National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for resolution global irradiance

  1. Year Global Normal Irradiance Direct Normal Irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Year Global Normal Irradiance Direct Normal Irradiance (TMY3 = 6.7) Global Horizontal Irradiance** (TMY3 = 5.43) Latitude Tilt Irradiance** Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (TMY3 = 1.46) Peak GNI (1-hr avg) Peak DNI (1-hr avg) Peak GHI (1-hr avg) Peak Lat.Tilt (1-hr avg) TMY2 8.8 6.7 5.6 6.4 1.6 - - - - 2015 8.26 6.58 5.29 6.07 1.34 1167 1067 1090 1208 2014 8.85 7.10 5.54 6.40 1.28 1176 1083 1098 1196 2013 8.82 7.23 5.59 6.63 1.24 1192 1076 1093 1182 2012 9.17 7.41 5.69 6.65 1.21 1177 1080 1091

  2. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New ...

  3. Spatial disaggregation of satellite-derived irradiance using a high-resolution digital elevation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Arias, Jose A.; Tovar-Pescador, Joaquin; Cebecauer, Tomas; Suri, Marcel

    2010-09-15

    Downscaling of the Meteosat-derived solar radiation ({proportional_to}5 km grid resolution) is based on decomposing the global irradiance and correcting the systematic bias of its components using the elevation and horizon shadowing that are derived from the SRTM-3 digital elevation model (3 arc sec resolution). The procedure first applies the elevation correction based on the difference between coarse and high spatial resolution. Global irradiance is split into direct, diffuse circumsolar and diffuse isotropic components using statistical models, and then corrections due to terrain shading and sky-view fraction are applied. The effect of reflected irradiance is analysed only in the theoretical section. The method was applied in the eastern Andalusia, Spain, and the validation was carried out for 22 days on April, July and December 2006 comparing 15-min estimates of the satellite-derived solar irradiance and observations from nine ground stations. Overall, the corrections of the satellite estimates in the studied region strongly reduced the mean bias of the estimates for clear and cloudy days from roughly 2.3% to 0.4%. (author)

  4. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New Golden Age November 12, 2014 Contact: Julie Chao, jchao@lbl.gov, 510.486.6491 wehnerclimate2 Simulated and observed annual maximum 5 day accumulated precipitation over land points, averaged. Observations are calculated from the period 1979 to 1999. Model results are calculated from the period 1979 to 2005. Not long ago,

  5. LandScan 2013 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  6. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  7. Towards a Fine-Resolution Global Coupled Climate System for Prediction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    System for Prediction on DecadalCentennial Scales Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards a Fine-Resolution Global Coupled Climate System for Prediction on Decadal...

  8. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decomposition models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.

  9. LandScan 2000 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-12-31

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  10. LandScan 2004 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  11. LandScan 2008 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  12. LandScan 2003 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  13. LandScan 2010 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  14. LandScan 2002 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  15. LandScan 2007 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  16. LandScan 2009 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  17. LandScan 2006 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  18. LandScan 2011 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-11-19

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  19. LandScan 2005 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  20. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco; Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  1. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decompositionmore » models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.« less

  2. LandScan 2014 High-Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  3. Towards Direct Simulation of Future Tropical Cyclone Statistics in a High-Resolution Global Atmospheric Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Bala, G.; Duffy, Phillip; Mirin, Arthur A.; Romano, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    We present a set of high-resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations focusing on the model's ability to represent tropical storms and their statistics. We find that the model produces storms of hurricane strength with realistic dynamical features. We also find that tropical storm statistics are reasonable, both globally and in the north Atlantic, when compared to recent observations. The sensitivity of simulated tropical storm statistics to increases in sea surface temperature (SST) is also investigated, revealing that a credible late 21st century SST increase produced increases in simulated tropical storm numbers and intensities in all ocean basins. Whilemore » this paper supports previous high-resolution model and theoretical findings that the frequency of very intense storms will increase in a warmer climate, it differs notably from previous medium and high-resolution model studies that show a global reduction in total tropical storm frequency. However, we are quick to point out that this particular model finding remains speculative due to a lack of radiative forcing changes in our time-slice experiments as well as a focus on the Northern hemisphere tropical storm seasons.« less

  4. A Global Climate Model Agent for High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Lynn S.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Henry, Michael J.; Palmer, Bruce J.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Dazlich, Donald A.; Heikes, Ross P.; Randall, David

    2015-02-01

    Fine cell granularity in modern climate models can produce terabytes of data in each snapshot, causing significant I/O overhead. To address this issue, a method of reducing the I/O latency of high-resolution climate models by identifying and selectively outputting regions of interest is presented. Working with a Global Cloud Resolving Model and running with up to 10240 processors on a Cray XE6, this method provides significant I/O bandwidth reduction depending on the frequency of writes and size of the region of interest. The implementation challenges of determining global parameters in a strictly core-localized model and properly formatting output files that only contain subsections of the global grid are addressed, as well as the overall bandwidth impact and benefits of the method. The gains in I/O throughput provided by this method allow dual output rates for high-resolution climate models: a low-frequency global snapshot as well as a high-frequency regional snapshot when events of particular interest occur.

  5. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Lundgren, E.; Andrews, A. E.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; et al

    2015-06-30

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a totalmore » methane source of 539 Tg a−1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a−1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a−1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a−1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern–central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29–44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11–15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a−1.« less

  6. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; et al

    2015-02-18

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to constrain global and North American inversions of methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. The GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface networks (NOAA, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/DOE, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. The surface and aircraft data are subsequently usedmore » for independent evaluation of the methane source inversions. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a total methane source of 539 Tg a−1 and points to a large East Asian overestimate in the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide full error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a−1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a−1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a−1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the South-Central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands, large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. We attribute 29–44% of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31% to oil/gas, 20% to landfills/waste water, and 11–15% to coal with an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a−1 source from wetlands.« less

  7. Collaborative Proposal: Transforming How Climate System Models are Used: A Global, Multi-Resolution Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estep, Donald

    2013-04-15

    Despite the great interest in regional modeling for both weather and climate applications, regional modeling is not yet at the stage that it can be used routinely and effectively for climate modeling of the ocean. The overarching goal of this project is to transform how climate models are used by developing and implementing a robust, efficient, and accurate global approach to regional ocean modeling. To achieve this goal, we will use theoretical and computational means to resolve several basic modeling and algorithmic issues. The first task is to develop techniques for transitioning between parameterized and high-fidelity regional ocean models as the discretization grid transitions from coarse to fine regions. The second task is to develop estimates for the error in scientifically relevant quantities of interest that provide a systematic way to automatically determine where refinement is needed in order to obtain accurate simulations of dynamic and tracer transport in regional ocean models. The third task is to develop efficient, accurate, and robust time-stepping schemes for variable spatial resolution discretizations used in regional ocean models of dynamics and tracer transport. The fourth task is to develop frequency-dependent eddy viscosity finite element and discontinuous Galerkin methods and study their performance and effectiveness for simulation of dynamics and tracer transport in regional ocean models. These four projects share common difficulties and will be approach using a common computational and mathematical toolbox. This is a multidisciplinary project involving faculty and postdocs from Colorado State University, Florida State University, and Penn State University along with scientists from Los Alamos National Laboratory. The completion of the tasks listed within the discussion of the four sub-projects will go a long way towards meeting our goal of developing superior regional ocean models that will transform how climate system models are used.

  8. LandScan 2012 High Resolution Global Population DataSet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-17

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x20" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts at sub-national level were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets.

  9. LandScan 2001 High-Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  10. Managing the global commons decision making and conflict resolution in response to climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S. ); Naegeli, W.; Lund, P. )

    1990-07-01

    A workshop was convened to develop a better understanding of decision-making matters concerning management of the global commons and to resolve conflicts in response to climate change. This workshop report does not provide a narrative of the proceedings. The workshop program is included, as are the abstracts of the papers that were presented. Only the introductory paper on social science research by William Riebsame and the closing summary by Richard Rockwell are reprinted here. This brief report focuses instead on the deliberations of the working groups that developed during the workshop. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

    2006-06-20

    The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

  12. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Permalink EC, DHS's S&T Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency: SUMMIT Analysis, Capabilities, Facilities, Global, Infrastructure Security, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, NISAC, Partnership, Research & Capabilities EC, DHS's S&T Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency: SUMMIT Natural disasters create emergency situations that must be dealt with quickly and effectively in order to minimize injury and loss of life. Simulating such events before they occur can

  13. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global axisymmetric simulations of two-fluid reconnection in an experimentally relevant geometry N. A. Murphy 1,2,a͒ and C. R. Sovinec 2,3 1 Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 2 Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 3 Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ͑Received 18 January 2008; accepted 12 March

  14. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  15. High-Resolution Global Modeling of the Effects of Subgrid-Scale Clouds and Turbulence on Precipitating Cloud Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogenschutz, Peter; Moeng, Chin-Hoh

    2015-10-13

    The PI’s at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Chin-Hoh Moeng and Peter Bogenschutz, have primarily focused their time on the implementation of the Simplified-Higher Order Turbulence Closure (SHOC; Bogenschutz and Krueger 2013) to the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) global model and testing of SHOC on deep convective cloud regimes.

  16. Multi-institutional Feasibility Study of a Fast Patient Localization Method in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy: A Global Health Initiative by the International Consortium of Total Marrow Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Vagge, Stefano; Agostinelli, Stefano; Han, Eunyoung; Matulewicz, Lukasz; Schubert, Kai; Chityala, Ravishankar; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat; Tournel, Koen; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Florian, Sterzing; Mahe, Marc-Andre; Verneris, Michael R.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; and others

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, characterize, and implement a fast patient localization method for total marrow irradiation. Methods and Materials: Topographic images were acquired using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector data by delivering static orthogonal beams while the couch traversed through the gantry. Geometric and detector response corrections were performed to generate a megavoltage topogram (MVtopo). We also generated kilovoltage topograms (kVtopo) from the projection data of 3-dimensional CT images to reproduce the same geometry as helical tomotherapy. The MVtopo imaging dose and the optimal image acquisition parameters were investigated. A multi-institutional phantom study was performed to verify the image registration uncertainty. Forty-five MVtopo images were acquired and analyzed with in-house image registration software. Results: The smallest jaw size (front and backup jaws of 0) provided the best image contrast and longitudinal resolution. Couch velocity did not affect the image quality or geometric accuracy. The MVtopo dose was less than the MVCT dose. The image registration uncertainty from the multi-institutional study was within 2.8 mm. In patient localization, the differences in calculated couch shift between the registration with MVtopo-kVtopo and MVCT-kVCT images in lateral, cranial–caudal, and vertical directions were 2.2 ± 1.7 mm, 2.6 ± 1.4 mm, and 2.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The imaging time in MVtopo acquisition at the couch speed of 3 cm/s was <1 minute, compared with ≥15 minutes in MVCT for all patients. Conclusion: Whole-body MVtopo imaging could be an effective alternative to time-consuming MVCT for total marrow irradiation patient localization.

  17. A semiparametric spatio-temporal model for solar irradiance data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patrick, Joshua D.; Harvill, Jane L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we evaluate semiparametric spatio-temporal models for global horizontal irradiance at high spatial and temporal resolution. These models represent the spatial domain as a lattice and are capable of predicting irradiance at lattice points, given data measured at other lattice points. Using data from a 1.2 MW PV plant located in Lanai, Hawaii, we show that a semiparametric model can be more accurate than simple interpolation between sensor locations. We investigate spatio-temporal models with separable and nonseparable covariance structures and find no evidence to support assuming a separable covariance structure. These results indicate a promising approach for modeling irradiance atmore » high spatial resolution consistent with available ground-based measurements. Moreover, this kind of modeling may find application in design, valuation, and operation of fleets of utility-scale photovoltaic power systems.« less

  18. HIGH-RESOLUTION CALCULATION OF THE SOLAR GLOBAL CONVECTION WITH THE REDUCED SPEED OF SOUND TECHNIQUE. II. NEAR SURFACE SHEAR LAYER WITH THE ROTATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hotta, H.; Rempel, M.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-resolution, highly stratified numerical simulation of rotating thermal convection in a spherical shell. Our aim is to study in detail the processes that can maintain a near surface shear layer (NSSL) as inferred from helioseismology. Using the reduced speed of sound technique, we can extend our global convection simulation to 0.99 R {sub ?} and include, near the top of our domain, small-scale convection with short timescales that is only weakly influenced by rotation. We find the formation of an NSSL preferentially in high latitudes in the depth range of r = 0.95-0.975 R {sub ?}. The maintenance mechanisms are summarized as follows. Convection under the weak influence of rotation leads to Reynolds stresses that transport angular momentum radially inward in all latitudes. This leads to the formation of a strong poleward-directed meridional flow and an NSSL, which is balanced in the meridional plane by forces resulting from the ?v{sub r}{sup ?}v{sub ?}{sup ?}? correlation of turbulent velocities. The origin of the required correlations depends to some degree on latitude. In high latitudes, a positive correlation ?v{sub r}{sup ?}v{sub ?}{sup ?}? is induced in the NSSL by the poleward meridional flow whose amplitude increases with the radius, while a negative correlation is generated by the Coriolis force in bulk of the convection zone. In low latitudes, a positive correlation ?v{sub r}{sup ?}v{sub ?}{sup ?}? results from rotationally aligned convection cells ({sup b}anana cells{sup )}. The force caused by these Reynolds stresses is in balance with the Coriolis force in the NSSL.

  19. Details of the response of Kodak high resolution plate to x-irradiation for the characterization of ICF targets and components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, A.J.; Simms, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiographic images are used in the characterization of Internal Confinement Fusion targets and target components. The use of this technique involves consideration of: (1) the continuum and line emission source spectra produced by a tungsten anode, (2) the attenuation of the source spectrum by material in the x-ray path, and (3) the response of the x-ray detector, a Kodak HRP (High Resolution Plate), to the incident x-ray flux. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  1. Solids irradiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Marvin E.; Pierce, Jim D.; Whitfield, Willis J.

    1979-01-01

    A novel facility for irradiation of solids embodying pathogens wherein solids are conveyed through an irradiation chamber in individual containers of an endless conveyor.

  2. High-resolution wave-theory-based ultrasound reflection imaging using the split-step fourier and globally optimized fourier finite-difference methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Lianjie

    2013-10-29

    Methods for enhancing ultrasonic reflection imaging are taught utilizing a split-step Fourier propagator in which the reconstruction is based on recursive inward continuation of ultrasonic wavefields in the frequency-space and frequency-wave number domains. The inward continuation within each extrapolation interval consists of two steps. In the first step, a phase-shift term is applied to the data in the frequency-wave number domain for propagation in a reference medium. The second step consists of applying another phase-shift term to data in the frequency-space domain to approximately compensate for ultrasonic scattering effects of heterogeneities within the tissue being imaged (e.g., breast tissue). Results from various data input to the method indicate significant improvements are provided in both image quality and resolution.

  3. Global warming, global research, and global governing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preining, O.

    1997-12-31

    The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

  4. Tissue irradiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  5. Irradiation subassembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  6. Analysis of clear hour solar irradiation for seven Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.; Sahami, K.

    1995-12-31

    Hourly global and diffuse irradiation and corresponding surface meteorological data have been analyzed for the seven Canadian stations at Edmonton, Goose Bay, Montreal, Port Hardy, Resolute, Toronto, and Winnipeg. The variation of the most probable clear hour values of clearness index k{sub t}, diffuse index k{sub d}, direct beam index k{sub b}, and Angstrom turbidity coefficient {beta} with solar elevation, atmospheric precipitable water, and snow depth are obtained. Values of these quantities are presented which are consistent with the attenuation and scattering of solar radiation by the atmosphere which is expected. The most probable values of {beta} tend to be lower than the average values of {beta} recently reported by Gueymard. The data indicate a drift in the calibration of the instruments used for measurements of the irradiation data for the stations at Goose Bay and Resolute. The data for the other five stations indicate that the instrument calibration is maintained over the years of the data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating global and North American methane emissions ...

  8. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hual-Te; Kohse, Gordon; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Rempe, Joy

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric transducer and two magnetostrictive transducers have demonstrated reliable operation under irradiation. The irradiation is ongoing.

  9. Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Optimizing the GTC Code for Blue Gene/Q): ALCF-2 Early Science Program Technical Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Global Simulation of Plasma Microturbulence at the Petascale & Beyond (Optimizing the GTC Code for Blue Gene/Q): ALCF-2 Early Science Program Technical Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Global Simulation of Plasma Microturbulence at the Petascale & Beyond (Optimizing the GTC Code for Blue Gene/Q): ALCF-2 Early Science Program Technical Report

  10. Acquisition Conflict Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conflict Resolution At the option of the Supplier, a concern may be brought to the Ombuds Office or may be taken to the Internal Conflict Resolution Process Supplier Concern Internal Resolution Primary Discussion Escalation Steps Senior Review Process Special Assistant Senior Review Group Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-

  11. Dispute Resolution Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is any technique for resolving disputes without resorting to litigation in either an administrative or judicial forum.

  12. Conflict Resolution Day

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Conflict Resolution Day takes a look at mediation, conciliation, negotiation, arbitration, the ombudsman, and facilitation to resolve conflict in the workplace. Employees and contractors are...

  13. Global climate feedbacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  14. Global Arrays

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less

  15. Concurrent in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hattar, K.; Bufford, D. C.; Buller, D. L.

    2014-08-29

    An in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope has been developed and is operational at Sandia National Laboratories. This facility permits high spatial resolution, real time observation of electron transparent samples under ion irradiation, implantation, mechanical loading, corrosive environments, and combinations thereof. This includes the simultaneous implantation of low-energy gas ions (0.8–30 keV) during high-energy heavy ion irradiation (0.8–48 MeV). In addition, initial results in polycrystalline gold foils are provided to demonstrate the range of capabilities.

  16. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  17. Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

    2014-05-01

    This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

  18. Irradiation of Metallic and Oxide Fuels for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacLean, Heather J.; Hayes, Steven L.

    2007-07-01

    Metallic fuels containing minor actinides and rare earth additions have been fabricated and are prepared for irradiation in the ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2007. Oxide fuels containing minor actinides are being fabricated and will be ready for irradiation in ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2008. Fabrication and irradiation of these fuels will provide detailed studies of actinide transmutation in support of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. These fuel irradiations include new fuel compositions that have never before been tested. Results from these tests will provide fundamental data on fuel irradiation performance and will advance the state of knowledge for transmutation fuels. (authors)

  19. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  20. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

  1. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  2. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  3. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  4. High resolution telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  5. Global Home Filesystem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Home Global Home Filesystem Overview Global home directories (or "global homes") provide a convenient means for a user to have access to dotfiles, source files, input files, configuration files, etc., regardless of the platform the user is logged in to. Quotas, Performance, and Usage Default global home quotas are 40 GB and 1,000,000 inodes. Quota increases in global homes are approved only in extremely unusual circumstances; users are encouraged to use the various scratch,

  6. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Global Climate & Energy HomeTag:Global Climate & Energy Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity ...

  7. Sandia Energy - Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Home Analysis Permalink Gallery Results from the Human Resilience Index and Modeling project were reported recently in the National Intelligence Council's Global Trends 2030...

  8. Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global) Place: London, United Kingdom Zip:...

  9. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  10. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  11. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, James Irvin

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  12. High resolution time interval meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  13. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-01-24

    Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

  14. New Global Research Website | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I Want to See... the New Global Research Website Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) I Want to See... the New Global Research Website GE Global Research 2014.03.17 Today, we are excited to unveil the brand new GE Global Research website. You can find this new web destination at geglobalresearch.com. The new

  15. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  16. Heavy-ion irradiation induced diamond formation in carbonaceous materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daulton, T. L.

    1999-01-08

    The basic mechanisms of metastable phase formation produced under highly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions within high-energy particle tracks are investigated. In particular, the possible formation of diamond by heavy-ion irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature is examined. This work was motivated, in part, by earlier studies which discovered nanometer-grain polycrystalline diamond aggregates of submicron-size in uranium-rich carbonaceous mineral assemblages of Precambrian age. It was proposed that the radioactive decay of uranium formed diamond in the fission particle tracks produced in the carbonaceous minerals. To test the hypothesis that nanodiamonds can form by ion irradiation, fine-grain polycrystalline graphite sheets were irradiated with 400 MeV Kr ions. The ion irradiated graphite (and unirradiated graphite control) were then subjected to acid dissolution treatments to remove the graphite and isolate any diamonds that were produced. The acid residues were then characterized by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The acid residues of the ion-irradiated graphite were found to contain ppm concentrations of nanodiamonds, suggesting that ion irradiation of bulk graphite at ambient temperature can produce diamond.

  17. Exploring a Multi-resolution Approach Using AMIP Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakaguchi, Koichi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhao, Chun; Yang, Qing; Lu, Jian; Hagos, Samson M.; Rauscher, Sara; Dong, Li; Ringler, Todd; Lauritzen, P. H.

    2015-07-31

    This study presents a diagnosis of a multi-resolution approach using the Model for Prediction Across Scales - Atmosphere (MPAS-A) for simulating regional climate. Four AMIP experiments are conducted for 1999-2009. In the first two experiments, MPAS-A is configured using global quasi-uniform grids at 120 km and 30 km grid spacing. In the other two experiments, MPAS-A is configured using variable-resolution (VR) mesh with local refinement at 30 km over North America and South America embedded inside a quasi-uniform domain at 120 km elsewhere. Precipitation and related fields in the four simulations are examined to determine how well the VR simulations reproduce the features simulated by the globally high-resolution model in the refined domain. In previous analyses of idealized aqua-planet simulations, the characteristics of the global high-resolution simulation in moist processes only developed near the boundary of the refined region. In contrast, the AMIP simulations with VR grids are able to reproduce the high-resolution characteristics across the refined domain, particularly in South America. This indicates the importance of finely resolved lower-boundary forcing such as topography and surface heterogeneity for the regional climate, and demonstrates the ability of the MPAS-A VR to replicate the large-scale moisture transport as simulated in the quasi-uniform high-resolution model. Outside of the refined domain, some upscale effects are detected through large-scale circulation but the overall climatic signals are not significant at regional scales. Our results provide support for the multi-resolution approach as a computationally efficient and physically consistent method for modeling regional climate.

  18. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  19. BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

    1962-04-24

    A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

  20. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities,more » the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.« less

  1. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities, the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.

  2. Environmental Conflict Resolution | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Environmental Conflict Resolution Environmental Conflict Resolution PDF icon Environmental Conflict Resolution More Documents & Publications Final ECR 2008 Report 2009 ECR FINAL...

  3. The materials test station: a fast spectrum irradiation facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitcher, Eric J.

    2007-07-01

    The Materials Test Station is a fast-neutron spectrum irradiation facility under design at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in support of the United States Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. The facility will be capable of rodlets-scale irradiations of candidate fuel forms being developed to power the next generation of fast reactors. Driven by a powerful proton beam, the fuel irradiation region exhibits a neutron spectrum similar to that seen in a fast reactor, with a peak neutron flux of 1.6 x 10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. Site preparation and construction are estimated to take four years, with a cost range of $60 M to $90 M. (author)

  4. GE Global Research Contact | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1800 Cai Lun Road, Zhangjiang High-Tech Park, Pudong, Shanghai, 201203, China Joey Yang +86 21 38773407 joey.yang@ge.com Communications and Public Relations GE Global...

  5. GE Global Research Locations | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inventio Always Open At GE Global Research, we work around the clock and across the globe to build, power, move and cure the world. Continue to the experience En Bp China...

  6. STEAB Resolution 06-04

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Political favor is being driven by heightened concerns in global climate change, escalating prices in traditional power generation and geopolitical energy security. The positions ...

  7. Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC - (Formerly Venture Global...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC - (Formerly Venture Global LNG, LLC) - 14-88-LNG Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC - (Formerly Venture Global LNG, LLC) - 14-88-LNG The Office ...

  8. Concurrent in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hattar, K.; Bufford, D. C.; Buller, D. L.

    2014-08-29

    An in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope has been developed and is operational at Sandia National Laboratories. This facility permits high spatial resolution, real time observation of electron transparent samples under ion irradiation, implantation, mechanical loading, corrosive environments, and combinations thereof. This includes the simultaneous implantation of low-energy gas ions (0.830 keV) during high-energy heavy ion irradiation (0.848 MeV). In addition, initial results in polycrystalline gold foils are provided to demonstrate the range of capabilities.

  9. Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs | Department of Energy Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Testimony of Jonathan Elkind, Acting Assistant Secretary, Office of International Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human

  10. Integrated assessment of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, K.O.

    1996-12-31

    The anomalies of sea surface temperatures, which show a warming trend since the 1850s through the decade 1960/70 of {Delta}SST {approximately} 0.3 C, are complemented by changes of the ground surface temperature ({Delta}GST). The global surface temperature change, based on these data, allows an integrated assessment of the associated increase in black-body irradiance and a comparison with the enhanced greenhouse-gas back-scattering. Information on the GST history is obtained from unfolding analyses of underground temperature distributions measured in 90 boreholes in Alaskan permafrost and Canadian bedrock. These analyses show GST increases ({Delta}GST) since the 19th century through 1960/70 of 3 C on average, with standard deviations of +1.8 C and {minus}0.9 C on the high and low end respectively. The onset of the warming trend, which is uncertain in the GST data, is timed more accurately by detailed length records of large valley glaciers in the US and the Alps. Evaluation of the heat capacities and heat transfer indicates that the temperature response to an increase in radiative forcing must be much larger on land than on the sea. Conversely, the observed large ratio of {Delta}GST and {Delta}SST can only be explained by increased radiative forcing. From 1960/70 through the warmest decade on record, 1980/90, global {Delta}SST and {Delta}SAT have further increased to 0.6 C and 0.8 C respectively, But, the most recent GST data are not accurate enough to extend the comparison through 1990. Calculation of the increase of radiative forcing from back-scattering of greenhouse gases for 1850 to 1970 yields 1.3 W/cm{sup 2}. The increase in black-body irradiance from 3.6 C warming on land and 0.3 C on sea provides the required balance. The warming on land of 3.6 C is larger than the average value of 3.0 C, but well within the observed range.

  11. Global Threat Reduction Initiative

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Minimize Nuclear Waste Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Minimize Nuclear Waste GNEP will increase the efficiency in the management of used nuclear fuel, also known as spent fuel, and defer the need for additional geologic nuclear waste repositories until the next century. PDF icon Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Minimize Nuclear Waste More Documents & Publications GNEP Element:Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards Global Nuclear Energy

  12. Local Optical Spectroscopies for Subnanometer Spatial Resolution Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20

    The evanescently coupled photon scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) have special requirements in terms of stability and optical access. We have made substantial improvements to the stability, resolution, and noise floor of our custom-built visible-photon STM, and will translate these advances to our infrared instrument. Double vibration isolation of the STM base with a damping system achieved increased rigidity, giving high tunneling junction stability for long-duration and high-power illumination. Light frequency modulation with an optical chopper and phase-sensitive detection now enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the tunneling junction during irradiation.

  13. Building | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Ceramic Matrix Composites Improve Engine Efficiency Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a breakthrough materials technology for jet engines that started at our Global ...

  14. ARM - Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  15. ARM - Global Experts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  16. ARM - Global Thinkers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  17. ARM - Global Beginners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  18. Global Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable ... Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling Arctic Climate Measurements Global ...

  19. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Participated in the 2013 Domenici Public Policy Conference Carbon Capture & Storage, Carbon Storage, Climate, Earth Sciences Research Center, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, ...

  20. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Water Security Sandia Team Attends World ...

  1. Curing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curing We're pioneering medical developments, from robotic healthcare assistants to diagnostic tools and specialized, globally deployed gear. Home > Impact > Curing Invention...

  2. Curing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curing We're pioneering medical developments, from robotic healthcare assistants to diagnostic tools and specialized, globally deployed gear. Home > Impact > Curing Crowdsourcing...

  3. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    factors. Two structures of the intact ribosome from the common bacterium Escherichia coli, determined by a Berkeley-Berlin collaboration to a resolution of 3.5 , the highest...

  4. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Print Wednesday, 26 April 2006 00:00 The last step in converting the genetic information stored in DNA into the major functional parts of cells is protein biosynthesis. Protein synthesis occurs on the ribosome, a cellular factory found in all forms of life. In contrast to most cellular machines, the ribosome contains a functional core of RNA that is enhanced by ribosomal proteins and accessory factors. Two structures of

  5. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  6. A global warning for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paepe, R.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of global warming is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global warming is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local environmental parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are numerous as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s warming up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global warming will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.

  7. GE Global Research News | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Newsroom Our technologies transform GE's businesses and the world. Learn about them, meet our experts and read news coverage about our work. Home > Newsroom Meet Our Experts Our scientists are global leaders in their fields. They welcome media inquiries. Find an Expert » Media Contacts A photograph of Natalia Albuquerque Rio de Janeiro Natalia Albuquerque +55 21 3548-6193 A photograph of Todd Alhart Niskayuna, Oklahoma City, Munich Todd Alhart +1.518.387.7914 A photograph of Tenzin Dechen

  8. Photonics | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home > Impact > The Photonics Lab at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) The Photonics Lab at GE Global Research Loucas Tsakalakos, the Photonics lab manager at GE Global Research, introduces photonics and shares the lab's work on innovative ways to use light. You Might Also Like

  9. Resolute Marine Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resolute Marine Energy Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Resolute Marine Energy Inc Address: 3 Post Office Square 3rd floor Place: Massachusetts Country: United States Zip:...

  10. Global Cool Cities Alliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the...

  11. Building | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Electric Submersible Pumps (ESPs) Surface More Oil and Gas A technology used in 60% of global oil production today, ESPs extract oil by pumping it to the surface. In ...

  12. Invention | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Invention Our people drive every scientific advance we make, every day. Find out who they are and what they're thinking right now. Home > Invention Inventors GE Global Research...

  13. Building | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    how we work across supply chains. By... Read More What is the GE store? Mark Little, CTO & Head of Global Research at GE, describes what the GE Store means and why it's...

  14. Fast Global File Status

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-01-01

    Fast Global File Status (FGFS) is a system software package that implimints a scalable mechanism to retrieve file information, such as its degree of distribution or replication and consistency.

  15. Global Renewable Power International Global RPI | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Global Renewable Power International (Global RPI) Place: Spain Sector: Wind energy Product: Spain-based developer of wind projects in Poland, Croatia...

  16. Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Testimony of Jonathan Elkind, Acting ...

  17. Data Driven Approach for High Resolution Population Distribution and Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Rose, Amy N; Liu, Cheng; Urban, Marie L; Stewart, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    High resolution population distribution data are vital for successfully addressing critical issues ranging from energy and socio-environmental research to public health to human security. Commonly available population data from Census is constrained both in space and time and does not capture population dynamics as functions of space and time. This imposes a significant limitation on the fidelity of event-based simulation models with sensitive space-time resolution. This paper describes ongoing development of high-resolution population distribution and dynamics models, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through spatial data integration and modeling with behavioral or activity-based mobility datasets for representing temporal dynamics of population. The model is resolved at 1 km resolution globally and describes the U.S. population for nighttime and daytime at 90m. Integration of such population data provides the opportunity to develop simulations and applications in critical infrastructure management from local to global scales.

  18. Perihelion Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Perihelion Global Jump to: navigation, search Name: Perihelion Global Place: Port Jefferson, New York Zip: 11776 Product: A company focused on the acquisition, development and...

  19. ARM - Lesson Plans: Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Warming Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global ...

  20. Spatial resolution of diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickens, T.A.; Winbow, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Diffraction tomography is an imaging technique applicable to crosshole seismic data and aimed at achieving optimal spatial resolution away from the borehole. In principle the method can form acoustic images equivalent to extending acoustic well logs away from the wellbore and into the formation with a spatial resolution less than one wavelength of the radiation employed to gather the crosshole data. This paper reports on the capability of diffraction tomography to produce high-resolution reconstructions of simple targets from limited-view-angle data. The goal is to quantify the resolution and velocity-reconstruction capability of diffraction tomography with realistic source{endash}receiver geometries. Simple targets (disks and low-contrast sequences of layers) are used for this study. The scattering from these targets can be calculated without approximation, making them ideal test cases for the algorithm. The resolution capability of diffraction tomography is determined to be on the order of one wavelength for several experimental geometries. It is shown that the image-formation characteristics of diffraction tomography, in terms of its ability to determine object boundaries and velocities, are closely related to the experimental geometry. Reflection and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) experiments tend to reproduce boundaries well, while crosshole experiments give the best overall reconstruction of both target boundaries and velocity. The quantitative accuracy of the velocity reconstruction depends upon the match between the spatial-frequency content of the object and the spatial-frequency response of the algorithm. For some targets, the velocity cannot be correctly reproduced from limited-view-angle data. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  1. Conflict Prevention & Resolution | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Resolution Conflict Prevention & Resolution The Secretary of Energy expresses support of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and the DOE annual celebration of Conflict Resolution Day held on the third Thursday of October. OHA's Office of Conflict Prevention and Resolution (OCPR) serves as a resource to all DOE components and contractors to explore efficient and cost-effective means of preventing conflicts and resolving disputes, without the formalities and costs of litigation. The

  2. Timeline | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Research Over Time From our earliest days, we've been changing the landscape in commercial science and technology. Explore our inventions' evolution. Home > Global Research Over Time Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Warning: You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser in order to use this

  3. Global Insight Energy Group

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Outlook Mary Novak Managing Director IHS Global Insight Copyright © 2010 IHS Global Insight, Inc. Overview: Energy Sector Transformation Underway * The recession has hit energy demand hard, and aggregate energy demand is not expected to return to 2007 levels until 2018. * Oil and natural gas prices will both rise over the long-term, but the price trends will diverge with natural gas prices rising slowly due to the development of shale gas. * This forecast does not include a GHG cap-and-trade

  4. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Print The last step in converting the genetic information stored in DNA into the major functional parts of cells is protein biosynthesis. Protein synthesis occurs on the ribosome, a cellular factory found in all forms of life. In contrast to most cellular machines, the ribosome contains a functional core of RNA that is enhanced by ribosomal proteins and accessory factors. Two structures of the intact ribosome from the common bacterium Escherichia coli,

  5. TENTATIVE RESOLUTION OF DISPUTE AND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RESOLUTION OF DISPUTE AND CONCLUSION OF NEGOTIATIONS AGREEMENT REGARDING SINGLE-SHELL TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ACCELERATED WASTE RETRIEVAL AND CLOSURE DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Parties) have concluded negotiations intended to resolve Ecology and DOE's dispute regarding Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party

  6. Radiometry High Spectral Resolution Fourier

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Spectral Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Instruments for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program H. E. Revercomb, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, R. A. Herbsleb, and J. F. Short University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin H. B. Howell National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Systems Design and Applications Branch Madison, Wisconsin D. Murcray and F. Murcray University of Denver Denver, Colorado Accurate and spectrally detailed

  7. Tritium Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic Graphite Utilizing Heavy Ion-Irradiation- Tritium Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic Graphite...

  8. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (HFIR). Irradiation of the capsules was conducted for post-irradiation examination (PIE) metallography. PDF icon Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR...

  9. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  10. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  11. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  12. Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade Improvements Will Include Higher Data Output Rates, Connection to PDSF October 29, 2013 The most used file system at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)-global scratch-just got an upgrade. As a result, some users may see their data output to global scratch reach up to 80 gigabytes per second. Although users will probably not see their 20-terabyte storage quotas increase, the upgrade ensures that global

  13. Global decarbonization strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messner, S.

    1996-12-31

    The presentation covers a brief summary of the research activities of the Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies Project (ECS) at IIASA. The overall research focuses on long-term global energy development and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The ultimate goal is to analyze strategies that achieve decarbonization of global energy systems during the next century. The specific activities range from mitigation of GHG emissions to an integrated assessment of climate change. One focal point is the GHG mitigation technology inventory CO{sub 2}DB, which presently covers approximately 1,400 technologies related to energy and the greenhouse effect. Another integral part is the development of global energy and emissions scenarios, an effort involving a number of formal models to assess the implications. A large number of global scenarios for the next century has been developed, that could be grouped into three families. All of them include energy efficiency improvements and some degree of decarbonization in the world. They are based on different economic and technological development trajectories, and their emissions range from very high to a stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. The presentation will outline the salient characteristics of the three scenario families and provide some regional implications of these alternative futures.

  14. The effect of horizontal resolution on simulation quality in the Community Atmospheric Model, CAM5.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Reed, Kevin A.; Li, Fuyu; Prabhat, -; Bacmeister, Julio; Chen, Cheng -Ta; Paciorek, Christopher; Gleckler, Peter J.; Sperber, Kenneth R.; Collins, William D.; Gettelman, Andrew; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2014-11-05

    We present an analysis of version 5.1 of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5.1) at a high horizontal resolution. Intercomparison of this global model at approximately 0.25, 1, and 2 is presented for extreme daily precipitation as well as for a suite of seasonal mean fields. In general, extreme precipitation amounts are larger in high resolution than in lower-resolution configurations. In many but not all locations and/or seasons, extreme daily precipitation rates in the high-resolution configuration are higher and more realistic. The high-resolution configuration produces tropical cyclones up to category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale and a comparison to observations reveals both realistic and unrealistic model behavior. In the absence of extensive model tuning at high resolution, simulation of many of the mean fields analyzed in this study is degraded compared to the tuned lower-resolution public released version of the model.

  15. Hurricanes in an Aquaplanet World: Implications of the Impacts of External Forcing and Model Horizontal Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fuyu; Collins, William D.; Wehner, Michael F.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-06-02

    High-resolution climate models have been shown to improve the statistics of tropical storms and hurricanes compared to low-resolution models. The impact of increasing horizontal resolution in the tropical storm simulation is investigated exclusively using a series of Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM) runs with idealized aquaplanet steady-state boundary conditions and a fixed operational storm-tracking algorithm. The results show that increasing horizontal resolution helps to detect more hurricanes, simulate stronger extreme rainfall, and emulate better storm structures in the models. However, increasing model resolution does not necessarily produce stronger hurricanes in terms of maximum wind speed, minimum sea level pressure, and mean precipitation, as the increased number of storms simulated by high-resolution models is mainly associated with weaker storms. The spatial scale at which the analyses are conducted appears to have more important control on these meteorological statistics compared to horizontal resolution of the model grid. When the simulations are analyzed on common low-resolution grids, the statistics of the hurricanes, particularly the hurricane counts, show reduced sensitivity to the horizontal grid resolution and signs of scale invariant.

  16. Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-10-01

    We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  17. Measurement and modeling of solar irradiance components on horizontal and tilted planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padovan, Andrea; Col, Davide del

    2010-12-15

    In this work new measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance on the horizontal plane and global irradiance on planes tilted at 20 and 30 oriented due South and at 45 and 65 oriented due East are used to discuss the modeling of solar radiation. Irradiance data are collected in Padova (45.4 N, 11.9 E, 12 m above sea level), Italy. Some diffuse fraction correlations have been selected to model the hourly diffuse radiation on the horizontal plane. The comparison with the present experimental data shows that their prediction accuracy strongly depends on the sky characteristics. The hourly irradiance measurements taken on the tilted planes are compared with the estimations given by one isotropic and three anisotropic transposition models. The use of an anisotropic model, based on a physical description of the diffuse radiation, provides a much better accuracy, especially when measurements of the diffuse irradiance on the horizontal plane are not available and thus transposition models have to be applied in combination with a diffuse fraction correlation. This is particularly significant for the planes oriented away from South. (author)

  18. STEAB Resolution 06-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STATE ENERGY ADVISORY BOARD Resolution 06-01 ISSUE Movement of the Weatherization Assistance Program from the U.S. Department of Energy to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. BACKGROUND The Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is funded and managed through the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The WAP was created in 1976 to assist low-income families who lacked resources to invest in energy efficiency. WAP is

  19. STEAB Resolution 06-02

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STATE ENERGY ADVISORY BOARD Resolution 06-02 BACKGROUND U.S. dependence on imported petroleum for the liquid transportation fuel supply has resulted in price and supply volatility that poses a threat to the U.S. economy and energy security. The goal of displacing petroleum with alternative fuels is one element of a national energy strategy that is only now beginning to take shape. The priorities for such a strategy are clear: 1) encourage increased production of

  20. Computer modeling of the global warming effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, W.M.

    1993-12-31

    The state of knowledge of global warming will be presented and two aspects examined: observational evidence and a review of the state of computer modeling of climate change due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Observational evidence, indeed, shows global warming, but it is difficult to prove that the changes are unequivocally due to the greenhouse-gas effect. Although observational measurements of global warming are subject to ``correction,`` researchers are showing consistent patterns in their interpretation of the data. Since the 1960s, climate scientists have been making their computer models of the climate system more realistic. Models started as atmospheric models and, through the addition of oceans, surface hydrology, and sea-ice components, they then became climate-system models. Because of computer limitations and the limited understanding of the degree of interaction of the various components, present models require substantial simplification. Nevertheless, in their present state of development climate models can reproduce most of the observed large-scale features of the real system, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, ocean current, and sea-ice distribution. The use of supercomputers to advance the spatial resolution and realism of earth-system models will also be discussed.

  1. Moving | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moving We're always working on planes, trains and automobiles-and specialized ways to move people and products efficiently and sustainably. Home > Impact > Moving Green Skies of Brazil Improves Airspace Efficiency It's not uncommon for planes approaching some of Brazil's busiest airports to travel miles out of the way while pilots wait... Read More » Reducing Emissions in the New Tier 4 Locomotive GE Global Research Internal Combustion lab manager Omowoleola "Wole" Akinyemi

  2. Global Bioenergy Partnership Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office Sustainability Technology Manager Kristen Johnson represented the Office at the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) Meetings in Rome, Italy. The event included three meetings, the 7th annual GBEP Working Group on Capacity Building, the 13th annual Task Force on Sustainability to discuss the experiences with the GBEP Sustainability Indicators for Bioenergy, and the 18th annual GBEP Steering Committee to discuss strategies for sustainable bioenergy development and deployment.

  3. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia, DOE Energy Storage Program, GeneSiC Semiconductor, U.S. Army ARDEC: Ultra-High-Voltage Silicon Carbide Thyristors Capabilities, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Energy Storage Systems, Global Climate & Energy, Grid Integration, Infrastructure Security, Materials Science, Partnership, Research & Capabilities, SMART Grid, Systems Engineering, Transmission Grid Integration Sandia, DOE Energy Storage Program, GeneSiC Semiconductor, U.S. Army ARDEC:

  4. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandians Published in American Chemical Society's Environmental Science & Technology Analysis, Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Systems Analysis, Water Security Sandians Published in American Chemical Society's Environmental Science & Technology Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation

  5. Curing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curing We're pioneering medical developments, from robotic healthcare assistants to diagnostic tools and specialized, globally deployed gear. Home > Impact > Curing Hospital Management Is Evolving to Reduce Wait Times With hospitals busier than ever and not enough staff to meet the higher demand, going to the hospital can be a series of waiting... Read More » Making High-Value Imaging More Accessible Around the World Advancements in healthcare are creating a paradigm shift in how we

  6. Global Energy Futures Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-01

    The Global Energy Futures Model (GEFM) is a demand-based, gross domestic product (GDP)-driven, dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of energy, nuclear-materials storage and disposition, environmental effluents from fossil and non fossil energy and global nuclear-materials management. Based entirely on public source data, it links oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and renewable energy dynamically to greenhouse-gas emissions and 13 other measures of environmental impact. It includes historical data frommore » 1990 to 2000, is benchmarked to the DOE/EIA/IEO 2002 [5] Reference Case for 2000 to 2020, and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. The GEFM is globally integrated, and breaks out five regions of the world: United States of America (USA), the Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations excluding the USA (other industrialized countries), and the rest of the world (ROW) (essentially the developing world). The GEFM allows the user to examine a very wide range of what ir scenarios through 2050 and to view the potential effects across widely dispersed, but interrelated areas. The authors believe that this high-level learning tool will help to stimulate public policy debate on energy, environment, economic and national security issues.« less

  7. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kopcsay, Gerard V. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY)

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  8. Endeavor Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    :"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map References: Endeavor Global Web Site1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Endeavor Global is...

  9. Laser Manufacturing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Manufacturing at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new ... Laser Manufacturing at GE Global Research Learn how laser sintering, an additive laser ...

  10. STAR FORMATION AND FEEDBACK IN SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS. II. RESOLUTION EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Charlotte R.; Quinn, Thomas; Bellovary, Jillian [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle WA 98195 (United States); Stinson, Gregory [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Wadsley, James, E-mail: christensen@astro.washington.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, ABB-241, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    We examine the effect of mass and force resolution on a specific star formation (SF) recipe using a set of N-body/smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations of isolated galaxies. Our simulations span halo masses from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 13} M{sub sun}, more than 4 orders of magnitude in mass resolution, and 2 orders of magnitude in the gravitational softening length, {epsilon}, representing the force resolution. We examine the total global SF rate, the SF history, and the quantity of stellar feedback and compare the disk structure of the galaxies. Based on our analysis, we recommend using at least 10{sup 4} particles each for the dark matter (DM) and gas component and a force resolution of {epsilon} {approx} 10{sup -3} R{sub vir} when studying global SF and feedback. When the spatial distribution of stars is important, the number of gas and DM particles must be increased to at least 10{sup 5} of each. Low-mass resolution simulations with fixed softening lengths show particularly weak stellar disks due to two-body heating. While decreasing spatial resolution in low-mass resolution simulations limits two-body effects, density and potential gradients cannot be sustained. Regardless of the softening, low-mass resolution simulations contain fewer high density regions where SF may occur. Galaxies of approximately 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} display unique sensitivity to both mass and force resolution. This mass of galaxy has a shallow potential and is on the verge of forming a disk. The combination of these factors gives this galaxy the potential for strong gas outflows driven by supernova feedback and makes it particularly sensitive to any changes to the simulation parameters.

  11. ARM - What Causes Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ThinkersWhat Causes Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What Causes Global Warming? What is the basis for the predictions concerning global warming? There are several gases in the air, collectively called greenhouse gases, that trap the infrared radiation emitted

  12. RERTR-13 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-13 was designed to assess performance of different types of neutron absorbers that can be potentially used as burnable poisons in the low enriched uranium-molybdenum based dispersion and monolithic fuels.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-13 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  13. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the temperature in the twelve capsules relatively flat in a range of temperatures suitable for the measurement of fission product diffusion in compact matrix and structural graphite materials.

  14. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore » from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).« less

  15. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Crabtree, George

    2010-01-08

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  16. Global warming from HFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.

    1998-11-01

    Using a variety of public sources, a computer model of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant emissions in the UK has been developed. This model has been used to estimate and project emissions in 2010 under three types of scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) voluntary agreements to reduce refrigerant leakage; and (3) comprehensive regulations to reduce refrigerant leakage. This resulting forecast is that UK emissions of HFC refrigerants in 2010 will account for 2% to 4% of the UK`s 1990 baseline global warming contribution.

  17. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).

  18. Calculation of the spatial resolution in two-photon absorption spectroscopy applied to plasma diagnosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Fuentes, L. M.; Grützmacher, K.; Pérez, C. Rosa, M. I. de la

    2014-10-07

    We report a detailed characterization of the spatial resolution provided by two-photon absorption spectroscopy suited for plasma diagnosis via the 1S-2S transition of atomic hydrogen for optogalvanic detection and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A precise knowledge of the spatial resolution is crucial for a correct interpretation of measurements, if the plasma parameters to be analysed undergo strong spatial variations. The present study is based on a novel approach which provides a reliable and realistic determination of the spatial resolution. Measured irradiance distribution of laser beam waists in the overlap volume, provided by a high resolution UV camera, are employed to resolve coupled rate equations accounting for two-photon excitation, fluorescence decay and ionization. The resulting three-dimensional yield distributions reveal in detail the spatial resolution for optogalvanic and LIF detection and related saturation due to depletion. Two-photon absorption profiles broader than the Fourier transform-limited laser bandwidth are also incorporated in the calculations. The approach allows an accurate analysis of the spatial resolution present in recent and future measurements.

  19. Analysis and synthesis of the variability of irradiance and PV power time series with the wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perpinan, O.; Lorenzo, E.

    2011-01-15

    The irradiance fluctuations and the subsequent variability of the power output of a PV system are analysed with some mathematical tools based on the wavelet transform. It can be shown that the irradiance and power time series are nonstationary process whose behaviour resembles that of a long memory process. Besides, the long memory spectral exponent {alpha} is a useful indicator of the fluctuation level of a irradiance time series. On the other side, a time series of global irradiance on the horizontal plane can be simulated by means of the wavestrapping technique on the clearness index and the fluctuation behaviour of this simulated time series correctly resembles the original series. Moreover, a time series of global irradiance on the inclined plane can be simulated with the wavestrapping procedure applied over a signal previously detrended by a partial reconstruction with a wavelet multiresolution analysis, and, once again, the fluctuation behaviour of this simulated time series is correct. This procedure is a suitable tool for the simulation of irradiance incident over a group of distant PV plants. Finally, a wavelet variance analysis and the long memory spectral exponent show that a PV plant behaves as a low-pass filter. (author)

  20. Tritium Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic Graphite

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Utilizing Heavy Ion-Irradiation- | Department of Energy Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic Graphite Utilizing Heavy Ion-Irradiation- Tritium Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic Graphite Utilizing Heavy Ion-Irradiation- Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Idaho Falls, Idaho on September 23-25, 2014. PDF icon Tritium Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic Graphite Utilizing Heavy Ion-Irradiation- More

  1. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  2. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Global Research on On The Verge | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members September 16, 2007 - 2:33pm Addthis Nations Sign On to International Cooperation for Safe Expansion of Nuclear Energy Worldwide VIENNA, AUSTRIA - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and senior international officials from 16 nations today agreed to increase international nuclear energy cooperation through the Global Nuclear Energy

  4. Environmental Conflict Resolution | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Conflict Resolution Environmental Conflict Resolution In September 2012, the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) , issued a joint memorandum calling for department and agency commitment to the goals identified in the Memorandum on Environmental Collaboration and Conflict Resolution (ECCR), and the goals identified in related policy guidance. This memorandum supersedes an OMB/CEQ joint memorandum issued in November 28, 2005, on

  5. Towards a Fine-Resolution Global Coupled Climate System for Prediction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    58 GEOSCIENCES climate, numerical modeling, earth system model, ocean, sea-ice, mesoscale eddies climate, numerical modeling, earth system model, ocean, sea-ice, mesoscale...

  6. Environmental Conflict Resolution | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the Memorandum on Environmental Collaboration and Conflict Resolution (ECCR), and ... and effective upfront environmental collaboration to minimize or prevent conflict. ...

  7. Afghanistan Pakistan High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pakistan High Resolution Wind Resource This shapefile containing 50 meter height data has been validated by NREL and wind energy meteorological consultants. However, the data is...

  8. Enterprise Assessments, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Irradiated...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuels Examination Laboratory - April 2015 April 2015 Review of the Safety-Significant Ventilation Systems at the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory Operated by UT-Battelle...

  9. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 mum, passes ...

  10. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 mum, passes ...

  11. ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy, at wavelengths longer than approximately 4 mum, that is being emitted ...

  12. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which spectrally resolved radiant energy at wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 mum, that has ...

  13. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 mum, that has ...

  14. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance The direct unscattered radiant energy from the Sun, in a narrow band of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 ...

  15. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy that comes from some continuous range of directions, at wavelengths ...

  16. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at specrally-resolved wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 mum, is being emitted ...

  17. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4mum, that comes ...

  18. A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum Pilewskie, Peter University of Colorado ... We describe the development of a new solar reference spectrum for radiation and climate ...

  19. Comparison of irradiation creep and swelling of an austenitic alloy irradiated in FFTF and PFR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, F.A.; Toloczko, M.B.; Munro, B.; Adaway, S.; Standring, J.

    1999-10-01

    comparative irradiation of identically constructed creep tubes in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Prototypic Fast Reactor (PFR) shows that differences in irradiation conditions arising from both reactor operation and the design of the irradiation vehicle can have a significant impact on the void swelling and irradiation creep of austenitic stainless steels. In spite of these differences, the derived creep coefficients fall within the range of previously observed values for 316 SS.

  20. Validation of the Physics Analysis used to Characterize the AGR-1 TRISO Fuel Irradiation Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterbentz, James W.; Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hawkes, Grant L.; Chang, Gray S.

    2015-05-01

    The results of a detailed physics depletion calculation used to characterize the AGR-1 TRISO-coated particle fuel test irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory are compared to measured data for the purpose of validation. The particle fuel was irradiated for 13 ATR power cycles over three calendar years. The physics analysis predicts compact burnups ranging from 11.30-19.56% FIMA and cumulative neutron fast fluence from 2.21?4.39E+25 n/m2 under simulated high-temperature gas-cooled reactor conditions in the ATR. The physics depletion calculation can provide a full characterization of all 72 irradiated TRISO-coated particle compacts during and post-irradiation, so validation of this physics calculation was a top priority. The validation of the physics analysis was done through comparisons with available measured experimental data which included: 1) high-resolution gamma scans for compact activity and burnup, 2) mass spectrometry for compact burnup, 3) flux wires for cumulative fast fluence, and 4) mass spectrometry for individual actinide and fission product concentrations. The measured data are generally in very good agreement with the calculated results, and therefore provide an adequate validation of the physics analysis and the results used to characterize the irradiated AGR-1 TRISO fuel.

  1. Geoscience Australia Continuous Global Positioning System (GPS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    System Darwin, Australia, ARM site Geoscience Australia Global Navigation Satellite System Global Positioning System Receiver Independent Exchange Format South Pacific ...

  2. Principal Associate Director - Global Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Principal Associate Director - Global Security As Principal Associate Director for Global Security, Terry Wallace leads Laboratory programs with special focus on developing and applying the scientific and engineering capabilities to address complex national and global security threats. Contact Operator Los Alamos National Laboratory (505) 667-5061 Wallace's expertise is forensic seismology, a highly specialized discipline focusing on detection and quantification of nuclear tests. Terry C.

  3. ARM - What Causes Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BeginnersWhat Causes Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What Causes Global Warming? On earth we get energy from the sun's light. As you know, it gets hot outside if the sun is shining brightly on a summer day. The reason it warms up is because the earth is

  4. ARM - What is Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What is Global Warming? Our earth's average temperature stays pretty much the same from year to year. Sometimes it gets very cold in the winter and very hot in the summer where you live. And some years may be a little hotter

  5. ARM - What is Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What is Global Warming? The surface temperature of each of the planets in our solar system depends on a process called the heat budget. This budget, like any other type of budget, remains balanced if the amount (of energy)

  6. The LandScan Global Population Distribution Project: Current State of the Art and Prospective Innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing, dasymetric mapping techniques, and the ever-increasing availability of spatial datasets have enhanced global human population distribution databases. These datasets demonstrate an enormous improvement over the conventional use of choropleth maps to represent population distribution and are vital for analysis and planning purposes including humanitarian response, disease mapping, risk analysis, and evacuation modeling. Dasymetric mapping techniques have been employed to address spatial mismatch, but also to develop finer resolution population distributions in areas of the world where subnational census data are coarse or non-existent. One such implementation is the LandScan Global model which provides a 30 arc-second global population distribution based on ancillary datasets such as land cover, slope, proximity to roads, and settlement locations. This work will review the current state of the LandScan model, future innovations aimed at increasing spatial and demographic resolution, and situate LandScan within the landscape of other global population distribution datasets.

  7. State Energy Advisory Board Resolutions | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Resolutions State Energy Advisory Board Resolutions Resolution documents from STEAB, as posted on the U.S. Department of Energy website. PDF icon Resolution 13-01 PDF icon...

  8. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Thin target zone Disconnected target zones Controlled fractures GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Tight Oil has Significant Energy Security Impacts Tight oil production growth ...

  9. Aviation Technology | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Read More GE Scientists Demonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano Surfaces GE Global Research today presented new research findings on its nanotextured anti-icing surfaces. In ...

  10. Enlighten Your Research Global Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enlighten Your Research Global Program Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops CrossConnects Workshop Series Operating Innovative Networks Workshop Series Enlighten...

  11. Aviation Technology | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Ceramic Matrix Composites Improve Engine Efficiency Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a breakthrough materials technology for jet engines that started at our Global ...

  12. Office of Global Material Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    at Wilton Park, United Kingdom, on the growing challenge of securing the global maritime supply chain. In total, 55 participants from 15 countries and 9 international...

  13. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  14. (Managing the global environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.F.

    1989-10-03

    The conference was stimulated by concern that policy makers increasingly have to make environmental management decisions in the absence of solidly established scientific consensus about ecological processes and the consequences of human actions. Often, as in the case of climate change, some decisions may have to be made in the absence of information that is desirable but may not be available for years to come, if ever. Six topics were identified as running throughout the Congress. These were: the epistemology and history of the sciences or disciplines concerned with the environment, including the scientific basis of rationality and modes of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; the social, economic, and institutional conditions for the production of knowledge bearing on the environment, including the politics of research and the improvement of scientific data; the structuring and institutionalization of expert assessments on national and international levels, including the global distribution of expertise; the means of establishing scientific information, the role of the media in transmitting and processing knowledge about the environment, and the organization of public environmental debate; and decision making and management under conditions of uncertainty; and, finally the relationship between science and ethics. 13 refs.

  15. AGR-1 Post Irradiation Examination Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demkowicz, Paul Andrew

    2015-08-01

    The post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-1 experiment was a multi-year, collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the performance of UCO (uranium carbide, uranium oxide) tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel fabricated in the U.S. and irradiated at the Advanced Test Reactor at INL to a peak burnup of 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom. This work involved a broad array of experiments and analyses to evaluate the level of fission product retention by the fuel particles and compacts (both during irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to simulate reactor accident conditions), investigate the kernel and coating layer morphology evolution and the causes of coating failure, and explore the migration of fission products through the coating layers. The results have generally confirmed the excellent performance of the AGR-1 fuel, first indicated during the irradiation by the observation of zero TRISO coated particle failures out of 298,000 particles in the experiment. Overall release of fission products was determined by PIE to have been relatively low during the irradiation. A significant finding was the extremely low levels of cesium released through intact coatings. This was true both during the irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to temperatures as high as 1800°C. Post-irradiation safety test fuel performance was generally excellent. Silver release from the particles and compacts during irradiation was often very high. Extensive microanalysis of fuel particles was performed after irradiation and after high-temperature safety testing. The results of particle microanalysis indicate that the UCO fuel is effective at controlling the oxygen partial pressure within the particle and limiting kernel migration. Post-irradiation examination has provided the final body of data that speaks to the quality of the AGR-1 fuel, building on the as-fabricated fuel characterization and irradiation data. In addition to the extensive volume of results generated, the work also resulted in a number of novel analysis techniques and lessons learned that are being applied to the examination of fuel from subsequent TRISO fuel irradiations. This report provides a summary of the results obtained as part of the AGR-1 PIE campaign over its approximately 5-year duration.

  16. RERTR-10 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Perez

    2011-05-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-10 was designed to further test the effectiveness of modified fuel/clad interfaces in monolithic fuel plates. The experiment was conducted in two campaigns: RERTR-10A and RERTR-10B. The fuel plates tested in RERTR-10A were all fabricated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and were designed to evaluate the effect of various Si levels in the interlayer and the thickness of the Zr interlayer (0.001”) using 0.010” and 0.020” nominal foil thicknesses. The fuel plates in RERTR-10B were fabricated by Friction Bonding (FB) with two different thickness Si layers and Nb and Zr diffusion barriers.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-10A/B experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  17. AFIP-3 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-3 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-3 experiment was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-3 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  18. AFIP-3 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danielle M Perez

    2011-04-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-3 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-3 experiment was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-3 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  19. AFIP-3 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-3 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-3 experiment was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-3 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  20. RERTR-7 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-7A, was designed to test several modified fuel designs to target fission densities representative of a peak low enriched uranium (LEU) burnup in excess of 90% U-235 at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a peak surface heat flux of approximately 300 W/cm2. The RERTR-7B experiment was designed as a high power test of 'second generation' dispersion fuels at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a surface heat flux on the order of 230 W/cm2.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-7A and RERTR-7B experiments through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

  1. Global production through 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foreman, N.E.

    1996-12-01

    Two companion studies released recently should provide great food for thought among geo-political strategists and various national governments. If predictions contained in these Petroconsultants studies of oil and gas production trends for the next 10 years are realized, there will be great repercussions for net exporters and importers, alike. After analyzing and predicting trends within each of the world`s significant producing nations for the 1996--2005 period, the crude oil and condensate report concludes tat global production will jump nearly 24%. By contrast, worldwide gas output will leap 40%. The cast of characters among producers and exporters that will benefit from these increases varies considerably for each fuel. On the oil side, Russia and the OPEC members, particularly the Persian Gulf nations, will be back in the driver`s seat in terms of affecting export and pricing patterns. On the gas side, the leading producers will be an interesting mix of mostly non-OPEC countries. The reemergence of Persian Gulf oil producers, coupled with an anticipated long-term decline among top non-OPEC producing nations should present a sobering picture to government planners within large net importers, such as the US. They are likely to find themselves in much the same supply trap as was experienced in the 1970s, only this time the dependence on foreign oil supplies will be much worse. Gas supplies will not be similarly constrained, and some substitution for oil is probable. Here, two articles, ``World oil industry is set for transition`` and ``Worldwide gas surges forward in next decade,`` present a summary of the findings detailed in Petroconsultants` recent studies.

  2. Transition-Edge Sensor X-Ray Fluorescence (TES-XRF) for High Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material Identification | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Transition-Edge Sensor X-Ray Fluorescence (TES-XRF) for High Resolution Material Identification X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is a technique for material identification. A low energy electron gun bombards a thin foil anode to produce a spectrum of x-rays that irradiate a material sample. The interaction of the x-rays through the photoelectric effect induce a cascade of atomic transitions in the sample material that re-emit characteristic

  3. Modeling Spatial Dependencies in High-Resolution Overhead Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bright, Eddie A; Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Human settlement regions with different physical and socio-economic attributes exhibit unique spatial characteristics that are often illustrated in high-resolution overhead imageries. For example- size, shape and spatial arrangements of man-made structures are key attributes that vary with respect to the socioeconomic profile of the neighborhood. Successfully modeling these attributes is crucial in developing advanced image understanding systems for interpreting complex aerial scenes. In this paper we present three different approaches to model the spatial context in the overhead imagery. First, we show that the frequency domain of the image can be used to model the spatial context [1]. The shape of the spectral energy contours characterize the scene context and can be exploited as global features. Secondly, we explore a discriminative framework based on the Conditional Random Fields (CRF) [2] to model the spatial context in the overhead imagery. The features derived from the edge orientation distribution calculated for a neighborhood and the associated class labels are used as input features to model the spatial context. Our third approach is based on grouping spatially connected pixels based on the low-level edge primitives to form support-regions [3]. The statistical parameters generated from the support-region feature distributions characterize different geospatial neighborhoods. We apply our approaches on high-resolution overhead imageries. We show that proposed approaches characterize the spatial context in overhead imageries.

  4. Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from In-Reactor Permeation Experiment Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from In-Reactor Permeation...

  5. Production of high Resoulution Irradiance Data for Central America...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    irradiance (GHI) and direct irradiance (DNI) data sets for the countries of Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Much of our initial effort focused on building up...

  6. Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon We ...

  7. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Human bone is strong...

  8. Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    events in irradiated liquid water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated liquid water You are accessing a ...

  9. Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    events in irradiated liquid water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated liquid water Monte Carlo electron ...

  10. Methods for Post Irradiation Examination of Tritium Producing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Methods for Post Irradiation Examination of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods Methods for Post Irradiation Examination of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods...

  11. High-resolution ophthalmic imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Carrano, Carmen J. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-12-04

    A system for providing an improved resolution retina image comprising an imaging camera for capturing a retina image and a computer system operatively connected to the imaging camera, the computer producing short exposures of the retina image and providing speckle processing of the short exposures to provide the improved resolution retina image. The system comprises the steps of capturing a retina image, producing short exposures of the retina image, and speckle processing the short exposures of the retina image to provide the improved resolution retina image.

  12. Working at GE Global Research | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    products and working on lots of different things, and I was convinced that this ideal job didn't exist. I came to find out about the Sensor & Signal Analytics Lab at GE Global...

  13. Changes in Moisture Flux over the Tibetan Plateau during 1979-2011: Insights from a High Resolution Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Yongxin; Cuo, Lan

    2015-05-15

    Net precipitation (precipitation minus evapotranspiration, P-E) changes between 1979 and 2011 from a high resolution regional climate simulation and its reanalysis forcing are analyzed over the Tibet Plateau (TP) and compared to the global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) product. The high resolution simulation better resolves precipitation changes than its coarse resolution forcing, which contributes dominantly to the improved P-E change in the regional simulation compared to the global reanalysis. Hence, the former may provide better insights about the drivers of P-E changes. The mechanism behind the P-E changes is explored by decomposing the column integrated moisture flux convergence into thermodynamic, dynamic, and transient eddy components. High-resolution climate simulation improves the spatial pattern of P-E changes over the best available global reanalysis. High-resolution climate simulation also facilitates new and substantial findings regarding the role of thermodynamics and transient eddies in P-E changes reflected in observed changes in major river basins fed by runoff from the TP. The analysis revealed the contrasting convergence/divergence changes between the northwestern and southeastern TP and feedback through latent heat release as an important mechanism leading to the mean P-E changes in the TP.

  14. Technical Education | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Education at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Technical Education at GE Global Research Mark Vermilyea describes the Edison Engineering Development Program (EEDP) and its "A Course," which features lectures on Global Research work in GE's major business units,

  15. Gamma-ray irradiated polymer optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, C.-C.; Wei, T.-Y.; Chang, C.-Y.; Wang, W.-S.; Wei, Y.-Y.

    2008-01-14

    Optical waveguides fabricated by gamma-ray irradiation on polymer through a gold mask are presented. The gamma-ray induced index change is found almost linearly dependent on the dose of the irradiation. And the measured propagation losses are low enough for practical application. Due to the high penetrability of gamma ray, uniform refractive index change in depth can be easily achieved. Moreover, due to large-area printing, the uniformity of waveguide made by gamma-ray irradiation is much better than that by e-beam direct writing.

  16. Infrared spectroscopy study of irradiated PVDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappa, Veronica; Grosso, Mariela del; Garcia Bermudez, Gerardo; Behar, Moni

    2007-10-26

    The effects induced by 1 MeV/amu ion irradiations were compared to those induced by 4-12 MeV/amu irradiations. Structural analysis with infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out on PVDF irradiated using C and He beams with different fluences. From these spectra it was observed, as a function of fluence, an overall destruction of the polymer, amorphization of the crystalline regions and the creation of in-chain unsaturations. The track dimensions were determined using a previously developed Monte Carlo simulation code and these results were compared to a semiempirical model.

  17. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  18. Atomic resolution images of graphite in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Shedd, G.M.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    One sample used for proof of operation for atomic resolution in STM is highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). This sample has been imaged with many different STM`s obtaining similar results. Atomic resolution images of HOPG have now been obtained using an STM designed and built at the Precision Engineering Center. This paper discusses the theoretical predictions and experimental results obtained in imaging of HOPG.

  19. Alternative Dispute Resolution | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Alternative Dispute Resolution The NNSA Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Program is designed as an alternative to resolve disagreements between employees, managers, and/or peers. The program may be utilized for disputes resulting from personnel issues, alleged discrimination complaints or other types of personal disagreements that employees may encounter within their work environment. Having to deal with these types of issues, regardless of what arena they fall into, results in an

  20. Solar Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Republic Zip: 10100 Product: Czech PV developer and investor seeking partnership for its 200MW PV porfolio in the Czech Republic. References: Solar Global1 This article is a...

  1. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.; Li, Siwei

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ≤ 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively. Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.

  2. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Orientation Data, 1 second resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance; Shortwave broadband ...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Facilities: Gamma Irradiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    second. The neutron irradiation system consisting of the AmBe source and a large polyethylene chamber provides neutron dose rates from 10-6 radsecond to 10-5 radsecond....

  4. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance All of the solar radiation, across the wavelength range of ...

  5. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct downwelling irradiance Radiant energy, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 ...

  6. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at a wavelength between 0.4 and 4 mum, is being emitted upwards into a ...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in broad bands of wavelengths ...

  8. ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at a wavelength longer than ...

  9. ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance The total radiant energy, in a narrow band of wavelengths longer than ...

  10. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    direct normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave...

  11. GS Global Biodiesel JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Biodiesel JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: GS Global Biodiesel JV Place: Iowa Product: JV between GS AgriFuels and Global Ethanol set-up to develop a plant that will...

  12. Void Swelling and Microstructure of Austenitic Stainless Steels Irradiated in the BOR - 60 Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Yang, Yong; Huang, Yina; Allen, T.; Alexandreanu, B.; Natesan, K.

    2012-11-01

    As nuclear power plants age and neutron fluence increases, detrimental effects resulting from radiation damage have become an increasingly important issue for the operational safety and structural integrity of core internal components. In this study, irradiated specimens of reactor core internal components were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The specimens had been irradiated to 5.5-45 dpa in the BOR-60 reactor at a dose rate close to 10-6 dpa/s and temperature of about 320°C. No voids were observed in the austenitic stainless steels and nickel alloys at all doses. Despite the possibility that fine voids below the TEM resolution limit may be present, it was clear that void swelling was insignificant in all examined alloys up to 45 dpa. Irradiated microstructures of the studied alloys were dominated by a high density of Frank loops. The mean size and density of the Frank loops varied from one material to another, but saturated with increasing dose above ~10 dpa. While no irradiation-induced precipitations were present below 24.5 dpa, fine precipitates were evident in several alloys at 45 dpa.

  13. EQUILIBRIUM DISKS, MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY MODE EXCITATION, AND STEADY-STATE TURBULENCE IN GLOBAL ACCRETION DISK SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkin, E. R.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-02-15

    Global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of turbulent accretion disks are presented which start from fully equilibrium initial conditions in which the magnetic forces are accounted for and the induction equation is satisfied. The local linear theory of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is used as a predictor of the growth of magnetic field perturbations in the global simulations. The linear growth estimates and global simulations diverge when nonlinear motions-perhaps triggered by the onset of turbulence-upset the velocity perturbations used to excite the MRI. The saturated state is found to be independent of the initially excited MRI mode, showing that once the disk has expelled the initially net flux field and settled into quasi-periodic oscillations in the toroidal magnetic flux, the dynamo cycle regulates the global saturation stress level. Furthermore, time-averaged measures of converged turbulence, such as the ratio of magnetic energies, are found to be in agreement with previous works. In particular, the globally averaged stress normalized to the gas pressure <{alpha}{sub P}>bar = 0.034, with notably higher values achieved for simulations with higher azimuthal resolution. Supplementary tests are performed using different numerical algorithms and resolutions. Convergence with resolution during the initial linear MRI growth phase is found for 23-35 cells per scale height (in the vertical direction).

  14. Gamma irradiation effects in W films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claro, Luiz H.; Santos, Ingrid A.; Silva, Cassia F.

    2013-05-06

    Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

  15. Neutron Irradiation Resistance of RAFM Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaganidze, Ermile; Dafferner, Bernhard; Aktaa, Jarir

    2008-07-01

    The neutron irradiation resistance of the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 and international reference steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X and MANET-I) have been investigated after irradiation in the Petten High Flux Reactor up to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 deg. C). The embrittlement behavior and hardening are investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with sub-size specimens. Neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement and hardening of EUROFER97 was studied under different heat treatment conditions. Embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 steel are comparable to those of reference steels. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at a higher austenitizing temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behaviour at low irradiation temperatures. Analysis of embrittlement vs. hardening behavior of RAFM steels within a proper model in terms of the parameter C={delta}DBTT/{delta}{sigma} indicates hardening-dominated embrittlement at irradiation temperatures below 350 deg. C with 0.17 {<=} C {<=} 0.53 deg. C/MPa. Scattering of C at irradiation temperatures above 400 deg. C indicates non hardening embrittlement. A role of He in a process of embrittlement is investigated in EUROFER97 based steels, that are doped with different contents of natural B and the separated {sup 10}B-isotope (0.008-0.112 wt.%). Testing on small scale fracture mechanical specimens for determination of quasi-static fracture toughness will be also presented in a view of future irradiation campaigns. (authors)

  16. Stability of nanoclusters in 14YWT oxide dispersion strengthened steel under heavy ion-irradiation by atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianchao He; Farong Wan; Kumar Sridharan; Todd R. Allen; A. Certain; V. Shutthanandan; Y.Q. Wu

    2014-12-01

    14YWT oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was irradiated with of 5 MeV Ni2+ ions, at 300 C, 450 C, and 600 C to a damage level of 100 dpa. The stability of TiYO nanoclusters was investigated by applying atom probe tomography (APT) in voltage mode, of the samples before and after irradiations. The average size and number density of the nanoclusters was determined using the maximum separation method. These techniques allowed for the imaging of nanoclusters to sizes well below the resolution limit of conventional transmission electron microscopy techniques. The most significant changes were observed for samples irradiated at 300 C where the size (average Guinier radius) and number density of nanoclusters were observed to decrease from 1.1 nm to 0.8 nm and 12 1023 to 3.6 1023, respectively. In this study, the nanoclusters are more stable at higher temperature.

  17. Global Celsius SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Global Celsius SL Place: Madrid, Spain Sector: Wind energy Product: Spanish wind project developer. References: Global Celsius SL1 This article is a stub. You...

  18. Global Security | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sector. Global Security Cooley joins Y-12's Global Security and Strategic Partnerships Manufacturing and Technical Services Nuclear Material Recovery Nuclear Detection and...

  19. Digilog Global Environmental LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Digilog Global Environmental LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Digilog Global Environmental LLC Place: Chicago, Illinois Zip: 60606 Product: TradeLink is registered as a...

  20. Global Alternative Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Alternative Fuels Place: El Paso, Texas Zip: 79922 Product: Global Alternative Fuels processes virgin oils (palm,...

  1. NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 September 9, ...

  2. Global Power Solutions LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Power Solutions LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Power Solutions LLC Place: Colorado Zip: CO 80401 Sector: Geothermal energy Product: String representation...

  3. Global Solar Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Solar Energy Place: Tucson, AZ Website: www.globalsolarenergy.com References: Global Solar Energy1 Information About Partnership...

  4. Sunrise Global Solar Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Solar Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sunrise Global Solar Energy Place: Taoyuan County, Taiwan Zip: 330 Sector: Solar Product: Engaged in solar monocrystalline...

  5. Sky Solar Global SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sky Solar Global SA Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28046 Product: Project developer, and distributor of Chinese PV modules to Spain and...

  6. Global Climate Change Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Change Institute Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Climate Change Institute Place: Tsinghua University, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100084 Product: Global Climate...

  7. Brazil Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brazil Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change Place: Distrito Federal...

  8. Eco Fuel Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Global Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eco-Fuel Global Place: California, California Zip: 94596 Sector: Services Product: California-based environmental engineering and...

  9. Carbon Markets Global Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Markets Global Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Markets Global Ltd Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: NW4 2HT Product: Assist project originators develop and finance...

  10. The Global Carbon Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Carbon Bank Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Global Carbon Bank Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77025 Sector: Carbon, Services Product: Houston-based provider of advisory...

  11. Sustainable Solutions to Global Energy Challenges | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solutions to Global Energy Challenges Sustainable Solutions to Global Energy Challenges ... Deployment Carl Wolf, Business Development Manager, LanzaTech PDF icon ...

  12. Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-03-25

    Soil respiration (RS), the flux of CO2 from the soil surface to the atmosphere, comprises the second-largest terrestrial carbon flux, but its dynamics are incompletely understood, and the global flux remains poorly constrained. Ecosystem warming experiments, modelling analyses, and biokinetics all suggest that RS should change with climate. This has been difficult to confirm observationally because of the high spatial variability of RS, inaccessibility of the soil medium, and inability of remote sensing instruments to measure large-scale RS fluxes. Given these constraints, is it possible to discern climate-driven changes in regional or global RS fluxes in the extant four-decade record of RS chamber measurements? Here we use a database of worldwide RS observations, matched with high-resolution historical climate data, to show a previously unknown temporal trend in the RS record after accounting for mean annual climate, leaf area, nitrogen deposition, and changes in CO2 measurement technique. Air temperature anomaly (deviation from the 1961-1990 mean) is significantly and positively correlated with changes in RS fluxes; both temperature and precipitation anomalies exert effects in specific biomes. We estimate that the current (2008) annual global RS flux is 9812 Pg and has increased 0.1 Pg yr-1 over the last 20 years, implying a global RS temperature response (Q10) of 1.5. An increasing global RS flux does not necessarily constitute a positive feedback loop to the atmosphere; nonetheless, the available data are consistent with an acceleration of the terrestrial carbon cycle in response to global climate change.

  13. The Early Characterization of Irradiation Effects in Stainless Steels at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Porter

    2008-01-01

    The new Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is revitalizing interest in materials development for fast spectrum reactors. With this comes the need for new, high-performance materials that are resistant to property changes caused by radiation damage. In the 1970s there was an effort to monitor the irradiation effects on stainless steels used in fast reactor cores, largely because there were a number of surprises where materials subjected to a high flux of fast neutrons incurred dimensional and property changes that had not been expected. In the U.S., this applied to the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Void swelling and irradiation-induced creep caused dimensional changes in the reactor components that shortened their useful lifetime and impacted reactor operations by creating fuel handling difficulties and reactivity anomalies. The surveillance programs and early experiments studied the simplest of austenitic stainless steels, such as Types 304 and 304L stainless steel, and led to some basic understanding of the links between these irradiation effects and microchemical changes within the steel caused by operational variables such as temperature, neutron flux and neutron fluence. Some of the observations helped to define later alloy development programs designed to produce alloys that were much more resistant to the effects of neutron irradiation.

  14. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  15. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  16. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities- Gamma Irradiation Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Irradiation Facility Working with SRNL Our Facilities - Gamma Irradiation Facility SRNL's Gamma Irradiation Facility is equipped with devices for irradiating solid and liquid samples, allowing a wide range of tests to determine the effects of radiation on materials. Typically, the Gamma Irradiation Facility is used to determine the life expectancy of components to be used in a radioactive environment or to study material performance under a variety of conditions

  17. Resolution enhancement in nonlinear photoacoustic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goy, Alexandre S.; Fleischer, Jason W.

    2015-11-23

    Nonlinear processes can be exploited to gain access to more information than is possible in the linear regime. Nonlinearity modifies the spectra of the excitation signals through harmonic generation, frequency mixing, and spectral shifting, so that features originally outside the detector range can be detected. Here, we present an experimental study of resolution enhancement for photoacoustic imaging of thin metal layers immersed in water. In this case, there is a threshold in the excitation below which no acoustic signal is detected. Above threshold, the nonlinearity reduces the width of the active area of the excitation beam, resulting in a narrower absorption region and thus improved spatial resolution. This gain is limited only by noise, as the active area of the excitation can be arbitrarily reduced when the fluence becomes closer to the threshold. Here, we demonstrate a two-fold improvement in resolution and quantify the image quality as the excitation fluence goes through threshold.

  18. Experiences with the High Energy Resolution Optics (HERO) update...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resolution Optics (HERO) update on a physical electronics 690 auger system. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experiences with the High Energy Resolution Optics (HERO) ...

  19. Sub-Cell Resolution Techniques for Multi-Material Electromagnetics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sub-Cell Resolution Techniques for Multi-Material Electromagnetics in Two and Three Dimensions. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sub-Cell Resolution Techniques for ...

  20. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resolution Imaging Science Experiment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment Author University of...

  1. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, ...

  2. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle ...

  3. High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-FieldCathodolumine...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-Field Cathodoluminescence of Quantum Dots. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy ...

  4. High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an x-pinch x-ray source and spherically bent crystal Title: High resolution absorption ...

  5. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pm029allard2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst...

  6. Physically Based Global Downscaling: Regional Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Shippert, Timothy R.; Fox, Jared

    2006-02-01

    The climate simulated by a global atmosphere/land model with a physically-based subgrid orography scheme is evaluated in ten selected regions. Climate variables simulated for each of multiple elevation classes within each grid cell are mapped according the high-resolution distribution of surface elevation in each region. Comparison of the simulated annual mean climate with gridded observations leads to the following conclusions. At low to moderate elevations the downscaling scheme correctly simulates increasing precipitation, decreasing temperature, and increasing snow with increasing elevation within regions smaller than 100 km. At high elevations the downscaling scheme correctly simulates a decrease in precipitation with increasing elevation. Too little precipitation is simulated on the windward side of mountain ranges and too much precipitation is simulated on the lee side. The simulated sensitivity of surface air temperature to surface elevation is too strong, particularly in valleys influenced by drainage circulations. Observations show little evidence of a snow shadow, so the neglect of the subgrid rainshadow does not produce an unrealistic simulation of the snow distribution. Summertime snow area, which is a proxy for land ice, is much larger than observed. Summertime snow water equivalent is far less than the observed thickness of glaciers because a 1 m upper bound on snow water is applied to the simulations and because snow transport by slides is neglected. The 1 m upper bound on snow water equivalent also causes an underestimate of seasonal snow water during late winter, compared with gridded station measurements. Potential solutions to these problems are discussed.

  7. Identification of periods of clear sky irradiance in time series of GHI measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2016-01-18

    In this study, we present a simple algorithm for identifying periods of time with broadband global horizontal irradiance (GHI) similar to that occurring during clear sky conditions from a time series of GHI measurements. Other available methods to identify these periods do so by identifying periods with clear sky conditions using additional measurements, such as direct or diffuse irradiance. Our algorithm compares characteristics of the time series of measured GHI with the output of a clear sky model without requiring additional measurements. We validate our algorithm using data from several locations by comparing our results with those obtained from amore » clear sky detection algorithm, and with satellite and ground-based sky imagery.« less

  8. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  9. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, Steve

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  10. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 C by the end of the 21st century.

  11. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  12. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodard, C.T.; Stoss, F.W.

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  13. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A.

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Global Threat Reduction Initiative | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    An overview of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals.

  15. Review of recent irradiation-creep results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coghlan, W.A.

    1982-05-01

    Materials deform faster under stress in the presence of irradiation by a process known as irradiation creep. This phenomenon is important to reactor design and has been the subject of a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations. The purpose of this work is to review the recent experimental results to obtain a summary of these results and to determine those research areas that require additional information. The investigations have been classified into four subgroups based on the different experimental methods used. These four are: (1) irradiation creep using stress relaxation methods, (2) creep measurements using pressurized tubes, (3) irradiation creep from constant applied load, and (4) irradiation creep experiments using accelerated particles. The similarity and the differences of the results from these methods are discussed and a summary of important results and suggested areas for research is presented. In brief, the important results relate to the dependence of creep on swelling, temperature, stress state and alloying additions. In each of these areas new results have been presented and new questions have arisen which require further research to answer. 65 references.

  16. Measurement of Diameter Changes during Irradiation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, K. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Crepeau, J. C.; Solstad, S.

    2015-03-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in advanced and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant dimensional and physical changes during irradiation. Currently in the US, such changes are measured by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and handling may disturb the phenomena of interest. In-pile detection of changes in geometry is sorely needed to understand real-time behavior during irradiation testing of fuels and materials in high flux US Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). This paper presents development results of an advanced Linear Variable Differential Transformer-based test rig capable of detecting real-time changes in diameter of fuel rods or material samples during irradiation in US MTRs. This test rig is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory and will provide experimenters with a unique capability to measure diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  17. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  18. Solute redistribution and phase stability at FeCr/TiO2–x interfaces under ion irradiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Y.; Aguiar, J. A.; Yadav, S. K.; Anderoglu, O.; Baldwin, J. K.; Wang, Y. Q.; Valdez, James A.; Misra, A.; Luo, H. M.; Uberuaga, B. P.; et al

    2015-02-26

    Cr diffusion in trilayer thin films of 100 nm Fe–18Cr/125 nm TiO2–x/100 nm Fe–18Cr deposited on MgO substrates at 500 °C was studied by either annealing at 500 °C or Ni3+ ion irradiation at 500 °C. Microchemistry and microstructure evolution at the metal/oxide interfaces were investigated using (high-resolution) transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Diffusion of Cr into the O-deficient TiO2 layer, with negligible segregation to the FeCr/TiO2–x interface itself, was observed under both annealing and irradiation. Cr diffusion into TiO2–x was enhanced in ion-irradiated samples as compared to annealed. Irradiation-induced voids and amorphization ofmore » TiO2–x was also observed. The experimental results are rationalized using first-principles calculations that suggest an energetic preference for substituting Ti with Cr in sub-stoichiometric TiO2. Furthermore, the implications of these results on the irradiation stability of oxide-dispersed ferritic alloys are discussed.« less

  19. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Perna, Rosalba; Heng, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup 1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption signatures.

  20. Global strategies for environmental issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This is the 19th Annual NAEP conference proceedings, containing abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions. Broad areas covered include the following: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental ethics/equity; NEPA workshop and symposium; International environmental issues; global Environmental Effects; Risk Assessment; and Environmental effects of nuclear waste management.

  1. The effect of horizontal resolution on simulation quality in the Community Atmospheric Model, CAM5.1

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Reed, Kevin A.; Li, Fuyu; Prabhat, -; Bacmeister, Julio; Chen, Cheng -Ta; Paciorek, Christopher; Gleckler, Peter J.; Sperber, Kenneth R.; Collins, William D.; et al

    2014-11-05

    We present an analysis of version 5.1 of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5.1) at a high horizontal resolution. Intercomparison of this global model at approximately 0.25°, 1°, and 2° is presented for extreme daily precipitation as well as for a suite of seasonal mean fields. In general, extreme precipitation amounts are larger in high resolution than in lower-resolution configurations. In many but not all locations and/or seasons, extreme daily precipitation rates in the high-resolution configuration are higher and more realistic. The high-resolution configuration produces tropical cyclones up to category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale and a comparison to observations revealsmore » both realistic and unrealistic model behavior. In the absence of extensive model tuning at high resolution, simulation of many of the mean fields analyzed in this study is degraded compared to the tuned lower-resolution public released version of the model.« less

  2. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  3. The contribution of future agricultural trends in the US Midwest to global climate change mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Bandaru, Varaprasad; West, Tristram O.; Wise, Marshall A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-19

    Land use change is a complex response to changing environmental and socioeconomic systems. Historical drivers of land use change include changes in the natural resource availability of a region, changes in economic conditions for production of certain products and changing policies. Most recently, introduction of policy incentives for biofuel production have influenced land use change in the US Midwest, leading to concerns that bioenergy production systems may compete with food production and land conservation. Here we explore how land use may be impacted by future climate mitigation measures by nesting a high resolution agricultural model (EPIC Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) for the US Midwest within a global integrated assessment model (GCAM Global Change Assessment Model). This approach is designed to provide greater spatial resolution and detailed agricultural practice information by focusing on the climate mitigation potential of agriculture and land use in a specific region, while retaining the global economic context necessary to understand the far ranging effects of climate mitigation targets. We find that until the simulated carbon prices are very high, the US Midwest has a comparative advantage in producing traditional food and feed crops over bioenergy crops. Overall, the model responds to multiple pressures by adopting a mix of future responses. We also find that the GCAM model is capable of simulations at multiple spatial scales and agricultural technology resolution, which provides the capability to examine regional response to global policy and economic conditions in the context of climate mitigation.

  4. Neutron Spectrum Measurements from Irradiations at NCERC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackman, Kevin Richard; Mosby, Michelle A.; Bredeweg, Todd Allen; Hutchens, Gregory Joe; White, Morgan Curtis

    2015-04-15

    Several irradiations have been conducted on assemblies (COMET/ZEUS and Flattop) at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) located at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Configurations of the assemblies and irradiated materials changed between experiments. Different metallic foils were analyzed using the radioactivation method by gamma-ray spectrometry to understand/characterize the neutron spectra. Results of MCNP calculations are shown. It was concluded that MCNP simulated spectra agree with experimental measurements, with the caveats that some data are limited by statistics at low-energies and some activation foils have low activities.

  5. Separation of sodium-22 from irradiated targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Jamriska, David

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from an irradiated target including dissolving an irradiated target to form a first solution, contacting the first solution with hydrated antimony pentoxide to selectively separate sodium-22 from the first solution, separating the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 from the first solution, dissolving the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 in a mineral acid to form a second solution, and, separating the antimony from the sodium-22 in the second solution.

  6. Fission gas retention in irradiated metallic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the quantity of retained fission gas in irradiated metallic fuel (U-5Fs) are presented. The calculations utilize the Booth method to model the steady-state release of gases from fuel grains and a simplified grain-boundary gas model to predict the gas release from intergranular regions. The quantity of gas retained in as-irradiated fuel was determined by collecting the gases released from short segments of EBR-II driver fuel that were melted in a gas-tight furnace. Comparison of the calculations to the measurements shows quantitative agreement with both the magnitude and the axial variation of the retained gas content.

  7. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Co-Hosts "Climate Risk Forum: Bridging Climate Science and Actuarial Practice" This Fall event was a follow-up to a Climate and Environment Program Area meeting with the California governor's office in July. There, the California Insurance Commissioner, Dave Jones, recognized the value of Sandia's climate-impact modeling and analysis work, led by Stephen Conrad (manager of Sandia's Resilience and Regulatory Effects Dept.), and wanted to connect that [...] By

  8. Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, Arthur; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2013-10-11

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known about basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC- based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response (ZrC) by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation-induced microstructures mapped spatially and temporally, microstructural evolution during post-irradiation annealing, and atomistic modeling of defect formation and transport energetics will provide new, critical understanding about property changes in ZrC. The behavior of materials under irradiation is determined by the balance between damage production, defect clustering, and lattice response. In order to predict those effects at high temperatures so targeted testing can be expanded and extrapolated beyond the known database, it is necessary to determine the defect energetics and mobilities as these control damage accumulation and annealing. In particular, low-temperature irradiations are invaluable for determining the regions of defect mobility. Computer simulation techniques are particularly useful for identifying basic defect properties, especially if closely coupled with a well-constructed and complete experimental database. The close coupling of calculation and experiment in this project will provide mutual benchmarking and allow us to glean a deeper understanding of the irradiation response of ZrC, which can then be applied to the prediction of its behavior in reactor conditions.

  9. Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial

    2014-12-08

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

  10. High resolution patterning of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertino, M.F.; Hund, J.F.; Sosa, J.; Zhang, G.; Sotiriou-Leventis, C.; Leventis, N.; Tokuhiro, A.T.; Terry, J. (UMR-MUST); (IIT)

    2008-10-30

    Three-dimensional metallic structures are fabricated with high spatial resolution in silica aerogels. In our method, silica hydrogels are prepared with a standard base-catalyzed route, and exchanged with an aqueous solution typically containing Ag{sup +} ions (1 M) and 2-propanol (0.2 M). The metal ions are reduced photolytically with a table-top ultraviolet lamp, or radiolytically, with a focused X-ray beam. We fabricated dots and lines as small as 30 x 70 {micro}m, protruding for several mm into the bulk of the materials. The hydrogels are eventually supercritically dried to yield aerogels, without any measurable change in the shape and spatial resolution of the lithographed structures. Transmission electron microscopy shows that illuminated regions are composed by Ag clusters with a size of several {micro}m, separated by thin layers of silica.

  11. Effect of Resolution on Propagating Detonation Wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-07-10

    Simulations of the cylinder test are used to illustrate the effect of mesh resolution on a propagating detonation wave. For this study we use the xRage code with the SURF burn model for PBX 9501. The adaptive mesh capability of xRage is used to vary the resolution of the reaction zone. We focus on two key properties: the detonation speed and the cylinder wall velocity. The latter is related to the release isentrope behind the detonation wave. As the reaction zone is refined (2 to 15 cells for cell size of 62 to 8?m), both the detonation speed and final wall velocity change by a small amount; less than 1 per cent. The detonation speed decreases with coarser resolution. Even when the reaction zone is grossly under-resolved (cell size twice the reaction-zone width of the burn model) the wall velocity is within a per cent and the detonation speed is low by only 2 per cent.

  12. Continuous wave laser irradiation of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative measurements of the levels of continuous wave (CW) laser light that can be safely applied to bare explosives during contact operations were obtained at 532 nm, 785 nm, and 1550 nm wavelengths. A thermal camera was used to record the temperature of explosive pressed pellets and single crystals while they were irradiated using a measured laser power and laser spot size. A visible light image of the sample surface was obtained before and after the laser irradiation. Laser irradiation thresholds were obtained for the onset of any visible change to the explosive sample and for the onset of any visible chemical reaction. Deflagration to detonation transitions were not observed using any of these CW laser wavelengths on single crystals or pressed pellets in the unconfined geometry tested. Except for the photochemistry of DAAF, TATB and PBX 9502, all reactions appeared to be thermal using a 532 nm wavelength laser. For a 1550 nm wavelength laser, no photochemistry was evident, but the laser power thresholds for thermal damage in some of the materials were significantly lower than for the 532 nm laser wavelength. No reactions were observed in any of the studied explosives using the available 300 mW laser at 785 nm wavelength. Tables of laser irradiance damage and reaction thresholds are presented for pressed pellets of PBX9501, PBX9502, Composition B, HMX, TATB, RDX, DAAF, PETN, and TNT and single crystals of RDX, HMX, and PETN for each of the laser wavelengths.

  13. Strain engineering in graphene by laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papasimakis, N.; Mailis, S.; Huang, C. C.; Al-Saab, F.; Hewak, D. W.; Luo, Z.; Shen, Z. X.

    2015-02-09

    We demonstrate that the Raman spectrum of graphene on lithium niobate can be controlled locally by continuous exposure to laser irradiation. We interpret our results in terms of changes to doping and mechanical strain and show that our observations are consistent with light-induced gradual strain relaxation in the graphene layer.

  14. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF OXIDES AND THEIR NEUTRON IRRADIATION BEHAVIOR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NEUTRON IRRADIATION BEHAVIOR AT 80 DEG C Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF OXIDES AND THEIR NEUTRON IRRADIATION BEHAVIOR AT 80 DEG C (in French) ...

  15. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

  16. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for themore » analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.« less

  17. Global Pathways Analysis Tool (GPAT)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Pathways Analysis Tool (GPAT) (Sandia National Laboratories) Objectives Calculate least-cost pathways for hydrogen supply for eight participating countries: France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Japan, and the United States (U.S. further divided into eight regions to allow for additional regional analysis; additional countries could be added as data becomes available). The objective is to match country level demands for hydrogen with lowest cost supply options for each country.

  18. Global Warming and Human Health

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American Geophysical Union Global Warming and Human Health WHEN: Jul 27, 2015 5:30 PM - 6:30 PM WHERE: Eldorado Hotel 309 W San Francisco Street, Santa Fe SPEAKER: Robert Davis, University of Virginia CONTACT: Shermonta Grant (202) 777-7329 CATEGORY: Community Science TYPE: Lecture INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description The main reason we are concerned about human-induced climate change is that climate shifts might impact the health of Earth's populace. These impacts can be direct, such as

  19. Implementation of global energy sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grob, G.R.

    1998-02-01

    The term energy sustainability emerged from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed. Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency, and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the charter. These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical, and education framework. Much has been done in many countries toward the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress has not been fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the too many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate, and health. Global warming is accelerating, and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of economic development. Asian cities are now beating all pollution records, and greenhouse gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers, and record weather disasters. This article presents why and how energy investments and research money have to be rechanneled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one trillion dollars per year. This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention.

  20. Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon We investigate the influence of proton irradiation on thermal conductivity in single crystal silicon. We apply laser based modulated thermoreflectance technique to extract the change in conductivity of the thin layer damaged by proton irradiation. Unlike time domain thermoreflectance techniques

  1. EFFECT OF FAST NEUTRON IRRADIATION ON SINTERED ALUMINA AND MAGNESIA...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IRRADIATION; LATTICES; MAGNESIUM OXIDES; MONOCRYSTALS; NEUTRON FLUX; RADIATION DOSES; RADIATION EFFECTS; SINTERED MATERIALS; TEMPERATURE; THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ALUMINUM OXIDES

  2. Design of a Compact Fatigue Tester for Testing Irradiated Materials

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Design of a Compact Fatigue Tester for Testing Irradiated Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of a Compact Fatigue Tester for Testing Irradiated Materials A compact fatigue testing machine that can be easily inserted into a hot cell for characterization of irradiated materials is beneficial to help determine relative fatigue performance differences between new and irradiated material. Hot cell use has been carefully considered by

  3. ARM: Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Longwave broadband upwelling irradiance; Longwave narrowband ...

  4. Alloy development for irradiation performance in fusion reactors. Annual report, September 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harling, O K; Grant, N J

    1980-12-01

    This report summarizes the research and development work performed during the second year of an M.I.T. project directed toward the development of improved structural alloys for the fusion reactor first wall application. Several new alloys have been produced by rapid solidification. Emphasis in alloy design and production has been placed on producing austenitic Type 316SS with fine dispersions of TiC and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles. Results of mechanical and microstructural tests are presented. A number of neutron irradiations have been initiated on samples fabricated from alloys produced in this project. A dual beam, heavy ion and helium ion, irradiation was completed using several alloys and a range of temperatures, damage rates and total doses. Modeling of irradiation phenomena has been continued with emphasis in the last year upon understanding the effect of recoil resolution on relatively stable second phase particles. Work continued to fully characterize the microstructure of several ZrB/sub 2/ doped stainless steels.

  5. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornforth, Michael N.

    2013-05-03

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of 'array painting'.

  6. Sensitivity of ultrasonic nonlinearity to irradiated, annealed, and re-irradiated microstructure changes in RPV steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matlack, Katie; Kim, J-Y.; Wall, J.J.; Jacobs, L.J.; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2014-05-01

    The planned life extension of nuclear reactors throughout the US and abroad will cause reactor vessel and internals materials to be exposed to more neutron irradiation than was originally intended. A nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method to monitor radiation damage would enable safe and cost-effective continued operation of nuclear reactors. Radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels causes microstructural changes that leave the material in an embrittled state. Nonlinear ultrasound is an NDE technique quantified by the measurable acoustic nonlinearity parameter, which is sensitive to microstructural changes in metallic materials such as dislocations, precipitates and their combinations. Recent research has demonstrated the sensitivity of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter to increasing neutron fluence in representative RPV steels. The current work considers nonlinear ultrasonic experiments conducted on similar RPV steel samples that had a combination of irradiation, annealing, re-irradiation, and/or re-annealing to a total neutron fluence of 0.5 5 1019 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 290 C. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter generally increased with increasing neutron fluence, and consistently decreased from the irradiated to the annealed state over different levels of neutron fluence. Results of the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter are compared with those from previous measurements on other RPV steel samples. This comprehensive set of results illustrates the dependence of the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter on neutron fluence, material composition, irradiation temperature and annealing.

  7. Irradiation creep of various ferritic alloys irradiated {approximately}400 C in the PFR and FFTF reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toloczko, M.B.; Garner, F.A.; Eiholzer, C.R.

    1998-03-01

    Three ferritic alloys were irradiated in two fast reactors to doses of 50 dpa or more at temperatures near 400 C. One martensitic alloy, HT9, was irradiated in both the FFTF and PFR reactors. PFR is the Prototype Fast Reactor in Dourneay, Scotland, and FFTF is the Fast Flux Test Facility in Richland, WA. D57 is a developmental alloy that was irradiated in PFR only, and MA957 is a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion-hardened ferritic alloy that was irradiated only in FFTF. These alloys exhibited little or no void swelling at {approximately}400 C. Depending on the alloy starting condition, these steels develop a variety of non-creep strains early in the irradiation that are associated with phase changes. Each of these alloys creeps at a rate that is significantly lower than that of austenitic steels irradiated in the same experiments. The creep compliance for ferritic alloys in general appears to be {approximately}0.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} MPa{sup {minus}1} dpa{sup {minus}1}, independent of both composition and starting state. The addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a dispersoid does not appear to change the creep behavior.

  8. The Global Innovation Commons | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Virginia. References "The Global Innovation Commons" Global Innovation Commons (G.I.C.) A patent is a contract between an inventor and the public. In order to promote and...

  9. Oil & Gas Technology Center | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Research Oil & Gas Technology Center Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new ... GE Global Research Oil & Gas Technology Center Mark Little, SVP and chief technology ...

  10. Global Energy Network Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map References: Global Energy Network Institute Web Site1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Global Energy...

  11. Contour Global L P | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global L P Jump to: navigation, search Name: Contour Global L.P. Place: New York, New York Zip: 10022 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: New York-based energy development company,...

  12. T Solar Global SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Global SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: T-Solar Global SA Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28042 Product: Spain-based thin-film silicon PV cell and module maker, using Applied...

  13. Global Atlas | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Atlas Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 11 February, 2013 - 15:18 IRENA launches global atlas of renewable energy potential data...

  14. Ardour Global Indexes LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Ardour Global Indexes LLC Place: New York City, New York Zip: 10016 Product: New-York based company that manages the Ardour Global Indexes, a set of alternative energy...

  15. Crest Global Green Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Green Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Crest Global Green Energy Place: County Durham, England, United Kingdom Zip: SR7 7EU Product: UK-based biofuel company with...

  16. Think Green Global Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Green Global Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Think Green Global, Inc. Place: New York, New York Zip: 10010 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: New York-based investment bank...

  17. Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd Place: Londaon, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: W1S 1TD Sector: Carbon, Hydro Product:...

  18. Global Wind Energy Council | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Council Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Global Wind Energy Council Name: Global Wind Energy Council Address: Wind Power House Rue d'Arlon 80 Place: Brussels, Belgium Phone...

  19. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  20. ARM - Will There be Increased Global Precipitation?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Will There be Increased Global Precipitation? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Will There be Increased Global Precipitation? Very probable. Along with an increase in air temperature might be an increase in evaporation, which could lead to greater global precipitation. The

  1. Promoting Sustainability on a Global Scale

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Promoting Sustainability on a Global Scale Martina Otto, Head of the Policy Unit, United Nations Environment Programme

  2. GE Capital Partnership | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Research and GE Capital: Middle Market Collaboration Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Global Research and GE Capital: Middle Market Collaboration In 2013, a partnering initiative between Global Research and GE Capital resulted in dozens of middle market companies collaborating with Global Research

  3. Advanced Numerical Model for Irradiated Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorla, Alain B.

    2015-03-01

    In this report, we establish a numerical model for concrete exposed to irradiation to address these three critical points. The model accounts for creep in the cement paste and its coupling with damage, temperature and relative humidity. The shift in failure mode with the loading rate is also properly represented. The numerical model for creep has been validated and calibrated against different experiments in the literature [Wittmann, 1970, Le Roy, 1995]. Results from a simplified model are shown to showcase the ability of numerical homogenization to simulate irradiation effects in concrete. In future works, the complete model will be applied to the analysis of the irradiation experiments of Elleuch et al. [1972] and Kelly et al. [1969]. This requires a careful examination of the experimental environmental conditions as in both cases certain critical information are missing, including the relative humidity history. A sensitivity analysis will be conducted to provide lower and upper bounds of the concrete expansion under irradiation, and check if the scatter in the simulated results matches the one found in experiments. The numerical and experimental results will be compared in terms of expansion and loss of mechanical stiffness and strength. Both effects should be captured accordingly by the model to validate it. Once the model has been validated on these two experiments, it can be applied to simulate concrete from nuclear power plants. To do so, the materials used in these concrete must be as well characterized as possible. The main parameters required are the mechanical properties of each constituent in the concrete (aggregates, cement paste), namely the elastic modulus, the creep properties, the tensile and compressive strength, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the drying shrinkage. These can be either measured experimentally, estimated from the initial composition in the case of cement paste, or back-calculated from mechanical tests on concrete. If some are unknown, a sensitivity analysis must be carried out to provide lower and upper bounds of the material behaviour. Finally, the model can be used as a basis to formulate a macroscopic material model for concrete subject to irradiation, which later can be used in structural analyses to estimate the structural impact of irradiation on nuclear power plants.

  4. Satellite remote sensing of global rainfall using passive microwave radiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferriday, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    Global rainfall over land and ocean is estimated using measurements of upwelling microwaves by a satellite passive microwave radiometer. Radiative transfer calculations through a cloud model are used to parameterize an inversion technique for retrieving rain rates from brightness temperatures measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The rainfall retrieval technique is based on the interaction between multi-spectral microwave radiances and millimeter sized liquid and frozen hydrometeors distributed in the satellite`s field of view. The rain rate algorithm is sensitive to both hydrometeor emission and scattering while being relatively insensitive to extraneous atmospheric and surface effects. Separate formulations are used over ocean and land to account for different background microwave characteristics and the algorithm corrects for inhomogeneous distributions of rain rates within the satellite`s field of view. Estimates of instantaneous and climate scale rainfall are validated through comparisons with modeled clouds, surface radars, rain gauges and alternative satellite estimates. The accuracy of the rainfall estimates is determined from a combination of validation comparisons, theoretical sampling error calculations, and modeled sensitivity to variations in atmospheric and surface radiative properties. An error budget is constructed for both instantaneous rain rates and climate scale global estimates. At a one degree resolution, the root mean square errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates are 13% over ocean and 20% over land. The root mean square errors in global rainfall totals over a four month period are found to be 46% over ocean and 63% over land. Global rainfall totals are computed on a monthly scale for a three year period from 1987 to 1990. The time series is analyzed for climate scale rainfall distribution and variability.

  5. Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.

    2012-06-20

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance and cost assumptions as well as explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region as well as with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global wind potential under central assumptions is estimated to be approximately 89 petawatt hours per year at less than 9 cents/kWh with substantial regional variations. One limitation of global wind analyses is that the resolution of current global wind speed reanalysis data can result in an underestimate of high wind areas. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly those related to land suitability and turbine density as well as cost and financing assumptions which have important policy implications. Transmission cost has a relatively small impact on total wind costs, changing the potential at a given cost by 20-30%. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  6. SU-E-T-376: 3-D Commissioning for An Image-Guided Small Animal Micro- Irradiation Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, X; Wuu, C; Admovics, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A 3-D radiochromic plastic dosimeter has been used to cross-test the isocentricity of a high resolution image-guided small animal microirradiation platform. In this platform, the mouse stage rotating for cone beam CT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for sub-millimeter radiation delivery. A 3-D dosimeter can be used to verify both imaging and irradiation coordinates. Methods: A 3-D dosimeter and optical CT scanner were used in this study. In the platform, both mouse stage and gantry can rotate 360 with rotation axis perpendicular to each other. Isocentricity and coincidence of mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated using star patterns. A 3-D dosimeter was placed on mouse stage with center at platform isocenter approximately. For CBCT isocentricity, with gantry moved to 90, the mouse stage rotated horizontally while the x-ray was delivered to the dosimeter at certain angles. For irradiation isocentricity, the gantry rotated 360 to deliver beams to the dosimeter at certain angles for star patterns. The uncertainties and agreement of both CBCT and irradiation isocenters can be determined from the star patterns. Both procedures were repeated 3 times using 3 dosimeters to determine short-term reproducibility. Finally, dosimeters were scanned using optical CT scanner to obtain the results. Results: The gantry isocentricity is 0.9 0.1 mm and mouse stage rotation isocentricity is about 0.91 0.11 mm. Agreement between the measured isocenters of irradiation and imaging coordinates was determined. The short-term reproducibility test yielded 0.5 0.1 mm between the imaging isocenter and the irradiation isocenter, with a maximum displacement of 0.7 0.1 mm. Conclusion: The 3-D dosimeter can be very useful in precise verification of targeting for a small animal irradiation research. In addition, a single 3-D dosimeter can provide information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies.

  7. The NERSC Global File System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Global File System (NGF) Jason Hick jhick@lbl.gov Storage Systems Group Lead http://www.nersc.gov/nusers/systems/NGF/ CAS2K11 September 11-14, 2011 * Operated by University of California for the US Department of Energy * NERSC serves a large population - Approximately 4000 users, 400 projects, 500 codes - Focus on "unique" resources * High-end computing systems * High-end storage systems - Large shared GPFS (a.k.a. NGF) - Large archive (a.k.a. HPSS) * Interface to high speed

  8. Are we seeing global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselmann, K.

    1997-05-09

    Despite considerable progress, the question of whether the observed gradual increase in global mean temperature over the last century is indeed caused by human activities or is simply an expression of natural climate variation on a larger spatial and temporal scales remains a controversial issue. To answer this question three things are needed: prediction of the anthropogenic climate change signal; determination of the natural climate variability noise; and computation of the signal-to-noise ratio and test of whether the ratio exceeds some predefined statistical detection threshold. This article discusses all these issues and the uncertainties involved in getting definitive answers. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Y-12 presented with joint resolution honoring 70th anniversary...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Posted: September 24, 2015 - 11:17am Ray Smith (left) accepts a copy of a joint resolution ... The resolution was presented to Y-12 historian Ray Smith at an Aug. 29 event in Oak Ridge. ...

  10. Economic Globalization and a Nuclear Renaissance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Parker, Brian M.

    2001-10-22

    The phenomenon of globalization has become increasingly well recognized, documented, and analyzed in the last several years. Globalization, the integration of markets and intra-firm competition on a worldwide basis, involves complex behavioral and mindset changes within a firm that facilitate global competition. The changes revolve around efficient information flow and rapid deployment of technology. The objective of this report is to examine the probable characteristics of a global nuclear renaissance and its broad implications for industry structure and export control relative to nuclear technology. The question of how a modern renaissance would affect the trend toward globalization of the nuclear industry is addressed.

  11. Nanodot formation induced by femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abere, M. J.; Kang, M.; Goldman, R. S.; Yalisove, S. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chen, C. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Rittman, D. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Phillips, J. D. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, B. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    The femtosecond laser generation of ZnSe nanoscale features on ZnSe surfaces was studied. Irradiation with multiple exposures produces 10100?nm agglomerations of nanocrystalline ZnSe while retaining the original single crystal structure of the underlying material. The structure of these nanodots was verified using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The nanodots continue to grow hours after irradiation through a combination of bulk and surface diffusion. We suggest that in nanodot formation the result of ultrafast laser induced point defect formation is more than an order of magnitude below the ZnSe ultrafast melt threshold fluence. This unique mechanism of point defect injection will be discussed.

  12. Forward and reverse characteristics of irradiated MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paccagnella, A.; Ceschia, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Soncini, G.; Bellutti, P.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1996-06-01

    pMOSFETs biased with V{sub gs} < V{sub gd} during Co{sup 60} {gamma} irradiation have shown substantial differences between the forward and reverse subthreshold characteristics, induced by a non-uniform charge distribution in the gate oxide. Correspondingly, modest differences have been observed in the over-threshold I-V characteristics. After irradiation, the forward subthreshold curves can shift at higher or lower gate voltages than the reverse ones. The former behavior has been observed in long-channel devices, in agreement with the classical MOS theory and numerical simulations. The latter result has been obtained in short-channel devices, and it has been correlated to a parasitic punch-through conduction mechanism.

  13. Fractionated total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kun, L.E.; Casper, J.T.; Kline, R.W.; Piaskowski, V.D.

    1981-11-01

    Twelve patients over one year old with neuroblastoma (NBL) metastatic to bone and bone marrow entered a study of adjuvant low-dose, fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). Six children who achieved a ''complete clinical response'' following chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and adriamycin) and surgical resection of the abdominal primary received TBI (10 rad/fraction to totals of 100-120 rad/10-12 fx/12-25 days). Two children received concurrent local irradiation for residual abdominal tumor. The intervals from cessation of chemotherapy to documented progression ranged from 2-16 months, not substatially different from patients receiving similar chemotherapy and surgery without TBI. Three additional children with progressive NBL received similar TBI (80-120 rad/8-12 fx) without objective response.

  14. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  15. Operations, Audit Resolution, and Internal Controls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Business Operations » Project Management Coordination Office » Operations, Audit Resolution, and Internal Controls Operations, Audit Resolution, and Internal Controls PMCO oversees critical audit resolution and internal controls compliance and serves as a liaison to the EERE's Operations Council. Goals And Priorities Perform centralized audit resolution on behalf of EERE. Manage the internal controls process for EERE HQ. Blog News Mission Leadership Budget EERE Offices Business Operations

  16. The Role of Ombudsmen in Dispute Resolution | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Role of Ombudsmen in Dispute Resolution The Role of Ombudsmen in Dispute Resolution A report by the General Accounting Office (GAO) on the role of ombudsmen in dispute resolution. PDF icon RoleOmbuds.pdf More Documents & Publications Human Capital: The Role of Ombudsmen in Dispute Resolution TT Coordinator Ltr dated May 13 2010 Microsoft Word - ADR Revised Policy82508Reformatted.doc

  17. Engineering change in global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

  18. Irradiation Environment of the Materials Test Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2012-06-21

    Conceptual design of the proposed Materials Test Station (MTS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is now complete. The principal mission is the irradiation testing of advanced fuels and materials for fast-spectrum nuclear reactor applications. The neutron spectrum in the fuel irradiation region of MTS is sufficiently close to that of fast reactor that MTS can match the fast reactor fuel centerline temperature and temperature profile across a fuel pellet. This is an important characteristic since temperature and temperature gradients drive many phenomena related to fuel performance, such as phase stability, stoichiometry, and fission product transport. The MTS irradiation environment is also suitable in many respects for fusion materials testing. In particular, the rate of helium production relative to atomic displacements at the peak flux position in MTS matches well that of fusion reactor first wall. Nuclear transmutation of the elemental composition of the fusion alloy EUROFER97 in MTS is similar to that expected in the first wall of a fusion reactor.

  19. Microgamma Scan System for analyzing radial isotopic profiles of irradiated transmutation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce A. Hilton; Christopher A. McGrath

    2008-05-01

    The U. S. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership / Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (GNEP/AFCI) is developing metallic transmutation alloys as a fuel form to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products. The AFCI program has irradiated and examined eleven metallic alloy transmutation fuel specimens to evaluate the feasibility of actinide transmutation in advanced sodium-cooled fast reactors and thermal reactor implementation. Initial results of postirradiation examinations indicated the irradiation performance of the actinide-bearing compositions is similar to uranium-plutonium-zirconium ternary metallic alloy fuels (U-xPu-10Zr). Further studies to characterize radial burnup profile, constituent migration, and fuel cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) are in progress. A microgamma scan system is being developed to analyze the radial distribution of fission products, such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Ru-106, and Zr-95, in irradiated fuel cross-sections. The microgamma scan system consists of a set of indexed sample collimator blocks and a sample holder, which interfaces with the INL Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell (ALHC) Gamma Scan System high purity germanium detector, multichannel analyzer, and removable collimators. The microgamma scan results will be used to evaluate radial burnup profile, cesium migration to the sodium bond and constituent migration within the fuel. These data will further clarify the comparative irradiation performance of actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms and uranium-plutonium-zirconium alloys. Preliminary measurements of the microgamma scan system will be discussed. A simplified model of the microgamma scan system was developed in MCNP and used to investigate the system performance and to interpret data from the scoping studies. Recommendations for improving the MCGS analyses are discussed.

  20. The Energy Efficiency Potential of Global Transport to 2050 ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Energy Efficiency Potential of Global Transport to 2050 The Energy Efficiency Potential of Global Transport to 2050 Broad view of sustainability of global transportation PDF ...

  1. Wanted: Global Clean Energy Partners | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Super contributor 24 February, 2010 - 13:51 imported OpenEI Global climate change. Global sustainability. Global economic development. There's no doubt about it-if the...

  2. CO2 Global Solutions International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Solutions International Jump to: navigation, search Name: CO2 Global Solutions International Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28001 Sector: Carbon Product: CO2 Global Solutions is...

  3. Development of mpi_EPIC Model for Global Agroecosystem Modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kang, Shujiang; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Jeff A.; Schuchart, Joseph; Kline, Keith L; Wei, Yaxing; Ricciuto, Daniel M; Wullschleger, Stan D; Post, Wilfred M; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Models that address policy-maker concerns about multi-scale effects of food and bioenergy production systems are computationally demanding. We integrated the message passing interface algorithm into the process-based EPIC model to accelerate computation of ecosystem effects. Simulation performance was further enhanced by applying the Vampir framework. When this enhanced mpi_EPIC model was tested, total execution time for a global 30-year simulation of a switchgrass cropping system was shortened to less than 0.5 hours on a supercomputer. The results illustrate that mpi_EPIC using parallel design can balance simulation workloads and facilitate large-scale, high-resolution analysis of agricultural production systems, management alternatives and environmentalmore » effects.« less

  4. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

    2013-05-10

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Systeme international d'unites, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed by international intercomparisons among NMIs. Ultimately, the spectral irradiance can be realized with expanded measurement uncertainties of far less than 1 % over a wide spectral range. Thus, for customers with high demands on low measurement uncertainties, it is possible to calibrate their working standards directly against the blackbody-radiator, taking into account the higher necessary effort. In special cases it is possible to calibrate the customer's spectroradiometric facilities directly in front of the blackbody-radiator. In the context of the European Metrology Research Project Traceability for surface spectral solar ultraviolet radiation, the traceability chain will be improved and adapted.

  5. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  6. Evaluation of Neutron Irradiated Silicon Carbide and Silicon Carbide Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsome G, Snead L, Hinoki T, Katoh Y, Peters D

    2007-03-26

    The effects of fast neutron irradiation on SiC and SiC composites have been studied. The materials used were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC and SiC/SiC composites reinforced with either Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic{trademark} fibers fabricated by chemical vapor infiltration. Statistically significant numbers of flexural samples were irradiated up to 4.6 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV) at 300, 500 and 800 C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dimensions and weights of the flexural bars were measured before and after the neutron irradiation. Mechanical properties were evaluated by four point flexural testing. Volume increase was seen for all bend bars following neutron irradiation. Magnitude of swelling depended on irradiation temperature and material, while it was nearly independent of irradiation fluence over the fluence range studied. Flexural strength of CVD SiC increased following irradiation depending on irradiation temperature. Over the temperature range studied, no significant degradation in mechanical properties was seen for composites fabricated with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, while composites reinforced with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic fibers showed significant degradation. The effects of irradiation on the Weibull failure statistics are also presented suggesting a reduction in the Weibull modulus upon irradiation. The cause of this potential reduction is not known.

  7. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  8. Energy in Today's Global Society

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Energy is an abstract concept that is very familiar to students from personal experiences with household appliances, transportation, and their own bodies. However, the nature of energy, energy transformations, and energy conservation are poorly understood, even by most adults. The geopolitical and environmental issues associated with energy and its consumption in today’s global society are important for every citizen to appreciate in order to make informed decisions about the future. Without a deep understanding that energy is finite and that energy transformations are what give modern society its high standard of living, students today will not be prepared to make the tough personal and political decisions that await us as fossil fuel resources dwindle.

  9. Global change monitoring with lichens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Insarov, G.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental monitoring involves observations and assessment of changes in ecosystems and their components caused by anthropogenetic influence. An ideal monitoring system enables quantification of the contemporary state of the environment and detect changes in it. An important function of monitoring is to assess environment quality of areas that are not affected by local anthropogenic impacts, i.e. background areas. In background areas terrestrial ecosystems are mainly affected by such anthropogenic factors as lowered air pollution and global climate change. Assessment of biotic responses to altered climatic and atmospheric conditions provides an important basis for ecosystem management and environmental decision making. Without the ability to make such assessment, sustainability of ecosystems as a support system for humans remains uncertain.

  10. Development of the global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rae, J. G. L.; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-07-24

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally based data sets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST data set. As a result, in the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extent and volume; further work is required to rectify this in future configurations.

  11. Development of global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rae, J. . G. L; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-03-05

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally-based datasets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST dataset. In the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extent and volume; further work is required to rectify this in future configurations.

  12. Development of the global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rae, J. G. L.; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-07-24

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally based data sets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST data set. As a result, in the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extentmore » and volume; further work is required to rectify this in future configurations.« less

  13. Development of global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rae, J. . G. L; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-03-05

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally-based datasets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST dataset. In the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extent and volume; further work is requiredmore » to rectify this in future configurations.« less

  14. High-dose neutron irradiation performance of dielectric mirrors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nimishakavi Anantha Phani Kiran Kumar; Leonard, Keith J.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-05-01

    The study presents the high-dose behavior of dielectric mirrors specifically engineered for radiation-tolerance: alternating layers of Al2O3/SiO2 and HfO2/SiO2 were grown on sapphire substrates and exposed to neutron doses of 1 and 4 dpa at 458 10K in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). In comparison to previously reported results, these higher doses of 1 and 4 dpa results in a drastic drop in optical reflectance, caused by a failure of the multilayer coating. HfO2/SiO2 mirrors failed completely when exposed to 1 dpa, whereas the reflectance of Al2O3/SiO2 mirrors reduced to 44%, eventually failing at 4 dpa. Transmission electron microscopymore » (TEM) observation of the Al2O3/SiO2 specimens showed SiO2 layer defects which increases size with irradiation dose. The typical size of each defect was 8 nm in 1 dpa and 42 nm in 4 dpa specimens. Buckling type delamination of the interface between the substrate and first layer was typically observed in both 1 and 4 dpa HfO2/SiO2 specimens. Composition changes across the layers were measured in high resolution scanning-TEM mode using energy dispersive spectroscopy. A significant interdiffusion between the film layers was observed in Al2O3/SiO2 mirror, though less evident in HfO2/SiO2 system. Lastly, the ultimate goal of this work is the provide insight into the radiation-induced failure mechanisms of these mirrors.« less

  15. High Dose Neutron Irradiation Performance of Dielectric Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimishakavi, Anantha Phani Kiran Kumar; Leonard, Keith J; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-01-01

    The study presents the high-dose behavior of dielectric mirrors specifically engineered for radiation-tolerance: alternating layers of Al2O3/SiO2 and HfO2/SiO2 were grown on sapphire substrates and exposed to neutron doses of 1 and 4 dpa at 458 10K in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). In comparison to previously reported results, these higher doses of 1 and 4 dpa results in a drastic drop in optical reflectance, caused by a failure of the multilayer coating. HfO2/SiO2 mirrors failed completely when exposed to 1 dpa, whereas the reflectance of Al2O3/SiO2 mirrors reduced to 44%, eventually failing at 4 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of the Al2O3/SiO2 specimens showed SiO2 layer defects which increases size with irradiation dose. The typical size of each defect was 8 nm in 1 dpa and 42 nm in 4 dpa specimens. Buckling type delamination of the interface between the substrate and first layer was typically observed in both 1 and 4 dpa HfO2/SiO2 specimens. Composition changes across the layers were measured in high resolution scanning-TEM mode using energy dispersive spectroscopy. A significant interdiffusion between the film layers was observed in Al2O3/SiO2 mirror, though less evident in HfO2/SiO2 system. The ultimate goal of this work is the provide insight into the radiation-induced failure mechanisms of these mirrors.

  16. EA-381 E-T Global Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-381 E-T Global Energy Order authorizing E-T Global Energy to export electric energy to Mexico. File EA-381 ET Global MX.docx More Documents & Publications EA-381 E-T Global ...

  17. High Resolution BPM Upgrade for the ATF Damping Ring at KEK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, N.; Briegel, C.; Fellenz, B.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Semenov, A.; Voy, D.; Wendt, M.; Zhang, D.; Terunuma, N.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-08-17

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital down-conversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also implements a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization as well as results of beam studies are presented. The next generation of linear colliders require ultra-low vertical emittance of <2 pm-rad. The damping ring at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) is designed to demonstrate this mission critical goal. A high resolution beam position monitor (BPM) system for the damping ring is one of the key tools for realizing this goal. The BPM system needs to provide two distnict measurements. First, a very high resolution ({approx}100-200nm) closed-orbit measurement which is averaged over many turns and realized with narrowband filter techniques - 'narrowband mode'. This is needed to monitor and steer the beam along an optimum orbit and to facilitate beam-based alignment to minimize non-linear field effects. Second, is the ability to make turn by turn (TBT) measurements to support optics studies and corrections necessary to achieve the design performance. As the TBT measurement necessitates a wider bandwidth, it is often referred to as 'wideband mode'. The BPM upgrade was initiated as a KEK/SLAC/FNAL collaboration in the frame of the Global Design Initiative of the International Linear Collider. The project was realized and completed using Japan-US funds with Fermilab as the core partner.

  18. CYCLIC THERMAL SIGNATURE IN A GLOBAL MHD SIMULATION OF SOLAR CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cossette, Jean-Francois; Charbonneau, Paul; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2013-11-10

    Global magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the solar convection zone have recently achieved cyclic large-scale axisymmetric magnetic fields undergoing polarity reversals on a decadal time scale. In this Letter, we show that these simulations also display a thermal convective luminosity that varies in-phase with the magnetic cycle, and trace this modulation to deep-seated magnetically mediated changes in convective flow patterns. Within the context of the ongoing debate on the physical origin of the observed 11 yr variations in total solar irradiance, such a signature supports the thesis according to which all, or part, of the variations on decadal time scales and longer could be attributed to a global modulation of the Sun's internal thermal structure by magnetic activity.

  19. Statistical Projections for Multi-resolution, Multi-dimensional Visual Data Exploration and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoa T. Nguyen; Stone, Daithi; E. Wes Bethel

    2016-01-01

    An ongoing challenge in visual exploration and analysis of large, multi-dimensional datasets is how to present useful, concise information to a user for some specific visualization tasks. Typical approaches to this problem have proposed either reduced-resolution versions of data, or projections of data, or both. These approaches still have some limitations such as consuming high computation or suffering from errors. In this work, we explore the use of a statistical metric as the basis for both projections and reduced-resolution versions of data, with a particular focus on preserving one key trait in data, namely variation. We use two different case studies to explore this idea, one that uses a synthetic dataset, and another that uses a large ensemble collection produced by an atmospheric modeling code to study long-term changes in global precipitation. The primary findings of our work are that in terms of preserving the variation signal inherent in data, that using a statistical measure more faithfully preserves this key characteristic across both multi-dimensional projections and multi-resolution representations than a methodology based upon averaging.

  20. California Wintertime Precipitation in Regional and Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, P M

    2009-04-27

    In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California (CA) and compared. Several averaging methodologies are considered and all are found to give similar values when model grid spacing is less than 3{sup o}. This suggests that CA is a reasonable size for regional intercomparisons using modern GCMs. Results show that reanalysis-forced RCMs tend to significantly overpredict CA precipitation. This appears to be due mainly to overprediction of extreme events; RCM precipitation frequency is generally underpredicted. Overprediction is also reflected in wintertime precipitation variability, which tends to be too high for RCMs on both daily and interannual scales. Wintertime precipitation in most (but not all) GCMs is underestimated. This is in contrast to previous studies based on global blended gauge/satellite observations which are shown here to underestimate precipitation relative to higher-resolution gauge-only datasets. Several GCMs provide reasonable daily precipitation distributions, a trait which doesn't seem tied to model resolution. GCM daily and interannual variability is generally underpredicted.

  1. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  2. Sustainability for the Global Biofuels Industry Minimizing Risks...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry Minimizing Risks and Maximizing Opportunities Sustainability for the Global ... More Documents & Publications Sustainability for the Global Biofuels Industry: ...

  3. COMPILATION OF REGIONAL TO GLOBAL INVENTORIES OF ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    2002-11-01

    The mathematical modeling of the transport and transformation of trace species in the atmosphere is one of the scientific tools currently used to assess atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climatic conditions. From the scientific but also from the management perspectives accurate inventories of emissions of the trace species at the appropriate spatial, temporal, and species resolution are required. There are two general methodologies used to estimate regional to global emissions: bottom-up and top-down (also known as inverse modeling). Bottom-up methodologies to estimate industrial emissions are based on activity data, emission factors (amount of emissions per unit activity), and for some inventories additional parameters (such as sulfur content of fuels). Generally these emissions estimates must be given finer sectoral, spatial (usually gridded), temporal, and for some inventories species resolution. Temporal and spatial resolution are obtained via the use of surrogate information, such as population, land use, traffic counts, etc. which already exists in or can directly be converted to gridded form. Speciation factors have been and are being developed to speciate inventories of NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and hydrocarbons. Top-down (inverse modeling) methodologies directly invert air quality measurements in terms of poorly known but critical parameters to constrain the emissions needed to explain these measurements; values of these parameters are usually computed using atmospheric transport models. Currently there are several strong limitations of inverse modeling, but the continued evolution of top-down estimates will be facilitated by the development of denser monitoring networks and by the massive amounts of data from satellite observations.

  4. Global Threat Reduction Initiative | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Past Projects » Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership Graphic of Global Superior Energy Performance working groups, including energy management led by the United States, power led by Japan, combined heat and power led by Finland, steel led by Japan, cool roofs led by the United states, and cement led by Japan. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program, which provides industrial

  5. Global change research: Science and policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  6. Global Security Sciences | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Security Sciences Advancing world-class science and engineering to protect, mitigate, respond to and recover from threats The Global Security Sciences (GSS) division delivers actionable, defensible and powerful information and technologies to decision makers who impact and shape our global security. Innovative decision support tools (including simulation models), databases and analytical methodologies are developed and used to provide quantitative information to decision makers in the

  7. Graphitization of polymer surfaces by scanning ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koval, Yuri [Department of Physics, Universitt Erlangen-Nrnberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    Graphitization of polymer surfaces was performed by low-energy Ar{sup +} and He{sup +} ion irradiation. A method of scanning irradiation was implemented. It was found that by scanning ion irradiation, a significantly higher electrical conductivity in the graphitized layers can be achieved in comparison with a conventional broad-beam irradiation. The enhancement of the conductance becomes more pronounced for narrower and better collimated ion beams. In order to analyze these results in more detail, the temperature dependence of conductance of the irradiated samples was investigated. The results of measurements are discussed in terms of weak localization corrections to conductance in disordered metals. The observed effects can be explained by enlargement of graphitic patches, which was achieved with the scanning ion irradiation method.

  8. Global Scratch (/global/scratch2 aka $GSCRATCH) will be retired on October

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 at 12:00 PDT Global Scratch (/global/scratch2 aka $GSCRATCH) will be retired on October 14 at 12:00 PDT Global Scratch (/global/scratch2 aka $GSCRATCH) will be retired on October 14 at 12:00 PDT October 9, 2015 by Richard Gerber This is a reminder that the Global Scratch (/global/scratch2 aka $GSCRATCH) file system will be retired on next Wednesday, October 14 at 12:00 (noon) PDT. The file system will be decommissioned and not be accessible after its retirement. Please make sure to back

  9. Pax Global: Compromise Agreement (2013-SE-1413)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE and Pax Global, Inc., entered into a Compromise Agreement to resolve a case involving the distribution in commerce of noncompliant freezers.

  10. Ener t Global SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Ener-t Global SA Place: Valencia, Spain Zip: 46870 Product: Spanish developer of parabolic trough thermal plants on a turnkey basis. Coordinates:...

  11. New Energy Technologies | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More GE Scientists Demonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano Surfaces GE Global Research today presented new research findings on its nanotextured anti-icing surfaces. In ...

  12. Global Change Associates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Change Associates Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Change Associates Place: New York City, New York Zip: 10025-5657 Product: Consulting firm focusing on the convergence...

  13. Global Flex Group Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Global-Flex Group Inc. Place: Temple, Texas Zip: 76501 Product: Texas based trade and financial solutions company consisting of three operating divisions....

  14. Global Electric Motorcars | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Global Electric Motorcars (GEM), a Chrysler Company, develops and manufactures electric vehicles. Coordinates: 36.37617, -99.622804 Show Map Loading map......

  15. United Nations Environment Programme: Global Environment Outlook...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    more than 500 different variables, as national, subregional, regional and global statistics or as geospatial data sets (maps), covering themes like Freshwater, Population,...

  16. Ceramic Matrix Composites | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ceramic Matrix Composites Improve Engine Efficiency Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a breakthrough materials technology for jet engines that started at our Global Research Center ...

  17. Global Environment Fund GEF | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Invests in companies that make positive contributions to environmental quality, human health and sustainable management of resources. References: Global Environment Fund...

  18. Global Warming Solutions Inc previously Southern Investments...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions Inc previously Southern Investments Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Warming Solutions Inc (previously Southern Investments Inc) Place: Houston, Texas...

  19. Global Electric Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    company in the development and marketing of electric vehicles, garden equipment and Lithium powered products. References: Global Electric Corporation1 This article is a stub....

  20. ARM - Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListGreenhouse Effect and Global Warming Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students ...

  1. Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Date Published June 2015 Keywords diesel, Engine Combustion Network, global sensitivity ... The uncertainty in the fuel temperature was found to have a profound influence on the ...

  2. Enerwise Global Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to identify, quantify, and capitalize on economic opportunities related to the procurement and use of energy. References: Enerwise Global Technologies Inc1 This article is...

  3. GE Global Research in Oklahoma City

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oklahoma City, USA Oklahoma City, USA GE's first sector-specific global research center is dedicated to developing and accelerating innovative oil and gas technologies. Click to ...

  4. Hexagon Global Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Hexagon Global Energy Place: Istanbul, Turkey Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Istanbul-based project developer with a focus on wind, solar and solid...

  5. Global Green Growth Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth Institute Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Green Growth Strategy Support Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGlobalGreenGrowthIn...

  6. Pioneer Global Renewables | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewables Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pioneer Global Renewables Place: San Rafael, California Zip: 94901 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Pioneer develops, finances...

  7. GE Global Research in Niskayuna, NY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Niskayuna, USA Niskayuna, USA GE Global Research headquarters is the nerve center for innovative work across technologies and collaboration across GE businesses. Click to email...

  8. Susan Murabana - Astronomer, Global Hands On Universe

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Murabana, Susan

    2013-05-29

    Susan Murabana is working to bring astronomy education to Africa through Global Hands-On Universe, a program founded by Berkeley Lab astronomer Carl Pennypacker.

  9. 3D Printed Toy | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists at GE Global Research get into the holiday spirit by bringing high-tech additive manufacturing techniques to Christmas tree ornaments. You Might Also Like...

  10. Global Energias Renovables SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energias Renovables SL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Energias Renovables SL Place: Madrid, Spain Sector: Wind energy Product: Spanish wind power developer. References:...

  11. Disclosures, Disclaimers and Policies | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to PHS-funded research Equal Employment Opportunity Plans Persons wishing to review GE Global Reasearch's EEOP should contact the GEGR Recruiting Manager: Megan Magee, GRC...

  12. Global Capital Finance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Finance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Capital Finance Place: Purchase, New York Zip: 10577 Sector: Renewable Energy, Services Product: New York-based international...

  13. Global Green Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Partners Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Green Partners Place: Los Altos, California Zip: 94024 Sector: Carbon Product: California-based investment fund prioritizing trade...

  14. Global Renewable Energy Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Renewable Energy Database AgencyCompany Organization: German Aerospace Center (DLR) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind...

  15. Stump the Scientist | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    > Stump the Scientist Behind the Scenes with Chief Scientist Jim Bray Watch the Video Happy Pi Day from GE Global Research Watch the Video Ready to Stump the...

  16. Joseph Salvo | Inventors | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Salvo A global perspective colors Joe's approach to life and work. He appreciates the Internet of Things. And Chinese language and culture. The economics of innovation. And...

  17. A Global Effort to Phase Down Hydrofluorocarbons

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is part of the global effort to scale back the use of refrigerants thousands of times more potent than CO2.

  18. Global Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Energy Inc Place: Cincinnati, Ohio Zip: 45202-4048 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Gasification technology and engineering firm, with activities in hydrogen production and...

  19. Global Industry Analysts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Global Industry Analysts Address: 6150 Hellyer Avenue Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95138 Region: Bay Area Product: Market research services Year Founded:...

  20. DECONTAMINATION OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATED REACTOR FUEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buyers, A.G.; Rosen, F.D.; Motta, E.E.

    1959-12-22

    A pyrometallurgical method of decontaminating neutronirradiated reactor fuel is presented. In accordance with the invention, neutron-irradiated reactor fuel may be decontaminated by countercurrently contacting the fuel with a bed of alkali and alkaine fluorides under an inert gas atmosphere and inductively melting the fuel and tracking the resulting descending molten fuel with induction heating as it passes through the bed. By this method, a large, continually fresh surface of salt is exposed to the descending molten fuel which enhances the efficiency of the scrubbing operation.

  1. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or

  2. Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing solar

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    resource variability of MW-scale PV system. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing solar resource variability of MW-scale PV system. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing solar resource variability of MW-scale PV system. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and SunPower Corporation (SunPower) have completed design and deployment of an autonomous irradiance

  3. Inhalation radiotoxicity of irradiated thorium as a heavy water reactor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fuel (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Inhalation radiotoxicity of irradiated thorium as a heavy water reactor fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inhalation radiotoxicity of irradiated thorium as a heavy water reactor fuel The online refueling capability of Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs), and their good neutron economy, allows a relatively high amount of neutron absorption in breeding materials to occur during normal fuel irradiation. This characteristic makes HWRs

  4. Transition from Irradiation-Induced Amorphization to Crystallization in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Transition from Irradiation-Induced Amorphization to Crystallization in Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transition from Irradiation-Induced Amorphization to Crystallization in Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide Response to irradiation of nanocrystalline 3C-SiC is studied using 2 MeV Au+ ions near the critical temperature for amorphization and is compared to the

  5. Transforming How Climate System Models are Used: A Global, Multi-Resolution Approach to Regional Ocean Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunzburger, Max

    2013-03-14

    We review the results obtained under grant support. Details are given in the publications listed at the end of the review. We also provide lists of the personnel funded by the grant and of other collaborators on grant-related research and of the talks delivered, also under grant related research. We collaborated closely with geophysicists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the National Center for Atmospheric Research; especially noteworthy is our collaboration with Todd Ringler of LANL who was an active partner on much of our work.

  6. ON THE IMPACT OF SUPER RESOLUTION WSR-88D DOPPLER RADAR DATA ASSIMILATION ON HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL MODEL FORECASTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiswell, S

    2009-01-11

    Assimilation of radar velocity and precipitation fields into high-resolution model simulations can improve precipitation forecasts with decreased 'spin-up' time and improve short-term simulation of boundary layer winds (Benjamin, 2004 & 2007; Xiao, 2008) which is critical to improving plume transport forecasts. Accurate description of wind and turbulence fields is essential to useful atmospheric transport and dispersion results, and any improvement in the accuracy of these fields will make consequence assessment more valuable during both routine operation as well as potential emergency situations. During 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) radars implemented a significant upgrade which increased the real-time level II data resolution to 8 times their previous 'legacy' resolution, from 1 km range gate and 1.0 degree azimuthal resolution to 'super resolution' 250 m range gate and 0.5 degree azimuthal resolution (Fig 1). These radar observations provide reflectivity, velocity and returned power spectra measurements at a range of up to 300 km (460 km for reflectivity) at a frequency of 4-5 minutes and yield up to 13.5 million point observations per level in super-resolution mode. The migration of National Weather Service (NWS) WSR-88D radars to super resolution is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current operational mesoscale model domains utilize grid spacing several times larger than the legacy data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of super resolution reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution is investigated here to determine the impact of the improved data resolution on model predictions.

  7. Camera system resolution and its influence on digital image correlation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reu, Phillip L.; Sweatt, William; Miller, Timothy; Fleming, Darryn

    2014-09-21

    Digital image correlation (DIC) uses images from a camera and lens system to make quantitative measurements of the shape, displacement, and strain of test objects. This increasingly popular method has had little research on the influence of the imaging system resolution on the DIC results. This paper investigates the entire imaging system and studies how both the camera and lens resolution influence the DIC results as a function of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). It will show that when making spatial resolution decisions (including speckle size) the resolution limiting component should be considered. A consequence of the loss ofmore » spatial resolution is that the DIC uncertainties will be increased. This is demonstrated using both synthetic and experimental images with varying resolution. The loss of image resolution and DIC accuracy can be compensated for by increasing the subset size, or better, by increasing the speckle size. The speckle-size and spatial resolution are now a function of the lens resolution rather than the more typical assumption of the pixel size. The study will demonstrate the tradeoffs associated with limited lens resolution.« less

  8. Global warming and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

  9. Irradiation-induced effects of proton irradiation on zirconium carbides with different stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Huang; B.R. Maier; T.R. Allen

    2014-10-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in deep burn TRISO fuel particles for hightemperature, gas-cooled reactors. Zirconium carbide has a cubic B1 type crystal structure along with a very high melting point (3420 ?C), exceptional hardness and good thermal and electrical conductivities. Understanding the ZrC irradiation response is crucial for establishing ZrC as an alternative component in TRISO fuel. Until now, very few studies on irradiation effects on ZrC have been released and fundamental aspects of defect evolution and kinetics are not well understood although some atomistic simulations and phenomenological studies have been performed. This work was carried out to understand the damage evolution in float-zone refined ZrC with different stoichiometries. Proton irradiations at 800 ?C up to doses of 3 dpa were performed on ZrCx (where x ranges from 0.9 to 1.2) to investigate the damage evolution. The irradiation-induced defects, such as density of dislocation loops, at different stoichiometries and doses which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is presented and discussed.

  10. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Was; Z. Jiao; E. Beckett; A. M. Monterrosa; O. Anderoglu; B. H. Sencer; M. Hackett

    2014-10-01

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiations and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiations establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiations to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

  11. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging andor tomography, is a popular method of investigating...

  12. Design of a Compact Fatigue Tester for Testing Irradiated Materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A compact fatigue testing machine that can be easily inserted into a hot cell for characterization of irradiated materials is beneficial to help determine relative fatigue ...

  13. Transition from Irradiation-Induced Amorphization to Crystallization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using in-situ ion channeling, ex-situ x-ray diffraction, and helium ion microscopy. ... IONS; ION CHANNELING; IRRADIATION; MICROSCOPY; NUCLEAR ENERGY; NUCLEAR FUELS; SILICON ...

  14. PRODUCING SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES IN COMPLEX ARID TERRAIN

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the corrected monthly maps (see Fig. 3). 4. DISCUSSION We have presented a robust, straightforward two-step approach to correct irradiance estimated from weather satellites'...

  15. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Was, G. S.; Jiao, Z.; Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Sencer, B. H.; Hackett, M.

    2014-06-14

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiation and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiation establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiation to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

  16. FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION FOR STEELS IN PULSATING IRRADIATED SYSTEMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION FOR STEELS IN PULSATING IRRADIATED SYSTEMS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION FOR STEELS IN PULSATING ...

  17. Center for Materials at Irradiation and Mechanical Extremes:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Cu 10 nm nanocrystalline sample being uni-axial compressed to strain of 20% and then stress released. Irradiation Extremes Thrust Traditional structural materials degrade and...

  18. Radiochemistry Results from the IER-163 COMET Irradiation (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was used to irradiate twelve ... foils were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for radiochemical analysis. ...

  19. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic...

  20. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Presentati...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Presentation) Citation Details ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  1. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Was, G. S.; Jiao, Z.; Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Sencer, B. H.; Hackett, M.

    2014-06-14

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide,more » irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiation and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiation establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiation to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.« less

  2. FY 2013 Summary Report: Post-Irradiation Examination of Zircaloy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Summary Report: Post-Irradiation Examination of Zircaloy-4 Samples in Target Capsules and Initiation of Bending Fatigue Testing for Used Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity ...

  3. Center for Materials at Irradiation and Mechanical Extremes:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (CINT), Physical Synthesis Lab: J. Kevin Baldwin LANL Technologist Ion Beam Materials Lab: Yongqiang Wang LANL Scientist Irradiation Thrust Electron Microscopy Lab: Rob...

  4. Irradiation Programs and Test Plans to Assess High-Fluence Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teysseyre, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    . Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a known issue in current reactors. In a 60 year lifetime, reactor core internals may experience fluence levels up to 15 dpa for boiling water reactors (BWR) and 100+ dpa for pressurized water reactors (PWR). To support a safe operation of our fleet of reactors and maintain their economic viability it is important to be able to predict any evolution of material behaviors as reactors age and therefore fluence accumulated by reactor core component increases. For PWR reactors, the difficulty to predict high fluence behavior comes from the fact that there is not a consensus of the mechanism of IASCC and that little data is available. It is however possible to use the current state of knowledge on the evolution of irradiated microstructure and on the processes that influences IASCC to emit hypotheses. This report identifies several potential changes in microstructure and proposes to identify their potential impact of IASCC. The susceptibility of a component to high fluence IASCC is considered to not only depends on the intrinsic IASCC susceptibility of the component due to radiation effects on the material but to also be related to the evolution of the loading history of the material and interaction with the environment as total fluence increases. Single variation type experiments are proposed to be performed with materials that are representative of PWR condition and with materials irradiated in other conditions. To address the lack of IASCC propagation and initiation data generated with material irradiated in PWR condition, it is proposed to investigate the effect of spectrum and flux rate on the evolution of microstructure. A long term irradiation, aimed to generate a well-controlled irradiation history on a set on selected materials is also proposed for consideration. For BWR, the study of available data permitted to identify an area of concern for long term performance of component. The efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry mitigation technology may decrease as fluence increases for high-stress intensity factors. This report describes a program plan to determine the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry as a function of the stress intensity factor applied and fluence. The use of existing, available, materials and the generation of additional materials via irradiation in a research reactor are considered.

  5. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koike, Masako

    1996-06-18

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution. 10 figs.

  6. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koike, Masako

    1996-01-01

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution.

  7. Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kutes, Yasemin; Aguirre, Brandon A.; Bosse, James L.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-10-16

    Photo-conductive AFM spectroscopy (‘pcAFMs’) is proposed as a high-resolution approach for investigating nanostructured photovoltaics, uniquely providing nanoscale maps of photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters such as the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power, or fill factor. The method is demonstrated with a stack of 21 images acquired during in situ illumination of micropatterned polycrystalline CdTe/CdS, providing more than 42,000 I/V curves spatially separated by ~5 nm. For these CdTe/CdS microcells, the calculated photoconduction ranges from 0 to 700 picoSiemens (pS) upon illumination with ~1.6 suns, depending on location and biasing conditions. Mean short circuit currents of 2 pA, maximummore » powers of 0.5 pW, and fill factors of 30% are determined. The mean voltage at which the detected photocurrent is zero is determined to be 0.7 V. Significantly, enhancements and reductions in these more commonly macroscopic PV performance metrics are observed to correlate with certain grains and grain boundaries, and are confirmed to be independent of topography. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the benefits of nanoscale resolved PV functional measurements, reiterate the importance of microstructural control down to the nanoscale for 'PV devices, and provide a widely applicable new approach for directly investigating PV materials.« less

  8. Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutes, Yasemin; Aguirre, Brandon A.; Bosse, James L.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-10-16

    Photo-conductive AFM spectroscopy (‘pcAFMs’) is proposed as a high-resolution approach for investigating nanostructured photovoltaics, uniquely providing nanoscale maps of photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters such as the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power, or fill factor. The method is demonstrated with a stack of 21 images acquired during in situ illumination of micropatterned polycrystalline CdTe/CdS, providing more than 42,000 I/V curves spatially separated by ~5 nm. For these CdTe/CdS microcells, the calculated photoconduction ranges from 0 to 700 picoSiemens (pS) upon illumination with ~1.6 suns, depending on location and biasing conditions. Mean short circuit currents of 2 pA, maximum powers of 0.5 pW, and fill factors of 30% are determined. The mean voltage at which the detected photocurrent is zero is determined to be 0.7 V. Significantly, enhancements and reductions in these more commonly macroscopic PV performance metrics are observed to correlate with certain grains and grain boundaries, and are confirmed to be independent of topography. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the benefits of nanoscale resolved PV functional measurements, reiterate the importance of microstructural control down to the nanoscale for 'PV devices, and provide a widely applicable new approach for directly investigating PV materials.

  9. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K.

    1999-12-07

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  10. Hafnium radioisotope recovery from irradiated tantalum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    Hafnium is recovered from irradiated tantalum by: (a) contacting the irradiated tantalum with at least one acid to obtain a solution of dissolved tantalum; (b) combining an aqueous solution of a calcium compound with the solution of dissolved tantalum to obtain a third combined solution; (c) precipitating hafnium, lanthanide, and insoluble calcium complexes from the third combined solution to obtain a first precipitate; (d) contacting the first precipitate of hafnium, lanthanide and calcium complexes with at least one fluoride ion complexing agent to form a fourth solution; (e) selectively adsorbing lanthanides and calcium from the fourth solution by cationic exchange; (f) separating fluoride ion complexing agent product from hafnium in the fourth solution by adding an aqueous solution of ferric chloride to obtain a second precipitate containing the hafnium and iron; (g) dissolving the second precipitate containing the hafnium and iron in acid to obtain an acid solution of hafnium and iron; (h) selectively adsorbing the iron from the acid solution of hafnium and iron by anionic exchange; (i) drying the ion exchanged hafnium solution to obtain hafnium isotopes. Additionally, if needed to remove residue remaining after the product is dried, dissolution in acid followed by cation exchange, then anion exchange, is performed.

  11. Optimisation of buildings' solar irradiation availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaempf, Jerome Henri; Montavon, Marylene; Bunyesc, Josep; Robinson, Darren; Bolliger, Raffaele

    2010-04-15

    In order to improve the sustainability of new and existing urban settlements it is desirable to maximise the utilisation of the solar energy incident on the building envelope, whether by passive or active means. To this end we have coupled a multi-objective optimisation algorithm with the backwards ray tracing program RADIANCE which itself uses a cumulative sky model for the computation of incident irradiation (W h/m{sup 2}) in a single simulation. The parameters to optimise are geometric (the height of buildings up to their facade and the height and orientation of roofs), but with the constraint of maintaining an overall built volume, and the objective function is heating season solar irradiation offset by envelope heat losses. This methodology has been applied to a range of urban typologies and produces readily interpretable results. The focus of this work is on the design of new urban forms but the method could equally be applied to examine the relative efficiency of existing urban settlements, by comparison of existing forms with the calculated optima derived from relevant specifications of the building envelope. (author)

  12. LWRS ATR Irradiation Testing Readiness Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristine Barrett

    2012-09-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors. The LWRS Program is divided into four R&D Pathways: (1) Materials Aging and Degradation; (2) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels; (3) Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems; and (4) Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization. This report describes an irradiation testing readiness analysis in preparation of LWRS experiments for irradiation testing at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) under Pathway (2). The focus of the Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuels Pathway is to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental performance of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding in nuclear power plants during both nominal and off-nominal conditions. This information will be applied in the design and development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels with improved safety, cladding integrity, and improved nuclear fuel cycle economics

  13. Effects of downscaled high-resolution meteorological data on the PSCF identification of emission sources

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Kabela, Erik D.

    2016-04-30

    The Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) model has been successfully used for identifying regions of emission source at a long distance in this study, the PSCF model relies on backward trajectories calculated by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. In this study, we investigated the impacts of grid resolution and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) parameterization (e.g., turbulent transport of pollutants) on the PSCF analysis. The Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) and Yonsei University (YUS) parameterization schemes were selected to model the turbulent transport in the PBL within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF version 3.6) model. Two separate domain grid sizesmore » (83 and 27 km) were chosen in the WRF downscaling in generating the wind data for driving the HYSPLIT calculation. The effects of grid size and PBL parameterization are important in incorporating the influ- ence of regional and local meteorological processes such as jet streaks, blocking patterns, Rossby waves, and terrain-induced convection on the transport of pollutants by a wind trajectory. We found high resolution PSCF did discover and locate source areas more precisely than that with lower resolution meteorological inputs. The lack of anticipated improvement could also be because a PBL scheme chosen to produce the WRF data was only a local parameterization and unable to faithfully duplicate the real atmosphere on a global scale. The MYJ scheme was able to replicate PSCF source identification by those using the Reanalysis and discover additional source areas that was not identified by the Reanalysis data. In conclusion, a potential benefit for using high-resolution wind data in the PSCF modeling is that it could discover new source location in addition to those identified by using the Reanalysis data input.« less

  14. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.

    2014-09-01

    An overview of applications of the deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method is presented together with recommendations for its optimal usage. Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 . Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.

  15. Hydrothermal corrosion of SiC in LWR coolant environments in the&nbsp;absence of irradiation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal of Nuclear Materials 465 (2015) 488-498 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Nuclear Materials journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jnucmat Hydrothermal corrosion of SiC in LWR coolant environments in the absence of irradiation* * K.A. Terrani a *, Y. Yang a, Y.-J. Kim b, R. Rebak b, H.M. Meyer III a, T.J. Gerczak a a Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA b GE Global Research Center, Schenectady, NY 12309, USA CrossMark ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT Article

  16. Reorientation of the crystalline planes in confined single crystal nickel nanorods induced by heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Abha; Tyagi, Pawan K.; Rai, Padmnabh; Misra, D. S.; Ghatak, Jay; Satyam, P. V.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2006-08-28

    In a recent letter Tyagi et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253110 (2005)] have reported the special orientation of nickel planes inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with respect to the tube axis. Heavy ion irradiation has been performed with 1.5 MeV Au{sup 2+} and 100 MeV Au{sup 7+} ions on these nickel filled MWCNTs at fluences ranging from 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Ion-induced modifications have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The diffraction pattern and the lattice imaging showed the presence of ion-induced planar defects on the tube walls and completely amorphized encapsulated nickel nanorods. The results are discussed in terms of thermal spike model.

  17. AUDIT REPORT The Department of Energy's Audit Resolution

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Audit Resolution and Followup Process DOE-OIG-16-08 March 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 March 1, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Rickey R. Hass Acting Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "The Department of Energy's Audit Resolution and Followup Process" BACKGROUND Audit resolution and followup is an essential step in the audit process. It ensures that

  18. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for high energy density physics and light source experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically

  19. Environmental Conflict Resolution Third Annual Report January 2009

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Conflict Resolution Third Annual Report January 2009 U.S. Department of Energy EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) defines environmental conflict resolution (ECR) as the use of any collaborative process to prevent or resolve environmental conflicts, including but not limited to those processes involving the use of third-party neutrals. This definition is consistent with that provided in the Administration's 2005 Memorandum on Environmental Conflict Resolution which

  20. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second resolution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second resolution Title: ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second resolution Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second resolution Authors: Annette Koontz ; R. Reynolds Publication Date: 2012-11-02 OSTI Identifier: 1095574 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak

  1. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Orientation Data, 1 second resolution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer Orientation Data, 1 second resolution Title: ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Orientation Data, 1 second resolution Portable Radiation Package: Orientation Data, 1 second resolution Authors: Annette Koontz ; R. Reynolds Publication Date: 2012-11-02 OSTI Identifier: 1095575 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak

  2. Changes in Moisture Flux Over the Tibetan Plateau During 1979-2011: Insights from a High Resolution Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Yongxin; Cuo, Lan

    2015-05-01

    Net precipitation (precipitation minus evapotranspiration, P-E) changes from a high resolution regional climate simulation and its reanalysis forcing are analyzed over the Tibet Plateau (TP) and compared to the global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) product. The mechanism behind the P-E changes is explored by decomposing the column integrated moisture flux convergence into thermodynamic, dynamic, and transient eddy components. High-resolution climate simulation improves the spatial pattern of P-E changes over the best available global reanalysis. Improvement in simulating precipitation changes at high elevations contributes dominantly to the improved P-E changes. High-resolution climate simulation also facilitates new and substantial findings regarding the role of thermodynamics and transient eddies in P-E changes reflected in observed changes in major river basins fed by runoff from the TP. The analysis revealed the contrasting convergence/divergence changes between the northwestern and southeastern TP and feedback through latent heat release as an important mechanism leading to the mean P-E changes in the TP.

  3. Section 20320 of the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    20320 of the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution More Documents & Publications ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005 Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 129 of the Consolidated...

  4. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    combine a suite of high resolution geophysical and geochemical techniques to reduce exploration risk by characterizing hydrothermal alteration, fault geometries and relationships. ...

  5. Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Dielectric Laser Accelerators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for Dielectric Laser Accelerators You ...

  6. PROJECT PROFILE: High-resolution Investigations of Transport...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices PROJECT PROFILE: High-resolution Investigations of Transport Limiting Defects and Interfaces in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices Funding ...

  7. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal Spectrometry to ICF Plasmas Kenneth W. Hill, et. al. 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY High Temperature High Temperature High resolution (3; 10 000) 1D...

  8. Directional resolution of dish antenna experiments to search...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    discuss an improved setup using a combination of a reflecting plane with focussing optics. ... DETECTION; MIRRORS; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; OPTICS; PHOTONS; RESOLUTION; SPHERICAL ...

  9. Prospects for Electron Imaging with Ultrafast Time Resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Many pivotal aspects of material science, biomechanics, and chemistry would benefit from nanometer imaging with ultrafast time resolution....

  10. Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability in the Community Earth System Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Computational Performance of ...

  11. Electromagnetic eXtended Finite Elements for Accurate Resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electromagnetic eXtended Finite Elements for Accurate Resolution of Multi-Material Cells. Abstract not provided. Authors: Siefert, Christopher ; Voth, Thomas Eugene ; ...

  12. Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution EPS Billboard)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High-resolution EPS of billboard reading, 'Goodbye Watts. Hello Lumens. The new way to shop for light. Energysaver.gov

  13. Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution JPG Billboard)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High-resolution JPG of billboard reading, 'Goodbye Watts. Hello Lumens. The new way to shop for light. Energysaver.gov

  14. Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (Low-Resolution Billboard)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-resolution JPG of billboard reading, 'Goodbye Watts. Hello Lumens. The new way to shop for light. Energysaver.gov

  15. NREL GIS Data: Bhutan High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NREL GIS Data: Bhutan High Resolution Wind Resource This shapefile containing 50 meter height data has been validated by NREL and wind energy meteorological consultants. However,...

  16. High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal evolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temporal evolution of megagauss magnetic fields created in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-resolution measurements...

  17. Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for Dielectric Laser Accelerators Authors: Soong, Ken ; Byer, Robert L. ; Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. SLAC ...

  18. Final Report on MEGAPIE Target Irradiation and Post-Irradiation Examination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong, Dai

    2015-06-30

    Megawatt pilot experiment (MEGAPIE) was successfully performed in 2006. One of the important goals of MEGAPIE is to understand the behaviour of structural materials of the target components exposed to high fluxes of high-energy protons and spallation neutrons in flowing LBE (liquid lead-bismuth eutectic) environment by conducting post-irradiation examination (PIE). The PIE includes four major parts: non-destructive test, radiochemical analysis of production and distribution of radionuclides produced by spallation reaction in LBE, analysis of LBE corrosion effects on structural materials, T91 and SS 316L steels, and mechanical testing of the T91 and SS 316L steels irradiated in the lower part of the target. The non-destructive test (NDT) including visual inspection and ultrasonic measurement was performed in the proton beam window area of the T91 calotte of the LBE container, the most intensively irradiated part of the MEGAPIE target. The visual inspection showed no visible failure and the ultrasonic measurement demonstrated no detectable change in thickness in the beam window area. Gamma mapping was also performed in the proton beam window area of the AlMg3 safety-container. The gamma mapping results were used to evaluate the accumulated proton fluence distribution profile, the input data for determining irradiation parameters. Radiochemical analysis of radionuclides produced by spallation reaction in LBE is to improve the understanding of the production and distribution of radionuclides in the target. The results demonstrate that the radionuclides of noble metals, 207Bi, 194Hg/Au are rather homogeneously distributed within the target, while radionuclides of electropositive elements are found to be deposited on the steel-LBE interface. The corrosion effect of LBE on the structural components under intensive irradiation was investigated by metallography. The results show that no evident corrosion damages. However, unexpected deep cracks were found in the EBW (electron beam weld) of the LBE container in the intensive irradiation zone of the target, which should be formed during irradiation. In the SS 316L steel of the flow guide tube, inclusions or precipitates enriched with O, Si, S, Ca, Ti and Mn were observed. Many of them are very long, up to a few mm, and located on grain boundaries along the extrusion direction of the tube. The degradation of the mechanical properties of the T91 and SS 316L steels has been investigated by conducting tensile tests on the specimens extracted from the T91 and SS 316L components in the intensive irradiation region. The results obtained from the proton beam window of the T91 calotte exhibit a good ductility of T91 steel after irradiation at 6-7 dpa (displacement per atom) in contact with flowing LBE.

  19. Updated flux information for neutron scattering and irradiation facilities at the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.; Sengupta, S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Farrell, K.

    1997-08-01

    The HFBR is a heavy water, D{sub 2}O, cooled and moderated reactor with twenty-eight fuel elements containing a maximum of 9.8 kilograms of {sup 235}U. While most reactors attempt to minimize the escape of neutrons from the core, the HFBR`s D{sub 2}O design allows the thermal neutron flux to peak in the reflector region and maximizes the number of thermal neutrons available to nine horizontal external beams, H-1 to H-9, used for neutron scattering and capture reactions, supporting physics, chemistry and biology experiments. All horizontal beam tubes were built tangential to the direction of the emerging neutrons, except for the H-2 beam tube, which looks directly at the core and has been used for neutron cross section measurements utilizing fast neutrons and for the TRISTAN fission product studies. In recent years, there have been some beam modifications and new instrumentation introduced at the HFBR. A high resolution neutron powder diffractometer instrument is now operating with a resolution of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} at horizontal beam line H-1. To study scattering from liquid surfaces, a neutron reflection spectrometer was introduced on the CNF beam line at H-9. In the past year, a fourth beam line has been added to the CNF line at H-9. The existing beam plug at the H-6 beam line has recently been removed and a new plug, which will feature super mirrored surfaces, is now being installed. Last year, the vertical beam thimble, V-13, a fixed port filled with thirty year old samples used for HFBR material surveillance studies was replaced by a new thimble and charging station at the core edge creating an irradiation facility to substitute for the original V-13. A neutron dosimetry program has begun to measure and calculate the energy dependent neutron and gamma ray flux densities and/or dose rates at horizontal beam lines and vertical irradiation thimbles.

  20. PROCESS FOR CONTINUOUSLY SEPARATING IRRADIATION PRODUCTS OF THORIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, L.P.; Miles, F.T.; Sheehan, T.V.; Wiswall, R.H.; Heus, R.J.

    1959-07-01

    A method is presented for separating uranium-233 and protactinium from thorium-232 containing compositions which comprises irradiating finely divided particles of said thorium with a neutron flux to form uranium-233 and protactinium, heating the neutron-irradiated composition in a fluorine and hydrogen atmosphere to form volatile fluorides of uranium and protactinium and thereafter separating said volatile fluorides from the thorium.

  1. Fowler-Nordheim characteristics of electron irradiated MOS capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candelori, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Cammarata, M.; Ghidini, G.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1998-12-01

    MOS capacitors with 8 nm thick oxides have been irradiated by an 8 MeV LINAC electron beam. C-V and I-V measurements have shown a positive trapped charge, higher for irradiation performed under negative gate bias, as a consequence of preferential charge recombination at the cathodic interface. No saturation of the positive trapped charge is measured up to 20 Mrad(Si). Neutral defects induced by irradiation have been studied, by performing positive and negative Fowler-Nordheim injection. The distribution of neutral defects is similar to that of trapped holes, indicating a correlation between trapped holes and neutral defects. Electrical stresses performed after irradiation have shown that the accumulation kinetics of oxide defects is similar in both unirradiated and irradiated devices.

  2. Identifying irradiated flours by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-02-12

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was used in this study to detect gamma irradiation treatment of five types of flours (corn, rice, tapioca, wheat and glutinous rice) at four different doses 0, 0.2, .05 and 1kGy. The signal level was compared with two threshold values (700 and 5000). With the exception of glutinous rice, all irradiated samples produced a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/60s). All control samples produced negative result with the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/60s) suggesting that the samples have not been irradiated. Irradiated glutinous rice samples produced intermediate signals (700 - 5000 counts/60s) which were subsequently confirmed using calibrated PSL. The PSL signals remained stable after 90 days of storage. The findings of this study will be useful to facilitate control of food irradiation application in Malaysia.

  3. Surface modification of multilayer graphene using Ga ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Quan; Shao, Ying; Ge, Daohan; Ren, Naifei; Yang, Qizhi

    2015-04-28

    The effect of Ga ion irradiation intensity on the surface of multilayer graphene was examined. Using Raman spectroscopy, we determined that the irradiation caused defects in the crystal structure of graphene. The density of defects increased with the increase in dwell times. Furthermore, the strain induced by the irradiation changed the crystallite size and the distance between defects. These defects had the effect of doping the multilayer graphene and increasing its work function. The increase in work function was determined using contact potential difference measurements. The surface morphology of the multilayer graphene changed following irradiation as determined by atomic force microscopy. Additionally, the adhesion between the atomic force microscopy tip and sample increased further indicating that the irradiation had caused surface modification, important for devices that incorporate graphene.

  4. Recovery of niobium from irradiated targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Hamilton, Virginia T.

    1994-01-01

    A process for selective separation of niobium from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected form the group consisting of molybdenum, biobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the cationic resin; adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 5.0 to about 6.0; contacting the pH adjusting second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material for a time to selectively separate niobium from the solution and recovering the niobium from the dextran-based material.

  5. Instrumentation to Enhance Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; J. E. Daw; S. C. Taylor

    2009-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors has been completed. Based on this review, recommendations are made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR and a strategy has been developed for obtaining these sensors. Progress toward implementing this strategy is reported in this document. It is anticipated that this report will be updated on an annual basis.

  6. Breakdown properties of irradiated MOS capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paccagnella, A.; Candelori, A.; Milani, A.; Formigoni, E.; Ghidini, G.; Drera, D.; Pellizzer, F.; Fuochi, P.G.; Lavale, M.

    1996-12-01

    The authors have studied the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on the breakdown properties of different types of MOS capacitors, with thick (200 nm) and thin (down to 8 nm) oxides. In general, no large variations of the average breakdown field, time-to-breakdown at constant voltage, or charge-to-breakdown at constant voltage, or charge-to-breakdown values have been observed after high dose irradiation (20 Mrad(Si) 9 MeV electrons on thin and thick oxides, 17(Si) Mrad Co{sup 60} gamma and 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2} only on thick oxides). However, some modifications of the cumulative failure distributions have been observed in few of the oxides tested.

  7. Improved Irradiation Performance of Uranium-Molybdenum/Aluminum Dispersion Fuel by Silicon Addition in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeon Soo Kim; G. L. Hofman; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

    2013-10-01

    Uranium-molybdenum fuel particle dispersion in aluminum is a form of fuel under development for conversion of high-power research and test reactors from highly enriched to low-enriched uranium in the U.S. Global Threat Reduction Initiative program (also known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program). Extensive irradiation tests have been conducted to find a solution for problems caused by interaction layer growth and pore formation between U-Mo and Al. Adding a small amount of Si (up to [approximately]5 wt%) in the Al matrix was one of the proposed remedies. The effect of silicon addition in the Al matrix was examined using irradiation test results by comparing side-by-side samples with different Si additions. Interaction layer growth was progressively reduced with increasing Si addition to the matrix Al, up to 4.8 wt%. The Si addition also appeared to delay pore formation and growth between the U-Mo and Al.

  8. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  9. A Global Cloud Resolving Model Goals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    And so on, until we reach our target resolution... Some grids of interest Level of recursion Number of grid columns Distance between grid columns, km 9 2,621,442 15.64 10...

  10. High resolution data base for use with MAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapley, W.C.; Harris, D.B.

    1987-05-05

    A high resolution cartographic data base of thw World is available from the CIA. We obtained this data, extracted portions of the data, and produced cartographic files of varying resolutions. The resulting data files are of the proper format for use with MAP (2), our in-house cartographic plotting program.

  11. Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubman, S.J.; Kasting, J.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The authors look at the possibility of counteracting global warming forces by the injection of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) into the stratosphere at levels high enough to balance the impact say of a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations, which are projected to result in a global 3{degrees} C warming. OCS injections at densities to provide such cooling will result a 30 percent impact of global ozone, whereas the carbon dioxide only made a 5% impact. In addition levels which would be found on the earths surface would be in the range 10 ppmv which is questionable as a safe exposure limit for humans, in addition to its impact on the ph of rainwater.

  12. About Additive Manufacturing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introducing Additive Manufacturing at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Introducing Additive Manufacturing at GE Global Research Prabhjot Singh, manager of the Additive Manufacturing Lab at GE Global Research, describes the technology used in his lab. You Might Also Like DirectWrite_V

  13. Global warming: Science or politics? Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorweiler, V.P.

    1998-05-01

    Supplementing the conclusion that ``there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a set of dire consequences to the globe and human population. One consequence is the spread of tropical diseases. It has not been concluded whether the spread of disease is due to global conditions or to opening of tropical forests to commerce, allowing spread by travelers. Whether these forecasts abet the claimed relation of human activity to global warming, they are not a new phenomenon. In the space of several decades, dire consequences have been forecast in three sectors: natural resource consumption, energy resources and environmental fate. These three areas are reviewed.

  14. Irradiation effect on deuterium behaviour in low-dose HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimada, Masashi; Cao, G.; Otsuka, T.; Hara, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Oya, Y.; Hatano, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Tungsten samples were irradiated by neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Oak Ridge National Laboratory at reactor coolant temperatures of 50-70C to low displacement damage of 0.025 and 0.3 dpa under the framework of the US-Japan TITAN program (2007-2013). After cooling down, the HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment, Idaho National Laboratory at 100, 200 and 500 C twice at the ion fluence of 510? m? to reach a total ion fluence of 110? m? in order to investigate the near surface deuterium retention and saturation via nuclear reaction analysis. Final thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed to elucidate irradiation effect on total deuterium retention. Nuclear reaction analysis results showed that the maximum near surface (<5 m depth) deuterium concentration increased from 0.5 at % D/W in 0.025 dpa samples to 0.8 at. % D/W in 0.3 dpa samples. The large discrepancy between the total retention via thermal desorption spectroscopy and the near surface retention via nuclear reaction analysis indicated the deuterium was migrated and trapped in bulk (at least 50 m depth for 0.025 dpa and 35 m depth for 0.025 dpa) at 500 C case even in the relatively low ion fluence of 10? m?.

  15. Global Renewable Energy Network | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Network (GReEN) Name: Global Renewable Energy Network (GReEN) Address: P.O. Box 1999 Place: Massapequa, NY Zip: 11758 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Number...

  16. Global Market for Geothermal Continues Upswing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Energy Association reported that the global geothermal market is expected to have 12,000 MW of geothermal capacity online by end of year. Another 12,000 MW is under development...

  17. MicroPower Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    owner of semiconductor-based heat conversion to electricity technology for use in waste-heat, solar thermal and other uses. References: MicroPower Global1 This article is a...

  18. Terra Solar Global Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of system components such as batteries, converters, and charge controllers for use in PV systems. References: Terra Solar Global Inc1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  19. Global Social Media Directory: A Resource Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noonan, Christine F.; Piatt, Andrew W.

    2014-10-23

    The Global Social Media Directory is a resource guide providing information on social networking services around the globe. This information changes rapidly, therefore, this document will be updated on a regular basis and as funding permits.

  20. Clean Energy Technology: American and Global Progress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to 6W: LCOE 7 to 16kWhr * Global Capacity: o 200 GW Market Impact NREL Research: Solar Updated 3102015 Worldwide PV Manufacturing Source: NREL 2013 Data Book PV...

  1. GlobalWatt Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: GlobalWatt Inc Place: Dover, Delaware Zip: 19801 Product: Shell company, once planned to float on AIM to raise money in order to acquire the business of...

  2. Tri Global Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Tri Global Energy LLC Place: Dallas, Texas Zip: 75248 Sector: Services, Solar, Wind energy Product: Texas-based developer that offers a full range of services in planning,...

  3. Global Energia Eletrica SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eletrica SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Energia Eletrica SA Place: Cuiab, Mato Grosso, Brazil Zip: 78020-800 Sector: Hydro Product: Mato Grosso-based small hydro...

  4. Global Wind Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Wind Systems, Inc. Place: Novi, Michigan Zip: 48375 Product: Michigan-based startup company that plans to develop a turbine assembly plant in the town of Novi, using a...

  5. Global environmental markets: Equity and efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chichilnisky, G.

    1997-12-31

    Global markets trading rights to emit greenhouse gases are now actively considered by the United Nations. This leads to a new phenomenon: environmental markets in a global scale. Is this new, or are these markets simply a global manifestation of a trend towards market solutions? This paper will show that there is a fundamental difference between global environmental markets and standard stock exchanges. Because the atmosphere of the planet is one and the same for all, these markets trade {open_quotes}public goods{close_quotes} which are, however, privately produced. These are different from all the goods that are traded in markets today. Efficiency in these markets dictates different rules, involving a more equitable allocation of property rights on environmental use, and this requires new institutional arrangements. There is a need for a new institution, an International Bank for Environmental Settlements (IBES), which can lead to organized trading and ensures market integrity and efficiency.

  6. Global environmental change: Its nature and impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hidore, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    This book is intended as an entry-level textbook on environmental science for nonscience majors. Twenty chapters address topics from historical geology and climatic change to population dynamics, land-use, water pollution, ozone depletion and biodiversity, global warming.

  7. Global warming: Science or politics. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorweiler, V.P.

    1998-04-01

    ``The balance of evidence suggests that there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a statement employed as the foundation basis to intervene on behalf of the globe and the future. That statement, as scientific evidence of human-produced greenhouse gases (primarily CO{sub 2}) having a warming effect on global climate is a political statement only. Further, the Kyoto conference to consider intervention in human activities regarding global warming was a political conference. Political and treaty issues were the focus; scientific issues were not much discussed. What change is needed then to scientifically determine global warming and to ascertain whether human activity is involved? A better understanding of the natural climate variations related to solar variation can improve understanding of an anthropogenic greenhouse effect on the climate. The purpose of this article is to pose the scientific question. Part 2 will present an answer.

  8. Global Energy Investors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind energy Product: Massachusetts-based Global Energy Investors was formed in 2009 to invest primarily in wind and solar power projects but it may also consider biomass and hydro...

  9. DEFRA Global Atmosphere Dept | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kingdom Zip: SW1E 6DE Product: Atmosphere research department of the UK Department of Food and Rural Affairs. References: DEFRA - Global Atmosphere Dept.1 This article is a...

  10. Advanced Water Technologies | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water We're developing ways to purify and conserve this vital resource. Take a look at our work. Home > Innovation > Water Innovation 247: We're Always Open At GE Global Research, ...

  11. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Arun

    2010-01-08

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  12. GlobalSums, Version 1.x

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-10-06

    This code is a set of global sums to support the paper "Computational Reproducibility for Production Physics Applications" submitted to the Numerical Reproducibility at Exascale (NRE 2015) workshop at the 2015 Supercomputing conference, Nov. 20, 2015

  13. Ginni Global Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd. Place: New Delhi, Delhi (NCT), India Zip: 110005 Sector: Hydro Product: Delhi-based small hydro project developer. References: Ginni Global Ltd.1 This article is a stub....

  14. Lab joins in global Earth Day celebrations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab joins in global Earth Day celebrations Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:May 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Lab joins in global Earth Day celebrations A personal message from Laboratory Director Charlie McMillan April 1, 2014 Charlie McMillan, Laboratory Director Charlie McMillan, Laboratory Director Contacts Community Programs Office Director Kurt Steinhaus Email Editor Linda Anderman Email Los Alamos National

  15. Global Collaborations | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Collaborations The Global Collaborations element includes ongoing partnerships with numerous international organizations to leverage U.S. expertise with other large-scale projects. The Carbon Storage Program relies on international collaborations to complement the program's approach to reducing CO2 emissions. DOE is partnering with the International Energy Agency's Greenhouse Gas R&D Program (IEAGHG), the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), the U.S.-China Clean Energy

  16. Global Material Security | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nonproliferation Global Material Security The mission of the Office of Global Material Security (GMS) is to help partner countries secure and account for nuclear weapons, weapons-useable nuclear and radiological materials, as well as to build capacity to deter, detect and interdict the illicit trafficking of such materials. GMS achieves its mission through three subprograms: International Nuclear Security Radiological Security Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (formerly Second Line of

  17. Monthly average clear-sky broadband irradiance database for worldwide solar heat gain and building cooling load calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gueymard, Christian A.; Thevenard, Didier

    2009-11-15

    This paper establishes the formulation of a new clear-sky solar radiation model appropriate for algorithms calculating cooling loads in buildings. The aim is to replace the ASHRAE clear-sky model of 1967, whose limitations are well known and are reviewed. The new model is derived in two steps. The first step consists of obtaining a reference irradiance dataset from the REST2 model, which uses a high-performance, validated, two-band clear-sky algorithm. REST2 requires detailed inputs about atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, water vapor, ozone, and ground albedo. The development of global atmospheric datasets used as inputs to REST2 is reviewed. For the most part, these datasets are derived from space observations to guarantee universality and accuracy. In the case of aerosols, point-source terrestrial measurements were also used as ground truthing of the satellite data. The second step of the model consists of fits derived from a REST2-based reference irradiance dataset. These fits enable the derivation of compact, but relatively accurate expressions, for beam and diffuse clear-sky irradiance. The fitted expressions require the tabulation of only two pseudo-optical depths for each month of the year. The resulting model, and its tabulated data, are expected to be incorporated in the 2009 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. (author)

  18. INFRARED ECLIPSES OF THE STRONGLY IRRADIATED PLANET WASP-33b, AND OSCILLATIONS OF ITS HOST STAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deming, Drake; Fraine, Jonathan D.; Sada, Pedro V.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Knutson, Heather A.; Harrington, Joseph; Blecic, Jasmina; Nymeyer, Sarah; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Jackson, Brian

    2012-08-01

    We observe two secondary eclipses of the strongly irradiated transiting planet WASP-33b, in the K{sub s} band at 2.15 {mu}m, and one secondary eclipse each at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m using Warm Spitzer. This planet orbits an A5V {delta}-Scuti star that is known to exhibit low-amplitude non-radial p-mode oscillations at about 0.1% semi-amplitude. We detect stellar oscillations in all of our infrared eclipse data, and also in one night of observations at J band (1.25 {mu}m) out of eclipse. The oscillation amplitude, in all infrared bands except K{sub s} , is about the same as in the optical. However, the stellar oscillations in K{sub s} band (2.15 {mu}m) have about twice the amplitude (0.2%) as seen in the optical, possibly because the Brackett-{gamma} line falls in this bandpass. As regards the exoplanetary eclipse, we use our best-fit values for the eclipse depth, as well as the 0.9 {mu}m eclipse observed by Smith et al., to explore possible states of the exoplanetary atmosphere, based on the method of Madhusudhan and Seager. On this basis we find two possible states for the atmospheric structure of WASP-33b. One possibility is a non-inverted temperature structure in spite of the strong irradiance, but this model requires an enhanced carbon abundance (C/O > 1). The alternative model has solar composition, but an inverted temperature structure. Spectroscopy of the planet at secondary eclipse, using a spectral resolution that can resolve the water vapor band structure, should be able to break the degeneracy between these very different possible states of the exoplanetary atmosphere. However, both of those model atmospheres absorb nearly all of the stellar irradiance with minimal longitudinal re-distribution of energy, strengthening the hypothesis of Cowan and Agol that the most strongly irradiated planets circulate energy poorly. Our measurement of the central phase of the eclipse yields ecos {omega} = 0.0003 {+-} 0.00013, which we regard as being consistent with a circular orbit.

  19. RP Global Spain S A Minicentrales | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RP Global Spain S A Minicentrales Jump to: navigation, search Name: RP Global Spain S.A. (Minicentrales) Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: E - 28036 Product: The Spanish arm of RP Global,...

  20. EA-390 Global Pure Energy, LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-390 Global Pure Energy, LLC Order authorizing Global Pure Energy to export electric energy to Mexico. PDF icon EA-390 Global Pure Energy.pdf More Documents & Publications ...