmatism-corrected bent quartz crystal for the Si He{sub ?} line at ?1.86 keV was developed to record backlit images of cryogenic direct-drive implosions. A time-gated recording system minimized the self-emission of the imploding target. A fast target-insertion system capable of moving the backlighter target ?7 cm in ?100 ms was developed to avoid interference with the cryogenic shroud system. With backlighter laser energies of ?1.25 kJ at a 10-ps pulse duration, the radiographic images show a high signal-to-background ratio of >100:1 and a spatial resolution of the order of 10 ?m. The backlit images can be used to assess the symmetry of the implosions close to stagnation and the mix of ablator material into the dense shell.

  5. Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device First results of ion and electron

  6. Development of a neutron imaging diagnostic for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, G. L.; Berggren, R. R.; Bradley, P. A.; Cverna, F. H.; Faulkner, J. R.; Gobby, P. L.; Oertel, J. A.; Swenson, F. J.; Tegtmeier, J. A.; Walton, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Pinhole imaging of the neutron production in laser-driven inertial confinement fusion experiments can provide important information about the performance of various capsule designs. This requires the development of systems capable of spatial resolutions on the order of 5 {mu}m or less for source strengths of 10{sup 15} and greater. We have initiated a program which will lead to the achievement of such a system to be employed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) facility. Calculated neutron output distributions for various capsule designs will be presented to illustrate the information which can be gained from neutron imaging and to demonstrate the requirements for a useful system. We will describe the lines-of-sight available at NIF for neutron imaging and explain how these can be utilized to reach the required parameters for neutron imaging. We will describe initial development work to be carried out at the Omega facility and the path which will lead to systems to be implemented at NIF. Beginning this year, preliminary experiments will be aimed at achieving resolutions of 30--60 {mu}m for direct-drive capsules with neutron outputs of about 10{sup 14}. The main thrust of these experiments will be to understand issues related to the fabrication and alignment of small diameter pinhole systems as well as the problems associated with signal-to-background ratios at the image plane. Subsequent experiments at Omega will be described. These efforts will be aimed at achieving resolutions of about 10 {mu}m. Proposed developments for new imaging systems as well as further refinement of pinhole techniques will be presented.

  7. Radiation damage in a micron-sized protein crystal studied via reciprocal space mapping and Bragg coherent diffractive imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coughlan, H. D.; Darmanin, C.; Phillips, N. W.; Hofmann, F.; Clark, J. N.; Harder, R. J.; Vine, D. J.; Abbey, B.

    2015-04-29

    For laboratory and synchrotron based X-ray sources, radiation damage has posed a significant barrier to obtaining high-resolution structural data from biological macromolecules. The problem is particularly acute for micron-sized crystals where the weaker signal often necessitates the use of higher intensity beams to obtain the relevant data. Here, we employ a combination of techniques, including Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to characterise the radiation induced damage in a micron-sized protein crystal over time. The approach we adopt here could help screen for potential protein crystal candidates for measurement at X-ray free election laser sources.

  8. Investigation of microscale shock phenomena using a line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trott, W.M.; Asay, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    An optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) can be operated in a line-imaging configuration that effectively combines subnanosecond temporal resolution with high spatial resolution (length scales{lt}10{mu}m). This technique easily captures very small temporal variations in the onset of motion across the face of a small-scale (400-{mu}m diameter) laser-driven flyer. In another application, line-imaging ORVIS has been used to obtain spatially resolved particle velocity vs. time information at flyer impact on a lithium fluoride witness plate. Subnanosecond differences in flyer arrival time are clearly resolved and the results also show subtle amplitude variations in the pulse delivered at different locations of the acceptor. Observed velocity field variations in laser acceleration of a patterned flyer target demonstrate the feasibility of using line ORVIS in studies of instability formation and growth. These results indicate that this diagnostic can be applied to a wide variety of shock phenomena. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. How Lasers Work

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Lasers Work "Laser" is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. A laser is created when the electrons in atoms in special glasses, crystals, or ...

  10. Jupiter Laser Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jupiter Laser Facility The commissioning of the Titan Petawatt-Class laser to LLNL's Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) has provided a unique platform for the use of petawatt (PW)-class ...

  11. Laser/matter interactions by laser-launched plates and direct laser shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, Dennis L.; Swift, D. C.; Kopp, R. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Munson, C. P.; Letzring, S. A.; Niemczura, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    Explosives, gas guns, laser-launched flyer plates, and direct laser-irradiation can be used to generate shocks and high-stress in materials. Each method has a unique diameter and thickness of shock that can be generated. In past years, small laboratory lasers have been used to launch flyer plates 2 - 200-pm thick to terminal velocities 0.1 to 5 k d s . Over the past few years we have been using our TRIDENT laser facility (1kJ in 0.2 to 2ps) to accelerate larger diameter (8 mm) and thicker (0.1 - 1.5 mm) flyer plates. These larger diameters and thicker one-dimensional plates more closely compliment traditional experimental methods such as gas guns. The 8-mm diameter and 1-mm thick flyer plates can impart shocks in metals for constitutive dynamic property measurements. The versatility of laser-driven plates permits spatial and temporal profiles of the flyer plate impact on sample targets. LASNEX models and parameters of the laser drive can be used to optimize optical coupling efficiency. The flyer plate launch, acceleration, terminal velocity, and, depending on the experiment, flyer plate impact on to target materials are recorded using point-interferometry (VISAR), and line-imaging interferometry. These high speed optical and laser experimental methods will be described along with ancillary methods, and material data. Constitutive properties of bulk materials, rate effects, and grain size and/or orientation have been studied for several metals including copper, beryllium, gold, and some alloys.

  12. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless...

  13. Signal and imaging sciences workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candy, J.V.

    1997-11-01

    Papers are presented in the areas of: Medical Technologies; Non-Destructive Evaluation; Applications of Signal/Image Processing; Laser Guide Star and Adaptive Optics; Computational Electromagnetic, Acoustics and Optics; Micro-Impulse Radar Processing; Optical Applications; TANGO Space Shuttle.

  14. Lanczos Image Resampling Benchmark

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-09-30

    This software abstracts a simple computational kernel from SWarp, an astrometric image resampling code. The input is a grayscale PGM image file (8-bit or 16-bit integer) and the output is a higher-resolution grayscale image file (8-bit or 16-bit integer, or 32-bit floating point). The user selects a scaling factor to be applied and a convolution kernel type to be used during resampling (using 1, 16, 36, 64 input pixels to generate each output pixel). Themore » resampling is performed using the OpenGL API and can run on a PC with GPU (graphics processing unit) hardware.« less

  15. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siekhaus, Wigbert

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities comprising, a focused and pulsed laser, an photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  16. Spiraling Laser Pulses Could Change Nature of Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spiraling Laser Pulses Could Change Nature of Graphene Spiraling Laser Pulses Could Change Nature of Graphene Simulations Run at NERSC Show It Could Transform from Metal to Insulator June 8, 2015 grapheneSLAC This illustration depicts the structure of graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb pattern. A new simulation suggests that spiraling pulses of polarized laser light could change graphene's nature, turning it from a metal to an insulator. Image:

  17. Hyperspectral imaging of microalgae using two-photon excitation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Melgaard, David Kennett; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Garcia, Omar Fidel; Luk, Ting Shan; Jones, Howland D. T.; Collins, Aaron M.

    2010-10-01

    A considerable amount research is being conducted on microalgae, since microalgae are becoming a promising source of renewable energy. Most of this research is centered on lipid production in microalgae because microalgae produce triacylglycerol which is ideal for biodiesel fuels. Although we are interested in research to increase lipid production in algae, we are also interested in research to sustain healthy algal cultures in large scale biomass production farms or facilities. The early detection of fluctuations in algal health, productivity, and invasive predators must be developed to ensure that algae are an efficient and cost-effective source of biofuel. Therefore we are developing technologies to monitor the health of algae using spectroscopic measurements in the field. To do this, we have proposed to spectroscopically monitor large algal cultivations using LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technology. Before we can deploy this type of technology, we must first characterize the spectral bio-signatures that are related to algal health. Recently, we have adapted our confocal hyperspectral imaging microscope at Sandia to have two-photon excitation capabilities using a chameleon tunable laser. We are using this microscope to understand the spectroscopic signatures necessary to characterize microalgae at the cellular level prior to using these signatures to classify the health of bulk samples, with the eventual goal of using of LIDAR to monitor large scale ponds and raceways. By imaging algal cultures using a tunable laser to excite at several different wavelengths we will be able to select the optimal excitation/emission wavelengths needed to characterize algal cultures. To analyze the hyperspectral images generated from this two-photon microscope, we are using Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) algorithms to extract the spectral signatures and their associated relative intensities from the data. For this presentation, I will show our two-photon hyperspectral imaging results on a variety of microalgae species and show how these results can be used to characterize algal ponds and raceways.

  18. Fluorescent microthermographic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, D.L.

    1993-09-01

    In the early days of microelectronics, design rules and feature sizes were large enough that sub-micron spatial resolution was not needed. Infrared or IR thermal techniques were available that calculated the object`s temperature from infrared emission. There is a fundamental spatial resolution limitation dependent on the wavelengths of light being used in the image formation process. As the integrated circuit feature sizes began to shrink toward the one micron level, the limitations imposed on IR thermal systems became more pronounced. Something else was needed to overcome this limitation. Liquid crystals have been used with great success, but they lack the temperature measurement capabilities of other techniques. The fluorescent microthermographic imaging technique (FMI) was developed to meet this need. This technique offers better than 0.01{degrees}C temperature resolution and is diffraction limited to 0.3 {mu}m spatial resolution. While the temperature resolution is comparable to that available on IR systems, the spatial resolution is much better. The FMI technique provides better spatial resolution by using a temperature dependent fluorescent film that emits light at 612 nm instead of the 1.5 {mu}m to 12 {mu}m range used by IR techniques. This tutorial starts with a review of blackbody radiation physics, the process by which all heated objects emit radiation to their surroundings, in order to understand the sources of information that are available to characterize an object`s surface temperature. The processes used in infrared thermal imaging are then detailed to point out the limitations of the technique but also to contrast it with the FMI process. The FMI technique is then described in detail, starting with the fluorescent film physics and ending with a series of examples of past applications of FMI.

  19. Jupiter Laser Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supporting the broad community of high-energy-density researchers The Jupiter Laser ... flexibility and high laser shot rates, and to allow direct user operation of experiments. ...

  20. Laser programs highlights 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    This report provides highlights of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories` laser programs. Laser uses and technology assessment and utilization are provided.

  1. Environmental Conflict Resolution | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Environmental Conflict Resolution Environmental Conflict Resolution PDF icon Environmental Conflict Resolution More Documents & Publications Final ECR 2008 Report 2009 ECR FINAL...

  2. Modeling Laser Wakefield Accelerators in a Lorentz Boosted Frame

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lorentz Boosted Frame VayBoost.gif An image showing the "boosted frame," in which the observer moves at near light speed. The laser pulse is represented in blue and red; the...

  3. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  4. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  5. Precise measurement of the resolution in light microscopy using Fourier transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainrub, Arnold

    2008-04-15

    The resolution power of light microscope has been accurately measured ({+-}5%) by Fourier transform of various object images and further evaluation of the highest spatial frequency in Fourier spectrum. Any unknown shape plane object with a shape feature's size smaller than the resolution to be measured was shown to provide a reliable resolution test. This simple method gives a direct measurement of the resolution power as defined by Abbe [Archiv. F. Mikroskopische Anat. 9, 413 (1873)]. The results have been justified by comparison to a standard resolution measurement by using calibrated periodic line patterns. Notably, the approach is applicable in super-resolution light microscopy (transmission, reflection, and fluorescence), where calibrated resolution targets do not occur. It was conveniently implemented by using a compact disk as a test object and free IMAGEJ imaging software.

  6. Omega Laser Facility - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laboratory for Laser Energetics Logo Search Home Around the Lab Past Issues Past Quick Shots About Office of the Director Map to LLE LLE Tours LLE ...

  7. OMEGA Laser Drivers - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drivers - Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laboratory for Laser Energetics Logo Search Home Around the Lab Past Issues Past Quick Shots About Office of the Director Map to LLE LLE ...

  8. OMEGA Laser - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laboratory for Laser Energetics Logo Search Home Around the Lab Past Issues Past Quick Shots About Office of the Director Map to LLE LLE Tours LLE ...

  9. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  10. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  11. Chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser vacuum accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Landahl, Eric C.

    2002-01-01

    A chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) vacuum accelerator for high gradient laser acceleration in vacuum. By the use of an ultrashort (femtosecond), ultrahigh intensity chirped laser pulse both the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased, thus yielding large gains in a compact system. In addition, the IFEL resonance condition can be maintained throughout the interaction region by using a chirped drive laser wave. In addition, diffraction can be alleviated by taking advantage of the laser optical bandwidth with negative dispersion focusing optics to produce a chromatic line focus. The combination of these features results in a compact, efficient vacuum laser accelerator which finds many applications including high energy physics, compact table-top laser accelerator for medical imaging and therapy, material science, and basic physics.

  12. Optic for an endoscope/borescope having high resolution and narrow field of view

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Gary F.; Trebes, James E.

    2003-10-28

    An optic having optimized high spatial resolution, minimal nonlinear magnification distortion while at the same time having a limited chromatic focal shift or chromatic aberrations. The optic located at the distal end of an endoscopic inspection tool permits a high resolution, narrow field of view image for medical diagnostic applications, compared to conventional optics for endoscopic instruments which provide a wide field of view, low resolution image. The image coverage is over a narrow (<20 degrees) field of view with very low optical distortion (<5% pin cushion or barrel distortion. The optic is also optimized for best color correction as well as to aid medical diagnostics.

  13. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Biological Tissue: An Approach for Multicenter Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rompp, Andreas; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Heeren, Ronald M.; Laprevote, Olivier; Prideaux, Brendan; Seyer, Alexandre; Spengler, Bernhard; Stoeckli, Markus; Smith, Donald F.

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging has become a popular tool for probing the chemical complexity of biological surfaces. This led to the development of a wide range of instrumentation and preparation protocols. It is thus desirable to evaluate and compare the data output from different methodologies and mass spectrometers. Here, we present an approach for the comparison of mass spectrometry imaging data from different laboratories (often referred to as multicenter studies). This is exemplified by the analysis of mouse brain sections in five laboratories in Europe and the USA. The instrumentation includes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF), MALDI-QTOF, MALDIFourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR), atmospheric-pressure (AP)-MALDI-Orbitrap, and cluster TOF-secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Experimental parameters such as measurement speed, imaging bin width, and mass spectrometric parameters are discussed. All datasets were converted to the standard data format imzML and displayed in a common open-source software with identical parameters for visualization, which facilitates direct comparison of MS images. The imzML conversion also allowed exchange of fully functional MS imaging datasets between the different laboratories. The experiments ranged from overview measurements of the full mouse brain to detailed analysis of smaller features (depending on spatial resolution settings), but common histological features such as the corpus callosum were visible in all measurements. High spatial resolution measurements of AP-MALDI-Orbitrap and TOF-SIMS showed comparable structures in the low-micrometer range. We discuss general considerations for planning and performing multicenter studies in mass spectrometry imaging. This includes details on the selection, distribution, and preparation of tissue samples as well as on data handling. Such multicenter studies in combination with ongoing activities for reporting guidelines, a common data format (imzML) and a public data repository can contribute to more reliability and transparency of MS imaging studies.

  14. High-speed multiframe dynamic transmission electron microscope image acquisition system with arbitrary timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, Bryan W.; DeHope, William J.; Huete, Glenn; LaGrange, Thomas B.; Shuttlesworth, Richard M.

    2015-10-20

    An electron microscope is disclosed which has a laser-driven photocathode and an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) laser system ("laser"). The laser produces a train of temporally-shaped laser pulses of a predefined pulse duration and waveform, and directs the laser pulses to the laser-driven photocathode to produce a train of electron pulses. An image sensor is used along with a deflector subsystem. The deflector subsystem is arranged downstream of the target but upstream of the image sensor, and has two pairs of plates arranged perpendicular to one another. A control system controls the laser and a plurality of switching components synchronized with the laser, to independently control excitation of each one of the deflector plates. This allows each electron pulse to be directed to a different portion of the image sensor, as well as to be provided with an independently set duration and independently set inter-pulse spacings.

  15. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  16. Short wavelength laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1984-06-25

    A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

  17. Narrow gap laser welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milewski, J.O.; Sklar, E.

    1998-06-02

    A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables. 34 figs.

  18. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  19. Narrow gap laser welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milewski, John O.; Sklar, Edward

    1998-01-01

    A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables.

  20. Evolution of spatial resolution in breast CT at UC Davis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Yang, Kai; Burkett, George W.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Anthony Seibert, J.; Boone, John M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) technology for the purpose of breast cancer screening has been a focus of research at UC Davis since the late 1990s. Previous studies have shown that improvement in spatial resolution characteristics of this modality correlates with greater microcalcification detection, a factor considered a potential limitation of bCT. The aim of this study is to improve spatial resolution as characterized by the modulation transfer function (MTF) via changes in the scanner hardware components and operational schema. Methods: Four prototypes of pendant-geometry, cone-beam breast CT scanners were designed and developed spanning three generations of design evolution. To improve the system MTF in each bCT generation, modifications were made to the imaging components (x-ray tube and flat-panel detector), system geometry (source-to-isocenter and detector distance), and image acquisition parameters (technique factors, number of projections, system synchronization scheme, and gantry rotational speed). Results: Characterization of different generations of bCT systems shows these modifications resulted in a 188% improvement of the limiting MTF properties from the first to second generation and an additional 110% from the second to third. The intrinsic resolution degradation in the azimuthal direction observed in the first generation was corrected by changing the acquisition from continuous to pulsed x-ray acquisition. Utilizing a high resolution detector in the third generation, along with modifications made in system geometry and scan protocol, resulted in a 125% improvement in limiting resolution. An additional 39% improvement was obtained by changing the detector binning mode from 2 × 2 to 1 × 1. Conclusions: These results underscore the advancement in spatial resolution characteristics of breast CT technology. The combined use of a pulsed x-ray system, higher resolution flat-panel detector and changing the scanner geometry and image acquisition logic resulted in a significant fourfold improvement in MTF.

  1. Laser accelerometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vescial, F.; Aronowitz, F.; Niguel, L.

    1990-04-24

    This patent describes a laser accelerometer. It comprises: an optical cavity characterizing a frame having an input axis (x), a cross axis (y) orthogonal to and co-planar with the input axis and a (z) axis passing through the intersection of the (x) and (y) axes, the (z) axis being orthogonal to the plane of the (x) and (y) axes; and (x) axis proof mass having a predetermined blanking surface; a flexible beam having a first end coupled to the (x) axis proof mass and a second end coupled to the frame, deflection of the flexible beams permitting a predetermined range of movement of the (x) proof mass on the input axis in a direction opposite to sensed acceleration of the frame; a laser light source having a mirror means within the cavity for providing a light ray coaxially aligned with the (z) axis; detector means having at least a first detector on a sensitive plane, the plane being normal to the (z) axis; bias and amplifier means coupled to the detector means for providing a bias current to the first detector and for amplifying the intensity signal; the (x) axis proof mass blanking surface being centrally positioned within and normal to the light ray null intensity region to provide increased blanking of the light ray in response to transverse movement of the mass on the input axis; control means responsive to the intensity signal for applying an (x) axis restoring force to restore the (x) axis proof mass to the central position and for providing an (x) axis output signal proportional to the restoring force.

  2. Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heo, Junseok; Guo Wei; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2011-01-10

    Optically pumped lasing at room temperature in a silicon based monolithic single GaN nanowire with a two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity is demonstrated. Catalyst-free nanowires with low density ({approx}10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}) are grown on Si by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the nanowires are of wurtzite structure and they have no observable defects. A single nanowire laser fabricated on Si is characterized by a lasing transition at {lambda}=371.3 nm with a linewidth of 0.55 nm. The threshold is observed at a pump power density of {approx}120 kW/cm{sup 2} and the spontaneous emission factor {beta} is estimated to be 0.08.

  3. Contour forming of metals by laser peening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for forming shapes and contours in metal sections by generating laser induced compressive stress on the surface of the metal workpiece. The laser process can generate deep compressive stresses to shape even thick components without inducing unwanted tensile stress at the metal surface. The precision of the laser-induced stress enables exact prediction and subsequent contouring of parts. A light beam of 10 to 100 J/pulse is imaged to create an energy fluence of 60 to 200 J/cm.sup.2 on an absorptive layer applied over a metal surface. A tamping layer of water is flowed over the absorptive layer. The absorption of laser light causes a plasma to form and consequently creates a shock wave that induces a deep residual compressive stress into the metal. The metal responds to this residual stress by bending.

  4. Identification marking by means of laser peening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, C. Brent; Harris, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for marking components by inducing a shock wave on the surface that results in an indented (strained) layer and a residual compressive stress in the surface layer. One embodiment of the laser peenmarking system rapidly imprints, with single laser pulses, a complete identification code or three-dimensional pattern and leaves the surface in a state of deep residual compressive stress. A state of compressive stress in parts made of metal or other materials is highly desirable to make them resistant to fatigue failure and stress corrosion cracking. This process employs a laser peening system and beam spatial modulation hardware or imaging technology that can be setup to impress full three dimensional patterns into metal surfaces at the pulse rate of the laser, a rate that is at least an order of magnitude faster than competing marking technologies.

  5. Laser Plasma Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Plasma Interactions Laser Plasma Interactions Understanding and controlling laser produced plasmas for fusion and basic science Contact David Montgomery (505) 665-7994 Email John Kline (505) 667-7062 Email Thomson scattering is widely used to measure plasma temperature, density, and flow velocity in laser-produced plasmas at Trident, and is also used to detect plasma waves driven by unstable and nonlinear processes. A typical configuration uses a low intensity laser beam (2nd, 3rd, or 4th

  6. Apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stanton, Philip L.; Sweatt, William C.; Crump, Jr., O. B.; Bonzon, Lloyd L.

    1993-09-14

    An apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry employing a fixed interferometer cavity and delay element. The invention permits rapid construction of interferometers that may be operated by those non-skilled in the art, that have high image quality with no drift or loss of contrast, and that have long-term stability even without shock isolation of the cavity.

  7. Photo of the Week: Laser Beats Rock | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laser Beats Rock Photo of the Week: Laser Beats Rock April 8, 2013 - 5:28pm Addthis On August 5, 2012, the Curiosity rover touched down on the surface of Mars. The ChemCam instrument package, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is a device mounted on the Mars Curiosity rover that uses two remote sensing instruments: the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). The LIBS fires a powerful laser that determines chemical compositions of rock and soil

  8. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert, F; Thomas, A G; Mangles, S P; Banerjee, S; Corde, S; Flacco, A; Litos, M; Neely, D; Viera, J; Najmudin, Z; Bingham, R; Joshi, C; Katsouleas, T

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future eff orts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefi eld accelerators for these specifi c applications.

  9. Calculation of the spatial resolution in two-photon absorption spectroscopy applied to plasma diagnosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Fuentes, L. M.; Grützmacher, K.; Pérez, C. Rosa, M. I. de la

    2014-10-07

    We report a detailed characterization of the spatial resolution provided by two-photon absorption spectroscopy suited for plasma diagnosis via the 1S-2S transition of atomic hydrogen for optogalvanic detection and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A precise knowledge of the spatial resolution is crucial for a correct interpretation of measurements, if the plasma parameters to be analysed undergo strong spatial variations. The present study is based on a novel approach which provides a reliable and realistic determination of the spatial resolution. Measured irradiance distribution of laser beam waists in the overlap volume, provided by a high resolution UV camera, are employed to resolve coupled rate equations accounting for two-photon excitation, fluorescence decay and ionization. The resulting three-dimensional yield distributions reveal in detail the spatial resolution for optogalvanic and LIF detection and related saturation due to depletion. Two-photon absorption profiles broader than the Fourier transform-limited laser bandwidth are also incorporated in the calculations. The approach allows an accurate analysis of the spatial resolution present in recent and future measurements.

  10. Laser Processing of Metals and Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senthilraja Singaravelu

    2012-05-31

    A laser offers a unique set of opportunities for precise delivery of high quality coherent energy. This energy can be tailored to alter the properties of material allowing a very flexible adjustment of the interaction that can lead to melting, vaporization, or just surface modification. Nowadays laser systems can be found in nearly all branches of research and industry for numerous applications. Sufficient evidence exists in the literature to suggest that further advancements in the field of laser material processing will rely significantly on the development of new process schemes. As a result they can be applied in various applications starting from fundamental research on systems, materials and processes performed on a scientific and technical basis for the industrial needs. The interaction of intense laser radiation with solid surfaces has extensively been studied for many years, in part, for development of possible applications. In this thesis, I present several applications of laser processing of metals and polymers including polishing niobium surface, producing a superconducting phase niobium nitride and depositing thin films of niobium nitride and organic material (cyclic olefin copolymer). The treated materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution optical microscopy, surface profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Power spectral density (PSD) spectra computed from AFM data gives further insight into the effect of laser melting on the topography of the treated niobium.

  11. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2015-11-24

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  12. Laser-Based Nondestructive Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Projects Laser-Based Nondestructive Testing High speed, non-contact NDT for ... scanning, non-destructive pulsed laser excitation and a laser-Doppler vibrometer (LDV). ...

  13. Learn More about Fusion & Lasers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Learn More about Fusion & Lasers How Lasers Work Learn how lasers were developed and how they work. Outreach NIF & Photon Science researchers take learning opportunities on the...

  14. Technique to quantitatively measure magnetic properties of thin structures at <10 NM spatial resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajt, Sasa

    2003-07-08

    A highly sensitive and high resolution magnetic microscope images magnetic properties quantitatively. Imaging is done with a modified transmission electron microscope that allows imaging of the sample in a zero magnetic field. Two images from closely spaced planes, one in focus and one slightly out of focus, are sufficient to calculate the absolute values of the phase change imparted to the electrons, and hence obtain the magnetization vector field distribution.

  15. Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

    2014-05-30

    Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

  16. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Reichert, Patrick (Hayward, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  17. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

    1997-03-18

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs.

  18. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new spectrometer design for the x-ray ...

  19. Layout and results from the initial operation of the high-resolution x-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    imaging crystal spectrometer on the Large Helical Device (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Layout and results from the initial operation of the high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on the Large Helical Device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Layout and results from the initial operation of the high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on the Large Helical Device First results of ion and electron temperature profile measurements from the x-ray imaging

  20. Prospects for Electron Imaging with Ultrafast Time Resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUMM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CHEMISTRY;...

  1. Atomic-Resolution Spectroscopic Imaging and In Situ Environmental...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    use of a cold-field-emission gun provides a factor of 100x increase in the usable current for probing inelastic scattering events, while still maintaining an Angstrom beam size. ...

  2. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray Imaging Crystal ...

  3. Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray Imaging ... The nal hardware design and con guration are detailed along with the calibration ...

  4. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  5. Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes.Methods: In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., pitches) relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system.Results: Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest detectable frequency on pitch followed the same trend as the analytical model. It was demonstrated that super-resolution is not achievable if the pitch of the object approaches 90, corresponding to the case in which the test frequency is perpendicular to the breast support. Only low frequency objects are detectable at pitches close to 90.Conclusions: This work provides a platform for investigating super-resolution in oblique reconstructions for tomosynthesis. In breast imaging, this study should have applications in visualizing microcalcifications and other subtle signs of cancer.

  6. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zhang, Song

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  7. Nanocrystal waveguide (NOW) laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; Simpson, Marcus L.; Withrow, Stephen P.; White, Clark W.; Jaiswal, Supriya L.

    2005-02-08

    A solid state laser includes an optical waveguide and a laser cavity including at least one subwavelength mirror disposed in or on the optical waveguide. A plurality of photoluminescent nanocrystals are disposed in the laser cavity. The reflective subwavelength mirror can be a pair of subwavelength resonant gratings (SWG), a pair of photonic crystal structures (PC), or a distributed feedback structure. In the case of a pair of mirrors, a PC which is substantially transmissive at an operating wavelength of the laser can be disposed in the laser cavity between the subwavelength mirrors to improve the mode structure, coherence and overall efficiency of the laser. A method for forming a solid state laser includes the steps of providing an optical waveguide, creating a laser cavity in the optical waveguide by disposing at least one subwavelength mirror on or in the waveguide, and positioning a plurality of photoluminescent nanocrystals in the laser cavity.

  8. Infrared laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantrell, Cyrus D.; Carbone, Robert J.; Cooper, Ralph S.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

  9. Infrared laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantrell, Cyrus D.; Carbone, Robert J.; Cooper, Ralph

    1982-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

  10. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, W. II; Balooch, M.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10--20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode. 12 figs.

  11. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10-20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode.

  12. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    factors. Two structures of the intact ribosome from the common bacterium Escherichia coli, determined by a Berkeley-Berlin collaboration to a resolution of 3.5 , the highest...

  13. Direct imaging of crystal structure and defects in metastable Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} by quantitative aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, Ulrich; Lotnyk, Andriy Thelander, Erik; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2014-03-24

    Knowledge about the atomic structure and vacancy distribution in phase change materials is of foremost importance in order to understand the underlying mechanism of fast reversible phase transformation. In this Letter, by combining state-of-the-art aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with image simulations, we are able to map the local atomic structure and composition of a textured metastable Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition with excellent spatial resolution. The atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy investigations display the heterogeneous defect structure of the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase. The obtained results are discussed. Highly oriented Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films appear to be a promising approach for further atomic-resolution investigations of the phase change behavior of this material class.

  14. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  15. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Print Wednesday, 26 April 2006 00:00 The last step in converting the genetic information stored in DNA into the major functional parts of cells is protein biosynthesis. Protein synthesis occurs on the ribosome, a cellular factory found in all forms of life. In contrast to most cellular machines, the ribosome contains a functional core of RNA that is enhanced by ribosomal proteins and accessory factors. Two structures of

  16. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  17. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are

  18. A HIGH-RESOLUTION ATLAS OF URANIUM-NEON IN THE H BAND (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect A HIGH-RESOLUTION ATLAS OF URANIUM-NEON IN THE H BAND Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A HIGH-RESOLUTION ATLAS OF URANIUM-NEON IN THE H BAND We present a high-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 50,000) atlas of a uranium-neon (U/Ne) hollow-cathode spectrum in the H band (1454-1638 nm) for the calibration of near-infrared spectrographs. We obtained this U/Ne spectrum simultaneously with a laser-frequency comb spectrum, which we used to provide a first-order calibration to

  19. Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Improve image resolution for microseismicimaging and time-lapse active seismic imaging; Enhance the prediction of fluid flow and temperature distributions and stress changes by coupling fracture flow simulations with reservoir flow simulations; and integrating imaging into modeling.

  20. Laser Manufacturing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Manufacturing at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new ... Laser Manufacturing at GE Global Research Learn how laser sintering, an additive laser ...

  1. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Cain, Dallas E.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  2. Apparatus and method for laser beam diagnosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salmon, Jr., Joseph T.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for accurate, real time monitoring of the wavefront curvature of a coherent laser beam. Knowing the curvature, it can be quickly determined whether the laser beam is collimated, or focusing (converging), or de-focusing (diverging). The apparatus includes a lateral interferometer for forming an interference pattern of the laser beam to be diagnosed. The interference pattern is imaged to a spatial light modulator (SLM), whose output is a coherent laser beam having an image of the interference pattern impressed on it. The SLM output is focused to obtain the far-field diffraction pattern. A video camera, such as CCD, monitors the far-field diffraction pattern, and provides an electrical output indicative of the shape of the far-field pattern. Specifically, the far-field pattern comprises a central lobe and side lobes, whose relative positions are indicative of the radius of curvature of the beam. The video camera's electrical output may be provided to a computer which analyzes the data to determine the wavefront curvature of the laser beam.

  3. Apparatus and method for laser beam diagnosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salmon, J.T. Jr.

    1991-08-27

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for accurate, real time monitoring of the wavefront curvature of a coherent laser beam. Knowing the curvature, it can be quickly determined whether the laser beam is collimated, or focusing (converging), or de-focusing (diverging). The apparatus includes a lateral interferometer for forming an interference pattern of the laser beam to be diagnosed. The interference pattern is imaged to a spatial light modulator (SLM), whose output is a coherent laser beam having an image of the interference pattern impressed on it. The SLM output is focused to obtain the far-field diffraction pattern. A video camera, such as CCD, monitors the far-field diffraction pattern, and provides an electrical output indicative of the shape of the far-field pattern. Specifically, the far-field pattern comprises a central lobe and side lobes, whose relative positions are indicative of the radius of curvature of the beam. The video camera's electrical output may be provided to a computer which analyzes the data to determine the wavefront curvature of the laser beam. 11 figures.

  4. Laser amplifier and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Backus, Sterling; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    1997-01-01

    Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate.

  5. Laser amplifier and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Backus, S.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Murnane, M.M.

    1997-07-01

    Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethrough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate. 7 figs.

  6. Phased laser array for generating a powerful laser beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2004-02-17

    A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are amplified and phase conjugated producing a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the at least one additional laser element. The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.

  7. Observation of super-resolution in digital breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D x-ray imaging modality in which tomographic sections of the breast are generated from a limited range of tube angles. Because oblique x-ray incidence shifts the image of an object in subpixel detector element increments with each increasing projection angle, it is demonstrated that DBT is capable of super-resolution (i.e., subpixel resolution). Methods: By convention, DBT reconstructions are performed on planes parallel to the breast support at various depths of the breast volume. In order for resolution in each reconstructed slice to be comparable to the detector, the pixel size should match that of the detector elements; hence, the highest frequency that can be resolved in the plane of reconstruction is the alias frequency of the detector. This study considers reconstruction grids with much smaller pixelation to visualize higher frequencies. For analytical proof of super-resolution, a theoretical framework is developed in which the reconstruction of a high frequency sinusoidal input is calculated using both simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection. To study the frequency spectrum of the reconstruction, its Fourier transform is also determined. The experimental feasibility of super-resolution was investigated by acquiring images of a bar pattern phantom with frequencies higher than the detector alias frequency. Results: Using analytical modeling, it is shown that the central projection cannot resolve frequencies exceeding the detector alias frequency. The Fourier transform of the central projection is maximized at a lower frequency than the input as evidence of aliasing. By contrast, SBP reconstruction can resolve the input, and its Fourier transform is correctly maximized at the input frequency. Incorporating filters into the reconstruction smoothens pixelation artifacts in the spatial domain and reduces spectral leakage in the Fourier domain. It is also demonstrated that the existence of super-resolution is dependent on position in the reconstruction and on the directionality of the input frequency. Consistent with the analytical results, experimental reconstructions of bar patterns showed visibility of frequencies greater than the detector alias frequency. Super-resolution was present at positions predicted from analytical modeling. Conclusions: This work demonstrates the existence of super-resolution in DBT. Super-resolution has the potential to impact the visualization of fine structural details in the breast, such as microcalcifications and other subtle signs of cancer.

  8. Laser particle sorter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, John C.; Buican, Tudor N.

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser defines an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam interrogates the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam intersects the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis.

  9. Injection Laser System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Injection Laser System For each of NIF's 192 beams: The pulse shape as a function of time ... NIF's injection laser system (ILS) plays a key role in meeting these three requirements. ...

  10. Slender tip laser scalpel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-01-06

    A laser scalpel includes a ribbon optical waveguide extending therethrough and terminating at a slender optical cutting tip. A laser beam is emitted along the height of the cutting tip for cutting tissue therealong.

  11. Laser particle sorter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, J.C.; Buican, T.N.

    1987-11-30

    Method and apparatus are provided for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser is used to define an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam is provided for interrogating the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam is provided to intersect the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis. 2 figs.

  12. Laser preheat enhanced ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, J.W.

    1999-03-02

    A method for enhancing fuel ignition performance by preheating the fuel with laser light at a wavelength that is absorbable by the fuel prior to ignition with a second laser is provided. 11 figs.

  13. Direct nuclear pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miley, George H.; Wells, William E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

  14. Waveguide gas laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zedong, C.

    1982-05-01

    Waveguide gas lasers are described. Transmission loss of hollow tube light waveguides, coupling loss, the calculation of output power, and the width of the oscillation belt are discussed. The structure of a waveguide CO/sub 2/ laser is described.

  15. Dynamic granularity of imaging systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geissel, Matthias; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathon E.; Porter, John L.

    2015-11-04

    Imaging systems that include a specific source, imaging concept, geometry, and detector have unique properties such as signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, spatial resolution, distortions, and contrast. Some of these properties are inherently connected, particularly dynamic range and spatial resolution. It must be emphasized that spatial resolution is not a single number but must be seen in the context of dynamic range and consequently is better described by a function or distribution. We introduce the “dynamic granularity” Gdyn as a standardized, objective relation between a detector’s spatial resolution (granularity) and dynamic range for complex imaging systems in a given environment rathermore » than the widely found characterization of detectors such as cameras or films by themselves. We found that this relation can partly be explained through consideration of the signal’s photon statistics, background noise, and detector sensitivity, but a comprehensive description including some unpredictable data such as dust, damages, or an unknown spectral distribution will ultimately have to be based on measurements. Measured dynamic granularities can be objectively used to assess the limits of an imaging system’s performance including all contributing noise sources and to qualify the influence of alternative components within an imaging system. Our article explains the construction criteria to formulate a dynamic granularity and compares measured dynamic granularities for different detectors used in the X-ray backlighting scheme employed at Sandia’s Z-Backlighter facility.« less

  16. Dynamic granularity of imaging systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geissel, Matthias; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathon E.; Porter, John L.

    2015-11-04

    Imaging systems that include a specific source, imaging concept, geometry, and detector have unique properties such as signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, spatial resolution, distortions, and contrast. Some of these properties are inherently connected, particularly dynamic range and spatial resolution. It must be emphasized that spatial resolution is not a single number but must be seen in the context of dynamic range and consequently is better described by a function or distribution. We introduce the dynamic granularity Gdyn as a standardized, objective relation between a detectors spatial resolution (granularity) and dynamic range for complex imaging systems in a given environment rather than the widely found characterization of detectors such as cameras or films by themselves. We found that this relation can partly be explained through consideration of the signals photon statistics, background noise, and detector sensitivity, but a comprehensive description including some unpredictable data such as dust, damages, or an unknown spectral distribution will ultimately have to be based on measurements. Measured dynamic granularities can be objectively used to assess the limits of an imaging systems performance including all contributing noise sources and to qualify the influence of alternative components within an imaging system. Our article explains the construction criteria to formulate a dynamic granularity and compares measured dynamic granularities for different detectors used in the X-ray backlighting scheme employed at Sandias Z-Backlighter facility.

  17. Short wavelength laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, Peter L.

    1986-01-01

    A short wavelength laser (28) is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses (30, 31). A multiplicity of panels (32), mounted on substrates (34), are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path (42). When the panels (32) are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses (30, 31), single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses (44, 46) are produced.

  18. Laser cutting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  19. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  20. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.; Dragon, Ernest P.; Warner, Bruce E.

    1998-01-01

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialogroaphic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone.

  1. Laser material processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dantus, Marcos

    2015-04-28

    A laser material processing system and method are provided. A further aspect of the present invention employs a laser for micromachining. In another aspect of the present invention, the system uses a hollow waveguide. In another aspect of the present invention, a laser beam pulse is given broad bandwidth for workpiece modification.

  2. Laser Programs Highlights 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowdermilk, H.; Cassady, C.

    1999-12-01

    This report covers the following topics: Commentary; Laser Programs; Inertial Confinement Fusion/National Ignition Facility (ICF/NIF); Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS); Laser Science and Technology (LS&T); Information Science and Technology Program (IS&T); Strategic Materials Applications Program (SMAP); Medical Technology Program (MTP) and Awards.

  3. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  4. LaserFest Celebration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Alan Chodos; Elizabeth A. Rogan

    2011-08-25

    LaserFest was the yearlong celebration, during 2010, of the 50th anniversary of the demonstration of the first working laser. The goals of LaserFest were: to highlight the impact of the laser in its manifold commercial, industrial and medical applications, and as a tool for ongoing scientific research; to use the laser as one example that illustrates, more generally, the route from scientific innovation to technological application; to use the laser as a vehicle for outreach, to stimulate interest among students and the public in aspects of physical science; to recognize and honor the pioneers who developed the laser and its many applications; to increase awareness among policymakers of the importance of R&D funding as evidenced by such technology as lasers. One way in which LaserFest sought to meet its goals was to encourage relevant activities at a local level all across the country -- and also abroad -- that would be identified with the larger purposes of the celebration and would carry the LaserFest name. Organizers were encouraged to record and advertise these events through a continually updated web-based calendar. Four projects were explicitly detailed in the proposals: 1) LaserFest on the Road; 2) Videos; 3) Educational material; and 4) Laser Days.

  5. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esherick, Peter; Owyoung, Adelbert

    1988-01-01

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other.

  6. Observation of laser multiple filamentation process and multiple electron beams acceleration in a laser wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wentao; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Wentao; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-11-15

    The multiple filaments formation process in the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) was observed by imaging the transmitted laser beam after propagating in the plasma of different density. During propagation, the laser first self-focused into a single filament. After that, it began to defocus with energy spreading in the transverse direction. Two filaments then formed from it and began to propagate independently, moving away from each other. We have also demonstrated that the laser multiple filamentation would lead to the multiple electron beams acceleration in the LWFA via ionization-induced injection scheme. Besides, its influences on the accelerated electron beams were also analyzed both in the single-stage LWFA and cascaded LWFA.

  7. Resolute Marine Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resolute Marine Energy Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Resolute Marine Energy Inc Address: 3 Post Office Square 3rd floor Place: Massachusetts Country: United States Zip:...

  8. Image Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Image Gallery News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries Image Gallery Video Gallery ESnet Awards and Honors Contact Us Media Jon Bashor, ...

  9. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  10. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser We have demonstrated flash diffractive imaging of nanostructures using pulses from the first soft-X-ray free-electron...

  11. Trident Laser Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trident Laser Facility Trident Laser Facility Enabling world-class science in high-energy density physics and fundamental laser-matter interactions April 12, 2012 Invisible infrared light from the 200-trillion watt Trident Laser enters from the bottom to interact with a one-micrometer thick foil target in the center of the photo. The laser pulse produces a plasma - an ionized gas - many times hotter than the center of the sun, which lasts for a trillionth of a second. During this time some

  12. X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  13. Microbial Cell Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Sullivan, Claretta; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is finding increasing application in a variety of fields including microbiology. Until the emergence of AFM, techniques for ivnestigating processes in single microbes were limited. From a biologist's perspective, the fact that AFM can be used to generate high-resolution images in buffers or media is its most appealing feature as live-cell imaging can be pursued. Imaging living cells by AFM allows dynamic biological events to be studied, at the nanoscale, in real time. Few areas of biological research have as much to gain as microbiology from the application of AFM. Whereas the scale of microbes places them near the limit of resolution for light microscopy. AFM is well suited for the study of structures on the order of a micron or less. Although electron microscopy techniques have been the standard for high-resolution imaging of microbes, AFM is quickly gaining favor for several reasons. First, fixatives that impair biological activity are not required. Second, AFM is capable of detecting forces in the pN range, and precise control of the force applied to the cantilever can be maintained. This combination facilitates the evaluation of physical characteristics of microbes. Third, rather than yielding the composite, statistical average of cell populations, as is the case with many biochemical assays, the behavior of single cells can be monitored. Despite the potential of AFM in microbiology, there are several limitations that must be considered. For example, the time required to record an image allows for the study of gross events such as cell division or membrane degradation from an antibiotic but precludes the evaluation of biological reactions and events that happen in just fractions of a second. Additionally, the AFM is a topographical tool and is restricted to imaging surfaces. Therefore, it cannot be used to look inside cells as with opticla and transmission electron microscopes. other practical considerations are the limitation on the maximum scan size (roughly 100 x 100 {mu}m) and the restricted movement of the cantilever in the Z (or height) direction. In most commercial AFMs, the Z range is restricted to roughly 10 {mu}m such that the height of cells to be imaged must be seriously considered. Nevertheless, AFM can provide structural-functional information at nanometer resolution and do so in physiologically relevant environments. Further, instrumentation for scanning probe microscopy continues to advance. Systems for high-speed imaging are becoming available, and techniques for looking inside the cells are being demonstrated. The ability to combine AFM with other imaging modalities is likely to have an even greater impact on microbiological studies. AFM studies of intact microbial cells started to appear in the literature in the 1990s. For example, AFM studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae examined buddings cars after cell division and detailed changes related to cell growth processes. Also, the first AFM studies of bacterial biofilms appeared. In the late 1990s, AFM studies of intact fungal spores described clear changes in spore surfaces upon germination, and studies of individual bacterial cells were also described. These early bacterial imaging studies examined changes in bacterial morphology due to antimicrobial peptides exposure and bacterial adhesion properties. The majority of these early studies were carried out on dried samples and took advantage of the resolving power of AFM. The lack of cell mounting procedures presented an impediment for cell imaging studies. Subsequently, several approaches to mounting microbial cells have been developed, and these techniques are described later. Also highlighted are general considerations for microbial imaging and a description of some of the various applications of AFM to microbiology.

  14. Laser sources and techniques for spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, A.H.

    1993-12-01

    This program focuses on the development of novel laser and spectroscopic techniques in the IR, UV, and VUV regions for studying combustion related molecular dynamics at the microscopic level. Laser spectroscopic techniques have proven to be extremely powerful in the investigation of molecular processes which require very high sensitivity and selectivity. The authors approach is to use quantum electronic and non-linear optical techniques to extend the spectral coverage and to enhance the optical power of ultrahigh resolution laser sources so as to obtain and analyze photoionization, fluorescence, and photoelectron spectra of jet-cooled free radicals and of reaction products resulting from unimolecular and bimolecular dissociations. New spectroscopic techniques are developed with these sources for the detection of optically thin and often short-lived species. Recent activities center on regenerative amplification of high resolution solid-state lasers, development of tunable high power mid-IR lasers and short-pulse UV/VUV tunable lasers, and development of a multipurpose high-order suppressor crossed molecular beam apparatus for use with synchrotron radiation sources. This program also provides scientific and technical support within the Chemical Sciences Division to the development of LBL`s Combustion Dynamics Initiative.

  15. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution This paper describes a new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer, which can be used in combination with gated x-ray detectors to obtain spectra from

  16. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dantus, Marcos; Lozovoy, Vadim V.; Comstock, Matthew

    2009-10-27

    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  17. Airborne Open Polar/Imaging Nephelometer for Ice Particles in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of the choice of a high-power, stabilized-pulsed laser, ... 2. Schematic of the systems in the active pylon. ... signal-to-noise ratio, image quality, stability, etc. ...

  18. Conflict Prevention & Resolution | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Resolution Conflict Prevention & Resolution The Secretary of Energy expresses support of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and the DOE annual celebration of Conflict Resolution Day held on the third Thursday of October. OHA's Office of Conflict Prevention and Resolution (OCPR) serves as a resource to all DOE components and contractors to explore efficient and cost-effective means of preventing conflicts and resolving disputes, without the formalities and costs of litigation. The

  19. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel; Den-Ben, Xos Lus

    2014-10-27

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  20. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Print The last step in converting the genetic information stored in DNA into the major functional parts of cells is protein biosynthesis. Protein synthesis occurs on the ribosome, a cellular factory found in all forms of life. In contrast to most cellular machines, the ribosome contains a functional core of RNA that is enhanced by ribosomal proteins and accessory factors. Two structures of the intact ribosome from the common bacterium Escherichia coli,

  1. TENTATIVE RESOLUTION OF DISPUTE AND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RESOLUTION OF DISPUTE AND CONCLUSION OF NEGOTIATIONS AGREEMENT REGARDING SINGLE-SHELL TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ACCELERATED WASTE RETRIEVAL AND CLOSURE DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Parties) have concluded negotiations intended to resolve Ecology and DOE's dispute regarding Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party

  2. Radiometry High Spectral Resolution Fourier

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Spectral Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Instruments for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program H. E. Revercomb, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, R. A. Herbsleb, and J. F. Short University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin H. B. Howell National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Systems Design and Applications Branch Madison, Wisconsin D. Murcray and F. Murcray University of Denver Denver, Colorado Accurate and spectrally detailed

  3. Relay telescope for high power laser alignment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2006-09-19

    A laser system includes an optical path having an intracavity relay telescope with a telescope focal point for imaging an output of the gain medium between an image location at or near the gain medium and an image location at or near an output coupler for the laser system. A kinematic mount is provided within a vacuum chamber, and adapted to secure beam baffles near the telescope focal point. An access port on the vacuum chamber is adapted for allowing insertion and removal of the beam baffles. A first baffle formed using an alignment pinhole aperture is used during alignment of the laser system. A second tapered baffle replaces the alignment aperture during operation and acts as a far-field baffle in which off angle beams strike the baffle a grazing angle of incidence, reducing fluence levels at the impact areas.

  4. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siekhaus, W.

    1985-02-04

    Disclosed is an apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities. The apparatus comprises a focused and pulsed laser, a photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  5. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  6. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  7. Synthetic laser medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  8. Synthetic laser medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  9. Micro-laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Richards, Roger K.

    2003-07-22

    A micro-laser is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide and at least one amplifying medium in the waveguide. PBG features are positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings and allow introduction of amplifying mediums into the highly resonant guided micro-laser microcavity. The micro-laser may be positioned on a die of a bulk substrate material with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a micro-laser is disclosed. A method for tuning the micro-laser is also disclosed. The micro-laser may be used as an optical regenerator, or a light source for data transfer or for optical computing.

  10. design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National Ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facility | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility By John Greenwald November 16, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Kenneth Hill and Manfred Bitter inspect an X-ray crystal spectrometer to be used to study OMEGA EP laser-produced plasmas. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) Kenneth Hill and Manfred Bitter inspect an X-ray crystal spectrometer to be used to study OMEGA EP laser-produced plasmas.

  11. Nanoscopic Manipulation and Imaging of Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenblatt, Charles S.

    2014-02-04

    This is the final project report. The projects goals centered on nanoscopic imaging and control of liquid crystals and surfaces. We developed and refined techniques to control liquid crystal orientation at surfaces with resolution as small as 25 nm, we developed an optical imaging technique that we call Optical Nanotomography that allows us to obtain images inside liquid crystal films with resolution of 60 x 60 x 1 nm, and we opened new thrust areas related to chirality and to liquid crystal/colloid composites.

  12. Precision laser aiming system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  13. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  14. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  15. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jassby, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  16. Lasers in materials processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.I.; Rockower, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    A status report on the uranium Laser Isotope Separation (LIS) Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented. Prior to this status report, process economic analysis is presented so as to understand how the unique properties of laser photons can be best utilized in the production of materials and components despite the high cost of laser energy. The characteristics of potential applications that are necessary for success are identified, and those factors that have up to now frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser induced chemical and physical process for the production of new or existing materials are pointed out.

  17. Fluorinated laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.

    1992-01-01

    A novel class of dye is disclosed which is particularly efficient and stable for dye laser applications, lasing between 540 and 570 nm.

  18. Optical amplifiers and lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klimov, Victor I.; Mikhailovski, Alexandre; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Leatherdale, Catherine A.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2004-11-16

    An optical amplifier and laser having both broad band and wide range specific band capability can be based on semiconductor nanocrystal solids.

  19. Novel fluorinated laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A novel class of dye is disclosed which is particularly efficient and stable for dye laser applications, lasing between 540 and 570 nm.

  20. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deri, R. J.

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  1. Characteristic x-ray emission from undermines plasmas irradiated by ultra-intense lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, Christoph

    2012-05-05

    Between FY09 and FY11 we have conducted more than a dozen three-week experimental campaigns at high-power laser facilities around the world to investigate laser-channeling through x-ray and optical imaging and the conversion from laser-energy to xrays. We have performed simultaneous two-wavelength x-ray imaging (K-alpha and He-alpha) to distinguish the hot-plasma region (hot-spot) from the laser-produced electrons (K-alpha). In addition, we have initiated a new collaboration with SNL and have performed first shots on the 100 TW beamlet chamber to commission a fast x-ray streak camera to be used to investigate the temporal evolution of our K-alpha sources. We also collaborated on campaigns at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) and the LANL Trident laser to employ laser produced x-ray sources for Thomson scattering off dense matter.

  2. OMEGA EP Laser Dedication Movie - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dedication Movie - Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laboratory for Laser Energetics Logo Search Home Around the Lab Past Issues Past Quick Shots About Office of the Director Map to ...

  3. The effects of digital elevation model resolution on the calculation and predictions of topographic wetness indices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drover, Damion, Ryan

    2011-12-01

    One of the largest exports in the Southeast U.S. is forest products. Interest in biofuels using forest biomass has increased recently, leading to more research into better forest management BMPs. The USDA Forest Service, along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Georgia and Oregon State University are researching the impacts of intensive forest management for biofuels on water quality and quantity at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Surface runoff of saturated areas, transporting excess nutrients and contaminants, is a potential water quality issue under investigation. Detailed maps of variable source areas and soil characteristics would therefore be helpful prior to treatment. The availability of remotely sensed and computed digital elevation models (DEMs) and spatial analysis tools make it easy to calculate terrain attributes. These terrain attributes can be used in models to predict saturated areas or other attributes in the landscape. With laser altimetry, an area can be flown to produce very high resolution data, and the resulting data can be resampled into any resolution of DEM desired. Additionally, there exist many maps that are in various resolutions of DEM, such as those acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. Problems arise when using maps derived from different resolution DEMs. For example, saturated areas can be under or overestimated depending on the resolution used. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEM resolution on the calculation of topographic wetness indices used to predict variable source areas of saturation, and to find the best resolutions to produce prediction maps of soil attributes like nitrogen, carbon, bulk density and soil texture for low-relief, humid-temperate forested hillslopes. Topographic wetness indices were calculated based on the derived terrain attributes, slope and specific catchment area, from five different DEM resolutions. The DEMs were resampled from LiDAR, which is a laser altimetry remote sensing method, obtained from the USDA Forest Service at Savannah River Site. The specific DEM resolutions were chosen because they are common grid cell sizes (10m, 30m, and 50m) used in mapping for management applications and in research. The finer resolutions (2m and 5m) were chosen for the purpose of determining how finer resolutions performed compared with coarser resolutions at predicting wetness and related soil attributes. The wetness indices were compared across DEMs and with each other in terms of quantile and distribution differences, then in terms of how well they each correlated with measured soil attributes. Spatial and non-spatial analyses were performed, and predictions using regression and geostatistics were examined for efficacy relative to each DEM resolution. Trends in the raw data and analysis results were also revealed.

  4. Laser Program annual report 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neal, E.M.; Murphy, P.W.; Canada, J.A.; Kirvel, R.D.; Peck, T.; Price, M.E.; Prono, J.K.; Reid, S.G.; Wallerstein, L.; Wright, T.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics: target design and experiments; target materials development; laboratory x-ray lasers; laser science and technology; high-average-power solid state lasers; and ICF applications studies.

  5. Documentation - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - Laser Drivers Index S.O. 4: Laser Drivers Shot Operation Procedure Index (S-OM-M-015) LDO Shot Preparation Checklists S.O. 4-1: Laser Drivers Operator's Shot Preparation ...

  6. Documentation - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamlines Daily Securing Checklist (S-AB-P-482) EP Bay and OAA Securing Walkthrough (S-AB-P-582) Laser StartupShutdown LOTF Laser Startup (S-AB-P-038) LOTF Laser Shutdown ...

  7. Photoacoustic phasoscopy super-contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2014-05-26

    Phasoscopy is a recently proposed concept correlating electromagnetic (EM) absorption and scattering properties based on energy conservation. Phase information can be extracted from EM absorption induced acoustic wave and scattered EM wave for biological tissue characterization. In this paper, an imaging modality, termed photoacoustic phasoscopy imaging (PAPS), is proposed and verified experimentally based on phasoscopy concept with laser illumination. Both endogenous photoacoustic wave and scattered photons are collected simultaneously to extract the phase information. The PAPS images are then reconstructed on vessel-mimicking phantom and ex vivo porcine tissues to show significantly improved contrast than conventional photoacoustic imaging.

  8. Laser peening with fiber optic delivery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, Herbert W.; Ault, Earl R.; Scheibner, Karl F.

    2004-11-16

    A system for processing a workpiece using a laser. The laser produces at least one laser pulse. A laser processing unit is used to process the workpiece using the at least one laser pulse. A fiber optic cable is used for transmitting the at least one laser pulse from the laser to the laser processing unit.

  9. Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser explores promise of carbon nanotubes |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Free-Electron Laser explores promise of carbon nanotubes Webs of nanotubes on collector plates Webs of nanotubes form on collector plates during the collaboration's FEL experiment (image not actual size). Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser explores promise of carbon nanotubes By James Schultz January 27, 2003 Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser used to explore the fundamental science of how and why nanotubes form, paying close attention to the atomic and molecular details

  10. Image alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  11. Documentation - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chapter 1 - Laser Sources Operations Procedures Start UpShut Down Procedures Support Procedures Maintenance Procedures Maintenance Procedures -Laser System Maintenance ...

  12. Laser-induced incandescence (LII)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare Laser-induced incandescence (LII) HomeClimate & Earth SystemsClimate Measurement & ModelingLaser-induced incandescence (LII) ...

  13. Documentation - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the OMEGA Associate Laser Facility Manager. For additional information contact: Director's Administrator University of Rochester - Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 E. River ...

  14. Laser Catalyst - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Laser Catalyst Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's Laser Catalyst is a method for ...

  15. Documentation - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... to the OMEGA Associate Laser Facility Manager. For additional information contact: Director's Administrator University of Rochester - Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 E. River ...

  16. Documentation - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Bay Structure Cleaning Procedures Clean Rod Amplifier Structures (S-SM-P-336) Clean ... Address document comments, questions and corrections to the OMEGA Associate Laser Facility ...

  17. Laser Manufacturing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home > Impact > Advanced Laser Manufacturing Tools Deliver Higher Performance Click to ... Advanced Laser Manufacturing Tools Deliver Higher Performance In a research lab looking ...

  18. Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Enabling the next generation of intense particle accelerators Contact Juan Fernandez (505) 667-6575 ...

  19. Documentation - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OMEGAEP Laser Facility Roof Access Checklist (S-AB-P-591) ... For additional information contact: Director's Administrator University of Rochester - Laboratory for Laser ...

  20. STEAB Resolution 06-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STATE ENERGY ADVISORY BOARD Resolution 06-01 ISSUE Movement of the Weatherization Assistance Program from the U.S. Department of Energy to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. BACKGROUND The Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is funded and managed through the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The WAP was created in 1976 to assist low-income families who lacked resources to invest in energy efficiency. WAP is