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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Electric Resistance Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to...

2

Energy Basics: Electric Resistance Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance...

3

Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:10pm Addthis Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric furnaces, or electric thermal storage systems. Electric Furnaces With electric furnaces, heated air is delivered throughout the home through supply ducts and returned to the furnace through return ducts. Blowers (large fans) in electric furnaces move air over a group of three to seven

4

Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:10pm Addthis Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric furnaces, or electric thermal storage systems. Electric Furnaces With electric furnaces, heated air is delivered throughout the home through supply ducts and returned to the furnace through return ducts. Blowers (large fans) in electric furnaces move air over a group of three to seven

5

Electric Resistance Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Resistance Heating Electric Resistance Heating Electric Resistance Heating June 24, 2012 - 4:51pm Addthis Baseboard heaters are one type of electric resistance heaters. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/drewhadley Baseboard heaters are one type of electric resistance heaters. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/drewhadley Electric resistance heating converts nearly 100% of the energy in the electricity to heat. However, most electricity is produced from coal, gas, or oil generators that convert only about 30% of the fuel's energy into electricity. Because of electricity generation and transmission losses, electric heat is often more expensive than heat produced in the home or business using combustion appliances, such as natural gas, propane, and oil furnaces. If electricity is the only choice, heat pumps are preferable in most

6

Electric Resistance Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

room. Baseboard heaters contain electric heating elements encased in metal pipes. The pipes, surrounded by aluminum fins to aid heat transfer, run the length of the baseboard...

7

Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, {<=}1% Cr and either {>=}0.05% Zr or ZrO{sub 2} stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or {>=}0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, {<=}2% Ti, {<=}2% Mo, {<=}1% Zr, {<=}1% C, {<=}0.1% B, {<=}30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, {<=}1% rare earth metal, {<=}1% oxygen, {<=}3% Cu, balance Fe. 64 figs.

Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.; Fleischhauer, G.S.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Lilly, A.C. Jr.

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Laboratory and Field Measurements of Electrical Resistivity to Determine Saturation and Detect Fractures in a Heated Rock Mass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of the electrical resistivity of intact and fractured representative geothermal reservoir rocks were performed to investigate the resistivity contrast caused by active boiling and to infer saturation and fracture location in a large-scale field test. Measurements were performed to simulate test conditions with confining pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures to 145 C. Measurements presented are a first step toward making the search for fractures using electrical methods quantitatively. Intact samples showed a gradual resistivity increase when pore pressure was decreased below the phase-boundary pressure of free water, while fractured samples show a larger resistivity change at the onset of boiling. The resistivity change is greatest for samples with the most exposed surface area. Analysis of a field test provided the opportunity to evaluate fracture detection using electrical methods at a large scale. Interpretation of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) images of resistivity contrasts, aided by laboratory derived resistivity-saturation-temperature relationships, indicates that dynamic saturation changes in a heated rock mass are observable and that fractures experiencing drying or resaturation can be identified. The same techniques can be used to locate fractures in geothermal reservoirs using electrical field methods.

Roberts, J J; Ramirez, A; Carlson, S; Ralph, W; Bonner, B P

2001-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

12

Corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration by electrical heating of resistive coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is integrally formed in an upstream end of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

Williamson, Weldon S. (Malibu, CA); Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, D.M.

1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

15

Abrasion resistant heat pipe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

16

Heat-Resistant Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Nominal compositions of selected heat-resistant nickel alloys...max 0.15 max Cu Gas turbines, rocket engines, nuclear applications N07750 Inconel X-750 15.5 73.0 ? ? 1.0 2.5 0.7 7.0 0.04 0.25 max Cu Gas turbine components, pressure vessels,

17

A corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Richlen, S.L.

1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

18

Electrically heated liquid tank employing heat pipe heat transfer means  

SciTech Connect

The heating apparatus for applying heat to the interior of a chamber includes a modular, removable, electrical, heat-producing unit and a heat pipe mountable in a wall of the chamber with one end of the pipe arranged to receive heat from the electrical heat producing unit exterior of the housing and with another end of the pipe constructed and arranged to apply heat to the medium within the chamber. The heat pipe has high conductivity with a low temperature differential between the ends thereof and the heat producing unit includes an electric coil positioned about and removably secured to the one end of the heat pipe. The electric coil is embedded in a high thermal conducitivity, low electrical conductivity filler material which is surrounded by a low thermal conductivity insulating jacket and which is received around a metal core member which is removably secured to the one end of the heat pipe.

Shutt, J.R.

1978-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

19

Resistance after firing protected electric match  

SciTech Connect

An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

Montoya, Arsenio P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1981-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

20

Indoor unit for electric heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

1984-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

22

Electric Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles: Electric-Powered Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a new class of advanced nanomaterial called an electrical metal organic framework (EMOF) for EV heating and cooling systems. The EMOF would function similar to a conventional heat pump, which circulates heat or cold to the cabin as needed. However, by directly controlling the EMOF's properties with electricity, the PNNL design is expected to use much less energy than traditional heating and cooling systems. The EMOF-based heat pumps would be light, compact, efficient, and run using virtually no moving parts.

None

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

23

Sodium heat engine electrical feedthrough  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy is disclosed. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a hermetically sealed feedthrough structure. 4 figs.

Weber, N.

1985-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

24

Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

25

Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

26

THREE-DIMENSIONAL TERRAIN EFFECTS IN ELECTRICAL AND MAGNETOMETRIC RESISTIVITY SURVEYS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Introduction The Electrical Resistivity Method Terrainin Electrical Resistivity Surveys . . effects in electrical resistivity and magnetometric

Oppliger, G.L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Resistance after firing protected electric match. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

Montoya, A.P.

1980-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

28

Mohave Electric Cooperative - Heat Pump Rebate Program | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Rebate Program Mohave Electric Cooperative - Heat Pump Rebate Program Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps...

29

Clarksville Department of Electricity - Residential Heat Pump...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Clarksville Department of Electricity - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program (Tennessee) This is the approved revision of...

30

Bandera Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Rebate Program...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bandera Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Rebate Program Bandera Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Rebate Program Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating...

31

Electrically resistive coating for remediation (regeneration) of a diesel particulate filter and method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A resistively heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The resistively heated DPF includes a DPF having an inlet surface and at least one resistive coating on the inlet surface. The at least one resistive coating is configured to substantially maintain its resistance in an operating range of the DPF. The at least one resistive coating has a first terminal and a second terminal for applying electrical power to resistively heat up the at least one resistive coating in order to increase the temperature of the DPF to a regeneration temperature. The at least one resistive coating includes metal and semiconductor constituents.

Phelps, Amanda C. (Malibu, CA); Kirby, Kevin K. (Calabasas Hills, CA); Gregoire, Daniel J. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

32

Electrical Resistance of Graphitic and Graphitized Cathode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electrical resistance of graphitic and graphitized cathode materials before and after electrolysis was also measured at temperatures from 30C to 965C. An ...

33

Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in the Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico Submitted by: Baylor University One Bear Place, Box 97354...

34

Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

January 1 - March 31, 2011 Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in the Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico Submitted by: Baylor University One...

35

Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

09 Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in the Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico Submitted by: Baylor University One Bear Place, Box 97354...

36

Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

January 1 - March 31, 2012 Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in the Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico Submitted by: Baylor University One...

37

Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

April 1 - June 30, 2011 Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in the Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico Submitted by: Baylor University One...

38

Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

July 1 - September 30, 2011 Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in the Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico Submitted by: Baylor University One...

39

Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

Electrically heated DPF start-up strategy  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine has a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates in the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates. Heat generated by combustion of particulates in the heater induces combustion of particulates within the DPF. A control module selectively enables current flow to the electrical heater for an initial period of a DPF regeneration cycle, and limits exhaust flow while the electrical heater is heating to a predetermined soot combustion temperature.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Edmond Electric- Residential Heat Pump Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Edmond Electric offers rebates to residential customers who install energy-efficient heat pumps. This program applies to installations in both new and existing residential homes and complexes. Air...

42

A Model for Predicting the Electrical Resistivity of Baked Anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the desired properties of the anodes is low electrical resistivity. A proper understanding of the effect of different parameters on electrical resistivity can...

43

Parallel resistivity and ohmic heating of laboratory dipole plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The parallel resistivity is calculated in the long-mean-free-path regime for the dipole plasma geometry; this is shown to be a neoclassical transport problem in the limit of a small number of circulating electrons. In this regime, the resistivity is substantially higher than the Spitzer resistivity due to the magnetic trapping of a majority of the electrons. This suggests that heating the outer flux surfaces of the plasma with low-frequency parallel electric fields can be substantially more efficient than might be naively estimated. Such a skin-current heating scheme is analyzed by deriving an equation for diffusion of skin currents into the plasma, from which quantities such as the resistive skin-depth, lumped-circuit impedance, and power deposited in the plasma can be estimated. Numerical estimates indicate that this may be a simple and efficient way to couple power into experiments in this geometry.

Fox, W. [Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Energy Saving Through High Frequency Electric Resistance Welding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Frequency electric resistance heating systems have been widely used for many years for both welding and heat treating. In the past the major reason for using High-Frequency heating processes has been because of their very much higher speeds compared to most other methods. This has led to lower manufacturing costs through higher productivity. In addition to the higher productivity, however, the High-Frequency processes typically provide considerable savings of energy. In these days of escalating energy costs, these savings can also lead to significant reductions in manufacturing costs.

Udall, H. N.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

warming and electricity demand: A study of California.Extreme Heat, and Electricity Demand in California Norman L.high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned

Miller, N.L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Table A6. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity, and Heat Content ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

State energy information, detailed and overviews. Maps. ... Table A6. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity, and Heat Content of Electricity, 1949-2011

47

Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration Peter Meibom Juha of using electrical heat boilers and heat pumps as wind power integration measures relieving the link\\ZRUGV wind power, integration, heat pumps, electric heat boilers ,QWURGXFWLRQ 3UREOHP RYHUYLHZ The Danish

48

Effective resistance on random electrical networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Take a big graph and make a random electrical network of it by assigning independent resistances on its edges. Now, ask for the behaviour of the effective resistance between two vertices (two ``poles'') far apart. We assume in general that resistances are bounded away from 0 and infinity. In this paper, we study three cases of effective resistance in such random electrical networks: from one side to another in a box of $Z^d$, between two points in $Z^2$, and between two points on a cylinder graph $GxZ$. For all these cases, we obtain the right order of the fluctuations when the poles move apart from each other, and give corresponding subgaussian concentration inequalities. For the cylinder graphs, we prove two additional results: a central limit theorem and a result of uniform stability with respect to noise.

Benaim, Michel; Rossignol, Raphael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A desiccant dehumidifier for electric vehicle heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vehicle heating requires a substantial amount of energy. Engines in conventional cars produce enough waste heat to provide comfort heating and defogging/defrosting, even under very extreme conditions. Electric vehicles (EVs), however, generate little waste heat. Using battery energy for heating may consume a substantial fraction of the energy storage capacity, reducing the vehicle range, which is one of the most important parameters in determining EV acceptability. Water vapor generated by the vehicle passengers is in large part responsible for the high heating loads existing in vehicles. In cold climates, the generation of water vapor inside the car may result in water condensation on the windows, diminishing visibility. Two strategies are commonly used to avoid condensation on windows: windows are kept warm, and a large amount of ambient air is introduced in the vehicle. Either strategy results in a substantial heating load. These strategies are often used in combination, and a trade-off exists between them. If window temperature is decreased, ventilation rate has to be increased. Reducing the ventilation rate requires an increase of the temperature of the windows to prevent condensation. An alternative solution is a desiccant dehumidifier, which adsorbs water vapor generated by the passengers. Window temperatures and ventilation rates can then be reduced, resulting in a substantially lower heating load. This paper explores the dehumidifier heating concept. The first part shows the energy savings that could be obtained by using this technology. The second part specifies the required characteristics and dimensions of the system. The results indicate that the desiccant system can reduce the steady-state heating load by 60% or more under typical conditions. The reduction in heating load is such that waste heat may be enough to provide the required heating under most ambient conditions. Desiccant system dimensions and weight appear reasonable for packaging in an EV.

Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Heat to electricity thermoacoustic-magnetohydrodynamic conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a new concept for the conversion of heat into electricity is presented. The conversion is based on the combined effects of a thermoacoustic prime mover coupled with a magnetohydrodynamic generator, using different working fluids in each process. The results of preliminary experiments are also presented.

A. A. Castrejon-Pita; G. Huelsz

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

51

Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity areadequately kept up with peak demand, and electricity supplytrend in aggregate peak demand in California is expected to

Miller, N.L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Electric Driven Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radian Corporation, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has recently completed a study of the potential range of application for retrofitting electric driven heat pumps to existing distillation columns. A computerized evaluation program was developed, consisting of simulation, cost estimation, and economics analysis. The simulations were done using the PROCESS simulation package, while the cost and economics analysis routines were developed by Radian. This paper summarizes the results of the evaluations of retrofits to four generic distillation processes. In addition, the bases of the evaluation programs and the results of several peripheral tasks are described briefly.

Harris, G. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

APPARATUS FOR CONVERTING HEAT INTO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent shows an apparatus for converting heat to electricity. It includes a galvanic cell having an anodic metal anode, a fused salt electrolyte, and a hydrogen cathode having a diffusible metal barrier of silver-- palladium alloy covered with sputtered iron on the side next to the fused electrolyte. Also shown is a regenerator for regenerating metal hydride produced by the galvanic cell into hydrogen gas and anodic metal, both of which are recycled. (AEC)

Crouthamel, C.E.; Foster, M.S.

1964-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

54

Electrical resistance of a capillary endothelium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A B S T R A C T The electrical resistance of consecutive segments of capillaries has been determined by a method in which the microvessels were treated as a leaky, infinite cable. A two-dimensional analytical model to describe the potential field in response to intracapillary current injection was formulated. The model allowed determination of the electrical resistance from four sets of data: the capillary radius, the capillary length constant, the length constant in the mesentery perpendicular to the capillary, and the relative potential drop across the capillary wall. Of particular importance were the mesothelial membranes covering the mesenteric capillaries with resistances several times higher than that of the capillary endothelium. 27 frog mesenteric capillaries were characterized. The average resistance of the endothelium was 1.85 f~cm 2, which compares well with earlier determinations of the ionic permeability of such capillaries. However, heterogeneity with respect to resistance was observed, that of 10 arterial capillaries being 3.0 P, cm 2 as compared with 0.95 ~'?,cm 2 for 17 mid- and venous capillaries. The average in situ length constant was 99 #m for the arterial capillaries and 57/~m for the mid- and venous capillaries. It is likely that the ions that carry the current must move paracellularly, through junctions that are leaky to small solutes.

Christian Crone

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Electrical Resistivity At Coso Geothermal Area (1972) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electrical Resistivity At Coso Geothermal Area (1972) Electrical Resistivity At Coso Geothermal Area (1972) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Electrical Resistivity At Coso Geothermal Area (1972) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Direct-Current Resistivity Survey Activity Date 1972 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Identify drilling sites for exploration Notes Electrical resistivity studies outline areas of anomalously conductive ground that may be associated with geothermal activity and assist in locating drilling sites to test the geothermal potential. References Ferguson, R. B. (1 June 1973) Progress report on electrical resistivity studies, COSO Geothermal Area, Inyo County, California

56

Electrical Resistance Investigation of Cotton Fabrics After Treating ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Electrical Resistance Investigation of Cotton Fabrics After ... the Piezodielectric Effect of Carbon Fiber Sulphoaluminate Cement Composites.

57

Use of Electrical Resistivity and Acoustic Emission to Monitor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Ceramic Matrix Composites. Presentation Title, Use of Electrical Resistivity and...

58

Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State Alabama Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount 7% interest rate 5 or 10 year pay schedule maximum of $12,000 Provider Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative The Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative offers a heat pump loan program to eligible residential members. To qualify, members must have had power with Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative for at least one year, have the home electric bill and deeds in the same name, and pass a credit check. Heat pumps must be installed by a [http://www.smec.coop/heatpumpcontractors.htm

59

Dynamic Inversion for Hydrological Process Monitoring with Electrical Resistance Tomography Under Model Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water content using electrical resistivity tomography, WaterJ. Nitao (1992), Electrical resistivity tomography of vadoseinverse model for electrical resistivity surveys and its

Lehikoinen, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Efficient Electric Technologies for Industrial Heating: Emerging Activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial process heating is typically accomplished with fossil- and by-product fuels. However, new high-efficiency electric technologies for process heating applications are under development and commercially available, including three efficient electric process heating technologies covered in this Brief: Induction heating and melting Microwave (MW) heating, drying and curing Radio frequency (RF) heating, drying, and curing These technologies were selected for three reasons. First, in each case there a...

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Portland General Electric - Heat Pump Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Portland General Electric - Heat Pump Rebate Program Portland General Electric - Heat Pump Rebate Program Portland General Electric - Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $200 Provider Portland General Electric Portland General Electric's (PGE) Heat Pump Rebate Program offers residential customers a $200 rebate for an energy-efficient heat pump installed to PGE's standards by a PGE-approved contractor. The rebate is also available for replacing older, inefficient heat pump units. See the program web site or contact the utility for additional information on program incentives and guidelines. Other Information Heat pumps: 7.7 HSPF and 13 SEER minimum

62

Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Schenkel, Clifford (Walnut Creek, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Dixie Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dixie Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program Dixie Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program Dixie Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Home Weatherization Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate $5,000 Program Info State Alabama Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount up to $5,000 Provider Dixie Electric Cooperative Dixie Electric Cooperative, a Touchstone Electric Cooperative, offers the Energy Resources Conservation (ERC) loan to residential customers pursue energy efficiency measures. The program allows a maximum loan of $5,000 at a 5% interest rate. Funds can be used for improvements, upgrades, gas to electric conversions, or installation of a heat pump system. The payments

64

Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info Start Date June 2010 State Florida Program Type Other Incentive Provider Lakeland Electric Lakeland Electric, a municipal utility in Florida, is the nation's first utility to offer solar-heated domestic hot water on a "pay-for-energy" basis. The utility has contracted with a solar equipment vendor, Regenesis Lakeland, LLC, to install solar water heaters on participating customers' homes. Lakeland Electric bills the customer $34.95 per month regardless of use. Each solar heater is metered and equipped with a heating element timer as a demand management feature. The $34.95 monthly charge is a bulk energy

65

York Electric Cooperative - Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

York Electric Cooperative - Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program York Electric Cooperative - Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program York Electric Cooperative - Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Maximum Rebate 2 systems per household Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Dual Fuel Heat Pumps: $400/system Provider York Electric Cooperative, Inc York Electric Cooperative, Inc. (YEC) offers a $400 rebate to members who install a dual fuel heat pump in homes or businesses. The rebates are for primary residence and/or commercial and industrial locations. The incentive is for the property owner only, meaning that renters/tenants are not

66

Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial Heat Pump  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial Heat Pump Program (Maine) Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial Heat Pump Program (Maine) < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State Maine Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Mini-Split Heat Pumps: $600; plus 7.75% financing if necessary Provider Bangor Hydro Electric Company Bangor Hydro Electric Company offers a two-tiered incentive program for residential and small commercial customers. Mini-Split Heat Pumps are eligible for a rebate of $600, as well as a loan to cover the initial cost of the heat pump purchase. Financing is offered at 7.75% APR, for up to

67

Application Of Electrical Resistivity And Gravimetry In Deep Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Resistivity And Gravimetry In Deep Geothermal Resistivity And Gravimetry In Deep Geothermal Exploration Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Application Of Electrical Resistivity And Gravimetry In Deep Geothermal Exploration Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: The electrical resistivity method has been proven applicable to geothermal exploration because of the direct relationship between fluid and rock temperatures on the one hand electrical conductivity on the other. The problem of exploitation of a surface technique, such as resistivity, to the determination of geothermal gradients or 'hot spots' is complicated by the other geological parameters which affect resistivity: porosity, fluid salinity, cementation factor and clay content. However, by rational

68

Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative - Heat Pump Loan Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative - Heat Pump Loan Program Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative - Heat Pump Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Maximum Rebate 12,000 Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount $500 - $12,000 Provider Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative (BREC) offers low interest loans to help members finance the purchase of energy efficient heat pumps. Loans under $1,500 can be financed for up to 42 months, and loans above $1,500 can be financed for up to 60 months for houses and 48 months for mobile homes. Homeowners planning to install one heat pump, electric or geothermal can

69

Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds  

SciTech Connect

The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Advanced Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel and Composite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... plants: newly developed advanced heat resistant austenitic stainless steels for A-USC boilers and so called composite tubes for the IGCC gasification process.

71

Development of Economically Doped Heat-Resistant Nickel Single ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Development of Economically Doped Heat-Resistant Nickel Single-Crystal Superalloys for Blades of Perspective Gas Turbine Engines.

72

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota) Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota) < Back...

73

Evaluation of Peak Heat Release Rates in Electrical Cabinet Fires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to reanalyze the peak heat release rates (HRRs) from fires occurring in electrical cabinets of nuclear power plants.

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

74

Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

75

Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Nevada Program Type Utility Loan Program Provider Valley Electric Association Valley Electric Association (VEA), a nonprofit member owned cooperative, developed the domestic solar water heating program to encourage energy efficiency at the request of the membership. VEA partnered with Great Basin College to train and certify installers, creating jobs in the community, and also with Rheem Manufacturing and a local licensed contractor to install the units. A site visit is performed to determine the best installation and system design for each member. Members have the option of

76

Progress report on electrical resistivity studies, COSO Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Progress report on electrical resistivity studies, COSO Geothermal Area, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Progress...

77

Improvement of Electrical Resistivity by Inserting the Graphene Film ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Improvement of Electrical Resistivity by Inserting the Graphene Film between Al doped ZnO Thin Films. Author(s), Jeong Do Yang, Dong-Hee...

78

The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

Schenkel, C.J.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Electric storage heating: the experience in England and Wales and in the Federal Republic of Germany  

SciTech Connect

Electric storage heating, a space-heating system for buildings, incorporates a resistively heated storage medium to store energy during off-peak hours for use during peak-load hours. The system, which is widely used in Europe, smooths the utility's daily load curve and retards the growth of the winter peak by displacing new space-heating loads into the off-peak ''valleys'' of the load curve. The most extensive application of this form of space heating has occurred in England and Wales and in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report reviews the policies, methods, and circumstances under which electric storage heating was commercialized in these two market regions, and provides background information for evaluating the feasibility of commercial applications in the United States.

Asbury, J.G.; Kouvalis, A.

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Misinterpretation of Electrical Resistivity Data in Geothermal Prospecting:  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Misinterpretation of Electrical Resistivity Data in Geothermal Prospecting: Misinterpretation of Electrical Resistivity Data in Geothermal Prospecting: a Case Study from the Taupo Volcanic Zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Misinterpretation of Electrical Resistivity Data in Geothermal Prospecting: a Case Study from the Taupo Volcanic Zone Authors H.M. Bibby, G.F. Risk, T.G. Caldwell and S.L. Bennie Conference World Geothermal Congress 2005; Antalya, Turkey; 2005/04/24 Published ?, 2005 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Misinterpretation of Electrical Resistivity Data in Geothermal Prospecting: a Case Study from the Taupo Volcanic Zone Citation H.M. Bibby,G.F. Risk,T.G. Caldwell,S.L. Bennie. 2005. Misinterpretation of Electrical Resistivity Data in Geothermal Prospecting: a Case Study from

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

An introduction to electrical resistivity in geophysics | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

An introduction to electrical resistivity in geophysics An introduction to electrical resistivity in geophysics Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: An introduction to electrical resistivity in geophysics Abstract Physicists are finding that the skills they have learned in their training may be applied to areas beyond traditional physics topics. One such field is that of geophysics. This paper presents the electrical resistivity component of an undergraduate geophysics course at Radford University. It is taught from a physics perspective, yet the application of the theory to the real world is the overriding goal. The concepts involved in electrical resistivity studies are first discussed in a general sense, and then they are studied through the application of the relevant electromagnetic theory.

82

Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater  

SciTech Connect

A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA); Udell, Kent (Berkeley, CA); Buetnner, Harley M. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process. 4 figs.

Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.; Buetnner, H.M.; Aines, R.D.

1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

84

Progress report on electrical resistivity studies, COSO Geothermal Area,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Progress report on electrical resistivity studies, COSO Geothermal Area, Progress report on electrical resistivity studies, COSO Geothermal Area, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Progress report on electrical resistivity studies, COSO Geothermal Area, Inyo County, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The first phase of an electrical geophysical survey of the Coso Geothermal Area is described. The objective of the survey was to outline areas of anomalously conductive ground that may be associated with geothermal activity and to assist in locating drilling sites to test the geothermal potential. Author(s): Ferguson, R. B. Published: Publisher Unknown, 6/1/1973 Document Number: Unavailable DOI: Unavailable Source: View Original Report Electrical Resistivity At Coso Geothermal Area (1972)

85

Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative - Heat Pump Loan Program (South...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

can be financed for up to 60 months for houses and 48 months for mobile homes. Homeowners planning to install one heat pump, electric or geothermal can borrow up to 7,500....

86

Bandera Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Rebate Program...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

200 The Bandera Electric Cooperative offers a 200 rebate for the installation of a 15 SEER or higher heat pumps in existing homes. This program is designed to promote energy...

87

Electrical Resistivities of La55Al25Ni10Cu10 Bulk Metallic Glasses ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Electrical resistivity measurements in comparison with ... The in- situ electrical resistivity data recorded in the annealing process show the same...

88

Control system for electric water heater with heat pump external heat source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A control system for an electric water heater operatively associated with an external heat source, such as a heat pump. The water heater includes a water storage tank provided with an electric tank heating unit having a tank thermostat which closes in response to water temperature in the tank, allowing a flow of current through the tank heating unit so as to turn it on to heat the water, and which opens when the tank thermostat has been satisfied, interrupting the current flow so as to turn the tank heating unit off. The control system as responsive to the initial current surge through the tank heating unit when the tank thermostat closes to interrupt the current flow to the tank heating unit so as to maintain the heating unit off and to turn on the external heat source and maintain it on until the tank thermostat opens. The initial current surge cleans the contacts of the tank thermostat by burning off any insulating oxide residues which may have formed on them. The control system includes means responsive to abnormal conditions which would prevent the external heat source from heating water effectively for turning off the external heat source and turning on the tank heating unit and maintaining the external heat source off and the tank heating unit on until the tank thermostat is satisfied.

Shaffer Jr., J. E.; Picarello, J. F.

1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

89

Electrical resistance of the low dimensional critical branching random walk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the electrical resistance between the origin and generation n of the incipient infinite oriented branching random walk in dimensions d0. This answers a question of Barlow, J\\'arai, Kumagai and Slade [2].

Antal A. Jrai; Asaf Nachmias

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

90

Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

91

Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States Title Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2009 Authors Stadler, Michael, Chris Marnay, Afzal S. Siddiqui, Judy Lai, Brian Coffey, and Hirohisa Aki Pagination 106 Date Published 03/2006 Publisher LBNL City Berkeley Keywords consortium for electric reliability technology solutions (certs), energy analysis and environmental impacts department Abstract Berkeley Lab has for several years been developing methods for selection of optimal microgrid systems, especially for commercial building applications, and applying these methods in the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This project began with 3 major goals:

93

Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Analysis of Air- Analysis of Air- Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Jeffrey Munk Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Acknowledgements * Tennessee Valley Authority - David Dinse * U.S. Department of Energy * Roderick Jackson * Tony Gehl * Philip Boudreaux * ZEBRAlliance 3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Overview * Electric Water Heating Options - Conventional Electric Water Heaters - Heat Pump Water Heaters * Air-Source * Ground-Source - Solar Thermal Water Heater * Variable Speed Heat Pumps - Energy Use Analysis - Measured Performance - Operational Characteristics 4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Water Heating Options

94

The Economics of Steam Vs. Electric Pipe Heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To properly design a pipe heating system, the basic principles of heat transfer from an insulated pipe must be understood. The three methods of heat flow are conduction, convection (both forced and natural) and radiation. The total heat loss from a pipe must be determined first, since this is the heat which must be replaced to maintain a pipe at a given temperature. A steam heating system requires an analysis of the heat loss from the pipe as well as an analysis of the capacity of the heating system. The economics of steam heat include the accessories as well as the inefficiencies of steam heat. The design of an electric heating system normally involves far fewer components and engineering complexities than does a comparable steam system. The basic system is comprised of the heater, controls and connection accessories. Today there are several economic trade-offs to be made in selecting a pipe heating system. These involve engineering and design costs, maintenance costs, installation costs and energy costs. The economic trade-offs to be made in selecting a pipe heating system do not universally favor one system over another for all cases.

Schilling, R. E.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

MHD: direct channel from heat to electricity  

SciTech Connect

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) combined with conventional power generation is promising, but several engineering and technological problems must be solved before it can compete in the electric utility market. A combined MHD topping cycle and steam-electric bottoming cycle would raise the efficiency of a coal-fired plant from 35 to as high as 50 percent. Coal requirements would be lowered and internal sulfur oxide control is possible. Some of the components for MHD generation can be adapted from industrial applications and are already available, but many new components must be designed. Schematic drawings illustrate the engineering complexities of an MHD plant. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Zygielbaum, P.; Lowenstein, A.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Waste heat from kitchen cuts hot water electricity 23%  

SciTech Connect

Heat recovered from the Hamburger Hamlet's kitchen in Bethesada, Maryland and used to pre-heat the million gallons of hot water used annually reduced hot water costs 23% and paid off the investment in 1.5 years. Potomac Electric initiated the installation of an air-to-water heat pump in the restaurant kitchen above the dishwasher at a cost of about $5300, with the restaurant obliged to reimburse the utility if performance was satisfactory. Outside water recirculates through storage tanks and the ceiling heat pump until it reaches the required 140/sup 0/F. The amount of electricity needed to bring the preheated water to that temperature was $3770 lower after the installation. Cooled air exhausted from the heat pump circulates throughout the kitchen.

Barber, J.

1984-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

97

Volumetric In Situ Electrical Heating: An Unexploited Electrotechnology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of electrical energy to heat large volumes of earth in place ("in situ") offers significant advantages over conventional in situ heat-transfer methods. For example, where properly applied, the near-wellbore application of electrical energy can triple flow rates from heavy-oil wells for an incremental operational cost of only a few dollars per barrel. The electrically enhanced oil recovery (EEOR) single-well stimulation method produces 15 barrels of oil for every barrel of oil consumed at the electrical power plant. The EEOR process can be used in concert with other enhanced oil recovery systems to reduce air pollution and to provide a market for excess electrical power generation capacity. other applications of the EEOR technology include the in situ decontamination of hazardous waste spills and the disinfection of hospital wastes.

Bridges, J. E.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Operator theory of electrical resistance networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A resistance network is a weighted graph $(G,c)$ with intrinsic (resistance) metric $R$. We embed the resistance network into the Hilbert space ${\\mathcal H}_{\\mathcal E}$ of functions of finite energy. We use the resistance metric to study ${\\mathcal H}_{\\mathcal E}$, and vice versa and show that the embedded images of the vertices $\\{v_x\\}$ form a reproducing kernel for this Hilbert space. We also obtain a discrete version of the Gauss-Green formula for resistance networks and show that resistance networks which support nonconstant harmonic functions of finite energy have a certain type of \\emph{boundary}. We obtain an analytic boundary representation for the harmonic functions of finite energy in a sense analogous to the Poisson or Martin boundary representations, but with different hypotheses, and for a different class of functions. In the process, we construct a dense space of "smooth" functions of finite energy and obtain a Gel'fand triple for ${\\mathcal H}_{\\mathcal E}$. This allows us to represent the resistance network as a system of Gaussian random variables indexed by vertices. We also study the spectral representation for $\\Delta$ on ${\\mathcal H}_{\\mathcal E}$ and show how nonzero defect entails a nontrivial boundary. All of the above are are detected by the operator theory of ${\\mathcal H}_{\\mathcal E}$ but not $\\ell^2$. Our results apply to the Heisenberg model for the isotropic ferromagnet, improving earlier results of R. T. Powers on the problem of long-range order (in reference to KMS states on the $C^\\ast$-algebra of the model).

Palle E. T. Jorgensen; Erin P. J. Pearse

2008-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

99

Increased use of reject heat from electric generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study aims to determine existing barriers to greater use of reject heat by electric power producers, including utilities and cogenerators. It includes analytical studies of the technical and economic issues and a survey of several electric power producers. The core analytic findings of the study are that although electric utility- based, cogenerated district heating is sometimes cost competitive with currently common furnaces and boilers, it is not clearly less expensive, and is often more expensive. Since market penetration by a new technology depends on strong perceived advantages, district heating will remain at a disadvantage unless its benefits, such as lowered emissions and decreased reliance on foreign oil, are given overt financial form through subsidies or tax incentives. The central finding from the survey was that electric utilities have arrived at the same conclusion by their own routes; we present a substantial list of their reasons for not engaging in district heating or for not pursuing it more vigorously, and many of them can be summarized as the lack of a clear cost advantage for district heat. We also note that small-scale district heating systems, based on diesel generators and located near the thermal load center, show very clear cost advantages over individual furnaces. This cost advantage is consistent with the explosive growth currently observed in private cogeneration systems.

Leigh, R.W. [Leigh (Richard W.), New York, NY (United States); Piraino, M. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Joule Heating and Anomalous Resistivity in the Solar Corona  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent radioastronomical observations of Faraday rotation in the solar corona can be interpreted as evidence for coronal currents, with values as large as $2.5 \\times 10^9$ Amperes (Spangler 2007). These estimates of currents are used to develop a model for Joule heating in the corona. It is assumed that the currents are concentrated in thin current sheets, as suggested by theories of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The Spitzer result for the resistivity is adopted as a lower limit to the true resistivity. The calculated volumetric heating rate is compared with an independent theoretical estimate by Cranmer et al (2007). This latter estimate accounts for the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the corona at a heliocentric distance of several solar radii. Our calculated Joule heating rate is less than the Cranmer et al estimate by at least a factor of $3 \\times 10^5$. The currents inferred from the observations of Spangler (2007) are not relevant to coronal heating unless the true resistivity is enormously increased relative to the Spitzer value. However, the same model for turbulent current sheets used to calculate the heating rate also gives an electron drift speed which can be comparable to the electron thermal speed, and larger than the ion acoustic speed. It is therefore possible that the coronal current sheets are unstable to current-driven instabilities which produce high levels of waves, enhance the resistivity and thus the heating rate.

Steven R. Spangler

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

An Automatically Controlled Electrical Heating System for Use in an Explosive Environment  

SciTech Connect

An automatically controlled electrical heating system was developed to heat specific components of a compacting system for the production of explosive pellets. The electrical heating system was designed for application in a hazardous environment.

Page, D. O.; Draut, C. F.

1974-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

102

Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V.

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

103

Innovative Control of Electric Heat in Multifamily Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the application of web-based wireless technology for control of electric heating in a large multifamily housing complex. The control system architecture and components are described. A web-based application enables remote monitoring of temperature, electric usage and control of peak demand through a temperature-based duty-cycling algorithm developed specifically for the application. Installed costs and energy savings are discussed. A 16% energy-use reduction was confirmed through the first heating season of operation. The response of occupants and management to changes in temperature regime has been a critical aspect of system start-up and commissioning.

Lempereur, D.; Bobker, M.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Heat Stress for Workers in the Electric Power Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric power workers can be exposed to the high temperatures and humidity of the coastal and Midwest regions of the United States during the summer or the hot, dry conditions typical for the Southwest of the United States. In addition, linesmen may be required to don personal protective equipment such as coveralls, a helmet, and rubber gloves as well as flame- and arc-resistant clothing that allow them to work electrical power transmission and distribution lines without service interruption. Personnel ...

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

105

Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California  

SciTech Connect

Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such as the July 2006 heat wave in California, suggests that peak electricity demand will challenge current supply, as well as future planned supply capacities when population and income growth are taken into account.

Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Electrical Resistivity and Self-Potential Surveys Blue Mountain Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Electrical Resistivity and Self-Potential Surveys Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Electrical Resistivity and Self-Potential Surveys Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, Nevada Abstract Self potential and electrical resistivity surveys have been completed at the Blue Mountain geothermal area to search for the source of thermal fluids discovered during drilling for mineral exploration, and to help characterize the geothermal resource. Two large SP anomalies are associated with the artesian thermal area and the area of highest temperature observed in drill holes. Two similar anomalies were mapped 1 to 3 km to the south

107

Electrical resistivity survey of the Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pilgrim Springs is located on the Seward Peninsula about 50 miles north of Nome, Alaska. A case history of the use of electrical resistivity to delineate a geothermal reservoir and for drilling recommendations is presented. Pilgrim Springs water, being saline, has an electrical resistivity value of 1 ..cap omega..-m, providing an ideal contrast for resistivity definition of the reservoir. In 1979 several deep Schlumberger and co-linear dipole-dipole surveys were run in and near the 1.5 km/sup 2/ thaw window. The results suggest that there is a pancake-shaped reservoir near the surface, approximately 50 m thick, which has the shape of the thaw window but is thicker and deeper to the north under the Pilgrim river. The conduit is suspected to be a small feature which is difficult to find under the near-surface, low-resistivity reservoir.

Wescott, E.; Sydora, R.; Peace, J.; Lockhart, A.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Single-photon heat conduction in electrical circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study photonic heat conduction between two resistors coupled weakly to a single superconducting microwave cavity. At low enough temperature, the dominating part of the heat exchanged between the resistors is transmitted by single-photon excitations of the fundamental mode of the cavity. This manifestation of single-photon heat conduction should be experimentally observable with the current state of the art. Our scheme can possibly be utilized in remote interference-free temperature control of electric components and environment engineering for superconducting qubits coupled to cavities.

Jones, P J; Tan, K Y; Mttnen, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Single-photon heat conduction in electrical circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study photonic heat conduction between two resistors coupled weakly to a single superconducting microwave cavity. At low enough temperature, the dominating part of the heat exchanged between the resistors is transmitted by single-photon excitations of the fundamental mode of the cavity. This manifestation of single-photon heat conduction should be experimentally observable with the current state of the art. Our scheme can possibly be utilized in remote interference-free temperature control of electric components and environment engineering for superconducting qubits coupled to cavities.

P. J. Jones; J. A. M. Huhtamki; K. Y. Tan; M. Mttnen

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

110

Questions and Answers - How do you explain electrical resistance?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is an electric current? is an electric current? Previous Question (What is an electric current?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Do you know what an electromagnet is?) Do you know whatan electromagnet is? How do you explain electrical resistance? I'm assuming you are asking for advice on "how to" explain resistance - perhaps to a school class. At any rate, here's a reasonably non-technical description you can consider. In a metal, the atoms are arranged in a crystal-like configuration. The type of metal will determine how the bonds are arranged, and how closely the atoms are grouped. Electrons can inhabit energy levels. Generally, only the "outer" electrons in an atom interact to form the bonds with other atoms. These outer electrons are held to the atom with a relatively small

111

Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 10 Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in the Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico Submitted by: Baylor University One Bear Place, Box 97354 Waco, TX 76798 Principal Author: John A. Dunbar Prepared for: United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory January 15, 2011 Office of Fossil Energy 1 Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico Pr oject Quar ter 17 Repor t Report Type: Quarterly Starting October 1, 2010 Ending December 31, 2010 Author: John A. Dunbar Baylor University Department of Geology January 15, 2011 DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-06NT142959

112

Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations.

Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (San Francisco, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations. 1 fig.

Ramirez, A.L.; Chesnut, D.A.; Daily, W.D.

1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

114

On electric resistances for distance-regular graphs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the behavior of electric potentials on distance-regular graphs, and extend some results of a prior paper. Our main result, Theorem 4, shows(together with Corollary 3) that if distance is measured by the electric resistance between points then all points are close to being equidistant on a distance-regular graph with large valency. A number of auxiliary results are also presented.

Koolen, Jack; Park, Jongyook

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

116

Submean variance bound for effective resistance of random electric networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a model of random electric networks with Bernoulli resistances. In the case of the lattice Z^2, we show that the point-to-point effective resistance between 0 and a vertex v has a variance of order at most (log |v|)^(2/3) whereas its expected value is of order log |v|, when v goes to infinity. When the dimension of Z^d is different than 2, expectation and variance are of the same order. Similar results are obtained in the context of p-resistance. The proofs rely on a modified Poincare inequality due to Falik and Samorodnitsky.

Itai Benjamini; Raphael Rossignol

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

117

Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Students' Understanding of Direct Current Resistive Electrical Circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research has shown that both high school and university students' reasoning patterns regarding direct current resistive electric circuits often differ from the currently accepted explanations. At present, there are no standard diagnostic examinations in electric circuits. Two versions of a diagnostic instrument called Determining and Interpreting Resistive Electric circuits Concepts Tests (DIRECT) were developed, each consisting of 29 questions. The information provided by the exam provides classroom instructors a means with which to evaluate the progress and conceptual difficulties of their students and their instructional methods. It can be used to evaluate curricular packages and/or other supplemental materials for their effectiveness in overcoming students' conceptual difficulties. The analyses indicate that students, especially females, tend to hold multiple misconceptions, even after instruction. During interviews, the idea that the battery is a constant source of current was used most often in answering the questions. Students tended to focus on current in solving the problems and to confuse terms, often assigning the properties of current to voltage and/or resistance. Results indicated that students do not have a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms of electric circuit phenomena. On the other hand, students were able to translate easily from a "realistic" representation of a circuit to the corresponding schematic diagram.

Paula V. Engelhardt; Robert J. Beichner

2003-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

120

Electrical Conduction, Heat Conduction, Shear Viscosity and Entropy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here how to study steady linear transport phenomena by using entropy. We study the system and the environment together and identify their entropies. Concerning their interaction, quantum mechanics is considered. A time parameter $\\tau$ is therefore introduced to characterize the discrete nature of the quantum interactions. By combining $\\tau$ and the entropy, an approach is constructed successfully to study electrical conduction, heat conduction and shear viscosity

Zhang, Yong-Jun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Estimation of Thermal Resistance from Room Temperature Electrical Resistance Measurements for Different LHC Beam Screen Support Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this note the thermal resistance between the LHC beam screen and cold bore is estimated from room temperature electrical resistance measurements. The results indicate that the beam screen without supports should have a comparable, if not better, thermal performance than the one with the existing spring supports. This prediction from electrical resistance measurements is confirmed by recent preliminary thermal measurements.

Jenninger, B

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Electrode wells for powerline-frequency electrical heating of soils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode well is described for use in powerline-frequency heating of soils for decontamination of the soil. Heating of soils enables the removal of volatile organic compounds from soil when utilized in combination with vacuum extraction. A preferred embodiment of the electrode well utilizes a mild steel pipe as the current-carrying conductor to at least one stainless steel electrode surrounded by a conductive backfill material, preferably graphite or steel shot. A covering is also provided for electrically insulating the current-carrying pipe. One of the electrode wells is utilized with an extraction well which is under subatmospheric pressure to withdraw the volatile material, such as gasoline and trichloroethylene (TCE) as it is heated. 4 figs.

Buettner, H.M.; Daily, W.D.; Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.; Ramirez, A.L.; Siegel, W.H.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

123

Electrode wells for powerline-frequency electrical heating of soils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode well for use in powerline-frequency heating of soils for decontamination of the soil. Heating of soils enables the removal of volatile organic compounds from soil when utilized in combination with vacuum extraction. A preferred embodiment of the electrode well utilizes a mild steel pipe as the current-carrying conductor to at least one stainless steel electrode surrounded by a conductive backfill material, preferably graphite or steel shot. A covering is also provided for electrically insulating the current-carrying pipe. One of the electrode wells is utilized with an extraction well which is under subatmospheric pressure to withdraw the volatile material, such as gasoline and trichioroethylene (TCE) as it is heated.

Buettner, Harley M. (Livermore, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Siegel, William H. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Energy test method development for electric heat pump water heaters  

SciTech Connect

Modifications are proposed for the current US Department of Energy test procedures for water heaters in order to make them applicable to electric heat pump water heaters. The modifications are in the areas of definitions and technical procedures. The latter include the test conditions, test procedures and measurements, and calculations. Reasons for making these modifications and laboratory test data are provided to support the modifications in the technical procedures. The main modifications include: (1) lowering the water supply temperature from 70/sup 0/F to 55/sup 0/F, (2) lowering the tank thermostat setting from 160/sup 0/F to 145/sup 0/F to maintain the same 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, (3) measuring the power input instead of using the nameplate rating as in the case for an electric water heater, and (4) measuring the recovery efficiency instead of calculating it by using the standby losses in the case for an electric water heater.

Wan, C.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Joule Heating and Anomalous Resistivity in the Solar Corona  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent radioastronomical observations of Faraday rotation in the solar corona can be interpreted as evidence for coronal currents, with values as large as $2.5 \\times 10^9$ Amperes (Spangler 2007). These estimates of currents are used to develop a model for Joule heating in the corona. It is assumed that the currents are concentrated in thin current sheets, as suggested by theories of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The Spitzer result for the resistivity is adopted as a lower limit to the true resistivity. The calculated volumetric heating rate is compared with an independent theoretical estimate by Cranmer et al (2007). This latter estimate accounts for the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the corona at a heliocentric distance of several solar radii. Our calculated Joule heating rate is less than the Cranmer et al estimate by at least a factor of $3 \\times 10^5$. The currents inferred from the observations of Spangler (2007) are not relevant to coronal heating unless the true resistivi...

Spangler, Steven R

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

July 1 - September 30, 2011 July 1 - September 30, 2011 Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in the Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico Submitted by: Baylor University One Bear Place, Box 97354 Waco, TX 76798 Principal Author: John A. Dunbar Prepared for: United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory October 14, 2011 Office of Fossil Energy 1 Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico Pr oject Quar ter 20 Repor t Report Type: Quarterly Starting July 1, 2011 Ending September 30, 2011 Author: John A. Dunbar Baylor University Department of Geology October 14, 2011 DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-06NT142959

127

Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

January 1 - March 31, 2012 January 1 - March 31, 2012 Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in the Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico Submitted by: Baylor University One Bear Place, Box 97354 Waco, TX 76798 Principal Author: John A. Dunbar Prepared for: United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory April 18, 2012 Office of Fossil Energy 1 Electrical Resistivity Investigation of Gas Hydrate Distribution in Mississippi Canyon Block 118, Gulf of Mexico Pr oject Quar ter 22 Repor t Report Type: Quarterly Starting January 1, 2012 Ending March 31, 2012 Author: John A. Dunbar Baylor University Department of Geology April 18, 2012 DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-06NT142959

128

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1. The Receiver .. Heat Exchanger 1 . 3. The Condensers .Reactors. LTR Heat Exchangers Electricity Generating Systemu.rJO u .. OU t. :ovO DoD HEAT EXCHANGERS LOAD (KW'? RECUP =

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Dynamic Underground Stripping: In situ steam sweeping and electrical heating to remediate a deep hydrocarbon spill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic Underground Stripping is a combination of in situ steam injection, electrical resistance heating, and fluid extraction for rapid removal and recovery of subsurface contaminants such as solvents or fuels. Underground imaging and other measurement techniques monitor the system in situ for process control. Field tests at a deep gasoline spill at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recovered over 7000 gallons of gasoline during several months of field operations. Preliminary analysis of system cost and performance indicate that Dynamic Underground Stripping compares favorably with conventional pump-and-treat and vacuum extraction schemes for removing non-aqueous phase liquids such as gasoline from deep subsurface plumes.

Yow, J.L. Jr.; Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.S.; Ziagos, J.P.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Outdoor unit construction for an electric heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The outdoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided with an upper portion 10 containing propeller fan means 14 for drawing air through the lower portion 12 containing refrigerant coil means 16 in the form of four discrete coils connected together in a subassembly forming a W shape, the unit being provided with four adjustable legs 64 which are retracted in shipment, and are adjusted on site to elevate the unit to a particular height suitable for the particular location in which the unit is installed.

Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA); Lackey, Robert S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Outdoor unit construction for an electric heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The outdoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided with an upper portion containing propeller fan means for drawing air through the lower portion containing refrigerant coil means in the form of four discrete coils connected together in a subassembly forming a W shape, the unit being provided with four adjustable legs which are retracted in shipment, and are adjusted on site to elevate the unit to a particular height suitable for the particular location in which the unit is installed. 4 figs.

Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.

1984-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

132

Heating of solid earthen material, measuring moisture and resistivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile contaminants that utilizes electrical energy. A plurality of electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a selected geometric pattern. Varying phase and voltages configurations are applied to corresponding electrodes to achieve heating, physical phase changes, and the placement of substances within the treatment region. Additionally, treatment mediums can be added to either treat the contamination within the soil or to restrict their mobility.

Heath, William O. (Richland, WA); Gauglitz, Phillip A. (Richland, WA); Pillay, Gautam (Richland, WA); Bergsman, Theresa M. (Richland, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA); Goheen, Steven C. (Richland, WA); Richardson, Richard L. (West Richland, WA); Roberts, Janet S. (Pasco, WA); Schalla, Ronald (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Heating of solid earthen material, measuring moisture and resistivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile contaminants that utilizes electrical energy. A plurality of electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a selected geometric pattern. Varying phase and voltages configurations are applied to corresponding electrodes to achieve heating, physical phase changes, and the placement of substances within the treatment region. Additionally, treatment mediums can be added to either treat the contamination within the soil or to restrict their mobility. 29 figs.

Heath, W.O.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pillay, G.; Bergsman, T.M.; Eschbach, E.A.; Goheen, S.C.; Richardson, R.L.; Roberts, J.S.; Schalla, R.

1996-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

134

Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the Evolving Electricity Generation and Deliveryfor meeting building electricity and heat requirementswas funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy

Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

High-Temperature Experiments using a Resistively-Heated High-Pressure Membrane Diamond Anvil Cell  

SciTech Connect

A reliable high-performance heating method using resistive heaters and a membrane driven diamond anvil cell (mDAC) is presented. Two micro-heaters are mounted in a mDAC and use electrical power of less than 150 W to achieve sample temperatures up to 1200 K. For temperature measurement we use two K-type thermocouples mounted near the sample. The approach can be used for in-situ Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction at high pressures and temperatures. A W-Re alloy gasket material permits stable operation of mDAC at high temperature. Using this method, we made an isothermal compression at 900 K to pressures in excess of 100 GPa and isobaric heating at 95 GPa to temperatures in excess of 1000 K. As an example, we present high temperature Raman spectroscopy measurements of nitrogen at high pressures.

Jenei, Z; Visbeck, K; Cynn, H; Yoo, C; Evans, W

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

136

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Loan | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Loan Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Loan Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Loan < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate not specified Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount not specified Provider Ashland Electric Utilities Department The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers a solar water heating program to residential electric customers who currently use an electric water heater. Under "The Bright Way to Heat Water Program," qualified home owners may take advantage of the City's zero-interest loan program or a cash rebate. Customers choosing a loan repay it as part of their monthly utility bill. Interested customers are provided site evaluations, consumer

137

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,000 Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $0.40/annual kWh saved (on average $800 to $1,000) Provider Ashland Electric Utilities Department The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers a solar water heating program to its residential electric customers who currently use an electric water heater. Under "The Bright Way to Heat Water Program," qualified home owners may choose either the cash rebate or a zero-interest loan. Cash rebates of up to $1,000 are available for approved systems. The rebate

138

Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance bragg reflectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compound-semiconductor optical device and method. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors.

Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Heating fuel choice shows electricity and natural gas roughly ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Consumption & Efficiency. ... electric power plant emissions. ... computers, electronics and other devices is powered only by electricity.

140

AN OPTIMIZED TWO-CAPACITY ADVANCED ELECTRIC HEAT PUMP S. E. Veyo, Manager, Heat Exchange Systems Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exchanger, comfort. #12;AN OPTIMIZED TWO-CAPACITY ADVANCED ELECTRIC HEAT PUMP S. E. Veyo* ABSTRACT A two constrained optimization procedure was used to select heat exchanger proportions, air flow rates National Laboratory. * S. E. Veyo, Mgr., Heat Exchange Systems, Westinghouse R&D Center, Pittsburgh, PA

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

ANALOG COMPUTATION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN SOLIDS WITH ELECTRICAL HEAT-GENERATION AND TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT PROPERTIES  

SciTech Connect

A problem which frequently arises in experimentai heat transfer work is that of determining the surface temperature of a tube in which heat is generated electrically. Solution of this problem involves a temperature measurement of the opposite surface to which a correction factor, the temperature drop through the tube wall, must be applied. This temperature drop is obtnined through the solution of the diffurential equation governing the temperature distribution in the tube wall; however, in the case of temperature-dependent properties of thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity, the governing equation is nonlinear, which necessitates special solutions. In this study a hypothetical surface-temperature problem was established, and the solution of the governing nonlinear differential equation was accomplished by means of an electronic analog computer. Assuming variable properties, the example used in this study was that of a one-dimensional steadystate heat flow through both a thick- and a thin- walled tube. (auth)

Harden, D.G.; Bryant, L.T.

1962-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Hydrothermal electric and direct heat. Commercialization Phase III planning  

SciTech Connect

Nine environmental concerns have been identified: airborne effluents, waterborne effluents, noise, subsidence, enhanced seismicity, water use conflicts, land use, socioeconomic impacts, and system safety and occupational health. Resolution of these issues is expected to occur at staggered intervals over the next 8 to 10 years. Of these concerns, airborne emissions and water use conflicts are judged to have a medium likelihood of having research findings adverse to commercialization. Waterborne effluents and subsidence are also judged to have a medium likelihood. The other concerns--noise, enhanced seismicity, land use, socioeconomic impacts and system safety and occupational health--are judged to have a low likelihood of adverse findings. The overall environmental research and development plan related to hydrothermal electric and direct heat includes funds to assess the adequacy of candidate control technology options. However, it does not include the resource requirements to fully develop and demonstrate commercial control hardware, process modifications, and for strategies. The conclusions, stated as probabilities, are given.

Clusen, R.C.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices.

Saeid Ghamaty; Sal Marchetti

2004-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

145

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices.

Saeid Ghamaty; Sal Marchetti

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

146

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices.

Saeid Ghamaty; Sal Marchetti

2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

147

Table A4. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Table A4. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" " by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1994: Part 2" "...

148

Table A36. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Table A36. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity" " Generation by Fuel Type, Industry Group, Selected Industries, and End Use, 1991:" " Part 2" " (Estimates in...

149

Table A10. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Table A10. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" " by Fuel Type, Industry Group, Selected Industries, and End Use, 1994:" " Part 2" " (Estimates in...

150

Theoretical Modeling Approach for a Common Residential Electrically Heated Oven and Proposed Oven Design Modification.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current research has developed a fully predictive model of an electrically heated common residential oven. This system was modeled using a fully explicit approach and, (more)

Breen, Mark Allan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

152

Table A12. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" " by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical...

153

Keeping cool on the job. [Heat-resistant protective clothing  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance workers at nuclear power plants need special protective clothing that slows overheating from the 55/sup 0/C temperature caused by waste heat from pipes and pressure vehicles. Cooling garments increase efficiency by extending the time workers can function, as well as safeguarding their health and morale. The Electric Power Research Institute evaluated two cooling concepts: circulating liquid suits already available on the market and a prototype frozen-water garment. Performance tests of the frozen-water suit found that it can more than double the 65-minute stay-time of liquid-cooled systems. The frozen-water garment permits mobility, is compatible with radiation protection and other garments and equipment, is easty to clean or decontaminate, has no moving parts, and is attractively priced. 4 figures. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; O'Brien, J.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Uniqueness of electrical currents in a network of finite total resistance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that if the sum of the resistances of an electrical network $N$ is finite, then there is a unique electrical current in $N$ provided we do not allow, in a sense, any flow to escape to infinity.

Georgakopoulos, Agelos

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Electrical resistance measurements of highly inhibited SiC coated carbon-carbon laminates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of oxidation damage at 900'C of highly inhibited, SiC coated carbon-carbon laminates on shear modulus, mass loss, and electrical resistance are studied. The approach taken enabled the interpretation of the shear modulus and electrical resistance values to the mass loss. In-situ electrical resistance measurements are taken at 900'C and shear modulus measurements are obtained at room temperature prior to and following oxidation. Initial oxidation damage is incurred preferentially along both transverse and longitudinal fiber bundles as well as creating some matrix cracks. Mass loss results revealed that the oxidation reaction is diffusion controlled at this temperature. The shear modulus decreased whereas the electrical resistance increased with increasing exposure time. Electrical resistance calculations based on the experimental results showed that the electrical resistance is a matrix dominated property. The analytical simulations used in conjunction with experimental data provided the relationships between shear modulus, electrical resistance, and mass loss. Examples are given which show the correlation of mass loss to both the electrical resistance and the shear modulus. Analytical predictions from the electrical resistance simulations are shown to predict the shear modulus for different oxidation times within 5% of experimental values.

Parker, Paul Albert

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Tuning the Electrical Resistivity in Hot-Deformed Nd-Fe-B Magnets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study it was found by four-point measurements that hot-compacted magnets have a comparable electrical resistivity as sintered magnets. With higher...

157

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Saeid Ghamaty

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Saeid Ghamaty

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Saeid Ghamaty

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Saeid Ghamaty

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Material morphology and electrical resistivity differences in EPDM rubbers.  

SciTech Connect

Electrical resistance anomalies noted in EPDM gaskets have been attributed to zinc-enriched surface sublayers, about 10-{micro}m thick, in the sulfur cured rubber material. Gasket over-compression provided the necessary connector pin contact and was also found to cause surprising morphological changes on the gasket surfaces. These included distributions of zinc oxide whiskers in high pressure gasket areas and cone-shaped features rich in zinc, oxygen, and sulfur primarily in low pressure protruding gasket areas. Such whiskers and cones were only found on the pin side of the gaskets in contact with a molded plastic surface and not on the back side in contact with an aluminum surface. The mechanisms by which such features are formed have not yet been defined.

Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Domeier, Linda A.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers in electric field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at three di?erent electric ?elds and room temperature.conjugated polymers in electric ?eld Nenad Vukmirovi a) and94720, USA. Abstract The electric ?eld dependence of charge

Vukmirovic, Nenad

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1992. Global warming and electricity demand: A study ofValuing the Time-Varying Electricity Production of SolarCEC). 2002. 2002-2012 Electricity Outlook Report, P700- 01-

Miller, N.L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Coast Electric Power Association - Heat Pump and Weatherization...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CaulkingWeather-stripping, Doors, DuctAir sealing, Heat pumps, Water Heaters, Windows, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Generators Active Incentive No Incentive Inactive Date 0803...

165

Stirling engines in generating heat and electricity for micro: CHP systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, an analysis of different generating heat and electricity systems with Stirling engine is made from the point of view of benefits and limitations, both operational and economic and environmental. Stirling engine has the ability to work ... Keywords: biomass, fossil fuels, generating heat and electricity system, m-CHP, stirling engine

Dan Scarpete; Krisztina Uzuneanu

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

contributes to higher summer electricity demand in the Northeast In its new energy forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects summer retail electricity prices...

167

Heat Tint Effects on General Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat tint is usually created during a welding operation. The heat tint creates an oxide ... Reformer Inlet Hair-pin-pipe Weld Cracking Remedy of Deficiencies

168

Students' understanding of direct current resistive electrical circuits Paula Vetter Engelhardta)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the answer key as well as for the objectives. Both open- ended questions during the early development stagesStudents' understanding of direct current resistive electrical circuits Paula Vetter Engelhardta regarding direct current resistive electric circuits often differ from the accepted explanations. At present

Zollman, Dean

169

Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on an experimental residential retrofit incorporating thermal storage, and extensive subsequent modeling, a commercial design was developed and implemented to use hot thermal storage to significantly reduce electric demand and utility energy costs during the cooling season as well as the heating season. To achieve air conditioning savings, the system separates dehumidification from sensible cooling; dehumidifies by desiccant absorption, using heat from storage to dry the desiccant; and then cools at an elevated temperature improving overall system efficiency. Efficient heat for desiccant regeneration is provided by a selective-energy system coupled with thermal storage. The selective-energy system incorporates diesel cogeneration, solar energy and off-peak electric resistance heating. Estimated energy and first cost savings, as compared with an all-electric VAV HVAC system, are: 30 to 50% in ductwork size and cost; 30% in fan energy; 25% in air handling equipment; 20 to 40% in utility energy for refrigeration; 10 to 20% in refrigeration equipment; and space savings due to smaller ductwork and equipment.

Meckler, G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Evaluation of Heat Stress Risk for Workers in the Electric Power Industry: Project Update 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat stress remains an important risk factor affecting worker health and safety, due not only to the high and sustained workloads but also to heat contributions from the environment, machinery, and nature of protective clothing (such as arc- and fire-resistant clothing). In combination with individual factors, including age, common comorbidities (such as diabetes), fitness, and hydration levels, workers are at heat-related risk beyond overt clinical symptoms of heat stress. Regardless of the source, ...

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

171

Geek-Up[5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight 5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight Geek-Up[5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight May 20, 2011 - 5:53pm Addthis Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? 50 percent of the energy generated annually from all sources is lost as waste heat. Scientists have developed a high-efficiency thermal waste heat energy converter that actively cools electronic devices, photovoltaic cells, computers and other large industrial systems while generating electricity. Scientists have linked platinum nanoparticles with algae proteins, commandeering photosynthesis to produce hydrogen -- research that will help scientists harvest light with solar fuels. Thanks to scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the billions

172

Toughened Graphite Electrode for High Heat Electric Arc ...  

Energy Innovation Portal Technologies. ... To reduce the failure rate, ... Applications and Industries. Electric arc furnace steel manufacturing;

173

Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State-wide, electricity demand per capita has remained essentially flat partially due to energy efficiency incentives.

Miller, N.L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

The influence of changes in water content on the electrical resistivity of a natural unsaturated loess  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-destructive methods of measuring water content in soils have been extensively developed in the last decades, especially in soil science. Among these methods, the measurements based on the electrical resistivity are simple and reliable thanks to the clear relationship between the water content and the electrical resistivity of soils. In this work, a new electrical resistivity probe was developed to monitor the change in local water content in the triaxial apparatus. The probe is composed of two-pair of electrodes, and an electrical current is induced through the soil at the vicinity of the contact between the probe and the specimen. Some experimental data on the changes in resistivity with the degree of saturation were obtained in specimens of a natural unsaturated loess from Northern France. Two theoretical models of resistivity were also used to analyze the obtained data. Results are finally discussed with respect to the loess's water retention properties.

Munoz-Castelblanco, Jos; Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu Jun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Unknown Bridge Foundation Depth Determination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unknown bridge foundations pose a significant safety risk due to stream scour and erosion. Records from older structures may be non-existent, incomplete, or incorrect. Nondestructive and inexpensive geophysical methods have been identified as suitable to investigate unknown bridge foundations. The objective of the present study is to apply advanced 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) in order to identify depth of unknown bridge foundations. A survey procedure is carried out in mixed terrain water and land environments with rough topography. A conventional resistivity survey procedure is used with the electrodes installed on the stream banks. However, some electrodes must be adapted for underwater use. Tests were conducted in one laboratory experimentation and at five field experimentations located at three roadway bridges, a geotechnical test site, and a railway bridge. The first experimentation was at the bridges with the smallest foundations, later working up in size to larger drilled shafts and spread footings. Both known to unknown foundations were investigated. The geotechnical test site is used as an experimental site for 2D and 3D ERI. The data acquisition is carried out along 2D profile with a linear array in the dipole-dipole configuration. The data collections have been carried out using electrodes deployed directly across smaller foundations. Electrodes are deployed in proximity to larger foundations to image them from the side. The 2D ERI can detect the presence of a bridge foundation but is unable to resolve its precise shape and depth. Increasing the spatial extent of the foundation permits better image of its shape and depth. Using electrode < 1 m to detect a slender foundation < 1 m in diameter is not feasible. The 2D ERI method that has been widely used for land surface surveys presently can be adapted effectively in water-covered environments. The method is the most appropriate geophysical method for determination of unknown bridge foundations. Fully 3D ERI method at bridge sites is labor intensive, time consuming, and does not add enough value over 2D ERI to make it worthwhile.

Arjwech, Rungroj

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Numerical investigation of electric heating impacts on solid/liquid glass flow patterns.  

SciTech Connect

A typical glass furnace consists of a combustion space and a melter. Intense heat is generated from the combustion of fuel and air/oxygen in the combustion space. This heat is transferred mainly by radiation to the melter in order to melt sand and cullet (scrap glass) eventually creating glass products. Many furnaces use electric boosters to enhance glass melting and increase productivity. The coupled electric/combustion heat transfer patterns are key to the glass making processes. The understanding of the processes can lead to the improvement of glass quality and furnace efficiency. The effects of electrical boosting on the flow patterns and heat transfer in a glass melter are investigated using a multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code with addition of an electrical boosting model. The results indicate that the locations and spacing of the electrodes have large impacts on the velocity and temperature distributions in the glass melter. With the same total heat input, the batch shape (which is determined by the overall heat transfer and the batch melting rate) is kept almost the same. This indicates that electric boosting can be used to replace part of heat by combustion. Therefore, temperature is lower in the combustion space and the life of the furnace can be prolonged. The electric booster can also be used to increase productivity without increasing the furnace size.

Chang, S. L.; Zhou, C. Q.; Golchert, B.

2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

177

The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence of residential solar water heating on electric utility demand. The electric demand of solar water hears was found to be approximately 0.39 kW lass than conventional electric water heaters during the late late afternoon, early evening period in the summer months when the Austin utility experiences its peak demand. The annual load factor would be only very slightly reduced if there were a major penetration of solar water heaters in the all electric housing sector. Thus solar water heating represents beneficial load management for utilities experiencing summer peaks.

Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI); Bhatia, Garima (Bangalore, IN)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

179

Evaluation of Heat Stress and Strain in Electric Utility Workers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Body Heat Content SR Solar Radiation T a Ambient temperatureB as in the WBGT), and Solar Radiation (SR), again directly

Brown, Eric Nicholas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Heating fuel choice shows electricity and natural gas roughly ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Farming Out Heat and Electricity through Biopower | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Energy State Energy Program Maas' biodigester: Creates electricity from the biogas produced through anaerobic digestion. Recycles dried, fibrous solids from the process...

182

Anomalous resistance in high-frequency heating of tokamak plasma  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that induced scattering of electromagnetic waves by ions in a plasma with a longitudinal current can lead to the appearance of an appreciable anomalous resistance.

Parail, V.V.

1976-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

183

Field Measurements of Heating System Efficiency in Nine Electrically-Heated Manufactured Homes.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency performed on nine manufactured homes sited in the Pacific Northwest. The testing procedure collects real-time data on heating system energy use and heating zone temperatures, allowing direct calculation of heating system efficiency.

Davis, Bob; Siegel, J.; Palmiter, L.; Baylon, D.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Climate, Extreme Heat, and Electricity Demand in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the twenty-first century, the frequency of extreme-heat events for major cities in heavily air conditioned California is projected to increase rapidly. Extreme heat is defined here as the temperature threshold for the 90th-percentile ...

Norman L. Miller; Katharine Hayhoe; Jiming Jin; Maximilian Auffhammer

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Influence of Heat Treatment on Corrosion and Wear Resistances of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both the increasing of the heating up time and the prolonging of the temperature ... with FRP Facesheets and Nanoclay-wood Flour Modified Polyurethane Foam.

186

Table A31. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" " by Value of Shipment Categories, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991" " (Continued)" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)",,,,"Value of Shipments and Receipts(b)" ,,,," (million dollars)" ,,,"-","-","-","-","-","-","RSE" "SIC"," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",500,"Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Total","Under 20","20-49","50-99","100-249","250-499","and Over","Factors"

187

Table A45. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" " by Enclosed Floorspace, Percent Conditioned Floorspace, and Presence of Computer" " Controls for Building Environment, 1991" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" ,,"Presence of Computer Controls" ,," for Buildings Environment",,"RSE" "Enclosed Floorspace and"," ","--------------","--------------","Row" "Percent Conditioned Floorspace","Total","Present","Not Present","Factors" " "," " "RSE Column Factors:",0.8,1.3,0.9 "ALL SQUARE FEET CATEGORIES" "Approximate Conditioned Floorspace"

188

Resistivity analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

According to an example embodiment of the present invention a semiconductor die having a resistive electrical connection is analyzed. Heat is directed to the die as the die is undergoing a state-changing operation to cause a failure due to suspect circuitry. The die is monitored, and a circuit path that electrically changes in response to the heat is detected and used to detect that a particular portion therein of the circuit is resistive. In this manner, the detection and localization of a semiconductor die defect that includes a resistive portion of a circuit path is enhanced.

Bruce, Michael R. (Austin, TX); Bruce, Victoria J. (Austin, TX); Ring, Rosalinda M. (Austin, TX); Cole, Edward Jr. I. (Albuquerque, NM); Hawkins, Charles F. (Albuquerque, NM); Tangyungong, Paiboon (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

189

Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

190

Optimized design of a low-resistance electrical conductor for the multimegahertz range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a design for a conductive wire composed of several mutually insulated coaxial conducting shells. With the help of numerical optimization, it is possible to obtain electrical resistances significantly lower than ...

Kurs, Andre B.

191

Method for restoring the resistance of indium oxide semiconductors after heating while in sealed structures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for counteracting increases in resistivity encountered when Indium Oxide resistive layers are subjected to high temperature annealing steps during semiconductor device fabrication. The method utilizes a recovery annealing step which returns the Indium Oxide layer to its original resistivity after a high temperature annealing step has caused the resistivity to increase. The recovery anneal comprises heating the resistive layer to a temperature between 100 C and 300 C for a period of time that depends on the annealing temperature. The recovery is observed even when the Indium Oxide layer is sealed under a dielectric layer. 1 fig.

Seager, C.H.; Evans, J.T. Jr.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

192

Method for restoring the resistance of indium oxide semiconductors after heating while in sealed structures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for counteracting increases in resistivity encountered when Indium Oxide resistive layers are subjected to high temperature annealing steps during semiconductor device fabrication. The method utilizes a recovery annealing step which returns the Indium Oxide layer to its original resistivity after a high temperature annealing step has caused the resistivity to increase. The recovery anneal comprises heating the resistive layer to a temperature between 100.degree. C. and 300.degree. C. for a period of time that depends on the annealing temperature. The recovery is observed even when the Indium Oxide layer is sealed under a dielectric layer.

Seager, Carleton H. (1304 Onava Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Evans, Jr., Joseph Tate (13609 Verbena Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Development of an electrical model of a resistive micromegas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developped a model to simulate the behavior of a resistive micromegas (MICROMEsh GAseous Structure) detector to a discharge using an electronic software (Virtuoso).

Samarati, J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-acceptable refrigerants. Whether involving design of specific new products or refriger- ants to which the entire industryElectric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

195

In Situ Dilatometry and Electrical Resistivity Measurements of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Difference between Life and Death of Bacterium against Microwave Power under ... Sintering and Plastic Deformation of Ceramics under Pulsed Electric Current.

196

Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

more than a decade, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration EIA's new forecast shows household electricity use is expected to drop 1.1 percent this year and then...

197

Resistances for heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we calculate the interfacial resistances to heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture. We use two methods, the direct calculation from the actual non-equilibrium solution and integral relations, derived earlier. We verify, that integral relations, being a relatively faster and cheaper method, indeed gives the same results as the direct processing of a non-equilibrium solution. Furthermore we compare the absolute values of the interfacial resistances with the ones obtained from kinetic theory. Matching the diagonal resistances for the binary mixture we find that kinetic theory underestimates the cross coefficients. The heat of transfer is as a consequence correspondingly larger.

Kirill Glavatskiy; Dick Bedeaux

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

198

Resistances for heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we calculate the interfacial resistances to heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture. We use two methods, the direct calculation from the actual non-equilibrium solution and integral relations, derived earlier. We verify, that integral relations, being a relatively faster and cheaper method, indeed gives the same results as the direct processing of a non-equilibrium solution. Furthermore we compare the absolute values of the interfacial resistances with the ones obtained from kinetic theory. Matching the diagonal resistances for the binary mixture we find that kinetic theory underestimates the cross coefficients. The heat of transfer is as a consequence correspondingly larger.

Glavatskiy, Kirill

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Estimating Thematic Similarity of Scholarly Papers with Their Resistance Distance in an Electric Network Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate resistance distances between papers in a nearly bipartite citation network of 492 papers and the sources cited by them. We validate that this is a realistic measure of thematic distance if each citation link has an electric resistance equal to the geometric mean of the number of the paper's references and the citation number of the cited source.

Havemann, Frank; Glser, Jochen; Struck, Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Electric coheating experiment to determine the heat-loss coefficient of a double-envelope house  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An electric coheating experiment was conducted on a double-envelope house in Arvada, Colorado, to determine the total heat loss coefficient (UA) of the double-shelled structure, as well as the heat loss coefficients of the inner and outer shells. Electric coheating is fairly well established as an experimental method for determining the total heat loss coefficient in conventional residential buildings. However, special problems are introduced with passive and double-envelope buildings. A new methodology was developed to meet these problems. That methodology and the results of the experimental investigation are presented and discussed.

Ortega, J. K.E.; Anderson, J. V.; Connolly, J. M.; Bingham, C. E.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Correlation between the extraordinary Hall constant and electrical resistivity minima in Co-rich metallic glasses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Hall effect has been studied in some Co-rich ferromagnetic metallic glasses which show resistivity (rho) minima at low temperatures. It is found that the extraordinary Hall constant (R-s) shows a corresponding minimum. The scaling relation R(s)similar torho(n) holds with nsimilar or equal to2 showing the dominance of quantum transport in these high-resistive disordered systems. The temperature dependences of magnetization and electrical resistivity are also interpreted in terms of existing theories.

Majumdar, AK; Khatua, PK; Rathnayaka, KDD; Naugle, Donald G.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Performance improvement of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak electric auxiliary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design and construction of a heat pump system suitable for incorporating in a space solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility are described. The performance of the system is evaluated. The refrigerating capacity, heating capacity and compressor horsepower for a heat pump system using a piston type compressor are first determined. The heat pump design is also matched with the existing University of Toledo solar house heating system. The refrigerant is Freon-12 working between a condensing temperature of up to 172/sup 0/F and evaporator temperature between 0/sup 0/F and 75/sup 0/F. The heat pump is then installed. Performance indices for the heat pump and the heating system in general are defined and generated by the on-line computer monitoring system for the 1979/80 heating season operation. Monthly and seasonal indices such as heat pump coefficient of performance, collector efficiency, percent of heating load supplied by solar energy and individual components efficiencies in general are recorded. The data collected is then analyzed and compared with previously collected data. The improvement in the performance resulting from the addition of a piston type compressor with an external motor belt drive is then evaluated. Data collected points to the potentially improved operating performance of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility. Data shows that the seasonal percent of space heating load supplied by solar is 60% and the seasonal percent cost of space heating load supplied by solar is 82% with a solar collection coefficient of performance of 4.6. Data also indicates that such a system would pay for itself in 14 years when used in Northwest Ohio.

Eltimsahy, A.H.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

THE DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE USE OF GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION AND NONELECTRIC HEATING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resources for electric power generation. i. Plant size ii.SYSTEMS Electric Power Generation Systems NonelectricFLUIDS FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION AND NONELECTRIC HEATING

Apps, J.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ES 2. CA nursing home electricity pattern: July weekday lowJanuary and July weekday electricity and total heat (space +CA school weekday total electricity (inclusive of cooling)

Stadler, Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution. 6 figs.

Daily, W.D.; Laine, D.L.; Laine, E.F.

1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

206

Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner or between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid through the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Laine, Daren L. (San Anotonio, TX); Laine, Edwin F. (Penn Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Laine, Daren L. (San Antonio, TX); Laine, Edwin F. (Alamo, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control  

SciTech Connect

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

209

Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C were found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.

Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Hsu, Julia [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Cost Estimates of Electricity from a TPV Residential Heating System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system was built using a 12 to 20 kWth methane burner which should be integrated into a conventional residential heating system. The TPV system is cylindrical in shape and consists of a selective Yb2O3 emitter

Gnther Palfinger; Bernd Bitnar; Wilhelm Durisch; Jean?Claude Mayor; Detlev Grtzmacher; Jens Gobrecht

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Co-generation of electricity and heat from biogas  

SciTech Connect

Biogas powered co-generation of electricity and hot water is being documented in a full scale demonstration with a 25 kW capacity system. The performance characteristics and effects of operating on biogas for 1400 hours are presented in this paper.

Koelsch, R.K.; Cummings, R.J.; Harrison, C.E.; Jewell, W.J.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Modeling Fluid Flow and Electrical Resistivity in Fractured Geothermal Reservoir Rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phase change of pore fluid (boiling/condensing) in rock cores under conditions representative of geothermal reservoirs results in alterations of the electrical resistivity of the samples. In fractured samples, phase change can result in resistivity changes that are more than an order of magnitude greater than those measured in intact samples. These results suggest that electrical resistivity monitoring may provide a useful tool for monitoring the movement of water and steam within fractured geothermal reservoirs. We measured the electrical resistivity of cores of welded tuff containing fractures of various geometries to investigate the resistivity contrast caused by active boiling and to determine the effects of variable fracture dimensions and surface area on water extraction. We then used the Nonisothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport model (NUFT) (Nitao, 1998) to simulate the propagation of boiling fronts through the samples. The simulated saturation profiles combined with previously reported measurements of resistivity-saturation curves allow us to estimate the evolution of the sample resistivity as the boiling front propagates into the rock matrix. These simulations provide qualitative agreement with experimental measurements suggesting that our modeling approach may be used to estimate resistivity changes induced by boiling in more complex systems.

Detwiler, R L; Roberts, J J; Ralph, W; Bonner, B P

2003-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

213

Electrical Resistivity as an Indicator of Saturation in Fractured Geothermal Reservoir Rocks: Experimental Data and Modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electrical resistivity of rock cores under conditions representative of geothermal reservoirs is strongly influenced by the state and phase (liquid/vapor) of the pore fluid. In fractured samples, phase change (vaporization/condensation) can result in resistivity changes that are more than an order of magnitude greater than those measured in intact samples. These results suggest that electrical resistivity monitoring of geothermal reservoirs may provide a useful tool for remotely detecting the movement of water and steam within fractures, the development and evolution of fracture systems and the formation of steam caps. We measured the electrical resistivity of cores of welded tuff containing fractures of various geometries to investigate the resistivity contrast caused by active boiling and to determine the effects of variable fracture dimensions and surface area on water extraction from the matrix. We then used the Nonisothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport model (NUFT) (Nitao, 1998) to simulate the propagation of boiling fronts through the samples. The simulated saturation profiles combined with previously reported measurements of resistivity-saturation curves allow us to estimate the evolution of the sample resistivity as the boiling front propagates into the rock matrix. These simulations provide qualitative agreement with experimental measurements suggesting that our modeling approach may be used to estimate resistivity changes induced by boiling in more complex systems.

Detwiler, R L; Roberts, J J

2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

214

Electrical resistivity imaging of conductive plume dilution in fractured rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was injected into an injection well for 34 days to dilute a pre-existing potassium chloride (KCl) plume was conducted between the injection well and each of seven surrounding monitoring wells. Polar plots of the injection-well resistivity data in the direction of each monitoring well delineate specific locations where

Binley, Andrew

215

Heating of solid earthen material, measuring moisture and resistivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a method of treating solid earthen material having volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile contaminants. Six electrodes are inserted into a region of earthen material to be treated in a substantially equilateral hexagonal arrangement. Six phases of voltages are applied to corresponding electrodes. The voltages are adjusted within a first range of voltages to create multiple current paths between pairs of the electrodes. The current paths are evenly distributed throughout the region defined by the electrodes and therefore uniformly heat the region. The region of earthen material is heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants by promoting microbial action. This temperature is less than a melting temperature of the earthen material. 13 figs.

Heath, W.O.; Richardson, R.L.; Goheen, S.C.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

216

Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (1): Flow Resistance and Energy Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Given the schematic diagram of TDHT system, introducing the definition of equivalent fouling roughness height, and using the Niklaus semi-rational resistance coefficient formula in rough region, the calculation methods of the sewage flow resistance are explained. Through the resistance contrastive analysis of sewage and pure mediate water, the results indicate that the mediate water sub-system is the primary design point of the TDHT system. The economical ratio of flux and velocity is determined by optimization analysis of investment and operating cost in the technical feasible range. The paper will provide reference for pipe design and pump selection of urban sewage cool or heat source applied delivery heat transfer methods.

Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Huang, L.; Sun, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Kinetics of the direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Direct electric heating by passing an electrical current directly through a bed of adsorbent may prove to be an efficient means of regenerating activated charcoal in continuous and batch adsorption processes. Obvious advantages of this type of regeneration are its almost complete lack of inertia, which makes it possible to reduce the number and dimensions of the adsorbers, and its highly efficient use of energy due to the small number of steps in the conversion of the energy, as well as the reduction of heat losses involved in warming the structure and making up for losses to the surroundings. The authors consider the kinetics of direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal not containing adsorbed substances.

Marfin, M.N.; Shumyatskii, Yu.I.

1987-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

218

Tunable single-photon heat conduction in electrical circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We build on the study of single-photon heat conduction in electronic circuits taking into account the back-action of the superconductor--insulator--normal-metal thermometers. In addition, we show that placing capacitors, resistors, and superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) into a microwave cavity can severely distort the spatial current profile which, in general, should be accounted for in circuit design. The introduction of SQUIDs also allows for in situ tuning of the photonic power transfer which could be utilized in experiments on superconducting quantum bits.

P. J. Jones; J. A. M. Huhtamki; M. Partanen; K. Y. Tan; M. Mttnen

2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

219

Table A15. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" " by Value of Shipment Categories, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" ,,,," Value of Shipments and Receipts(b)" ,,,," "," (million dollars)" ,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",500,"Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Total","Under 20","20-49","50-99","100-249","250-499","and Over","Factors" ,"RSE Column Factors:",0.6,1.3,1,1,0.9,1.2,1.2

220

Table A41. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A41. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity" A41. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity" " Generation by Census Region, Industry Group, Selected Industries, and Type of" " Energy Management Program, 1991" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" ,,," Census Region",,,,"RSE" "SIC","Industry Groups",," -------------------------------------------",,,,"Row" "Code(a)","and Industry","Total","Northeast","Midwest","South","West","Factors" ,"RSE Column Factors:",0.7,1.3,1,0.9,1.2 "20-39","ALL INDUSTRY GROUPS" ,"Participation in One or More of the Following Types of Programs",10743,1150,2819,5309,1464,2.6,,,"/WIR{D}~"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Table A50. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generatio  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A50. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" A50. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" " by Census Region, Industry Group, Selected Industries, and Type of" " Energy-Management Program, 1994" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" ,,,," Census Region",,,"RSE" "SIC",,,,,,,"Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Total","Northeast","Midwest","South","West","Factors" ,"RSE Column Factors:",0.7,1.2,1.1,0.9,1.2 "20-39","ALL INDUSTRY GROUPS" ,"Participation in One or More of the Following Types of Programs",12605,1209,3303,6386,1706,2.9

222

Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling offset storage natural gas combustion solar thermalnatural gas-fired genset, solar thermal collectors, an absorption chiller and both electrical and heat storage.

Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Combined Operation of Solar Energy Source Heat Pump, Low-vale Electricity and Floor Radiant System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today energy sources are decreasing and saving energy conservation becomes more important. Therefore, it becomes an important investigative direction how to use reproducible energy sources in the HVAC field. The feasibility and necessity of using solar energy, low-vale electricity as heat sources in a floor radiant system are analyzed. This paper presents a new heat pump system and discusses its operational modes in winter.

Liu, G.; Guo, Z.; Hu, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Measurement of electrical properties of electrode materials for the bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single gap (gas gap 2 mm) bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) modules of various sizes from 10 cm \\times 10 cm to 1 m \\times 1 m have been fabricated, characterized and optimized for efficiency and time resolution. Thin layers of different grades of silicone compound are applied to the inner electrode surfaces to make them smooth and also to reduce the surface resistivity. In the silicone coated RPCs an efficiency > 90% and time resolution \\sim 2 ns (FWHM) have been obtained for both the streamer and the avalanche mode of operation. Before fabrication of detectors the electrical properties such as bulk resistivity and surface resistivity of the electrode materials are measured carefully. Effectiveness of different silicone coating in modifying the surface resistivity was evaluated by an instrument developed for monitoring the I-V curve of a high resistive surface. The results indicate definite correlation of the detector efficiency for the atmospheric muons and the RPC noise rates with the surface resistiv...

Meghna, K K; Biswas, S; Bhattacharya, S; Bose, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Das, G; Marick, C; Saha, S; Viyogi, Y P

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Heat treatment of NiCrFe alloy to optimize resistance to intergrannular stress corrosion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of producing a NiCrFe alloy having a high resistance to stress corrosion cracking comprising heating a NiCrFe alloy to a temperature sufficient to enable the carbon present in the alloy body in the form of carbide deposits to enter into solution, rapidly cool the alloy body, and heat the cooled body to a temperature between 1100.degree. to 1500.degree. F. for about 1 to 30 hours.

Steeves, Arthur F. (Schenectady, NY); Bibb, Albert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Table A6. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity, and Heat Content ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Fossil Fuels 6,7: ... 7 The fossil-fuels heat rate is used as the thermal conversion factor for ... approximate the quantity of fossil fuels replaced by these ...

227

Fracture Surface Area Effects on Fluid Extraction and the Electrical Resistivity of Geothermal Reservoir Rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of the electrical resistivity of fractured analogue geothermal reservoir rocks were performed to investigate the resistivity contrast caused by active boiling and to determine the effects of variable fracture dimensions and surface area on water extraction. Experiments were performed at confining pressures up to 10 h4Pa (100 bars) and temperatures to 170 C. Fractured samples show a larger resistivity change at the onset of boiling than intact samples. Monitoring the resistivity of fractured samples as they equilibrate to imposed pressure and temperature conditions provides an estimate of fluid migration into and out of the matrix. Measurements presented are an important step toward using field electrical methods to quantitatively search for fractures, infer saturation, and track fluid migration in geothermal reservoirs.

Roberts, J J; Detwiler, R L; Ralph, W; Bonner, B

2002-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

228

Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Using Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT): Sensitivity Studies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Using Electrical Resistance Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Using Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT): Sensitivity Studies Robin L. Newmark (newmark@llnl.gov, 925-423-3644) Abelardo L. Ramirez (ramirez3@llnl.gov; 925-422-6909) William D. Daily (daily1@llnl.gov; 925-422-8623) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory P.O. Box 808 Livermore, Ca. 94550 Abstract If geologic formations are used to sequester carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), monitoring the CO 2 injection will be required to confirm the performance of the reservoir system, assess leaks and flow paths, and understand the geophysical and geochemical interactions between the CO 2 and the geologic minerals and fluids. Electrical methods are well suited for monitoring processes involving fluids, as electrical properties are sensitive to the

229

Method for producing low-resistivity electrical contacts for high-temperature superconducting ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Production of low-resistivity electrical contacts for high-temperature superconducting ceramics capable of supporting large current densities by plasma spraying of a noble metal powder onto a chosen surface area of the ceramic and electrically contacting a metal conductor to the metallic pad formed thereby by either soldering or by use of a conducting epoxy is described. Surface resistivities in the 10{sup {minus}8} {Omega}-cm{sup 2} range have been measured at 76 K. Most experimental variables were found to have little effect on the properties of the contacts produced. 2 tabs.

Katz, J.D.; Willis, J.O.; Maley, M.P.; Castro, R.G.

1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

230

Electrical heating of soils using high efficiency electrode patterns and power phases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Powerline-frequency electrical (joule) heating of soils using a high efficiency electrode configuration and power phase arrangement. The electrode configuration consists of several heating or current injection electrodes around the periphery of a volume of soil to be heated, all electrodes being connected to one phase of a multi-phase or a single-phase power system, and a return or extraction electrode or electrodes located inside the volume to be heated being connected to the remaining phases of the multi-phase power system or to the neutral side of the single-phase power source. This electrode configuration and power phase arrangement can be utilized anywhere where powerline frequency soil heating is applicable and thus has many potential uses including removal of volatile organic compounds such as gasoline and tricholorethylene (TCE) from contaminated areas.

Buettner, Harley M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Solar energy for heat and electricity: the potential for mitigating climate change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar energy for heat and electricity: the potential for mitigating climate change Dr N.J. EkiNs-DaukEs Executive summary Why are we interested in using solar energy? Sunlight provides the energy source. In developing countries, solar technologies are already in use to enhance the standard of living

232

Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Gebby, Brian P. (Hazel Park, MI)

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

233

Highly-Efficient Thermoelectronic Conversion of Solar Energy and Heat into Electric Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric power may, in principle, be generated in a highly efficient manner from heat created by focused solar irradiation, chemical combustion, or nuclear decay by means of thermionic energy conversion. As the conversion efficiency of the thermionic process tends to be degraded by electron space charges, the efficiencies of thermionic generators have amounted to only a fraction of those fundamentally possible. We show that this space-charge problem can be resolved by shaping the electric potential distribution of the converter such that the static electron space-charge clouds are transformed into an output current. Although the technical development of practical generators will require further substantial efforts, we conclude that a highly efficient transformation of heat to electric power may well be achieved.

Meir, S; Geballe, T H; Mannhart, J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography applied to cave sustainability (Barbados) and groundwater exploration (Saint Lucia)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we apply the method of two-dimensional time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (2D time-lapse ERT) for two different problems. In the first problem, we monitor the structural stability of the roof of the ...

Agramakova, Yulia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Characterization and monitoring of subsurface processes using parallel computing and electrical resistivity imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This newsletter discusses recent advancement in subsurface resistivity characterization and monitoring capabilities. The BC Cribs field desiccation treatability test resistivity monitoring data is use an example to demonstrate near-real time 3D subsurface imaging capabilities. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a method of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution of the subsurface. An ERT data collection system consists of an array of electrodes, deployed on the ground surface or within boreholes, that are connected to a control unit which can access each electrode independently (Figure 1). A single measurement is collected by injecting current across a pair of current injection electrodes (source and sink), and measuring the resulting potential generated across a pair of potential measurement electrodes (positive and negative). An ERT data set is generated by collecting many such measurements using strategically selected current and potential electrode pairs. This data set is then processed using an inversion algorithm, which reconstructs an estimate (or image) of the electrical conductivity (i.e. the inverse of resistivity) distribution that gave rise to the measured data.

Johnson, Timothy C.; Truex, Michael J.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Marble, Justin

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Field Measurements of Heating Efficiency of Electric Forced-Air Furnaces in Six Manufactured Homes.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency for six manufactured homes in the Pacific Northwest heated with electric forced-air systems. This is the first in a series of regional and national efforts to measure in detail the heating efficiency of manufactured homes. Only six homes were included in this study because of budgetary constraints; therefore this is not a representative sample. These investigations do provide some useful information on the heating efficiency of these homes. Useful comparisons can be drawn between these study homes and site-built heating efficiencies measured with a similar protocol. The protocol used to test these homes is very similar to another Ecotope protocol used in the study conducted in 1992 and 1993 for the Bonneville Power Administration to test the heating efficiency of 24 homes. This protocol combined real-time power measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during co-heat periods. Accessory data such as house and duct tightness measurements and tracer gas measurements were used to describe these homes and their heating system efficiency. Ensuring that manufactured housing is constructed in an energy and resource efficient manner is of increasing concern to manufactured home builders and consumers. No comparable work has been done to measure the heating system efficiency of MCS manufactured homes, although some co-heat tests have been performed on manufactured homes heated with natural gas to validate HUD thermal standards. It is expected that later in 1994 more research of this kind will be conducted, and perhaps a less costly and less time-consuming method for testing efficiencies will be develops.

Davis, Bob; Palmiter, Larry S.; Siegel, Jeff

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

237

Advanced Heat Pump Water Heating Technology: Testing Commercial and Residential Systems in the Laboratory and Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) provide electric water heating at a much greater overall efficiency than conventional electric resistance systems. In the residential market, approximately half of all water heaters are electric resistance; these systems can be replaced by HPWHs in most applications with expected savings of 30%60%. In commercial applications, most systems presently use natural gas or another fuel in direct combustion. Emerging HPWH systems are now able to provide water heating ...

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

238

Electric fields in solar magnetic structures due to gradient driven instabilities: heating and acceleration of particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electrostatic instabilities driven by the gradients of the density, temperature and magnetic field, are discussed in their application to solar magnetic structures. Strongly growing modes are found for some typical plasma parameters. These instabilities i) imply the presence of electric fields that can accelerate the plasma particles in both perpendicular and parallel directions with respect to the magnetic field vector, and ii) can stochastically heat ions. The perpendicular acceleration is to the leading order determined by the $\\bmath{E}\\times \\bmath{B}$-drift acting equally on both ions and electrons, while the parallel acceleration is most effective on electrons. The experimentally confirmed stochastic heating is shown to act mainly in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field vector and acts stronger on heavier ions. The energy release rate and heating may exceed for several orders of magnitude the value accepted as necessary for a self-sustained heating in the solar corona. The energy sourc...

Vranjes, J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Electrical resistivity for detecting subsurface non-aqueous phase liquids: A progress report  

SciTech Connect

Soils and groundwater have been contaminated by hazardous substances at many places in the United States and many other countries. The contaminants are commonly either petroleum products or industrial solvents with very low solubility in water. These contaminants are usually called non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The cost of cleaning up the affected sites in the United States is estimated to be of the order of 100 billion dollars. In spite of the expenditure of several billion dollars during the last 15 years, to date, very few, if any major contaminated site has been restored. The presence of NAPL pools in the subsurface is believed to be the main cause for the failure of previous cleanup activities. Due to their relatively low water solubility, and depending on their volume, it takes tens or even hundreds of years to deplete the NAPL sources if they are not removed from the subsurface. The intrinsic electrical resistivity of most NAPLs is typically in the range of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 12}{Omega}-m, which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of groundwater containing dissolved solids (usually in the range of a few {Omega}-m to a few thousand {Omega}-m). Although a dry soil is very resistive, the electrical resistivity of a wet soil is on the order of 100 {Omega}-m and is dependent on the extent of water saturation. For a given soil, the electrical resistivity increases with decrease of water saturation. Therefore, if part of the pore water is replaced by a NAPL, the electrical resistivity will increase. At many NAPL sites, both the vadose and phreatic zones can be partially occupied by NAPL pools. It is the great contrast in electrical resistivity between the NAPLs and groundwater that may render the method to be effective in detecting subsurface NAPLs at contaminated sites. The following experiments were conducted to investigate the change of the electrical resistivity of porous media when diesel fuel (NAPL) replaces part of the water.

Lee, K.H.; Shan, C.; Javandel, I.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Resistive wall heating due to image current on the beam chamber for a superconducting undulator.  

SciTech Connect

The image-current heating on the resistive beam chamber of a superconducting undulator (SCU) was calculated based on the normal and anomalous skin effects. Using the bulk resistivity of copper for the beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated for the residual resistivity ratios (RRRs) of unity at room temperature to 100 K at a cryogenic temperature as the reference. Then, using the resistivity of the specific aluminum alloy 6053-T5, which will be used for the SCU beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated. An electron beam stored in a storage ring induces an image current on the inner conducting wall, mainly within a skin depth, of the beam chamber. The image current, with opposite charge to the electron beam, travels along the chamber wall in the same direction as the electron beam. The average current in the storage ring consists of a number of bunches. When the pattern of the bunched beam is repeated according to the rf frequency, the beam current may be expressed in terms of a Fourier series. The time structure of the image current is assumed to be the same as that of the beam current. For a given resistivity of the chamber inner wall, the application ofthe normal or anomalous skin effect will depend on the harmonic numbers of the Fourier series of the beam current and the temperature of the chamber. For a round beam chamber with a ratius r, much larger than the beam size, one can assume that the image current density as well as the density square, may be uniform around the perimeter 2{pi}r. For the SCU beam chamber, which has a relatively narrow vertical gap compared to the width, the effective perimeter was estimated since the heat load should be proportional to the inverse of the perimeter.

Kim, S. H. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS))

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of a closed-cycle process for the conversion of heat into electrical energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

into electrical energy by means of a distiller and an electrochemical cell. A. Caratia , M. Marinoa , D. Brogiolib) Abstract We analyse a device aimed at the conversion of heat into electrical energy, based on a closed with different concentrations can be tapped and converted into electrical energy, e.g. by means

Carati, Andrea

242

Electricity displacement by wood used for space heating in PNWRES (Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey) (1983) households  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates the amount of electricity for residential space heating displaced by the use of wood in a sample of single-family households that completed the 1983 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey. Using electricity bills and daily weather data from the period of July 1981 to July 1982, it was determined that the average household used 21,800 kWh per year, normalized with respect to weather. If no households had used any wood, electricity use would have increased 9%, to 23,700 kWh; space heating electricity use would also have increased, by 21%, to 47% of total electricity use. In the unlikely event that all households had used a great deal of wood for space heating, electricity use could have dropped by 23.5% from the average use, to 16,700 kWh; space heating electricity use would have dropped by 56%, to 24% of total electricity use. Indications concerning future trends regarding the displacement of electricity by wood use are mixed. On one hand, continuing to weatherize homes in the Pacific Northwest may result in less wood use as households find using electricity more economical. On the other hand, historical trends in replacement decisions regarding old space heating systems show a decided preference for wood. 11 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

White, D.L.; Tonn, B.E.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Electric field noise above surfaces: a model for heating rate scaling law in ion traps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a model for the scaling laws of the electric field noise spectral density as a function of the distance, $d$, above a conducting surface. Our analytical approach models the patch potentials by introducing a correlation length, $\\zeta$, of the electric potential on the surface. The predicted scaling laws are in excellent agreement with two different classes of experiments (cold trapped ions and cantilevers), that span at least four orders of magnitude of $d$. According to this model, heating rate in miniature ion traps could be greatly reduced by proper material engineering.

Dubessy, Romain; Guidoni, Luca

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Electric field noise above surfaces: a model for heating rate scaling law in ion traps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a model for the scaling laws of the electric field noise spectral density as a function of the distance, $d$, above a conducting surface. Our analytical approach models the patch potentials by introducing a correlation length, $\\zeta$, of the electric potential on the surface. The predicted scaling laws are in excellent agreement with two different classes of experiments (cold trapped ions and cantilevers), that span at least four orders of magnitude of $d$. According to this model, heating rate in miniature ion traps could be greatly reduced by proper material engineering.

Romain Dubessy; Thomas Coudreau; Luca Guidoni

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

245

Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Maximum Rebate Ground-Source Heat Pump: 5 ton maximum Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Clothes Washer: $25 Freezer/Refrigerator: $25 Dishwasher: $25 Air-Source Heat Pump: $500 Ground-Source Heat Pump: $200 per ton Electric Resistant Heating Products: $10 per kW Mini-Split Heat Pumps: $75 Central A/C or Heat Pump Tune-Up: $25 Provider Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative (MVEC) offers financial incentives to

246

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highly industrialized areas pose challenges for surface electrical resistivity characterization due to metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically more conductive than the desired targets and will mask the deeper subsurface information. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes in the area near the target. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes to electrically monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank with both synthetic examples and a field demonstration. The synthetic examples place a simple target of varying electrical properties beneath a very low resistivity layer. The layer is meant to replicate the effects of infrastructure. Both surface and long electrodes are tested on the synthetic domain. The leak demonstration for the field experiment is simulated by injecting a high conductivity fluid in a perforated well within the S tank farm at Hanford, and the resistivity measurements are made before and after the leak test. All data are processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure is applied in both the time and space domains. The synthetic test case shows that the long electrode ERM could detect relative changes in resistivity that are commensurate with the differing target properties. The surface electrodes, on the other hand, had a more difficult time matching the original target's footprint. The field results shows a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site after cessation of the injections. The time lapsed regularization parameter has a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post injection datasets, but the interpretation of the target is consistent across all values of the parameter. The long electrode ERM method may provide a tool for near real-time monitoring of leaking underground storage tanks.

MYERS DA; RUCKER DF; FINK JB; LOKE MH

2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

247

Table A52. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generatio  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Employment Size" 2. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Employment Size" " Categories and Presence of General Technologies and Cogeneration Technologies, 1994" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" ,,,,"Employment Size(a)" ,,,,,,,,"RSE" ,,,,,,,"1000 and","Row" "General/Cogeneration Technologies","Total","Under 50","50-99","100-249","250-499","500-999","Over","Factors" "RSE Column Factors:",0.5,2,2.1,1,0.7,0.7,0.9 "One or More General Technologies Present",14601,387,781,2054,2728,3189,5462,3.1 " Computer Control of Building Environment (b)",5079,64,116,510,802,1227,2361,5

248

Evaluation of a sulfur oxide chemical heat storage process for a steam solar electric plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate technically feasible process configurations for the use of the sulfur oxide system, 2 SO/sub 3/ reversible 2 SO/sub 2/ + O/sub 2/, in energy storage. The storage system is coupled with a conventional steam-cycle power plant. Heat for both the power plant and the storage system is supplied during sunlit hours by a field of heliostats focussed on a central solar receiver. When sunlight is not available, the storage system supplies the heat to operate the power plant. A technically feasible, relatively efficient configuration is proposed for incorporating this type of energy storage system into a solar power plant. Complete material and energy balances are presented for a base case that represents a middle range of expected operating conditions. Equipment sizes and costs were estimated for the base case to obtain an approximate value for the cost of the electricity that would be produced from such an installation. In addition, the sensitivity of the efficiency of the system to variations in design and operating conditions was determined for the most important parameters and design details. In the base case the solar tower receives heat at a net rate of 230 MW(t) for a period of eight hours. Daytime electricity is about 30 MW(e). Nighttime generation is at a rate of about 15 MW(e) for a period of sixteen hours. The overall efficiency of converting heat into electricity is about 26%. The total capital cost for the base case is estimated at about $68 million, of which about 67% is for the tower and heliostats, 11% is for the daytime power plant, and 22% is for the storage system. The average cost of the electricity produced for the base case is estimated to be about 11 cents/kW(e)-hr.

Dayan, J.; Lynn, S.; Foss, A.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

DESIGN STUDY OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FOR 100-KW ELECTRIC AND 400-KW HEAT CAPACITY  

SciTech Connect

A conceptional design study was made of a lowpower ''package'' reactor plant for the production of 100 kw of electrical power and 400 kw of heat at remote Arctic installations. The power plant steam generator is proposed to be an unmanned, heterogeneous, boilingtype reactor capable of continuous operation for extended periods. The design is based on data derived from experiments with boiling-type reactors conducted by Argorne at the Reactor Testing Station, Arco, Idaho.

Treshow, M.; Snider, A.R.; Shaftman, D.H.

1955-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Flicker Reduction Technology for Electric Heat Pumps and Central Air Conditioners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric heat pumps and air conditioners move thermal energy into and/or out of conditioned spaces. During startup, the compressor motor temporarily draws high current (inrush) from the power distribution system to accelerate the compressor from standstill to its nominal operating speed. The inrush current causes a voltage drop in the power distribution system between the compressor motor and the utility service transformer. Although very brief in durationjust fractions of a secondthe voltage drop can ca...

2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

251

Incremental cost of electricity used as backup for passive heated homes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The impact of passive technologies on a north-central US utility has been studied. A method of utility cost and fuel use analysis, developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, was used to compute the long run incremental costs and incremental fuel use required for supplementary electricity to houses with Trombe walls or with direct gain features. For comparison, a reference house with no passive features and a house with an energy conservation design were also analyzed. The results show that the total long run incremental cost to the utility of providing supplementary power to the passive houses costs no more than the cost to supply electricity to heat the reference house or the conservation house. An analysis of the annual homeowner costs for the various types of heating systems suggests that the Trombe wall technology is not promising for use in this climate. The passive technologies, as modelled in this study reduced the requirements for conventional energy by about 10% (7 to 10 kilojoules/year). For all of the house types studied, the use of electricity for heating, instead of oil or gas, reduced the overall (utility plus residential) use of oil or gas by only about 30 to 40% even out through the 1990's.

Martorella, J; Bright, R; Davitian, H

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Optimal joule heating of the subsurface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating is disclosed. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

Berryman, J.G.; Daily, W.D.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

253

Optimal joule heating of the subsurface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

Berryman, James G. (Danville, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Heating System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating System Basics Heating System Basics Heating System Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:32pm Addthis A variety of heating technologies are available today. You can learn more about what heating systems and heat pumps are commonly used today and how they work below. To learn how to use these technologies in your own home, see the Home Heating Systems section on Energy Saver. Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Wood and Pellet Heating Provides a way to heat a building using biomass or waste sources. Electric Resistance Heating Can be supplied by centralized electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental

255

Heating System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating System Basics Heating System Basics Heating System Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:32pm Addthis A variety of heating technologies are available today. You can learn more about what heating systems and heat pumps are commonly used today and how they work below. To learn how to use these technologies in your own home, see the Home Heating Systems section on Energy Saver. Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Wood and Pellet Heating Provides a way to heat a building using biomass or waste sources. Electric Resistance Heating Can be supplied by centralized electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental

256

Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research and development of high temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential of converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as an important area for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is Part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main focuses in Part I are on two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, Jeff [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time-sensi%ve Electricity Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Co-genera8on of electricity and heat Storage Microgrids2 1. "Systema%c u. A microgrid refers to a "local grid" that can work autonomously from the central

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

258

Overview of Creep Strength and Oxidation of Heat-Resistant Alloy Sheets and Foils for Compact Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in research and development related to improved performance of recuperators for industrial gas turbines since about 1996, and in improving recuperators for advanced microturbines since 2000. Recuperators are compact, high efficiency heat-exchangers that improve the efficiency of smaller gas turbines and microturbines. Recuperators were traditionally made from 347 stainless steel and operated below or close to 650 C, but today are being designed for reliable operation above 700 C. The Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored programs at ORNL have helped defined the failure mechanisms in stainless steel foils, including creep due to fine grain size, accelerated oxidation due to moisture in the hot exhaust gas, and loss of ductility due to aging. ORNL has also been involved in selecting and characterizing commercial heat-resistant stainless alloys, like HR120 or the new AL20-25+Nb, that should offer dramatically improved recuperator capability and performance at a reasonable cost. This paper summarizes research on sheets and foils of such alloys over the last few years, and suggests the next likely stages for manufacturing recuperators with upgraded performance for the next generation of larger 200-250 kW advanced microturbines.

Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Evans, Neal D [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Development of an electrical resistivity cone for the detection of gas hydrates in marine sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas hydrates are formed when, under certain pressure and temperature conditions, gas molecules become encaged by hydrogenbonded oxygen atoms, forming a solid, ice-like crystalline substance. They have been found all over the world in both onshore and offshore environments, as well as in permafrost and tropical regions. The presence of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments are of concern to geotechnical engineers for several reasons, including: (1) their effect on the load bearing properties of ocean sediments, and (2) the effect that their dissociation has on the engineering properties of ocean sediments. The recovery of intact, in-situ samples of gas hydrates can be difficult due to their dependence on pressure and temperature conditions. The development of an electrical resistivity cone for the detection of gas hydrates in marine sediments would be ideal because: (1) there is a dramatic contrast between the electrical properties of gas hydrates and ocean sediments; (2) the resistivity module could be incorporated with standard cone penetrometer testing equipment; and (3) it could allow the in-situ detection of gas hydrates without dramatically affecting the surrounding temperature and pressure conditions. The objectives of this study were to design, fabricate and test an electrical resistivity cone using a two-electrode and four-electrode configuration. The laboratory testing program consisted of pushing the cone through a three-layer soil profile in which the central layer (target layer) consisted of simulated gas hydrates. The target layer thickness varied from 1 to 6 inches (2.5 to 15 cm) and the "hydrate" content varied from 10% to 100% by volume. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of the cone for use in the detection of thin resistive layers and randomly dispersed resistive nodules. The laboratory test results indicated that the four-electrode configuration may be more appropriate for the detection of both thin resistive layers and random resistive nodules. Layers as thin as 1 inch (2.5 cm) and containing as little as 10% "hydrate" nodules were successfully detected using this configuration.

McClelland, Martha Ann

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant  

SciTech Connect

A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR. (authors)

Conklin, James C.; Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR.

Conklin, Jim [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA); Momii, Steven Thomas (Seattle, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA); Momii, Steven Thomas (Seattle, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Bass, Ronald M. (Houston, TX)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

265

Current-Controlled Negative Differential Resistance due to Joule Heating in TiO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that Joule heating causes current-controlled negative differential resistance (CC-NDR) in TiO2 by constructing an analytical model of the voltage-current V(I) characteristic based on polaronic transport for Ohm's Law and Newton's Law of Cooling, and fitting this model to experimental data. This threshold switching is the 'soft breakdown' observed during electroforming of TiO2 and other transition-metal-oxide based memristors, as well as a precursor to 'ON' or 'SET' switching of unipolar memristors from their high to their low resistance states. The shape of the V(I) curve is a sensitive indicator of the nature of the polaronic conduction.

A. S. Alexandrov; A. M. Bratkovsky; B. Bridle; S. E. Savel'ev; D. B. Strukov; R. Stanley Williams

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Non-Gaussian Resistance Noise near Electrical Breakdown in Granular Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distribution of resistance fluctuations of conducting thin films with granular structure near electrical breakdown is studied by numerical simulations. The film is modeled as a resistor network in a steady state determined by the competition between two biased processes, breaking and recovery. Systems of different sizes and with different levels of internal disorder are considered. Sharp deviations from a Gaussian distribution are found near breakdown and the effect increases with the degree of internal disorder. However, we show that in general this non-Gaussianity is related to the finite size of the system and vanishes in the large size limit. Nevertheless, near the critical point of the conductor-insulator transition, deviations from Gaussianity persist when the size is increased and the distribution of resistance fluctuations is well fitted by the universal Bramwell-Holdsworth-Pinton distribution.

C. Pennetta; E. Alfinito; L. Reggiani; S. Ruffo

2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

267

Improved etch resistance of ZEP 520A in reactive ion etching through heat and ultraviolet light treatment.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have developed a treatment process to improve the etch resistance of an electron beam lithography resist (ZEP 520A) to allow direct pattern transfer from the resist into a hard mask using plasma etching without a metal lift-off process. When heated to 90 C and exposed for 17 min to a dose of approximately 8 mW/cm{sup 2} at 248 nm, changes occur in the resist that are observable using infrared spectroscopy. These changes increase the etch resistance of ZEP 520A to a CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} plasma. This article will document the observed changes in the improved etch resistance of the ZEP 520A electron beam resist.

Tallant, David Robert; Czaplewski, David A.; Montoya, Bertha Marie; Wendt, Joel Robert; Patrizi, Gary A.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

High thermal conductivity connector having high electrical isolation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and article for providing a low-thermal-resistance, high-electrical-isolation heat intercept connection. The connection method involves clamping, by thermal interference fit, an electrically isolating cylinder between an outer metallic ring and an inner metallic disk. The connection provides durable coupling of a heat sink and a heat source.

Nieman, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL); Nicol, Thomas H. (St. Charles, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

The impact of thermostat performance on energy consumption and occupant comfort in residential electric heating systems  

SciTech Connect

A digital computer simulation was used to compare the energy consumption and comfort of an electric baseboard heating system using high performance thermostats (low droop, fast cycling) to that of the same system using poorer performing thermostats (high droop, slow cycling, such as many line voltage types). Since a thermostat which allows the controlled temperature to fall below the setpoint will obviously cause less energy consumption than a thermostat which maintains the controlled temperature closer to the setpoint, the key hypothesis of this study was that the user will reset the thermostat setpoint in some fashion during the heating season to obtain acceptable conditions for all heating loads. The major assumption of this study, therefore, was the mode of this ''user-thermostat interaction''. For every case in which the simulated ''user'' could intervene, the energy consumption using high performance thermostats was found to be less, while a greater degree of comfort was maintained, than systems using poorer performing thermostats. Energy savings ranged from 2% to 18% depending upon the mode of user interaction simulated. Where energy savings were small, the ''user'' was resetting the poorly performing thermostat as often as twice a day; i.e., the ''user'' was performing the function of a better performing thermostat.

Benton, R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Corrosion resistant coatings for silicon carbide heat exchanger tubes -- Volume 3. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The development of a silicon carbide (SiC) heat exchanger is a critical step in the development of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) power system. SiC is the only material that provides the necessary combination of resistance to creep, thermal shock, and oxidation. While the SiC structure materials provide the thermomechanical and thermophysical properties needed for an efficient system, the mechanical properties of the SiC tubes are severely degraded through corrosion by the coal combustion products. To obtain the necessary service life of thousands of hours at temperature, a protective coating is needed that is stable with both the SiC tube and the coal combustion products, resists erosion from the particle laden gas stream, is thermal shock resistant, adheres to SiC during repeated thermal shocks (start-up, process upsets, shut-down), and allows the EFCC system to be cost competitive. This demanding set of technical performance and cost drivers was used in reviewing and selecting candidate protective materials. After a review of open literature, discussion with leading researchers in materials for coal combustion environments, and preliminary thermodynamic studies, a total of ten materials were identified for future study that were grouped into three categories: alumina-based materials, materials stable with SiO{sub 2}, and low expansion materials.

Boss, D.E.

1996-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

271

4240 Carson Street, Suite 102 Denver, CO 80239 www.sre3.com SOLAR ELECTRIC SOLAR WATER HEATING ENERGY AUDITS A/C & HEATING INSULATION LIGHTING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4240 Carson Street, Suite 102 Denver, CO 80239 www.sre3.com SOLAR ELECTRIC SOLAR WATER HEATING for homeowners, businesses, and government entities that assist them in lowering utility bills, reducing a unique solutions approach based on the RE3 concept, which includes: · Review ­ current energy usage

Colorado at Boulder, University of

272

Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

Vladimir Gorokhovsky

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of a gas Turbine for Combined Generation of Electricity and Heat in the Heating Plant on the Meyrin Site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of a gas Turbine for Combined Generation of Electricity and Heat in the Heating Plant on the Meyrin Site

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the U.S. steel industry. The objectives associated with this goal were to (a) generate a solid base of technical, marketing, economic, and policy data, (b) develop energy, environmental, and economic targets, (c) more definitively assess opportunities and barriers, (d) accumulate knowledge and experience for defining direction for the next phase of development, and (e) promote learning and training of students.

Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

275

Maximizing Real-Time Distribution of Wind-Electricity to Electrical Thermal Storage Units for Residential Space Heating.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wind-electricity is unpredictable in both intensity and duration. This thesis presents the design and implementation of Client-pull and Server-push architectures for the distribution of wind-electricity (more)

Barnes, Andrew

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Electrical Resistance of Nb3Sn/Cu Splices Produced by Electromagnetic Pulse Technology and Soft Soldering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electrical interconnection of Nb3Sn/Cu strands is a key issue for the construction of Nb3Sn based damping ring wigglers and insertion devices for third generation light sources. We compare the electrical resistance of Nb3Sn/Cu splices manufactured by solid state welding using Electromagnetic Pulse Technology (EMPT) with that of splices produced by soft soldering with two different solders. The resistance of splices produced by soft soldering depends strongly on the resistivity of the solder alloy at the operating temperature. By solid state welding splice resistances below 10 nOhm can be achieved with 1 cm strand overlap length only, which is about 4 times lower than the resistance of Sn96Ag4 soldered splices with the same overlap length. The comparison of experimental results with Finite Element simulations shows that the electrical resistance of EMPT welded splices is determined by the resistance of the stabilizing copper between the superconducting filaments and confirms that welding of the strand matr...

Schoerling, D; Scheuerlein, C; Atieh, S; Schaefer, R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Electrical resistance of gases in explosive magnetic flux compression generator environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gases that are electrical insulators at STP can become conductors when subjected to the high pressure and temperature environment in explosive magnetic flux compression generators (FCGs). This thesis describes experiments performed to determine the electrical properties of several gases in the FCG environment. The hydrodynamics in a helical explosive magnetic flux compression generator (FCG) are modeled using the Gurney method and a shock physics code, CTH, developed at Sandia National Laboratory. The armature in a typical FCG is calculated to approach the stator at approximately 3 km/s. To simulate FCG operating conditions in the volume between the armature and stator, expendable, stagnated shock, explosively driven shock tubes are designed to propel aluminum flyer plates towards dense stainless steel plugs. Two opposing copper probes are inserted into the shock tube walls and charged to 2 kV by an external capacitor bank. The voltage across these probes is tracked by oscilloscope and the current is measured with a Pearson transformer at the capacitor bank. The current and voltage measurements are used to calculate a bulk resistance for the gas between the probes. Current limited experiments with series resistors have also been conducted. Experiments were performed using argon, helium, sulfur hexafluoride, and synthetic air (20% oxygen/80% nitrogen) as the shock tube fill gas. Argon readily ionizes throughout its volume in the shock tube. This effect is believed to be due to photo-ionization from radiation emitted in the shocked region. Helium only becomes ionized when the initial shock wave reflects off the stainless steel plug and stagnates. Air ionizes in the shock wave and maintains a resistance near 3 Ohms when the initially shocked region is measured. SF6 is ionized and becomes less resistive as the shocked region crosses the probes. The SF6 resistance measurement is 200 Ohms for the initial shock wave. In all cases, the reflected shock wave is expected to have sufficient energy to begin disassembling the shock tube, and calculations based on measurements made after the reflected shock wave reaches the voltage probes are unreliable.

Dorsey, Daniel John

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Method for reducing formation of electrically resistive layer on ferritic stainless steels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of reducing the formation of electrically resistive scale on a an article comprising a silicon-containing ferritic stainless subjected to oxidizing conditions in service includes, prior to placing the article in service, subjecting the article to conditions under which silica, which includes silicon derived from the steel, forms on a surface of the steel. Optionally, at least a portion of the silica is removed from the surface to placing the article in service. A ferritic stainless steel alloy having a reduced tendency to form silica on at least a surface thereof also is provided. The steel includes a near-surface region that has been depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the steel.

Rakowski, James M.

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

279

Fluoride-added Pr-Fe-B die-upset magnets with increased electrical resistivity  

SciTech Connect

This work reports the effect of NdF{sub 3}, DyF{sub 3}, and CaF{sub 2} additions on the electrical resistivity and magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-B hot-pressed and die-upset permanent magnets. Composite magnets were synthesized from ground Pr{sub 14.5}Fe{sub 79.5}B{sub 6} melt-spun ribbons blended with 5 wt % of fluoride fine powders and consolidated by hot pressing at 650 deg. C, followed by die upsetting at 800 deg. C. While CaF{sub 2} is stable at the processing temperatures, the rare earth atoms separate from their fluorides to a certain degree with the assistance of the Pr-rich phase from the magnet matrix. Addition of fluorides increased the resistivity of the hot-pressed specimens by more than 200%. The resistivity of the die-upset specimens measured perpendicularly to the direction of the applied pressure, which is also the direction of magnetization, is, however, only slightly increased compared to the magnet counterparts without the fluoride addition. The intrinsic coercivity of Pr{sub 14.5}Fe{sub 79.5}B{sub 6} die-upset specimens is increased from 14.5 kOe to 15.3, 17.1, and 17.7 kOe for the addition of CaF{sub 2}, DyF{sub 3}, and NdF{sub 3}, respectively, at a slight expense of the residual flux.

Marinescu, M.; Liu, J. F. [Electron Energy Corporation, 924 Links Ave., Landisville, Pennsylvania 17538 (United States); Gabay, A. M.; Hadjipanayis, G. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Carbyne contamination in carbon-coated TEM microgrids made from vacuum-resistive heating deposition from a graphite rod  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbyne contamination was found to exist on the as-prepared carbon-coated transmission electron microscope (TEM) microgrids made by the method of vacuum-resistive heating deposition from a graphite rod. It is a source to bring mistaken and confusing information to the samples being studied by TEM.

Li Hanying; Sun Jingzhi; Wang Youwen; Chen Hongzheng; Cao Jian; Wang Mang

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exchanger 1 . 3. The Condensers . Reboiler . . . . BoilerNet Power Waste Heat Trimmer Dist. Condenser Turbine SteamLeaks LP Turbine Condenser Misc. Heat Losses Total Waste

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Avista Utilities (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Avista Utilities (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Avista Utilities (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs (Idaho) Avista Utilities (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs (Idaho) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Construction Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Incentives should not exceed 50% of the actual measure cost. Program Info State Idaho Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Replacement of Electric Straight Resistance: $750 Air Source Heat Pump: $100 Variable Speed Motor: $100 Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling: $30 Water Heater: $30 Floor and Wall Insulation: $0.50/sq. ft. Attic and Ceiling Insulation: $0.25/sq. ft.

283

Avista Utilities (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Avista Utilities (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Avista Utilities (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs Avista Utilities (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs < Back Eligibility Construction Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Construction Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Incentives will not exceed 50% of the actual measure cost Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Air Source Heat Pump: $100 Variable Speed Motor: $100 Water Heater: $30 Replacement of Electric Straight Resistance: $750 Floor and Wall Insulation: $0.50/sq. ft. Attic and Ceiling Insulation: $0.25/sq. ft.

284

Solar-assisted electric clothes dryer using a home attic as a heat source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of using a southeastern home attic as a means of reducing the energy consumption of an electric clothes dryer. An inexpensive duct (duplicable for $25) was constructed to collect hot attic air from the peak of a south facing roof and introduce it into the dryer inlet. Instrumentation was added to measure inlet temperatures and operating time/energy consumption of the dryer. Standardized test loads, in addition to normal laundry, were observed over the period of one year. The heat-on time of the dryer tested was shown to be reduced .16 to .35 minutes per /sup 0/C rise in inlet temperature. Inlet temperatures produced by the attic duct peaked at 56/sup 0/C(133/sup 9/F) in May/June and 40/sup 0/C(104/sup 0/F) in February. Based on peak temperatures available between 2 and 4 pm each month, a potential 20% yearly average savings could be realized. Economic viability of the system, dependant primarily on dryer usage, can be computed using a formula derived from the test results and included in the report.

Stana, J.M.

285

Optimal Scheduling of Industrial Combined Heat and Power Plants under Time-sensitive Electricity Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combined heat and power (CHP) plants are widely used in industrial applications. In the aftermath of the recession, many of the associated production processes are under-utilized, which challenges the competitiveness of chemical companies. However, under-utilization can be a chance for tighter interaction with the power grid, which is in transition to the so-called smart grid, if the CHP plant can dynamically react to time-sensitive electricity prices. In this paper, we describe a generalized mode model on a component basis that addresses the operational optimization of industrial CHP plants. The mode formulation tracks the state of each plant component in a detailed manner and can account for different operating modes, e.g. fuel-switching for boilers and supplementary firing for gas turbines, and transitional behavior. Transitional behavior such as warm and cold start-ups, shutdowns and pre-computed start-up trajectories is modeled with modes as well. The feasible region of operation for each component is described based on input-output relationships that are thermodynamically sound, such as the Willans line for steam turbines. Furthermore, we emphasize the use of mathematically efficient logic constraints that allow solving the large-scale models fast. We provide an industrial case study and study the impact of different scenarios for under-utilization. 1

Sumit Mitra; Ignacioe. Grossmann

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Ind Heat WS Code - Cost Comparison Worksheet for Induction Heating, Version 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Induction Heating for Melting for Aluminum / Steel Cost Comparison Worksheet is a tool that enables the comparison of induction heating for metals melting with more conventional melting technologies such as gas crucible, electric resistance, and electric arc furnaces. Note that this analysis only considers melting of scrap metal, as this application would appear to be the most practical and cost-effective utilization of the induction heating technology. A cost comparison is provided for the two most ...

2001-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

287

Consumer benefits of electricity-price-driven heat pump operation in future smart grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the financial benefits of consumers while applying different operating modes to their heat pump. In order to evaluate the different operating modes a single family house with heating system has been modeled and simulated with different ...

Christoph Molitor; Ferdinanda Ponci; Antonello Monti; Davide Cali; Dirk Muller

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

A study on the electrical resistance of the frog sartorius muscle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Four different methods of measuring the resistance of a muscle fiber have been applied to the frog sartorins muscle. The methods, in which the resistance of the microelectrode entered the calculation of the effective resistance of the fiber, resulted in values which were 8 times higher than the resistance values obtained with methods independent of the electrode resistance. A simple cable model of a muscle fiber could not account for the discrepancy in the effective resistance found in these measurements; therefore, an enlarged cable model for a muscle fiber has been proposed, and its biological implications have been discussed. The effective resistance (measured with the two different groups of methods) decreased when the potassium concentration in the bath increased. Using the proposed enlarged cable model for the interpretation of these results, it is shown that not only the membrane resistance but also the myoplasmic resistance decreases with an increasing potassium concentration in the Ringer solution.

Otto Schanne; Hikoshi Kawata; Barbel Schafer

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Geothermal shell and tube heat exchanger augmentation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The heat exchangers for a moderate temperature geothermal plant represent a major portion of the plant capital cost. Therefore, reduction in heat exchanger size will significantly improve the electrical power economics. The potential heat exchanger size reduction that could be achieved by reducing any combination heat transfer resistance terms is evaluated. A literature survey of heat transfer augmentation schemes is summarized and equations for evaluating the impact of cleaning frequency on heat exchanger size are presented. Recommendations are made specifically for the Raft River Thermal Loop, however, the techniques are applicable to any other geothermal plant or heat transfer system.

Neill, D.T.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Method and apparatus for converting heat from geothermal fluid to electric power  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for implementing a thermodynamic cycle. It comprises: expanding a gaseous working stream transforming its energy into usable form and producing a spent stream; reheating and expanding the spent stream, to transform its energy into usable form; heating a multicomponent oncoming liquid working stream by partially condensing the spent stream to preheat and partially evaporate the multicomponent oncoming liquid working stream to produce a heated liquid working stream; and evaporating the heated liquid working stream using heat produced by an external heat source, to form the gaseous working stream.

Kalina, A.I.

1991-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

291

Comparing Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) to Traditional Resistive Water Heaters: Assessing HPWH Performance for Southern Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2009, Southern Company partnered with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to investigate the use of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) technology. The investigation was part of EPRI's Energy Efficiency Demonstration, which was a field-performance assessment of six emerging, efficient end-use technologies, deployed with extensive measurement instrumentation at multiple sites throughout the U.S. The goals of the multiyear project were to test, evaluate, demonstrate, andif ...

2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

292

Electric  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Retail Price of Electricity to ... Period Residential Commercial Industrial ... or usage falling within specified limits by rate ...

293

A simple external resistance heating diamond anvil cell and its application for synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect

A simple external heating assemblage allowing diamond anvil cell experiments at pressures up to 34 GPa and temperatures up to 653 K was constructed. This cell can be connected to the synchrotron radiation conveniently. The design and construction of this cell are fully described, as well as its applications for x-ray diffraction. Heating is carried out by using an external-heating system, which is made of NiCr resistance wire, and the temperature was measured by a NiCr-NiSi or PtRh-Pt thermocouple. We showed the performance of the new system by introducing the phase transition study of cinnabar ({alpha}-HgS) and thermal equation of state study of almandine at high pressure and temperature with this cell.

Fan Dawei; Zhou Wenge; Liu Yonggang; Xie Hongsen [Institute of Geochemistry of Earth's Deep Interior Materials and Fluid Interaction, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Wei Shuyi [Institute of Geochemistry of Earth's Deep Interior Materials and Fluid Interaction, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma Maining [Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

PILOT-SCALE FIELD VALIDATION OF THE LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY METHOD  

SciTech Connect

Field validation for the long electrode electrical resistivity tomography (LE-ERT) method was attempted in order to demonstrate the performance of the technique in imaging a simple buried target. The experiment was an approximately 1/17 scale mock-up of a region encompassing a buried nuclear waste tank on the Hanford site. The target of focus was constructed by manually forming a simulated plume within the vadose zone using a tank waste simulant. The LE-ERT results were compared to ERT using conventional point electrodes on the surface and buried within the survey domain. Using a pole-pole array, both point and long electrode imaging techniques identified the lateral extents of the pre-formed plume with reasonable fidelity, but the LE-ERT was handicapped in reconstructing the vertical boundaries. The pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays were also tested with the LE-ERT method and were shown to have the least favorable target properties, including the position of the reconstructed plume relative to the known plume and the intensity of false positive targets. The poor performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays was attributed to an inexhaustive and non-optimal coverage of data at key electrodes, as well as an increased noise for electrode combinations with high geometric factors. However, when comparing the model resolution matrix among the different acquisition strategies, the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays using long electrodes were shown to have significantly higher average and maximum values than any pole-pole array. The model resolution describes how well the inversion model resolves the subsurface. Given the model resolution performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays, it may be worth investing in tools to understand the optimum subset of randomly distributed electrode pairs to produce maximum performance from the inversion model.

GLASER DR; RUCKER DF; CROOK N; LOKE MH

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

295

THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of houses with a high perfor- mance heat pump as well as resistance, gas, and oil heated houses with a high#12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

296

RESISTIVITY MODELING FOR ARBITRARILY SHAPED THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Full utilization of the electrical resistivity method ingeologic models for electrical resistivity applications, theResistivity In electrical resistivity surveys a current

Dey, Abhijit

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Combined cycle electric power plant and a heat recovery steam generator having improved boiler feed pump flow control  

SciTech Connect

A combined cycle electric power plant is described that includes gas and steam turbines and a steam generator for recovering the heat in the exhaust gases exited from the gas turbine and for using the recovered heat to produce and supply steam to the steam turbine. The steam generator includes an economizer tube and a high pressure evaporator tube and a boiler feed pump for directing the heat exchange fluid serially through the aforementioned tubes. A condenser is associated with the steam turbine for converting the spent steam into condensate water to be supplied to a deaerator for removing undesired air and for preliminarily heating the water condensate before being pumped to the economizer tube. Condensate flow through the economizer tube is maintained substantially constant by maintaining the boiler feed pump at a predetermined, substantially constant rate. A bypass conduit is provided to feed back a portion of the flow heated in the economizer tube to the deaerator; the portion being equal to the difference between the constant flow through the economizer tube and the flow to be directed through the high pressure evaporator tube as required by the steam turbine for its present load.

Martz, L.F.; Plotnick, R.J.

1976-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

298

Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA  

SciTech Connect

At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Electricity  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Electricity is an essential part of modern life. The Energy Department is working to create technology solutions that will reduce our energy use and save Americans money.

300

Sangre De Cristo Electric Association - Energy Efficiency Credit Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sangre De Cristo Electric Association - Energy Efficiency Credit Sangre De Cristo Electric Association - Energy Efficiency Credit Program Sangre De Cristo Electric Association - Energy Efficiency Credit Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Water Heating Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Resistive Heat Space Heater: $10/kW ETS Space Heater: $25/kW Heat Pump: Contact the Electric Association Water Heater: $100/unit, plus $25 for lifetime warranty Device Timers: $25 Refrigerator: $40 Freezer: $40 Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling Clothes Washer:$40 Dishwasher: $40 Provider Sangre De Cristo Electric Association The Sangre De Cristo Electric Association (SDCEA) offers the Energy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Electrical Resistance of TiB2-C/C Function Gradient Material for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Study for Influence of Prereduction Degrees on the Softening and Melting Properties of Sintering Ore Study of Heat Flux in CSP Continuous Casting Mold.

302

Sensible Heat Flux Estimated from Routine Meteorological Data by the Resistance Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described for evaluation of hourly values of the sensible heat flux from routine meteorological data. Use is made of the energy balance at the surface and of the Monteith-Penman formula for estimation of the latent heat flux. The soil ...

R. Berkowicz; L. P. Prahm

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

MEASUREMENTS OF SPECIFIC ELECTRICAL CONTACT RESISTANCE BETWEEN SIC AND LEAD-LITHIUM EUTECTIC ALLOY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Angeles, CA, 90095-1597, USA, morley@fusion.ucla.edu Silicon Carbide (SiC) has been proposed as a possible resistance of disks of high purity CVD SiC were measured with liquid lead-lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy melts at the SiC/LLE interface was not significant. The contact resistance during initial exposure did not behave

Abdou, Mohamed

304

Empire Electric Association - Residential Energy Efficiency Credit Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Residential State Government Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Water Heating Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount HVAC Equipment: $250 - $300; additional rebates available for higher efficiency levels Controlled Resistance Heating: $24 - $32/kW Terminal Unit Heat Pump: $170 Water Heater: $100; additional rebates available for warranties, timers, and controls Split System A/C: $300/unit Refrigerator/freezer: $90/unit Refrigerator/freezer Recycling: $40 Dishwasher: $60 Clothes Washer: $80 Provider Empire Electric Association, Inc. Empire Electric Association provides financial incentives to its residential consumers who upgrade to energy efficient appliances and HVAC

305

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat available at night) Gas Turbine Work Table 3.2. StreamTurbine (small turbine) Gas Turbine Parasitic Power BFW PumpHours) Generator Terminals Gas Turbine Parasitic Power BFW

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flows and stream conditions in steam power cycle. Table 4.1in the low-temperature reactor system. Steam power cycle 8.1Heat Storage System for a Solar Steam Power Plant." 12th

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency of thermal energy storage. In addition, the ratio of the solarefficiency for the total operation, the net total electric energy produced divided by the total thermal energy absorbed by the solar

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

The time dependent resistance and inductance of the electric discharges in pulsed gas lasers  

SciTech Connect

A method of finding the time dependent resistances and inductances in the discharges in pulsed gas lasers is described in this work. According to this method the waveforms of the laser circuit voltages are digitized and their first and second derivatives are calculated. There are substituted into the differential equations governing the behavior of the system and relationships among the resistances and inductances are formed for every time. Using relationships from a sequence of four very closed adjacent time instants and considering that during this short time interval the resistances and inductances are varied linearly, their values can be found for this particular time interval. Repeating the same procedure for other time intervals and scanning the entire time region of the discharge, the time histories of the resistances and inductances of the discharges are revealed. These show strong variations in the formation phase of the discharge (first 50 nsec). Specifically the resistances drop rapidly (first 10 nsec) from very high values to low values, while the inductances increase to high values and subsequently decrease, forming an abrupt high peak. The steep drop of the resistances is due to the electron avalanche multiplication, while the peak of the inductances is due to the centripetal magnetic forces (Laplace forces), which cause a temporary constriction of the plasma. In the main phase of the discharge the resistances present a damping oscillation with the same frequency as the voltages, while the inductances present light fluctuations around constant values.

Persephonis, P.; Giannetas, V.; Ioannou, A.; Parthenios, J.; Georgiades, C. [Univ. of Patras, Patra (Greece). Dept. of Physics

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Resistive Wall Heating Due to Image Current on the Beam Chamber  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

as a function of the harmonics n f(M f 0 ). By applying the anomalous skin effect (green curves) for alpha > 3, the calculated heat load per unit length was 2.13 Wm. By...

310

Layered ultra-thin coherent structures used as electrical resistors having low temperature coefficient of resistivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film resistor having a controlled temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) ranging from negative to positive degrees kelvin and having relatively high resistivity. The resistor is a multilayer superlattice crystal containing a plurality of alternating, ultra-thin layers of two different metals. TCR is varied by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. The resistor can be readily prepared by methods compatible with thin film circuitry manufacturing techniques.

Werner, Thomas R. (Argonne, IL); Falco, Charles M. (Tucson, AZ); Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Variation of electrical resistance in superelastic NiTi for sensor applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) is a most commonly known as a heat-activated shape memory alloy. However, the material sometimes displays a constant-temperature property called "superelasticity." A superelastic material is one which ...

Russo, Analisa

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Analysis of the technical and economic feasibility of solar feedwater heating for El Paso Electric Company  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar feedwater heating system consisting of a linear focusing solar collector subsystem, a thermal energy transport subsystem, and possibly a thermal energy storage subsystem is studied for integration with an existing steam power cycle system. The solar heating system is described. The proposed system concept is compared to several previously published studies. An economic evaluation of the costs and benefits of modifying the existing unit to employ solar feedwater heating was performed. The levelized value of the fuel oil savings were determined by a computer program over the remaining economic life of the unit, based on solar insolation data for El Paso and relevant economic factors for four cases. The conceptual design refinements and documented cost breakdown are given. (LEW)

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Bridgeport Geothermal Energy Project: a heating district and small-scale-electric feasibility investigation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Bridgeport Geothermal Project, a proposed community heating district, appears to be feasible. Analysis of the feasibility of the Bridgeport Geothermal Project required three critical assumptions: a successful supply well, a commercially viable wellhead generator, and successfully obtaining simultaneous financing from private investors, a commercial lendor and a granting agency. The geothermal supply well for the Bridgeport Project will be sited near Travertine Hot Springs about 1 1/2 miles southeast of town. The well should yield 1000 gallons per minute at 205/sup 0/F to 240/sup 0/F. The hot brine will be piped (1) to a primary heat exchanger for the heating district which will distribute heat to public and commercial buildings via a fresh water loop, and (2) to an organic Rankine boiler to drive a 500 kW (gross) generator. The institutional structure for the project is well established. The capital cost of the installed project will be about $4.1 million to be raised through equity, commercial debt and grant funding. The system revenues are projected to result in a positive cash flow in the eighth year of operation, and over a 20 year payout are projected to yield an internal rate of return (IRR) of 23/sup +/% to the private investors.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Table A4. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2" 2" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate"," "," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","LPG","Coal","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

315

Electrical Resistivity Correlation to Vadose Zone Sediment and Pore-Water Composition for the BC Cribs and Trenches Area  

SciTech Connect

This technical report documents the results of geochemical and soil resistivity characterization of sediment obtained from four boreholes drilled in the BC Cribs and Trench area. Vadose zone sediment samples were obtained at a frequency of about every 2.5 ft from approximately 5 ft bgs to borehole total depth. In total, 505 grab samples and 39 six-inch long cores were obtained for characterization. The pore-water chemical composition data, laboratory-scale soil resistivity and other ancillary physical and hydrologic measurements and analyses described in this report are designed to provide a crucial link between direct measurements on sediments and the surface-based electrical-resistivity information obtained via field surveys. A second goal of the sediment characterization was to measure the total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants of concern as a function of depth and distance from the footprints of inactive disposal facilities. The total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants will be used to update contaminant distribution conceptual models and to provide more data for improving base-line risk predictions and remedial alternative selections. The ERC ground truthing exercise for the individual boreholes showed mixed results. In general, the high concentrations of dissolved salts in the pore waters of sediments from C5923, C5924 and C4191 produced a low resistivity target in the processed resistivity field surveys, and variability could be seen in the resistivity data that could relate to the variability in pore- water concentrations but the correlations (regression R2 were mediocre ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 at best; where perfect correlation is 1.0). The field-based geophysical data also seemed to suffer from a sort of vertigo, where looking down from the ground surface, the target (e.g., maximum pore-water salt concentration) depth was difficult to resolve. The best correlations between the field electrical resistivity surveys and borehole pore water data sets were obtained when focusing on areal extent of the salt plume. Lateral resolution of the geophysical field data is best conducted by comparing an aggregated set of geophysical data on all boreholes together. When assembling the pore-water data for all four boreholes in an aerial view, the field ERC data produce a reasonable aerial picture of where high salt plumes exist below the BC Cribs and Trenches area. Future work that relies on more laboratory soil resistivity and incorporation of other field data (spectral gamma, neutron moisture and soil density logs) and physical and hydraulic measurements on samples obtained from the boreholes will used develop a more detailed petrophysical model of the sediments below BC Cribs and Trenches. This more detailed model can be used as a more realistic earth model in the inversion process to better manipulate the raw field survey data. It is also recommended that one more borehole be drilled after a thorough vetting of the current data with geophysics experts and other Hanford stakeholder to optimize where to place the borehole, what electrical and other geophysical surveys should be conducted , where to take sediment samples and what parameters should be measured on the sediments to attempt one more ground truthing exercise.

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Ward, Anderson L.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Rucker, Dale F.; Lanigan, David C.; Benecke, Mark W.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Grounding electrode and method of reducing the electrical resistance of soils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A first solution of an electrolyte is injected underground into a volume of soil having negative surface charges on its particles. A cationic surfactant suspended in this solution neutralizes these surface charges of the soil particles within the volume. Following the first solution, a cationic asphalt emulsion suspended in a second solution is injected into the volume. The asphalt emulsion diffuses through the volume and electrostatically bonds with additional soil surrounding the volume such that an electrically conductive water repellant shell enclosing the volume is formed. This shell prevents the leaching of electrolyte from the volume into the additional soil. The second solution also contains a dissolved deliquescent salt which draws water into the volume prior to the formation of the shell. When electrically connected to an electrical installation such as a power line tower, the volume constitutes a grounding electrode for the tower.

Koehmstedt, Paul L. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

ELECTRIC  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ELECTRIC cdrtrokArJclaeT 3 I+ &i, y I &OF I*- j< t j,fci..- ir )(yiT E-li, ( -,v? Cl -p4.4 RESEARCH LABORATORIES EAST PITTSBURGH, PA. 8ay 22, 1947 Mr. J. Carrel Vrilson...

318

Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

1980-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

319

Method and apparatus for converting low temperature heat to electric power  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for implementing a thermodynamic cycle. It comprises expanding a gaseous working stream, transforming its energy into usable form and producing a spent stream; mixing with the spent stream a lean stream forming a precondensed stream; condensing the pre-condensed stream producing a liquid working stream; forming from the liquid working stream as enriched stream and the lean stream; and heating the enriched stream forming the gaseous working stream.

Kalina, A.I.

1991-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

320

Electrical resistivity studies on graphite at high pressure and low temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High pressure is shown to give a valuable insight into the intrinsic c-axis resistivity of Highly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite (HOPG). For the purpose of improving the understanding of the fundamental behavior of this technologically important material, additional forms of graphitic material such as Grafoil, Single Crystal Graphite (SCG) and polycrystalline natural graphite were explored for a comparative analysis. A novel technique utilizing a gasketed diamond-anvil cell is described that permits four probe resistivity measurements at pressures of up to 40 kbar and temperatures extending down to 2 K while maintaining the integrity of samples as fragile as graphite. The four-lead arrangement is designed to avoid contact and lead-wire resistances which might otherwise obscure the comparatively small resistance changes of interest typical of highly conductive materials. The data on HOPG can be fitted well to a model describing conduction along the c-axis as composed of two components acting in parallel: an ordinary metallic one and a tunnelling conduction between crystallites. The total conductivity was found to be a superposition of both conductivities, and their respective weights depend on the quality of the graphite material.

Hockey, R.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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321

Non-Space Heating Electrical Consumption in Manufactured Homes: Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes submeter data of the non-space heating electrical energy use in a sample of manufactured homes. These homes were built to Super Good Cents insulation standards in 1988 and 1989 under the auspices of RCDP Cycle 2 of the Bonneville Power Administration. They were designed to incorporate innovations in insulation and manufacturing techniques developed to encourage energy conservation in this important housing type. Domestic water heating (DWH) and other non-space heat energy consumption, however, were not generally affected by RCDP specifications. The purpose of this study is to establish a baseline for energy conservation in these areas and to present a method for estimating total energy saving benefits associated with these end uses. The information used in this summary was drawn from occupant-read submeters and manufacturersupplied specifications of building shell components, appliances and water heaters. Information was also drawn from a field review of ventilation systems and building characteristics. The occupant survey included a census of appliances and occupant behavior in these manufactured homes. A total of 150 manufactured homes were built under this program by eight manufacturers. An additional 35 homes were recruited as a control group. Of the original 185 houses, approximately 150 had some usable submeter data for domestic hot water and 126 had usable submeter data for all other nonheating consumption. These samples were used as the basis for all consumption analysis. The energy use characteristics of these manufactured homes were compared with that of a similar sample of RCDP site-built homes. In general, the manufactured homes were somewhat smaller and had fewer occupants than the site-built homes. The degree to which seasonal variations were present in non-space heat uses was reviewed.

Onisko, Stephen A.; Roos, Carolyn; Baylon, David

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Table A36. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,,,,,,,,"Coal" ,,,,,,,,"Coal" " Part 1",,,,,,,,"(excluding" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)",,,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal Coke" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"and" ,,,"Net","Residual","and Diesel","Natural Gas",,"Breeze)",,"RSE" "SIC",,"Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel","(billion","LPG","(1000 Short","Other","Row" "Code(a)","End-Use Categories","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors",

323

Table A11. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generatio  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1" 1" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding" ,,"Net","Residual","and Diesel",,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" ,"Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","LPG","and Breeze)","Other(d)","Row" "End-Use Categories","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","(billion cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 short tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors" ,,,,,,,,,,, ,"Total United States"

324

Table A4. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 " 1 " " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Coke"," "," " " "," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)"," ","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000","Other(e)","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","(trillion Btu)","(million kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors"

325

Table A37. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1",,,,,,,"Coal" 1",,,,,,,"Coal" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)",,,,,,,"(excluding" ,,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal Coke" ,,"Net",,"Fuel Oil",,,"and" ,,"Electricity(a)","Residual","and Diesel","Natural Gas",,"Breeze)",,"RSE" ,"Total","(million","Fuel Oil","Fuel","(billion","LPG","(1000 short","Other","Row" "End-Use Categories","(trillion Btu)","kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors"

326

Modification of electrical conductivity in T-10 by electron cyclotron heating  

SciTech Connect

The CQL3D Fokker-Planck code is used to investigate effects of quasilinear distortion of the electron tail in the T-10 second harmonic electron cyclotron current (ECCD) drive experiment. The experiment operates in a regime of substantial tail formation. Current drive efficiency may be doubled relative to low power cases, That portion of electric field-driven current which is synergetic with the rf-induced nonthermal tail may tend to cancel the ECCD current in relevant cases.

Harvey, R.W.; Forest, C.B.; Sauter, O.; Lohr, J.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Effect of Inhibitors on the Electric Resistance of Alloy 600 Surface Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inhibitors to intergranular attack and intergranular stress corrosion cracking--titanium oxide, titanium diboride, and cerium acetate--promote formation of a protective surface film. Based on the present data and on the electrical properties of the surface films formed, titanium diboride should qualify as the best inhibitor of the three investigated.

1997-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

328

Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of a closed-cycle process for the conversion of heat into electrical energy by means of a distiller and an electrochemical cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyse a device aimed at the conversion of heat into electrical energy, based on a closed cycle in which a distiller generates two solutions at different concentrations, and an electrochemical cell consumes the concentration difference, converting it into electrical current. We first study an ideal model of such a process. We show that, if the device works at a single fixed pressure (i.e. with a "single effect"), then the efficiency of the conversion of heat into electrical power has an upper bound, given by the efficiency of a reversible Carnot engine operating between the boiling temperatures of the concentrated solution and of the pure solvent. When two heat reservoirs with a higher temperature difference are available, the overall efficiency can be incremented by employing an arrangement of multiple cells working at different pressures ("multiple effects"). We find that a given efficiency can be achieved with a reduced number of effects by using solutions with a high boiling point elevation.

Carati, Andrea; Brogioli, Doriano

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

ELECTRIC  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ELECTRIC ELECTRIC cdrtrokArJclaeT 3 I+ &i, y$ \I &OF I*- j< t j,fci..- ir )(yiT !E-li, ( \-,v? Cl -p/4.4 RESEARCH LABORATORIES EAST PITTSBURGH, PA. 8ay 22, 1947 Mr. J. Carrel Vrilson General ?!!mager Atomic Qxzgy Commission 1901 Constitution Avenue Kashington, D. C. Dear Sir: In the course of OUT nuclenr research we are planning to study the enc:ri;y threshold anti cross section for fission. For thib program we require a s<>piAroted sample of metallic Uranium 258 of high purity. A quantity of at lezst 5 grams would probably be sufficient for our purpose, and this was included in our 3@icntion for license to the Atonic Energy Coskqission.. This license has been approved, 2nd rre would Llp!Jreciate informztion as to how to ?r*oceed to obtain thit: m2teria.l.

330

Thermal, Electrical and Mechanical Response to a Quench in Nb3Sn Superconducting Coils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3) the cable electrical resistivity in the superconductingincrease in electrical resistivity due to the temperature is

Ferracin, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Assessment and Demonstration of Advanced Heat Pumps for Commercial Building Water Heating Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWH) are an alternative to electric resistance or natural gas for domestic water heating. HPWHs are less common than other water heating technologies, but offer the potential for improved energy efficiency and potential for reduction of net CO2 emissions. New products, mainly for residential application, have been introduced to the American market over the last 2 years, which have been previously reviewed by EPRI. This report focuses on commercial applications and provides initi...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Comparison of the PLTEMP code flow instability predictions with measurements made with electrically heated channels for the advanced test reactor.  

SciTech Connect

When the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) was designed in the 1960s the potential for fuel element burnout by a phenomenon referred to at that time as 'autocatalytic vapor binding' was of serious concern. This type of burnout was observed to occur at power levels considerably lower than those that were known to cause critical heat flux. The conversion of the MURR from HEU fuel to LEU fuel will probably require significant design changes, such as changes in coolant channel thicknesses, that could affect the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the reactor core. Therefore, the redesign of the MURR to accommodate an LEU core must address the same issues of fuel element burnout that were of concern in the 1960s. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was designed at about the same time as the MURR and had similar concerns with regard to fuel element burnout. These concerns were addressed in the ATR by two groups of thermal-hydraulic tests that employed electrically heated simulated fuel channels. The Croft (1964), Reference 1, tests were performed at ANL. The Waters (1966), Reference 2, tests were performed at Hanford Laboratories in Richland Washington. Since fuel element surface temperatures rise rapidly as burnout conditions are approached, channel surface temperatures were carefully monitored in these experiments. For self-protection, the experimental facilities were designed to cut off the electric power when rapidly increasing surface temperatures were detected. In both the ATR reactor and in the tests with electrically heated channels, the heated length of the fuel plate was 48 inches, which is about twice that of the MURR. Whittle and Forgan (1967) independently conducted tests with electrically heated rectangular channels that were similar to the tests by Croft and by Walters. In the Whittle and Forgan tests the heated length of the channel varied among the tests and was between 16 and 24 inches. Both Waters and Whittle and Forgan show that the cause of the fuel element burnout is due to a form of flow instability. Whittle and Forgan provide a formula that predicts when this flow instability will occur. This formula is included in the PLTEMP/ANL code.Error! Reference source not found. Olson has shown that the PLTEMP/ANL code accurately predicts the powers at which flow instability occurs in the Whittle and Forgan experiments. He also considered the electrically heated tests performed in the ANS Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop at ORNL and report by M. Siman-Tov et al. The purpose of this memorandum is to demonstrate that the PLTEMP/ANL code accurately predicts the Croft and the Waters tests. This demonstration should provide sufficient confidence that the PLTEMP/ANL code can adequately predict the onset of flow instability for the converted MURR. The MURR core uses light water as a coolant, has a 24-inch active fuel length, downward flow in the core, and an average core velocity of about 7 m/s. The inlet temperature is about 50 C and the peak outlet is about 20 C higher than the inlet for reactor operation at 10 MW. The core pressures range from about 4 to about 5 bar. The peak heat flux is about 110 W/cm{sup 2}. Section 2 describes the mechanism that causes flow instability. Section 3 describes the Whittle and Forgan formula for flow instability. Section 4 briefly describes both the Croft and the Waters experiments. Section 5 describes the PLTEMP/ANL models. Section 6 compares the PLTEMP/ANL predictions based on the Whittle and Forgan formula with the Croft measurements. Section 7 does the same for the Waters measurements. Section 8 provides the range of parameters for the Whittle and Forgan tests. Section 9 discusses the results and provides conclusions. In conclusion, although there is no single test that by itself closely matches the limiting conditions in the MURR, the preponderance of measured data and the ability of the Whittle and Forgan correlation, as implemented in PLTEMP/ANL, to predict the onset of flow instability for these tests leads one to the conclusion that the same method should be able to predict the

Feldman, E. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

333

Development, testing and certification of the sigma research, Maxi-Therm S-101 thermosyphon heat exchanger. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Maxi-Therm S-101 is a thermosyphon liquid-to-air heat exchanger for use in heating systems in residential single-family dwellings and small commercial applications. It is a pumpless heating module which, when attached to a water storage tank, comprises a self contained heating unit. Electric resistance heating elements can be installed in the storage tank to provide a backup or off-peak heating system. (MOW)

Hankins, J.D.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Electric co-heating in the ASHRAE standard method of test for thermal distribution efficiency: Test results on two New York State homes  

SciTech Connect

Electric co-heating tests on two single-family homes with forced-air heating systems were carried out in March 1995. The goal of these tests was to evaluate procedures being considered for incorporation in a Standard Method of Test for thermal distribution system efficiency now being developed by ASHRAE. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the building equipment that produces this thermal energy to the spaces in which it is used. Furthering the project goal, the first objective of the tests was to evaluate electric co-heating as a means of measuring system efficiency. The second objective was to investigate procedures for obtaining the distribution efficiency, using system efficiency as a base. Distribution efficiencies of 0.63 and 0.70 were obtained for the two houses.

Andrews, J.W.; Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J.J.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Does Electricity (and Heat) Network Regulation have anything to learn from Fixed Line Telecoms?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ongoingandidentifiesanumberofcurrentgovernmentpolicies andinitiativeswhichsuggestsubstantialchangefortheelectricitysectorisenvisagedinthevery nearterm(Ofgem,2008b,p.28).Thesepolicies/initiativescovertheUKcommitmenttoEU2020 renewabletargets,planning... UKusuallyintheformofseparateownershipof newlocaldistributionassetslargelyarisingfromtheconnectionofnewhousingestates.These networksarebuilt,ownedandmanagedbypartiesotherthantheincumbentregionalgas distributionnetwork...

Pollitt, Michael G.

336

Table A37. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2" 2" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" ,,,,,,,"Coal" ,,,,"Distillate",,,"(excluding" ,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" ,,"Net","Residual","and Diesel",,,"and",,"Row" "End-Use Categories","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","LPG","Breeze)","Other(d)","Factors" "Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:","NF",0.4,1.6,1.5,0.7,1,1.6,"NF" "TOTAL INPUTS",15027,2370,414,139,5506,105,1184,5309,3 "Boiler Fuel","--","W",296,40,2098,18,859,"--",3.6

337

Table A11. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generatio  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2" 2" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" ,,,,,,,"Coal" ,,,,"Distillate",,,"(excluding" ,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" ,,"Net","Residual","and Diesel",,,"and",,"Row" "End-Use Categories","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","LPG","Breeze)","Other(d)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:"," NF",0.5,1.3,1.4,0.8,1.2,1.2," NF" "TOTAL INPUTS",16515,2656,441,152,6141,99,1198,5828,2.7 "Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel"," --",28,313,42,2396,15,875," --",4

338

Resolution of reservoir scale electrical anisotropy from marine CSEM data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

model for the electrical resistivity of two-phase geologicsize, where the electrical resistivity is expected to beto the vertical electrical resistivity and to a lesser

Brown, V.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

A diamond anvil cell with resistive heating for high pressure and high temperature x-ray diffraction and absorption studies  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe a prototype of a diamond anvil cell (DAC) for high pressure/high temperature studies. This DAC combines the use of a resistive oven of 250 W power in a very small volume, associated with special conical seats for Boehler-type diamond anvils in order to have a large angular acceptance. To protect the diamond anvils from burning and to avoid the oven oxidation, the heated DAC is enclosed in a vacuum chamber. The assemblage was used to study the melting curve of germanium at high pressure (up to 20 GPa) and high temperature (up to 1200 K) using x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Pasternak, Sebastien; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Pascarelli, Sakura; Zhang Lin [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Poloni, Roberta [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona Spain (Spain); Canny, Bernard [IMPMC-CNRS UMR, 7590 Universite Paris VI, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Coulet, Marie-Vanessa [IM2NP-UMR CNRS, 6242 Universite Paul Cezanne Campus de St Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

3-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Cliff Stability Assessment at Pointe du Hoc in Normandy, France  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pointe du Hoc overlooking the English Channel in Normandy, France was host to one of the most important military engagements of World War II. While the site is a valuable historic cultural resource, it is vulnerable to cliff collapses that already have endangered the observation post and Rudder?s command post. The observation post has been closed to visitors for some time due to safety concerns. Geophysical techniques have been used increasingly in recent years for slope stability investigation purposes. The objective of this study is to apply advanced 3?D resistivity tomography toward a detailed site stability assessment with special attention to the two at-risk buildings. 3?D resistivity tomography datasets at Pointe du Hoc in the presence of extreme topography and dense cultural clutter have been successfully acquired, inverted, and interpreted. The cliff stability in the areas around the two at?risk buildings has been analyzed. A hazard assessment scheme has been designed in which regions of high resistivity are interpreted as zones of open, dry fractures with a moderate mass movement potential. Regions of low resistivity are zones of wet, clay?filled fractures with a high mass movement potential. The observation post tomography results indicate that the highest mass movement hazard appears to be associated with the marine caverns at the base of the cliff that are positioned at the point of strongest wave attack. These caverns likely occupy the future site of development of a sea arch which will definitely threaten the observation post building. A high probability of a soil wedge failure is on the east?facing cliff edge close to the observation post that could damage or destroy the building. The mass movement potential at the Rudder?s command post area is low to moderate. The greatest risk is associated with soil wedge failures at the top of the cliffs. The resistivity geophysical data add great value to the natural geohazard assessment at Pointe du Hoc and constitute an integral component of an interdisciplinary approach to the problem of cultural resource preservation at the site. Geophysics is a non?invasive and relatively inexpensive technology that provides unique constraints which are unobtainable using traditional engineering geology methods for site characterization. However, the technology is difficult to master and the inherent limitations must be carefully understood to ensure a reliable geotechnical interpretation.

Udphuay, Suwimon

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Heating  

SciTech Connect

According to The Hydronics Institute, the surge in gas-fired boiler shipments brought about 3 years ago by high oil prices and the availability of natural gas after years of curtailment has almost competely subsided. Gas prices continue to escalate and the threat of decontrol by 1985 continues. Likewise, the Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association reports that shipments of gas-fired unit heaters, duct furnaces, and wall furnaces have also dropped as homeowners adopt a wait-and-see attitude toward conversion. However, the market for high- and ultra-high-efficiency furnaces appears to hold potential for expansion. Because of the rebounding home market, a steady replacement market, and increased sales for reasons of efficiency, GAMA expects the total (gas, oil, and electric) central furnace market to increase by 16% in 1983.

1983-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

342

Grain size distributions and photo-electric heating in ionised media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ever since the pioneering study of Spitzer, it has been widely recognised that grains play an important role in the heating and cooling of photo-ionised environments. A detailed code is necessary to model grains in a photo-ionised medium. In this paper we will use the spectral synthesis code Cloudy for this purpose. The grain model of this code has recently undergone a comprehensive upgrade. Part of this is the newly developed hybrid grain charge model, which will be described in detail. This model allows discrete charge states of very small grains to be modelled accurately while simultaneously avoiding the overhead of fully resolving the charge distribution of large grains, thus making the model both accurate and computationally efficient. A comprehensive comparison with the fully resolved charge state models of Weingartner & Draine (2001) shows that the agreement is very satisfactory for realistic size distributions. The effect of the grain size distribution on the line emission from photo-ionised regio...

Van Hoof, P A M; Martin, P G; Volk, K; Ferland, G J

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Imaging Tools for Electrical Resistivity in Geothermal Exploration and Reservoir Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Because reservoir production is primarily in fractured rock, a great deal of effort has been spent devising means of remotely sensing fractures and fracture zones using geophysics. Since increased fluid content or alteration of fractures can give rise to an electrical conductivity contrast, electromagnetic (EM) means of probing have been investigated extensively over the years. Although direct and indirect fracture responses have been noted in many field situations, a fracture response can be subtle and progress has been sporadic. The purpose of this project was to facilitate inductive fracture detection by providing the interpretation tools and knowledge-theoretic frame work for innovative high resolution fracture detection and delineation.

A.C. Tripp

2002-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

344

Method for starting operation of a resistance melter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for starting the operation of a resistance furnace, where heating occurs by passing a current through the charge between two furnace electrodes and the charge is a material which is essentially electrically nonconductive when in a solid physical state but which becomes more electrically conductive when in a molten physical state, by connecting electrical resistance heating wire between the furnace electrodes, placing the wire in contact with the charge material between the electrodes and passing a current through the wire to heat the wire to a temperature sufficient to melt the material between the furnace electrodes so that as the material melts, current begins to pass between the electrodes through the melted material, further heating and melting more material until all current between the electrodes passes through the charge material without the aid or presence of the resistance element.

Chapman, Christopher Charles (Richland, WA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Heat resistant materials and their feasibility issues for a space nuclear transportation system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of nuclear propulsion concepts based on solid-core nuclear propulsion are being evaluated for a nuclear propulsion transportation system to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) involving the reestablishment of a manned lunar base and the subsequent exploration of Mars. These systems will require high-temperature materials to meet the operating conditions with appropriate reliability and safety built into these systems through the selection and testing of appropriate materials. The application of materials for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and the feasibility issues identified for their use will be discussed. Some mechanical property measurements have been obtained, and compatibility tests were conducted to help identify feasibility issues. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Olsen, C.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

FS: heat pump water heaters | The Better Buildings Alliance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Food Service » Install a heat pump Food Service » Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specificat Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specification The Food Service team developed a Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater Specification that can be used to reduce water heating energy by 70%. An older, electric resistance water heater (operated in a building with a hot water demand of 500 gallons a day) can cost more than $3,500 each year

347

Grain size distributions and photo-electric heating in ionized media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ever since the pioneering study of Spitzer, it has been widely recognized that grains play an important role in the heating and cooling of photo-ionized environments. A detailed code is necessary to model grains in a photo-ionized medium. In this paper we will use the spectral synthesis code Cloudy for this purpose. The grain model of this code has recently undergone a comprehensive upgrade. Part of this is the newly developed hybrid grain charge model, which will be described in detail. This model allows discrete charge states of very small grains to be modelled accurately while simultaneously avoiding the overhead of fully resolving the charge distribution of large grains, thus making the model both accurate and computationally efficient. A comprehensive comparison with the fully resolved charge state models of Weingartner & Draine (2001) shows that the agreement is very satisfactory for realistic size distributions. The effect of the grain size distribution on the line emission from photo-ionized regions is studied by taking standard models for an H II region and a planetary nebula and adding a dust component to the models with varying grain size distributions. A comparison of the models shows that varying the size distribution has a dramatic effect on the emitted spectrum, and affects the ionization balance as well. These results clearly demonstrate that the grain size distribution is an important parameter in photo-ionization models.

P. A. M. van Hoof; J. C. Weingartner; P. G. Martin; K. Volk; G. J. Ferland

2004-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

348

Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermoelectric generator shorting system provides the capability to monitor and short-out individual thermoelectric couples in the event of failure. This makes the series configured thermoelectric generator robust to individual thermoelectric couple failure. Open circuit detection of the thermoelectric couples and the associated short control is a key technique to ensure normal functionality of the TE generator under failure of individual TE couples. This report describes a five-year effort whose goal was the understanding the issues related to the development of a thermoelectric energy recovery device for a Class-8 truck. Likely materials and important issues related to the utility of this generator were identified. Several prototype generators were constructed and demonstrated. The generators developed demonstrated several new concepts including advanced insulation, couple bypass technology and the first implementation of skutterudite thermoelectric material in a generator design. Additional work will be required to bring this system to fruition. However, such generators offer the possibility of converting energy that is otherwise wasted to useful electric power. Uur studies indicate that this can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner for this application.

None

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

349

Design concept and testing of an in-bundle gamma densitometer for subchannel void fraction measurements in the THTF electrically heated rod bundle. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

A design concept is presented for an in-bundle gamma densitometer system for measurement of subchannel average fluid density and void fraction in rod or tube bundles. This report describes (1) the application of the design concept to the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) electrically heated rod bundle; and (2) results from tests conducted in the THTF.

Felde, D. K.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Optimization of Heat Treatments on Stainless Steel Castings for Improved Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Properties  

SciTech Connect

It is commonly believed that high alloy steel castings have inferior corrosion resistance to their wrought counterparts as a result of the increased amount of microsegregation remaining in the as-cast structure. Homogenization and dissolution heat treatments are often utilized to reduce or eliminate the residual microsegregation and dissolve the secondary phases. Detailed electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and light optical microscopy (LOM) were utilized to correlate the amount of homogenization and dissolution present after various thermal treatments with calculated values and with the resultant corrosion resistance of the alloys.The influence of heat treatment time and temperature on the homogenization and dissolution kinetics were investigated using stainless steel alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. The influence of heat treatment time and temperature on the impact toughness and corrosion reistance of cast stainless steel alloys CF-3, CF-3M, CF-8, and CF-8M was also investigated.

John N. DuPont; Jeffrey D. Farren; Andrew W. Stockdale; Brett M. Leister

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

351

Performance improvement of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak electric auxiliary. Semi-annual progress report, June 18, 1979-December 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect

During the period 18 June 1979 through December 1979, a solar assisted heat pump system was designed, installed and operated in the University of Toledo Experimental Solar House. The heat pump system is capable of operating in a wide range of temperatures which is needed in a solar house utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility. The complete system consists of 584.1 square feet of Libbey-Owens-Ford's flat plate solar collectors, a 5 horsepower compressor (Victaulic Corp.), an evaporator (Dunham-Bush), a condensor (Dunham-Bush), thermal storage units, and associated equipment. During the installation and initial operation of the system, numerous aspects of the feasibility of this system design have been evaluated. Many of these aspects point to the potentially improved operating performance of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility.

Eltimsahy, A.H.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in homes compared to traditional electric resistance water heaters. Researchers at the National Renewable is a function of surrounding air temperature, humidity, hot water usage, and the logic controlling the heat pump

353

Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency.1088/0957-4484/22/42/425701 Stable hole doping of graphene for low electrical resistance and high optical transparency S Tongay1 display high transmittance in the visible and near-infrared spectrum, preserving graphene's optical

Tanner, David B.

354

Imaging Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure as a Tool in Developing Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project has been to develop desktop capability for 3-D EM inversion as a complement or alternative to existing massively parallel platforms. We have been fortunate in having a uniquely productive cooperative relationship with Kyushu University (Y. Sasaki, P.I.) who supplied a base-level 3-D inversion source code for MT data over a half-space based on staggered grid finite differences. Storage efficiency was greatly increased in this algorithm by implementing a symmetric L-U parameter step solver, and by loading the parameter step matrix one frequency at a time. Rules were established for achieving sufficient jacobian accuracy versus mesh discretization, and regularization was much improved by scaling the damping terms according to influence of parameters upon the measured response. The modified program was applied to 101 five-channel MT stations taken over the Coso East Flank area supported by the DOE and the Navy. Inversion of these data on a 2 Gb desktop PC using a half-space starting model recovered the main features of the subsurface resistivity structure seen in a massively parallel inversion which used a series of stitched 2-D inversions as a starting model. In particular, a steeply west-dipping, N-S trending conductor was resolved under the central-west portion of the East Flank. It may correspond to a highly saline magamtic fluid component, residual fluid from boiling, or less likely cryptic acid sulphate alteration, all in a steep fracture mesh. This work gained student Virginia Maris the Best Student Presentation at the 2006 GRC annual meeting.

Philip E. Wannamaker

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

Alternatives for metal hydride storage bed heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reaction of hydrogen isotopes with the storage bed hydride material is exothermic during absorption and endothermic during desorption. Therefore, storage bed operation requires a cooling system to remove heat during absorption, and a heating system to add the heat needed for desorption. Three storage bed designs and their associated methods of heating and cooling and accountability are presented within. The first design is the current RTF (Replacement Tritium Facility) nitrogen heating and cooling system. The second design uses natural convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. This design is referred to as the Naturally Cooled/Electrically Heated (NCEH) design. The third design uses forced convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. The design is referred to as the Forced Convection Cooled/Electrically Heated (FCCEH) design. In this report the operation, storage bed design, and equipment required for heating, cooling, and accountability of each design are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are listed and discussed. Based on the information presented within, it is recommended that the NCEH design be selected for further development.

Fisher, I.A.; Ramirez, F.B.; Koonce, J.E.; Ward, D.E.; Heung, L.K.; Weimer, M.; Berkebile, W.; French, S.T.

1991-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

356

Electric current enhanced defect mobility in Ni3Ti intermetallics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energies, through electrical resistivity 7,8 and PAScan be used much like electrical resistivity 7,14 to analyze

Garay, J E; Glade, S C; Anselmi-Tamburini, U; Asoka-Kumar, P; Munir, Zuhair A

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Energy Basics: Heating Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of energy sources, including electricity, boilers, solar energy, and wood and pellet-fuel heating. Small Space Heaters Used when the main heating system is inadequate or when...

358

High temperature thermal conductivity measurements of UO/sub 2/ by Direct Electrical Heating. Final report. [MANTRA-III  

SciTech Connect

High temperature properties of reactor type UO/sub 2/ pellets were measured using a Direct Electrical Heating (DEH) Facility. Modifications to the experimental apparatus have been made so that successful and reproducible DEH runs may be carried out while protecting the pellets from oxidation at high temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements on the UO/sub 2/ pellets have been made before and after runs to assure that sample oxidation has not occurred. A computer code has been developed that will model the experiment using equations that describe physical properties of the material. This code allows these equations to be checked by comparing the model results to collected data. The thermal conductivity equation for UO/sub 2/ proposed by Weilbacher has been used for this analysis. By adjusting the empirical parameters in Weilbacher's equation, experimental data can be matched by the code. From the several runs analyzed, the resulting thermal conductivity equation is lambda = 1/4.79 + 0.0247T/ + 1.06 x 10/sup -3/ exp(-1.62/kT/) - 4410. exp(-3.71/kT/) where lambda is in w/cm K, k is the Boltzman constant, and T is the temperature in Kelvin.

Bassett, B

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Heat transfer research in General Electric, 1910-1960; Examples of the product-driven innovation cycle  

SciTech Connect

General Electric has a long and varied history of doing research on heat transfer, and using the results in its products and processes. Lessons it has learned during the half-century from 1910 to 1950 suggest a need for revision in the standard models used by economists to describe the way industry generates new technology and uses it to achieve innovations. The generation of new technology or the better use of old technology begins, not with a demand from the marketplace or a push from research, but from consideration of an already existing product. Problems or opportunities involving that product drive engineers or scientists to search for new knowledge. That knowledge proves useful in the development of a product, perhaps the one that initiated the search for knowledge, or perhaps a very different one. The important point is that however esoteric or mundane is the research in the middle of the cycle, the beginning and end are always products (or the processes used to make products), not scientists' ideas or customers demands.

Wise, G. (General Electric R and D Center, Schenectady, NY (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Corrosion resistance of metallic solar absorber materials in a range of heat transfer fluids. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report is intended to provide manufacturers, designers, and installers with reliable corrosion compatibility data, meaningful maintenance schedule, and confidence in durability and performance of solar collector units. The corrosion behavior of Cu alloy 122, Al alloy 1100, mild steel 1010, and a ferritic stainless steel (alloy 444) was determined in a variety of potential solar heat transfer fluids. The fluids included potable waters, water glycol solutions, and four non-aqueous fluids. The test apparatus cycled the temperatures of the fluids through those typical of an operating solar energy collector unit. The 444 stainless steel was the most corrosion resistant material and in uninhibited solutions demonstrated only extremely shallow pits during the 180 day test. The use of inhibited solutions generally prevented pits from forming. Cu alloy 122 showed quite low corrosion rates in uninhibited solutions although the presence of excess solder flux promoted some crevice corrosion. In such solutions, uniform, corrosive attack produced general surface roughening along with a protective surface oxide. The overall corrosion rate of the alloy was generally lower in inhibited glycol solutions although pitting within the crevice region occurred in limited cases. Exposure in the non-aqueous fluids resulted in extremely low corrosion rates with little evidence of localized attack.

Brock, A.J.; Smith, E.F. III

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability:A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In past work, Berkeley Lab has developed the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). Given end-use energy details for a facility, a description of its economic environment and a menu of available equipment, DER-CAM finds the optimal investment portfolio and its operating schedule which together minimize the cost of meeting site service, e.g., cooling, heating, requirements. Past studies have considered combined heat and power (CHP) technologies. Methods and software have been developed to solve this problem, finding optimal solutions which take simultaneity into account. This project aims to extend on those prior capabilities in two key dimensions. In this research storage technologies have been added as well as power quality and reliability (PQR) features that provide the ability to value the additional indirect reliability benefit derived from Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid capability. This project is intended to determine how attractive on-site generation becomes to a medium-sized commercial site if economical storage (both electrical and thermal), CHP opportunities, and PQR benefits are provided in addition to avoiding electricity purchases. On-site electrical storage, generators, and the ability to seamlessly connect and disconnect from utility service would provide the facility with ride-through capability for minor grid disturbances. Three building types in both California and New York are assumed to have a share of their sensitive electrical load separable. Providing enhanced service to this load fraction has an unknown value to the facility, which is estimated analytically. In summary, this project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York; (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage; and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of PQR into the capabilities of DER-CAM.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Integrating preconcentrator heat controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Arakaki, Lester H. (Edgewood, NM); Varley, Eric S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

364

The operation result of the demonstration of energy networks of electricity, heat, and hydrogen at an apartment building in 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cell stacks, fuel processors, hydrogen storage devices, and large storage tanks for hot water, and the electricity and hot water from the fuel cells are shared via an internal electricity grid and a hot water pipe the system. Three small PEM fuel cells with hot water tanks have been installed, and the electricity and hot

365

Heat Transfer Laboratory of the Savannah River Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Heat Transfer Laboratory, recently- constructed adjacent to the main Savannah River Laboratory building, was designed to mock up nuclear heating and cooling of reactor components under a variety- of conditions. Nuclear heating is simulated by electrical resistance heating of test sections with a 3 MW directcurrent power supply. Cooling is provided by water. Three test stations (A, B, and C) are available for testing full-size fuel assemblies, measuring flow instabilities, and for measuring burnout heat fluxes. Safeguards provided in the design of the facility and conservative operating procedures minimize or elimnate potential hazards. (auth)

Knoebel, D.H.; Harris, S.D.

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Study of the Correlation Between Electrical Resistivity and Matric Suction for Unsaturated Ash-Fall Pyroclastic Soils in the Campania Region (Southern Italy)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the territory of the Campania region (southern Italy), critical rainfall events periodically trigger dangerous fast slope movements involving ashy and pyroclastic soils originated by the explosive phases of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano and deposited along the surrounding mountain ranges. In this paper, an integration of engineering-geological and geophysical measurements is presented to characterize unsaturated pyroclastic samples collected in a test area on the Sarno Mountains (Salerno and Avellino provinces, Campania region). The laboratory analyses were aimed at defining both soil water retention and electrical resistivity curves versus water content. From the matching of the experimental data, a direct relationship between electrical resistivity and matric suction is retrieved for the investigated soil horizons typical of a ash-fall pyroclastic succession. The obtained relation turns out to be helpful in characterizing soils up to close saturation, which is a critical condition for the trigger of slo...

De Vita, Pantaleone; Piegari, Ester

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

GEOPHYSICS AND SITE CHARACTERIZATION AT THE HANFORD SITE THE SUCCESSFUL USE OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TO POSITION BOREHOLES TO DEFINE DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION - 11509  

SciTech Connect

Historic boreholes confirmed the presence of nitrate and radionuclide contaminants at various intervals throughout a more than 60 m (200 ft) thick vadose zone, and a 2010 electrical resistivity survey mapped the known contamination and indicated areas of similar contaminants, both laterally and at depth; therefore, electrical resistivity mapping can be used to more accurately locate characterization boreholes. At the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington, production of uranium and plutonium resulted in the planned release of large quantities of contaminated wastewater to unlined excavations (cribs). From 1952 until 1960, the 216-U-8 Crib received approximately 379,000,000 L (100,000,000 gal) of wastewater containing 25,500 kg (56,218 lb) uranium; 1,029,000 kg (1,013 tons) of nitrate; 2.7 Ci of technetium-99; and other fission products including strontium-90 and cesium-137. The 216-U-8 Crib reportedly holds the largest inventory of waste uranium of any crib on the Hanford Site. Electrical resistivity is a geophysical technique capable of identifying contrasting physical properties; specifically, electrically conductive material, relative to resistive native soil, can be mapped in the subsurface. At the 216-U-8 Crib, high nitrate concentrations (from the release of nitric acid [HNO{sub 3}] and associated uranium and other fission products) were detected in 1994 and 2004 boreholes at various depths, such as at the base of the Crib at 9 m (30 ft) below ground surface (bgs) and sporadically to depths in excess of 60 m (200 ft) bgs. These contaminant concentrations were directly correlative with the presence of observed low electrical resistivity responses delineated during the summer 2010 geophysical survey. Based on this correlation and the recently completed mapping of the electrically conductive material, additional boreholes are planned for early 2011 to identify nitrate and radionuclide contamination: (a) throughout the entire vertical length of the vadose zone (i.e., 79 m [260 ft] bgs) within the footprint of the Crib, and (b) 15 to 30 m (50 to 100 ft) east of the Crib footprint, where contaminants are inferred to have migrated through relatively permeable soils. Confirmation of the presence of contamination in historic boreholes correlates well with mapping from the 2010 survey, and serves as a basis to site future characterization boreholes that will likely intersect contamination both laterally and at depth.

GANDER MJ; LEARY KD; LEVITT MT; MILLER CW

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

368

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

but solar thermal and absorption cooling are attractive, andthermal heat collection, and heat-activated cooling can befrom solar thermal Total heat load Heat for cooling Heat

Stadler, Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Gravitational-wave spin-down and stalling lower limits on the electrical resistivity of the accreted mountain in a millisecond pulsar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electrical resistivity of the accreted mountain in a millisecond pulsar is limited by the observed spin-down rate of binary radio millisecond pulsars (BRMSPs) and the spins and X-ray fluxes of accreting millisecond pulsars (AMSPs). We find $\\eta \\ge 10^{-28}\\,\\mathrm{s}\\, (\\tau_\\mathrm{SD}/1\\,\\mathrm{Gyr})^{-0.8}$ (where $\\tau_\\mathrm{SD}$ is the spin-down age) for BRMSPs and $\\eta \\ge 10^{-25}\\,\\mathrm{s}\\,(\\dot{M}_\\mathrm{a}/\\dot{M}_\\mathrm{E})^{0.6}$ (where $\\dot{M}_\\mathrm{a}$ and $\\dot{M}_\\mathrm{E}$ are the actual and Eddington accretion rates) for AMSPs. These limits are inferred assuming that the mountain attains a steady state, where matter diffuses resistively across magnetic flux surfaces but is replenished at an equal rate by infalling material. The mountain then relaxes further resistively after accretion ceases. The BRMSP spin-down limit approaches the theoretical electron-impurity resistivity at temperatures $\\ga 10^5$ K for an impurity concentration of $\\sim 0.1$, while the AMSP stalling limit falls two orders of magnitude below the theoretical electron-phonon resistivity for temperatures above $10^8$ K. Hence BRMSP observations are already challenging theoretical resistivity calculations in a useful way. Next-generation gravitational-wave interferometers will constrain $\\eta$ at a level that will be competitive with electromagnetic observations.

Matthias Vigelius; Andrew Melatos

2010-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

370

Hydrogen permeation resistant heat pipe for bi-modal reactors. Final report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objective of this program was to demonstrate technology that will make a sodium heat pipe tolerant of hydrogen permeation for a bimodal space reactor application. Special focus was placed on techniques which enhance the permeation of hydrogen out of the heat pipe. Specific objectives include: define the detailed requirements for the bimodal reactor application; design and fabricate a prototype heat pipe tolerant of hydrogen permeation; and test the prototype heat pipe and demonstrate that hydrogen which permeates into the heat pipe is removed or reduced to acceptable levels. The results of the program were fully successful. Analyses were performed on two different heat pipe designs and an experimental heat pipe was fabricated and tested. A model of the experimental heat pipe was developed to predict the enhancement in the hydrogen permeation rate out of the heat pipe. A significant improvement in the rate at which hydrogen permeates out of a heat pipe was predicted for the use of the special condenser geometry developed here. Agreement between the model and the experimental results was qualitatively good. Inclusion of the additional effects of fluid flow in the heat pipe are recommended for future work.

North, M.T.; Anderson, W.G.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Heat Pump Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate...

372

Central Hudson Gas and Electric (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Central Hudson Gas and Electric (Electric) - Residential Energy Central Hudson Gas and Electric (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Central Hudson Gas and Electric (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heat Pumps Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Air Sealing: $600 Program Info State New York Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Central AC: $400 - $600, depending on efficiency Air-source Heat Pumps: $400 - $600, depending on efficiency Electronically Commutated Motor (ECM) Furnace Fans: $200 Electric Heat Pump Water Heaters: $400 Programmable Thermostats: $25

373

Magnetorotational supernovae with resistivities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We numerically investigate the effects of electrical resistivity on the dynamics of core-collapse supernovae. Initially strong magnetic fields and rapid rotations are assumed together with high resistivities. We find that resistivity acts as a negative ... Keywords: core-collapse, electric resistivity, magnetohydrodynamics, supernovae

Hidetomo Sawai; Shoichi Yamada; Kei Kotake

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar thermal storage charging absoprtion cooling offsetsolar thermal collection, and thermally activated coolingkW) thermal storage storage charging non-cooling electric

Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

collectors, an absorption chiller and both electrical and166 refrigeration tons) absorption chiller, 722 kW of solarcan be offset by the absorption chiller. For thermal loads,

Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Combined cycle electric power plant and heat recovery steam generator having improved multi-loop temperature control of the steam generated  

SciTech Connect

A combined cycle electric power plant is described that includes gas and steam turbines and a steam generator for recovering the heat in the exhaust gases exited from the gas turbine and for using the recovered heat to produce and supply steam to the steam turbine. The steam generator includes a superheater tube and a steam drum from which heated steam is directed through the superheater to be additionally heated into superheated steam by the exhaust gas turbine gases. An afterburner serves to further heat the exhaust gas turbine gases passed to the superheater tube and a bypass conduit is disposed about the superheater tube whereby a variable steam flow determined by a bypass valve disposed in the bypass conduit may be directed about the superheater tube to be mixed with the superheated steam therefrom, whereby the temperature of the superheated steam supplied to the steam turbine may be accurately controlled. Steam temperature control means includes a first control loop responsive to the superheated steam temperature for regulating the position of the bypass valve with respect to a first setpoint, and a second control loop responsive to the superheated steam temperature for controlling the fuel supply to the afterburner with respect to a second setpoint varying in accordance with the bypass valve position. In particular, as the bypass valve position increases, the second setpoint, originally higher, is lowered toward a value substantially equal to that of the first setpoint.

Martz, L.F.; Plotnick, R.J.

1976-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

377

Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of electricity and natural gas DER No Heat Storage: therecovery and storage) utility electricity and natural gasbut no heat storage, a 200 kW natural gas reciprocating

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Pressure tunes electrical resistivity by four orders of magnitude in amorphous Ge[subscript 2]Sb[subscript 2]Te[subscript 5] phase-change memory alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ge-Sb-Te-based phase-change memory is one of the most promising candidates to succeed the current flash memories. The application of phase-change materials for data storage and memory devices takes advantage of the fast phase transition (on the order of nanoseconds) and the large property contrasts (e.g., several orders of magnitude difference in electrical resistivity) between the amorphous and the crystalline states. Despite the importance of Ge-Sb-Te alloys and the intense research they have received, the possible phases in the temperature-pressure diagram, as well as the corresponding structure-property correlations, remain to be systematically explored. In this study, by subjecting the amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (a-GST) to hydrostatic-like pressure (P), the thermodynamic variable alternative to temperature, we are able to tune its electrical resistivity by several orders of magnitude, similar to the resistivity contrast corresponding to the usually investigated amorphous-to-crystalline (a-GST to rock-salt GST) transition used in current phase-change memories. In particular, the electrical resistivity drops precipitously in the P = 0 to 8 GPa regime. A prominent structural signature representing the underlying evolution in atomic arrangements and bonding in this pressure regime, as revealed by the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, is the reduction of low-electron-density regions, which contributes to the narrowing of band gap and delocalization of trapped electrons. At P > 8 GPa, we have observed major changes of the average local structures (bond angle and coordination numbers), gradually transforming the a-GST into a high-density, metallic-like state. This high-pressure glass is characterized by local motifs that bear similarities to the body-centered-cubic GST (bcc-GST) it eventually crystallizes into at 28 GPa, and hence represents a bcc-type polyamorph of a-GST.

Xu, M.; Cheng, Y.Q.; Wang, L.; Sheng, H.W.; Meng, Y.; Yang, W.G.; Hang, X.D.; Ma, E. (Beijing U); (JHU); (CIW); (George Mason)

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

379

Industrial Process Heating: Current and Emerging Applications of Electrotechnologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update reviews the state of electric industrial process heating technologies and discusses new heating applications for industrial processes. It principally covers four electric process-heating technologies: induction heating, microwave heating, radio frequency heating, and infrared heating. Information is also presented for other technologies that provide efficient and new applications of electric process heating. These are heat pumps, electron beam heating, electric arc heating, plasma h...

2010-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

380

Heat-pump desuperheaters for supplying domestic hot water - estimation of energy savings and economic viability for residential applications  

SciTech Connect

The heat reclaimer is a double-wall heat exchange system that removes superheat from the heat pump (or central air conditioning) cycle and uses it to heat water for domestic uses. During summer operation, this heat would normally be rejected to the atmosphere without being used. Thus, water heating is accomplished using essentially no primary fuel. In winter, the heat extracted from the cycle would have been used for space heating. However, energy savings are possible above the heat pump balance point because water heating is performed at an enhanced efficiency. Potential energy savings and economic viability of the heat reclaimer were determined for 28 sites throughout the United States. These results indicate that the heat reclaimer is not economically attractive compared with gas- or oil-fired water heating systems. However, it is competitive with electric resistance water heaters. Based on these results, a calculational scheme has been developed that could be integrated into the model audit procedure.

Olszewski, M.; Fontana, E.C.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Kirkwood Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Kirkwood Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Kirkwood Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating &...

382

Southeastern Electric - Electric Equipment Loan Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southeastern Electric - Electric Equipment Loan Program Southeastern Electric - Electric Equipment Loan Program Southeastern Electric - Electric Equipment Loan Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Maximum Rebate Heat Pumps/Electric Heat: up to $10,000 Weatherization/Insulation: $3,000 Program Info State South Dakota Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount Heat Pumps/Electric Heat: up to $10,000 Weatherization/Insulation loans: up to $3,000 Provider Southeastern Electric Cooperative Southeastern Electric Cooperative is a member-owned electric cooperative that serves customers in the southeastern part of South Dakota.

383

Electric machine  

SciTech Connect

An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi (Niskayuna, NY); Reddy, Patel Bhageerath (Madison, WI)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

384

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1334E-2009 1334E-2009 Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States Michael Stadler, Chris Marnay, Afzal Siddiqui, Judy Lai, Brian Coffey, and Hirohisa Aki Environmental Energy Technologies Division Revised March 2009 http://eetd.lbl.gov/EA/EMP/emp-pubs.html The work described in this paper was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration Program in the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02- 05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct

385

Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Venkataramanan, 2006, Microgrids in the Evolving ElectricityN ATIONAL L ABORATORY Microgrids: An emerging paradigm forFrance, 4-9 June 2007 Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for

Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Electric Commercial Cooking Appliance Development Needs: Preparation and Characterization of Chromium- Coated Residual Heat Removal System Piping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Foodservice establishments are the most energy-intensive customers in the commercial sector. This report addresses the need to improve the energy efficiency of electric cooking appliances by identifying current market opportunities and technologies for further development.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Methods for producing the plasma initiation pulse in ohmic heating circuits in tokamak power reactors: resistive dissipation, transient inductive storage, and transient capacitive storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper compares the resistive dissipation method with transient storage methods: inductive and capacitive. While the capacitive method is relatively well known through its variant, the ''Inall circuit,'' the inductive transient storage method to produce the plasma initiation pulse is less well known. It consists of two closely coupled coils, one connected with a system of differentially compounded slow discharge homopolar machines. The magnetic energy is suddenly taken from the ohmic heating circuit and temporarily stored in the mutual inductance of the two coils--thus producing the pulse.

Driga, M.D.; Mayhall, D.J.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Research and design work on heat emission and aerodynamic resistance of tube bundles in air cooling equipment  

SciTech Connect

Results of studies of heat emission using methods of local and global thermal simulation of crossflow small-array bundles of tubes finned with wound aluminum strip, and flared into the load-bearing wall, are reported. Correction factors applicable to the method of simulating convective heat transfer over the range Re = (2.5-25).10/sup 3/ are given, with variation in the number of rows over the air course from one to four.

Kuntysh, V.B.; Fedotova, L.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography: Field-Archie, G. E. , The electrical resistivity log as an aid inResults show that electrical resistivity and phase responses

Dafflon, B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Gravitational-wave spin-down and stalling lower limits on the electrical resistivity of the accreted mountain in a millisecond pulsar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electrical resistivity of the accreted mountain in a millisecond pulsar is limited by the observed spin-down rate of binary radio millisecond pulsars (BRMSPs) and the spins and X-ray fluxes of accreting millisecond pulsars (AMSPs). We find $\\eta \\ge 10^{-28}\\,\\mathrm{s}\\, (\\tau_\\mathrm{SD}/1\\,\\mathrm{Gyr})^{-0.8}$ (where $\\tau_\\mathrm{SD}$ is the spin-down age) for BRMSPs and $\\eta \\ge 10^{-25}\\,\\mathrm{s}\\,(\\dot{M}_\\mathrm{a}/\\dot{M}_\\mathrm{E})^{0.6}$ (where $\\dot{M}_\\mathrm{a}$ and $\\dot{M}_\\mathrm{E}$ are the actual and Eddington accretion rates) for AMSPs. These limits are inferred assuming that the mountain attains a steady state, where matter diffuses resistively across magnetic flux surfaces but is replenished at an equal rate by infalling material. The mountain then relaxes further resistively after accretion ceases. The BRMSP spin-down limit approaches the theoretical electron-impurity resistivity at temperatures $\\ga 10^5$ K for an impurity concentration of $\\sim 0.1$, while the AMSP stalling l...

Vigelius, Matthias

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Layered ultra-thin coherent structures used as electrical resistors having low-temperature coefficient of resistivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film resistor having a controlled temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) ranging from negative to positive degrees kelvin and having relatively high resistivity. The resistor is a multilayer superlattice crystal containing a plurality of alternating, ultra-thin layers of two different metals. TCR is varied by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. The resistor can be readily prepared by methods compatible with thin film circuitry manufacturing techniques.

Werner, T.R.; Falco, C.M.; Schuller, I.K.

1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Definition: Electrical Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Techniques Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Electrical Techniques Electrical techniques aim to image the electrical resistivity of the subsurface through the measurement...

393

Modeling the Electrical Conductivity in Glass Melts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The electrical resistivity of oxide melts is important for the design and operation of electric furnaces. The electrical properties of glass and slag...

394

Firelands Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Firelands Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Firelands Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Firelands Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Ohio Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Geothermal Heat Pump: $800 Air Source Heat Pump: $500 Dual Fuel Heat Pump: $250 Electric Water Heater: $100-$300 HVAC Controls: $100 Provider Firelands Electric Cooperative Firelands Electric Cooperative (FEC) is offering rebates on energy efficient equipment to residential customers receiving electric service from FEC. Eligible equipment includes new Geothermal Heat Pumps, Air-Source

395

Central Hudson Gas & Electric (Electric) - Residential Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

electric customers who upgrade heating, cooling or ventilation systems with specific types of energy efficient equipment. These rebates include efficient central air...

396

Reducing Your Electricity Use | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

use electricity. Electric water heating -- Purchase an energy-efficient electric water heater and operate it efficiently. Or select an energy-efficient water heater that...

397

An electrically powered binary star?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a model for stellar binary systems consisting of a magnetic and a non-magnetic white-dwarf pair which is powered principally by electrical energy. In our model the luminosity is caused by resistive heating of the stellar atmospheres due to induced currents driven within the binary. This process is reminiscent of the Jupiter-Io system, but greatly increased in power because of the larger companion and stronger magnetic field of the primary. Electrical power is an alternative stellar luminosity source, following on from nuclear fusion and accretion. We find that this source of heating is sufficient to account for the observed X-ray luminosity of the 9.5-min binary RX J1914+24, and provides an explanation for its puzzling characteristics.

Kinwah Wu; Mark Cropper; Gavin Ramsay; Kazuhiro Sekiguchi

2001-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

398

In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CARB partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and LAMELs through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and lighting, appliances, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs).

Puttagunta, S.; Shapiro, C.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

A Hot Plate Solar Cooker with Electricity Generation - Combining a Parabolic Trough Mirror with a Sidney Tube and Heat Pipe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar cookers supply clean and sustainable energy for cooking and so limit the use of wood or charcoal. A new type of solar cooker is developed with a hot plate. The hot plate offers comfortable access to the food under preparation. The hot plate opens ... Keywords: Sidney Tube, TEG, heat pipe, hot plate, solar cooker

A. D. J. Kaasjager; G. P. G. Moeys

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Computer interactive resistance simulator (CIRS)  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for simulating the insertion of electric resistance values of either positive or negative quantity into an electric circuit and for cancelling drift errors therefrom.

Mayn, Bobby G. (Pleasanton, CA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EVs) represents an important challenge, because vapor compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. This report consists of two major parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. Four cases are studied. Short range and full range EVs are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Recent legislation has allowed the use of combustion heating whenever the ambient temperature drops below 5{degrees}C. This has simplified the problem of heating, and made cooling the most important problem. Therefore, systems described in this project are designed for cooling, and their applicability to heating at temperatures above 5{degrees}C is described. If the air conditioner systems cannot be used to cover the whole heating load at 5{degrees}C, then the vehicle requires a complementary heating system (most likely a heat recovery system or electric resistance heating). Air conditioners are ranked according to their overall weight. The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation.

Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J. III

1993-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

402

Distributed energy resources customer adoption modeling with combined heat and power applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

case, such as total electricity bill, electricity generationHeat and Power Applications electricity bill for electricityK$ Investment Costs Annual Electricity Bill for Purchases

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

but solar thermal and absorption cooling are attractive, andthermal heat collection, and heat-activated cooling can bethe cooling offset by utilization of solar thermal heat,

Stadler, Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Definition: Electrical Methods | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electrical Methods Electrical Methods Electrical methods aim to map the electrical resistivity structure of the subsurface. Electrical resistivity (inverse of electrical conductivity) is a measure of the ability for electrical current to flow and depends on parameters such as rock type, porosity and permeability, fluid type and saturation, and temperature. The SI unit of measure for resistivity is the ohm meter. [1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the movement of electric charge. Resistivity is commonly represented by the Greek letter ρ. The SI unit of

405

THE DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE USE OF GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION AND NONELECTRIC HEATING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geothermal resources for electric power generation. i. PlantOF GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS Electric Power Generation SystemsUSE OF GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION AND

Apps, J.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

3 omega method for specific heat and thermal conductivity measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a 3 omega method for simultaneously measuring the specific heat and thermal conductivity of a rod- or filament-like specimen using a way similar to a four-probe resistance measurement. The specimen in this method needs to be electrically conductive and with a temperature-dependent resistance, for acting both as a heater to create a temperature fluctuation and as a sensor to measure its thermal response. With this method we have successfully measured the specific heat and thermal conductivity of platinum wire specimens at cryogenic temperatures, and measured those thermal quantities of tiny carbon nanotube bundles some of which are only 10^-9 g in mass.

L. Lu; W. Yi; D. L. Zhang

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

407

Process Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update uses real world examples to discuss applications of electrotechnology in industrial process heating and to highlight some of the emerging technologies in this field. These emerging technologies, when implemented in a plant, will provide significant energy savings as well as increase productivity. The report presents three case studies of successful implementation of two different electric process-heating technologies in three different industries. The case studies show that in some ...

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

408

Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Effect of {gamma}-ray radiation on electrical properties of heat-treated Tb{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}Se single crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of {gamma}-ray radiation on the electrical properties of heat-treated Tb{sub 0.01}Sn{sub 0.99}Se (sample 1) and Tb{sub 0.05}Sn{sub 0.95}Se (sample 2) samples is studied. It is found that, as a result of irradiation with {gamma}-ray 1.25-MeV photons, the charge-carrier concentration decreases in the temperature range T = 77-200 K by 17 and 6.3% for samples 1 and 2, respectively. It is assumed that, in the course of irradiation with {gamma}-ray photons, terbium impurity atoms are located between sites of the crystal lattice; in addition, Frenkel defects are formed.

Huseynov, J. I., E-mail: cih_58@mail.ru; Jafarov, T. A. [Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University (Azerbaijan)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

1 18 May 2003 Ris International Energy Conference Analysis of a future liberalised Lithuanian/Baltic Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the electricity and district heating markets taking into consideration: · Heat and electricity demand · Technical that simulates the electricity and district heating markets taking into consideration: · Heat and electricity

411

New results on the resistivity structure of Merapi Volcano (Indonesia), derived from 3D restricted inversion of long-offset transient electromagnetic data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. E. , 1993. Electrical resistivities of crustal ?uids, J.G. E. , 1942. The electrical resistivity log as an aid inthe electrical structure, DC resistivity soundings on the

Commer, Michael; Helwig, Stefan, L.; Hordt, Andreas; Scholl, Carsten; Tezkan, Bulent

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Heat pump water heaters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the eleven manufacturers of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the United States is presented. Product characteristics and application guidelines, including economic comparisons to other means of water heating, are summarized. A survey of forty-five utilities, identified as having conducted field tests of HPWHs, is also presented. Based on the experiences of these utilities, experimental designs, instrumentation schemes, and data reduction methods are recommended. A brief assessment of utility load profile impacts illustrates that HPWHs can provide peak load reductions compared to electric resistance water heaters. Specific recommendations are made for further research and development of HPWHs.

Dobyns, J.E.; Blatt, M.H.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab has for several years been developing methods for selection of optimal microgrid systems, especially for commercial building applications, and applying these methods in the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York, (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage, and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of power quality and reliability (PQR) to the capabilities of DER-CAM. All of these objectives have been pursued via analysis of the attractiveness of a Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid consisting of multiple nameplate 100 kW Tecogen Premium Power Modules (CM-100). This unit consists of an asynchronous inverter-based variable speed internal combustion engine genset with combined heat and power (CHP) and power surge capability. The essence of CERTS Microgrid technology is that smarts added to the on-board power electronics of any microgrid device enables stable and safe islanded operation without the need for complex fast supervisory controls. This approach allows plug and play development of a microgrid that can potentially provide high PQR with a minimum of specialized site-specific engineering. A notable feature of the CM-100 is its time-limited surge rating of 125 kW, and DER-CAM capability to model this feature was also a necessary model enhancement.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

414

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Capacity (megawatts) 27,638 13 Electric Utilities 23,008 8 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 4,630 23 Net Generation (megawatthours) 125,180,739 11 Electric...

415

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Capacity (megawatts) 44,127 5 Electric Utilities 4,800 35 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 39,327 3 Net Generation (megawatthours) 201,351,872 5 Electric...

416

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Capacity (megawatts) 26,392 15 Electric Utilities 20,115 14 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 6,277 16 Net Generation (megawatthours) 111,750,957 12 Electric...

417

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Capacity (megawatts) 36,636 7 Electric Utilities 26,639 3 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 9,998 11 Net Generation (megawatthours) 137,576,941 8 Electric...

418

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system for solar-thermal steam-electric power plants. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal performance and economics of the combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system concept for solar-thermal steam-electric plants have been evaluated. Based on the computer simulation of the operation of southwest-sited solar-thermal plants, it has been determined that the combined pond-tower concept has significant cost and performance advantages over conventional dry cooling systems. Use of a thermal storage pond as a component of the dry cooling system allows a significant reduction in the required dry cooling heat exchange capacity and the associated parasitic power consumption. Importantly, it has been concluded that the combined pond-tower dry cooling system concept can be employed to economically maintain steam condensing temperatures at levels normally achieved with conventional evaporative cooling systems. An evaluation of alternative thermal storage pond design concepts has revealed that a stratified vertical-flow cut-and-fill reservoir with conventional membrane lining and covering would yield the best overall system performance at the least cost.

Guyer, E.C.; Bourne, J.G.; Brownell, D.L.; Rose, R.M.

1979-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

420

Experimental measurements in a radio frequency discharge heated supersonic flow: Evaluation of a potential electric propulsion thruster  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An operational radio frequency discharge-driven supersonic flow system, which utilizes an inductively and capacitively coupled plasma (ICCP) tube to produce high enthalpy source gas, is described. The ICCP coupled to a properly designed nozzle represents a potential electric propulsion device. The high gas temperatures achieved in the plasma discharge (> 5000 K) and the electrodeless nature of the tube's operation offers potentially high thruster performance coupled and long operational lifetime. A preliminary characterization of the current system was established using emission and probe-based measurements. A nominal peak specific impulse of 155 s was estimated for operation with argon. The calculated thrust based upon the peak velocity and mass flow through the device is 1.1 N. 14 refs., 10 figs.

Wantuck, P.J.; Hull, D.E.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Federal Energy Management Program: Combined Heat and Power Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electricity; and the waste heat is used in some type of thermal process. Process flow for a typical CHP system leverages heat created during electricity generation to...

422

Verdigris Valley Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Verdigris Valley Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Verdigris Valley Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Verdigris Valley Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Room Air Conditioner: $50 Electric Water Heaters: $50 - $199 Geothermal Heat Pumps (new): $300/ton Geothermal Heat Pumps (replacement): $150/ton Air-source/Dual Fuel Heat Pumps: $150/ton Provider Verdigris Valley Electric Cooperative Verdigris Valley Electric Cooperative (VVEC) offers rebates for residential customers who purchase energy efficient home equipment. Rebates are

423

Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative -Residential Energy Resource  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative -Residential Energy Resource Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative -Residential Energy Resource Conservation Loan Program Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative -Residential Energy Resource Conservation Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Manufacturing Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount Heat Pump Installation: up to $5,000 Electric Water Heater and Installation: up to $5,000 Electric Heating Equipment: up to $5,000 Heat Pump Installation: up to $5,000 Weatherization: up to $1,500 Provider Minnesota Valley Electric Cooperative

424

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems May 30, 2012 - 3:40pm Addthis Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because it is a good thermal conductor and has greater resistance to corrosion. Types of Heat Exchangers Solar water heating systems use three types of heat exchangers: Liquid-to-liquid A liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger uses a heat-transfer fluid that

425

Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial Heat Pump Program (Maine) Bangor Hydro Electric Company - Residential and Small Commercial Heat Pump Program...

426

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most...

427

Design and Analysis of High-Performance Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger with an Integrated Capillary-Pumped Loop Heat Pipe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ...

McCarthy, Matthew

428

Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (Electric) - Residential Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (Electric) - Residential Energy Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Sealing Your Home Ventilation Manufacturing Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate Contact BGE Program Info State Maryland Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Central A/C: $150 - $500 Air Source Heat Pump: $200 - $500 Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump: $300 Geothermal Heat Pump (Closed Loop): $500 Duct Sealing: $250 Tune-ups: $100 Heat Pump Water Heater: $350 Room A/C: $25

429

Heat and corrosion resistant cast CN-12 type stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cast stainless steel alloy and articles formed therefrom containing about 0.5 wt. % to about 10 wt. % manganese, 0.02 wt. % to 0.50 wt. % N, and less than 0.15 wt. % sulfur provides high temperature strength both in the matrix and at the grain boundaries without reducing ductility due to cracking along boundaries with continuous or nearly-continuous carbides. Alloys of the present invention also have increased nitrogen solubility thereby enhancing strength at all temperatures because nitride precipitates or nitrogen porosity during casting are not observed. The solubility of nitrogen is dramatically enhanced by the presence of manganese, which also retains or improves the solubility of carbon thereby providing additional solid solution strengthening due to the presence of manganese and nitrogen, and combined carbon. Such solution strengthening enhances the high temperature precipitation-strengthening benefits of fine dispersions of NbC. Such solid solution effects also enhance the stability of the austenite matrix from resistance to excess sigma phase or chrome carbide formation at higher service temperatures. The presence of sulfides is substantially eliminated.

Mazias, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McGreevy, Tim (Morton, IL); Pollard,Michael James (East Peoria, IL); Siebenaler, Chad W. (Peoria, IL); Swindeman, Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

430

In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri (Houston, TX)

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

431

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas from PG&E. The electricity tariff has Time-Of-Use (TOU)month) Source: SCE TOU electricity tariff and SoCal naturalthe almost flat electricity tariff ($/kWh) and the seasonal

Stadler, Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermal storage (kWh) electricity bill (k$) NG bill (k$)thermal storage (kWh) electricity bill (k$) NG bill (k$)thermal storage (kWh) electricity bill (k$) NG bill (k$)

Stadler, Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Electrical Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electrical Techniques Electrical Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Electrical Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Geophysical Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock composition, mineral and clay content Stratigraphic/Structural: Detection of permeable pathways, fracture zones, faults Hydrological: Resistivity influenced by porosity, grain size distribution, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal: Resistivity influenced by temperature Dictionary.png Electrical Techniques: Electrical techniques aim to image the electrical resistivity of the

434

An improved procedure for developing a calibrated hourly simulation model of an electrically heated and cooled commercial building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the increased use of building energy simulation programs, calibration of simulated data to measured data has been recognized as an important factor in substantiating how well the model fits a real building. Model calibration to measured monthly utility data has been utilized for many years. Recently, efforts have reported calibrated models at the hourly level. Most of the previous methods have relied on very simple comparisons including bar charts, monthly percent difference time-series graphs, and x-y scatter plots. A few advanced methods have been proposed as well which include carpet plots and comparative 3-D time-series plots. Unfortunately, at hourly levels of calibration, many of the traditional graphical calibration techniques become overwhelmed with data and suffer from data overlap. In order to improve upon previously established techniques, this thesis presents new calibration methods including temperature binned box-whisker-mean analysis to improve x-y scatter plots, 24-hour weather-daytype box-whisker-mean graphs to show hourly temperature-dependent energy use profiles, and 52-week box-whisker-mean plots to display long-term trends. In addition to the graphical calibration techniques, other methods are also used including indoor temperature calibration to improve thermostat schedules and architectural rendering as a means of verifying the building envelope dimensions and shading placement. Several statistical methods are also reviewed for their appropriateness including percent difference, mean bias error (MBE), and the coefficient of variation of the root mean squared error. Results are presented using a case study building located in Washington, D.C. In the case study building, nine months of hourly whole-building electricity data and site-specific weather data were measured and used with the DOE-2. 1D building simulation program to test the new techniques. Use of the new calibration procedures were able to produce a MBE of-0.7% and a CV(RMSE) of 23. 1 % which compare favorably with the most accurate hourly neural network models.

Bou-Saada, Tarek Edmond

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Electrical engineering Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generation Transmission Distribution · Electrical generators · Electric motors · High voltage engineering associated with the systems Electrical engineering · Electric power generation Transmission Distribution The electricity transported to load locations from a power station transmission subsystem The transmission system

?nay, Devrim

436

Tips: Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Tips: Heat Pumps June 24, 2013 - 5:48pm Addthis Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity. Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity. Heat pumps are the most efficient form of electric heating in moderate climates. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide equivalent space conditioning at as little as one quarter of the cost of operating conventional heating or cooling appliances. A heat pump does double duty as a central air conditioner by collecting the heat inside your house and pumping it outside. There are three types of heat pumps: air-to-air, water source, and geothermal. They collect heat from the air, water, or ground outside your

437

Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Energy Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Farmers Electric Cooperative (Kalona) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate Geothermal Heat Pumps: 5 ton CFL Bulbs: 12 bulbs per year Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount CFL Bulbs: $2/bulb Geothermal Heat Pumps (New Construction): $350/ton Geothermal Heat Pumps (Upgrade): $700/ton Air Source Heat Pumps (New Construction): $800 Air Source Heat Pumps (Upgrade): $400 Central Air Conditioners: $100 - $200 Heat Pump Water Heaters: $400

438

Influence of Damp Heat on the Electrical, Optical, and Morphological Properties of Encapsulated CuInGaSe2 Devices: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) devices, encapsulated with different backsheets having different water vapor transmission rates (WVTR), were exposed to damp heat (DH) at 85C and 85% relative humidity (RH) and characterized periodically to understand junction degradation induced by moisture ingress. Performance degradation of the devices was primarily driven by an increase in series resistance within first 50 h of exposure, resulting in a decrease in fill factor and, accompanied loss in carrier concentration and widening of depletion width. Surface analysis of the devices after 700-h DH exposure showed the formation of Zn(OH)2 from hydrolysis of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) window layer by the moisture, which was detrimental to the collection of minority carriers. Minority carrier lifetimes observed for the CIGS devices using time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) remained relatively long after DH exposure. By etching the DH-exposed devices and re-fabricating with new component layers, the performance of reworked devices improved significantly, further indicating that DH-induced degradation of the AZO layer and/or the CdS buffer was the primary performance-degrading factor.

Sundaramoorthy, R.; Pern, F. J.; Teeter, G.; Li, J. V.; Young, M.; Kuciauskas, D.; Call, N.; Yan, F.; To, B.; Johnston, S.; Noufi, R.; Gessert, T. A.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Table 5.14c Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity ...

440

Intercounty Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Intercounty Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Intercounty Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Intercounty Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Home Weatherization Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Geothermal Heat Pump: $3,000 Program Info State Missouri Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Geothermal Heat Pump: $400 - 750/ton Air-to-Air or Duel Fuel Heat Pump: $150/ton Water Heater: $50 Room AC: $50/unit Provider Intercounty Electric Cooperative Intercounty Electric Cooperative provides rebates to its customers for the purchase of a variety of energy efficient equipment and appliances.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "resistance electric heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and relatively high electricity prices, capturing 97% of thecases, real-time electricity prices. Smaller DG installerselectric, and heating), electricity prices, DG availability,

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Measurement of the Nickel/Nickel Oxide Phase Transition in High Temperature Hydrogenated Water Using the Contact Electric Resistance (CER) Technique  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prior studies of Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 have shown the existence of a maximum in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in high temperature water (e.g., at 360 C), when testing is conducted over a range of dissolved (i.e., aqueous) hydrogen (H{sub 2}) concentrations. It has also been shown that this maximum in SCC susceptibility tends to occur in proximity to the nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) phase transition, suggesting that oxide phase stability may affect primary water SCC (PWSCC) resistance. Previous studies have estimated the Ni/NiO transition using thermodynamic calculations based on free energies of formation for NiO and H{sub 2}O. The present study reports experimental measurements of the Ni/NiO transition performed using a contact electric resistance (CER) instrument. The CER is capable of measuring the surface resistance of a metal to determine whether it is oxide-covered or oxide-free at a given condition. The transition aqueous hydrogen (H{sub 2}) concentration corresponding to the Ni/NiO equilibrium was measured at 288, 316, 338 and 360 C using high purity Ni specimens. The results showed an appreciable deviation (i.e., 7 to 58 scc H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O) between the measured Ni/NiO transition and the theoretical Ni/NiO transition previously calculated using free energy data from the Journal of Solution Chemistry. The CER-measured position of the Ni/NiO transition is in good agreement with the maxima in PWSCC susceptibility at 338 and 360 C. The measured Ni/NiO transition provides a reasonable basis for estimating the aqueous H{sub 2} level at which the maximum in SCC susceptibility is likely to be observed at temperatures lower than 338 to 360 C, at which SCC tests are time-consuming to perform. Limited SCC data are presented which are consistent with the observation that SCC susceptibility is maximized near the Ni/NiO transition at 288 C.

S.A. Attanasio; D.S. Morton; M.A. Ando; N.F. Panayotou; C.D. Thompson

2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

443

Wright-Hennepin Cooperative Electric Association - Residential...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Water Heater: 100-200 Ductless Heat Pump: 100 Wright-Hennepin Cooperative Electric Association provides financial incentives for its residential customers to...

444

Definition: Resistivity Log | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Resistivity Log Resistivity Log Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Resistivity Log Electrical resistivity logging is the measurement of potential (voltage) differences resulting from electrical current flow in the vicinity of a borehole in order to determine formation resistivity.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Resistivity logging is a method of well logging that works by characterizing the rock or sediment in a borehole by measuring its electrical resistivity. Resistivity is a fundamental material property which represents how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. In these logs, resistivity is measured using 4 electrical probes to eliminate the resistance of the contact leads. The log must run in holes containing electrically conductive mud or water. Resistivity logging is

445

PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ELECTRIC SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Buying a PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ELECTRIC SYSTEM A Consumer Guide 2003 System: A Consumer Guide i Buying a Photovoltaic Solar Electric System A Consumer Guide California Energy water system that uses the sun's energy to heat water, solar electric or photovoltaic technology uses

Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

446

Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation is disclosed. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment. 1 fig.

Bunshah, R.; Nath, P.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

447

Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment.

Bunshah, Rointan (Los Angeles, CA); Nath, Prem (Troy, MI)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. (North Chili, NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

450

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a time of use tariff for electrical energy. The CA dataThe ConEd tariffs, with flat electrical energy charges, andenergy from their local utilities at published tariffs. The

Stadler, Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Pearl River Valley Electric Power Association - Residential Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pearl River Valley Electric Power Association - Residential Energy Pearl River Valley Electric Power Association - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Pearl River Valley Electric Power Association - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount New Homes Heat Pump: $150 - $500 Geothermal Heat Pump: $500 Electric Water Heater: $150 Existing Homes Heat Pump: $200 Gas to Electric Water Heater Conversion: $150 Provider Pearl River Valley Electric Power Association Pearl River Valley Electric Power Association provides incentives through its Comfort Advantage Program to encourage energy efficiency within the

452

Heating Degree Day Data Applied to Residential Heating Energy Consumption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Site-specific total electric energy and heating oil consumption for individual residences show a very high correlation with National Weather Service airport temperature data when transformed to heating degree days. Correlations of regional total ...

Robert G. Quayle; Henry F. Diaz

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Electrohydrodynamically enhanced condensation heat transfer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In a condenser the thickness of the liquid condensate film covering the cooled surface constitutes a resistance to the heat transfer. By establishing a non (more)

Wawzyniak, Markus

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Future demand for electricity in the Nassau--Suffolk region  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Brookhaven National Laboratory established a new technology for load forecasting for the Long Island Lighting Company and prepared an independent forecast of the demand for electricity in the LILCO area. The method includes: demand for electricity placed in a total energy perspective so that substitutions between electricity and other fuels can be examined; assessment of the impact of conservation, new technology, gas curtailment, and other factors upon demand for electricity; and construction of the probability distribution of the demand for electricity. A detailed analysis of changing levels of demand for electricity, and other fuels, associated with these new developments is founded upon a disaggregated end-use characterization of energy utilization, including space heat, lighting, process energy, etc., coupled to basic driving forces for future demand, namely: population, housing mix, and economic growth in the region. The range of future events covers conservation, heat pumps, solar systems, storage resistance heaters, electric vehicles, extension of electrified rail, total energy systems, and gas curtailment. Based upon cost and other elements of the competition between technologies, BNL assessed the likelihood of these future developments. An optimistic view toward conservation leads to ''low'' demand for electricity, whereas rapid development of new technologies suggests ''high'' demand. (MCW)

Carroll, T.W.; Palmedo, P.F.; Stern, R.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Coast Electric Power Association - Commercial Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Coast Electric Power Association - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Eligibility Commercial Savings For Heating & Cooling...

456

Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1984-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

457

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Oklahoma Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Oklahoma Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Air-source Heat Pumps: $200 - $325/ton Geothermal Heat Pumps (with de-superheater): $600 - $700/ton Geothermal Heat Pumps (without de-superheater): $400 - $500/ton Electric Water Heaters: $180 Provider Oklahoma Electric Cooperative Oklahoma Energy Cooperative (OEC) offers rebates to residential customers for the purchase of air-source heat pumps, dual-fuel heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps and water heaters. Air-source heat pumps are eligible for a $200

459

Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the