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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Charcoal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charcoal Charcoal Nature Bulletin No. 310 June 9, 1984 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation CHARCOAL The use of charcoal is as old as the written history of mankind. There are many folk tales about the queer lonely men who lived in the forests, cutting wood and converting it into charcoal. In Europe it is still an important fuel for such purposes, for heating homes and, in some countries, for special motors on small automobiles. As late as our Civil War, gunpowder was made from a mixture of saltpeter, charcoal and sulfur -- the charcoal being specifically prepared from the wood of such trees as willow, alder and soft maple. Until 1337, when the hotblast process was discovered, using coke made from coal, charcoal was the only fuel that could be used in the smelting of iron ore. Charcoal burning was an important industry and the "colliers" who supervised the process were respected as craftsmen. Iron making flourished in early New England but by 1750, Pennsylvania, with its wealth of iron ore, limestone, water power and hardwood timber for charcoal. took the lead and became the richest of the thirteen colonies. It supplied most of the pig iron for the armies of General Washington, and rusting cannonballs are still to be found at the remains of some of those old charcoal-fired furnaces. In those days the woodlands of Pennsylvania were always covered with the thin blue haze of smoke from burning charcoal "pits" and the colliers' huts.

2

Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete  

SciTech Connect

This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

3

Pretreatment of Pulp Mill Wastewater Treatment Residues to Improve Their Anaerobic Digestion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Anaerobic digestion of excess biological wastewater treatment sludge (WAS) from pulp mills has the potential to reduce disposal costs and to generate energy through biogas… (more)

Wood, Nicholas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4{degrees}K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown to be satisfactory. The long term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL were not known and a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77{degrees}K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately half way through and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict charcoal's use as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high vacuum pumping applications. 4 refs., 8 figs.

Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Hydrous oxide activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for preparing of an ion exchanger, comprising: treating an ionically inert activated charcoal porous support with an aqueous solution of metal oxychloride selected from the group consisting of zirconium and titanium oxychlorides so as to impregnate the pores of the support with the solution; separating the treated support from excess metal oxychloride solution; converting the metal oxychloride to a hydrous metal oxide precipitate in the pores of the support at a pH above 8 and above the pH whereat the hydrous metal oxide and activated charcoal support have opposite zeta potentials and sufficient to hydrolyze the metal oxychloride. It also describes a process for preparing an ion exchanger comprising: treating granulated activated charcoal with a concentrated solution of a metal oxychloride from the group consisting of zirconium and titanium oxychlorides, degassing the mixture; and treating the resultant mixture with a base selected from the group consisting of ammonium hydroxide and alkali metal hydroxides so as to precipitate the oxychloride within the pores of the activated carbon granules as hydrous metal oxide at a pH above 8 and above the pH whereat the hydrous metal oxide and activated charcoal have opposite zeta potentials.

Weller, J.P.

1987-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

6

Replacement of charcoal sorbent in the VOST  

SciTech Connect

EPA Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), for sampling volatile organics from stationary sources, specifies the use of petroleum-base charcoal in the second sorbent tube. Charcoal has proven to be a marginal performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. In addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has been variable. Lack of data on comparability and variability of charcoals for VOST application has created uncertainty when other charcoals are substituted. Five potential sorbent replacements for charcoal in Method 0030 were evaluated along with a reference charcoal. Two of the sorbents tested, Ambersorb XE-340 and Tenax GR, did not perform well enough to qualify as replacements. Three candidates, Anasorb 747, Carbosieve S-III and Kureha Beaded Activated Charcoal, performed adequately, and produced statistically equivalent results. Anasorb 747 appears to be an acceptable replacement for petroleum charcoal, based on a combination of performance, availability, and cost.

Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests, thermodynamic calculations, process description, and operational parameters, and addresses safety concerns.

Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

A comparative analysis of emissions from bagasse charcoal and wood charcoal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Haiti is the poorest country in the Western hemisphere and is in need of cheap cooking fuel source. Currently, lump charcoal, the cooking fuel of Haiti, is made by carbonizing trees in ditches before selling the charcoal ...

Ramírez, Andrés, 1982-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Synthesis of SiC nanorods from bleached wood pulp  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Unbleached and bleached soft wood pulps have been used as templates and carbon precursors to produce SiC nanorods. Hydrolyzed tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), Silicic acid was infiltrated into the pulps followed by a carbothermal reduction to form SiC nanorods at 1400oC in Ar. Residual carbon formed along with SiC was removed by gasification at 700oC in air. The SiC materials prepared from unbleached pulp were non-uniform SiC with a thick SiO2 coating, while the SiC nanorods prepared from the bleached pulp were uniform and straight with dimensions of 250 nm in diameter and 5.0 mm long. The formation of uniform camelback structure of SiC in the reaction between silica and bleached pulp is attributed to more silica deposited in the amorphous region of cellulose.

Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Chong M.; Samuels, William D.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Antidotal effectiveness of activated charcoal in rats  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to investigate the relative adsorption of radiolabeled /sup 14/C-sodium pentobarbital by three types of activated charcoal. Factors affection adsorption of the drug by SuperChar, United States Pharmacopeia (USP), and Darco G-60 activated charcoals with surface areas of 2800-3500 m2/g, 1000 m/sup 2//g, and 650 m/sup 2//g, respectively, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, the drug was dissolved in water of 70% sorbitol (w/v), and the maximum binding capacity and dissociation constants for each of the charcoals were calculated. Rank order of maximum binding capacity was directly proportional to charcoal surface area in both water and sorbitol, while the dissociation constants for the charcoals in water were not different. For in vivo experiments, absorption of orally administered sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg) was studied in rats with and without activated charcoal administration. The results of this research suggest that: (1) SuperChar given in water possesses the greatest antidotal efficacy, (2) sorbitol induced catharsis does not reduce oral absorption of sodium pentobarbital, and (3) sorbitol enhances the antidotal efficacy of USP charcoal.

Curd-Sneed, C.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple, dynamic excel spreadsheet. ...

Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Converting sugarcane waste into charcoal for Haiti  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Haiti, most families have traditionally relied on wood and wood-derived charcoal as their primary fuel source for indoor cooking. This resource has proven to be unsustainable, however, as over 90% of the Haitian countryside ...

Toussaint, Etienne Clement

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Handbook of charcoal making: the traditional and industrial methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reviewer credits this handbook with expanding knowledge about the economic value of charcoal, particularly in the European area. The 10 chapters are: (1) history and fundamentals of the charcoal process, (2) traditional methods of the smallholder producer, (3) concepts and technology for the industrial producer, (4) recovering commercial products from pyrolysis oil, (5) raw materials supply, (6) end-use markets for by-products, (7) planning a charcoal venture, (8) charcoal briquettes and activated charcoal, (9) safety precautions and environmental considerations, and (10) charcoal laboratory work. Each chapter lists references. There are four appendices.

Emrich, W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Yunnan Yintong Bamboo Charcoal Co Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Yunnan Yintong Bamboo Charcoal Co Ltd Yunnan Yintong Bamboo Charcoal Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Yunnan Yintong Bamboo Charcoal Co Ltd Place Yunnan Province, China Sector Solar Product Yunnan-based bamboo charcoal products producer that is building a 10MW solar power plant. References Yunnan Yintong Bamboo Charcoal Co Ltd[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Yunnan Yintong Bamboo Charcoal Co Ltd is a company located in Yunnan Province, China . References ↑ "[ Yunnan Yintong Bamboo Charcoal Co Ltd]" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Yunnan_Yintong_Bamboo_Charcoal_Co_Ltd&oldid=353426" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies

15

Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure  

SciTech Connect

With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production of charcoal was 22.8 million cubic meters (3.8 million metric tons) as shown in Table 1. Brazil is the world`s largest charcoal producer --- 5.9 million cubic meters or one million metric tons was produced in 1991, most of which is used in steel and iron industry. African countries produced 45% of the world total amount of charcoal, where 86% of the wood-based energy is for domestic use, most of which is inefficiently used. Charcoal is produced commercially in kilns with a 25% to 30% yield by mass on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Until recently, the highest yield of good quality charcoal reported in the literature was 38%. In this paper, and ASME code rated experimental system is presented for producing charcoal and activated carbon from biomass.

Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Pulping lignocellulose in continuous pressurized batch digesters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A batch process to produce kraft pulp is described, in which a combination of black and white liquor is used for cooking of wood chips. In the process, the steam consumption to produce 357 tons/day pulp at 50% yield was approximately 1600 lb/ton pulp, compared with 4000 lb/ton for a batch digester of conventional type.

Green, F.B.

1980-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

17

Fluorine gettering by activated charcoal in a radiation environment  

SciTech Connect

Activated charcoal has been shown to be an effective gettering agent for the fluorine gas that is liberated in a radiation environment. Even though activated charcoal is a commonly used getter, little is known about the radiation stability of the fluorine-charcoal product. This work has shown that not only is the product stable in high gamma radiation fields, but also that radiation enhances the capacity of the charcoal for the fluorine. The most useful application of this work is with the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel salt because the radioactive components (fission products and actinides) cause radiolytic damage to the solid LiF-BeF/sub 2/-ZrF/sub 4/-UF/sub 4/ (64.5, 30.3, 5.0, 0.13 mol %, respectively) resulting in the liberation of fluorine gas. This work has also demonstrated that the maximum damage to the fuel salt by approx.3 /times/ 10/sup 7/ R/h gamma radiation is approximately 2%, at which point the rate of recombination of fluorine with active metal sites within the salt lattice equals the rate of fluorine generation. The enhanced reactivity of the activated charcoal and radiation stability of the product ensures that the gettered fluorine will stay sequestered in the charcoal.

Felker, L.K.; Toth, L.M.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison  

SciTech Connect

Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

Johnson, Eric, E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.u [Atlantic Consulting, Obstgartenstrasse 14, 8136 Gattikon (Switzerland)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Design of a crushing and agglomeration process for manufacturing bagasse charcoal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Haiti, wood and wood charcoal are common fuels for cooking. This practice has contributed to deforestation, leading to erosion and fatal floods. The availability of charcoal made from a different source other than wood, ...

Fan, Victoria Y. (Victoria Yue-May)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Predicting the efficiency of activated charcoal for filtering radon  

SciTech Connect

In order to accurately assess the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of radon from flowing air, a literature survey was performed to identify the models and relevant data that were available. It was found that by modifying the mathematical model of equilibrium stage theory used by Strong and Levins, the output rate of an activated charcoal filter exposed to a step function input in the radon rate at time zero with a given carrier gas flow velocity could be predicted. This paper outlines the modifications made to Strong and Levins's model and presents predictions for the filter output from the modified model.

Jarzemba, M.S.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E.; Christensen, R.N. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

facility in an existing pulp mill to demonstrate the production of cellulosic ethanol from lignocellulosic (wood) extract. RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red...

22

Activated charcoal. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include adsorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and description and evaluation of adsorptive abilities. Applications include use in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (Contains a minimum of 151 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Pulp & Paper Industry- A Strategic Energy Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry with yearly energy purchases of $5 billion per year including 50 billion kWh of power is one of the largest industrial energy producers in the U.S. However, structural changes in the global pulp and paper industry could greatly impact the energy purchases of U.S. firms. Depending on how energy suppliers react, this change could represent a threat or an opportunity.

Stapley, C. E.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases by charcoals and composites of metal oxides  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, much attention has been devoted to environmental problems such as acid rain, photochemical smog and water pollution. In particular, NOx emissions from factories, auto mobiles, etc. in urban areas have become worse. To solve these problems on environmental pollution on a global scale, the use of activated charcoal to reduce air pollutants is increasing. However, the capability of wood-based charcoal materials is not yet fully known. The removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases such as N{sub 2} should be described. In this study, the adsorption of NO over wood charcoal or metal oxide-dispersed wood charcoal was investigated. In particular, carbonized wood powder of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) was used to study the effectivity of using these materials in adsorbing NOx. Since wood charcoal is chemically stable, metal oxide with the ability of photocatalysis was dispersed into wood charcoal to improve its adsorption and capability to use the light energy effectively.

Ishihara, Shigehisa; Furutsuka, Takeshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

Comparison of Impurities in Charcoal Sorbents Found by Neutron Activation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract: Neutron activation of gas samples in a reactor often requires a medium to retain sufficient amounts of the gas for analysis. Charcoal is commonly used to adsorb gas and hold it for activation; however, the amount of activated sodium in the charcoal after irradiation swamps most signals of interest. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed on several commonly available charcoal samples in an effort to determine the activation background. The results for several elements, including the dominant sodium element, are reported. It was found that ECN charcoal had the lowest elemental background, containing sodium at 2.65 ± 0.05 ppm, as well as trace levels of copper and tungsten.

Doll, Charles G.; Finn, Erin C.; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kephart, Rosara F.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Recovery and Determination of Adsorbed Technetium on Savannah River Site Charcoal Stack Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental results are provided for the sample analyses for technetium (Tc) in charcoal samples placed in-line with a Savannah River Site (SRS) processing stack effluent stream as a part of an environmental surveillance program. The method for Tc removal from charcoal was based on that originally developed with high purity charcoal. Presented is the process that allowed for the quantitative analysis of 99Tc in SRS charcoal stack samples with and without 97Tc as a tracer. The results obtained with the method using the 97Tc tracer quantitatively confirm the results obtained with no tracer added. All samples contain 99Tc at the pg g-1 level.

Lahoda, Kristy G.; Engelmann, Mark D.; Farmer, Orville T.; Ballou, Nathan E.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 1:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LBNL-5021E Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test Kayje Booker, Tae Won Han, Jessica Granderson, Jennifer Jones, Kathleen Lask, Nina Yang, Ashok Gadgil Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 June 2011 Research funding was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, and partially by the support of NDSEG Fellowship. 2 DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the

29

Monitoring radioactive xenon gas in room air using activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

A method for monitoring room air for radioactive xenon gas is described. It uses activated charcoal vials, a vacuum source and a well-type scintillation counter. The method may be adapted for detection and identification of any radioactive gas excluding those with ultra-short half-lives. Sampling room air during xenon-133 ({sup 133}Xe) ventilation lung studies was performed using this technique. The results show that low concentrations of {sup 133}Xe in room air can be reliably detected and that staff exposure to {sup 133}Xe at this institution was within ICRP recommendations.

Langford, J.; Thompson, G. (Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth (Australia) Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

The adsorption of argon, krypton and xenon on activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal adsorption beds are commonly used to remove radioactive noble gases from contaminated gas streams. The design of such beds requires the adsorption coefficient for the noble gas. Here an extension of the Dubinin-Radushkevich theory of adsorption is developed to correlate the effects of temperature, pressure, concentration, and carrier gas on the adsorption coefficients of krypton, xenon, and argon on activated carbon. This model is validated with previously published adsorption measurements. It accurately predicts the equilibrium adsorption coefficient at any temperature and pressure if the potential energies of adsorption, the micropore volume, and the van der Waals constants of the gases are known. 18 refs., 4 figs.

Underhill, D.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Motor System Use This profile discusses how energy efficienct motor systems can help pulp and paper mills save money. Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use...

32

PuLP: A Linear Programming Toolkit for Python  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sep 5, 2011 ... This required that PuLP be affordable, easily licensed, and ... trast to Pyomo ( section 4), another Python-based modelling language, PuLP does.

33

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China Title Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China Publication Type...

34

Water adsorption on charcoal: New approach in experimental studies and data representation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The experimental apparatus was built to study the H{sub 2}O adsorption on charcoal at very low concentrations and collect the data in the form of isosteres. Experimental method is discussed and the global three-dimensional fit is constructed to predict the post-regeneration conditions of charcoal absorbers. 11 refs.

Geynisman, M.; Walker, R.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air  

SciTech Connect

Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

Paper pulp from sugar mill bagasse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a continuation-in-part of US Serial No. 884,513, abandoned. Neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) cooking of depithed bagasse gave pulp with improved physicomechanical properties for use in the production of newsprint paper. Thus, the NSSC cooking at 170-175/sup 0/ gave pulp in 70-75% yield. The NSSC pulp as above was bleached with alkali H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ at 50-70/sup 0/ to give a product with breaking load 8.7 kg, tensile 3.9%, breaking length 7.13 km, absolute tearing strength 135 cmg/cm, absolute bursting strength 3.8 kg/sq. cm and Elrepho brightness 61.

Krueger, H.; Berndt, W.; Schwartzkopff, U.; Reitter, F.J.; Hoepner, T.; Muehlig, H.J.

1981-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

37

Structure and capillary properties of carbon materials. Influence of various types of treatment of charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Activated charcoal KM-2 with a large volume of micropores served as the object of investiations to find the adsorption properties and the porous structure of the activated charcoals. The sorption isotherms of benzene vapor were measured at 20 C. On the basis of the experimental data obtained, the authors calculated the volumes of the principle types of pores, the surface ofthe mesopores, and the parameters of the microporous structure of the charcoals. Results show that decalcification results in an appreciable decrease in the ash content of the charcoal, and some increase in the total volume of the pores, mainly in the volume of the mesopores. The surface of the mesopores increases accordingly. The sorption isotherms of water vapor and benzene vapor on activated charcoal samples are compared.

Dribinskii, A.V.; Kukushina, I.A.; Shteinberg, G.V.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Energy Conservation Progress and Opportunities in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1980 the pulp and paper industry was the third ranking consumer of total purchased fuels and energy in the U.S. industrial sector and the highest single industry in terms of residual oil consumption. Over the past decade in response to rapidly rising energy prices, the pulp and paper industry has made significant progress in reducing fossil fuel consumption through conservation and increased use of internally generated fuels. Purchased energy usage has declined from 19.2 Btu/ton of product in 1972 to 13.9 Btu/ton in 1982; and further significant reductions over the next decade appear likely. This paper examines the progress which has occurred in reducing the industry's reliance on purchased fossil fuel over the past decade, focusing on the key steps which led to energy conservation and increased fuel substitution. Present work toward continuing energy conservation will be reviewed and key opportunities for continued reduction into the 1990s will be examined.

Watkins, J. J.; Hunter, W. D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Ozone removal capability of a welding fume respirator containing activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Development of air purifying respirators for protection against ozone has been slowed by concerns about oxidation of charcoal and other available sorbents. The suitability of a charcoal sorbent for low concentrations of ozone was evaluated as a part of the development of a half-mask air purifying respirator designed for welding fumes and ozone. Testing of the respirator confirmed that charcoal can be a suitable sorbent for low levels of ozone. Where the respirator is properly selected, fit tested, and worn, respirator use against welding fumes and ozone at concentrations not exceeding 10 times the permissible exposure limit had been recommended.

Johnston, A.R.; Dyrud, J.F.; Shih, Y.T. (Occupational Health and Environmental Safety Division, St. Paul, MN (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Technical Viability of Biocoke from Mixtures Coal-Wood Charcoal for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to replace from 10% to 50% of the coal used in cokemaking by mixing it with a renewable source (wood charcoal). The powder ...

42

Oxidation of phosphine by iron(III) chloride complexes supported on activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

It has been discovered that iron(III) chloride complexes supported on activated charcoal oxidize phosphine under normal conditions. The process accelerates as the concentration of the chloride ions and the proton acid increases.

Rakitskaya, T.L.; Kostyukova, I.S.; Red'ko, T.D.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Design of a bagasse charcoal briquette-making device for use in Haiti  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charcoal made from bagasse, the fibrous remains of sugarcane production, has the potential to serve as an alternate cooking fuel in Haiti, where the reliance on wood has led to severe deforestation. Current production ...

Vechakul, Jessica

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect

Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries through the pulping phases. Most water used in the pulping process ends up as warm waste water in the mill’s effluent discharge, which subsequently pollutes receiving waterways and carries an enormous amount of energy with it. Wash water reduction in brown stock washing with the Steam Cycle Washers (SCW) will save energy, up to 1+ million BTUs per ton of pulp in the evaporators alone. Reduction of liquid volume through bleaching stages will save process heat energy in the amount of 2+ million BTUs per ton of pulp, and as much as 80 – 100 kWhrs of electrical power per ton of pulp due to reduced pumping costs. Currently, the technical barriers to water reduction in chemical pulping are basically as follows: • conventional pulp washers wash the pulp at 10 - 14% consistency, • conventional pulp washers use 12 – 16 tons of wash water per ton of pulp, and • they leave 30 – 70 lbs of soda (Na2SO4) per ton of pulp as soda loss into the washed pulp. The amount of wash water in excess of the amount of process liquid in the pulp is called Dilution Factor (DF), even though it is not a factor in the mathematical sense but an addition. Modern pulp washing lines can wash efficiently with a DF of 3 but most pulp mills in the United States are washing with a DF of 5-7. Therefore, at 10% washing consistency 14-16 tons of wash water is required and 14% consistency requires 11-13 tons of wash water.

Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

45

Experience with improved charcoal and wood stoves for households and institutions in Kenya  

SciTech Connect

Efforts at promoting more fuel-efficient charcoal stoves to replace traditional charcoal stoves in Kenya offer some lessons for the dissemination of appropriate technologies. This paper looks at the market-based approach which has made the Kenyan charcoal stoves project a success. Trends in woodfuels (wood and charcoal) consumption in Kenya are identified; the traditional technology for charcoal combustion and the upgraded traditional technologies are described; production achievement and the dissemination and promotion strategy used are examined; and a financial and economic analysis is performed with social, health and environmental effects assessed. Other ways to achieve a more favourable balance between woodfuels consumption and supply are then discussed looking at more efficient charcoal kilns and household woodstoves, improved institutional stoves and increased wood production. The replication potential of the Kenya experiment in other countries is also explored. The lessons learnt from the the Kenya experience concern the relationship between technology, choice and delivery systems as they interact with, economic, institutional, and policy factors. In this case, the design work accepted the traditional technology as a starting point which helped ensure widespread acceptance by households. The potential desirability of relying on local artisans to manufacture consumer durables using existing private sector channels to market these goods is also shown. It also highlights the importance of going beyond a laissez-faire approach and supporting training, demonstration, and publicity to faciliate the workings of the private sector. In the Kenyan case, technology choice was relatively unsubsidized and left ot the preferences of consumers.

Hyman, E.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency in the U.S. pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the US pulp and paper industry,” Energy Policy 4 28 pp.in the Pulp and Paper Industry,” Energy Policy 7-9 25The U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry: An Energy Perspective,”

Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Anglani, Norma; Einstein, Dan; Khrushch, Marta; Price, Lynn

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Focus on Energy (2006). Pulp and Paper Energy Best PracticeThe U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry: An Energy Perspective.USE IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY Energy represents a

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Factors Affecting Raw Material Inventory Management in the Northeastern United States Pulp and Paper Industry.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Raw material inventory management is an area of concern for many pulp and paper companies in the Northeastern United States, and procurement managers for pulp… (more)

Todd, Kevin Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Selective adsorption of uranium on activated charcoal from electrolytic aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of uranium onto various solids is important from purification, environmental, and radioactive waste disposal points of view. Adsorption of uranium on activated charcoal has been studied as a function of shaking time, amount of adsorbent, pH, concentration of adsorbate, and temperature. Uranium adsorption obeys the Langmuir isotherm. {Delta}H{degrees} and {Delta}S{degrees} were calculated from the slope and intercept of plots ln K{sub D} vs 1/T. The influence of different anions and cations on uranium adsorption has been examined. The adsorption of other metal ions on activated charcoal has been studied under specified conditions to check its selectivity; consequently, uranium was removed from Cs, Ba, Zn, and Co. More than 98% adsorbed uranium on activated charcoal can be recovered with 65 ml of 3 M HNO{sub 3} solution. A wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used for measuring uranium concentration.

Saleem, M.; Afzal, M. (Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)); Qadeer, R.; Hanif, J. (Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Potential of biomass residue availability; The case of Thailand  

SciTech Connect

An acute shortage of fuel wood and charcoal prevails in many developing countries. A logical approach to the problem places emphasis on the development of alternative energy sources, including use of biomass residues. An assessment of the potential of biomass residues for energy and other uses calls for an estimation of their annual production. Also, because the residues are normally bulky they should be utilized near their place of origin whenever possible to avoid high transportation costs. Thus knowledge of the total national generation of residues per year does not provide enough information for planning residue utilization. This article illustrates a method of residue estimation that takes the case of Thailand as an example. It presents the annual generation of nine agricultural resides (paddy husk, paddy straw, bagasse, cotton stalk, corn cob, groundnut shell, cassava stalk and coconut husk and shell) and one forestry residue (sawdust) in different agroeconomic zones and regions of Thailand. The methodology used for the investigation of crop-to-residue ratios is outlined. The annual generation figures for the different residues along with observations about their traditional uses are presented.

Bhattacharya, S.C.; Shrestha, R.M.; Ngamkajornvivat, S. (Energy Technology Div., Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok 10501 (TH))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Paper pulp is added to a stain solution. The stain solution and pulp fibers are mixed to form a slurry. Samples are removed from the slurry and are admixed with dilution water and a bleach. Then, the fibers are moved into a flow cell where they are subjected to a light source adapted to stimulate fluorescence from the stained pulp fiber. Before the fiber slurry enters the flow cell it is mixed with a dilution water of bleach to reduce background fluorescence. The fluorescent light is collimated and directed through a dichroic filter onto a fluorescence splitting dichroic filter.

Gustafson, Richard (Bellevue, WA); Callis, James B. (Seattle, WA); Mathews, Jeffrey D. (Neenah, WI); Robinson, John (Issaquah, WA); Bruckner, Carsten A. (San Mateo, CA); Suvamakich, Kuntinee (Seattle, WA)

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

52

Alabama Pine Pulp Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pulp Biomass Facility Pulp Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Alabama Pine Pulp Biomass Facility Facility Alabama Pine Pulp Sector Biomass Location Monroe County, Alabama Coordinates 31.5119068°, -87.460397° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.5119068,"lon":-87.460397,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

53

Microsoft Word - Pulp and Paper EPI Documentation FINAL 05212012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE DEVELOPMENT OF ENERGY STAR ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD MILLS GALE A. BOYD AND YI FANG GUO DUKE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF...

54

Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

55

Continued studies of co-pumping of deuterium and helium on a single, 4K activated charcoal panel  

SciTech Connect

The short program undertaken in 1989 to evaluate the feasibility of co-pumping deuterium and tritium (DT) and helium on a charcoal sorbent showed that the charcoal will indeed simultaneously pump the gases. Of interest also was the fact that the total accumulation of helium (capacity) was virtually identical in constant throughput runs in which the D{sub 2}/He ratio was changed between runs. The test program described in this paper undertaken to evaluate further the co-pumping capabilities of the charcoal sorbent.

Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Batzer, T.H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA)); Konishi, S.; Ohira, S.; Naruse, Y. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Thermodynamic properties of adsorbed mixtures of benzene and cyclohexane on graphitized carbon and activated charcoal at 30/degree/c  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data at 30/degree/C are reported for the adsorption of mixtures of benzene and cyclohexane on two types of carbon surface: graphitized carbon and activated charcoal. The properties of the adsorbed solution approach those of bulk liquid at vapor saturation for graphitized carbon, but not for activated charcoal. The mixtures adsorbed on graphitized carbon are nonideal, and the deviations from ideality increase with surface coverage. For activated charcoal, the adsorbed mixtures are nearly ideal at all coverages. Mixture behavior for both adsorbents can be predicted without using experimental data for the adsorbed mixtures. 11 refs.

Myers, A.L.; Minka, C.; Ou, D.Y.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the Pulp and Paper Industry,” Energy Policy 25 (7-9):on reducing energy use” Pulp and Paper Magazine. Milleron the US pulp and paper industry,” Energy Policy, Volume

Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Use of Activated Charcoal for Rn-220 Adsorption for Operations Associated with the Uranium Deposit in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility  

SciTech Connect

Measurements have been collected with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of {sup 220}Rn from process off-gas at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A series of bench-scale tests were performed at superficial flow velocities of 10, 18, 24, and 33 cm s{sup -1} (20, 35, 47, and 65 ft min{sup -1}) with a continuous input concentration of {sup 220}Rn in the range of 9 x 10{sup 3} pCi L{sup -1}. In addition, two tests were performed at the MSRE facility by flowing helium through the auxiliary charcoal bed uranium deposit. These tests were performed so that the adsorptive effectiveness could be evaluated with a relatively high concentration of {sup 220}Rn. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of activated charcoal as a {sup 220}Rn adsorption media, the source term for available {sup 220}Rn and gaseous fission products was evaluated and compared to what is believed to be present in the deposit. The results indicate that only a few percent of the total {sup 220}Rn in the deposit is actually available for removal and that the relative activity of fission gases is very small when compared to {sup 220}Rn. The measurement data were then used to evaluate the expected effectiveness of a proposed charcoal adsorption bed consisting of a right circular cylinder having a diameter of 43 cm and a length of 91 cm (17 in. I.D. x 3 ft.). The majority of the measurement data predicts an overall {sup 220}Rn activity reduction factor of about 1 x 10{sup 9} for such a design; however, two measurements collected at a flow velocity of 18 cm s{sup -1} (35 ft min{sup -1}) indicated that the reduction factor could be as low as 1 x 10{sup 6}. The adsorptive capacity of the proposed trap was also evaluated to determine the expected life prior to degradation of performance. Taking a conservative vantage point during analysis, it was estimated that the adsorption effectiveness should not begin to deteriorate until a {sup 220}Rn activity on the order of 10{sup 10} Ci has been processed. It was therefore concluded that degradation of performance would most likely occur as the result of causes other than filling by radon progeny.

Coleman, R.L.

1999-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

59

Use of Activated Charcoal for {sup 220}Rn Adsorption for Operations Associated with the Uranium Deposit in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility  

SciTech Connect

Measurements have been collected with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of {sup 220}Rn from process off-gas at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A series of bench-scale tests were performed at superficial flow velocities of 10, 18, 24, and 33 cm/s (20, 35, 47, and 65 ft/min) with a continuous input concentration of {sup 220}Rn in the range of 9 x 10{sup 3} pCi/L. In addition, two tests were performed at the MSRE facility by flowing helium through the auxiliary charcoal bed uranium deposit. These tests were performed so that the adsorptive effectiveness could be evaluated with a relatively high concentration of {sup 220}Rn. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of activated charcoal as a {sup 220}Rn adsorption media, the source term for available {sup 220}Rn in the deposit is actually available for removal and that the relative activity of fission gases is very small when compared to {sup 220}Rn. The measurement data were then used to evaluate the expected effectiveness of a proposed charcoal adsorption bed consisting of a right circular cylinder having a diameter of 43 cm and a length of 91 cm (17 in. I.D. x 3 ft.). The majority of the measurement data predicts an overall 220Rn activity reduction factor of about 1 x 10{sup 9} for such a design; however, two measurements collected at a flow velocity of 18 cm/s (35 ft/min) indicated that the reduction factor could be as low as 1 x 10{sup 6}. The adsorptive capacity of the proposed trap was also evaluated to determine the expected life prior to degradation of performance. Taking a conservative vantage point during analysis, it was estimated that the adsorption effectiveness should not begin to deteriorate until a {sup 220}Rn activity on the order of 10{sup 10} Ci has been processed. It was therefore concluded that degradation of performance would likely occur as the result of causes other than filling by radon progeny.

Coleman, R.L.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Creating a low-cost, low-particulate emissions corn cob charcoal grinder for use in Peru  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indoor air pollution is a serious health risk in developing countries, and is the leading cause of death for children under five. By replacing traditional cooking fuels with charcoal, one can significantly reduce a user's ...

Thomas, Ashley Elizabeth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Adsorption and desorption of noble gases on activated charcoal: II. sup 222 Rn studies in a monolayer and packed bed  

SciTech Connect

The adsorptive and desorptive characteristics of canisters containing a petroleum-based charcoal were investigated under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and Rn concentration. Charcoals exposed in a monolayer and packed bed during exposure intervals of 1-7 d demonstrate that Rn adsorption and desorption are dependent on bed depth and the amount of water adsorbed. Changes in the adsorptive and desorptive properties of the charcoal occurred near the break-point where the pores became occluded by water vapor that condenses in the entrance capillaries. Radon-222 adsorption is decreased by an order of magnitude as the amount of adsorbed water exceeds the break-point of the charcoal. The reduction in pore surface due to adsorbed water results in a marked increase in the rate of Rn loss from exposed canisters, accounting for reduced adsorption. The apparent desorption time-constant for a 2-cm bed of loose Witco 6 x 10 mesh charcoal containing 0.220-0.365 kg H{sub 2}O kg-1 is typically between 2-8 h. The apparent desorption time-constant for an equivalent packed bed containing a water vapor content of 0.026-0.060 kg H{sub 2}O kg-1, which is below the break-point of the charcoal, is about 15-30 h. Conventional charcoal canisters, if exposed in the fully-opened configuration, can achieve the break-point in less than 4 d at 70% humidity. The use of a diffusion barrier would allow for longer exposure times until the break-point of the charcoal is achieved.

Scarpitta, S.C.; Harley, N.H. (Department of Energy, New York, NY (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills December 13, 2011 - 4:12pm Addthis Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Neil Rossmeissl General Engineer What does this project do? Breathes new life into shuttered factories and mills. Saves and creates jobs. Despite Americans' voracious appetite for paper products -- a staggering 700 pounds per person annually -- America's pulp and paper industry has been struggling as of late due to competition from countries where

63

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills December 13, 2011 - 4:12pm Addthis Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Neil Rossmeissl General Engineer What does this project do? Breathes new life into shuttered factories and mills. Saves and creates jobs. Despite Americans' voracious appetite for paper products -- a staggering 700 pounds per person annually -- America's pulp and paper industry has been struggling as of late due to competition from countries where

64

Kinetics of the direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Direct electric heating by passing an electrical current directly through a bed of adsorbent may prove to be an efficient means of regenerating activated charcoal in continuous and batch adsorption processes. Obvious advantages of this type of regeneration are its almost complete lack of inertia, which makes it possible to reduce the number and dimensions of the adsorbers, and its highly efficient use of energy due to the small number of steps in the conversion of the energy, as well as the reduction of heat losses involved in warming the structure and making up for losses to the surroundings. The authors consider the kinetics of direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal not containing adsorbed substances.

Marfin, M.N.; Shumyatskii, Yu.I.

1987-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

65

Adsorption and desorption of noble gases on activated charcoal: I. sup 133 Xe studies in a monolayer and packed bed  

SciTech Connect

Detailed desorption studies using petroleum-based activated charcoals were conducted in monolayers and packed beds. Less extensive studies were conducted on several other types of charcoal. Kinetic studies, using {sup 133}Xe, demonstrated the existence of a micropore volume with entrance capillaries that together determined the response characteristics of charcoal to external concentration gradients of tracer gases. This new two-phase model, composed of micropores and entrance capillaries, describes the desorption dynamics of an adsorbed gas in the presence of water vapor. Condensed water vapor in the entrance capillaries of the charcoal reduced the effective pore radius and increased the diffusion half-time. Water could also adversely affect the integrating capability of the charcoal dramatically if the adsorbed water completely blocked the entrance capillaries. The amount of adsorbed water required to block the capillaries varied with the charcoal type and was termed here as the break-point. The desorption parameters measured in this work can be used to design an improved passive Rn monitor to effectively integrate during a 3-7 d exposure period by eliminating the adverse effects of water vapor. The improved canister design would provide more accurate and reproducible measurements of indoor Rn concentrations than are currently available.

Scarpitta, S.C.; Harley, N.H. (Department of Energy, New York, NY (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Effect of thermal treatments on the properties of nickel and cobalt activated-charcoal-supported catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The effect of thermal pretreatment in N[sub 2] up to 723 K and the activation treatments in H[sub 2] and an inert atmosphere on the properties of Ni and Co activated-charcoal-supported catalysts were studied. Catalysts were characterized by means of N[sub 2] adsorption at 77 K, H[sub 2] chemisorption at room temperature, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The catalysts' activity and selectivity for acetone hydrogenation to 2-propanol under unusual and severe conditions (473 K and high overall acetone conversion) were also measured. TGA and XRD evidence was found for the charcoal-support-promoted NiO and CoO reduction to the metallic states when the catalysts were subjected to an inert atmosphere above 723 K caused a loss of acetone hydrogenation activity (calculated on a metal load basis) for both the Ni and Co activated-charcoal-supported catalysts, with respect to that of the low-temperature (573 K) activation treatments. In a series of activated-charcoal-supported Ni catalysts, a large decrease in the H[sub 2] chemisorption uptake was also found for a sample pretreated in N[sub 2] at 723 K prior to H[sub 2] reduction. These results were not due to nickel or cobalt sintering, as shown by XRD line broadening measurements. The catalytic activity loss was accompanied by a decrease (in the case of Ni) and an increase (in the case of Co) in the 2-propanol selectivity. 44 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Gandia, L.M.; Montes, M. (Universidad del Pais Vasco, San Sebastian (Spain))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

A theoretical model for adsorption capacities of charcoal beds: I, Relative humidity effects  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor is the major interferent in the adsorption of other vapors from air when that air is passed through an activated charcoal bed. A limited amount of data (published and unpublished) is available on the magnitudes of capacity (or service life) reduction as a function of relative humidity (water vapor concentration) and preadsorbed water. A simple equilibrium model has been developed which quantitatively explains observed humidity effects and allows extrapolation of data to untested conditions. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Wood, G.O.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO{sub 2}). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

69

Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

Giles, GE

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

70

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS ERIC D. LARSON Milano Milan, Italy ABSTRACT Cogeneration of heat and power at kraft pulp/paper mills from on-site bioma modeling of gasifier/gas turbine pulp-mill cogeneration systemsusing gasifier designs under commercial

71

ICME for Residual Stress  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 8, 2012 ... Application of ICME to Weld Process Innovations and Residual Stress ... Incorporation of Residual Stresses into Design of Ni-Base Superalloy ...

72

Evaluation of biological and physico-chemical quality of the compost produced from pulp mill residues.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Nos últimos anos, a produção de celulose kraft branqueada vem crescendo significativamente no Brasil e, com isso, aumenta-se a preocupação dos aspectos ambientais desta tipologia,… (more)

Marcos Antonio de Souza Lima Guerra

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Continuous On-Line Measurement of Lignin Concentration in Wood Pulp  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We are working toward the development of an instrument for the continuous, on-line measurement of the lignin concentration in wood pulp. The instrument is based on laser induced fluorescence of the wood pulp and is to be used as a primary sensor for both feedback control of the pulping and feedforward control of bleaching. We report here the results of a series of laboratory tests that characterized the fluorescence properties of wood pulp and demonstrated a correlation between various fluorescence functions and the Kappa number of the pulps as determined by TAPPI Procedure T236.

Jeffers, L. A.; Roman, G. W.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Gas Turbine Considerations in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest users of energy in the industrial arena. Large quantities of process steam and electrical energy are required per unit of production. The pulp and paper industry has recognized the thermodynamic benefits and potentially attractive economics of developing power generation as an integral part of their power plant systems. The large requirements for process steam combined with process by-products and wood wastes make steam turbines a serious consideration in plant locations where suitable economic conditions are present. And many systems incorporating a wide variety of steam turbine types have been installed and are contributing toward profitable operations. In recent years, competitive pressures, environmental concerns, the cost and availability of various fuels, and new power generation opportunities have awakened the interest in power generation in the pulp and paper industry, as well as others. A strategic review of these issues creates the opportunity to favorably position the pulp and paper industry for the coming century. The industry has also become aware that gas turbine-based cogeneration systems can frequently be highly desirable relative to their traditional steam turbine approach.

Anderson, J. S.; Kovacik, J. M.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Environmental and economic evaluation of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems are examined by quantifying the residuals generated and the land, water, and material requirements per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy generated. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. These data are also computed on the basis of 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy recovered. The cost, residual, material, land, and water data were then organized into a format acceptable for input into the SEAS data management program. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

In vitro adsorption of sodium pentobarbital by SuperChar, USP and Darco G-60 activated charcoals  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to examine the in vitro adsorption of sodium pentobarbital by three activated charcoals. Solutions of sodium pentobarbital (20 mM) were prepared in distilled water and in 70% sorbitol (w/v). Radiolabeled (/sup 14/C) sodium pentobarbital was added to each solution to serve as a concentration marker. Two ml of each drug solution was added to test tubes containing 40 mg of either Darco G-60, USP, or SuperChar activated charcoal. The drug-charcoal mixtures were incubated at 37 degrees C for O, 2.5, 5, 7.5 or 10 min. Equilibrium, indicated by a constant percentage of drug bound for two consecutive time periods, was established immediately for the aqueous mixtures and for Darco G-60 in sorbitol. The time to equilibrium was prolonged for USP (2.5 min) and SuperChar (5 min) in the presence of sorbitol. In the second series of experiments, solutions of sodium pentobarbital (1.25 to 160 mM) were prepared in either distilled water or sorbitol. Amount of drug bound by 10 to 320 mg of activated charcoal within a 10 min incubation period was determined. Scatchard analysis determined maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and dissociation constants (Kd) for each activated charcoal. In water, Bmax (mumoles/gm) was greatest for SuperChar (1141), followed by USP (580) and Darco G-60 (381), while the Kd's did not differ. Sorbitol did not change the Bmax or Kd of USP or Darco G-60, but the additive significantly decreased the Bmax (717) and increased the Kd for SuperChar (3.3 to 10.1 mM). The results suggest that relative binding capacity of activated charcoal is directly proportional to surface area, and that sorbitol significantly reduces sodium pentobarbital binding to SuperChar.

Curd-Sneed, C.D.; Parks, K.S.; Bordelon, J.G.; Stewart, J.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

The case of the European Pulp and Paper IndustriesThe case of the European Pulp and Paper Industries October 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

total primary energy supply. » #12;Wood at the intersectionWood at the intersection Energy Raw material industry demandForecasted industry demand Supply of wood under historical managementSupply of wood underThe case of the European Pulp and Paper IndustriesThe case of the European Pulp and Paper

78

Charcoal-methanol adsorption refrigerator powered by a compound parabolic concentrating solar collector  

SciTech Connect

A compound parabolic concentrating solar collector (CPC) of concentration ratio 3.9 and aperture area 2.0 m[sup 2] was used to power an intermittent solid adsorption refrigerator and ice maker using activated charcoal (carbon) as the adsorbing medium and methanol as the working fluid. The copper tube receiver of the CPC was packed with 2.5 kg of imported adsorbent 207E3, which was only utilized when the performance of activated charcoal (ACJ1, produced from local coconut shells) was found to be inferior to the imported adsorbent. Up to 1 kg of ice at an evaporator temperature of [minus]6[degrees]C was produced, with the net solar coefficient of performance (COP) being of the order of 0.02. Maximum receiver/adsorbent temperature recorded was 154[degrees]C on a day when the insolation was 26.8 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]. Temperatures in excess of 150[degrees]C are undesirable since they favour the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether, a noncondensable gas which inhibits both condensation and adsorption. The major advantage of this system is its ability to produce ice even on overcast days (insolation [approximately] 10 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]).

Headley, O.StC.; Kothdiwala, A.F.; McDoom, I.A. (Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Microsoft Word - Pulp and Paper EPI Documentation FINAL 05212012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE - DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE DEVELOPMENT OF ENERGY STAR® ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD MILLS GALE A. BOYD AND YI FANG GUO DUKE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS BOX 90097, DURHAM, NC 27708 MAY 21, 2012 SPONSORED BY THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AS PART OF THE ENERGY STAR PROGRAM. 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the U.S. EPA Climate Protection Partnerships Division's ENERGY STAR program. The research has benefited from comments by participants involved with the ENERGY STAR Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry Focus meetings. The research in this paper was conducted while the author was a Special Sworn Status researcher of the U.S. Census Bureau at the Triangle Census

80

Mechanical and chemical chip pre-treatment in mechanical pulp production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The mechanical pulping industry has been developing throughout the years, due to competitive prices in the electricity market and good accessibility of wood. This… (more)

Sjölin, Malin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Removal of Thiosalts using Biomass Ash from Pulp and Paper Mill ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass ash used in this study is collected from Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Mill, NL and Zellstoff Celgar Mill, BC and is characterized to understand the ...

82

A study into the permeability and compressibility of Australian bagasse pulp.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This is an experimental study into the permeability and compressibility properties of bagasse pulp pads. Three experimental rigs were custom-built for this project. The experimental… (more)

Rainey, Thomas James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Activated charcoal. January 1970-October 1988 (Citations from the Compendex data base). Report for January 1970-October 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include absorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and properties descriptions and evaluations. Applications include utilization in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (This updated bibliography contains 150 citations, 14 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Carbothermal reduction growth of ZnO nanostructures on sapphire-comparisons between graphite and activated charcoal powders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were grown by the vapour phase transport (VPT) method on a-plane sapphire substrates via carbothermal reduction of ZnO powders with various carbon powders. Specifically, graphite powder and activated charcoal powder (of ... Keywords: Growth, Nanostructures, ZnO

M. Biswas; E. McGlynn; M. O. Henry

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Activated charcoal. October 1976-August 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for October 1976-August 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include absorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and properties descriptions and evaluations. Applications include utilzation in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (This updated bibliography contains 160 citations, 14 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Activated charcoal. October 1976-December 1989 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for October 1976-December 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include absorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and properties descriptions and evaluations. Applications include use in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (This updated bibliography contains 176 citations, 16 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be attractive under many circumstances. For nearly all of the cases examined in the study, the IRR lies between 14% and 18%, assuming a 25-year levelized world oil price of $50/bbl--the US Department of Energy's 2006 reference oil price projection. The IRRs would rise to as high as 35% if positive incremental environmental benefits associated with biorefinery products are monetized (e.g., if an excise tax credit for the liquid fuel is available comparable to the one that exists for ethanol in the United States today). Moreover, if future crude oil prices are higher ($78/bbl levelized price, the US Department of Energy's 2006 high oil price scenario projection, representing an extrapolation of mid-2006 price levels), the calculated IRR exceeds 45% in some cases when environmental attributes are also monetized. In addition to the economic benefits to kraft pulp/paper producers, biorefineries widely implemented at pulp mills in the U.S. would result in nationally-significant liquid fuel production levels, petroleum savings, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and criteria-pollutant reductions. These are quantified in this study. A fully-developed pulpmill biorefinery industry could be double or more the size of the current corn-ethanol industry in the United States in terms of annual liquid fuel production. Forest biomass resources are sufficient in the United States to sustainably support such a scale of forest biorefining in addition to the projected growth in pulp and paper production.

Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate--an unexpected organochlorine contaminant in some charcoal air-sampling sorbent tubes  

SciTech Connect

Air sampling in a government building was necessary in response to reports of a cancer cluster. SKC (Eighty Four, Pa.) charcoal coconut shell-based sorbent tubes (226-01 lot 120) were recommended for this procedure. A recently purchased supply was present at the University of British Columbia and consequently was used for this particular study. Analysis of the front charcoal section showed the presence of a flame retardant, tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate, which was confirmed by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and mass spectrometry analysis. In an effort to identify the source of this fire retardant in the building, it became apparent from the analysis done on unknown field blanks that tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate was a contaminant of the sorbent tubes used. Analysis of additional blank tubes identified the foam separators as the most likely source of contamination. Levels of tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate in the front charcoal section ranged from 1.3 to 5.9 micrograms. The foam separator contained between 11.4 and 16.5 micrograms, and the backup charcoal section contained between 14.5 and 24.0 micrograms of tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate. In addition, another flame retardant, tri (1,3 dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate was also found. Because these contaminants have long column retention times in GLC, it may not be apparent that these contaminants are present and consequently are likely to have modified the sorbent characteristics of the activated charcoal. Another batch of sorbent tubes bearing the same catalog number and lot number was purchased from the supplier; no flame retardants were found in this batch.

van Netten, C.; Brands, R.; Park, J.; Deverall, R. (Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, (Canada))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Synthesis of a high-yield activated carbon by air gasification of macadamia nut shell charcoal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Macadamia nut shell charcoal was heated in an inert environment to temperatures above 1000 K (carbonized), reacted with oxygen (Po{sub 2} = 2.68--11.3 kPa) at temperatures between 525 and 586 K (oxygenated), and heated again in an inert environment to temperatures above 1000 K (activated) to produce an activated carbon. Carbons produced by this process possess surface areas and iodine numbers in the range of 400--550. Overall yields of these carbons (based on the dry, raw macadamia nut shell feed) ranged from 24 to 30 wt %. Under the conditions employed in this work, the rates of chemisorption and gasification were not mass transfer limited. Initially, the gasification reaction was first-order with respect to oxygen concentration but became independent of oxygen concentration as the surface sites of the carbon became saturated with oxygen.

Dai, X.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. Department of energy, the U.S. pulp and paper industry9 Figure 3. Primary Energy Use in U.S. Paperpolicies on the US pulp and paper industry,” Energy Policy,

Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power color from pulp mill effluent using coal ash. Prevent coal ash adsorbent from leaching arsenic, chromium, lead, and zinc. Define a treatment procedure using coal ash that will result in the maximum

Hutcheon, James M.

92

Advanced Modeling and Materials in Kraft Pulp Mills  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This CRADA provided technical support to the Weyerhaeuser Company on a number of issues related to the performance and/or selection of materials at a number of locations in a pulp and paper mill. The studies related primarily to components for black liquor recovery boilers, but some effort was directed toward black liquor gasifiers and rolls for paper machines. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Weyerhaeuser in the evaluation of materials exposed in various paper mill environments and to provide direction in the selection of alternate materials, when appropriate.

Keiser, J.R.; Gorog, J.P.

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

The Quality Monitoring Technology in the Process of the Pulping Papermaking Alkaline Steam Boiling Based on Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On the status quo that being lack of the testing equipment which gives reliable and direct parameters on measuring the quality of pulp in the cooking process, this article focus on the lignin value soft-measurement technology in the pulp and papermaking ... Keywords: Neural network, Pulp and papermaking, Soft-measurement model

Jianjun Su; Yanmei Meng; Chaolin Chen; Funing Lu; Sijie Yan

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Department of Energy Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp and Paper Industry Department of Energy Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp and Paper Industry December 20, 2005 - 4:50pm Addthis Total Cost-Shared Value of Research is $4.3 Million WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded $2.2 million in research and development grants for projects to save energy in the pulp and paper industry. The research will focus on removing water from pulp in the paper making process and determining the technical and commercial feasibility of next generation manufacturing concepts. "New efficient technologies and processes are key to reducing our energy consumption now and in the future," said Douglas L. Faulkner, Acting Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

95

The Fractionation of Loblolly Pine Woodchips Into Pulp For Making Paper Products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project was to test the PureVision biomass fractionation technology for making pulp from loblolly pine. A specific goal was to produce a pulp product that is comparable to pulp produced from the kraft process, while reducing the environmental effects of the kraft process, known to be a highly pollutant process. The overall goal of the project was met by using the biomass fractionation concept for making pulp product. This proof-of-concept study, done with Southern pine pinchips as feedstock, evaluated NaOH concentration and residence time as variables in single-stage cocurrent pulping process. It can be concluded that 1% NaOH is adequate for effective delignification using the PureVision process; this is about ? of that used in the kraft process. Also, the PureVision process does not use sulfur-based chemicals such as N2S and hence, is environmentally more benign.

Kiran Kadam, PhD

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

96

Generation in the Pulp and Paper Industry FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Milano. Any use the reader makes of this report, or any reliance upon or decisions to be made based upon this report are the responsibility of the reader. Neither Navigant Consulting, Princeton University nor Politecnico di Milano accepts any responsibility for damages, if any, The U.S. pulp and paper industry, with its substantial capacity for producing and using renewable biomass energy – 1.6 quads in 2002 – has the potential to contribute significantly to addressing global warming and U.S. energy security concerns, while potentially also improving its own global competitiveness. A key requirement for substantially enhancing renewable energy use in this industry to achieve these goals is the commercialization of breakthrough technologies, especially gasification. Gasification of biomass produces a fuel gas (“syngas”) consisting largely of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) that can be cleanly converted into electricity in a gas turbine combined cycle or, in the longer term, into transportation fuels such as Fischer-Tropsch liquids or hydrogen. The predominant form of biomass energy available at pulp mills today is black liquor, the ligninrich byproduct of fiber extraction from wood. Black liquor contains about half the energy of the

Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Gas chromatographic determination of microamounts of glycols and their esters in aqueous medium using adsorption on activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Rapid growth of production of glycols and their derivatives, especially methyl and ethyl esters, and wide use of these substances in various branches of the national economy (1) inevitably necessitate analytical monitoring of their content in waste waters and various water bodies. The authors studied the scope of gas-chromatographic determination of microamounts of glycols and their esters in aqueous media at the sanitary standards level (10/sup -5/%) using activated charcoal for their adsorption concentration from aqueous solutions, desorption from the charcoal by ethanol, and evaporationconcentration of the alcoholic solutions. The quantitative concentration characteristics were studied with reference to ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, triethyleneglycol, tripropylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, ethylcellosolve, ethyl carbitol, and monoethyl ester of triethylene glycol.

Begunov, G.A.; Titovskaya, V.N.; Galenko, A.V.

1987-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

98

A theoretical model for {sup 222}Rn adsorption on activated charcoal canisters in humid air based on Polanyi`s potential theory  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor interferes with adsorption {sup 222}Rn gas by passive activated charcoal devices used to estimate indoor air concentrations. The {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficient is the fundamental parameter characterizing charcoal`s ability to adsorb {sup 222}Rn. The Dubinin-Radushkevich equation, based on Polanyi`s potential theory, was modified to include two terms quantifying the effect of both water vapor and sampling time on the {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficient of passive charcoal devices. A single equation was derived that quantities the {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficients at any temperature, humidity and exposure time using six experimentally determined physical constants that are unique for a particular passive charcoal device. The theoretical model was verified with published experimental data, and it showed a good correlation between theory and experiment. The model proved to be consistent with experimental data, provided that the amount of water vapor adsorbed by the charcoal device during sampling remains below a critical level, termed the breakpoint. 44 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Scarpitta, S.C. [Dept. of Energy, New York, NY (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Measurement of the axial distribution of radioactivity in the auxiliary charcoal bed of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory commenced operation in 1964 and was shut down in 1969. It was fueled with {sup 233}UF{sub 4} in a carrier salt of LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4}, and it operated at 1,200 F. After it was shut down, the fuel was heated annually to 200 C to recombine fluorine (with the fuel) released due to radiation-induced reactions in the fuel salt. However, a competing reaction oxidized uranium to UF{sub 6}, which was released (along with F{sub 2}) from the fuel and trapped in one of four charcoal filters in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). One of the tasks for decommissioning of the MSRE requires that at least 90% of the estimated 3 kg of {sup 233}U, and radioactive decay products, in this filter be removed, and one of the proposed methods is to vacuum the charcoal above a specified axial position in the filter. This requires that the axial distribution of activity in the filter be measured in a 60 rad/h radiation field to determine where this penetration can be made. To accomplish this, the shielded detector with a pinhole collimator, and with a laser positioning capability, was remotely translated to various axial positions to accomplish these measurements. Activities in the steel screen, and various regions of the charcoal bed, are estimated, and uncertainties in these estimates are generally {lt}1%. Results from this analysis are used for continued operational decisions for decommissioning of the MSRE.

Miller, L.F.; Buckner, M.; Buchanan, M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

NAREL (National Air and Standard Environmental Laboratory) standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using diffusion barrier charcoal canisters  

SciTech Connect

Radon monitoring procedures for the National Air and Radiation Environment Laboratory (NAREL) are described. Radon is detected by sorption to activated charcoal, followed by detection of gamma ray emissions from the radon decay products lead-214 (295 KeV and 392 KeV) and bismuth-214 (609 KeV). The activated charcoal is held in an 8 ounce metal can, under a polyethylene diffusion barrier and a stainless steel screen, 30--50% open. The polyethylene barrier reduces water absorption by the charcoal, and improves integration over the exposure period. The proper use of the container is described, as is the counting system and calibration of the detecting system. Fabrication of reference standards and background canisters is described. Equations and sample calculations to determine radon concentrations are given. All terms in the equation are defined, and all calibration factors are calculated. The minimal detectable amounts of radon as a function of detector exposure time are calculated. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (MHB)

Gray, D.J.; Windham, S.T.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

“What Efficiency Projects are Being Installed in the Pulp and Paper Industry”  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Wisconsin Focus on Energy program has seven years of experience on the actual projects that are being installed in the Pulp and Paper industry. The program has a broad perspective on the types and trends of investments in energy efficiency for this industrial sector. This paper would discuss these projects and trends to show what is working for the real investments in efficiency for the Pulp and Paper Sector. Also included in this paper will be a description of the Pulp and Paper Energy Best Practices Guidebook that was developed by Focus on Energy and is now published by TAPPI.

Nicol, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Materials needs and opportunities in the pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) supports research and development (R&D) in industry, the DOE national laboratories, and in universities to develop energy efficient, environmentally-acceptable industrial technologies. The Office of Industrial Technologies is working with seven energy-intensive industries to develop R&D roadmaps that will facilitate cooperative government-industry efforts to achieve energy-efficient, environmentally-acceptable, sustainable industries of the future. The forest products industry is one of the industries with which OIT is working to develop an R&D roadmap. The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program of the Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors long-term, directed research on materials that will enable industry to develop and utilize more energy-efficient, sustainable processes and technologies. The purpose of the study described in this report was to identify the material R&D needs and opportunities for the pulp and paper mill of the future.

Angelini, P. [comp.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Preliminary feasibility study of pulping catalyst production from lignin  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary evaluation of the economic feasibility of preparing anthraquinone, a pulping catalyst, from readily available lignin has been performed. The proposed process begins with a fractionation of lignin from a black liquor stream by means of a supercritical fluid or conventional solvent extraction to give a low molecular weight fraction conductive to further chemical treatment. This fraction is sequentially oxidized with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, treated with a diene and dehydrogenated to give anthraquinone. The cost of the proposed process is most dependent on the overall yield of the chemical processing steps with a smaller contribution noted for lignin processing. The projections indicate that anthraquinone could be produced for as low as $1.00--$1.25/lb using this process. Details of the process, chemical reactions and calculations are included.

Power, A.J. (Power (Arthur J.) and Associates, Boulder, CO (USA)); Bozell, J.J.; Chum, H.L. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy.Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energyand energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pulp and

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency in the U.S. pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paper Industry: An Energy Perspective,” U.S. Department ofConsumption of Energy 1994,” U.S. DOE – EIA, Washington,policies on the US pulp and paper industry,” Energy Policy 4

Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Anglani, Norma; Einstein, Dan; Khrushch, Marta; Price, Lynn

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

guidebook (a.k.a. the “Energy Guide”) for pulp and papermanufacturers. The Energy Guide discusses a wide range ofThe information in this Energy Guide is intended to help

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Materials - Recycling - Shredder Residue  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recovering Materials from Shredder Residue Recovering Materials from Shredder Residue Obsolete automobiles, home appliances and other metal-containing scrap are shredded for the recovery of metals. More than 50% of the material shredded is automobiles. In the United States, shredders generate about 5 million tons of shredder residue every year. Similar amounts are produced in Europe and in the Pacific Rim. Because recycling shredder waste has not been profitable, most of it ends up in landfills; smaller amounts are incinerated. Argonne researchers have developed and tested a process to recover polymers and metals from shredder residue. A 2-ton/hr pilot plant, consisting of a mechanical separation facility and a six-stage wet density/froth flotation plant, was built at Argonne. In the mechanical part of the plant, the shredder waste was separated into five primary components: a polymer fraction (about 45% by weight), a residual metals concentrate (about 10% by weight), a polyurethane foam portion (about 5% by weight), an organic-rich fraction (about 25% by weight) and a metal oxides fraction (about 15% by weight). The polymer fraction was then separated further in the wet density/froth flotation system to recover individual plastic types or compatible families of polymers.

109

Agriculture Residues Recycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Saudi Arabia, as well as other countries in the Near East region, is characterized by erratic weather conditions, limited area of fertile arable lands, and with acute water shortage. Although agricultural residues (AGR) production in the region is huge (more than 440 million tons), most of these residues are either burned in the field or utilized in an inefficient way. Utilization of AGR as compost may contribute to expansion of arable lands through its use for reclamation of soil and reduce irrigation requirements. This study was conducted at Al Khalidiah farm, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to assess compost production at large commercial scale using several types of agricultural and animal by-products with addition of a BZT®Compost Activator (based mainly on microorganism, enzymes and yeast). In this study, two types of compost piles were made at the farm. The first pile of compost was made of different agriculture residues, namely: animal wastes (quail, goat and sheep manure), brownian agricultural wastes (windbreaks residues, date trees, citrus and olive trees pruning) and green landscape grasses (50%, 25 % and 25%, respectively) and was treated with a tested compost activator. The same agriculture residues combination was also made for the second pile as traditional compost

M. W. Sadik; H. M. El Shaer; H. M. Yakot

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Development of a Pulp Process Treating Contaminated HEPA Filters (III)  

SciTech Connect

The Pulp Process (PP) Treatment option was conceived as a replacement for the current Filter Leaching System (FLS). The FLS has operated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory since 1995 to treat radioactive, mixed waste HEPA filters. In recent years, the FLS has exhibited difficulty in removing mercury from the HEPA filters as the concentration of mercury in the spent HEPA filters has increased. The FLS leaches and washes the whole filter without any preparation or modification. The filter media and the trapped calcine particles are confined in a heavy filter housing that contributes to poor mixing zones around the edges of the filter, low media permeability, channeling of the liquid through cracks and tears in the filter media, and liquid retention between leach and rinse cycles. In the PP, the filter media and the trapped calcine particles are separated from the filter housing and treated as a pulp, taking advantage of improved contact with the leach solution that cannot be achieved when the media is still in the HEPA filter housing. In addition to removing the mercury more effectively, the PP generates less volume of liquid waste, requires a shorter leach cycle time, and possesses the versatility for treating filters of different sizes. A series of tests have been performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the advantages of the PP concept. These tests compare the PP with the FLS under controlled conditions that simulate the current operating parameters. A prior study using blended feed, a mixture of shredded clean HEPA filter media and non-radioactive calcine particles, indicated that the PP would significantly increases the calcine dissolution percentages. In this study, hazardous-metal contaminated HEPA filter media was studied. The results of side-by-side tests indicated that the PP increased the mercury removal percentage by 80% and might be a solution to the mercury removal problem encountered by the current FLS. A patent application has been filed for the PP and the patent is pending. In order to validate the PP and collect information for engineering design and economical feasibility studies, pilot plant scale tests are planned.

Hu, J. S.; Ramer, J.; Argyle, M. D.; Demmer, R. L.

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

112

SRC Residual fuel oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

114

Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill  

SciTech Connect

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

115

Residual Stresses and Numerical Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 28, 2013 ... Advances in Hydroelectric Turbine Manufacturing and Repair: Residual Stresses and Numerical Simulation Sponsored by: Metallurgical ...

116

Atmospheric emissions of one pulp and paper mill. contribution to the air quality of Viana do Castelo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the most sensitive environmental impact of the pulp and paper mills is associated with the atmospheric pollution namely with sulphur compounds, particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. The study undertaken aimed to evaluate the influence of one ... Keywords: air pollution modelling, kraft pulp and paper mill, urban air pollution

Lígia T. Silva; José F. G. Mendes

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Overview of the government/industry workshop on opportunities for new materials in pulp and paper processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a synopsis of the presentations made at the two-day workshop conducted in Portland, Oregon, on August 12 and 13, 1993, for the Advanced Industrial Concepts division (AICD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) and DOE national laboratory representatives from the pulp and paper industry. The information from the presentations is supplemented by additional statistics, as appropriate. The workshop objectives were (1) to develop a strategy and framework for collaboration between the pulp and paper industries and DOE`s national laboratories, (2) to identify major challenges to pulp and paper industry modernization, and (3) to identify research objectives for DOE national laboratories to improve materials and process technology in pulp and paper mills. Prior to the workshop, participants had the opportunity to tour paper mills and gain familiarity with pulp and paper processing methods. During the workshop, research needs for materials and processing that were identified at earlier AICD workshops were reviewed. Major problems of the pulp and paper industry were addressed, and ways in which DOE national laboratories are interacting with other industries to foster innovation and solve problems were presented. As a result of this and other workshops, a Pulp Paper Mill of the future strategy is being developed to address challenges identified in these proceedings. Continued efforts are expected by AICD to match candidate materials and processes from DOE national laboratories with the technology needs of pulp and paper mills.

Young, J.K.; Fowler, R.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. pulp and paper industry consumes over $7 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pulp and paper industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This paper provides a brief overview of the U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR(R) for Industry energy efficiency guidebook (a.k.a. the"Energy Guide") for pulp and paper manufacturers. The Energy Guide discusses a wide range of energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Also provided is a discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pulp and paper industry along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Many energy efficiency measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in pulp and paper mills and related industries worldwide. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. pulp and paper industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

Kramer, Klaas Jan; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use | ENERGY  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources

120

Effect of a catalyst on the kinetics of reduction of celestite (SrSO{sub 4}) by active charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Reduction of celestite (SrSO{sub 4}) powder with particles of active charcoal has been studied extensively in the absence and presence of catalysts. The optimum temperature at the charging zone has been optimized to get a maximum water-soluble strontium sulfide value. The strontium value has been analyzed using a chemical method, which was verified by the instrumental method using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES). The conversion-time data have been analyzed by using a modified volume-reaction (MVR) model, and the effect of the catalyst on kinetic parameters has been elucidated. It was found that potassium carbonate, potassium dichromate, sodium carbonate, and sodium dichromate catalysts were found to enhance the reaction rate quite satisfactorily in the reduction of the celestite (SrSO{sub 4}).

Sonawane, R.S.; Kale, B.B.; Apte, S.K.; Dongare, M.K.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Effects of pH and inorganic salts on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous systems on activated decolorizing charcoal  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation of the effects of pH and three inorganic salts (KCl, KI, and NaCl) on the adsorption isotherms of phenol (from a dilute aqueous solution) on activated charcoal was conducted. Each salt was studied at three different concentrations, i.e., 0.1, 0.01, and 0.005 M. The effect of pH (in the pH range 3 to 11) in the presence of KI, KCl, and NaCl was also investigated. The concentration of phenol in the aqueous systems studied ranged from 10 to 200 ppm. The temperature effect was also studied, and the resulting experimental equilibrium isotherms at 30, 40, and 55{degrees}C are well represented by Freundlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Paterson isotherms. The relevant parameters for these isotherms are presented.

Halhouli, K.A.; Darwish, N.A.; Al-Dhoon, N.M. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Mechanism of silica precipitation by lowering pH in chemi-thermomechanical pulping black liquors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Black liquor is a complex colloidal system obtained by chemical pulping process. It comprises of lignin, nearly 50% of the total organic and Silica approx. 2-3% (OD basis) of the total inorganic components. Black liquor is fed to chemical recovery plant ... Keywords: black liquors, desilication and concentrators, lignin, silica

Muhammad Ikram Aujla; Ishtiaq-Ur-Rehman Ishtiaq-Ur-Rehman; Asad Javaid

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- ation of slags from iron- and steel industry" pre- sented at the 4th Nordic Mini-symposium on CO2CO2 emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2 Nordic Plus) and Use of serpentinites in energy and metal industry (ECOSERP) Carl-Johan Fogelholm, Project leader, professor Sanni

Zevenhoven, Ron

124

BT8 Residual Stress Diffractometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 5) T. Gnaupel-Herold, HJ Prask, AV Clark, CS Hehman, TN Nguyen, A Comparison of Neutron and Ultrasonic Determinations of Residual Stress ...

125

BT8 Residual Stress Diffractometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Residual Stresses and Mechanical Damage in Gas Pipelines. ... Pressure in a pipeline superimposes a stress on ... are exceeded in pipelines with low ...

126

Techniques for Measuring Residual Stresses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Classification of techniques for measuring residual stress...stress A-1 Stress-relaxation techniques using electric

127

Techniques for Measuring Residual Stresses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Classification of techniques for measuring residual stress...stress A-1 Stress relaxation techniques using electric

128

Hanford Tank Waste Residuals  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Hanford Tank Waste Residuals DOE HLW Corporate Board November 6, 2008 Chris Kemp, DOE ORP Bill Hewitt, YAHSGS LLC Hanford Tanks & Tank Waste * Single-Shell Tanks (SSTs) - ~27 million gallons of waste* - 149 SSTs located in 12 SST Farms - Grouped into 7 Waste Management Areas (WMAs) for RCRA closure purposes: 200 West Area S/SX T TX/TY U 200 East Area A/AX B/BX/BY C * Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) - ~26 million gallons of waste* - 28 DSTs located in 6 DST Farms (1 West/5 East) * 17 Misc Underground Storage Tanks (MUST) * 43 Inactive MUST (IMUST) 200 East Area A/AX B/BX/BY C * Volumes fluctuate as SST retrievals and 242-A Evaporator runs occur. Major Regulatory Drivers * Radioactive Tank Waste Materials - Atomic Energy Act - DOE M 435.1-1, Ch II, HLW - Other DOE Orders * Hazardous/Dangerous Tank Wastes - Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (TPA) - Retrieval/Closure under State's implementation

129

Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Adriaan van Heiningen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

130

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

Not Available

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Residual Circulation and Tropopause Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of large-scale dynamics as represented by the residual mean meridional circulation in the transformed Eulerian sense, in particular its stratospheric part, on lower stratospheric static stability and tropopause structure is studied ...

Thomas Birner

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Phase I Energy Targeting Study Using Pinch Analysis: Kamloops Pulp Mill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On behalf of EPRI and Global Energy Partners, American Process Inc. (API) carried out an energy targeting study using pinch analysis at Kamloops Pulp Mill. API constructed complete process flow diagrams and a partial simulation model of the steam and condensate system and of the warm and hot water systems. The heat recovery opportunities were quantified and a new condensing turbine was evaluated by incorporating the mill data from October 24, 2001. This data was assumed to be representative of year-round...

2003-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

133

On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

134

On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

Jeffers, Larry A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Liberty Township, Trumbull County, OH)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF ENERGY AND CLIMATE POLICIES ON THE U. S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Many energy and climate policies are being debated in the United States that could have significant impact upon the future of the pulp and paper industry. Five of these policies are examined here in terms of their possible directional influences on biomass energy and paper production: (1) a national renewable electricity standard, (2) a U.S. greenhouse gas cap and trade system, (3) stronger renewable fuels standards, (4) expanded state incentives for biomass pilot plants, and (5) more favorable taxation of forest property. The observed trends reinforce the value of forest product diversification through the addition of biomass power generation and transportation fuels/chemicals production as co-products of the pulp and paper industry. Therefore, directing capital expenditures to the increasingly cost-competitive and expanding biopower and biofuels markets would appear to have merit in anticipation of the promulgation of new energy and climate legislation. Accelerated investments in new facilities such as biorefineries and cogeneration units and in energy-efficiency upgrades would position the pulp and paper industry to profit from current trends and likely policy initiatives. 1.

Marilyn A. Brown; Nilgun Atamturk; Dr. Marilyn; A. Brown

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Crop residues as feedstock for renewable fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nutrient removal and net costs weigh on decisions to use crop residues as biofuel feedstocks. Crop residues as feedstock for renewable fuels Inform Magazine Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Inform Archives Crop residues as feedstock for rene

137

DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

Kyser, E

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

138

Chemistry of combined residual chlorination  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The decay of the combined chlorine residual was investigated in this work. Recent concerns about the formation of undesirable compounds such as chloroform with free residual chlorination have focused attention on the alternative use of combined residual chlorination. This work investigates the applicability of reactions proposed to describe the transformations and decay of the combined residual with time. Sodium hypochlorite was added to buffered solutions of ammonia with the chlorine residual being monitored over periods extending up to 10 days. The reaction was studied at four initial concentrations of hypochlorite of 100, 50, 25 and 10 mg/L as Cl/sub 2/ with molar application ratios of chlorine to ammonia, defined herein as M ratios, of 0.90, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.05 at each hypochlorite dose. Sixty-eight experiments were conducted at the pH of 6.6 and 7.2. The conclusions are: (1) in the absence of free chlorine, the concentration of NH/sub 3/ does not seem to affect the rate of disappearance of the residual other than through the formation of NHCl/sub 2/ by NH/sub 2/Cl hydrolysis; (2) the reaction between NHCl/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ to form NH/sub 2/Cl is either much slower than reported by Gray et. al. or the mechanism is different with a rate limiting step not involving NH/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/; (3) a redox reaction in addition to the first-order decomposition of NHCl/sub 2/ appears necessary. Model simulation results indicated that a reaction of the type NH/sub 2/Cl + NHCl/sub 2/ ..-->.. P added to the first-order NHCl/sub 2/ decomposition can explain the results observed except at the higher chlorine doses.

Leao, S.F.; Selleck, R.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic File with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications are discussed, including drinking water purification, air and water pollution control, manufacture of industrial materials, materials recovery, waste treatment, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, cigarette filters, ventilation systems, medical filtration, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains a minimum of 125 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Activated-charcoal filters: water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. January 1970-July 1988 (citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-July 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated-charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, industrial leaching, and filtration of toxic gases and pollutants are described. Applications include drinking water purification, filtering beverages, production of polymer materials, solvent and metal recovery, swimming pool filtration, waste conversion, automobile fuel and exhaust systems, and footwear deodorizing. (Contains 129 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications are discussed, including drinking water purification, air and water pollution control, manufacture of industrial materials, materials recovery, waste treatment, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, cigarette filters, ventilation systems, medical filtration, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the Patent Bibliographic database with exemplary claims. ) Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, industrial leaching, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications include drinking water purification, filtering beverages, production of polymer materials, solvent and metal recovery, waste conversion, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, swimming pool filtration, tobacco smoke filters, kitchen ventilators, medical filtration treatment, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect

This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

2001-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

144

Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

145

Pinch Analysis Process Energy Integration Study of Slocan Fibreco Pulp Mill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a Pinch analysis study undertaken at the Slocan Fibreco Pulp mill. The study's objective is to draw a global strategic plan of action aiming at the cost minimization of the mill's thermal energy usage. This has been achieved with the help of a well-proven process — energy integration technique called Pinch analysis, an approach that is particularly suitable to identify cost-effective solutions from a global perspective of the whole process. A 2-year maximum direc...

2005-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

146

Vitrification of NAC process residue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1200{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Minimizing Energy Costs Through Water Management in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantity of steam required by a pulp and paper mill, as well as the quantity of power generated can effectively be optimized by managing the water cycles in the mill. This approach addresses the process systems within the mill and investigates the unit operations associated with the systems to optimize them. A byproduct of any water reduction program is a reduction in the steam use of the mill. Invariably, this results in an imbalance in the steam distribution, which can require rebalancing the turbogenerators. Process simulation is used to execute the heat and mass balances required at all stages of the analysis. The result is a rapid analysis that pinpoints deficient unit operations and offers a capital spending plan that outlines the necessary process changes. The usual result is a better process with less waste and pollution, improved yield, increased capacity, lower operating costs and reduced energy demands. A case study is presented: a 1990 study that significantly decreases waster usage and allowed additional pulp production while reducing total stream generation and increasing power production.

Wilson, P. H.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Transforms for prediction residuals in video coding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Typically the same transform, the 2-D Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), is used to compress both image intensities in image coding and prediction residuals in video coding. Major prediction residuals include the motion ...

Kam??l?, Fatih

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP the next 5 to 20 years. As a replacement for Tomlinson-based cogeneration, black liquor- gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration promises higher elecuical efficiency, with prospective environmental, safety

150

A hybrid capacitive pressure and temperature sensor fabricated by adhesive bonding technique for harsh environment of kraft pulp digesters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed a compensated capacitive pressure and temperature sensor for kraft pulp digesters (pH 13.5, temperatures 25–175°C reaching a local maximum of 180°C and pressures up to 2 MPa). The gauge capacitive pressure ...

Abdolreza R. Mohammadi; Chad P. J. Bennington; Mu Chiao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

RESIDUAL STRESSES IN 3013 CONTAINERS  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

152

U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Sulfur < 1% Residual F.O., Sulfur > 1% No. 4 Fuel Oil Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes...

153

1 2Impacts of Energy and Carbon Taxes on the US Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Market-based climate change policy instruments, such as energy and carbon taxes, have frequently been proposed as efficient means to stimulate industrial energy efficiency improvements and to reduce carbon emissions. This paper presents an assessment of the impacts that energy and carbon taxes may have on energy use and emissions profiles of the US pulp and paper industry. Time series data and engineering information are combined to endgenously specify changes in technologies and fuel mix within a dynamic computer model. The results of the model indicate under a wide range of assumptions that revenue-neutral energy or carbon taxes will increase carbon emissions when compared to the absence of those taxes, and that carbon emissions are higher under carbon taxes than under comparable energy taxes. Those seemingly counter-intuitive results have significant policy implications which are discussed in this paper.

Matthias Ruth; Brynhildur Davidsdottir; Matthias Ruth; Brynhildur Davidsdottir

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

DOE Joint Genome Institute. Pulp NonFiction: Fungal Analysis Reveals Clues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

March 22, 2012 March 22, 2012 Pulp NonFiction: Fungal Analysis Reveals Clues for Targeted Biomass Deconstruction Without fungi and microbes to break down dead trees and leaf litter in nature, the forest floor might look like a scene from TV's "Hoarders." Ceriporiopsis subvermispora mycelium on wood Photo: Scanning electron micrograph of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora mycelium on wood. (R. Blanchette, University of Minnesota) Massive-scale genome sequencing projects supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and being carried out at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) highlight the importance of learning how the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin that serve as a plant's infrastructure can be broken down by these forest organisms to extract needed nutrients. Among the fungi being

155

Changing Trends in the Bulk Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Compared with the experience of the 1990s, rising energy prices in recent years have led to questions about expectations of growth in industrial output, particularly in energy-intensive industries. Given the higher price trends, a review of expected growth trends in selected industries was undertaken as part of the production of AEO2005. In addition, projections for the industrial value of shipments, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in AEO2004, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) in AEO2005. The change in industrial classification leads to lower historical growth rates for many industrial sectors. The impacts of these two changes are highlighted in this section for two of the largest energy-consuming industries in the U.S. industrial sectorbulk chemicals and pulp and paper.

Information Center

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Application of composted pulp and paper mill sludge to a young pine plantation  

SciTech Connect

Disposing of sludge recovered from the effluent stream of pulp and paper mills has traditionally involved landfilling. Shortages in landfill space and increasingly stringent environmental regulations in many countries have forced the industry to seek alternative disposal options. The authors assessed the feasibility of compost-recycling a primary pulp and paper mill sludge (PMS) for use as a nutrient-releasing mulch in plantation forestry. The effects of the composted PMS on the growth, nutrition, water relations, and week suppression in a 3-yr-old plantation of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D.Don) on an infertile sandy soil in southern Tasmania were assessed. Compost was applied to the surface without incorporation in 0.5-m wide bands in tree rows at rates of 0, 20, 40, and 60 metric t ha{sup {minus}1} (dry matter). One year after application of compost, the percentage increase in stem diameter was 40 to 66% greater than that achieved in untreated plots, with better growth at the highest compost application rate. Improved growth of radiata pine after application of compost was primarily attributable to a 17 to 37% increase in the concentration of foliar N and to decreased water stress in amended plots. Nitrogen released from the compost was mostly absorbed by plant roots within the first 20 cm of the soil profile, with no significant movement beyond this depth range. Application of compost prepared from PMS to young stands of radiata pine was found to be acceptable recycling alternative for this material, capable of improving plantation productivity.

Jackson, M.J.; Line, M.A.; Wilson, S.; Hetherington, S.J.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Savannah River Tank Waste Residuals  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savannah Savannah River Savannah River Tank Waste Residuals HLW Corporate Board November 6, 2008 1 November 6, 2008 Presentation By Sherri R. Ross Department of Energy Savannah River Operations Office The Issue * How clean is clean? * Ultimate Challenge - Justify highly radioactive radionuclides have been removed to the maximum extent practical? 2 removed to the maximum extent practical? - Building compelling regulatory documentation that will withstand intense scrutiny §3116 Requirements 1. Does not require disposal in deep geological repository 2. Highly radioactive radionuclides removed to the maximum extent practical 3. Meet the performance objectives in 10 CFR Part 3 3. Meet the performance objectives in 10 CFR Part 61, Subpart C 4. Waste disposed pursuant to a State-approved closure plan or permit Note: If it is anticipated that Class C disposal limits will be exceeded, additional

158

Methods of separating particulate residue streams  

SciTech Connect

A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

159

Residual stresses in IN 718 Turbine Disks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the thermally induced residual stresses in plate-like components during cooling. The plate is. 527 ... cooled down symmetrically with respect to its middle plane.

160

,,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,," Alternative...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.5;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,," Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Resource Guide for Technology Transfer to the Pulp and Paper Industry: Part 4: Power Plant Maintenance and Repair  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to requests from EPRI's member utilities, EPRI's Pulp, Paper and Forest Products Office has developed a Resource Guide for technology products related to that industry. The Resource Guide contains an initial listing of technical reports, software, and products associated with power plant maintenance and repair as found in the EPRIWeb electronic database. These products are arranged to provide the reader with a quick evaluation of each item for applicability to the reader's specific needs.

2000-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

162

A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast components. This enables incorporation of the residual stresses at the design phase along with external loads for accurate predictions of fatigue and fracture performance of the cast components.

Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS).

Murray, A.M.

1999-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

164

RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM RESIDUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the recovery of uranium from insoluble oxide residues resistant to repeated leaching with mineral acids. The residue is treated with gaseous hydrogen fluoride, then with hydrogen and again with hydrogen fluoride, preferably at 500 to 700 deg C, prior to the mineral acid leaching.

Schaap, W.B.

1959-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

165

Costing forest residue recovery through simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The search for alternative energy sources has renewed interest in the energy potential of wood. Supplies of wood residue seem to be a likely source of material and the greatest volumes of residue are located in the forest. Methods are needed to more ...

Leonard R. Johnson; Edward L. Fisher

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Process for treatment of residual gas  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

Nolden, K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect

The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the US (US EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the US This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the cost-effective energy savings potential in case B increases to 22%.

Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the U.S. (U.S. EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the U.S. This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the cost-effective energy savings potential in case B increases to 22%.

Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Pulsed Corona Plasma Technology for Treating VOC Emissions from Pulp Mills  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies Forest Products program various plasma technologies were evaluated under project FWP 49885 ''Experimental Assessment of Low-Temperature Plasma Technologies for Treating Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Pulp Mills and Wood Products Plants''. The heterogeneous pulsed corona discharge was chosen as the best non-equilibrium plasma technology for control of the vent emissions from HVLC Brownstock Washers. The technology for removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from gas emissions with conditions typical of the exhausts of the paper industry by means of pulsed corona plasma techniques presented in this work. For the compounds of interest in this study (methanol, acetone, dimethyl sulfide and ? -pinene), high removal efficiencies were obtained with power levels competitive with the present technologies for the VOCs removal. Laboratory experiments were made using installation with the average power up to 20 W. Pilot plant prepared for on-site test has average plasma power up to 6.4 kW. The model of the Pilot Plant operation is presented.

Fridman, Alexander A.; Gutsol, Alexander; Kennedy, Lawrence A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Korobtsev, Sergey V.; Shiryaevsky, Valery L.; Medvedev, Dmitry

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

170

New industrial heat pump applications to an integrated thermomechanical pulp and paper mill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application of pinch technology US industries in an early screening study done by TENSA Services (DOE/ID/12583-1) identified potential for heat pumps in several industrial sectors. Among these, processes with large evaporation units were found to be some of the most promising sectors for advanced heat pump placement. This report summarizes the results of a study for Bowater Incorporated, Carolina Division. The units selected for this study are the thermo-mechanical pulper (TMP), kraft digester, evaporators, boiler feed water (BFW) train and pulp dryer. Based on the present level of operation, the following recommendations are made: 1. Install a mechanical vapor compression (MVR) heat pump between the TMP mill and {number sign}3 evaporator. This heat pump will compress the 22 psig steam from the TMP heat recovery system and use it to replace about 70% of the 60 psig steam required in {number sign} evaporator. The boiler feed water heat losses (in the low pressure deaerator) will be supplied by heat available in the TMR's zero psig vent steam. 2. Study the digester to verify the practicality of installing an MVR heat pump which will compress the dirty weapons from the cyclone separator. The compressed vapors can be directly injected into the digester and thus reduce the 135 psig steam consumption. 31 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency in the U.S. pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes the energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reductions potential of the U.S. pulp and paper industry, one of the largest energy users in the U.S. manufacturing sector. We examined over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures. The measures were characterized, and then ordered on the basis of cost-effectiveness. The report indicates that there still exists significant potential for energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in this industry. The cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement is defined as having a simple pay-back period of three years or less. Not including increased recycling the study identifies a cost-effective savings potential of 16% of the primary energy use in 1994. Including increased recycling leads to a higher potential for energy savings, i.e. a range of cost-effective savings between 16% and 24% of primary energy use. Future work is needed to further elaborate on key energy efficiency measures identified in the report including barriers and opportunities for increased recycling of waste paper.

Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Anglani, Norma; Einstein, Dan; Krushch, Marta; Price, Lynn

2001-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

172

SAR impulse response with residual chirps.  

SciTech Connect

A Linear Frequency-Modulated (LFM) chirp is a function with unit amplitude and quadratic phase characteristic. In a focused Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image, a residual chirp is undesired for targets of interest, as it coarsens the manifested resolution. However, for undesired spurious signals, a residual chirp is often advantageous because it spreads the energy and thereby diminishes its peak value. In either case, a good understanding of the effects of a residual LFM chirp on a SAR Impulse Response (IPR) is required to facilitate system analysis and design. This report presents an analysis of the effects of a residual chirp on the IPR. As reference, there is a rich body of publications on various aspects of LFM chirps. A quick search reveals a plethora of articles, going back to the early 1950s. We mention here purely as trivia one of the earlier analysis papers on this waveform by Klauder, et al.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Gasification of in-Forest Biomass Residues.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Described is a laboratory-scale continuous-feed supercritical water gasification (SCWG) system. The system is operated using real-world Ponderosa Pine sawmill residues at high biomass loadings, short… (more)

Faires, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Residual Circulations Due to Bottom Roughness Variability under Tidal Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tidal flows over irregular bathymetry are known to produce residual circulation flows due to nonlinear interaction with gradients of depth. Using the depth-averaged vorticity equations, the generation of residual vorticity and residual flows due ...

Thomas F. Gross; Francisco E. Werner

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Sulfur < 1% Residual F.O., Sulfur > 1% No. 4 Fuel Oil Period-Unit: Monthly - Thousand Gallons per Day Annual - Thousand Gallons per Day...

176

The Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility at HFIR | ORNL Neutron...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility at HFIR Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility (HB-2B) Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility (HB-2B). The HB-2B beam port is optimized...

177

Energy Analysis of a Kraft Pulp Mill: Potential for Energy Efficiency and Advanced Biomass Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy use at a Kraft pulp mill in the United States is analyzed in detail. Annual average process steam and electricity demands in the existing mill are 19.3 MMBtu per ADST and 687 kWh per ADST, respectively. This is relatively high by industry standards. The mill meets nearly all its electricity needs with a back-pressure steam turbine. Higher electricity to heat ratios is an industry wide trend and anticipated at the mill. The potential for self-sufficiency in energy using only black liquor and bark available on-site is assessed based on the analysis of the present energy situation and potential process changes. The analysis here suggests that steam and electricity demand could be reduced by 89% by operating consistently at high production rates. Process modifications and retrofits using commercially proven technologies could reduce steam and electricity demand to as low as 9.7 MMBtu per ADST, a 50% reduction, and 556 kWh per ADST, a 19% reduction, respectively. Electricity demand could increase to about 640 kWh per ADST due to closed-cycle operation of the bleach plant and other efforts to improve environmental performance. The retrofitted energy efficient mill with low environmental impact could be self-sufficient in steam and electricity using conventional technology, such as a back pressure steam turbine or a condensing extraction steam turbine. In addition to meeting mill energy demand, about 1,000 kWh per ADST would be available for export from the mill if gasification/combined cycle technology were used instead.

Subbiah, A.; Nilsson, L. J.; Larson, E. D.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

EA-1120: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado EA-1120: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage...

179

EIS-0277: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

77: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub Alloy Stored at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site EIS-0277: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub...

180

Animal Performance and Diet Quality While Grazing Corn Residue.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Grazing cattle on corn residue as a winter feed source has become an integral part of many Nebraska producers’ management plans. Utilizing corn residues extends… (more)

Gigax, Jennifer A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Potential for biogas production fromslaughter houses residues in Bolivia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Residues from slaughter houses offer an abundant resource in Bolivia. The residues can beused for biogas production with biofertilizer as a bi-product. These resources… (more)

Tesfaye Tefera, Tadious

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste  

SciTech Connect

Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Rivera, M.A. [Lamb Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Reclamation of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have jointly developed a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCL, and MgCl/sub 2/ residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of /sup 241/Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved plutonium and up to 2 wt % americium. The overall objective was to develop a process to convert these residues to a pure plutonium metal product and discardable waste. To meet this objective a combination of pyrochemical and aqueous unit operations was used. The first step was to scrub the salt residue with a molten metal (aluminum and magnesium) to form a heterogeneous ''scrub alloy'' containing nominally 25 wt % plutonium. This unit operation, performed at RFP, effectively separated the actinides from the bulk of the chloride salts. After packaging in aluminum cans, the ''scrub alloy'' was then dissolved in a nitric acid - hydrofluoric acid - mercuric nitrate solution at SRP. Residual chloride was separated from the dissolver solution by precipitation with Hg/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ followed by centrifuging. Plutonium was then separated from the aluminum, americium and magnesium using the Purex solvent extraction system. The /sup 241/Am was diverted to the waste tank farm, but could be recovered if desired.

Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Holcomb, H.P.; Chostner, D.F.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPPLEMENTAL RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION GUIDELINE  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPPLEMENTAL RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPPLEMENTAL RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION GUIDELINE FOR THE NFSS CENTRAL DRAINAGE DITCH DECEMBER 1986 Prepared for UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE OPERATIONS OFFICE Under Contract No. DE-AC05-81OR20722 By Bechtel National, Inc. Oak Ridge, Tennessee Bechtel Job No. 14501 I 1.0 INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 1.1 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used for establishing a supplemental residual contamination guideline for the NFSS vicinity property known as the Central Drainage Ditch (CDD). Supplemental guidelines may exceed authorized guidelines if the resultant dose will not exceed the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr (Ref. 1). This evaluation is based on realistic exposure pathways that were

185

System and method for measuring residual stress  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method and system for determining the residual stress within an elastic object. In the method, an elastic object is cut along a path having a known configuration. The cut creates a portion of the object having a new free surface. The free surface then deforms to a contour which is different from the path. Next, the contour is measured to determine how much deformation has occurred across the new free surface. Points defining the contour are collected in an empirical data set. The portion of the object is then modeled in a computer simulator. The points in the empirical data set are entered into the computer simulator. The computer simulator then calculates the residual stress along the path which caused the points within the object to move to the positions measured in the empirical data set. The calculated residual stress is then presented in a useful format to an analyst.

Prime, Michael B. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Study on Residual Current Protective Strategy Based on Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residual current protective devices play an important role in electrical safety engineering. When dangerous residual current occurs, automatic disconnection of power supply can prevent dangerous residual currents which may cause burns, fires and electrocution. ... Keywords: residual current device, discrimination protection, fieldbus, protective strategy

Yue Dawei; Li Kui; Wang Yao; Wang Jibo

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

A critical review of residual stress technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current technology for evaluating residual in materials has been critically reviewed from the perspective of LLNL needs. The primary technique available continues to be x-ray diffraction (XRD). Substantial analytical and experimental refinements have been made in the past decade. An especially promising development in XRD is the use of energy dispersive spectroscopy for evaluating triaxial stress. This would provide an alternative to neutron diffraction, a technique limited to a relatively small number of outside laboratories. Recent research in residual stress measurement using ultrasonics have concentrated on shear wave techniques. Substantial progress has been made in the use of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT's), surface waves, corrections for texture, and, of special interest to LLNL, the ability to characterize interfacial stress. Strain gages and related technologies continue to be actively used in field measurements of residual stress, although there is generally some destructive nature to those techniques. An increased use of multiple technique approaches to residual stress evaluation is occurring for the purposes of both verification and complementary measurements. Among a number of miscellaneous techniques found in the recent literature are several involving the use of stress-sensitive magnetic properties and an especially promising use of the thermoelastic effect for noncontact stress mapping. Recommendations for LLNL activity include energy dispersive XRD, ultrasonics characterization of anisotropy and interfacial stress, and investigation of the thermoelastic effect. 57 refs.

Shackelford, J.F.; Brown, B.D.

1987-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

188

Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residues  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt percent graphite, 15 wt percent calcium fluoride (CaF2), and 12 wt percent plutonium oxide (PuO2). Approximately 950 kilograms of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 degrees C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO2 concentration in the residue averages 12 wt percent, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF2 dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO2) as a surrogate for PuO2 and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF2 and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.In general, the recovery of cerium from the full-scale waste forms was higher than for smaller scale experiments. The presence of CaF2 also caused a dramatic increase in cerium recovery not seen in the small-scale experiments. However, the results from experiments with actual graphite fines were encouraging. A 4:1 frit to residue ratio, a temperature of 700 degrees C, and a 2 hr heating time produced waste forms with plutonium recoveries of 4 plus/minus 1 g/kg. With an increase in the frit to residue ratio, waste forms fabricated at this scale should meet the Rocky Flats product specification. The scale-up of the waste form fabrication process to nominally 3 kg is expected to require a 5:1 to 6:1 frit to residue ratio and maintaining the waste form centerline temperature at 700 degrees C for 2 hr.

Rudisill, T. S.

1998-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

189

Recovery of recyclable materials from shredder residue  

SciTech Connect

Each year, about 11 million tons of metals (ferrous and nonferrous) are recovered in the US from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75% of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material or shredder residue, which amounts to about 3 million tons annually, is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This paper discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two-stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. Status of the technology is discussed and process economics reviewed.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Brockmeier, N.F.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Residual stress determination using strain gage measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A strain gage technique, which relates the prior residual stress state in a material to the strain data obtained by fixing a strain gage on one surface and grinding off the other, has been proposed previously. In the current work, a generalized solution for obtaining an arbitrary residual stress profile from strain gage data is presented. Numerical analysis using the solution indicates that the formulation is insensitive to random errors of 10% or less in the experimental data. Based on the results of the analysis, a procedure for determining stress profiles from strain gage data is outlined. Experimental data for tempered glass was analyzed using the technique proposed. The stress profiles predicted are in good agreement with independent observations using indentation and strength data.

Tandon, R.; Green, D.J. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (US))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Controlling Residual Stresses by Heat Sink Welding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are described of a combined finite element and pipe welding study in which the welding and heat sink parameters required to optimize fast pass heat sink welding (LPHSW) were identified and evaluated in analytic and experimental tasks. Also discussed is the application of an elastic-plastic finite element computer code model to evaluate and optimize the LPHSW process and to verify the results through residual stress measurements on LPHSW pipes.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

1-D Transforms for the Motion Compensation Residual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transforms used in image coding are also commonly used to compress prediction residuals in video coding. Prediction residuals have different spatial characteristics from images, and it is useful to develop transforms that ...

Kamisli, Fatih

193

Scientists detect residue that has hindered efficiency of promising...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

detect residue that has hindered efficiency of promising type of solar cell By Jared Sagoff * May 3, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint LEMONT, Ill. - Drivers who have ever noticed a residue on...

194

Directional wavelet transforms for prediction residuals in video coding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various directional transforms have been developed recently to improve image compression. In video compression, however, prediction residuals of image intensities, such as the motion compensation residual or the resolution ...

Kamisli, Fatih

195

Residual Fuel Demand - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

In the 1986 to 1991 period, residual fuel oil demand declined only slightly both in absolute and as a percent of total product demand. While not shown, residual fuel ...

196

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Potential for Distributed Generation in Japanese Prototype Buildings: A DER-CAM Analysis of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, wood residues, biogas or spent pulping liquor as fuels. Technologies include gas turbine generators

198

Residual Stress Tensor in a Compact Tension Weld Specimen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Residual Stress Tensor in a Compact Tension Weld Specimen ... austenitic stainless steel (Esshete 1250) compact tension weld specimen.

199

Colorado Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Other/Residual Fuel Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Colorado Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Other/Residual Fuel Oil Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

200

A preliminary assessment of the state of harvest and collection technology for forest residues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To meet the 'Twenty in Ten Initiative' goals set in the 2007 State of the Union address, forest resources will be needed as feedstocks for lignocellulosic ethanol production. It has been estimated that 368 million dry tons can be produced annually in the U.S. from logging residues and fuel treatment thinnings. Currently, very little of this woody biomass is used for energy production due to the costs and difficulty in collecting and transporting this material. However, minimizing biomass costs (including harvest, handling, transport, storage, and processing costs) delivered to the refinery is necessary to develop a sustainable cellulosic ethanol industry. Achieving this goal requires a fresh look at conventional timber harvesting operations to identify ways of efficiently integrating energy wood collection and developing cost-effective technologies to harvest small-diameter trees. In conventional whole-tree logging operations, entire trees are felled and skidded from the stump to the landing. The residues (also called slash), consisting of tops and limbs, accumulate at the landing when trees are delimbed. This slash can be ground at the landing with a mobile grinder or transported to another central location with a stationary grinder. The ground material is transported via chip vans, or possibly large roll on/off containers, to the user facility. Cut-to-length harvesting systems are gaining popularity in some locations. In these operations, specialized harvesters that can fall, delimb, and cut logs to length are used. The small diameter tops and limbs accumulate along the machine's track. It can be left in the forest to dry or removed soon after harvest while logs are extracted. Removing slash during the same operation as the wood has been shown to be more efficient. However, leaving residue in the forest to dry reduces moisture content, which improves grinder performance, reduces dry matter loss during storage, and inhibits colonization of fungi that produce harmful spores. In recent years, new machines that are specially designed for collection of small diameter wood have been developed in the U.S. and Europe. Residue bundlers and balers improve transportation and handling efficiency by densifying the material and packaging it so that it can be handled with conventional equipment. An experimental integrated harvester/grinder can fall small diameter trees and feed them into a grinder. The ground material is collected in a bin that can be dumped into a chip van. The harvester head is also capable of delimbing and bucking (cut into sections) small timber to be used for pulp and posts. Limitations of these new technologies are their large capital costs and complexity, leading to high maintenance costs and the need for highly trained operators. To ensure that quality feedstock materials consistently enter the mouth of the refinery, the uniform format supply system concept proposes that feedstock diversity be managed at harvest, much like the current grain supply system. This allows for standardization of key infrastructure components and facilitation of a biomass commodity system. Challenges in achieving a uniform woody biomass supply include, but are not limited to, developing machines for efficient harvest of small-diameter trees in a range of topographies and conditions, developing machines and operating plans for grinding biomass as near to the stump as possible, developing cost-effective drying strategies to reduce losses and mold growth during wood chip storage, and quantifying environmental impacts of slash removal and fuel thinnings to aid landowner decisions and policy development.

Webb, Erin [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Blackwelder, D. Brad [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Muth, David J. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Hess, J. Richard [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Influence of Combustion Conditions on Yields of Solvent-Extractable Anhydrosugars and Lignin Phenols in Chars: Implications for Characterizations of Biomass Combustion Residues  

SciTech Connect

Anhydrosugars, such as levoglucosan and its isomers (mannosan, galactosan), as well as the solvent-extractable lignin phenols (methoxylated phenols) are thermal degradation products of cellulose/hemicellulos and lignin, respectively. These two groups of biomarkers are often used as unique tracers of combusted biomass inputs in diverse environmental media. However, detail characterization of the relative proportion and signatures of these compounds in highly heterogeneous plant-derived chars/charcoals are still scarce. Here we conducted a systematic study to investigate the yields of solvent-extractable anhydrosugars and lignin phenols in twenty-five lab-made chars produced from different plant materials under different combustion conditions. Solvent extractable anhydrosugars and lignin phenols were only observed in chars formed below 350 C and yields were variable across different combustion temperatures. The yields mannosan (M) and galactosan (G) decreased more rapidly than those of levoglucosan (L) under increasing combustion severity (temp. and duration), resulting in variable L/M and L/(M+G) ratios, two diagnostic ratios often used for identification of combustion sources (e.g. hardwoods vs. softwoods vs. grasses). On the other hand, the results of this study suggest that the ratios of the major solvent-extractable lignin phenols (vanillyls (V), syringyls (S), cinnamyls (C)) provide additional source reconstruction potential despite observed variations with combustion temperature. We thus propose using a property property plot (L/M vs. S/V) as an improved means for source characterization of biomass combustion residues. The L/M-S/V plot has shown to be effective in environmental samples (soil organic matter, atmospheric aerosols) receiving substantial inputs of biomass combustion residues.

Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report and Appendices (CD-ROM)  

SciTech Connect

The main report on this CD assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performace and efficiency improvements. The Appendices on this CD provide supporting information for the analyses and provides and recommendations for assessing the effectiveness of the U.S. Department of Energy BestPractices Steam Program.

Not Available

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co Ltd Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co., Ltd. Place Nanping City, Fujian Province, China Zip 365001 Sector Biomass Product Chinese developer of a CDM registered biomass plant. References Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co., Ltd.[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co., Ltd. is a company located in Nanping City, Fujian Province, China . References ↑ "[ Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co., Ltd.]" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Kaisheng_Biomass_Residue_Power_Co_Ltd&oldid=347879" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

204

A NSGA-II algorithm for the residue-residue contact prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a multi-objective evolutionary approach to predict protein contact maps. The algorithm provides a set of rules, inferring whether there is contact between a pair of residues or not. Such rules are based on a set of specific amino acid properties. ... Keywords: contact map, multi-objective evolutionary computation, protein structure prediction

Alfonso E. Márquez-Chamorro; Federico Divina; Jesús S. Aguilar-Ruiz; Jaume Bacardit; Gualberto Asencio-Cortés; Cosme E. Santiesteban-Toca

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

TRUPACT-II residue pipe payload container  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the project to develop, test and certify a new payload container for the TRUPACT-II, a Type B packaging for the shipment of transuranic waste. The new payload container will provide segregation of plutonium waste materials within the TRUPACT-II. This segregation of fissile contents will support a new criticality safety analysis that may allow an increase in the TRUPACT-II Pu-239 Fissile Gram Equivalent (FGE) limit from 325 grams to 2800 grams. The need for this project was brought about by the end of the Cold War and the resulting shift in value of plutonium residues from providing recoverable Defense Program material to being considered disposable waste. This paper will not cover many of the details of the project but will instead aim to provide a general picture of all the project activities.

Geinitz, R. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States); Gregory, P. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Leaching hierarchies in co-combustion residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The leaching propensities from co-combustion residues of 10 trace elements (Be, V, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Pb) were evaluated. Eight fuels varying from coal blends to coal and secondary fuel mixtures to ternary mixtures were co-combusted in two reactor configurations and at two temperatures (850 and 950{sup o}C). The ash was subjected to a miniaturized toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) developed for this study, and the trace element content in the leachate was analyzed, andpercentage retentions of elements in the ashes and leachates were calculated. Hg and Se were almost completely volatilized during combustion and, therefore, were largely absent from the ashes, in all cases. For the other trace elements, it was not possible to establish a hierarchy of relative trace-element retention. Retention was primarily a function of the combustion method, with no clear effect of temperature retention being observed. The measured trace-element retentions were compared to those predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium modeling, using the MTDATA software. The model successfully predicted the measured values in many cases; however, many anomalies were also noted. From trace-element analysis in the leachates, an extent-of-leaching hierarchy could be established. The elements that underwent low degrees of leaching were Zn, Hg, Pb, low to moderate leaching were Be, Cr, and Cd, and thoseleached to a greater extent were V, As, Se, and Ba. This hierarchy was observed for all fuels and conditions studied. Leaching was found to be a strong function of the combustion temperature and combustion method. When assessing the potential toxicity of leachate from co-combustion residues, Zn, Hg, and Pb may be deemed of least concern, while a greater emphasis should be placed in mitigating the release of the remaining elements. 18 refs., 7 tabs.

A. George; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Measurement and correlation of conditions for entrapment and mobilization of residual oil. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six tasks are reported: capillary number relationships for rock samples, residual oil saturation near wellbore, residual oil structure, effect of gravity on residual saturation, magnitude of residual oil saturation, and effects of wettability on capillary number relationships. (DLC)

Morrow, N.R.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

From wood to waste and waste to wood.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis the flow of elements from the forest to the pulp mill and the possibility to recycle nutrients in solid pulp-mill residues back… (more)

Rothpfeffer, Caroline

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

California's program converts biomass residues to energy  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief introduction to the emerging biomass fuel industry in California and includes descriptions of California's biomass potential, California's biomass development program, and legislation that expands the state's developmental efforts in biomass commercialization. California's agriculture and forest industries residues were discussed. These residues can be converted to energy, and now, through California's aggressive development program, more residues will be converted. (DP)

Ward, P.F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Residual Stress Determination in Cast Bi-Metallic Joints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-Situ Neutron Diffraction and Crystal Plasticity Modeling of a-Uranium · In-Situ Studies of the ... Thermal Residual Stresses and Strains in Depleted Uranium.

211

Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maine Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection The Maine Department of Environmental Protection's Residuals, Sludge, and Composting program regulates the land application and post-processing of organic wastes, including sewage sludge, septage, food waste, and wood

212

Plastic Strain and Residual Stress Distributions in an AISI 304 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effect of DH Concentration on Crud Deposition on Heated Zircaloy-4 in .... and Residual Stress Distributions in an AISI 304 Stainless Steel BWR Pipe Weld.

213

Intergranular Thermal Residual Strain in Rolled and Texture-free ? ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the intergranular thermal residual strains are determined from ... rolled and texture-free ?-uranium measured by neutron diffraction during cooling.

214

Ohio Residual Fuel Oil Prices by Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Values of U.S. residual ...

215

Pilot Test of Bauxite Residue Carbonation With Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of bauxite residue in water with flue gas, produced from direct oil burning. ... New Development Model for Bauxite Deposits - Dedicated Compact Refinery.

216

Hot Isostatic Pressing of Chlorine-Containing Plutonium Residues ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Some of the plutonium residues wastes at Sellafield contain ... Effect of Alloy Composition on the Environmental cracking of Nickel Alloys in ...

217

Investigation of carbon residue from pyrolyzed scrap tires.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objectives of this study are: (1) Blending the Conrad residue with coal-derived pitches and its effect on the pitch properties. (2) The activation of… (more)

Bandlamudi, Bhagat Chandra.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

219

Wisconsin Residual Fuel Oil Prices by Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Values of U.S. residual ...

220

Determination of Aluminum Rolling Oil and Machinery Oil Residues ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Determination of Aluminum Rolling Oil and Machinery Oil Residues on Aluminum Sheet and Foil by Using Elemental Analysis and Fourier  ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

residual fuel oil - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Residual fuel oil: A general classification for the heavier oils, known as No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils, that remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter ...

222

Michigan Residual Fuel Oil Prices by Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Values of U.S. residual ...

223

Implementing Residue Chippers On Harvesting Operation for Biomass Recovery.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Three operations that implemented a small residue chipper on their conventional logging operations were studied in 2006. Two of the jobs were thinning operations, the… (more)

Aulakh, Jaspreet

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Vermont Residual Fuel Oil Prices by Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Values of U.S. residual ...

225

Midwest (PADD 2) Residual Fuel Oil Prices by Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Values of U.S. residual ...

226

Investigation of Residual Stress in Key-Hole Laser Formed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residual strain/stress measurements in weldments produced using the fibre ... Dislocation Densities, Burgers Vector Populations and Slip System Activity in ...

227

NRC/EPRI Welding Residual Stress Validation Program (Phase III)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NRC/EPRI weld residual stress (WRS) program currently consists of four phases, with each phase increasing in complexity from lab size specimens to ...

228

Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Progress in recycling of automobile shredder residue  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Argonne National Laboratory, we have been developing a potentially economical process to recycle automobile shredder residue (ASR). We identified three potentially marketable materials that can be recovered from ASR and developed technologies to recover and upgrade these materials. We build and tested a field-demonstration plant for recycling polyurethane foam and produced about 2000 lb of recycled foam. Several 300-lb samples were sent for evaluation and were found to be of marketable quality. We are also preparing for a large-scale test in which about 200 tons of ASR-derived fines will be used as a raw material in cement making. A major cement company has evaluated small samples of fines prepared in the laboratory and found that they meet its requirements as a substitute for iron ore or mill scale. We also produced about 50 lb of recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) from obsolete automobiles and found that it has properties that could be readily upgraded to meet the specifications of the automotive industry. In this paper, we briefly discuss the process as a whole and summarize the results obtained from the field work on foam and fines recycling.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Pomykala, J.A. Jr.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Final report, 15 Jun 1976-14 Jun 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this research was to convert the organics and sulfur in sulfite spent liquor (SSL) now classified as pollutants from sulfite pulp mills, into synthetic methane and protein by means of a combination chemical-biological process. Ozonization was used to break the high molecular weight lignosulfonate molecules present in SSL into lower weight fractions which could be metabolized by methane-producing bacteria and protein-producing yeast. Ozonization experiments showed that this treatment is effective in partially oxidizing and fragmenting lignosulfonates into fermentable substrates. This process is initiated at low ozone concentrations and proceeds rapidly until nearly 30% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has been consumed. The conditions under which ozonization is conducted greatly affect the degree of oxidation and the molecular weight of the cleaved fragments. In spite of the appreciable oxidative cleavage of the lignosulfonate molecules, continuous-flow fermentation studies showed rather low yields of methane and yeast from ozonated SSL. Under optimum conditions, methane production averaged only 1.7 1/1 of SSL or approximately 3% of the total organics present. Protein production was somewhat more favorable with 6% of the organics being converted to yeast biomass. (6g/1). Neither fermentation fully used all of the oxygenated fragments produced by ozonization, and thus, a two-stage process might yield better results. Although it appears that ozonization is not a viable treatment of SSL under present economic conditions, with increased demand for energy and protein, it could become more competitive in the future. However, of possibly greater importance is the potential use of partial oxidation treatments to improve the biodegradability of organic wastes.

Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

1979-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

231

Tangential residual as error estimator in the boundary element method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a new error estimator based on tangential derivative Boundary Integral Equation residuals for 2D Laplace and Helmholtz equations is shown. The direct problem for general mixed boundary conditions is solved using standard and hypersingular ... Keywords: Adaptivity, Boundary Integral Equation residual, Boundary element method, Error estimation, Mesh adaptation, Mesh refinement, Nodal sensitivity

Alejandro E. Martínez-Castro; Rafael Gallego

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Modeling Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal at the Subfield Scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study developed a computational strategy that utilizes data inputs from multiple spatial scales to investigate how variability within individual fields can impact sustainable residue removal for bioenergy production. Sustainable use of agricultural residues for bioenergy production requires consideration of the important role that residues play in limiting soil erosion and maintaining soil C, health, and productivity. Increased availability of subfield-scale data sets such as grain yield data, high-fidelity digital elevation models, and soil characteristic data provides an opportunity to investigate the impacts of subfield-scale variability on sustainable agricultural residue removal. Using three representative fields in Iowa, this study contrasted the results of current NRCS conservation management planning analysis with subfield-scale analysis for rake-and-bale removal of agricultural residue. The results of the comparison show that the field-average assumptions used in NRCS conservation management planning may lead to unsustainable residue removal decisions for significant portions of some fields. This highlights the need for additional research on subfield-scale sustainable agricultural residue removal including the development of real-time variable removal technologies for agricultural residue.

Muth, D.J.; McCorkle, D.S.; Koch, J.B.; Bryden, K.M.

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

233

Overcoming the Recalcitrance of Cellulosic Biomass by Value Prior to Pulping: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-221  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) project goal was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of introducing a new value stream into existing pulp and paper mills. Essentially the intent was to transfer the energy content of extracted hemicellulose from electricity and steam generated in the recovery boiler to a liquid transportation fuel. The hemicellulose fraction was extracted prior to pulping, fractionated, or conditioned if necessary, and fermented to ethanol. Commercial adaptation of the process to wood hemicelluloses was a prerequisite for using this less currently valued component available from biomass and wood. These hemicelluloses are predominately glucurono-xylan in hardwoods and galactoglucomannan in softwoods (with a significant softwood component of an arabino-xylan) and will yield fermentation substrates different from cellulose. NREL provided its expertise in the area of fermentation host evaluation using its Zymomonas strains on the CleanTech Partner's (CTP) VPP project. The project was focused on the production of fuel ethanol and acetic acid from hemicellulose streams generated from wood chips of industrially important hardwood and softwood species. NREL was one of four partners whose ethanologen was tested on the hydrolyzed extracts. The use of commercially available enzymes to treat oligomeric sugar extracts was also investigated and coupled with fermentation. Fermentations by NREL were conducted with the Zymomonas mobilis organism with most of the work being performed with the 8b strain. The wood extracts hydrolyzed and/or fermented by NREL were those derived from maple, mixed southern hardwoods, and loblolly pine. An unhydrolyzed variant of the mixed southern hardwood extract possessed a large concentration of oligomeric sugars and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed with a number of enzymes, followed by fermentation. The fermentation of the wood extracts was carried out at bench scale in flasks or small bioreactors, with a maximum volume of 500 mL.

Lowell, A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Residual fuel outlook - 1981 through 1995. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report forecasts the future availability of residual fuel and its implications to the marine industry. The results are based on the completion of three separate tasks. The first examines past trends and recent developments in worldwide supply and demand markets for residual and other fuels, while the second investigates upgrading and expansion activities by the refining industry. The combination of these efforts produces an overview of the worldwide residual market and a complete understanding of refiners' economic and technical decision factors determining final product mix production. The last task utilizes information gained in previous tasks to review available longterm forecasts and their underlying assumptions. The forecasts completed by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) were utilized for a depiction of residual availability in 1985, while the Department of Energy's (DOE) Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS) was utilized and adjusted to provide estimates of residual availability in 1990 and 1995.

Varndell, T.B.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Conversion of direct process high-boiling residue to monosilanes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of monosilanes from the high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with silicon metalloid in a process typically referred to as the "direct process." The process comprises contacting a high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride and silicon metalloid, with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalytic amount of aluminum trichloride effective in promoting conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. The present process results in conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. At least a portion of the aluminum trichloride catalyst required for conduct of the process may be formed in situ during conduct of the direct process and isolation of the high-boiling residue.

Brinson, Jonathan Ashley (Vale of Glamorgan, GB); Crum, Bruce Robert (Madison, IN); Jarvis, Jr., Robert Frank (Midland, MI)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Crop residues as a fuel for power generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Crop residues could serve as an alternative energy source for producing electric power and heat in agricultural regions of the United States. Nearly 2 quads of residues are estimated to be available as a sustainable annual yield. These can substitute for up to one quad of conventional fuels used to generate electricity and up to an additional quad of petroleum and natural gas currently used for producing heat. The most promising routes to residue conversion appear to be regional generators sized in the megawatt range, and the mixing of residues with coal for burning in coal power plants. Costing farmers from $0.70 to $1.25 per million Btu, to harvest and prepare for use as a fuel, residues can be a competitive renewable energy supply.

Bhagat, N.; Davitian, H.; Pouder, R.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat storage and recovery in the paper and pulp industry. Final report, September 1977--May 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Applications of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a paper and pulp mill power house were studied as one approach to the transfer of steam production from fossil fuel boilers to waste fuel (hog fuel) boilers. Data from specific mills were analyzed, and various TES concepts evaluated for application in the process steam supply system. Constant pressure and variable pressure steam accumulators were found to be the most attractive storage concepts for this application. Performance analyses based on the operation of a math model of the process steam supply system indicate potential substitution of waste wood fuel for 100,000 bbl oil per year per installation with the accumulator TES system. Based on an industry survey of potential TES application, which requires excess base steaming capability, the results from the individual installation were extrapolated to a near-term (1980's) fossil fuel savings in the paper and pulp industry of 3.2 x 10/sup 6/ bbl oil/year. Conceptual designs of mechanical equipment and control systems indicate installed cost estimates of about $560,000 per installation, indicating an after tax return on investment of over 30%.

Carr, J.H.; Hurley, P.J.; Martin, P.J.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat storage and recovery in the paper and pulp industry. Final report, September 1977--May 1978  

SciTech Connect

Applications of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a paper and pulp mill power house were studied as one approach to the transfer of steam production from fossil fuel boilers to waste fuel (hog fuel) boilers. Data from specific mills were analyzed, and various TES concepts evaluated for application in the process steam supply system. Constant pressure and variable pressure steam accumulators were found to be the most attractive storage concepts for this application. Performance analyses based on the operation of a math model of the process steam supply system indicate potential substitution of waste wood fuel for 100,000 bbl oil per year per installation with the accumulator TES system. Based on an industry survey of potential TES application, which requires excess base steaming capability, the results from the individual installation were extrapolated to a near-term (1980's) fossil fuel savings in the paper and pulp industry of 3.2 x 10/sup 6/ bbl oil/year. Conceptual designs of mechanical equipment and control systems indicate installed cost estimates of about $560,000 per installation, indicating an after tax return on investment of over 30%.

Carr, J.H.; Hurley, P.J.; Martin, P.J.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

An urban infill : a residual site in Boston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis is concerned with the treatment of residual sites in the context of the urban environment and in particular with the wounds inflicted by the passage of the Massachusetts Turnpike through the city of Boston. The ...

Savvides, Andreas L. (Andreas Loucas)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Ohio Imports of Residual Fuel Oil (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Ohio Imports of Residual Fuel Oil (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2000: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 108: 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 27: 2001: 0: 44 ...

242

Generation of residual energy in the turbulent solar wind  

SciTech Connect

In situ observations of the fluctuating solar wind flow show that the energy of magnetic field fluctuations always exceeds that of the kinetic energy, and therefore the difference between the kinetic and magnetic energies, known as the residual energy, is always negative. The same behaviour is found in numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We study the dynamics of the residual energy for strong, anisotropic, critically balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence using the eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian approximation. Our analysis shows that for stationary critically balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, negative residual energy will always be generated by nonlinear interacting Alfven waves. This offers a general explanation for the observation of negative residual energy in solar wind turbulence and in the numerical simulations.

Gogoberidze, G. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Ilia State University, 3/5 Cholokashvili Ave., 0162 Tbilisi (Georgia); Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Asphalt landscape after all : residual suburban surface as public infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thesis proposes a hybridized commercial retail strip inserted into a residual suburban condition as a manner of investigating the latent potential of suburban logic, both its constituent elements and its formal rules ...

O'Connor, Joseph Michael, M. Arch. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Nondestructive Evaluation: Nondestructive Evaluation and Measurement of Residual Stress  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for residual stress measurements conducted on Alloy 600 samples that have undergone changes in material properties resulting from simulated operating conditions, including heat treatment, three-point bending load, cracking, and repair. The overall objective was to identify suitable NDE techniques that would augment the existing and proven surface residual stress measurements by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extend the measurem...

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

GEOCHEMICAL TESTING AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT - RESIDUAL TANK WASTE TEST PLAN  

SciTech Connect

This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

CANTRELL KJ; CONNELLY MP

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

246

Characterization and stabilization of arsenic in water treatment residuals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The characterization of water treatment residuals containing arsenic was investigated in the first study. Arsenic desorption and leachability from the residuals were the focus of this study. Arsenic leaching from water treatment residuals was found to be underestimated by the toxicity characteristic leaching test (TCLP) due to the pH of the leachates being favorable for As(V) adsorption. Competitive desorption of arsenic with phosphate was significant because phosphate tends to compete with As(V) on the surface of the metal hydroxide for adsorption sites. However, arsenic desorption by the competition of sulfate and chloride was found to be negligible. The pH in the leachate was a critical variable in controlling arsenic stability in the residuals. The release of arsenic from the residuals was elevated at low and high pH due to the increase dissolution of the adsorbents such as Fe and Al hydroxides. In the second phase of the study, the stabilization techniques for arsenic contained residuals and were examined to develop methods to suitably stabilize arsenic to eliminate and/or minimize leaching. A decrease of arsenic leaching was achieved by the addition of lime to the residuals and believed to be due to the formation of less soluble and stable calcium-arsenic compounds. However, it is suggested that the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) should be added with the lime for the long term stabilization because lime can be slowly consumed when directly exposed to atmospheric CO2. The solidification and stabilization (S/S) technique with lime and OPC was shown to be successfully applied by the immobilization of a wide variety of arsenic tainted water treatment residuals.

Wee, Hun Young

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Residual stresses and stress corrosion cracking in pipe fittings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residual stresses can play a key role in the SCC performance of susceptible materials in PWR primary water applications. Residual stresses are stresses stored within the metal that develop during deformation and persist in the absence of external forces or temperature gradients. Sources of residual stresses in pipe fittings include fabrication processes, installation and welding. There are a number of methods to characterize the magnitude and orientation of residual stresses. These include numerical analysis, chemical cracking tests, and measurement (e.g., X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, strain gage/hole drilling, strain gage/trepanning, strain gage/section and layer removal, and acoustics). This paper presents 400 C steam SCC test results demonstrating that residual stresses in as-fabricated Alloy 600 pipe fittings are sufficient to induce SCC. Residual stresses present in as-fabricated pipe fittings are characterized by chemical cracking tests (stainless steel fittings tested in boiling magnesium chloride solution) and by the sectioning and layer removal (SLR) technique.

Parrington, R.J.; Scott, J.J.; Torres, F.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Hanford tank residual waste – contaminant source terms and release models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residual waste is expected to be left in 177 underground storage tanks after closure at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State (USA). In the long term, the residual wastes represent a potential source of contamination to the subsurface environment. Residual materials that cannot be completely removed during the tank closure process are being studied to identify and characterize the solid phases and estimate the release of contaminants from these solids to water that might enter the closed tanks in the future. As of the end of 2009, residual waste from five tanks has been evaluated. Residual wastes from adjacent tanks C-202 and C-203 have high U concentrations of 24 and 59 wt%, respectively, while residual wastes from nearby tanks C-103 and C-106 have low U concentrations of 0.4 and 0.03 wt%, respectively. Aluminum concentrations are high (8.2 to 29.1 wt%) in some tanks (C-103, C-106, and S-112) and relatively low (Technetium leachability is not as strongly dependent on the concentration of Tc in the waste, and it appears to be slightly more leachable by the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution than by the CaCO3-saturated solution. In general, Tc is much less leachable (<10 wt% of the available mass in the waste) than previously predicted. This may be due to the coprecipitation of trace concentrations of Tc in relatively insoluble phases such as Fe oxide/hydroxide solids.

Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

249

Non-pulp utilization of above-ground biomass of mixed-species forests of small trees  

SciTech Connect

This solution proposes to rehabilitate annually - by clear felling, site preparation, and planting - 25,000 acres of level to rolling land averaging about 490 cubic feet per acre of stemwood in small hardwood trees 5 inches in diameter at breast height (dbh) and larger, and of many species, plus an equal volume of above-ground biomass in stembark and tops, and in trees smaller than 5 inches in dbh. By usual utilization procedures, such wood is an unmerchantable residue from the harvest of merchantable southern pines. On an annual basis, 398,265 tons (oven-dry basis) of such wood and bark will be harvested and converted in an energy self-sufficient plant to the following: 208,688 tons of structural flakeboard sheathing and decking (sold at $200/ton), 16,298 tons of decorative hardwood plywood ($400/ton), and 20.191 tons of long fabricated joists with parallel-laminated veneer flanges and flakeboard webs ($600/ton), for a total product yield of about 60% - all on a dry-weight basis. Following are projected operating results and other essential data for a three-shift operation: capital investment, including working capital, $50,000,000; operating costs, annual, $40,000,000; sales, annual, $60,371,400; net profit, annual (before income taxes) $20,371,400; return on sales 33.7%; return on investment 40.7%; number of mill employees (harvesting and planting are contracted 250; electrical energy purchased annually 0 kWh; diesel fuel and propane for front-end loaders and lift trucks (oil equivalent) 150,000 gallons; wood residues burned annually (oven-dry-weight basis), all available from mill residues. (Refs. 16).

Koch, P.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Analyzing strategic behaviors in electricity markets via transmission-constrained residual demand.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation studies how to characterize strategic behaviors in electricity markets from a transmission-constrained residual demand perspective. This dissertation generalizes the residual demand concept, widely… (more)

Xu, Lin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

South Dakota Residual Fuel Oil Adj Sales/Deliveries to Oil Company ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil for Oil Company Use ; Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil for Oil Company Use ; South Dakota Adjusted Distillate ...

252

Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the main obstacles to total energy self sufficiency of kraft mills appears to be the fossil fuel requirements of the lime kilns. If an economical technology can be developed which allows fossil fuel to be replaced in whole or in part by wood-based fuel, the savings in fossil fuel by the pulp and paper industry would be very substantial. Our study focuses around the direct in-situ combustion of hog fuel fed from the cold feed end in order to substantially reduce the fossil fuel fired from the hot product discharge end of the lime kiln. Thus far we have carried out two series of tests using two different pilot-scale kilns and dry limestone in the first test series and mill produced lime mud in the second test series. Mill scale trials have just been completed and the preliminary results indicate that our approach is potentially a very cost-effective and simple option to substantially reduce or possibly eliminate fossil-fuel usage in lime kilns.

Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Inhibited Release of Mobile Contaminants from Hanford Tank Residual Waste  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of contaminant release from Hanford Site tank residual waste have indicated that in some cases certain contaminants of interest (Tc and Cr) exhibit inhibited release. The percentage of Tc that dissolved from residual waste from tanks 241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, and 241-C-203 ranged from approximately 6% to 10%. The percent leachable Cr from residual waste from tanks C-103, C 202, and C-203 ranged from approximately 1.1% to 44%. Solid phase characterization results indicate that the recalcitrant forms of these contaminants are associated with iron oxides. X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of Tc and Cr in residual waste indicates that these contaminants occur in Fe oxide particles as their lower, less soluble oxidation states [Tc(IV) and Cr(III)]. The form of these contaminants is likely as oxides or hydroxides incorporated within the structure of the Fe oxide. Leaching behavior of U from tank residual waste was studied using deionized water, and CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 saturated solutions as leachants. The release behavior of U from tank residual waste is complex. Initial U concentrations in water and CaCO3 leachants are high due to residual amounts of the highly soluble U mineral cejkaite. As leaching and dilution occur NaUO2PO4 {center_dot} xH2O, Na2U2O7(am) and schoepite (or a similar phase) become the solubility controlling phases for U. In the case of the Ca(OH)2 leachant, U release from tank residual waste is dramatically reduced. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that the solubility of CaUO4(c) controls release of U from residual waste in the Ca(OH)2 leachants. It is assumed the solubility controlling phase is actually a hydrated version of CaUO4 with a variable water content ranging from CaUO4 to CaUO4 {center_dot} (H2O). The critically reviewed value for CaUO4(c) (log KSP0 = 15.94) produced good agreement with our experimental data for the Ca(OH)2 leachates.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Heald, Steve M.; Arey, Bruce W.; Lindberg, Michael J.

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

254

Chemical and biological 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in fly ash from combustion of bleached kraft pulp mill sludge  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash was collected from five large-scale or pilot tests in which burning of bleached kraft pulp mill sludge was studied. The content of dioxin-like compounds in this fly ash was estimated both chemically and biologically. Fly ash was analyzed chemically for 17 PCDD and PCDF congeners by high-resolution GC-MS, and the data were transformed to Nordic TCDD equivalents. The biological analyses were based on the induction of several enzymes (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase [AHH], 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase [EROD], aldehyde dehydrogenase-3 [ALDG3]) by the fly ash extracts in a mouse hepatoma cell line, Hepa-1. The inducing potencies were expressed as biological TCDD equivalents. There was a good correlation between the Nordic and the biological TCDD equivalents. Differences in the amounts of dioxin-like compounds among the combustions were attributed mainly to the boiler types and not to fuel characteristics or combustion parameters.

Kopponen, P.; Toerroenen, R. (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Physiology); Vaelttilae, O.; Talka, E. (Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Inst., Espoo (Finland)); Tarhanen, J.; Ruuskanen, J. (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences); Kaerenlampi, S. (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers. Quarterly report, Phase 1a: Black liquor gasifier evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project phase addresses the following workscope: Conduct bench-scale tests of a low temperature, partial combustion gasifier; Prepare a gasifier pilot-plant preliminary design and cost estimate and prepare a budgetary cost estimate of the balance of the program; Outline a test program to evaluate gasification; Prepare an economic/market analysis of gasification and solicit pulp and paper industry support for subsequent phases; and Prepare a final report and conduct a project review prior to commencement of work leading to construction of any pilot scale components or facilities. The primary accomplishments included completion of installation of the bench-scale black liquor gasifier and supporting systems, preparing test plans and related safety procedures and detailed operating procedures, defining the functional design requirements and outlining the test plans for the pilot-scale gasifier, and preparing a preliminary economic assessment of the black liquor gasifier. This work accomplished under Phase 1a during this period is further described by task.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

The functions of tryptophan residues in membrane proteins  

SciTech Connect

Membrane proteins in general have a significantly higher Trp content than do soluble proteins. This is especially true for the M and L subunits of the photosynthetic reaction center from purple bacteria. The Trp residues are located mostly in the segments that connect the transmembrane helices. Further, they are concentrated at the periplasmic side of the complex. Within the protein subunits, many form hydrogen bonds with carbonyl oxygens of the main chain, thereby stabilizing the protein. On the surface of the molecule, they are correctly positioned to form hydrogen bonds with the lipid head groups while their hydrophobic rings are immersed in the lipid part of the bilayer. We suggest that Trp residues are involved in the translocation of protein through the membrane and that following translocation, Trp residues serve as anchors on the periplasmic side of the membrane.

Schiffer, M.; Chang, C.H.; Stevens, F.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Matrix Effects on Radiolytic Gas Generation in Plutonium Residues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transportation of plutonium bearing materials requires a shipping package that has been rigorously tested to withstand normal and accident conditions. Plutonium bearing materials can contribute to package internal pressure by producing heat and gases from chemical and radiochemical reactions. Of particular concern is the production of hydrogen gas from the radiolysis of moisture, which can result in flammable gas mixtures within the shipping package. Estimating the gas generation rates for plutonium residues is complicated by the large variability of material composition and process origin. In February 1999, the Savannah River Technology Center established a gas generation test program to support transportation of plutonium residue materials. The initial efforts of this program have focused on evaluation of residues identified as Sand, Slag, and Crucible (SS and C) generated as a byproduct of plutonium metal production.

Livingston, R.

1999-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

258

An integrated model for assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal limits for bioenergy systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Agricultural residues have been identified as a significant potential resource for bioenergy production, but serious questions remain about the sustainability of harvesting residues. Agricultural residues play an important role in limiting soil erosion ... Keywords: Agricultural residues, Bioenergy, Model integration, Soil erosion, Soil organic carbon

D. J. Muth, Jr.; K. M. Bryden

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product/Sales Type: Residual Fuel, Average - Sales to End Users Residual Fuel, Average - Sales for Resale Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales for Resale Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Product/Sales Type: Residual Fuel, Average - Sales to End Users Residual Fuel, Average - Sales for Resale Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales for Resale Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product/Sales Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. - - - - - - 1983-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) - - - - - - 1983-2013 New England (PADD 1A) - - - - - - 1983-2013 Connecticut - - - - - - 1983-2013 Maine - - - - - - 1983-2013 Massachusetts - - - - - - 1983-2013

260

Modeling EU electricity market competition using the residual supply index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An econometric approach to related hourly Residual Supply Index to price-cost margins in the major EU electricity generation markets suggests that market structure, as measured by the RSI, is a significant explanatory factor for markups, even when scarcity and other explanatory variables are included. (author)

Swinand, Gregory; Scully, Derek; Ffoulkes, Stuart; Kessler, Brian

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Recovery of plutonium from molten salt extraction residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are jointly developing a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCl, MgCl/sub 2/ residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of /sup 241/Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved PUCl/sub 3/ and up to 2 wt % AmCl/sub 3/. The objective is to develop a process to convert these residues to plutonium metal product and discardable waste. The first step of the conceptual process is to convert the actinides to a heterogenous scrub alloy with aluminum and magnesium. This step, performed at RFP, effectively separates the actinides from the bulk of the chloride. This scrub alloy will then be dissolved in a HNO/sub 3/-HF solution at SRP. Residual chloride will be removed by precipitation with Hg/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ followed by centrifugation. Plutonium and americium will be separated using the Purex solvent extraction process. The /sup 241/Am will be diverted to the solvent extraction waste stream where it can either be discarded to the waste farm or recovered. The plutonium will be finished via PuF/sub 3/ precipitation, oxidation to a mixture of PUF/sub 4/ and PuO/sub 2/, followed by reduction to plutonium metal with calcium.

Gray, L.W.; Holcomb, H.P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Aqueous recovery of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrochemical processes provide rapid methods to reclaim plutonium from scrap residues. Frequently, however, these processes yield an impure plutonium product and waste residues that are contaminated with actinides and are therefore nondiscardable. The Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and the Rocky Flats Plant are jointly developing new processes using both pyrochemistry and aqueous chemistry to generate pure product and discardable waste. An example of residue being treated is that from the molten salt extraction (MSE), a mixture of NaCl, KCl, MgCl/sub 2/, PuCl/sub 3/, AmCl/sub 3/, PuO/sub 2/, and Pu/sup 0/. This mixture is scrubbed with molten aluminum containing a small amount of magnesium to produce a nonhomogeneous Al-Pu-Am-Mg alloy. This process, which rejects most of the NaCl-KCl-MgCl/sub 2/ salts, results in a product easily dissolved in 6M HNO/sub 3/ -0.1M HF. Any residual chloride in the product is removed by precipitation with Hg(I) followed by centrifuging. Plutonium and americium are then separated by the standard Purex process. The americium, initially diverted to the solvent extraction waste stream, can either be recovered or sent to waste.

Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Measuring residual stress in glasses and ceramics using instrumented indentation.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Instrumented indentation has yielded mixed results when used to measure surface residual stresses in metal films. Relative to metals, many glasses and ceramics have a low modulus-to-yield strength (E/sy) ratio. The advantage of this characteristic for measuring residual stress using instrumented indentation is demonstrated by a series of comparative spherical and conical tip finite element simulations. Two cases are considered: (i) a material with E/s{sub y} = 24-similar to glass and (ii) a material with E/s{sub y} = 120-similar to metal films. In both cases, compressive residual stress shifts the simulated load-displacement response toward increasing hardness, irrespective of tip geometry. This shift is shown to be entirely due to pile up for the ''metal'' case, but primarily due to the direct influence of the residual stress for the ''glass'' case. Hardness changes and load-displacement curve shifts are explained by using the spherical cavity model. Supporting experimental results on stressed glasses are provided.

Tandon, Rajan; Buchheit, Thomas E.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Crop residue conversion to biogas by dry fermentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple 'dry fermentation' process has been developed that may enable economical conversion of drier crop residues to biogas. Results from two years of process definition and scale-up to a 110 m/sup 3/ prototype show that biogas production rates exceeding those necessary to make the dry fermentor competitive have been achieved. 13 refs.

Jewell, W.J.; Dell'Orto, S.; Fanfoni, K.J.; Fast, S.J.; Jackson, D.A.; Kabrick, R.M.; Gottung, E.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Adsorption process producing chronologically constant amount of a residual gas  

SciTech Connect

An adsorption process is disclosed for purifying or fractionating a gaseous feed mixture comprises an adsorption phase, at least one expansion phase, a purging phase and at least one pressure buildup phase. The expansion phase(S) and the purging phase produce residual process gas fractions. The sum total of volume, and/or mass streams of the residual process gas fractions comprises a residual gas stream which is maintained chronologically substantially constant by controlling the volume and/or gas streams of the gas entering the purging phase and maintaining the gas leaving the expansion phase(S) at a substantially constant value, dependent on the desired mass and/or volume quantity of the residual gas stream. The length of the purging phase and of the expansion phase(S) is adjusted accordingly so that the relationship of the length of time of the purging phase to the length of time of the expansion phase(S) is substantially the same as the relationship of the volume and/or mass of the gas fractions obtained during the purging to those obtained during the expansion phase(S), respectively. The control of the purging and of the expansion phase(S) can also be varied in response to a flow rate of a feed gas entering the process.

Benkmann, C.

1982-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

266

European experience in transport/storage cask for vitrified residues  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Because of the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transported in the existing cask designs. Therefore, TN International has decided in the late nineties to develop a brand new design of casks with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters: the TN{sup TM}81 casks currently in use in Switzerland and the TN{sup TM}85 cask which shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the most active vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW (kilowatts). The challenges for the TN{sup TM}81 and TN{sup TM}85 cask designs were that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were combined with a fairly wide range set by the AREVA NC Specification relative to vitrified residue canister. The TN{sup TM}81 and the TN{sup TM}85 casks have been designed to fully anticipate shipment constraints of the present vitrified residue production. It also used the feedback of current shipments and the operational constraints and experience of receiving and shipping facilities. The casks had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the already existing flasks such as the TN{sup TM}28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. (authors)

Otton, Camille; Sicard, Damien [AREVA - TN International (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Design of thermal imprinting system with uniform residual thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new thermal imprinting system for the printed circuit boards (PCBs) with both large areas and fine conducting lines was developed adopting hot airs with a high pressure. Several small nickel stamps were used to cover the large area, and the stamps ... Keywords: Patterned circuit boards, Thermal imprinting system, Uniformity of residual thickness

Won-Ho Shin

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Spectrum Fatigue Lifetime and Residual Strength for Fiberglass Laminates  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the effects of spectrum loading on lifetime and residual strength of a typical fiberglass laminate configuration used in wind turbine blade construction. Over 1100 tests have been run on laboratory specimens under a variety of load sequences. Repeated block loading at two or more load levels, either tensile-tensile, compressive-compressive, or reversing, as well as more random standard spectra have been studied. Data have been obtained for residual strength at various stages of the lifetime. Several lifetime prediction theories have been applied to the results. The repeated block loading data show lifetimes that are usually shorter than predicted by the most widely used linear damage accumulation theory, Miner's sum. Actual lifetimes are in the range of 10 to 20 percent of predicted lifetime in many cases. Linear and nonlinear residual strength models tend to fit the data better than Miner's sum, with the nonlinear providing a better fit of the two. Direct tests of residual strength at various fractions of the lifetime are consistent with the residual strength models. Load sequencing effects are found to be insignificant. The more a spectrum deviates from constant amplitude, the more sensitive predictions are to the damage law used. The nonlinear model provided improved correlation with test data for a modified standard wind turbine spectrum. When a single, relatively high load cycle was removed, all models provided similar, though somewhat non-conservative correlation with the experimental results. Predictions for the full spectrum, including tensile and compressive loads were slightly non-conservative relative to the experimental data, and accurately captured the trend with varying maximum load. The nonlinear residual strength based prediction with a power law S-N curve extrapolation provided the best fit to the data in most cases. The selection of the constant amplitude fatigue regression model becomes important at the lower stress, higher cycle loading cases. The residual strength models may provide a more accurate estimate of blade lifetime than Miner's rule for some loads spectra. They have the added advantage of providing an estimate of current blade strength throughout the service life.

WAHL, NEIL K.; MANDELL, JOHN F.; SAMBORSKY, DANIEL D.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

The Particle Adventure | What holds it together? | Residual EM force  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EM force EM force Residual EM force Atoms usually have the same numbers of protons and electrons. They are electrically neutral, therefore, because the positive protons cancel out the negative electrons. Since they are neutral, what causes them to stick together to form stable molecules? The answer is a bit strange: we've discovered that the charged parts of one atom can interact with the charged parts of another atom. This allows different atoms to bind together, an effect called the residual electromagnetic force. So the electromagnetic force is what allows atoms to bond and form molecules, allowing the world to stay together and create the matter you interact with all of the time. Amazing, isn't it? All the structures of the world exist simply because protons and electrons have opposite charges!

270

FIRST DRAFT OF OUTLINE: RPSEA 1 RESIDUAL OIL ZONE RESEARCH  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Commercial Exploitation and the Origin of Commercial Exploitation and the Origin of Residual Oil Zones: Developing a Case History in the Permian Basin of New Mexico and West Texas RPSEA PROJECT NUMBER.FINAL Commercial Exploitation and the Origin of Residual Oil Zones: Developing a Case History in the Permian Basin of New Mexico and West Texas Contract 81.089 08123-19-RPSEA June 28, 2012 Dr. Robert Trentham Director, Center for Energy and Economic Diversification The University of Texas of the Permian Basin Odessa, Texas 79762 L. Steven Melzer Melzer Consulting Midland, Texas 79701 David Vance Arcadis, U. S. Midland, Texas 79701 LEGAL NOTICE This report was prepared by Dr Robert Trentham as an account of work sponsored by the Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America, RPSEA. Neither RPSEA

271

Bulging of cans containing plutonium residues. Summary report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1994, two cans in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Plutonium Facility were found to be bulging as a result of the generation of gases form the plutonium ash residues contained in the cans. This report describes the chronology of this discovery, the response actions that revealed other pressurized cans, the analysis of the causes, the short-term remedial action, a followup inspection of the short-term storage packages, and a review of proposed long-term remedial options.

Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Wood, D.H.; Condit, R.H.; Shikany, S.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Effluent Guidelines and Coal Combustion Residuals Strategic Vision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a strategic view of the potential impacts on the electric power industry resulting from potential U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) effluent guidelines (EG) and coal combustion residuals (CCR) rule-making activities and deliberations. The report will be of value to electric power company executives and managers involved with long-range facility planning and operations. The report will also assist generation facility managers and electric power company environmental staff in ...

2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

273

Automobile shredder residue: Process developments for recovery of recyclable constituents  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to briefly outline the structure of the automobile shredder industry as a supplier of ferrous scrap, (2) to review the previous research that has been conducted for recycling automobile shredder residue (ASR), and (3) to present the results and implications of the research being conducted at ANL on the development of a process for the selective recovery and recycling of the thermoplastics content of ASR. 15 refs., 5 figs.

Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

The Dissolution of Desicooler Residues in H-Canyon Dissolvers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of dissolution and characterization studies has been performed to determine if FB-Line residues stored in desicooler containers will dissolve using a modified H-Canyon processing flowsheet. Samples of desicooler materials were used to evaluate dissolving characteristics in the low-molar nitric acid solutions used in H-Canyon dissolvers. The selection for the H-Canyon dissolution of desicooler residues was based on their high-enriched uranium content and trace levels of plutonium. Test results showed that almost all of the enriched uranium will dissolve from the desicooler materials after extended boiling in one molar nitric acid solutions. The residue that contained uranium after completion of the extended boiling cycle consisted of brown solids that had agglomerated into large pieces and were floating on top of the dissolver solution. Addition of tenth molar fluoride to a three molar nitric acid solution containing boron did not dissolve remaining uranium from the brown solids. Only after boiling in an eight molar nitric acid-tenth molar fluoride solution without boron did remaining uranium and aluminum dissolve from the brown solids. The amount of uranium associated with brown solids would be approximately 1.4 percent of the total uranium content of the desicooler materials. The brown solids that remain in the First Uranium Cycle feed will accumulate at the organic/aqueous interface during solvent extraction operations. Most of the undissolved white residue that remained after extended boiling was aluminum oxide containing additional trace quantities of impurities. However, the presence of mercury used in H-Canyon dissolvers should complete the dissolution of these aluminum compounds.

Gray, J.H.

2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

275

Turbine-Generator Topics for Plant Engineers: Residual Magnetism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The undesirable magnetization of components of rotating equipment used in the generation of electric power is a problem that has been recognized for many years; but wide understanding of the origins, detection techniques, remediation, and avoidance principles of residual magnetization has been lacking. As part of the series Turbine-Generator Topics for Plant Engineers, EPRI commissioned this report with the purpose of providing engineers active in the operation and maintenance of power ...

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

276

State-of-Knowledge Assessment of Residual Oil Nickel Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes current knowledge of nickel emissions from power plants firing residual oil. The primary motivation for the study was the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standard proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2004. Although EPA subsequently withdrew its proposed standard, EPRI and members of its Gas and Oil Boiler Interest Group (GOBIG) decided that completion of the study and documentation of its findings were worthwhile.

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

277

EOR: well logs sharpen focus on residual saturation. Part 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Much of what the enhanced recovery specialist must know about the reservoir under consideration can be measured, calculated, or deduced from well logging data. Appropriate well logging procedures for this type of formation evaluation would include resistivity, radioactivity, dielectric constant, and acoustic well logs. This work describes the principles and procedures for assessing residual oil saturation of a subsurface formation using these methods. The study explains what is actually being measured and compared when well logging data are obtained and processed.

Frederick, R.O.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Composition and utilization of cellulose for chemicals from agricultural residues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was undertaken for several reasons. Firstly, because of the scarcity of data on the composition of certain agricultural residues generated predominantly in California, it could only be inferred from the published composition of agricultural grains and wood what the carbohydrate composition of the residue straw, stems, and roots might be. Published methods of analysis on wood and grains were adapted or modified to suit these materials, resulting in an analytical system applicable to these residues. Secondly, a series of chemical pretreatments were studied to see if sugar production by enzymatic hydrolysis might be improved. Also these studies are used as a basis of generating the data for chemical engineering parameters of the Berkeley process. Since lignin is ultimately used as a feed back energy source in the Berkeley process, it is not necessary for it to be in the form of a relatively low weight polymer. Therefore, a study on the use of recoverable chemical solvents for dilignification by solution, rather than by a depolymerization reaction is indicated.

Sciamanna, A.F.; Freitas, R.P.; Wilke, C.R.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Diesel engine lubrication with poor quality residual fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of marine residual fuel is declining. This is being caused by a gradual trend towards production of heavier crudes and increased residuum conversion processes in refineries to meet light product demand while holding down crude runs. Additionally, more stringent inland fuel sulfur regulations have caused the higher sulfur residues to be used for marine residual fuel blending. Engine manufacturers are making major efforts in design so that their engines can burn these fuels at high efficiency with minimum adverse effects. The oil industry is developing improved lubricants to reduce as much as possible the increased wear and deposit formation caused by these poor quality fuels. To guide the development of improved lubricants, knowledge is required about the impact of the main fuel characteristics on lubrication. This paper summarizes work conducted to assess the impact of fuel sulfur, Conradson carbon and asphaltenes on wear and deposit formation in engines representative of full scale crosshead diesel engines and medium speed trunk piston engines. Results obtained with improved lubricants in these engines are reviewed.

Van der Horst, G.W.; Hold, G.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Modeling, Optimization and Economic Evaluation of Residual Biomass Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gasification is a thermo-chemical process which transforms biomass into valuable synthesis gas. Integrated with a biorefinery it can address the facility’s residue handling challenges and input demands. A number of feedstock, technology, oxidizer and product options are available for gasification along with combinations thereof. The objective of this work is to create a systematic method for optimizing the design of a residual biomass gasification unit. In detail, this work involves development of an optimization superstructure, creation of a biorefining scenario, process simulation, equipment sizing & costing, economic evaluation and optimization. The superstructure accommodates different feedstocks, reactor technologies, syngas cleaning options and final processing options. The criterion for optimization is annual worth. A biorefining scenario for the production of renewable diesel fuel from seed oil is developed; gasification receives the residues from this biorefinery. Availability of Soybeans, Jatropha, Chinese Tallow and woody biomass material is set by land use within a 50-mile radius. Four reactor technologies are considered, based on oxidizer type and operating pressure, along with three syngas cleaning methods and five processing options. Results show that residual gasification is profitable for large-scale biorefineries with the proper configuration. Low-pressure air gasification with filters, water-gas shift and hydrogen separation is the most advantageous combination of technology and product with an annual worth of $9.1 MM and a return on investment of 10.7 percent. Low-pressure air gasification with filters and methanol synthesis is the second most advantageous combination with an annual worth of $9.0 MM. Gasification is more economic for residue processing than combustion or disposal, and it competes well with natural gas-based methanol synthesis. However, it is less economic than steam-methane reforming of natural gas to hydrogen. Carbon dioxide credits contribute to profitability, affecting some configurations more than others. A carbon dioxide credit of $33/t makes the process competitive with conventional oil and gas development. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates a 10 percent change in hydrogen or electricity price results in a change to the optimal configuration of the unit. Accurate assessment of future commodity prices is critical to maximizing profitability.

Georgeson, Adam

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

European experience in transport / storage cask for vitrified residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transported in the existing cask designs. Therefore, TN International has decided in the late nineties to develop a brand new design of casks with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters: the TN{sup TM}81 casks currently in use in Switzerland and the TN{sup TM}85 cask which shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the most active vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW (kilowatts). The challenges for the TN{sup TM}81 and TN{sup TM}85 cask designs were that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were combined with a fairly wide range set by the AREVA NC Specification relative to vitrified residue canister. The TN{sup TM}81 and the TN{sup TM}85 casks have been designed to fully anticipate shipment constraints of the present vitrified residue production. It also used the feedback of current shipments and the operational constraints and experience of receiving and shipping facilities. The casks had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the already existing flasks such as the TN{sup TM}28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. In addition, years of feedback and experience in design and operations - together with ever improved materials - have allowed finding further optimization of this type of cask design. In order to increase the loading capacity in terms of radioactive source terms and heat load by 40%, the cask design relies on innovative solutions and benchmarks from the current shipping campaigns. Currently, TN{sup TM}81 and TN{sup TM}85 are the only licensed casks that can transport and store 28 canisters with a total decay heat of 56 kW. It contributes to optimise the number of required transports to bring back high level waste residues to their producers. Three units have already been loaded and transported to ZWILAG (Zwischenlager Wuerenlingen AG) in Switzerland where they are stored for 40 years. Based on the same design but integrating the German Authorities and German users specificities, the TN{sup TM}85 cask is dedicated to the transport and storage of vitrified residues to Germany. It is presently at the final licensing stage. The transport cask approval expertise has now been granted, and the storage expertise is in the final steps. The first transport with TN{sup TM}85 cask is scheduled up to now in 2007 and the commissioning operations are under preparation. These two casks are key elements for the whole reprocessing system of AREVA as they enable the transport and the storage of the vitrified residues. (authors)

Blachet, L.; Otton, C.; Sicard, D. [AREVA TN International (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Ma,BonzongoandGao/UniversityofFlorida Characterization and Leachability of Coal Combustion Residues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ma,BonzongoandGao/UniversityofFlorida Characterization and Leachability of Coal Combustion Residues an important solid waste in Florida, i.e., coal combustion residues (CCR) detailed in #2-4 of the current

Ma, Lena

285

Mechanical Freeze/Thaw and Freeze Concentration of Water and Wastewater Residuals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water and wastewater treatment plants generate water residuals that must be disposed of in accordance with environmental regulations. This report analyzes the use of mechanical freeze/thaw and freeze concentration processes to reduce the volume of these residuals.

2003-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

286

Effects of fluoride residue on Cu agglomeration in Cu/low-k interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the effects of fluoride residue on the thermal stability of a Cu/barrier metal (BM)/porous low-k film (kKeywords: Barrier metal, Cu agglomeration, Fluoride residue, Low-k, Oxidation, Penetration, Porous

Y. Kobayashi; S. Ozaki; Y. Iba; Y. Nakata; T. Nakamura

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Making Photosynthetic Biofuel Renewable: Recovering Phosphorus from Residual Biomass J. M. Gifford and P. Westerhoff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Making Photosynthetic Biofuel Renewable: Recovering Phosphorus from Residual Biomass J. M. Gifford to global warming. Biofuel from phototrophic microbes like algae and bacteria provides a viable substitute improves biofuel sustainability by refining phosphorus recycling. Biomass Production Residual Biomass

Hall, Sharon J.

288

Residual fuel consumption in the U.S. continues to decline - Today ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude oil , gasoline, heating ... in the late 1970s, demand for residual fuel oil in the United ... Changes on both the residual fuel supply and demand side of the ...

289

Three-Dimensional Residual Tidal Circulation in an Elongated, Rotating Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional residual circulation driven by tides in an elongated basin of arbitrary depth is described with a small amplitude, constant density model on the f plane. The inclusion of rotation fundamentally alters the residual flow. With ...

Clinton D. Winant

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Modelling of residual stresses in the shot peened material C-1020 by artificial neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study consists of two cases: (i) The experimental analysis: Shot peening is a method to improve the resistance of metal pieces to fatigue by creating regions of residual stress. In this study, the residual stresses induced in steel specimen type ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Layer removal technique, Residual stresses, Shot peening

Cetin Karata?; Adnan Sozen; Emrah Dulek

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Fuel gas production from animal residue. Dynatech report No. 1551  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comprehensive mathematical model description of anaerobic digestion of animal residues was developed, taking into account material and energy balances, kinetics, and economics of the process. The model has the flexibility to be applicable to residues from any size or type of animal husbandry operation. A computer program was written for this model and includes a routine for optimization to minimum unit gas cost, with the optimization variables being digester temperature, retention time, and influent volatile solids concentration. The computer program was used to determine the optimum base-line process conditions and economics for fuel gas production via anaerobic digestion of residues from a 10,000 head environmental beef feedlot. This feedlot at the conditions for minimum unit gas cost will produce 300 MCF/day of methane at a cost of $5.17/MCF (CH/sub 4/), with a total capital requirement of $1,165,000, a total capital investment of $694,000, and an annual average net operating cost of $370,000. The major contributions to this unit gas cost are due to labor (37 percent), raw manure (11 percent), power for gas compression (10 percent), and digester cost (13 percent). A conceptual design of an anaerobic digestion process for the baseline conditions is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the unit gas cost to changes in the major contributions to unit gas cost was performed, and the results of this analysis indicate areas in the anaerobic digestion system design where reasonable improvements could be expected so as to produce gas at an economically feasible cost. This sensitivity analysis includes the effects on unit gas cost of feedlot size and type, digester type, digester operating conditions, and economic input data.

Ashare, E.; Wise, D.L.; Wentworth, R.L.

1977-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

292

Residual stress measurement and microstructural characterization of thick beryllium films  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium films are synthesized by a magnetron sputtering technique incorporating in-situ residual stress measurement. Monitoring the stress evolution in real time provides quantitative through-thickness information on the effects of various processing parameters, including sputtering gas pressure and substrate biasing. Specimens produced over a wide range of stress states are characterized via transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, in order to correlate the stress data with microstructure. A columnar grain structure is observed for all specimens, and surface morphology is found to be strongly dependent on processing conditions. Analytical models of stress generation are reviewed and discussed in terms of the observed microstructure.

Detor, A; Wang, M; Hodge, A M; Chason, E; Walton, C; Hamza, A V; Xu, H; Nikroo, A

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

293

Integrating the Clearance in NPP Residual Material Management  

SciTech Connect

Previous Experiences in decommissioning projects are being used to optimize the residual material management in NPP, metallic scrap usually. The approach is based in the availability of a materials Clearance MARSSIM-based methodology developed and licensed in Spain. A typical project includes the integration of segregation, decontamination, clearance, quality control and quality assurance activities. The design is based in the clearance methodology features translating them into standard operational procedures. In terms of ecological taxes and final disposal costs, significant amounts of money could be saved with this type of approaches. The last clearance project managed a total amount of 405 tons scrap metal and a similar amount of other residual materials occupying a volume of 1500 m{sup 3}. After less than a year of field works 251 tons were finally recycled in a non-licensed smelting facility. The balance was disposed as LILW. In the planning phase the estimated cost savings were 4.5 Meuro. However, today a VLLW option is available in European countries so, the estimated cost savings are reduced to 1.2 Meuro. In conclusion: the application of materials clearance in NPP decommissioning lessons learnt to the NPP residual material management is an interesting management option. This practice is currently going on in Spanish NPP and, in a preliminary view, is consistent with the new MARSAME Draft. An interesting parameter is the cost of 1 m3 of recyclable scrap. The above estimates are very project specific because in the segregation process other residual materials were involved. If the effect of this other materials is removed the estimated Unit Cost were in this project around 1700 euro/m{sup 3}, this figure is clearly below the above VLLW disposal cost of 2600 euro. In a future project it appears feasible to descend to 839 euro/m{sup 3} and if it became routine values and is used in big Decommissioning projects, around 600 euro/m{sup 3} or below possibly could be achieved. A rough economical analysis permits to estimate a saving around 2000 US$ to 13000 US$ per cubic meter of steel scrap according the variability of materials and disposal costs. Many learnt lessons of this practice were used as a feed back in the planning of characterization activities for decommissioning a Spanish NPP and today are considered as a significant reference in our Decommissioning engineering approaches.

Garcia-Bermejo, R.; Lamela, B. [Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion, Jose Bardasano Baos 28036, Madrid (Spain)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Radon transform on a space over a residue class ring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The functions on a space of dimension N over the residue class ring Z{sub n} modulo n that are invariant with respect to the group GL(N,Z{sub n}) form a commutative convolution algebra. We describe the structure of this algebra and find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the operators of multiplication by elements of this algebra. The results thus obtained are applied to solve the inverse problem for the hyperplane Radon transform on Z{sup N}{sub n}. Bibliography: 2 titles.

Molchanov, Vladimir F [Tambov State University, Tambov (Russian Federation)

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

Residue arithmetic circuit design based on integrated optics  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid circuits containing integrated optical detectors, waveguides, and electro-optic switches can be used to perform a variety of digital logic operations. In combining the hybrid circuits with the carry-free residue arithmetic algorithm, different modules are designed to perform basic arithmetic operations, encoding, decoding, and scaling. Based on pipelining and parallel concepts, a vector-vector multiplier is designed to yield very high throughput rate for application involving traditionally slow computation such as matrix-vector multiplication and polynomial evaluation. 18 references.

Huang, S.Y.; Lee, S.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application  

SciTech Connect

Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Study on leaching vanadium from roasted residue of stone coal  

SciTech Connect

In China, the total reserves of vanadium, reported as V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, in stone coal is 118 Mt (130 million st). Recovering vanadium from such a large resource is very important to China's vanadium industry. The technology now being used to recover vanadium from stone coal has the following two problems in the leaching process: a low recovery of vanadium and high acid consumption. To resolve these problems, a new leaching technology is proposed. The effects of factors such as H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration, liquid-solid ratio, temperature and time, and the types and additions of additives were studied. By adding 1.5% (by weight) CaF2 and leaching the roasted residue of stone coal with 5.4% (by weight) sulfuric acid at 90{sup o}C for 12 hours at a liquid-solid ratio of 2 mL/g, the leaching degree of vanadium reached 83.10%. This proposed leaching technology gives a feasible alternative for the processing of roasting residue of stone coal and can be applied in the comprehensive utilization of stone coal ores in China.

He, D.; Feng, Q.; Zhang, G.; Luo, W.; Ou, L. [Central South University, Changsha (China)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Magnetic separation as a plutonium residue enrichment process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have subjected several plutonium contaminated residues to Open Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) on an experimental scale. Separation of graphite, bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, slag, and crucible, resulted in a plutonium rich fraction and a plutonium lean fraction. The lean fraction varied between about 20% to 85% of the feed bulk. The plutonium content of the lean fraction can be reduced from about 2% in the feed to the 0.1% to 0.5% range dependent on the portion of the feed rejected to this lean fraction. These values are low enough in plutonium to meet economic discard limits and be considered for direct discard. Magnetic separation of direct oxide reduction and electrorefining pyrochemical salts gave less favorable results. While a fraction very rich in plutonium could be obtained, the plutonium content of the lean fraction was to high for direct discard. This may still have chemical processing applications. OGMS experiments at low magnetic field strength on incinerator ash did give two fractions but the plutonium content of each fraction was essentially identical. Thus, no chemical processing advantage was identified for magnetic separation of this residue. The detailed results of these experiments and the implications for OGMS use in recycle plutonium processing are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Avens, L.R.; McFarlan, J.T.; Gallegos, U.F.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Mineral Sequestration Utilizing Industrial By-Products, Residues, and Minerals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

J. Fauth and Yee Soong J. Fauth and Yee Soong U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Pittsburgh PA, 15236-0940 Mineral Sequestration Workshop National Energy Technology Laboratory August 8, 2001 Mineral Sequestration Utilizing Industrial By-Products, Residues, and Minerals Mineral Sequestration Workshop, U.S. Department of Energy, NETL, August 8, 2001 Overview * Introduction - Objective - Goals - NETL Facilities * Effect of Solution Chemistry on Carbonation Efficiency - Buffered Solution + NaCl - Buffered Solution + MEA * Effect of Pretreatment on Carbonation Efficiency - Thermal Treatments - Chemical Treatments * Carbonation Reaction with Ultramafic Minerals - Serpentine - Olivine Mineral Sequestration Workshop, U.S. Department of Energy, NETL, August 8, 2001 Overview * Carbonation Reaction with Industrial By-products

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Modeling and experimental measurements of residual stress using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

This work was an extension of recent LLNL-related efforts to determine the most effective method for determining residual stress in metal components by non-destructive techniques. These activities have included neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and ultrasonics. In 1988, we recognized that the newly installed UC/LLNL beam line at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) could be applied to determining lattice strains in a fashion helpful to our overall research goals. Pioneering work using synchrotron radiation for stress measurements had been reported in Japan. Benefits of a synchrotron source to our studies include a highly intense and monochromatic beam, with variable energies (allowing significant sample penetration) and very low beam divergence. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Shackelford, J.F.

1989-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

302

Residual stress measurement using the pulsed neutron source at LANSCE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The presence of residual stress in engineering components can effect their mechanical properties and structural integrity. Neutron diffraction is the only measuring technique which can make spatially resolved non-destructive strain measurements in the interior of components. By recording the change in the crystalline interplanar spacing, elastic strains can be measured for individual lattice reflections. Using a pulsed neutron source, all the lattice reflections are recorded in each measurement which allows anisotropic effects to be studied. Measurements made at the Manuel Lujan Jr Neutron Scattering Centre (LANSCE) demonstrate the potential for stress measurements on a pulsed source and indicate the advantages and disadvantages over measurements made on a reactor. 15 refs., 7 figs.

Bourke, M.A.M.; Goldstone, J.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Holden, T.M. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Residual energy in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and in the solar wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent observations indicate that kinetic and magnetic energies are not in equipartition in the solar wind turbulence. Rather, magnetic fluctuations are more energetic and have somewhat steeper energy spectrum compared to the velocity fluctuations. This leads to the presence of the so-called residual energy E_r=E_v-E_b in the inertial interval of turbulence. This puzzling effect is addressed in the present paper in the framework of weak turbulence theory. Using a simple model of weakly colliding Alfv\\'en waves, we demonstrate that the kinetic-magnetic equipartition indeed gets broken as a result of nonlinear interaction of Alfv\\'en waves. We establish that magnetic energy is indeed generated more efficiently as a result of these interactions, which proposes an explanation for the solar wind observations.

Stanislav Boldyrev; Jean Carlos Perez; Vladimir Zhdankin

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

304

Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Black carbon enrichment in atmospheric ice particle residuals observed in lower tropospheric mixed phase clouds  

SciTech Connect

The enrichment of black carbon (BC) in residuals of small ice crystals was investigated during intensive experiments in winter 2004 and 2005 at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl, Switzerland). Two inlets were used to sample the bulk aerosol (residuals of cloud droplets and ice crystals as well as non-activated aerosol particles) and the residual particles of small ice crystals (diameter 5 - 20 ?m). An enrichment of the BC mass fraction in the ice particle residuals was observed by investigating the measured BC mass concentration as a fraction of the bulk (submicrometer) aerosol mass concentration sampled by the two inlets. On average, the BC mass fraction was 5% for the bulk aerosol and 27% for the ice particle residuals. The observed enrichment of BC in ice particle residuals suggests that BC containing particles preferentially act as ice nuclei, with important implications for the indirect aerosol effect via glaciation of clouds.

Cozic, J.; Mertes, S.; Verheggen, B.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Gallavardin, S. J.; Walter, S.; Baltensperger, Urs; Weingartner, E.

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Black carbon enrichment in atmospheric ice particle residuals observed in lower trophospheric mixed phase clouds  

SciTech Connect

The enrichment of black carbon (BC) in residuals of small ice particles was investigated during intensive experiments in winter 2004 and 2005 at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl, Switzerland). Two inlets were used to sample the bulk aerosol (residuals of cloud droplets and ice crystals as well as non-activated aerosol particles) and the residual particles of small ice crystals (diameter 5 - 20 m). An enrichment of the BC mass fraction in the ice particle residuals was observed by investigating the measured BC mass concentration as a fraction of the bulk (submicrometer) aerosol mass concentration sampled by the two inlets. On average, the BC mass fraction was 5% for the bulk aerosol and 14% for the ice particle residuals. The observed enrichment of BC in ice particle residuals suggests that BC may act as ice nuclei, with important implications for the indirect aerosol effect via glaciation of clouds.

Cozic, J.; Mertes, S.; Verheggen, B.; Cziczo, Dan; Gallavardin, S. J.; Walter, S.; Baltensperger, Urs; Weingartner, E.

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Feasibility analysis of gasification for energy recovery from residual solid waste in Humboldt County.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This analysis investigates the feasibility of implementing a gasification system to process residual solid waste in Humboldt County. The Humboldt Waste Management Authority manages 70,000… (more)

Hervin, Kirstin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by PAD District (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

309

New England (PADD 1A) Residual Fuel Oil Prices by Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Values of U.S. residual ...

310

Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by PAD District (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

311

Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues  

SciTech Connect

Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose chemical compositions and magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions have been previously measured.

Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J

2009-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

312

Gas Generation Test Support for Transportation and Storage of Plutonium Residue Materials - Part 1: Rocky Flats Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to present experimental results that can be used to establish one segment of the safety basis for transportation and storage of plutonium residue materials.

Livingston, R.R.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

313

"Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" 0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day)" ,,,," Inputs for Heat",,," Primary Consumption" " "," Primary Consumption for all Purposes",,," Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," for Nonfuel Purposes",,,"RSE" ," ------------------------------------",,," ------------------------------------",,," -------------------------------",,,"Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","Factors"

314

Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them (46, 53, 61, 69) with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide (63) to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased (81), preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated (84) to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process (86, 18, 17) where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

Soung, Wen Y. (Houston, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Process to produce SNG from residue oil shows promise  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As supplies of natural gas from the more accessible fields dwindle, manufactured substitute natural gas (SNG) will become increasingly valuable as an energy source. To begin with it will be used to supplement supplies during peak load periods in cold weather; but eventually its role will be extended to base load supplies. Feedstock availability is an important factor in producing gas economically; therefore, the gas industry in Britain has developed a number of processes using a range of coal and oil feedstocks. British Gas has now successfully completed a major research program that will enable it to produce SNG from low value residue oil. This is the near solid ''bottom of the barrel'' oil that previously only power plants and refineries were able to use with any success. The process has been developed in collaboration with Osaka Gas of Japan. British Gas signed an agreement in 1981 to extend the existing range of oil feedstocks suitable for gasification, and the Japanese company has contributed some pounds9 million ($10.8 million).

Wood, R.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Environmental impact of landfill disposal of selected geothermal residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solid waste is classified as hazardous if it contains sufficient leachable components to contaminate the groundwater and the environment if disposed in a landfill. Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Phlippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing regulated elements at levels above the earth‘s crustal abundance were studied for their leachability. Cr, As, Cu, Zn and Pb were detected at levels which could impair groundwater quality if leaching occurred. Several procedures were used to assess the likely risk posed by the residues : protocol leaching tests (Canadian LEP and US TCLP), toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test, and a preliminary acid mine drainage potential test. Whole rock analysis, X-ray diffraction, and radioactivity counting were also performed to characterize the samples. Toxi-chromotest and SOS-chromotest results were negative for all samples. Leachng tests indicated that all of them could be classified as nonhazardous wastes. Only one of the six showed a low-level radioactivity based on its high Pb-210 activity. Initial tests for acidification potential gave positive results for three out of six samples whle none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after accelerated weathering experiment for three months.

Peralta, G.L.; Graydon, J.W.; Seyfried, P.L.; Kirk, D.W.

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

317

Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Transport of Explosive Residue Surrogates in Saturated Porous Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Department of Defense operational ranges may become contaminated by particles of explosives residues (ER) as a result of low-order detonations of munitions. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which particles of ER could migrate through columns of sandy sediment, representing model aquifer materials. Transport experiments were conducted in saturated columns (2 x 20 cm) packed with different grain sizes of clean sand or glass beads. Fine particles (approximately 2 to 50 {mu}m) of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT) were used as a surrogate for ER. DNT particles were applied to the top 1 cm of sand or beads in the columns, and the columns were subsequently leached with artificial groundwater solutions. DNT migration occurred as both dissolved and particulate phases. Concentration differences between unfiltered and filtered samples indicate that particulate DNT accounted for up to 41% of the mass recovered in effluent samples. Proportionally, more particulate than dissolved DNT was recovered in effluent solutions from columns with larger grain sizes, while total concentrations of DNT in effluent were inversely related to grain size. Of the total DNT mass applied to the uppermost layer of the column, <3% was recovered in the effluent with the bulk remaining in the top 2 cm of the column. Our results suggest there is some potential for subsurface migration of ER particles and that most of the particles will be retained over relatively short transport distances.

Lavoie, Bethsheba [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; McKay, Larry Donald [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

POST-OPERATIONAL TREATMENT OF RESIDUAL NA COOLLANT IN EBR-2 USING CARBONATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the end of 2002, the Experimental Breeder Reactor Two (EBR-II) facility became a U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted site, and the RCRA permit1 compelled further treatment of the residual sodium in order to convert it into a less reactive chemical form and remove the by-products from the facility, so that a state of RCRA 'closure' for the facility may be achieved (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992k, 2002). In response to this regulatory driver, and in recognition of project budgetary and safety constraints, it was decided to treat the residual sodium in the EBR-II primary and secondary sodium systems using a process known as 'carbonation.' In early EBR-II post-operation documentation, this process is also called 'passivation.' In the carbonation process (Sherman and Henslee, 2005), the system containing residual sodium is flushed with humidified carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The water vapor in the flush gas reacts with residual sodium to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the CO{sub 2} in the flush gas reacts with the newly formed NaOH to make sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}). Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced as a by-product. The chemical reactions occur at the exposed surface of the residual sodium. The NaHCO{sub 3} layer that forms is porous, and humidified carbon dioxide can penetrate the NaHCO{sub 3} layer to continue reacting residual sodium underneath. The rate of reaction is controlled by the thickness of the NaHCO{sub 3} surface layer, the moisture input rate, and the residual sodium exposed surface area. At the end of carbonation, approximately 780 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II primary tank ({approx}70% of original inventory), and just under 190 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II secondary sodium system ({approx}50% of original inventory), were converted into NaHCO{sub 3}. No bare surfaces of residual sodium remained after treatment, and all remaining residual sodium deposits are covered by a layer of NaHCO{sub 3}. From a safety standpoint, the inventory of residual sodium in these systems was greatly reduced by using the carbonation process. From a regulatory standpoint, the process was not able to achieve deactivation of all residual sodium, and other more aggressive measures will be needed if the remaining residual sodium must also be deactivated to meet the requirements of the existing environmental permit. This chapter provides a project history and technical summary of the carbonation of EBR-II residual sodium. Options for future treatment are also discussed.

Sherman, S.; Knight, C.

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

320

Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio Committee Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported

Victoria, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The Structure of Three-Dimensional Tide-Induced Current. Part II: Residual Currents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple method of computing the second-order, three-dimensional, tidally-induced residual current is presented. The depth-averaged residual current and the mean-surface gradient from the depth-averaged equations are first computed, assuming that ...

Kim-Tai Tee

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

A method for in situ measurement of residual layer thickness in nano-imprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoimprint lithography has the advantages of high throughput, sub-10-nm fabrication process, and low cost. However, residual layer encountered in the imprinting process requires removal through reactive ion etching to maintain pattern fidelity. This ... Keywords: Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), Non-destructive measurement, Residual layer, Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)

Wei-Hsuan Hsu, Hong Hocheng, Jow-Tsong Shy

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Management of high sulfur coal combustion residues, issues and practices: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented at the following sessions are included in this proceedings: (1) overview topic; (2) characterization of coal combustion residues; (3) environmental impacts of residues management; (4) materials handling and utilization, Part I; and (5) materials handling and utilization, Part II. Selected paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Chugh, Y.P.; Beasley, G.A. [eds.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Soil fertility and soil loss constraints on crop residue removal for energy production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of the methodologies used to estimate the soil fertility and soil loss constraints on crop residue removal for energy production is presented. Estimates of excess residue are developed for wheat in north-central Oklahoma and for corn and soybeans in central Iowa. These sample farming situations are analyzed in other research in the Analysis Division of the Solar Energy Research Institute.

Flaim, S.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Using the method of weighted residuals to compute potentials of mean force  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a general framework for approximating the potential of mean force (PMF) along a reaction coordinate in conformational space. This framework, based on the method of weighted residuals, can be viewed as a generalization of thermodynamic integration ... Keywords: Free energy, Histogram methods, Method of weighted residuals, Potential of mean force, Thermodynamic integration

Eric C. Cyr; Stephen D. Bond

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Research article: Fine grained sampling of residue characteristics using molecular dynamics simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a fine-grained computational analysis of protein structure, we investigated the relationships between a residue's backbone conformations and its side-chain packing as well as conformations. To produce continuous distributions in high resolution, we ... Keywords: Backbone conformation, Dynameome, Molecular dynamics simulation, Ramachandran plot, Residue volume, Rotamer, Side-chain packing

Hyun Joo; Xiaotao Qu; Rosemarie Swanson; C. Michael McCallum; Jerry Tsai

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

FORCE-CLAMP SPECTROSCOPY DETECTS RESIDUE CO-EVOLUTION IN ENZYME CATALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distant correlated mutations in E. coli thioredoxin. Our findings show that evolutionary anti- correlated of distant residue co-evolution in enzyme catalysis. The acquisition of adequate activity by an enzyme,10). Analysis of co-evolving residues has been used to explore functional coupling in processes like protein

Fernandez, Julio M.

328

Burning Forest Residues231 Corstorphine Road www.forestry.gov.uk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Burning Forest Residues231 Corstorphine Road Edinburgh EH12 7AT www.forestry.gov.uk S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 2 FCTN004 SUMMARY Burning forest residues is a traditional method of ground clearance following harvesting operations. Guidance is given on suitable types of cut material for burning, equipment

329

Residual biomass calculation from individual tree architecture using terrestrial laser scanner and ground-level measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large quantity of residual biomass with possible energy and industrial end can be obtained from management operations of urban forests. The profitability of exploiting this resource is conditioned by the amount of existing biomass within urban community ... Keywords: Allometric relationships, Crown modeling, Residual biomass, TLS, Urban forest, Volume equations

A. FernáNdez-SarríA; B. VeláZquez-Martí; M. Sajdak; L. MartíNez; J. Estornell

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says July 20, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Billions of barrels of oil that could increase domestic supply, help reduce imports, and increase U.S. energy security may be potentially recoverable from residual oil zones, according to initial findings from a study supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The recently completed study, conducted by researchers at the University of Texas-Permian Basin (UTPB), is one of several FE-supported research projects providing insight that will help tap this valuable-but-overlooked resource. Residual oil zones, called ROZs, are areas of immobile oil found below the oil-water contact of a reservoir. ROZs are similar to reservoirs in the

331

U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites (Revision 2, March 1987) U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites (Revision 2, March 1987) More Documents & Publications

332

U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites (Revision 2, March 1987) U.S. Department of Energy Guidelines for Residual Radioactive Material at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program Sites (Revision 2, March 1987) More Documents & Publications

333

Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in friction stir welding: a review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant amounts of residual stresses are often generated during welding and result in critical degradation of the structural integrity and performance of components. Neutron diffraction has become a well established technique for the determination of residual stresses in welds because of the unique deep penetration, three-dimensional mapping capability, and volume averaged bulk measurements characteristic of the scattering neutron beam. Friction stir welding has gained prominence in recent years. The authors reviewed a number of neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in friction stir welds and highlighted examples addressing how the microstructures and residual stresses are correlated with each other. An example of in situ neutron diffraction measurement result shows the evolution of the residual stresses during welding.

Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL; David, Stan A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

EA-1120: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the Rocky  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the 0: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado EA-1120: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to stabilize, if necessary, and/or repackage the residues for safe interim storage at the Site while awaiting the completion and opening of a suitable repository to which they would be shipped for disposal from the U.S. Department of Energy Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD April 1, 1996 EA-1120: Finding of No Significant Impact Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the Rocky Flats

335

Auto shredder residue recycling: Mechanical separation and pyrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work, we exploited mechanical separation and pyrolysis to recycle ASR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis of the floating organic fraction is promising in reaching ELV Directive targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zeolite catalyst improve pyrolysis oil and gas yield. - Abstract: sets a goal of 85% material recycling from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) by the end of 2015. The current ELV recycling rate is around 80%, while the remaining waste is called automotive shredder residue (ASR), or car fluff. In Europe, this is mainly landfilled because it is extremely heterogeneous and often polluted with car fluids. Despite technical difficulties, in the coming years it will be necessary to recover materials from car fluff in order to meet the ELV Directive requirement. This study deals with ASR pretreatment and pyrolysis, and aims to determine whether the ELV material recycling target may be achieved by car fluff mechanical separation followed by pyrolysis with a bench scale reactor. Results show that flotation followed by pyrolysis of the light, organic fraction may be a suitable ASR recycling technique if the oil can be further refined and used as a chemical. Moreover, metals are liberated during thermal cracking and can be easily separated from the pyrolysis char, amounting to roughly 5% in mass. Lastly, pyrolysis can be a good starting point from a 'waste-to-chemicals' perspective, but further research should be done with a focus on oil and gas refining, in order both to make products suitable for the chemical industry and to render the whole recycling process economically feasible.

Santini, Alessandro [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Passarini, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.passarini@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Vassura, Ivano [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Serrano, David; Dufour, Javier [Department of Chemical and Energy Technology, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Instituto IMDEA Energy, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Morselli, Luciano [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Command shaping for residual vibration free crane maneuvers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cranes used in the construction and transportation industries are generally devices with multiple degrees of freedom including variable load-line length, variable jib length (usually via a trolley), and variable boom angles. Point-to-point payload maneuvers using cranes are performed so as not to excite the spherical pendulum modes of their cable and payload assemblies. Typically, these pendulum modes, although time-varying, exhibit low frequencies. Current crane maneuvers are therefore performed slowly contributing to high construction and transportation costs. This investigation details a general method for applying command shaping to various multiple degree of freedom cranes such that the payload moves to a specified point without residual oscillation. A dynamic programming method is used for general command shaping for optimal maneuvers. Computationally, the dynamic programming approach requires order M calculations to arrive at a solution, where M is the number of discretizations of the input commands. This feature is exploited for the crane command shaping problem allowing for rapid calculation of command histories. Fast generation of commands is a necessity for practical use of command shaping for the applications described in this work. These results are compared to near-optimal solutions where the commands are linear combinations of acceleration pulse basis functions. The pulse shape is required due to hardware requirements. The weights on the basis functions are chosen as the solution to a parameter optimization problem solved using a Recursive Quadratic Programming technique. Simulation results and experimental verification for a variable load-line length rotary crane are presented using both design procedures.

Parker, G.G.; Petterson, B.; Dohrmann, C.; Robinett, R.D.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Pulp Mill EPI | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Federal agency resources Grocery & convenience stores resources Healthcare resources Higher education resources Home-based business resources Hospitality resources Industrial...

338

Canyon dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alternative to the FB-Line scrap recovery dissolver was desired for the dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible (SS{ampersand}C) residues from the plutonium reduction process due to the potential generation of hydrogen gas concentrations above the lower flammability limit. To address this concern, a flowsheet was developed for the F-Canyon dissolvers. The dissolvers are continually purged with nominally 33 SCFM of air; therefore the generation of flammable gas concentrations should not be a concern. Following removal of crucible fragments, small batches of the remaining sand fines or slag chunks containing less than approximately 350 grams of plutonium can be dissolved using the center insert in each of the four annular dissolver ports to address nuclear criticality safety concerns. Complete dissolution of the sand fines and slag chunks was achieved in laboratory experiments by heating between 75 and 85 degrees Celsius in a 9.3M nitric acid/0.013M (hydrogen) fluoride solution. Under these conditions, the sand and slag samples dissolved between 1 and 3 hours. Complete dissolution of plutonium and calcium fluorides in the slag required adjusting the dissolver solution to 7.5 wt% aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN). Once ANN was added to a dissolver solution, further dissolution of any plutonium oxide (PuO2) in successive charges was not practical due to complexation of the fluoride by aluminum. During the laboratory experiments, well mixed solutions were necessary to achieve rapid dissolution rates. When agitation was not provided, sand fines dissolved very slowly. Measurement of the hydrogen gas generation rate during dissolution of slag samples was used to estimate the amount of metal in the chunks. Depending upon the yield of the reduction, the values ranged between approximately 1 (good yield) and 20% (poor yield). Aging of the slag will reduce the potential for hydrogen generation as calcium metal oxidizes over time. The potential for excessive corrosion in the dissolvers was evaluated using experimental data reported in the literature. Corrosion data at the exact flowsheet conditions were not available; however, the corrosion rate for 304L stainless steel (wrought material) corrosion coupons in 10M nitric acid/0.01M hydrofluoric acid at 95 degrees Celsius was reported as 21 mils per year. If the fluoride in the dissolver is complexed with aluminum, the corrosion rate will decrease to approximately 5 mils per year.

Rudisill, T.S.; Gray, J.H.; Karraker, D.G.; Chandler, G.T.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment  

SciTech Connect

This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States for bioenergy production. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform the sustainable agricultural residue removal assessment. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10–100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time. This biomass resource has the potential for producing over 68 billion liters of cellulosic biofuels.

Muth, David J. [Idaho National Laboratory; Bryden, Kenneth Mark [Ames L; Nelson, R. G. [Kansas State University

2012-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

340

Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force  

SciTech Connect

The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burress, R.V. [SEHO (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Injection, flow, and mixing of CO2 in porous media with residual gas.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geologic structures associated with depleted natural gas reservoirs are desirable targets for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) as evidenced by numerous pilot and industrial-scale GCS projects in these environments world-wide. One feature of these GCS targets that may affect injection is the presence of residual CH{sub 4}. It is well known that CH{sub 4} drastically alters supercritical CO{sub 2} density and viscosity. Furthermore, residual gas of any kind affects the relative permeability of the liquid and gas phases, with relative permeability of the gas phase strongly dependent on the time-history of imbibition or drainage, i.e., dependent on hysteretic relative permeability. In this study, the effects of residual CH{sub 4} on supercritical CO{sub 2} injection were investigated by numerical simulation in an idealized one-dimensional system under three scenarios: (1) with no residual gas; (2) with residual supercritical CO{sub 2}; and (3) with residual CH{sub 4}. We further compare results of simulations that use non-hysteretic and hysteretic relative permeability functions. The primary effect of residual gas is to decrease injectivity by decreasing liquid-phase relative permeability. Secondary effects arise from injected gas effectively incorporating residual gas and thereby extending the mobile gas plume relative to cases with no residual gas. Third-order effects arise from gas mixing and associated compositional effects on density that effectively create a larger plume per unit mass. Non-hysteretic models of relative permeability can be used to approximate some parts of the behavior of the system, but fully hysteretic formulations are needed to accurately model the entire system.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Doughty, C.A.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

,"U.S. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil by End Use" Residual Fuel Oil by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use",8,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1984" ,"Release Date:","11/15/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","10/31/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_821rsd_dcu_nus_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_821rsd_dcu_nus_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

343

Collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues in the Pacific Northwest  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was conducted to identify potential methods for the collection, transportation and storage of agricultural and forest residues in the Pacific Northwest. Information was gathered from available literature and through contacts with researchers, equipment manufacturers, and other individuals involved in forest and agricultural activities. This information was evaluated, combined, and adapted for situations existing in the Pacific Northwest. A number of methods for collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues using currently available technology are described. Many of these methods can be applied to residue fuel materials along with their current uses in the forest and agricultural industries.

Inaba, L.K.; Eakin, D.E.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil by End Use" Residual Fuel Oil by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use",8,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1984" ,"Release Date:","11/15/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","10/31/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_821rsda_dcu_nus_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_821rsda_dcu_nus_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

345

Organochlorine insecticide, polychlorinated biphenyl, and metal residues in some South Dakota birds, 1975-76  

SciTech Connect

Common species of South Dakota birds with different feeding habits were analyzed in 1975-76 for 11 insecticide residues, six metals, and PCB's. Crows, American coots, starlings, and Franklin's gulls were analyzed. DDE was the most prevalent residue, detected in 93% of all samples. Dieldrin was detected in 61% of all samples. PCB's were not found to be above the minimum detectable level in any sample. Gulls had higher insecticide and metal residues than coots, starlings, or crows had. (16 references, 2 tables)

Greichus, Y.A.; Gueck, B.D.; Ammann, B.D.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

STUDY 226: PROTOCOL TO DETERMINE DISTRIBUTION OF ATRAZINE/SIMAZINE PARENT AND BREAKDOWN PRODUCT RESIDUES IN MUNICIPAL WELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the presence of triazine pre-emergence, herbicide residues in primarily domestic wells (Schuette et. al., 2002). Simazine residues have been detected in 659 wells in 24 different counties and atrazine residues have been detected in 203 wells in 21 counties.

unknown authors

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Acetylation of MEK2 and I B kinase (IKK) activation loop residues by YopJ inhibits signaling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acetylation of MEK2 and I B kinase (IKK) activation loop residues by YopJ inhibits signaling Rohit modifi- cation prevents the phosphorylation of these serine residues that is required for activation residue in the activation loop of both the and subunits of the NF- B pathway kinase, IKK. These results

McMahon, Harvey

348

EA-1120: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the Rocky  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

20: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the 20: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado EA-1120: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to stabilize, if necessary, and/or repackage the residues for safe interim storage at the Site while awaiting the completion and opening of a suitable repository to which they would be shipped for disposal from the U.S. Department of Energy Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD April 1, 1996 EA-1120: Finding of No Significant Impact

349

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GUIDELINES FOR RESIDUAL RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL AT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

I I U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GUIDELINES FOR RESIDUAL RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL AT FORMERLY UTILIZED SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM AHD REMOTE SURPLUS FACILITIES MANAGEMENT PROGRAM SITES (Revision 2, March 1987) A. INTRODUCTION This document presents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) radiological protection guidelines for cleanup of residual radioactive material and management of the resulting wastes and residues. It is applicable to si~es - "C-- identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites l{emedia1 Ac:tionProgram (FUSRAP) .and remote sites identified by the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP).* The topics covered are basic dose limits, guidelines and authorized limits for allowable levels of residual radioactive material, and requirements for

350

Tidal Dynamics and Residual Circulation in a Well-Mixed Inverse Estuary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The tidal and residual circulations in Laguna San Ignacio (LSI), a well-mixed evaporative lagoon located on the Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula in Mexico, is described based on surveys and moored observations. At tidal periods ...

Clinton D. Winant; Guillermo Gutiérrez de Velasco

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2 Distillate a No. 4 Fuel b Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End...

352

EIS-0277: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub Alloy Stored  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

77: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub Alloy 77: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub Alloy Stored at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site EIS-0277: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub Alloy Stored at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site SUMMARY This EIS evaluates the potential alternatives and impacts associated with a proposal to process certain plutonium residues and all of the scrub alloy currently stored at Rocky Flats. While ongoing stabilization activities at Rocky Flats are addressing immediate health and safety concerns associated with existing storage conditions, the indefinite storage of these materials, even after stabilization, would continue to present health and safety concerns that could only be eliminated by disposal or other disposition of the materials. Thus, this

353

Absorption of Visible Radiation by Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Fog and Cloud Water Residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Light absorption by samples of atmospheric aerosol particles as a function of size was studied using the integrating sphere method. In addition, the optical properties of fog and cloud-water residues were determined. The samples were taken at two ...

Karl Andre; Ralph Dlugi; Gottfried Schnatz

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Control of residual aluminum from conventional treatment to improve reverse osmosis performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pa. ). A 1.5–2.5 mg/L free chlorine residual was maintainedsulfate addition (3:1 chlorine to ammonia w/w ratio).on Al:Cl molar ratio. As the chlorine content decreases, the

Gabelich, C J; Ishida, K P; Gerringer, F W; Evangelista, R; Kalyan, M; Suffet, I H

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

An Examination of Residual Wind Fluctuations Observed at 10 m over Flat Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the behavior of wind fluctuations observed at the 10-m level over a flat terrain site located some 100 km east of the Rocky Mountains. The purposes were to assess residual fluctuations in order to ascertain effects ...

D. M. Leahey; M. C. Hansen; M. B. Schroeder

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Depth-Dependent Studies of Tidally Induced Residual Currents on the Sides of Georges Bank  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a depth-dependent tidal model, the tidally induced residual currents on the northern and southern sections of Georges Bank are computed and the effects of various physical parameters on the current are examined. Because of significant on-...

Kim-Tai Tee

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Reclaiming residual space from elevated transport infrastructure : time, space, and activity under the Chicago Brown Line  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis studies the non-transport functions of the residual space generated by elevated transport infrastructure and its relationship with abutting neighborhoods The space under the Chicago Brown Line, among all other ...

Su, Jing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Residual Sediment Fluxes in Weakly-to-Periodically Stratified Estuaries and Tidal Inlets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this idealized numerical modeling study, the composition of residual sediment fluxes in energetic (e.g., weakly or periodically stratified) tidal estuaries is investigated by means of one-dimensional water column models, with some focus on the ...

Hans Burchard; Henk M. Schuttelaars; W. Rockwell Geyer

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

A residue formula for the fundamental Hochschild class of the Podles sphere.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fundamental Hochschild cohomology class of the standard Podles quantum sphere is expressed in terms of the spectral triple of Dabrowski and Sitarz by means of a residue formula.

Ulrich Kraehmer; Elmar Wagner

360

Residual Circulation in the Stratosphere and Lower Mesosphere as Diagnosed from Microwave Limb Sounder Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results for the residual circulation in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere between September 1991 and August 1994 are reported. This circulation is diagnosed by applying an accurate radiative transfer code to temperature, ozone, and water ...

Janusz Eluszkiewicz; David Crisp; Richard Zurek; Lee Elson; Evan Fishbein; Lucien Froidevaux; Joe Waters; R.G. Grainger; Alyn Lambert; Robert Harwood; Gordon Peckham

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Finite Element Simulation of Residual Stresses in Thermo-coupled Wire Drawing Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to calculate residual stress in drawn wire taking into account induced temperature due to plastic dissipation energy. Finite element analysis (FEA) for the simulation of wire drawing is applied. The general purpose FEA ...

R. Iankov; A. Van Bael; P. Van Houtte

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Program on Technology Innovation: Nondestructive Evaluation and Measurement of Residual Stress  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of material characterization involving residual stress estimates that were performed on Alloy 600/182 welded plates using both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron diffraction (ND) testing methods.

2008-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

363

Hanford Tank 241-S-112 Residual Waste Composition and Leach Test Data  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of laboratory characterization and testing of two samples (designated 20406 and 20407) of residual waste collected from tank S-112 after final waste retrieval. These studies were completed to characterize the residual waste and assess the leachability of contami¬nants from the solids. This is the first report from this PNNL project to describe the composition and leach test data for residual waste from a salt cake tank. All previous PNNL reports (Cantrell et al. 2008; Deutsch et al. 2006, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) describing contaminant release models, and characterization and testing results for residual waste in single-shell tanks were based on samples from sludge tanks.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

364

Tidal Eulerian Residual Currents over a Slope: Analytical and Numerical Frictionless Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Eulerian residual tidal currents generated over a continental slope are examined. Using the assumption of a Poincaré wave, the linear frictionless solution of a semidiurnal tidal wave propagating from the deep ocean to a constant depth ...

Robert Mazé; Gilbert Langlois; François Grosjean

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Residual Currents Induced by Asymmetric Tidal Mixing in Weakly Stratified Narrow Estuaries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residual currents induced by asymmetric tidal mixing were examined for weakly stratified, narrow estuaries using analytical and numerical models. The analytical model is an extension of the work of R. K. McCarthy, with the addition of tidal ...

Peng Cheng; Arnoldo Valle-Levinson; Huib E. de Swart

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Model of the Tidally Induced Residual Circulation in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional nonlinear numerical hydrodynamic model using Legendre polynomials to represent the vertical structure of the horizontal currents has been used to study the tidally induced residual flows in the Gulf of Maine–Georges Bank study ...

Tatsusaburo Isaji; Malcolm L. Spaulding

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Incineration of Residue from Paint Stripping Operations Using Plastic Media Blasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A preliminary investigation has been performed on the environmental consequences of incinerating plastic-media-blasting (PHB) wastes from paint removal operations. PHB is similar to sandblasting although blasting takes place at a much lower pressure. The blasted media can be recovered and recycled several times, but ultimately a residue of paint dust/chips and attrited media dust are left for disposal. This residue is a dry solid that may potentially be classified as a hazardous waste. One possible alternative to depositing the waste residue directly into a hazardous waste landfill is incineration. Incineration would provide desirable volume reduction. However, the fate of heavy metals from the entrained paint waste is not known. Samples of PHB residue were combusted at temperatures between 690°C and 815°C with approximately 125% of stoichiometric air. The ash remaining after combustion was then analyzed for heavy metal content and tested for leachability using the EPA toxicity characteristics leaching procedures (TCLP).

Helt, J. E.; Mallya, N.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Residual Sediment Fluxes in Weakly-to-Periodically Stratified Estuaries and Tidal Inlets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this idealized numerical modeling study, the composition of residual sediment fluxes in energetic (e.g., weakly stratified or periodically stratified) tidal estuaries is investigated by means of one-dimensional water column models, with some ...

Hans Burchard; Henk M. Schuttelaars; W. Rockwell Geyer

369

X-ray diffraction study of residual stress in model weldments. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residual stress in a model weldment in nickel plate was characterized using x-ray diffraction techniques. The stress was mapped in 2 mm divisions up to the boundary of the weld pool. Results were in generally good agreement with the stress levels previously predicted for this system by finite element studies at LLNL. Recommendations are made that would permit 1 mm/sup 2/ spatial resolution maps of residual stress in stainless steel weldments.

Stroud, R.D.; Shackelford, J.F.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Computer Simulations Reveal Multiple Functions for Aromatic Residues in Cellulase Enzymes (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL researchers use high-performance computing to demonstrate fundamental roles of aromatic residues in cellulase enzyme tunnels. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) computer simulations of a key industrial enzyme, the Trichoderma reesei Family 6 cellulase (Cel6A), predict that aromatic residues near the enzyme's active site and at the entrance and exit tunnel perform different functions in substrate binding and catalysis, depending on their location in the enzyme. These results suggest that nature employs aromatic-carbohydrate interactions with a wide variety of binding affinities for diverse functions. Outcomes also suggest that protein engineering strategies in which mutations are made around the binding sites may require tailoring specific to the enzyme family. Cellulase enzymes ubiquitously exhibit tunnels or clefts lined with aromatic residues for processing carbohydrate polymers to monomers, but the molecular-level role of these aromatic residues remains unknown. In silico mutation of the aromatic residues near the catalytic site of Cel6A has little impact on the binding affinity, but simulation suggests that these residues play a major role in the glucopyranose ring distortion necessary for cleaving glycosidic bonds to produce fermentable sugars. Removal of aromatic residues at the entrance and exit of the cellulase tunnel, however, dramatically impacts the binding affinity. This suggests that these residues play a role in acquiring cellulose chains from the cellulose crystal and stabilizing the reaction product, respectively. These results illustrate that the role of aromatic-carbohydrate interactions varies dramatically depending on the position in the enzyme tunnel. As aromatic-carbohydrate interactions are present in all carbohydrate-active enzymes, the results have implications for understanding protein structure-function relationships in carbohydrate metabolism and recognition, carbon turnover in nature, and protein engineering strategies for biofuels production.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Removal of aqueous rinsable flux residues in a batch spray dishwater  

SciTech Connect

An alkaline detergent solution used in an industrial dishwasher was evaluated to remove aqueous rinsable flux residues on printed wiring boards (PWBs) after hot air solder leveling and hot oil solder dip and leveling. The dishwasher, a batch cleaning process, was compared to an existing conveyorized aqueous cleaning process. The aqueous soluble flux residues from both soldering processes were removed with a solution of a mild alkaline detergent dissolved in hot deionized (DI) water.

Slanina, J.T.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Evaluation of residual stress gradients in ductile cast iron using critical refracted longitudinal (Lcr) wave technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Critically refracted longitudinal (LCR) waves have been investigated as a possible technique for the evaluation of the residual stress gradients present in ductile iron castings. Residual stresses are likely to develop in ductile cast iron during the cooling phase of a casting process. A LCR probe fabricated for previous research was used to make the velocity measurements. The samples investigated were of different modularity and two were annealed while one was not. The samples were milled at increments of approximately two millimeters and the LCR velocities were taken-at each increment. This provided data for the mapping of velocity versus depth which represents the residual stress gradient. To confirm the presence of the residual stress gradient, strain gages were attached to similar samples and the samples were saw cut with the intent to relieve residual stresses. The strain gages indicated that residual stresses were relieved by the sawcutting. The strain gage data was found to support the LCR velocity map to an extent. Both sets of data indicate compressive stresses on the surface. The data also allowed for an evaluation of the annealing procedure used. The results showed that even after full annealing remnant stresses are still present in the bars tested.

Pfluger, Ron Atlan

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Feasibility study for anaerobic digestion of agricultural crop residues. Dynatech report No. 1935  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide cost estimates for the pretreatment/digestion of crop residues to fuel gas. A review of agricultural statistics indicated that the crop residues wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw are available in sufficient quantity to provide meaningful supplies of gas. Engineering economic analyses were performed for digestion of wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw for small farm-, cooperative-, and industrial scales. The small farm scale processed the residue from an average size US farm (400 acres), and the other sizes were two and three orders of magnitude greater. The results of the analyses indicate that the production of fuel gas from these residues is, at best, economically marginal, unless a credit can be obtained for digester effluent. The use of pretreatment can double the fuel gas output but will not be economically justifiable unless low chemical requirements or low cost chemicals can be utilized. Additional development is necessary in this area. Use of low cost hole-in-the-ground batch digestion results in improved economics for the small farm size digestion system, but not for the cooperative and industrial size systems. Recommendations arising from this study are continued development of autohydrolysis and chemical pretreatment of agricultural crop residues to improve fuel gas yields in an economically feasible manner; development of a low cost controlled landfill batch digestion process for small farm applications; and determination of crop residue digestion by-product values for fertilizer and refeed.

Ashare, E.; Buivid, M. G.; Wilson, E. H.

1979-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

All auto shredding: evaluation of automotive shredder residue generated by shredding only vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

A well developed infrastructure exists for the reuse and recycling of automotive parts and materials. At the end of a vehicle's useful life many parts are removed and sold for reuse and fluids are recovered for recycling or proper disposal. What remains is shredded, along with other metal bearing scrap such as home appliances, demolition debris and process equipment, and the metals are separated out and recycled. The remainder of the vehicle materials is call shredder residue which ends up in the landfill. As energy and natural resources becomes more treasured, increased effort has been afforded to find ways to reduce energy consumption and minimize the use of our limited resources. Many of the materials found in shredder residue could be recovered and help offset the use of energy and material consumption. For example, the energy content of the plastics and rubbers currently landfilled with the shredder residue is equivalent to 16 million barrels of oil per year. However, in the United States, the recovered materials, primarily polymers, cannot be recycled due to current regulatory barriers which preclude the re-introduction into commerce of certain materials because of residual contamination with substances of concern (SOCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The source of the PCBs is not well understood. Old transformers, capacitors, white goods and ballasts from lighting fixtures are likely contributing factors. The project was designed to evaluate whether vehicles of varying age and manufacturing origin contribute to the PCB content in shredder residue. Additionally, the project was designed to determine if there are any trends in material composition of the shredder residue from varied age and manufacturing groups. This information would aid in future material recovery facility strategy and design. The test utilized a newly installed shredder plant to shred four categories of automobiles. The categories were defined by vehicle age and the manufacturing company and location. Each category of vehicles was processed individually through the shredder plant and the resulting shredder residue was analyzed for its materials composition and presence of PCBs and leachable metals. The results show that shredder residue from all vehicle categories tested are not significant contributors of PCBs and leachable metals. It was evident that leachable cadmium levels have decreased in newer vehicles. The composition of the shredder residue from each of the four categories is similar to the others. In addition, these compositions are approximately equal to the composition of typical shredder residues, not limited to automotive materials.

Duranceau, C. M.; Spangenberger, J. S. (Energy Systems); (Vehicle Recycling Partnership, LLC); (American Chemistry Counsel, Plastics Division)

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

375

Soil carbon sequestration and changes in fungal and bacterial biomass following incorporation of forest residues.  

SciTech Connect

Sequestering carbon (C) in forest soils can benefit site fertility and help offset greenhouse gas emissions. However, identifying soil conditions and forest management practices which best promote C accumulation remains a challenging task. We tested whether soil incorporation of masticated woody residues alters short-term C storage at forested sites in western and southeastern USA. Our hypothesis was that woody residues would preferentially stimulate soil fungal biomass, resulting in improved C use efficiency and greater soil C storage. Harvest slash at loblolly pine sites in South Carolina was masticated (chipped) and either (1) retained on the soil surface, (2) tilled to a soil depth of 40 cm, or (3) tilled using at least twice the mass of organics. At comparative sites in California, live woody fuels in ponderosa pine stands were (1) masticated and surface applied, (2) masticated and tilled, or (3) left untreated. Sites with clayey and sandy soils were compared in each region, with residue additions ranging from 20 to 207 Mg ha_1. Total and active fungal biomass were not strongly affected by residue incorporation despite the high input of organics. Limited response was also found for total and active bacterial biomass. As a consequence, fungal:bacterial (F:B) biomass ratios were similar among treatments at each site. Total soil C was elevated at one California site following residue incorporation, yet was significantly lower compared to surface-applied residues at both loblolly pine sites, presumably due to the oxidative effects of tilling on soil organic matter. The findings demonstrated an inconsequential effect of residue incorporation on fungal and bacterial biomass and suggest a limited potential of such practices to enhance long-term soil C storage in these forests.

Busse, Matt, D.; Sanchez, Felipe G.; Ratcliff, Alice W.; Butnor, John R.; Carter, Emily A.; Powers, Robert F.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Measurement of residual stress in quenched 1045 steel by the nanoindentation method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the residual stress in quenched AISI 1045 steel was measured by a recently developed nanoindentation technique. Depth control mode was adopted to measure the residual stress. It was found that residual compressive stress was generated in the quenched steel. The material around nanoindents exhibits significant pile-up deformation. A new method was proposed to determine the real contact area for pile-up material on the basis of invariant pile-up morphology of the loaded or unloaded states. The results obtained by the new method were in good agreement with the residual stresses measured by the classical X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. - Research Highlights: {yields} A new method was proposed to measure the real contact area for pile-up materials. {yields} The real contact depth is defined as the sum of h{sub max} and the pile-up height h{sub p}. {yields} The value of residual stress measured by the nanoindentation method was in good agreement with that by the XRD method.

Zhu Lina, E-mail: zhulina84@gmail.com [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); National Key Laboratory for Remanufacturing, Academy of Armored Forces Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Xu Binshi; Wang Haidou [National Key Laboratory for Remanufacturing, Academy of Armored Forces Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Wang Chengbiao [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Thermodynamic Model for Uranium Release from Hanford Site Tank Residual Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermodynamic model of U phase solubility and paragenesis was developed for Hanford tank residual waste that will remain after tank closure. The model was developed using a combination of waste composition data, waste leach test data, and thermodynamic modeling of the leach test data. The testing and analyses were conducted using actual Hanford tank residual waste. Positive identification of the U phases by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was generally not possible because solids in the waste were amorphous, or below the detection limit of XRD for both as-received residual waste and leached residual waste. Three leachant solutions were used in the studies, dionized water, CaCO3 saturated solution, and Ca(OH)2 saturated solution. Thermodynamic modeling verified that equilibrium between U phases in the initial residual waste samples and the leachants was attained in less than a month. The paragenetic sequence of secondary phases that occur as waste leaching progresses for two closure scenarios was identified. These results have significant implications for tank closure design.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

378

Co-combustion of textile residues with cardboard and waste wood in a packed bed  

SciTech Connect

The combustible fraction of the municipal waste is mostly bio-derived. Energy recovery of the wastes that cannot be economically recycled is a key part of sustainable energy policy and waste management. Textile residues have high energy content. When burned alone in a packed bed system, however, their combustion efficiency is low due to the irregular propagation of the ignition front and the low burning rates. In order to achieve more efficient combustion of textile residues, a series of co-combustion tests were carried out for various mixture compositions and air flow rates in a packed bed combustor. The combustion performance of these materials was evaluated by using quantitative measures such as ignition rate, burning rate and equivalence ratio. Co-combustion of textile residues with cardboard for a textile fraction of up to 30% achieved satisfactorily high burning rate and low unburned carbon content in the bottom ash. The mixture was more resistant to convective cooling by air, which significantly expanded the range of air flow rate for combustion at high burning rates. In co-combustion with a material that has a very low ignition front speed such as waste wood, the propagation of the ignition front was governed by textile residues. Therefore, the co-combustion of textile residues can be better performed with a material having similar ignition front speeds, in which the two materials simultaneously burn at the ignition front. (author)

Ryu, Changkook; Phan, Anh N; Sharifi, Vida N; Swithenbank, Jim [Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC), Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Feasibility study for anaerobic digestion of agricultural crop residues. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study provides cost estimates for the pretreatment/digestion of crop residues to fuel gas. Agricultural statistics indicate that the crop residues wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw are available in sufficient quantity to provide meaningful supplies of gas. Engineering economic analyses were performed for digestion of sheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw for small farm, cooperative, and industrial scales. The results of the analyses indicate that the production of fuel gas from these residues is, at best, economically marginal, unless a credit can be obtained for digester effluent. The use of pretreatment can double the fuel gas output but will not be economically justifiable unless low chemical requirements or low-cost chemicals can be utilized. Use of low-cost hole-in-the-ground batch digestion results in improved economics for the small farm size digestion system, but not for the cooperative and industrial size systems. Recommendations arising from this study are continued development of autohydrolysis and chemical pretreatment of agricultural crop residues to improve fuel gas yields in an economically feasible manner; development of a low-cost controlled landfill batch digestion process for small farm applications; and determination of crop residue digestion by-product values for fertilizer and refeed.

Ashare, E.; Buivid, M. G.; Wilson, E. H.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

,,,,"Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.25;" 5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.25;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,"Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,," " ,,"Total Amount of ","Total Amount of","Equipment is Not","Switching","Unavailable ",,"Long-Term","Unavailable",,"Combinations of " "NAICS"," ","Residual Fuel Oil ","Unswitchable Residual","Capable of Using","Adversely Affects ","Alternative","Environmental","Contract ","Storage for ","Another","Columns F, G, " "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed as a Fuel","Fuel Oil Fuel Use","Another Fuel","the Products","Fuel Supply","Restrictions(b)","in Place(c)","Alternative Fuels(d)","Reason","H, I, J, and K","Don't Know"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Design of a triaxial residual stress measurement system using high energy x-ray diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous design studies in developing concepts for residual stress measurement in engineering materials have been extended. A pre-prototype energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) system has been fabricated. A 300 kV radiography source is used in conjunction with an intrinsic germanium detector and a MacII/LabVIEW data acquisition system. Specimens up to 25mm equivalent steel thickness (and one meter gross dimensions) can now be evaluated. The pre-prototype system serves as the hard x-ray, bulk stress measurement component of the previously reported hybrid stress measuring system (which would include a traditional multi-angle surface measurement system using soft x-rays). In addition, a detailed study of residual stress analytical equations has been completed and applied to various metallic and ceramic materials. During the grant period, related studies were completed on stress measurement using synchrotron radiation and on a critical review of the residual stress literature. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Shackelford, J.F.; Brown, B.D.; Park, J.S.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, and investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors.

Not Available

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Genetic algorithms applied to reconstructing coded imaging of neutrons and analysis of residual watermark  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monte-Carlo simulation of neutron coded imaging based on encoding aperture for Z-pinch of large field-of-view with 5 mm radius has been investigated, and then the coded image has been obtained. Reconstruction method of source image based on genetic algorithms (GA) has been established. 'Residual watermark,' which emerges unavoidably in reconstructed image, while the peak normalization is employed in GA fitness calculation because of its statistical fluctuation amplification, has been discovered and studied. Residual watermark is primarily related to the shape and other parameters of the encoding aperture cross section. The properties and essential causes of the residual watermark were analyzed, while the identification on equivalent radius of aperture was provided. By using the equivalent radius, the reconstruction can also be accomplished without knowing the point spread function (PSF) of actual aperture. The reconstruction result is close to that by using PSF of the actual aperture.

Zhang Tiankui; Hu Huasi; Jia Qinggang; Zhang Fengna; Liu Zhihua; Hu Guang; Guo Wei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Chen Da [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Li Zhenghong [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, CAEP, Mianyang, 621900 Sichuan (China); Wu Yuelei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre, State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), Beijing 100082 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Dirt feedlot residue experiments. Quarterly progress report, December 1977--March 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Performance of the mobile fermentation system is reported. It made use of aged pen residue at the nominal loading rate of 0.25 lbs. volatile solids/ft./sup 3//day with a 10-day retention time and a fermentation temperature of 57/sup 0/C. Results of an experimental cattle feeding trial utilizing the protein in the fermentor liquid effluent as a replacement for standard protein supplements were encouraging. The evaluation of the capture efficiency of the system centrifuge both with and without a chemical flocculant was completed. An experimental cattle feeding trial utilizing the protein fermentation product (PFP) harvested by the centrifuge as replacement for the standard protein supplementwas initiated. The characterization of the cattle residues found in various cattle pens, feedlots, and locations was continued. An investigation was initiated into methods of separating the organic content of the feedlot residue from the sand and grit content. (JGB)

Turk, M.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Method for using global optimization to the estimation of surface-consistent residual statics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An efficient method for generating residual statics corrections to compensate for surface-consistent static time shifts in stacked seismic traces. The method includes a step of framing the residual static corrections as a global optimization problem in a parameter space. The method also includes decoupling the global optimization problem involving all seismic traces into several one-dimensional problems. The method further utilizes a Stochastic Pijavskij Tunneling search to eliminate regions in the parameter space where a global minimum is unlikely to exist so that the global minimum may be quickly discovered. The method finds the residual statics corrections by maximizing the total stack power. The stack power is a measure of seismic energy transferred from energy sources to receivers.

Reister, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Barhen, Jacob (Oak Ridge, TN); Oblow, Edward M. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Iogen Biorefinery Partners, LLC | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

with the flexibility to process a wide range of agricultural residues into cellulose ethanol. Iogen Biorefinery Partners, LLC More Documents & Publications RSE Pulp & Chemical,...

387

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and...

388

Radiological surveys of properties contaminated by residual radioactive materials from uranium processing sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines methods for determining the extent and nature of contamination on properties contaminated by residual radioactive materials from uranium processing sites. Methods are also examined for verifying the success of remedial actions in removing the residual radioactive materials. Using literature review and practical experiences from the Edgemont, South Dakota survey program a critical review is made of sampling programs, instrumentation, analytical procedures, data reporting format, and statistical analyses of data. Protocols are recommended for measuring indoor and outdoor gamma-ray exposure rates, surface and subsurface Radium-226 concentrations in soil, and radon daughter concentrations.

Young, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Thomas, V.W.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Using Designed Residual Stress Profiles to Produce Flaw-Tolerant Glass  

SciTech Connect

A processing approach has been identified and reduced to practice in which a residual stress profile can be designed such that cracks in a brittle material are arrested or grow in a stable fashion. In the procedure, cracks in the body encounter an increase in the magnitude of residual compression as the crack propagates. If correctly designed, the process increases strength, significantly decreases strength variability and gives rise to multiple cracking. This approach is demonstrated for an ion-exchanged silicate glass using four-point and biaxial flexure strength testing. Optical microscopy was used to study the morphology and development of the multiple cracking that precedes the final failure.

BEAUCHAMP, E.K.; GLASS, S. JILL; GREEN, D.J.; SGLAVO, M.

1999-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

390

Role of the target orientation angle and orbital angular momentum in the evaporation residue production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The influence of the orientation angles of the target nucleus symmetry axis relative to the beam direction on the production of the evaporation residues is investigated for the $^{48}$Ca+$^{154}$Sm reaction as a function of the beam energy. At low energies ($E_{\\rm c.m.}orientation angles ($\\alpha_Torientation angles $\\alpha_T$ can contribute to the evaporation residue cross section $\\sigma_{ER}$ in the 10--100 mb range, and at $E_{c.m.}>$180 MeV $\\sigma_{ER}$ ranges around 0.1--10 mb because the fission barrier for a compound nucleus decreases by increasing its excitation energy and angular momentum.

Giovanni Fazio; Giorgio Giardina; Francis Hanappe; Giuseppe Mandaglio; Marina Manganaro; Akhtam I. Muminov; Avazbek K. Nasirov; Carmelo Sacca

2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

391

Natural Gamma Emitters after a Selective Chemical Separation of a TENORM residue: Preliminary Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical procedure was established in order to obtain selective fractions containing radium isotopes ({sup 228}Ra), thorium ({sup 232}Th), and rare earths from RETOTER (REsiduo de TOrio e TErras Raras), a solid residue rich in rare earth elements, thorium isotopes and small amount of natural uranium generated from the operation of a thorium pilot plant for purification and production of pure thorium nitrate at IPEN -CNEN/SP. The paper presents preliminary results of {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 40}K concentrations in the selective fractions and total residue determined by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, considering radioactive equilibrium of the samples.

Alves de Freitas, Antonio; Abrao, Alcidio [Centro de Quimica e do Meio Ambiente (Brazil); Godoy dos Santos, Adir Janete; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu [Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria-Zip Code 05508-000 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

392

Hanford Site Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of laboratory characterization, testing, and analysis for a composite sample (designated 20578) of residual waste collected from single-shell tank C-108 during the waste retrieval process after modified sluicing. These studies were completed to characterize concentration and form of contaminant of interest in the residual waste; assess the leachability of contaminants from the solids; and develop release models for contaminants of interest. Because modified sluicing did not achieve 99% removal of the waste, it is expected that additional retrieval processing will take place. As a result, the sample analyzed here is not expected to represent final retrieval sample.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

393

Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the optical emission produced thereby is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method are disclosed for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives. 4 figs.

Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

An active carbon catalyst prevents coke formation from asphaltenes during the hydrocracking of vacuum residue  

SciTech Connect

Active carbons were prepared by the steam activation of a brown coal char. The active carbon with mesopores showed greater adsorption selectivity for asphaltenes. The active carbon was effective at suppressing coke formation, even with the high hydrocracking conversion of vacuum residue. The analysis of the change in the composition of saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes in the cracked residue with conversion demonstrated the ability of active carbon to restrict the transformation of asphaltenes to coke. The active carbon that was richer in mesopores was presumably more effective at providing adsorption sites for the hydrocarbon free-radicals generated initially during thermal cracking to prevent them from coupling and polycondensing.

Fukuyama, H.; Terai, S. [Toyo Engineering Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technological Research Center

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Crop, forestry, and manure residue inventory: continental United States. Volume 3. West North-Central, including: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Tabulated data are compiled on the generation and utilization of crop, forestry, and manure residues. The utilization categories are defined as selling the residue for use other than as a fuel, feeding the residues to animals, use as fuel, return of the residue to the soil, and wastage. The tabulations are by state and by county within the state. (JSR)

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Materials Reliability Program: Validation of Welding Residual Stress Models for PWR Piping Dissimilar Metal Welds (MRP-271)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The residual stresses imparted by the welding process are a principal factor in primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Dissimilar Metal (DM) piping butt welds in PWRs. Analytical models are frequently used to simulate the welding process in order to predict the residual stress distribution in the weld and base material as an input to crack growth calculations. The crack growth calculations have demonstrated a high sensitivity to the welding residual stress distribution inputs. As part of the ...

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

399

University of California participation in the CIRP round robin of residual-stress measurement  

SciTech Connect

The University of California, Davis, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has participated in an international round robin testing program for residual stress measurement by x-ray diffraction. The comparative results among five participating laboratories were quite good with scatter in the data being less than +- 10%.

Shackelford, J.F.

1983-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

400

The nuclear density of states and the role of the residual interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the role of mean-field and moment methods in microscopic models for calculating the nuclear density of states (also known as the nuclear level density). Working in a shell-model framework, we use moments of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian to illustrate the importance of the residual interaction for accurate representations.

Calvin W. Johnson; Edgar Teran

2005-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Elastoplastic analysis of process induced residual stresses in thermally sprayed coatings  

SciTech Connect

The residual stresses induced from thermal spraying process have been extensively investigated in previous studies. However, most of such works were focused on the elastic deformation range. In this paper, an elastoplastic model for predicting the residual stresses in thermally sprayed coatings was developed, in which two main contributions were considered, namely the deposition induced stress and that due to differential thermal contraction between the substrate and coating during cooling. The deposition induced stress was analyzed based on the assumption that the coating is formed layer-by-layer, and then a misfit strain is accommodated within the multilayer structure after the addition of each layer (plastic deformation is induced consequently). From a knowledge of specimen dimensions, processing temperatures, and material properties, residual stress distributions within the structure can be determined by implementing the model with a simple computer program. A case study for the plasma sprayed NiCoCrAlY on Inconel 718 system was performed finally. Besides some similar phenomena observed from the present study as compared with previous elastic model reported in literature, the elastoplastic model also provides some interesting features for prediction of the residual stresses.

Chen Yongxiong; Liang Xiubing; Liu Yan; Xu Binshi [National Key Laboratory for Remanufacturing, Academy of Armored Forces Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Evaluation of Patient Residual Deviation and Its Impact on Dose Distribution for Proton Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

The residual deviations after final patient repositioning based on bony anatomy and the impact of such deviations on the proton dose distributions was investigated. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and kilovoltage (kV) 'portal verification' images from 10 patients treated with passively scattered proton radiotherapy was used to estimate the residual deviation. These changes were then applied to the location of isocenter points that, in effect, moved the isocenter relative to the apertures and compensators. A composite verification plan was obtained and compared with the original clinical treatment plan to evaluate any changes in dose distributions. The residual deviations were fitted to a Gaussian distribution with {mu} = -0.9 {+-} 0.1 mm and {sigma} = 2.55 {+-} 0.07 mm. The dose distribution showed under- and overcovered dose spots with complex dose distributions both in the target volumes and in the organs at risk. In some cases, this amounts to 63.5% above the intended clinical plan. Although patient positioning is carefully verified before treatment delivery and setup uncertainties are accounted for by using compensator smearing and aperture margins, a residual shift in a patient's position can considerably affect the dose distribution.

Arjomandy, Bijan, E-mail: arjomandy_2000@yahoo.com

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Nonlinear Acoustic Echo Suppressor Based on Spectral Correlation between Residual Echo and Echo Replica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new echo suppressor based on spectral correlation between the residual echo and the echo replica in an ordinary echo canceller. First, it is revealed by experiments that there is a significant correlation between the spectral amplitudes ... Keywords: nonlinear echo, echo canceller, echo suppressor

Osamu Hoshuyama; Akihiko Sugiyama

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

An Inspection Well Data Analyzing Approach to Residual Oil Distribution After Polymer Flooding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As one of the widely applied EOR methods in China, polymer flooding can gain about 10% incremental oil recovery. Meanwhile, most producing wells have been in high water cut period, subsurface displacement is still non-uniform and some non-flushed layers ... Keywords: after polymer flooding, residual oil, distribution law, inspection well, flush degree

Wang Zhengbo, Ye Yinzhu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Engineered Heart Tissue Enables Study of Residual Undifferentiated Embryonic Stem Cell Activity in a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARTICLE Engineered Heart Tissue Enables Study of Residual Undifferentiated Embryonic Stem Cell, Canada, M5S 3G9 6 Heart and Stroke/Richard Lewar Centre of Excellence, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 3G9 cell survival. As an alternative, we have used an engineered heart tissue (EHT) based on neonatal rat

Zandstra, Peter W.

406

CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

Watson, W.T.

1997-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

407

California Bio-Resources Alliance Symposium This conference brings together organic residuals industry professionals, municipalities,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California Bio-Resources Alliance Symposium This conference brings together organic residuals and panelists come from a range of public and private groups, including the California Air Resources Board, Southern California Gas Company, California Public Utilities Commission, Sempra Utilities, Advanced Algae

Islam, M. Saif

408

Modeling Residual Chlorine Decay for Optimization of Booster Chlorination in Urban-rural Water Distribution System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The key procedure of optimization of the control of the booster chlorination is modeling the relationship between the concentration of the spot of the booster chlorination (after dosing) and the concentration of the monitoring points on the remote end ... Keywords: Residual chlorine decay, Hybrid transfer function model, Optimization of booster chlorination, Urban-rural water distribution system

Jingqing Liu; Zuozi Huang; Shengwei Tan

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Intercepts and residues of Regge poles in a stochastic-field multiparticle theory  

SciTech Connect

A dynamical theory of multiparticle amplitudes, based on a functional integral representation embodying collective long-range correlations, is applied to the calculation of Regge intercepts and residues. Poles arising in conventional multiperipheral models will characteristically be modified in three ways: promotion, renormalization, and a proliferation of dynamical secondary trajectories, reminiscent of dual models. (auth)

Arnold, R.C.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Energy Saving Technology of Thermal Regenerative Compressed Air Dryer by Regenerates Adsorbent with Residual Heat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

According to the characteristic of the compressed air dryer located at the same place with the air compressor, for the large capacity thermal regenerative compressed air dryer that the absorbent is regenerated by an electric heater, this thesis puts ... Keywords: Compressed air dryer, Regeneration, Heater, Residual heat, Energy saving

Zhang Mingzhu; Zhou Zhili; Li Hongtao; Zhang Yongbo

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Two-Stage Fungal Pre-Treatment for Improved Biogas Production from Sisal Leaf Decortication Residues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Sisal leaf decortications residue (SLDR) is amongst the most abundant agroindustrial residues in Tanzania and is a good feedstock for biogas production. Pretreatment of the residue prior to its anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated using a twostage pre-treatment approach with two fungal strains, CCHT-1 and Trichoderma reesei in succession in anaerobic batch bioreactors. AD of the pre-treated residue with CCTH-1 at 10 % (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) inoculum concentration incubated for four days followed by incubation for eight days with 25 % (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) of T. reesei gave a methane yield of 0.292 ± 0.04 m 3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS)added. On reversing the pre-treatment succession of the fungal inocula using the same parameters followed by AD, methane yield decreased by about 55%. Generally, an increment in the range of 30–101% in methane yield in comparison to the un-treated SLDR was obtained. The results confirmed the potential of CCHT-1 followed by Trichoderma reesei fungi pre-treatment prior to AD to achieve significant improvement in biogas production from SLDR.

Mutemi Muthangya; Anthony Manoni Msh; Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Residual?Gas Analysis of a DC-705 Oil?Diffusion?Pumped uhv System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The residual gases present in a DC-705 oil?diffusion?pump uhv system have been determined as a function of various trapping conditions. The system was equipped with a metal 2-in. oil?diffusion pump in series with a specially designed trap in which zeolite was used. The configuration of the trap permitted the trapping zone to be immersed in cryogenic liquids

Charles M. Gosselin; Paul J. Bryant

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Energy distribution and flux of fast neutrals and residual ions extracted from a neutral beam source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy distribution and flux of fast neutrals and residual ions extracted from a neutral beam-4004 Received 21 April 2006; accepted 6 July 2006; published 7 August 2006 The energy distribution and flux into fast neutrals. The neutral energy distribution was always shifted to lower energies compared

Economou, Demetre J.

414

SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF FIRE DEBRIS RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating highly radioactive fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of FD residue from radionuclide metals involves using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers to remove the residues of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most (radioactive) metals. The focus of this research was to develop an examination protocol that was applicable to safe work in facilities where high radiation doses are shielded from the workers (as in radioactive shielded cells or ''hot cells''). We also examined the affinity of stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr and Nd) for sorption by the SPME fibers. This was done under exposure conditions that favor the uptake of FD residues under conditions that will provide little contact between the SPME and the FD material (such as charred carpet or wood that contains commonly-used accelerants). Our results from mass spectrometric analyses indicate that SPME fibers show promise for use in the room temperature head space uptake of organic FD residue (namely, diesel fuel oil, kerosene, gasoline and paint thinner) with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. No inorganic forms of ignitable fluids were included in this study.

Duff, M; Keisha Martin, K; S Crump, S

2007-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

415

Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Impact of Cement Reactions on Release of Contaminants from Residual Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. Initial work to produce release models was conducted on residual tank sludge using pure water as the leaching agent. The results were reported in an earlier report. The decision has now been made to close the tanks after waste retrieval with a cementitious grout to minimize infiltration and maintain the physical integrity of the tanks. This report describes testing of the residual waste with a leaching solution that simulates the composition of water passing through the grout and contacting the residual waste at the bottom of the tank.

Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Physical aging and relaxation of residual stresses in a colloidal glass following flow cessation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dilute Laponite suspensions in water at low salt concentration form repulsive colloidal glasses which display physical aging. This phenomenon is still not completely understood and in particular, little is known about the connection between the flow history, as a determinant of the initial state of the system, and the subsequent aging dynamics. Using a stress controlled rheometer, we perform stress jump experiments to observe the elastic component of the flow stress that remains on cessation of flow or flow quenching. We investigate the connection between the dynamics of these residual stresses and the rate of physical aging upon quenching from different points on the steady state flow curve. Quenching from high rates produces a fluid state, G">G', with small, fast relaxing residual stresses and rapid, sigmoidal aging of the complex modulus. Conversely, quenching from lower shear rates produces increasingly jammed states featuring slowly relaxing stresses and a slow increase of the complex modulus with system age. Flow cessation from a fixed shear rate with varying quench durations shows that slower quenches produce smaller residual stresses at short times which relax at long times by smaller extents, by comparison with faster quenches. These smaller stresses are correlated with a higher modulus but slower physical aging of the system. The characteristic time for the residual stress relaxation scales inversely with the quench rate. This implies a frustrated approach to any ideal stress-free state that succinctly reflects the frustrated nature of these glassy systems.

Ajay Singh Negi; Chinedum O. Osuji

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

417

Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2,393.2 702.7 3,804.5 3,037.5 W 134.0 See footnotes at end of table. 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by PAD District 352 Energy Information Administration ...

418

U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Mar-13 Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 View History Residual Fuel Oil 11,012.1 9,799.5 9,875.4 10,018.0 9,930.4 9,430.3 1983-2013 Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% 3,072.6 2,251.1...

419

Low-power bitstream-residual decoder for H.264/AVC baseline profile decoding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the design and VLSI implementation of a novel low-power bitstream-residual decoder for H.264/AVC baseline profile. It comprises a syntax parser, a parameter decoder, and an Inverse Quantization Inverse Transform (IQIT) decoder. The syntax ...

Ke Xu; Chiu-Sing Choy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Molecular gas in early-type galaxies: Fuel for residual star formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Molecular gas in early-type galaxies: Fuel for residual star formation Timothy A. Davis Survey 2. The ATLAS3D CARMA Survey 3. Kinematic Misalignments 4. Origin of the molecular gas The ATLAS3D results: - 23% of early-type galaxies have significant molecular gas reservoirs - Detection rate

Bureau, Martin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Screened non-bonded interactions in native proteins manipulate optimal paths for robust residue communication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A protein structure is represented as a network of residues whereby edges are determined by intra-molecular contacts. We introduce inhomogeneity into these networks by assigning each edge a weight that is determined by amino-acid pair potentials. Two methodologies are utilized to calculate the average path lengths (APLs) between pairs: To minimize (i) the maximum weight in the strong APL, and (ii) the total weight in the weak APL. We systematically screen edges that have higher than a cutoff potential and calculate the shortest APLs in these reduced networks, while keeping chain connectivity. Therefore, perturbations introduced at a selected region of the residue network propagate to remote regions only along the non-screened edges that retain their ability to disseminate the perturbation. The shortest APLs computed from the reduced homogeneous networks with only the strongest few non-bonded pairs closely reproduce the strong APLs from the weighted networks. The rate of change in the APL in the reduced residue network as compared to its randomly connected counterpart remains constant until a lower bound. Upon further link removal, this property shows an abrupt increase, towards a random coil behavior. Under different perturbation scenarios, diverse optimal paths emerge for robust residue communication.

Ali Rana Atilgan; Deniz Turgut; Canan Atilgan

2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

422

Estimation of residual MSW heating value as a function of waste component recycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recycling of packaging wastes may be compatible with incineration within integrated waste management systems. To study this, a mathematical model is presented to calculate the fraction composition of residual municipal solid waste (MSW) only as a function of the MSW fraction composition at source and recycling fractions of the different waste materials. The application of the model to the Lisbon region yielded results showing that the residual waste fraction composition depends both on the packaging wastes fraction at source and on the ratio between that fraction and the fraction of the same material, packaging and non-packaging, at source. This behaviour determines the variation of the residual waste LHV. For 100% of paper packaging recycling, LHV reduces 4.2% whereas this reduction is of 14.4% for 100% of packaging plastics recycling. For 100% of food waste recovery, LHV increases 36.8% due to the moisture fraction reduction of the residual waste. Additionally the results evidence that the negative impact of recycling paper and plastic packaging on the LHV may be compensated by recycling food waste and glass and metal packaging. This makes packaging materials recycling and food waste recovery compatible strategies with incineration within integrated waste management systems.

Magrinho, Alexandre [Mechanical Engineering Department, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal, Campus IPS, Estefanilha, Setubal (Portugal); Semiao, Viriato [Mechanical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Dynamic mass spectrometry: a residual gas analysis method and some applications  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic mass spectrometry is a unique method of residual gas analysis used to monitor and trouble-shoot industrial vacuum process operations. This discussion presents applications and results of the method, and describes the equipment and analytical method developed at Rocky Flats to perform this work. GHT)

McFeeters, T.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

425

Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Each year, more than 50 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world. More than 95% of these vehicles enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, about 75% of automotive materials are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobiles, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials (about 25% of the weight of the vehicle)--commonly called shredder residue--is disposed of in landfills. Over the past 10 to 15 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs), including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has focused on developing technology to recover materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lighter-weight materials--primarily polymers and polymer composites--will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. These materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems at end-of-life. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in cooperation with the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) and the American Plastics Council (APC), is working to develop technology for recycling materials from shredder residue. Several other organizations worldwide are also working on developing technology for recycling shredder residue. Without a commercially viable shredder industry, our nation may face greater environmental challenges and a decreased supply of quality scrap and be forced to turn to primary ores for the production of finished metals. This document presents a review of the state of the art in shredder residue recycling. Available technologies and emerging technologies for the recycling of materials from shredder residue are discussed.

Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Energy Systems

2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

427

Prediction of residual stresses in high strength carbon steel pipe weld considering solid-state phase transformation effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, prediction of axial and hoop residual stresses produced in high strength carbon steel pipe weld was made by employing a sequentially coupled 3-D thermal, metallurgical and mechanical FE model. Solid-state phase transformation during welding ... Keywords: 3-D FE simulation, High strength carbon steel pipe weld, Solid-state phase transformation, Welding residual stresses

Chin-Hyung Lee; Kyong-Ho Chang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A finite element analysis technique for predicting as-sprayed residual stresses generated by the plasma spray coating process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is essential to analyze the residual stresses during the deposition of plasma sprayed coatings since they adversely affect the coatings' performance during their service. In this article, finite element coupled heat transfer and elastic-plastic thermal ... Keywords: Finite element analysis, Heat transfer, Plasma spraying, Residual stresses, Thermal barrier coatings

H. W. Ng; Z. Gan

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Analysis of Crankcase Oils and Oil Residues From the Electric Utility Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If used crankcase oils and oil residues from electric utilities were listed as hazardous waste by EPA, disposal would be costly and recycling options would be limited. The toxicity characteristic test results from this study reveal that such used oils and oil residues are generally nonhazardous and therefore do not warrant classification as hazardous wastes.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Economics of biomass fuels for electricity production: a case study with crop residues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the United Sates and around the world, electric power plants are among the biggest sources of greenhouse gas emissions which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change argued was the main cause of climate change and global warming. This dissertation explores the factors which may induce electricity producers to use biomass fuels for power generation and thereby mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions. Analyses in this dissertation suggest that there are two important factors which will play a major role in determining the future degree of bioelectricity production: the price of coal and the future price of carbon emissions. Using The Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model—Green House Gas version (FASOMGHG) in a case study examining the competitiveness of crop residues, this dissertation finds that crop residues currently cost much more than coal as an electricity generation feedstock because they have lower heat content and higher production /hauling costs. For them to become cost competitive with coal, the combined costs of production and hauling must be cut by more than half or the coal price needs to rise. In particular, for crop residues to have any role in electricity generation either the price of coal has to increase to about $43 per ton or the carbon equivalent price must rise to about $15 per ton. The simulation results also show that crop residues with higher heat content such as wheat residues will have greater opportunities in bioelectricity production than the residues with lower heat content. In addition, the analysis shows that improvements in crop yield do not have much impact on bioelectricity production. However, the energy recovery efficiency does have significant positive impact on the bioelectricity desirability but again only if the carbon equivalent price rises substantially. The analysis also shows the desirability of cofiring biomass as opposed to 100% replacement because this reduces haling costs and increases the efficiency of heat recovery. In terms of policy implications, imposing carbon emission restrictions could be an important step in inducing electric power producers to include biofuels in their fuelmix power generation portfolios and achieve significant greenhouse gas emission reductions.

Maung, Thein Aye

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Non-destructive residual stress distribution measurement in nano-structured ultrahigh-strenght gear steels.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The well-established enhanced fatigue performance associated with beneficial compressive residual stresses has been broadly applied in the development of new engineering materials, particularly gear and bearing steels. Residual stress enhancement processes, such as shot/laser peening, have also been investigated to maximize their benefits on fatigue strength. However, the measurement of residual stress distributions still heavily relies on the conventional X-ray technique, involving destructive material removal, tedious data correction and time-consuming data collection, which slows new material design and process optimization. To overcome this problem, we employ novel, non-destructive synchrotron techniques with high-energy x-rays to measure the distribution of residual strain/stress in a laser-peened, ultrahigh-strength gear steel. This study will assist in process optimization, to achieve the desired residual stresses for selected applications. X-ray measurements were performed at the 1-ID beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory. An x-ray energy of 76 keV and conical slit were used to create a diffraction volume of {approx} 20 x 20 x 150{micro}m{sup 3}. An area detector was placed after the conical slit to collect diffraction over a plane encompassing (nearly) the axial and normal strain directions. Cylindrical specimens (76 mm long, 9.525 mm diameter) were rotated during the measurement to ensure a sufficiently large number of grains were irradiated. The steel, FerriumC67{reg_sign}, was designed utilizing thermodynamics-based strengthening models to achieve a new level of case hardness (67 HRc) and good core toughness, employing a 3nm M{sub 2}C carbide dispersion. After heat treatment, C67 was laser peened and subject to rolling contact fatigue (RCF) screening tests under the extreme Hertzian contact stress of 5.4 GPa. Both regions away from ('untested') and under wear tracks were studied for comparison. Four BCC reflections from martensite [(200), (211), (220) and (222)] were recorded and (211) was used for residual strain analysis. Strain components ({var_epsilon}{sub 11}, {var_epsilon}{sub 12} and {var_epsilon}{sub 22}) were obtained and the axial ({var_epsilon}{sub 11}) is plotted in Fig. 1 for unpeened and laser peened C67 samples. Large compressive axial strains were observed near-surface after peening. After cyclic loading the surface strain relaxed but a sub-surface maximum was formed, attributed to yielded material from the extreme cyclic loading. These strains were converted to stresses (not shown) via elastic constants and assuming equibiaxial strain ({var_epsilon}{sub 33} = {var_epsilon}{sub 11}).

Qian, Y.; Almer, J.; Lienert, U.; Tiemens, B.; Olson, G. B.; Northwestern Univ.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 1: Results...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online at: http:...

434

Charcoal in Anodes for Aluminium Production - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production. Presentation Title ... Lower Aluminium Production Cost through Refractory Material Selection.

435

Silver Uptake from Dilute Cyanide Solution Using Activated Charcoal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2012 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , General Poster Session. Presentation Title, W-95: Silver Uptake from Dilute ...

436

Iron Ore Sinter Produced with Charcoal Aiming Diminish the Carbon ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sources of coke are scarce and consequently the price of this fuel is increasing. Thus, this work aims at ... Economical Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke.

437

Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) stove testing facility. In January 2010, a massive earthquake rendered hundreds of thousands of Haitians homeless. A large relief and...

438

Preliminary analysis of the state of the art of robotics and precision engineering and evaluation of potential for improved energy utilization in the pulp, paper, and related energy-consuming processes. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study was undertaken to conduct a preliminary analysis of the state of the art of two technologies, robotics and precision engineering, and to evaluate their potential for improved energy utilization in the pulp, paper, and related energy consuming processes. Activity in the robotics field is growing rapidly, most activity being related to the development of smart robots rather than to systems. There is a broad base of support, both in industry and the universities, for upgrading robot machine capabilities. A large part of that support is associated with visualization and tactile sensors which facilitate assembly, placement, inspection, and tracking. Progress in this area is relatively rapid and development times are short for specifically engineered applications. The critical path in the development of robotic systems lies in the generation of reliable sensor signals. Robotic systems require a broad spectrum of sensors from which hierarchical logic systems can draw decision making information. This requirement resulted in the establishment of a program at the National Bureau of Standards which is attempting to develop a spectrum of sensor capabilities. Such sensors are applicable to robotic system automatic process control in a variety of energy-intensive industries. Precision engineering is defined as the generation or manufacture of components wherein geometry, dimension, and surface finish are controlled to within several hundred Angstroms in single point turning operations. Investigation into the state of the art of precision engineering in the United States finds that this capability exists in several national laboratories and is intended to be used exclusively for the development of weapons. There is an attempt at the present time by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to expand its capability into industry. Several corporations are now beginning to develop equipment to support the precision engineering field.

None

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Mixed Residue Consent Order, September 24, 1999 Summary  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9-09-24-01 9-09-24-01 State Colorado Agreement Type Consent Order Legal Driver(s) RCRA Scope Summary Substitute this Consent Order for the MR Consent Order; establish requirements for mixed residues management. Parties DOE ; Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC; Safe Sites of Colorado, LLC; Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, LLC; Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Date 9/24/1999 SCOPE * Substitute this Consent Order for the MR Consent Order by modifying in its entirety the Settlement Agreement and Compliance Order on Consent, number 93-04-23-01, (the "MR Consent Order"). * Establish requirements for certain activities involving mixed residues management. * Establish enforceable commitment dates. ESTABLISHING MILESTONES * Provisions regarding enforceable commitment dates and the procedures to add

440

End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Each year, more than 25 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world, and this number is rising rapidly because the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing. In the United States, more than 95% of the 10-15 million scrapped vehicles annually enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, over 75% of automotive materials, primarily the metals, are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobile hulks, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials - commonly called shredder residue - constitutes about 25% of the weight of the vehicle, and it is disposed of in landfills. This practice is not environmentally friendly, wastes valuable resources, and may become uneconomical. Therefore, it is not sustainable. Over the past 15-20 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles, including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has been focused on developing technology to separate and recover non-metallic materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lightweighting materials - primarily polymers, polymer composites, high-strength steels, and aluminum - will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. Many of these materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals that are recovered. In addition, the number of hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles on the road is rapidly increasing. This trend will also introduce new materials for disposal at the end of their useful lives, including batteries. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), the Vehicle Recycling Partnership, LLC. (VRP) of the United States Council for Automotive Research, LLC. (USCAR), and the American Chemistry Council-Plastics Division (ACC-PD) are working to develop technology for recovering materials from end-of-life vehicles, including separating and recovering polymers and residual metals from shredder residue. Several other organizations worldwide are also working on developing technology for recycling materials from shredder residue. Without a commercially viable shredder industry, our nation and the world will most likely face greater environmental challenges and a decreased supply of quality scrap, and thereby be forced to turn to primary ores for the production of finished metals. This will result in increased energy consumption and increased damage to the environment, including increased greenhouse gas emissions. The recycling of polymers, other organics, and residual metals in shredder residue saves the equivalent of over 23 million barrels of oil annually. This results in a 12-million-ton reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This document presents a review of the state-of-the-art in the recycling of automotive materials.

Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Duranceau, C. M.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S. (Energy Systems)

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "residues charcoal pulp" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Residual stress determination in an overlay dissimilar welded pipe by neutron diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of nuclear power reactors. Two neutron diffractometers with different spatial resolutions have been utilized on the identical specimen for comparison. The macroscopic 'stress-free' lattice spacing (d{sub o}) was also obtained from both using a 2-mm width comb-like coupon. The results show significant changes in residual stresses from tension (300-400 MPa) to compression (-600 MPa) through the thickness of the dissimilar weld overlay pipe specimen.

Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Em, Vyacheslav [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Lee, Ho-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Park, Kwang Soo [Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Analysis in Support of Storage of Residues in the Pipe Overpack Container  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The disposition of the large back-log of plutonium residues at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) will require interim storage and subsequent shipment to a waste repository. Current plans call for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the transportation to WIPP in the TRUPACT-II. The transportation phase will require the residues to be packaged in a container that is more robust than a standard 55-gallon waste drum. Rocky Flats has designed the Pipe Overpack Container to meet this need. The potential for damage to this container during on-site storage in unhardened structures for several hypothetical accident scenarios has been addressed using finite element calculations. This report will describe the initial conditions and assumptions for these analyses and the predicted response of the container. 2 Table of Contents List of Figures ...............................................................................................................

Ludwigsen Ammerman And; J. S. Ludwigsen; D. J. Ammerman; H. D. Radloff

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Determination of thymine glycol residues in irradiated or oxidized DNA by formation of methylglyceric acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Treatment of DNA solutions with X-irradiation various oxidants including hydrogen peroxide plus ferrous ion, hydrogen peroxide plus copper ion and ascorbate, permanganate, or sonication in the presence of dissolved oxygen all produced varying amounts of thymine glycol residues. After denaturing the DNA with heat, the glycol residues were reduced and labeled at the 6 position with tritium- labeled sodium borohydride. Subsequent reaction with anhydrous methanolic HCl gave a quantitative yield of the methyl ester of methylglyceric acid, which was determined by thin layer chromatography. The method, developed using thymidine as a model, was used to ascertain the requirements for glycol formation in DNA. It was shown that hydroxyl radical generating systems, permanganate, X-irradiation, or sonication in presence of oxygen were required, but hydrogen peroxide in the absence of iron or copper and ascorbate was inactive. Application to determination of DNA damage in vivo is being explored.

Schellenberg, K.A.; Shaeffer, J.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Dirt feedlot residue experiments. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1977--November 30, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported in development of a mobile fermentation system at the Monfort feedlot. Continued use was made of aged pen 307 residue at a nominal loading rate of 0.25 pounds volatile solids/ft/sup 3//day along with a 10-day retention time and an operating temperature of 57/sup 0/C for the purpose of establishing comparative yields. The ten-day running average of specific methane yield increased to an indicated yield of 3.0 ft/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//No. volatile solids representing approximately 75 percent of that obtained from the fresh residue. During this entire period no attempts at controlling total volatile acid concentration were made. Preliminary investigation of the centrifuge capture efficiency was begun. (JGB)

Turk, M.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Preparation of residual gravity maps for the southern Cascade Mountains, Washington using Fourier analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A continuation of gravity work in the Cascade Mountains of Washington is presented. Baseline gravity data were collected for use in geothermal resource evaluation. The purpose of this report is to describe a Fourier analysis method for separating residual and regional gravity anomalies from a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly field. The technique has been applied to gravity data from the Southern Cascade Mountains, Washington. Residual gravity anomaly maps at a scale of 1:250,000 are presented for various regional wavelength filters, and a power spectrum of the frequency components in the South Cascade gravity data is displayed. No attempt is made to interpret the results of this study in terms of geologic structures.

Dishberger, D.M.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Methods for assessing the stability and compatibility of residual fuel oils  

SciTech Connect

The declining quality of residual fuel oil is of significant concern to residual fuel oil users in the electric utility industry. This project was concerned with the specific problems of instability (sediment formation or viscosity increases) and incompatibility (formation of sediment on blending with another fuel or cutter stock) which can adversely affect the fuel storage and handling systems. These problems became more severe in the late 70's and early 80's with the decline in quality of refinery feedstocks and an increase in severity of processing for conversion of resid to distillate products. Current specifications and quality control tests are inadequate to prevent or even predict problems due to instability or incompatibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate/develop rapid simple tests which utilities can use to anticipate and prevent problems from instability/incompatibility. 22 refs., 23 figs., 23 tabs.

Anderson, R.P.; Reynolds, J.W. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (USA))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

The effect of crack growth stability induced by residual compressive stresses on strength variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rising {ital T}- (or {ital R}-) curve behavior is increasingly being used in order to improve the mechanical reliability of ceramic materials. In this study, the possibility of inducing such behavior using residual compressive stresses is analyzed. The {ital T}-curves obtained for certain residual stress profiles induce crack stability when the stress minima (compressive stress maxima) lie away from the surface of the sample. The consequences of this stabilization on the strength characteristics are a significant reduction in the strength variability and strength insensitivity to the initial flaw size. In addition to these desirable features, considerable strengthening is also obtained. Hence, suitably engineered compressive stress profiles are shown to be a novel and alternative means of enhancing mechanical reliability.

Tandon, R.; Green, D.J. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Relationship between the n-tangle and the residual entanglement of even n qubits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that $n$-tangle, the generalization of the 3-tangle to even $n$ qubits, is the square of the SLOCC polynomial invariant of degree 2. We find that the $n$-tangle is not the residual entanglement for any even $n\\geq 4$\\ qubits. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the vanishing of the concurrence $C_{1(2...n)}$. The condition implies that the concurrence $% C_{1(2...n)}$ is always positive for any entangled states while the $n$% -tangle vanishes for some entangled states. We argue that for even $n$\\ qubits, the concurrence $C_{1(2...n)}$\\ is equal to or greater than the $n$% -tangle. Further,\\ we reveal that the residual entanglement is a partial measure for product states of any $n$ qubits while the $n$-tangle is multiplicative for some product states.

X. Li; D. Li

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

449

Partitioning of residual D-limonene cleaner vapor among organic materials in weapons  

SciTech Connect

D-limonene is a replacement solvent selected by Sandia and Allied-Signal to clean solder flux from electronics assemblies in firesets and programmers. D-limonene is much slower drying than the solvents it has replaced and this has raised concerns that residual quantities of the cleaner could be trapped in the electronics assemblies and eventually carried into warhead assemblies. This paper describes a study designed to evaluate how vapors from residual d-limonene cleaner would be partitioned among typical organic materials in a Livermore device. The goal was to identify possible compatibility problems arising from the use of d-limonene and, in particular, any interactions it may have with energetic materials. To predict the partitioning behavior of d-limonene, a simple model was developed and its predictions are compared to the experimental findings.

LeMay, J.D.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Evaluation of low cost residual gas analyzers for ultrahigh vacuum applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In recent years several low cost computer controlled residual gas analyzers (RGAs) have been introduced into the market place. It would be very useful to know the performance characteristics of these RGAs in order to make an informed selection for UHV applications. The UHV applications include extreme sensitivity helium leak detection and monitoring of the residual gas spectra in UHV systems. In this article, the sensitivity and linearity data for nitrogen, hydrogen, and helium are presented in the pressure range 10{sup {minus}8}---10{sup {minus}1} Pa. Further, the relationships between focus voltage and ion currents, relative sensitivity, and fragmentation factor are also included. A direct comparison method is used in obtaining this data. Spinning rotor and extractor gauges are the transfer standard gauges used in Jefferson Lab's vacuum calibration facility, with which all the reported measurements here were carried out.

M. Rao; D. Dong

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill on corn yield and heavy metal content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill, Khon Kaen Municipality, Thailand, on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and heavy metal content were studied. Field experiments with randomized complete block design with five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% v/v of residues and soil) and four replications were carried out. Corn yield and heavy metal contents in corn grain were analyzed. Corn yield increased by 50, 72, 85 and 71% at 20, 40, 60 and 80% treatments as compared to the control, respectively. All heavy metals content, except cadmium, nickel and zinc, in corn grain were not significantly different from the control. Arsenic, cadmium and zinc in corn grain were strongly positively correlated with concentrations in soil. The heavy metal content in corn grain was within regulated limits for human consumption.

Prabpai, S. [Suphan Buri Campus Establishment Project, Kasetsart University, 50 U Floor, Administrative Building, Paholyothin Road, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: s.prabpai@hotmail.com; Charerntanyarak, L. [Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: lertchai@kku.ac.th; Siri, B. [Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: boonmee@kku.ac.th; Moore, M.R. [The University of Queensland, The National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plans, Brisbane, Queensland 4108 (Australia)], E-mail: m.moore@uq.edu.au; Noller, Barry N. [The University of Queensland, Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: b.noller@uq.edu.au

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

Design and Performance Considerations for the Quantitative Measurement of HEU Residues Resulting from 99Mo Production  

SciTech Connect

Molybdenum-99 is produced by the irradiation of high-enriched uranium (HEU) resulting in the accumulation of large quantities of HEU residues. In general, these residues are not recycled but are either disposed of or stored in containers with surface exposure rates as high as 100 R/h. The 235U content of these waste containers must be quantified for both accountability and waste disposal purposes. The challenges of quantifying such difficult-to-assay materials are discussed, along with performance estimates for each of several potential assay options. In particular, the design and performance of a High Activity Active Well Coincidence Counting (HA-AWCC) system designed and built specifically for these irradiated HEU waste materials are presented.

McElroy, Robert Dennis [ORNL; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen [ORNL; Bogard, James S [ORNL; Belian, Anthony P [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Study of radionuclide leaching from the residues of K Basin sludge dissolution  

SciTech Connect

The sludges remaining in the K Basins after removal of the spent N Reactor nuclear fuel will be conditioned for disposal. After conditioning, an acid-insoluble residue will remain that may require further leaching to properly condition it for disposal. This document presents a literature study to identify and recommend one or more chemical leaching treatments for laboratory testing, based on the likely compositions of the residues. The processes identified are a nitric acid cerate leach, a silver-catalyzed persulfate leach, a nitric hydrofluoric acid leach, an oxalic citric acid reactor decontamination leach, a nitric hydrochloric acid leach, a ammonium fluoride nitrate leach, and a HEOPA formate dehydesulfoxylate leach. All processes except the last two are recommended for testing in that order.

Bechtold, D.B.

1998-07-30T23:59:59.000Z