National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for residues bituminous electricity

  1. Electricity and technical progress: The bituminous coal mining industry, mechanization to automation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devine, W.D. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Development and use of electric mobile machinery facilitated the mechanization of underground bituminous coal mining and has played a lesser but important role in the growth of surface mining. Electricity has been central to the rise of mechanically integrated mining, both underground (after 1950) and on the surface (recently). Increasing labor productivity in coal mining and decreasing total energy use per ton of coal mined are associated with penetration of new electric technology through at least 1967. Productivity declined and energy intensity increased during the 1970s due in part to government regulations. Recent productivity gains stem partly from new technology that permits automation of certain mining operations. On most big electric excavating machines, a pair of large alternating current (ac) motors operate continuously at full speed. These drive direct current (dc) generators that energize dc motors, each matched to the desired power and speed range of a particular machine function. Direct-current motors provide high torque at low speeds, thus reducing the amount of gearing required; each crawler is independently propelled forward or backward by its own variable-speed dc motors. The principal advantages of electric power are that mechanical power-transmission systems - shafts, gears, etc. - are eliminated or greatly simplified. Reliability is higher, lifetime is longer, and maintenance is much simpler with electric power than with diesel power, and the spare parts inventory is considerably smaller. 100 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  3. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  4. NETL - Bituminous Baseline Performance and Cost Interactive Tool...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from the Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants - Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity report. The tool provides an interactive summary of the full...

  5. Potential for electricity generation from biomass residues in Cuba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of the availability of major biomass residues in Cuba and the analysis of the electricity generation potential by using different technologies. An analysis of the changes in the country`s energy balance from 1988 up to date is presented, as well as a table with the availability study results and the energy equivalent for the following biomass residues: sugar cane bagasse and trash, rice and coffee husk, corn an cassava stalks and firewood. A total equivalent of 4.42 10{sup 6} tons/year of fuel-oil was obtained. Possible scenarios for the electricity production increase in the sugar industry are presented too. The analysis is carried out for a high stream parameter CEST and two BIG/GT system configurations. Limitations are introduced about the minimal milling capacity of the sugar mills for each technology. The calculated {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} electricity generation potential for BIG/GT systems, based on GE LM5000 CC gas turbines, an actual cane harvest of 58.0 10{sup 6} tons/year, half the available trash utilization and an specific steam consumption of 210 kg/tc, was 18601,0 GWh/year. Finally different alternatives are presented for low-scale electricity generation based on the other available agricultural residues.

  6. NAFTA opportunities: Bituminous coal and lignite mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) secures and improves market access in Mexico and Canada for the United States bituminous coal and lignite mining sector. Canada is one of the United States' largest export markets for bituminous coal and lignite, with exports of $486.7 million in 1992. Conversely, the Mexican market is one of the smallest export markets for U.S. producers with exports of $1.8 million in 1992. Together, however, Canada and Mexico represent approximately 15 percent of total U.S. coal exports. The report presents a sectoral analysis.

  7. Liquefaction of sub-bituminous coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1986-01-01

    Sub-bituminous coal is directly liquefied in two stages by use of a liquefaction solvent containing insoluble material as well as 850.degree. F.+ material and 850.degree. F.- material derived from the second stage, and controlled temperature and conversion in the second stage. The process is in hydrogen balance.

  8. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-31

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  9. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  10. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda; Janiak, Jerzy S.; Turak, Ali A.; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  11. Immobilization of Clostridium thermocellum cells on bituminous coal particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horne, P.N.; Hsu, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    The imobilization isotherms of Clostridium thermocellum cells on bituminous coal particles of approximately 0.15- to 0.18-mm diameter were experimentally measured at 60, 45, and 30/sup 0/C with a pH value of 7.0 and with pH values of 6.0 and 5.0 at 60/sup 0/C. The immobilization data were correlated into Langmuir forms and their characteristic coefficients were obtained. A method to obtain thermodynamic quantities, ..delta..G, ..delta..H, and ..delta..S for the immobilization is also demonstrated.

  12. Organic geochemical evaluations of bituminous rock and coals in Miocene Himmetoglu basin (Bolu, Turkey)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sari, A.; Geze, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The studied area is a lake basin located in Bolu basin in Turkey. In the basin, from Upper Cretaceous to Upper Miocene 3,000-m thickness sediments were deposited. Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation consisted of sandstone, claystone, and marl. To the middle level of the formation are located coal, bituminous limestone, and bituminous shales. In the basin, there are two coal beds whose thicknesses range from 1 to 13 m. The coals are easily breakable and black in color. In the coal beds exists some bituminous limestone and bituminous shales, and their thicknesses are between 5 and 45 cm. The amount of organic matter of the bituminous rocks from the Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation are between 6.83 and 56.34 wt%, and the amount of organic matter of the bituminous limestone from the formation are between 13.58 and 57.16 wt%. These values indicate that these rocks have very good source potential. According to hydrogen index (HI), S2/S3, HI-T{sub max}, and HI-OI (oxygen index) parameters, kerogen types of the bituminous rocks and coals belonging to Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation are Type I, Type II, and Type III. In accordance with HI, S2/S3, HI-T{sub max}, and HI-OI parameters, the bituminous rocks and coals from the Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation are mostly immature.

  13. Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katamine, N.M.

    2000-04-01

    Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

  14. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

  15. JV Task-123 Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-05-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and with funding from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducting tests to prove that a high level of mercury control (>90%) can be achieved at a power plant burning a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. With funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), DOE, and Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates Program, the EERC completed an additional sampling project to provide data as to the behavior of a number of trace elements across the various pollution control devices, with a special emphasis on the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results showed that the concentrations of almost all the elements of interest leaving the stack were very low, and a high percentage of the trace elements were captured in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (for most, >80%). Although, with a few exceptions, the overall mass balances were generally quite good, the mass balances across the wet FGD were more variable. This is most likely a result of some of the concentrations being very low and also the uncertainties in determining flows within a wet FGD.

  16. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ELECTRIC cdrtrokArJclaeT 3 I+ &i, y$ \I &OF I*- j< t j,fci..- ir )(yiT !E-li, ( \-,v? Cl -p/4.4 RESEARCH LABORATORIES EAST PITTSBURGH, PA. 8ay 22, 1947 Mr. J. Carrel Vrilson General ?!!mager Atomic Qxzgy Commission 1901 Constitution Avenue Kashington, D. C. Dear Sir: In the course of OUT nuclenr research we are planning to study the enc:ri;y threshold anti cross section for fission. For thib program we require a s<>piAroted sample of metallic Uranium 258 of high purity. A

  17. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 2. Gasification of Jetson bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report describes the gasification testing of Jetson bituminous coal. This Western Kentucky coal was gasified during an initial 8-day and subsequent 5-day period. Material flows and compositions are reported along with material and energy balances. Operational experience is also described. 4 refs., 24 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  19. Linkages and aromatic clusters in a bituminous coal: Final report, September 1, 1985--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, K.E.

    1988-10-01

    The distribution and arrangement of aromatic clusters, oxygen functional groups, and linkages in an Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal were determined by controlled solubilization of the coal, followed by solvent fractionation of the soluble product and detailed analyses of the product fractions. The solubilization was carried out in reactions with NaOH/ethanol/H/sub 2/O at temperatures of 260/degree/, 300/degree/ and 320/degree/C. Elemental balance and spectroscopic data revealed that the oxygen functional groups of the coal were attacked selectively in the solubilization process, resulting in an orderly definable diminution of the complex coal structure. Also aliphatic linkages present in selected solubilized product fractions were subjected to a transalkylation reaction. A molecular structural model specific to the Illinois coal was constructed, and the hydroliquefaction behavior of the coal was evaluated in terms of potential product distribution and hydrogen consumption. The structural characteristics are compared with those of a Wyoming subbituminous coal in our previous study. 9 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate

  1. JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Patton

    2006-12-31

    The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

  2. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, Richard; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell; Blach, Tomasz P

    2012-01-01

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  4. Steam Gasification Rates of Three Bituminous Coal Chars in an Entrained-Flow Reactor at Pressurized Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Aaron D.; Holland, Troy M.; Marchant, Nathaniel R.; Fletcher, Emmett G.; Henley, Daniel J.; Fuller, Eric G.; Fletcher, Thomas H.

    2015-02-26

    Three bituminous coal chars (Illinois #6, Utah Skyline, and Pittsburgh #8) were gasified separately at total pressures of 10 and 15 atm in an entrained-flow reactor using gas temperatures up to 1830 K and particle residence times <240 ms. The experiments were performed at conditions where the majority of particle mass release was due to H2O gasification, although select experiments were performed at conditions where significant mass release was due to gasification by both H2O and CO2. The measured coal data we recorded were fit to three char gasification models including a simple first-order global model, as well as the CCKNand CCK models that stem from the CBK model. The optimal kinetic parameters for each of the three models are reported, and the steam reactivity of the coal chars at the studied conditions is as follows: Pittsburgh #8 > Utah Skyline > Illinois #6.

  5. A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

    2012-01-01

    Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  9. ,"U.S. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  10. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  11. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Phuoc

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  12. Hanford Tank Waste Residuals

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford Tank Waste Residuals DOE HLW Corporate Board November 6, 2008 Chris Kemp, DOE ORP Bill Hewitt, YAHSGS LLC Hanford Tanks & Tank Waste * Single-Shell Tanks (SSTs) - 27 million ...

  13. Upgrading residual oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angevine, P.J.; Stein, T.R.

    1982-04-13

    Residual oil fractions are upgraded in that Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR) is selectively removed without undue hydrogen consumption by hydroprocessing with a catalyst comprising a single metal such as molybdenum, tungsten, nickel, iron or palladium or multimetallic combination of such metals, excluding, however, active desulfurization compositions such as nickel molybdenum and nickel-tungsten. Said catalyst is characterized as having greater than about 50% of its pore volume contribution in pores having diameters in the range of between about 100 and 200 angstroms. The product of such hydroprocessing is a particularly preferable feedstock for coking to give more liquid yield and less coke make.

  14. Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This album contains a variety of all-electric, plug-in hybrid electric and fuel cell electric vehicles. For a full list of all electric vehicles visit the EV Everywhere website.

  15. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  16. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  17. Proposed plant will turn wood residues into synfuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    A group of entrepreneurs plan to have a plant operating in Burney, CA. The projected facility will produce an estimated 21,000 gallons of oil per day, converting about 300 tons of raw material. Converting cellulose into synthetic fuel is superior to alcohol production. The process yields approximately 84 gallons of synthetic fuel per ton of raw material. The entire LHG (liquid hydrogen gas) patented facility is self-sufficient and releases only carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Synfuel production is a three-phase process. First, butyl alcohol (butanol) and acetone are produced from a portion of the raw material. This is facilitated by adding to the raw material a bacteria culture. The planned facility in Burney will have thirty-five 2100 gallon fermentation tanks and will produce 1.25 million gallons of butanol. Next, organic material is blended with water and is pumped into patented LHG catalytic converters, charged with carbon monoxide gas as a catalyst and then heated to 350 degrees C at 2000 to 5000 psi. Here, the organic material is converted to No. 4 oil with bituminous tar as a residue. A patented gasifier system produces the carbon monoxide catalyst plus COH (carbon hydroxide) gas. The COH is used to power a gas turbine driving a 100 kW generator and a central hydraulic pump. The facility, which will be energy self-sufficient, will have approximately 50 kW of excess power to sell to the local utility power grid. Finally, the No. 4 oil, butanol and liquified COH gas are blended to produce any grade fuel oil or a gasoline substitute of very high octane.

  18. The big ban on bituminous coal sales revisited: Serious epidemics and pronounced trends feign excess mortality previously attributed to heavy black-smoke exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittmaack, K.

    2007-07-01

    The effect of banning bituminous coal sales on the black-smoke concentration and the mortality rates in Dublin, Ireland, has been analyzed recently. Based on the application of standard epidemiological procedures, the authors concluded that, as a result of the ban, the total nontrauma death rate was reduced strongly (-8.0% unadjusted, -5.7% adjusted). The purpose of this study was to reanalyze the original data with the aim of clarifying the three most important aspects of the study, (a) the effect of epidemics, (b) the trends in mortality rates due to advances in public health care, and (c) the correlation between mortality rates and black-smoke concentrations. Particular attention has been devoted to a detailed evaluation of the time dependence of mortality rates, stratified by season. Death rates were found to be strongly enhanced during three severe pre-ban winter-spring epidemics. The cardiovascular mortality rates exhibited a continuous decrease over the whole study period, in general accordance with trends in the rest of Ireland. These two effects can fully account for the previously identified apparent correlation between reduced mortality and the very pronounced ban-related lowering of the black-smoke concentration. The third important finding was that in nonepidemic pre-ban seasons even large changes in the concentration of black smoke had no detectable effect on mortality rates. The reanalysis suggests that epidemiological studies exploring the effect of ambient particulate matter on mortality require improved tools allowing proper adjustment for epidemics and trends.

  19. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  20. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  1. "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal

  2. "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal" "Characteristic(a)","(kWh)","(gallons)","...

  3. Investigation of coal char-slag transition during oxidation: effect of temperature and residual carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suhui Li; Kevin J. Whitty

    2009-04-15

    The transition of coal char to molten slag at high conversion was studied for a bituminous coal using a laminar entrained-flow reactor under oxidizing conditions. Post-oxidized char particles were analyzed by various techniques including loss-on-ignition, gas adsorption analysis, and scanning electron microscopy to determine carbon content, internal surface area and pore size distribution, and char morphology, respectively. These analyses provide information concerning the effect of temperature and residual carbon on the transition from porous char to molten slag. Results showed that, at temperatures above the ash flow temperature, the transition from porous char to molten slag occurred at about 90% conversion for the coal used in this study. No transition occurred at temperatures below the ash flow temperature. This finding explains previous observations that there is a coal-dependent critical carbon conversion at which the ash stickiness increases dramatically. This result also indicates that surface area can be used as a criterion for determining the critical conversion of the transition. In addition, it was found that the randomly overlapping pore model cannot be directly applied to predict the surface area evolution of char particles during the transition without considering the reopening of closed micropores during the initial reaction and the ash fusion effect. 33 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Process for preparing bituminous composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.A.

    1991-07-30

    This patent describes a process to produce a bitumen composition. It comprises providing a carbon black composition comprising carbon black with less than 10% by weight of the carbon black composition being bitumen and carbon black particles being of a particle size of from about 5 to 500 nanometers; blending the carbon black composition with 2 or more parts by weight of a block copolymer and less than 10% by weight bitumen, based on the total amount of block copolymer composition, the block copolymer selected from the group consisting of hydrogenated and unhydrogenated block copolymers, the block copolymer, before hydrogenation, combining the carbon black composition block copolymer blend with an amount of bitumen which results in 100 parts by weight of bitumen plus block copolymer to form a polymeric bitumen composition.

  5. Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-07-23

    Burak Ozpineci sees a future where electric vehicles charge while we drive them down the road, thanks in part to research under way at ORNL.

  6. Electrical Engineer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transmission Field Services is responsible for field switching operation and maintenance of Bonneville Power Administration's high-voltage electrical transmission system to provide safe, reliable,...

  7. Electrical Safety

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Handbook that was originally issued in 1998, and revised in 2004. DOE handbooks are ... the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 70, the National Electrical Code (NEC), ...

  8. Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-05-02

    Burak Ozpineci sees a future where electric vehicles charge while we drive them down the road, thanks in part to research under way at ORNL.

  9. Roles of electricity: Electric steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burwell, C.C.

    1986-07-01

    Electric steel production from scrap metal continues to grow both in total quantity and in market share. The economics of electric-steel production in general, and of electric minimills in particular, seem clearly established. The trend towards electric steelmaking provides significant economic and competitive advantages for producers and important overall economic, environmental, and energy advantages for the United States at large. Conversion to electric steelmaking offers up to a 4-to-1 advantage in terms of the overall energy used to produce a ton of steel, and s similar savings in energy cost for the producer. The amount of old scrap used to produce a ton of steel has doubled since 1967 because of the use of electric furnaces.

  10. Electric avenues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.; Chang, A.

    1994-12-31

    Highly efficient electric drive technology developed originally for defense applications is being applied to the development of all electric shuttle buses for the San Jose International Airport. An innovative opportunity charging system using induction chargers will be incorporated to extend operation hours. The project, if successful, is expected to reduce pollution at the airport and generate jobs for displaced defense workers.

  11. Electric machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  12. Electrical connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilliner, Jennifer L.; Baker, Thomas M.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2006-11-21

    An electrical connector includes a female component having one or more receptacles, a first test receptacle, and a second test receptacle. The electrical connector also includes a male component having one or more terminals configured to engage the one or more receptacles, a first test pin configured to engage the first test receptacle, and a second test pin configured to engage the second test receptacle. The first test receptacle is electrically connected to the second test receptacle, and at least one of the first test pin and the second test pin is shorter in length than the one or more terminals.

  13. Electrical Safety

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Fig. 1-1. Flow down of Electrical AHJ and worker responsibility. 3 DOE-HDBK-1092-2013 2.0 ... When equipment contains storage batteries, workers should be protected from the various ...

  14. Electric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  15. Solidification process for sludge residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-09-10

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria.

  16. Residual Stress Evaluation within a Crimped Splice Connector Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; An, Ke; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Hubbard, Camden R; King Jr, Thomas J; Graziano, Joe; Chan, John

    2006-01-01

    In power transmission, connectors play an important role in the efficiency and reliability of the system. Due to the increase of power demand and lack of new infrastructure, existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than the original design criteria. However, this had led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors, which has been manifested by the formation of hot-spots that have been revealed by infrared imaging during inspection of transmission lines operating at elevated temperatures. The implications of connector aging is two-fold: (1) significant increase in resistivity of the splice connector (i.e., less efficient transmission of electricity) and (2) significant reduction in the connector clamping strength, which ultimately results in separation of the power transmission line at the joint. Therefore, the splice connector has become the weakest link in the electric power transmission infrastructure. The compressive residual stresses induced by the crimping process within the splice provide the clamping forces to secure the conductor and therefore, the determination of the state of residual stresses in splice connectors is a necessary requirement to provide an accurate estimate of their service lifetime. This paper presents a protocol of utilizing finite-element analysis and neutron scattering experiments for evaluating the residual stress fields within a crimped single-stage splice connector assembly.

  17. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  18. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-12-31

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as {open_quotes}materials in-process{close_quotes} to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes.

  19. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1,200 C to 1,400 C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  20. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1200{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  1. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  2. Process to recycle shredder residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  3. RESIDUAL STRESSES IN 3013 CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-11-10

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  4. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methodology and Documentation General The Electricity Monthly Update is prepared by the Electric Power Operations Team, Office of Electricity, Renewables and Uranium Statistics,...

  5. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Information and Staff The Electricity Monthly Update is prepared by the Electric Power Operations Team, Office of Electricity, Renewables and Uranium Statistics, U.S....

  6. Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Colella, Nicolas J.; Williams, Kenneth A.

    2002-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  7. Electrical receptacle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leong, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  8. Electrical receptacle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leong, R.

    1993-06-22

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  9. Electrical machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus, such as an electrical machine, is provided. The apparatus can include a rotor defining a rotor bore and a conduit disposed in and extending axially along the rotor bore. The conduit can have an annular conduit body defining a plurality of orifices disposed axially along the conduit and extending through the conduit body. The rotor can have an inner wall that at least partially defines the rotor bore. The orifices can extend through the conduit body along respective orifice directions, and the rotor and conduit can be configured to provide a line of sight along the orifice direction from the respective orifices to the inner wall.

  10. Resource recovery from coal residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G. Jr.; Canon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Several processes are being developed to recover metals from coal combustion and conversion residues. Methods to obtain substantial amounts of aluminum, iron, and titanium from these wastes are presented. The primary purpose of our investigation is to find a process that is economically sound or one that at least will partially defray the costs of waste processing. A cursory look at the content of fly ash enables one to see the merits of recovery of these huge quantities of valuable resources. The major constituents of fly ash of most interest are aluminum (14.8%), iron (7.5%), and titanium (1.0%). If these major elements could be recovered from the fly ash produced in the United States (60 million tons/year), bauxite would not have to be imported, iron ore production could be increased, and titanium production could be doubled.

  11. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  12. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  13. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources

  14. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam

  15. Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-02-10

    This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS).

  16. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.; Shine, E. P.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  17. ,"for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit: Percents." ,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)" ,"for Electricity(a)","Fuel ...

  18. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales: December 2010 - June...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales: December 2010 - June 2013 Sales data for various models of electric and hybrid electric vehicles from December 2010 through June 2013. ...

  19. Technology Roadmap - Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Roadmap - Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Technology Roadmap - Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric...

  20. Electric Drive Status and Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Leaf * 75 mile electric range * 80 kW electric drive * electric drive cost:1,600 Tesla Model S * 250 mile electric range * 270 kW electric drive * electric drive ...

  1. Electrical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  2. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  3. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    See all Electricity Reports Electricity Monthly Update With Data for November 2014 | Release Date: Jan. 26, 2015 | Next Release Date: Feb. 24, 2015 Previous Issues Issue:...

  4. Edison Electric Institute Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) and the current electricity landscape.

  5. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Electric Power Sector comprises electricity-only and combined heat and power (CHP) plants within the North American Industrial Classification System 22 category whose...

  6. Electricity Monthly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Update November 28, 2012 Map of Electric System Selected for Daily Peak Demand was replaced with the correct map showing Selected Wholesale Electricity and Natural Gas Locations....

  7. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of electricity. End-use data is the first "data page" based on the assumption that information about retail electricity service is of greatest interest to a general...

  8. National Drive Electric Week

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Celebrate National Drive Electric Week with ways to make your all-electric or plug-in hybrid cars even greener!

  9. Ohio Electricity Restructuring Active

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Other Links Ohio Electricity Profile Ohio Energy Profile Ohio Web Sites Acronyms for the ... Consumer education programs were available on the Ohio Electric Choice web site, through ...

  10. Electricity Restructuring by State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Restructuring Status Status of Electricity Restructuring by State Data as of: September 2010 Next Release Date: None The map below shows information on the electric industry ...

  11. Integrated electrical connector (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Integrated electrical connector Title: Integrated electrical connector An electrical ... The opening is also smaller than the diameter of an electrically conductive contact pin. ...

  12. CASL - Westinghouse Electric Company

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Westinghouse Electric Company Cranberry Township, PA Westinghouse Electric Company provides fuel, services, technology, plant design and equipment for the commercial nuclear electric power industry. Westinghouse nuclear technology is helping to provide future generations with safe, clean and reliable electricity. Key Contributions Definition of CASL challenge problems Existing codes and expertise Data for validation Computatinoal fluid dynamics modeling and analysis Development of test stand for

  13. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by Sales Type"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Average",2,"Monthly","52016","115... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Average" "Sourcekey","EMAEPPRPTANUS...

  14. Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co., Ltd. Place: Nanping City, Fujian Province, China Zip: 365001 Sector:...

  15. Indentation Based Techniques to Measure Residual Stresses in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to Measure Residual Stresses in Engineering Ceramics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Indentation Based Techniques to Measure Residual Stresses in Engineering Ceramics. ...

  16. Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste Authors: Cantrell, Kirk J. ; ...

  17. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Methodology and Documentation General The Electricity Monthly Update is prepared by the Electric Power Operations Team, Office of Electricity, Renewables and Uranium Statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy. Data published in the Electricity Monthly Update are compiled from the following sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-826,"Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenues with State Distributions Report," U.S. Energy

  18. Immobilization of Rocky Flats graphite fines residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.; Marra, J.C.; Peeler, D.K.

    1999-07-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt% graphite, 15 wt% calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and 12 wt% plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Approximately 950 kg of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO{sub 2} concentration in the residue averages 12 wt%, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF{sub 2} dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2} and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF{sub 2} and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.

  19. Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (Electric) - Residential Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AC: 30 Recycling RefrigeratorFreezer: 50 ACDehumidifier: 25 Summary The Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (BGE) offers rebates for residential customers to improve the...

  20. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Holger Svensson, Malin

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2{sup 6-1} experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO{sub 2} until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  1. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S. . Rocky Flats Plant); Rivera, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  2. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.; Rivera, M.A.

    1993-03-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  3. System and method for measuring residual stress

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prime, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a method and system for determining the residual stress within an elastic object. In the method, an elastic object is cut along a path having a known configuration. The cut creates a portion of the object having a new free surface. The free surface then deforms to a contour which is different from the path. Next, the contour is measured to determine how much deformation has occurred across the new free surface. Points defining the contour are collected in an empirical data set. The portion of the object is then modeled in a computer simulator. The points in the empirical data set are entered into the computer simulator. The computer simulator then calculates the residual stress along the path which caused the points within the object to move to the positions measured in the empirical data set. The calculated residual stress is then presented in a useful format to an analyst.

  4. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  5. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    cheap price of natural gas reduced coals share of electricity production. Days of Burn Days of burn Coal capacity The average number of days of burn held at electric power...

  6. Electric Efficiency Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In December 2009, the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission's (IURC) ordered utilities to establish demand-side management (DSM) electric savings goals leading to 2.0% reduction of electricity sa...

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  10. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  11. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    sales volumes are presented as a proxy for end-use electricity consumption. Average Revenue per kWh by state Percent Change Per KWh map showing U.S. electric industry percent...

  12. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    End Use: August 2015 Retail ratesprices and consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based...

  13. Electric Power Monthly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Electric Power Monthly Data for January 2016 | Release Date: March 25, 2016 | Next ... Revisions made to the March 2016 Electric Power Monthly: March 30, 2016 Tables 2.8.A-B ...

  14. 2012 National Electricity Forum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the 2012 National Electricity Forum, held February 8-9, 2012 and jointly organized by DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability (OE) and the National Association of...

  15. Panasonic Electric Works Ltd formerly Matsushita Electric Works...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Works Ltd (formerly Matsushita Electric Works) Place: Kadoma-shi, Osaka, Japan Zip: 571-8686 Product: Japanese manufacturer of mainly electric appliances including...

  16. Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity Intensities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration Home Page Home > Commercial Buildings Home > Sq Ft Tables > Table 2a. Electricity Consumption per Sq Ft Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity...

  17. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  18. Electric Power Research Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Technical Notes This appendix describes how the U.S. Energy Information Administration collects, estimates, and reports electric power data in the Electric Power Annual. Data Quality and Submission The Electric Power Annual (EPA) is prepared by the Office of Electricity, Renewables, and Uranium Statistics (ERUS), U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ERUS performs routine reviews of the data collection respondent frames, survey forms, and reviews

  19. EIA - Electricity Generating Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Generating Capacity Release Date: January 3, 2013 | Next Release: August 2013 Year Existing Units by Energy Source Unit Additions Unit Retirements 2011 XLS XLS XLS 2010 XLS XLS XLS 2009 XLS XLS XLS 2008 XLS XLS XLS 2007 XLS XLS XLS 2006 XLS XLS XLS 2005 XLS XLS XLS 2004 XLS XLS XLS 2003 XLS XLS XLS Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report." Related links Electric Power Monthly Electric Power Annual Form EIA-860 Source Data

  20. Electrical utilities relay settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HACHE, J.M.

    1999-02-24

    This document contains the Hanford transmission and distribution system relay settings that are under the control of Electrical Utilities.

  1. EIA Electric Power Forms

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Forms EIA Electric Power Forms Listing of Publicly Available and Confidential Data EIA's statistical surveys encompass each significant electric supply and demand activity in the United States. Most of the electric power survey forms resulting data elements are published, but respondent confidentiality is required. The chart below shows the data elements for each survey form and how each data element is treated in regard to confidentiality. Data Categories Data collection forms

  2. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    End Use: June 2016 Retail rates/prices and consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based primarily on rates approved by state regulators. However, a number of states have allowed retail marketers to compete to serve customers and these competitive retail suppliers offer electricity at a market-based price. EIA does not directly collect retail electricity rates or prices. However, using data collected on

  3. Florida's electric industry and solar electric technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camejo, N.

    1983-12-01

    The Florida Electric Industry is in a process of diversifying its generation technology and its fuel mix. This is being done in an effort to reduce oil consumption, which in 1981 accounted for 46.5% of the electric generation by fuel type. This does not compare well with the rest of the nation where oil use is lower. New coal and nuclear units are coming on line, and probably more will be built in the near future. However, eventhough conservation efforts may delay their construction, new power plants will have to be built to accomodate the growing demand for electricity. Other alternatives being considered are renewable energy resources. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a research project in which 10 electric utilities in Florida and the Florida Electric Power Coordinating Group rated six Solar Electric options. The Solar Electric options considered are: 1) Wind, 2) P.V., 3) Solar thermal-electric, 4) OTEC, 5) Ocean current, and 6) Biomass. The questionaire involved rating the economic and technical feasibility, as well as, the potential environmental impact of these options in Florida. It also involved rating the difficulty in overcoming institutional barriers and assessing the status of each option. A copy of the questionaire is included after the references. The combined capacity of the participating utilities represent over 90% of the total generating capacity in Florida. A list of the participating utilities is also included. This research was done in partial fulfillment for the Mater's of Science Degree in Coastal Zone Management. This paper is complementary to another paper (in these condensed conference proceedings) titled COASTAL ZONE ENERGY MANAGEMENT: A multidisciplinary approach for the integration of Solar Electric Systems with Florida's power generation system, which present a summary of the Master's thesis.

  4. Upgrading petroleum residues and heavy oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Here is an in-depth look at current techniques for converting heavy oils and residues into more valuable distillates. It examines the chemistry of heavy hydrocarbon feeds and their properties which are important to engineering design, including phase behavior, reaction kinetics, and thermodynamic and transport characteristics.

  5. DOE Electricity Advisory Committee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Advisory Committee March 2015 1 MEMORANDUM TO: Honorable Patricia Hoffman, Assistant Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, U.S. Department of Energy FROM: Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC) Richard Cowart, Chair DATE: March 27, 2015 RE: Recommendations on Smart Grid Research and Development Needs _________________________________________________________________________ Overview The Smart Grid is envisioned to provide the enhancements to ensure higher levels of

  6. Integrating Electricity Subsector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrating Electricity Subsector Failure Scenarios into a Risk Assessment Methodology 3002001181 | DEC 2013 Program Leads Jason D. Christopher Technical Lead, Cyber Security Capabilities & Risk Management Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) Annabelle Lee Senior Technical Executive, Cyber Security Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) For more information on the DOE's cyber security risk management programs, please contact

  7. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T. S.

    1998-11-06

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt percent graphite, 15 wt percent calcium fluoride (CaF2), and 12 wt percent plutonium oxide (PuO2). Approximately 950 kilograms of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 degrees C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO2 concentration in the residue averages 12 wt percent, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF2 dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO2) as a surrogate for PuO2 and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF2 and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.In general, the

  8. Epcot Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Epcot Electric Jump to: navigation, search Name: Epcot Electric Place: Texas Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesEpcot-Electric108882552477023 References: EIA Form EIA-861...

  9. Lincoln Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Lincoln Electric Developer Lincoln Electric Energy Purchaser Lincoln...

  10. EWEB- Solar Electric Program (Rebate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eugene Water & Electric Board's (EWEB) Solar Electric Program offers financial incentives for residential, nonprofit, and government customers that generate electricity solar photovoltaic...

  11. INTEGRATED ELECTRIC DRIVE WITH HV2 MODULAR ELECTRIC MACHINE AND...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ELECTRIC DRIVE WITH HV2 MODULAR ELECTRIC MACHINE AND SIC BASED POWER CONVERTERS INTEGRATED ELECTRIC DRIVE WITH HV2 MODULAR ELECTRIC MACHINE AND SIC BASED POWER CONVERTERS The Ohio ...

  12. Electricity 101 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources » Electricity 101 Electricity 101 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Why do other countries use different shaped plugs? Why do outlets have three holes? Why do we have AC electricity? Can we harness lightning as an energy source? Can we have wireless transmission of electricity? SYSTEM What is electricity? Where does electricity come from? What is the "grid"? How much electricity does a typical household use? How did the electric system evolve? What does the future look like? Who

  13. Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+ Individuals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-06

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived frommore » activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.« less

  14. Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+ Individuals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-06

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived frommore »activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.« less

  15. Small Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electricity & Fuel Buying & Making Electricity Small Solar Electric Systems Small Solar Electric Systems A small solar electric or photovoltaic system can be a reliable and ...

  16. Thin layer chromatography residue applicator sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Haas, Jeffrey S.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2007-07-24

    A thin layer chromatograph residue applicator sampler. The residue applicator sampler provides for rapid analysis of samples containing high explosives, chemical warfare, and other analyses of interest under field conditions. This satisfied the need for a field-deployable, small, hand-held, all-in-one device for efficient sampling, sample dissolution, and sample application to an analytical technique. The residue applicator sampler includes a sampling sponge that is resistant to most chemicals and is fastened via a plastic handle in a hermetically sealed tube containing a known amount of solvent. Upon use, the wetted sponge is removed from the sealed tube and used as a swiping device across an environmental sample. The sponge is then replaced in the hermetically sealed tube where the sample remains contained and dissolved in the solvent. A small pipette tip is removably contained in the hermetically sealed tube. The sponge is removed and placed into the pipette tip where a squeezing-out of the dissolved sample from the sponge into the pipette tip results in a droplet captured in a vial for later instrumental analysis, or applied directly to a thin layer chromatography plate for immediate analysis.

  17. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  18. Electrical system architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2008-07-15

    An electrical system for a vehicle includes a first power source generating a first voltage level, the first power source being in electrical communication with a first bus. A second power source generates a second voltage level greater than the first voltage level, the second power source being in electrical communication with a second bus. A starter generator may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus, and at least one additional power source may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus. The electrical system also includes at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the first bus and at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the second bus.

  19. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  20. Integrated electrical connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Ackler, Harold D.

    2005-05-24

    An electrical connector is formed from a sheet of electrically conductive material that lies in between the two layers of nonconducting material that comprise the casing of an electrical chip. The connector is electrically connected to an electrical element embedded within the chip. An opening in the sheet is concentrically aligned with a pair of larger holes respectively bored through the nonconducting layers. The opening is also smaller than the diameter of an electrically conductive contact pin. However, the sheet is composed flexible material so that the opening adapts to the diameter of the pin when the pin is inserted therethrough. The periphery of the opening applies force to the sides of the pin when the pin is inserted, and thus holds the pin within the opening and in contact with the sheet, by friction. The pin can be withdrawn from the connector by applying sufficient axial force.

  1. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  2. Electric Power Monthly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Electric Power Monthly > Electric Power Monthly Back Issues Electric Power Monthly Back Issues Monthly Excel files zipped 2010 January February March April May June July August September October November December 2009 January February March April May June July August September October November December 2008 January February March March Supplement April May June July August September October November December 2007 January February March April May June July August September October November

  3. Electric Power Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Electric Power Monthly Appendix C Technical notes This appendix describes how the U. S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects, estimates, and reports electric power data in the EPM. Data quality The EPM is prepared by the Office of Electricity, Renewables & Uranium Statistics (ERUS), Energy Information Administration (EIA), U. S. Department of Energy. Quality statistics begin with the collection of the correct data. To assure this,

  4. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Contact Information and Staff The Electricity Monthly Update is prepared by the Electric Power Operations Team, Office of Electricity, Renewables and Uranium Statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy. Editorial Lead: Chris Cassar (christopher.cassar@eia.gov) Senior Adviser: Bill Booth Core Team: Paul McCardle, Glenn McGrath, Stephen Scott, Tim Shear, April Lee

  5. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  6. ,"Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  7. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","5... "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  8. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  9. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and two locations in the California ISO (CAISO). Also shown are wholesale prices at trading hubs in Louisiana (into Entergy),...

  10. Electrical Circuit Tester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Love, Frank

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  11. Electrical Utility Materials Handler

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a challenging and rewarding career, while working, living, and playing in the Pacific Northwest. The Electrical Utility Material Handler (EUMH)...

  12. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    costs, of which fuel costs account for the lion's share. Therefore, we present below, electricity generation output by fuel type and generator type. Since the generatorfuel...

  13. Department of Energy - Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    opportunities and challenges that lie ahead. Secretary Moniz headed down to Florida to talk about Grid Modernization. Learn more about our nation's electric grid in this fact...

  14. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Monthly Update Explained Highlights The Highlights page features in the center a short article about a major event or an informative topic. The left column contains...

  15. Electric Utility Industry Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the April 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers significant electric industry trends and industry priorities with federal customers.

  16. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  17. Renewable Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in renewable electricity generation technologies including solar, water, wind, and geothermal.

  18. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Wholesale Markets: May 2015 The United States has many regional wholesale electricity markets. Below we look at monthly and annual ranges of on-peak, daily wholesale...

  19. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wholesale Markets: August 2015 The United States has many regional wholesale electricity markets. Below we look at monthly and annual ranges of on-peak, daily wholesale...

  20. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and fuel consumption In this section, we look at the resources used to produce electricity. Generating units are chosen to run primarily on their operating costs, of which...

  1. Electricity Monthly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    New York ISO (NYISO), PJM Interconnection (PJM), Midwest ISO (MISO), Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and two locations in the California ISO (CAISO). Also...

  2. EIA - Electric Power Data

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    across forms) Contains electricity generation; fuel consumption; emissions; retail sales, ... and associated revenue by end-use sector, green pricing, net ...

  3. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  4. 2015 Electricity Form Proposals

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Quarterly Electricity Imports and Exports Report (EIA-111) OMB Clearance Renewal in 2015 ... Report (EIA-111) survey on August 26, 2015. The initial proposals were announced to ...

  5. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs.

  6. Electricity Advisory Committee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Paula Carmody Maryland People's Council Paul Centolella Centolella and Associates LLC Carlos Coe Millennium Energy Phyllis Currie Pasadena Water and Power Clark Gellings Electric ...

  7. Electricity Distribution System Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... the Electricity Transmission System (available online). ... or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the ... Workforce development and operator training are needed for ...

  8. Integrating Electricity Subsector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... gangs Recreational Criminals Hackers 4 http:www.safetyissues.comsitecybercrimeciarevealshackerattacksonutilities.html?print 4-6 Table 4-1 (Continued) Electric Sector ...

  9. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  10. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  11. Electricity Advisory Committee

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Indians Robert Gramlich American Wind Energy Association The Honorable Dian Grueneich California Public Utilities Commission Michael Heyeck American Electric Power Hunter Hunt ...

  12. 2012 National Electricity Forum

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Planning, Arizona Public Service * Jan Strack, Grid Planning, Regulatory & Economics Manager, San Diego Gas & Electric * Mario Villar, Vice President, Transmission, NV ...

  13. Electricity Monthly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Wholesale Markets: February 2014 The United States has many regional wholesale electricity markets. Below we look at monthly and annual ranges of on-peak, daily wholesale...

  14. 2013 Electricity Form Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report" The EIA-861 survey has historically collected retail sales, revenue, and a variety of information related to demand response ...

  15. EIA - Electric Power Data

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and customer counts, peak load, electric purchases, and energy efficiency and demand-side management programs, green pricing and net metering programs, and distributed ...

  16. Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Yugova, T. G.; Cox, H.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Usikov, A. S.

    2014-05-14

    Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} to (25)??10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?3}. The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ?5??10{sup 13}?cm{sup ?3} versus 2.9??10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?3} in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration.

  17. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to investigate reducing processing temperature, controlling the gas temperature and gas atmosphere over metalized iron nodules, and effectively using sub-bituminous coal as a reductant for producing high quality metalized iron nodules at low cost.

  18. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-09-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to investigate reducing processing temperature, controlling the gas temperature and gas atmosphere over metallized iron nodules, and effectively using sub-bituminous coal as a reductant for producing high quality metallized iron nodules at low cost.

  19. Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Markets - EAC 2011 | Department of Energy Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets - EAC 2011 Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets - EAC 2011 The purpose of this report is to assist the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 1) establishing a framework for understanding the role electricity storage resources (storage) can play in wholesale and retail electricity markets, 2) assessing the value of electricity storage in a

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Electricity Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  1. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  2. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  3. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  4. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  10. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  11. Electric turbocompound control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Algrain, Marcelo C.

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  12. Unbundling electricity: Ancillary services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.

    1996-06-01

    The US electricity industry, dominated by vertically integrated, retail-monopoly, regulated utilities, is undergoing enormous changes. The industry, within the next few years, will evolve into a deintegrated, competitive-market dominated, less regulated industry. Part of this process involves unbundling electric generation from transmission, which raises the issue of ancillary services. Since the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) published its March 1995 proposed rule on open-access transmission, ancillary services have been an important topic. Ancillary services are those functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, transmit, and distribute electricity to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. These services cost US electricity consumers about $12 billion a year. This article examines the functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, transmit, and distribute electricity to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery.

  13. WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigum, Marianne; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyse 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 Danish households. • We quantify and characterise misplaced WEEE and portable batteries. • We compare misplaced WEEE and batteries to collection through dedicated schemes. • Characterisation showed that primarily small WEEE and light sources are misplaced. • Significant amounts of misplaced batteries were discarded as built-in WEEE. - Abstract: A total of 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6 kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11 kg of batteries, 2.2 kg of toners and 16 kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29 g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4 g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1 g of toners and 7 g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these

  14. Characterization of welding residual stresses with neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.L.; Spooner, S.; Hubbard, C.R.; Taljat, B.; Feng, Z.

    1998-03-01

    Welding residual stresses are a key concern in the fabrication and use of structural components containing welds. Residual stresses in welds are caused by non-uniform expansion and shrinkage of differently heated zones during the thermal transient of a weld pass. In some alloys, solid state phase transformations occurring during the welding transient contribute additional residual stresses. Manufacturing problems arising from welding residual stresses include cracking and dimensional distortion. During use, tensile stresses in the welded zone limit the fatigue resistance of the component under cyclic loading. In an aggressive environment, tensile welding residual stresses also create a necessary condition for stress-corrosion cracking to take place.

  15. Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Resistance Heating Basics Electric Resistance Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:10pm Addthis Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat. Types of Electric Resistance Heaters Electric resistance heat can be provided by electric baseboard heaters, electric wall heaters, electric radiant heat, electric space heaters, electric

  16. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  17. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  18. "Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day)" ,,,," Inputs for Heat",,," Primary Consumption" " "," Primary Consumption for all Purposes",,," Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," for Nonfuel Purposes",,,"RSE" ,"

  19. "Table A2. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected" " Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day) " ,,,,," Input for Heat,",,," Primary" " ",," Consumption for All Purposes",,,"Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," Consumption for Nonfuel Purposes ",,,"RSE" "SIC",,"

  20. Thermal upgrading of residual oil to light product and heavy residual fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y.; Shu, P.

    1986-08-05

    The method is described of upgrading residual oil boiling in the range of 1050/sup 0/F+ comprising: thermally cracking the residual oil at a temperature of 650/sup 0/-900/sup 0/F, a pressure of 0-100 psig, and a residence time of 0.1 to 5 hours at the highest severity in the range between about 1,000-18,000 seconds, as expressed in equivalent reaction time at 800/sup 0/F, sufficient to convert at least about 50 wt% of the residual oil to light products, substantially without the formation of solid coke; recovering separate fractions of light product and emulsifiable heavy bottom product which has a fusion temperature below about 150/sup 0/C and a quinoline-insoluble content between about 10 wt% and 30 wt% and wherein the highest severity is determined by a functional relationship between the asphaltene content of the residual oil feedstock and the heavy bottom product yield and quinoline-insoluble content.

  1. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Arkansas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,754 30 Electric utilities 11,526 23 IPP & CHP 3,227 29 Net generation (megawatthours) 61,592,137 24 Electric utilities 48,752,895 18 IPP & CHP 12,839,241 28 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 89,528 15 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 47,048 20 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 37,289 23 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.9 9 Nitrogen oxide

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Alaska) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,464 48 Electric utilities 2,313 39 IPP & CHP 151 50 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,042,830 50 Electric utilities 5,509,991 40 IPP & CHP 532,839 50 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 4,129 43 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 19,281 38 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,558 44 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.4 28 Nitrogen oxide

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Arizona) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 28,249 13 Electric utilities 21,311 11 IPP & CHP 6,938 17 Net generation (megawatthours) 112,257,187 13 Electric utilities 94,847,135 8 IPP & CHP 17,410,053 19 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 22,597 32 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 56,726 17 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 53,684 16 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 41 Nitrogen oxide

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (California) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 74,646 2 Electric utilities 28,201 4 IPP & CHP 46,446 2 Net generation (megawatthours) 198,807,622 5 Electric utilities 71,037,135 14 IPP & CHP 127,770,487 4 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,102 46 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 98,348 5 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 57,223 14 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 49

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Colorado) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,933 29 Electric utilities 10,204 28 IPP & CHP 4,729 18 Net generation (megawatthours) 53,847,386 30 Electric utilities 43,239,615 26 IPP & CHP 10,607,771 30 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 28,453 30 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 44,349 24 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 38,474 22 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32 Nitrogen

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Connecticut) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,832 35 Electric utilities 161 45 IPP & CHP 8,671 12 Net generation (megawatthours) 33,676,980 38 Electric utilities 54,693 45 IPP & CHP 33,622,288 11 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 1,897 47 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 8,910 45 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 7,959 41 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 46 Nitrogen oxide

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Delaware Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Delaware) Item Value U.S. rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 3,086 46 Electric utilities 102 46 IPP & CHP 2,984 31 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,703,584 47 Electric utilities 49,050 46 IPP & CHP 7,654,534 35 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 824 48 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 2,836 48 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 4,276 43 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 45 Nitrogen oxide

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (District of Columbia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 9 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 9 51 Net generation (megawatthours) 67,612 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 67,612 51 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 0 51 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 147 51 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 48 50 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 51 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 4.3 3

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Florida) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 59,440 3 Electric utilities 51,775 1 IPP & CHP 7,665 15 Net generation (megawatthours) 230,015,937 2 Electric utilities 211,970,587 1 IPP & CHP 18,045,350 15 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 126,600 10 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 91,356 6 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 111,549 2 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 30 Nitrogen

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Georgia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 38,250 7 Electric utilities 28,873 3 IPP & CHP 9,377 10 Net generation (megawatthours) 125,837,224 10 Electric utilities 109,523,336 4 IPP & CHP 16,313,888 20 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 105,998 11 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 58,144 14 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 62,516 12 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.7 24 Nitrogen oxide

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Hawaii) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Petroleum Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,672 47 Electric utilities 1,732 40 IPP & CHP 939 45 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,204,158 46 Electric utilities 5,517,389 39 IPP & CHP 4,686,769 40 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 21,670 33 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 26,928 31 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 7,313 42 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.2 4 Nitrogen oxide

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Idaho Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Idaho) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,944 42 Electric utilities 3,413 37 IPP & CHP 1,531 39 Net generation (megawatthours) 15,184,417 43 Electric utilities 9,628,016 37 IPP & CHP 5,556,400 39 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 5,777 42 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,301 37 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 1,492 49 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.8 36 Nitrogen oxide

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Illinois) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 44,727 4 Electric utilities 5,263 35 IPP & CHP 39,464 4 Net generation (megawatthours) 202,143,878 4 Electric utilities 10,457,398 36 IPP & CHP 191,686,480 3 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 187,536 6 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 58,076 15 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 96,624 6 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 20 Nitrogen

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Indiana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 27,499 14 Electric utilities 23,319 7 IPP & CHP 4,180 23 Net generation (megawatthours) 115,395,392 12 Electric utilities 100,983,285 6 IPP & CHP 14,412,107 22 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 332,396 3 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 133,412 3 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 103,391 3 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.8 1 Nitrogen oxide

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Iowa) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,507 24 Electric utilities 12,655 20 IPP & CHP 3,852 25 Net generation (megawatthours) 56,853,282 28 Electric utilities 43,021,954 27 IPP & CHP 13,831,328 25 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 74,422 19 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 41,793 25 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 39,312 21 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.6 13 Nitrogen oxide

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Kansas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,227 31 Electric utilities 11,468 24 IPP & CHP 2,759 33 Net generation (megawatthours) 49,728,363 31 Electric utilities 39,669,629 29 IPP & CHP 10,058,734 31 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 31,550 29 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 29,014 29 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 31,794 29 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 29 Nitrogen oxide

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Kentucky) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 20,878 21 Electric utilities 19,473 15 IPP & CHP 1,405 40 Net generation (megawatthours) 90,896,435 17 Electric utilities 90,133,403 10 IPP & CHP 763,032 49 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 204,873 5 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 89,253 7 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 85,795 7 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.5 3 Nitrogen oxide

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Louisiana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 26,657 15 Electric utilities 18,120 16 IPP & CHP 8,537 13 Net generation (megawatthours) 104,229,402 15 Electric utilities 58,518,271 17 IPP & CHP 45,711,131 8 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 96,240 14 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 83,112 8 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 57,137 15 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 21

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Maine) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,470 43 Electric utilities 10 49 IPP & CHP 4,460 20 Net generation (megawatthours) 13,248,710 44 Electric utilities 523 49 IPP & CHP 13,248,187 27 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 10,990 38 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 8,622 46 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,298 46 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.7 25 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh)

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Maryland) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 12,264 33 Electric utilities 85 47 IPP & CHP 12,179 8 Net generation (megawatthours) 37,833,652 35 Electric utilities 20,260 47 IPP & CHP 37,813,392 9 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 41,370 26 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,626 35 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 20,414 34 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 18 Nitrogen oxide

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Massachusetts) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 13,128 32 Electric utilities 971 42 IPP & CHP 12,157 9 Net generation (megawatthours) 31,118,591 40 Electric utilities 679,986 43 IPP & CHP 30,438,606 12 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 6,748 41 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 13,831 43 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 12,231 39 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 40

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Michigan) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,435 12 Electric utilities 22,260 9 IPP & CHP 8,175 14 Net generation (megawatthours) 106,816,991 14 Electric utilities 84,075,322 12 IPP & CHP 22,741,669 13 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 173,521 7 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 77,950 9 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 64,062 11 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 7 Nitrogen oxide

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Minnesota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,621 28 Electric utilities 11,557 22 IPP & CHP 4,064 24 Net generation (megawatthours) 56,998,330 27 Electric utilities 45,963,271 22 IPP & CHP 11,035,059 29 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 39,272 27 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 38,373 28 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 32,399 28 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.4 27 Nitrogen

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Mississippi) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,090 26 Electric utilities 13,494 19 IPP & CHP 2,597 34 Net generation (megawatthours) 55,127,092 29 Electric utilities 47,084,382 21 IPP & CHP 8,042,710 34 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 101,093 13 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 23,993 32 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 24,037 33 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.7 5

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Missouri) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,790 19 Electric utilities 20,538 13 IPP & CHP 1,252 42 Net generation (megawatthours) 87,834,468 18 Electric utilities 85,271,253 11 IPP & CHP 2,563,215 46 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 149,842 9 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 77,749 10 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 75,735 8 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.4 6 Nitrogen oxide

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Montana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,330 41 Electric utilities 3,209 38 IPP & CHP 3,121 30 Net generation (megawatthours) 30,257,616 41 Electric utilities 12,329,411 35 IPP & CHP 17,928,205 16 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 14,426 34 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,538 36 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 17,678 36 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 34 Nitrogen oxide

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Nebraska) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,732 36 Electric utilities 7,913 30 IPP & CHP 819 46 Net generation (megawatthours) 39,431,291 34 Electric utilities 36,560,960 30 IPP & CHP 2,870,331 45 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 63,994 22 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 27,045 30 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 26,348 31 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 8 Nitrogen oxide

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nevada Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Nevada) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 10,485 34 Electric utilities 8,480 29 IPP & CHP 2,006 35 Net generation (megawatthours) 36,000,537 37 Electric utilities 27,758,728 33 IPP & CHP 8,241,809 33 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 10,229 40 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 18,606 39 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 16,222 37 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 38 Nitrogen

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Hampshire) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,413 44 Electric utilities 1,121 41 IPP & CHP 3,292 30 Net generation (megawatthours) 19,778,520 42 Electric utilities 2,266,903 41 IPP & CHP 17,511,617 20 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,733 44 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 5,057 47 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,447 46 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 45 Nitrogen

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (New Jersey) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 19,399 22 Electric utilities 544 43 IPP & CHP 18,852 7 Net generation (megawatthours) 68,051,086 23 Electric utilities -117,003 50 IPP & CHP 68,168,089 7 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,369 44 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 15,615 41 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 17,905 35 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 47 Nitrogen oxide

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (New Mexico) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,072 39 Electric utilities 6,094 33 IPP & CHP 1,978 37 Net generation (megawatthours) 32,306,210 39 Electric utilities 26,422,867 34 IPP & CHP 5,883,343 38 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 12,064 37 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 46,192 22 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 24,712 32 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.7 37 Nitrogen

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (New York) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 40,404 6 Electric utilities 10,989 27 IPP & CHP 29,416 5 Net generation (megawatthours) 137,122,202 7 Electric utilities 34,082 31 IPP & CHP 103,039,347 5 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 31,878 28 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 46,971 21 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,240 26 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.5 39 Nitrogen oxide

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,048 12 Electric utilities 26,706 6 IPP & CHP 3,342 29 Net generation (megawatthours) 125,936,293 9 Electric utilities 116,317,050 2 IPP & CHP 9,619,243 31 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 71,293 20 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 62,397 12 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 56,940 14 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32 Nitrogen

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,566 40 Electric utilities 5,292 34 IPP & CHP 1,274 41 Net generation (megawatthours) 35,021,673 39 Electric utilities 31,044,374 32 IPP & CHP 3,977,299 42 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 56,854 23 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 48,454 22 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 30,274 28 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 11 Nitrogen oxide

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Ohio) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 31,507 9 Electric utilities 11,134 26 IPP & CHP 20,372 6 Net generation (megawatthours) 134,476,405 8 Electric utilities 43,290,512 25 IPP & CHP 91,185,893 7 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 355,108 1 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 105,688 4 Carbon dioxide (thousand metrictons) 98,650 5 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.3 2 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh)

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Oklahoma) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 24,048 17 Electric utilities 17,045 17 IPP & CHP 7,003 16 Net generation (megawatthours) 70,155,504 22 Electric utilities 48,096,026 19 IPP & CHP 22,059,478 14 Emissions Sulfur dioxide 78,556 18 Nitrogen oxide 44,874 23 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 43,994 18 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 17 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 26

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Pennsylvania) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 42,723 5 Electric utilities 39 48 IPP & CHP 42,685 3 Net generation (megawatthours) 221,058,365 3 Electric utilities 90,994 44 IPP & CHP 220,967,371 2 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 297,598 4 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 141,486 2 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 101,361 4 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 11 Nitrogen oxide

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (South Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 22,824 18 Electric utilities 20,836 12 IPP & CHP 1,988 36 Net generation (megawatthours) 97,158,465 16 Electric utilities 93,547,004 9 IPP & CHP 3,611,461 43 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 43,659 25 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 21,592 34 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,083 27 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 35

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Tennessee) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 20,998 20 Electric utilities 20,490 14 IPP & CHP 508 47 Net generation (megawatthours) 79,506,886 20 Electric utilities 76,986,629 13 IPP & CHP 2,520,257 47 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 89,357 16 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 23,913 33 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 41,405 20 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 16 Nitrogen oxide

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Texas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 112,914 1 Electric utilities 29,113 2 IPP & CHP 83,800 1 Net generation (megawatthours) 437,629,668 1 Electric utilities 94,974,953 7 IPP & CHP 342,654,715 1 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 349,245 2 Nitrogen Oxide short tons) 229,580 1 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 254,488 1 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.6 26 Nitrogen Oxide

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Utah) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,325 38 Electric utilities 7,296 31 IPP & CHP 1,029 44 Net generation (megawatthours) 43,784,526 33 Electric utilities 40,741,425 28 IPP & CHP 3,043,101 44 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 23,646 31 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 57,944 16 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 35,179 24 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 31 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh)

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Vermont) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 650 50 Electric utilities 337 44 IPP & CHP 313 49 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,031,394 48 Electric utilities 868,079 42 IPP & CHP 6,163,315 37 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 71 50 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 737 50 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 14 51 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 50 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 51

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 26,292 16 Electric utilities 22,062 10 IPP & CHP 4,231 22 Net generation (megawatthours) 77,137,438 21 Electric utilities 62,966,914 16 IPP & CHP 14,170,524 23 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 68,550 20 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 40,656 26 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,295 25 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 23 Nitrogen

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Wisconsin) Item Value Rank Primary Energy Source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 17,166 23 Electric utilities 14,377 18 IPP & CHP 2,788 32 Net generation (megawatthours) 61,064,796 25 Electric utilities 47,301,782 20 IPP & CHP 13,763,014 26 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 81,239 17 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 39,597 27 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 43,750 19 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 12 Nitrogen

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Wyoming) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,458 37 Electric utilities 7,233 32 IPP & CHP 1,225 43 Net generation (megawatthours) 49,696,183 32 Electric utilities 45,068,982 23 IPP & CHP 4,627,201 41 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 45,704 24 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 49,638 18 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 47,337 17 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 22 Nitrogen Oxide

  7. Chapter 5 - Electricity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Chapter 5 Electricity Overview In the International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) Reference case, world net electricity generation increases 69% by 2040, from 21.6 trillion kilowatthours (kWh) in 2012 to 25.8 trillion kWh in 2020 and 36.5 trillion kWh in 2040. Electricity is the world's fastest-growing form of end-use energy consumption, as it has been for many decades. Power systems have continued to evolve from

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Connecticut Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Connecticut) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,832 35 Electric utilities 161 45 IPP & CHP 8,671 12 Net generation (megawatthours) 33,676,980 38 Electric utilities 54,693 45 IPP & CHP 33,622,288 11 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 1,897 47 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 8,910 45 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 7,959 41 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 46 Nitrogen oxide

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Delaware Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Delaware) Item Value U.S. rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 3,086 46 Electric utilities 102 46 IPP & CHP 2,984 31 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,703,584 47 Electric utilities 49,050 46 IPP & CHP 7,654,534 35 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 824 48 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 2,836 48 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 4,276 43 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 45 Nitrogen oxide

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Idaho Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Idaho) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,944 42 Electric utilities 3,413 37 IPP & CHP 1,531 39 Net generation (megawatthours) 15,184,417 43 Electric utilities 9,628,016 37 IPP & CHP 5,556,400 39 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 5,777 42 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,301 37 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 1,492 49 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.8 36 Nitrogen oxide